WorldWideScience

Sample records for real world haskell

  1. Iguana: A management support tool using Haskell and LDAP

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Haskell is widely used within research and academia but is less well used for `real world' projects. This paper describes a real world project using Haskell in a larger scale data processing application. The project was undertaken jointly by British Airways and the Computing Laboratory, University of Kent.

  2. Haskell financial data modeling and predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This book is a hands-on guide that teaches readers how to use Haskell's tools and libraries to analyze data from real-world sources in an easy-to-understand manner.This book is great for developers who are new to financial data modeling using Haskell. A basic knowledge of functional programming is not required but will be useful. An interest in high frequency finance is essential.

  3. Learning Haskell data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Church, James

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer, analyst, or data scientist who wants to learn data analysis methods using Haskell and its libraries, then this book is for you. Prior experience with Haskell and a basic knowledge of data science will be beneficial.

  4. Exploring Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löh, A.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is an exploration -- an exploration of a language extension of the functional programming language Haskell. The extension is called Generic Haskell, albeit the name has been used to refer to different objects over the last several years: Many papers have described different proposals, fe

  5. Haskell data analysis cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Nishant

    2014-01-01

    Step-by-step recipes filled with practical code samples and engaging examples demonstrate Haskell in practice, and then the concepts behind the code. This book shows functional developers and analysts how to leverage their existing knowledge of Haskell specifically for high-quality data analysis. A good understanding of data sets and functional programming is assumed.

  6. Real-World Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  7. Stepping through Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of an implementation of an extended subset of the programming language Haskell. At the same time it is an experiment in merging the description with the actual code of the implementation, thus guaranteeing some form of consistency. Similarly, we guarantee consisten

  8. Stepping through Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of an implementation of an extended subset of the programming language Haskell. At the same time it is an experiment in merging the description with the actual code of the implementation, thus guaranteeing some form of consistency. Similarly, we guarantee consisten

  9. Stepping through Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of an implementation of an extended subset of the programming language Haskell. At the same time it is an experiment in merging the description with the actual code of the implementation, thus guaranteeing some form of consistency. Similarly, we guarantee

  10. Real-world outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    analyses during one specific meeting. An important element of the latter is to assess whether the discussion of our results gives rise to respondents’ reflection, resistance, acceptance, rejection, or indifference, and whether this leads to changes in respondents’ views on culture and organizational......When working with discourse-based research in professional settings, one question invariably arises: How do we, as researchers, ensure that our findings are taken up by the professionals with whom analyses are carried out, leading to change in their social practices? The answer is that quite often...... of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners. The discussion will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross-border company and the possible implications of this for organizational collaboration...

  11. Diving into Real World Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Matt; Rodden, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how educators can engage students in real world learning using their academic knowledge and technical skills. They describe how school districts have discovered that the world of robotics can help students use technical skills to solve simulated problems found in the real world, while understanding the…

  12. Towards orthogonal Haskell data serialisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a novel approach to serialisation of Haskell data structures with a high degree of flexibility, based on runtime support for parallel Haskell on distributed memory platforms. This serialisation has highly desirable and so-far unrivalled properties: it is truly orthogonal...... to evaluation and does not require any type class mechanisms. Especially, (almost) any kind of value can be serialised, including functions and IO actions. We outline the runtime support on which our serialisation is based, and present different versions of the wrapper code in Haskell which can ensure type...

  13. Alice in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  14. Mathematics in the Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Matt

    1997-01-01

    The abstract nature of algebra causes difficulties for many students. Describes "Real-World Data," an algebra course designed for students with low grades in algebra and provides multidisciplinary experiments (linear functions and variations; quadratic, square-root, and inverse relations; and exponential and periodic variation)…

  15. Real-world driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Hendriksen, P.; Gense, N.L.J.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing complexity of engine management system there is a tendency for traditional driving cyles to become further and further removed from reality. So for a sensible evaluation of emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in the field there is an urgent need for 'real-world' driving p

  16. The Real World Starts Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    The author, principal at North Point High School of Science, Technology and Industry in Charles County, Maryland, describes how the school merges traditional academic classes with cutting-edge career and technical education courses to prepare students for the real world. Realizing that its traditional "vo-tech" model was undersubscribed…

  17. Real-World Neuroimaging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    specialists to develop and assess BCITs [23]. An important step towards this goal was the release of the commercial product, the Emotiv EPOC (San Francisco...Emotiv Epoc , Quasar DSI (San Diego, CA, USA)). However, there remain several interrelated technical hurdles that still must be overcome for real-world...that involve semi-rigid or stiff spring-based mechanisms for hold- ing electrodes in place, such as the Emotiv EPOC or Quasar DSI models. These

  18. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell...

  19. Live-Musikprogrammierung in Haskell

    CERN Document Server

    Thielemann, Henning

    2012-01-01

    We aim to compose algorithmic music in an interactive way with multiple participants. To this end we develop an interpreter for a sub-language of the non-strict functional programming language Haskell that allows to modify the program during its execution. Our system can be used both for musical live-coding and for demonstration and education of functional programming.

  20. Shopping in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...

  1. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell...... to introduce a new way of handling polymorphism by parameterizing the strictness functions with domain-variables. Finally we present some results of efficiency and precision and compare them to other works....

  2. Shopping in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  3. Reflections on "Real-World" Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom; Swift, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the history of real-world (applied) community psychologists trace their participation in the field's official guild, the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA), beginning with the Swampscott Conference in 1965 through the current date. Four benchmarks are examined. The issues these real-world psychologists bring to the…

  4. Learning from Dealing with Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an example of using real world issues as tools for science teaching and learning. Using real world issues provides students with experiences in learning in problem-based environments and encourages them to apply their content knowledge to solving current and local problems.

  5. Studying real-world perceptual expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.

  6. Face Recognition in Real-world Images

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Xavier; Achanta, Radhakrishna; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Face recognition systems are designed to handle well-aligned images captured under controlled situations. However real-world images present varying orientations, expressions, and illumination conditions. Traditional face recognition algorithms perform poorly on such images. In this paper we present a method for face recognition adapted to real-world conditions that can be trained using very few training examples and is computationally efficient. Our method consists of performing a novel align...

  7. Evaluating Haskell expressions in a tutoring environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Olmer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of introductory textbooks for Haskell use calculations right from the start to give the reader insight into the evaluation of expressions and the behavior of functional programs. Many programming concepts that are important in the functional programming paradigm, such as recursion, higher-order functions, pattern-matching, and lazy evaluation, can be partially explained by showing a stepwise computation. A student gets a better understanding of these concepts if she performs these evaluation steps herself. Tool support for experimenting with the evaluation of Haskell expressions is currently lacking. In this paper we present a prototype implementation of a stepwise evaluator for Haskell expressions that supports multiple evaluation strategies, specifically targeted at education. Besides performing evaluation steps the tool also diagnoses steps that are submitted by a student, and provides feedback. Instructors can add or change function definitions without knowledge of the tool's internal implementation. We discuss some preliminary results of a small survey about the tool.

  8. Real-world semantics of conceptual models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roel

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual modelling is the addition of more real-world semantics to the computations performed by a computer. It is argued that in a proper engineering approach to computing, three kinds of conceptual modelling need to be distinguished, (1) modelling a software solution, (2) modelling the domain in

  9. Interactive Technology Assessment in the Real World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marris, Claire; Joly, Pierre-Benoit; Rip, Arie

    2008-01-01

    Participatory Technology Assessment (pTA) initiatives have usually been analyzed as if they existed in a social and political vacuum. This article analyzes the linkages that occur, in both directions, between the microcosm set up by a pTA exercise and the real world outside. This dual-dynamics persp

  10. Infusing Real World Experiences into Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to encourage enhanced richness and relevance of the undergraduate engineering education experience, and thus produce better-prepared and more globally competitive graduates, by providing practical guidance for incorporating real world experience in US engineering programs. The report, a collaborative effort of the…

  11. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2007-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to data- type-generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boiler- plate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some sugge

  12. Low pain vs no pain multicore Haskells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aswad, Mustafa; Trinder, Phil; Al Zain, Abdallah;

    2010-01-01

    the programming effort eachlanguage requires with the parallel performance delivered. The study uses 15’typical’ programs to compare a ’no pain’, i.e. entirely implicit, parallel languagewith three ’low pain’, i.e. semi-explicit languages.The parallel Haskell implementations use different versions of GHC...

  13. Numerical simulation of real-world flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Toshiyuki

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc.

  14. Numerical simulation of real-world flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayase, Toshiyuki, E-mail: hayase@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc. (topical review)

  15. Adaptation-Based Programming in Haskell

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Tim; Fern, Alan; Pinto, Jervis; 10.4204/EPTCS.66.1

    2011-01-01

    We present an embedded DSL to support adaptation-based programming (ABP) in Haskell. ABP is an abstract model for defining adaptive values, called adaptives, which adapt in response to some associated feedback. We show how our design choices in Haskell motivate higher-level combinators and constructs and help us derive more complicated compositional adaptives. We also show an important specialization of ABP is in support of reinforcement learning constructs, which optimize adaptive values based on a programmer-specified objective function. This permits ABP users to easily define adaptive values that express uncertainty anywhere in their programs. Over repeated executions, these adaptive values adjust to more efficient ones and enable the user's programs to self optimize. The design of our DSL depends significantly on the use of type classes. We will illustrate, along with presenting our DSL, how the use of type classes can support the gradual evolution of DSLs.

  16. Adaptation-Based Programming in Haskell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Bauer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an embedded DSL to support adaptation-based programming (ABP in Haskell. ABP is an abstract model for defining adaptive values, called adaptives, which adapt in response to some associated feedback. We show how our design choices in Haskell motivate higher-level combinators and constructs and help us derive more complicated compositional adaptives. We also show an important specialization of ABP is in support of reinforcement learning constructs, which optimize adaptive values based on a programmer-specified objective function. This permits ABP users to easily define adaptive values that express uncertainty anywhere in their programs. Over repeated executions, these adaptive values adjust to more efficient ones and enable the user's programs to self optimize. The design of our DSL depends significantly on the use of type classes. We will illustrate, along with presenting our DSL, how the use of type classes can support the gradual evolution of DSLs.

  17. Real-world ballistics: A dropped bucket

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, David W

    2007-01-01

    I discuss an apparently simple ballistics problem: the time it takes an object to fall a small vertical distance near the surface of the Earth. It turns out to be not so simple; I spend a great deal of time on the quantitative assessment of the assumptions involved, especially with regards to the influence of the air. The point is \\emph{not} to solve the problem; indeed I don't even end up solving the problem exactly. I introduce dimensional analysis to perform all of the calculations approximately. The principal theme of the lecture is that \\emph{real} physics can be very different from ``textbook'' physics, since in the real world you aren't ever told what equations are appropriate, or why.

  18. The Haskell Road to Logic, Maths and Programming, Second Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, H.C.; Eijck, D.J.N. van

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to teach logic and mathematical reasoning in practice, and to connect logical reasoning with computer programming. The programming language that will be our tool for this is Haskell, a member of the Lisp family. Haskell emerged in the last decade as a standard for lazy fu

  19. The Haskell Road to Logic, Maths and Programming, Second Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Doets; D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this book is to teach logic and mathematical reasoning in practice, and to connect logical reasoning with computer programming. The programming language that will be our tool for this is Haskell, a member of the Lisp family. Haskell emerged in the last decade as a

  20. Real-World Hydrogen Technology Validation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Eudy, L.; Saur, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Department of Energy, the Department of Defense's Defense Logistics Agency, and the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration have funded learning demonstrations and early market deployments to provide insight into applications of hydrogen technologies on the road, in the warehouse, and as stationary power. NREL's analyses validate the technology in real-world applications, reveal the status of the technology, and facilitate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, manufacturing, and operations. This paper presents the maintenance, safety, and operation data of fuel cells in multiple applications with the reported incidents, near misses, and frequencies. NREL has analyzed records of more than 225,000 kilograms of hydrogen that have been dispensed through more than 108,000 hydrogen fills with an excellent safety record.

  1. Multilingual children between real and imaginary worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Kolstrup, Kirsten Lundgaard

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how a group of multilingual children in their early adolescence use various forms of language play and position themselves symbolically through involvement in signifying practices. By developing a conceptual framework that combines insights on language play (Cook 2000......) and the signifying self (Kramsch 2009), it demonstrates how the children as sign makers and symbolic subjects (re)signify their own learning space. The analysis reveals how, during a reading and joint text construction activity in Danish, they explore the symbolic possibilities of signs and subjectivities, while...... moving in and out of the text and back and forth between imagined and real worlds. These findings illustrate how the children’s interest both shapes their playful interaction and takes shape through it. It furthermore shows how language play contributes to paving the way for a resignification...

  2. Response to Haskell's "Academic Freedom ... & Student Evaluation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Stake

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Haskell (1997 argued that the administrative practice of student evaluation of faculty is a threat to academic freedom. However, before that claim can be substantiated, several prior questions must be addressed: To whom does academic freedom belong? Individual faculty? The academy? Whose actions can violate the right? Can any lines be drawn based on whether the substance or form of classroom behavior is influenced? And still another crucial point is whether a body can violate academic freedom without any intent to interfere with or control the substance of what is said to students.

  3. Science writing in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Mentis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to consider guides to technical writing. Since the professional writes what he does and does what he writes, guides to how you execute the one relate to how you perform the other, so this article is about more than just writing. While there is need for idiosyncrasy and individualism, there are some rules. Documents must have an explicit purpose stated at the outset. By their nature, documents in the applied sciences and business address real-world problems, but elsewhere activity may be laissez faire for which the cost-effectiveness in yielding innovations is contestable. A hallmark of written science and technology is that every statement is capable of being tested and capable of being shown to be wrong, and that methods yield repeatable results. Caution should be observed in requiring authoritative referencing for every notion, partly because of the unsatisfying infinite regress in searching for ultimate sources, and partly to avoid squashing innovation. It is not only the content of messages that matters, but reliability too. Probability theory must be built into design to assure that strong inference can be drawn from outcomes. Research, business and infrastructure projects must substitute the frequent optimistic ‘everything goes according to plan’ (EGAP with a more realistic ‘most likely development’ (MLD and the risks of even that not happening. A cornerstone of science and technology is parsimony. No description, experiment, explanation, hypothesis, idea, instrument, machine, method, model, prediction, statement, technique, test or theory should be more elaborate than necessary to satisfy its purpose. Antifragility – the capacity to survive and benefit from shocks – must be designed into project and organizational structure and function by manipulating such factors as complexity and interdependency to evade failure in a turbulent and unpredictable world. The role of writing is to integrate

  4. Static Application-Level Race Detection in STM Haskell using Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Demeyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Writing concurrent programs is a hard task, even when using high-level synchronization primitives such as transactional memories together with a functional language with well-controlled side-effects such as Haskell, because the interferences generated by the processes to each other can occur at different levels and in a very subtle way. The problem occurs when a thread leaves or exposes the shared data in an inconsistent state with respect to the application logic or the real meaning of the data. In this paper, we propose to associate contracts to transactions and we define a program transformation that makes it possible to extend static contract checking in the context of STM Haskell. As a result, we are able to check statically that each transaction of a STM Haskell program handles the shared data in a such way that a given consistency property, expressed in the form of a user-defined boolean function, is preserved. This ensures that bad interference will not occur during the execution of the concurrent program.

  5. ATLAS experiment : From virtual world to real world

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN ATLAS

    2005-01-01

    The film is a combination of three dimensional cad-based animations together with the real film taken with webcams during the construction, lowering and installation of elements belonging to ATLAS Detector. Very nice movie that gives the view of the both planning and real construction of this huge detector complex located in underground cavern in POINT1. This movie is worth to see!

  6. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense supp

  7. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense

  8. Virtual and Real World Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, David; López, Antonio M; Marín, Javier; Ponsa, Daniel; Gerónimo, David

    2014-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is of paramount interest for many applications. Most promising detectors rely on discriminatively learnt classifiers, i.e., trained with annotated samples. However, the annotation step is a human intensive and subjective task worth to be minimized. By using virtual worlds we can automatically obtain precise and rich annotations. Thus, we face the question: can a pedestrian appearance model learnt in realistic virtual worlds work successfully for pedestrian detection in real-world images? Conducted experiments show that virtual-world based training can provide excellent testing accuracy in real world, but it can also suffer the data set shift problem as real-world based training does. Accordingly, we have designed a domain adaptation framework, V-AYLA, in which we have tested different techniques to collect a few pedestrian samples from the target domain (real world) and combine them with the many examples of the source domain (virtual world) in order to train a domain adapted pedestrian classifier that will operate in the target domain. V-AYLA reports the same detection accuracy than when training with many human-provided pedestrian annotations and testing with real-world images of the same domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating adaptation of virtual and real worlds for developing an object detector.

  9. Learn Physics by Programming in Haskell

    CERN Document Server

    Walck, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for deepening a student's understanding of basic physics by asking the student to express physical ideas in a functional programming language. The method is implemented in a second-year course in computational physics at Lebanon Valley College. We argue that the structure of Newtonian mechanics is clarified by its expression in a language (Haskell) that supports higher-order functions, types, and type classes. In electromagnetic theory, the type signatures of functions that calculate electric and magnetic fields clearly express the functional dependency on the charge and current distributions that produce the fields. Many of the ideas in basic physics are well-captured by a type or a function.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Jim

    2000-05-01

    Listeners to science programmes on Canadian radio were invited to submit questions which were then answered, on air, by the author of this wee book. Its purpose, he says, is `to indicate that there are many questions in the real world to which there are no perfect answers' but most of the answers given `contain the essence, if not the whole truth, of the solution to the problem.' The questions, many of which are old chestnuts, range from the mythical - Why might Rudolph be red-nosed? Are high-flying larks harbingers of a hot summer? - through the mundane - Why does the glass handle of a cup of hot coffee stay cool? Is it easier to pull or push a wheelbarrow? - to the mystifying - How is it possible to walk barefoot on red-hot coals? - Is it true that when you take a shower large electric fields can be set up or chloroform released? As the answers were originally given on radio programmes and intended for `educated laypeople' they contain few references to mathematics and no equations! Nevertheless many of the problems are discussed in detail and most readers will find at least some of them fascinating and informative. Many of the answers will be of interest and value to science teachers. In this short book the questions and answers fill only 60 pages but there is a lengthy contents section at the beginning and, at the end, a glossary of many of the terms used throughout. At £8.99 for the UK edition it is pricy - so `feel the quality' of these sections! Outdoors contains questions such as: How is artificial snow created? Can fish really give an electric shock? Why do skates glide along ice? How can blowing on your hands sometimes cool them and sometimes warm them? Theoretical. Here questions on exponential growth, global warming, magnetic poles and energy consumption are answered. Home & Kitchen. Can clothes be whiter than white? How can you tell if an egg is boiled or not? How can a ketchup bottle explode? Why do leaves in a cup of tea collect in the centre

  11. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  12. Relations between Real and Fictional Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    1999-01-01

    I stedet for at tale om et referentielt forhold mellem fiktion og real verden, forslås det at forstå forhold som en kompleks relation. Al litteratur er skrevet ud af og ind i en samfundsmæssig kontakst. Forestillingerne om såvel autonomi som imitation afvises. Elementer fra realiteten transformeres...

  13. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  14. Bridging STEM in a Real World Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; Mousoulides, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering-based modeling activities provide a rich source of meaningful situations that capitalize on and extend students' routine learning. By integrating such activities within existing curricula, students better appreciate how their school learning in mathematics and science applies to problems in the outside world. Furthermore, modeling…

  15. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exploring SSL Product Performance in the Real World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    Fact sheet that outlines DOE's GATEWAY technology demonstration program, which evaluates high-performance SSL products for general illumination in a variety of real-world exterior and interior applications.

  16. Solving real world problems with mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Planes, trains, and automobiles-these are just some of the many achievements of mechanical engineering. This volume will show readers that they do not have to know complex equations to appreciate the impact the field has had on the world. Accessible text introduces young readers to the machines and engines that power the devices, vehicles, and appliances they encounter on a daily basis. Boxes explain important terms and concepts of mechanics and encourage readers to think critically. The book ends with a guided activity that invites readers to don the hat of a mechanical engineer and build the

  17. Getting Real Results with Ohio State University Extension’s Real Money. Real World. Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Ferrari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth development organizations have a unique opportunity to offer programs that help young people develop financial skills they need to become successful adults. This article describes Ohio State University Extension’s Real Money. Real World. (RMRW and the systematic approach used to evaluate its effectiveness. The RMRW curriculum includes an active, hands-on experience that gives young people the opportunity to make lifestyle and budget choices similar to those they will make as adults. The realistic simulation creates a teachable moment. The outcomes of the statewide evaluation clearly indicate the curriculum accomplishes its goals of raising awareness, changing attitudes, and motivating students to plan for behavior changes concerning financial management, education, and career choices. The article concludes with a discussion of the organizational outcomes of conducting the evaluation.

  18. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-01-01

    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  19. Mobile medical device connectivity: real world solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettus, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Mobile medical devices, such as infusion pumps, provide an important therapeutic function. They are also valuable sources of information about treatment patterns at the point of care. However, these mobile devices have been independent islands of valuable information, unable to share the data they gather with other hospital information resources on a real time basis. Although data from these devices can provide significant improvements for medical safety and vital information needed for clinical best practice development, gathering that data poses significant challenges when interfacing with hospital information systems. Mobile medical devices move from place to place as independent actors, raising a series of security and identification issues when they need to be disconnected and reconnected using traditional tethered cable connections. The continuing lack of accepted communications protocol standards, in spite of the concentrated efforts of organizations like the IEEE and the Medical Information Bus (IEEE 1073) to establish them, has made integration into the hospital information system a complex and non-standard task. The rapid spread in availability and adoption of high-speed 802.11 wireless systems in hospitals offers a realistic connectivity solution for mobile medical devices. Inspite of this, the 802.11 standard is still evolving, and current security methods designed for user-based products like PDAs and laptop computers are not ideal for unmanned mobile medical devices because they assume the availability of a human operator to authenticate a wireless session. In the absence of accepted standards, manufacturers have created practical and innovative solutions to support the collection of clinical data from mobile medical devices and the integration of that data with hospital information systems. This paper will explore the potential benefits of integrating mobile medical devices into the hospital information system, and describe the challenges in

  20. Analyzing Real-World Light Duty Vehicle Efficiency Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Chaney, Larry; Holden, Jacob; Jeffers, Matthew; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-06-08

    Off-cycle technologies represent an important pathway to achieve real-world fuel savings, through which OEMs can potentially receive credit toward CAFE compliance. DOE national labs such as NREL are well positioned to provide objective input on these technologies using large, national data sets in conjunction with OEM- and technology-specific testing. This project demonstrates an approach that combines vehicle testing (dynamometer and on-road) with powertrain modeling and simulation over large, representative datasets to quantify real-world fuel economy. The approach can be applied to specific off-cycle technologies (engine encapsulation, start/stop, connected vehicle, etc.) in A/B comparisons to support calculation of realistic real-world impacts. Future work will focus on testing-based A/B technology comparisons that demonstrate the significance of this approach.

  1. Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weise, Thomas; Michalewicz, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are population-based, stochastic search algorithms that mimic natural evolution. Due to their ability to find excellent solutions for conventionally hard and dynamic problems within acceptable time, EAs have attracted interest from many researchers and practitioners in recent years. This book “Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications” aims to promote the practitioner’s view on EAs by providing a comprehensive discussion of how EAs can be adapted to the requirements of various applications in the real-world domains. It comprises 14 chapters, including an introductory chapter re-visiting the fundamental question of what an EA is and other chapters addressing a range of real-world problems such as production process planning, inventory system and supply chain network optimisation, task-based jobs assignment, planning for CNC-based work piece construction, mechanical/ship design tasks that involve runtime-intense simulations, data mining for the predictio...

  2. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...... world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system...

  3. The Haskell Indian Nations University Model for Elementary Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Karen Gayton

    1995-01-01

    A four-year teacher education program at Haskell Indian Nations University (Kansas) prepares American Indians and Alaska Natives to teach Native American children. In addition to the knowledge needed by all teachers, the program focuses on knowledge relevant to American Indians, such as foundations of Indian education, learning styles of Indian…

  4. The Haskell Indian Nations University Model for Elementary Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Karen Gayton

    1995-01-01

    A four-year teacher education program at Haskell Indian Nations University (Kansas) prepares American Indians and Alaska Natives to teach Native American children. In addition to the knowledge needed by all teachers, the program focuses on knowledge relevant to American Indians, such as foundations of Indian education, learning styles of Indian…

  5. Are high real interest rates bad for world economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    There is a conventional perception that high real interest rates are bad for economic growth. However, the authors show that close examination of the experience over the last 40 years undermines the existence of such a relationship. For much of the 1950-79 period, expost real interest rates were less than the growth rate of income in the major economies, whereas the 1980s were a period of rapid growth in the world economy that coincided withunprecedentedly high real interest rates. The author...

  6. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance.

  7. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  8. Real world NOx emissions of Euro V vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Vonk, W.A.; Verbeek, R.P.; Dekker, H. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    In the past decade, vehicle emissions have been reduced substantially as a result of the European emission legislation. Air quality problems are still present, however, in particular in urban areas where local authorities have difficulty meeting European limits regarding air quality (mainly NO2). Therefore, the emission performance of vehicles under urban conditions is of increasing importance for air quality improvement in cities. In this context, TNO was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) to investigate the real-world NOx emissions of Euro V trucks and buses during the past two years. The investigation has shown that, in general, there is a large variety in real-world emissions between different vehicles, in particular under urban conditions. Some vehicles demonstrate the possibility of achieving low emissions under urban conditions, but the results also clearly show that this is not the case for most of the trucks. This outcome is based on two lines of research. Firstly, the real world emissions of eleven trucks and one bus were measured on-road using a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS), under conditions typical of everyday use. Secondly, AdBlue consumption data for a number of Dutch vehicle fleets were analysed. AdBlue is the reagent that is used for NOx emission reduction in SCR systems (catalytic after treatment systems), and the amount of reagent used in daily practice is related to the real-world NOx emissions. Both lines of research support the general outcome.

  9. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Industrial Chemistry Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Solomon

    1985-01-01

    Presented is a bibliography of articles published in the "Journal of Chemical Education" (1968-1983) which focused on industrial chemistry. Items are listed under these headings: real world of industrial chemistry; industrial notes; subject matter articles; industrial chemistry experiments/demonstrations; academic-industrial interface;…

  10. Teaching Children Real-World Knowledge and Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces this special issue topic by asserting that empirically powerful and theoretically guided educational research needs to be designed with the teacher in mind. Provides rationale for research focus on real-world knowledge and reasoning, and reasons for selecting research projects on inductive reasoning, mathematical reasoning, map skills,…

  11. Modelling Real World Using Stochastic Processes and Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Peter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available First we give an implementation in Mizar [2] basic important definitions of stochastic finance, i.e. filtration ([9], pp. 183 and 185, adapted stochastic process ([9], p. 185 and predictable stochastic process ([6], p. 224. Second we give some concrete formalization and verification to real world examples.

  12. Mobile Urban Drama - Interactive Storytelling in Real World Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan; Kortbek, Karen Johanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    surroundings. The media files are linked via tags (2D barcodes/RFID) or GPS to the real world set as the stage of the drama. The dramaturgical concept is described, and a narrative architecture is introduced. It supports a rich variety of plot graphs implemented in a software framework that supports producing...

  13. Using Real-World Scenarios in Accounting Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    High school accounting courses focus on terms and procedures without providing scenarios or examples where accounting skills are applied in business. Business educators should integrate real-world situations into classroom activities so students can better realize how accounting procedures are used and their importance. (JOW)

  14. Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2011-01-01

    Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required…

  15. Real-world fuel consumption of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Eijk, A.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 Travelcard Nederland BV and TNO collaborate to determine the real-world fuel consumption of modern vehicles. The difference between the official type-approval value and the actual fuel consumption has been reported over the years (Ligterink, 2010 and Ligterink, 2013 and Ligterink, 2014).

  16. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  17. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  18. Virtual context - relating media objects to their real world subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutledge, L.; Ballegooij, A.R. van; Eliëns, A.

    2000-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is sometimes used to give the user an immersive, three-dimensional sense of a real-world setting. VR is also sometimes used for information visualization, taking advantage of the perceptual characteristics of VR to convey information. This paper presents the Dam Square Virtual C

  19. Making Connections to the "Real World": A Model Building Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Shusaku; Underwood, Bret

    2009-01-01

    Classroom activities that include the process of model building, in which students build simplified physical representations of a system, have the potential to help students make meaningful connections between physics and the real world. We describe a lesson designed with this intent for an introductory college classroom that engages students in…

  20. Lighting Model of the Real World in Augmented Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雅; 闫达远; 赵虎

    2004-01-01

    Construction of a lighting model of the real world is one of the critical aims in an augmented reality (AR) system. The theory of lighting modeling used in computer graphics(CG) is applied in this study. The position of the real light-source is first conjectured from light and shade of the registration image element by element using a ray tracking algorithm. Then the virtual light-source and virtual fiducial are constructed in the CG environment, in which, the Phong model is used to draw the light effect. By comparing the CG scene with the real image, one can modify the pareters of the lighting model over and over again, until the lighting effect of the CG scene is close enough to that of the real image. It is proved that this method works well in the indoor AR system. The method can be used feasibly in most applications with some improvements.

  1. Pattern theory the stochastic analysis of real-world signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mumford, David

    2010-01-01

    Pattern theory is a distinctive approach to the analysis of all forms of real-world signals. At its core is the design of a large variety of probabilistic models whose samples reproduce the look and feel of the real signals, their patterns, and their variability. Bayesian statistical inference then allows you to apply these models in the analysis of new signals. This book treats the mathematical tools, the models themselves, and the computational algorithms for applying statistics to analyze six representative classes of signals of increasing complexity. The book covers patterns in text, sound

  2. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, John; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study contain...

  3. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  4. The Development of High Order Methods for Real World Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    visualization environment. • For fast linear algebra , we decided to use the high-speed Armadillo C++ library.[87] Armadillo interfaces platform-specific LAPACK... linear algebra library for fast prototyping and computationally intensive experiments. [88] SB, P., 2013. Turbulent Flows. Cambridge Univ. Press...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0403 The Development of High-Order Methods for Real World Applications Zhi Wang UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS CENTER FOR RESEARCH INC

  5. Unusual event detection in real-world surveillance applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kuklyte, Jogile

    2014-01-01

    Given the near-ubiquity of CCTV, there is significant ongoing research effort to apply image and video analysis methods together with machine learning techniques towards autonomous analysis of such data sources. However, traditional approaches to scene understanding remain dependent on training based on human annotations that need to be provided for every camera sensor. In this thesis, we propose an unusual event detection and classification approach which is applicable to real-world visual m...

  6. Evaluation of hierarchical temporal memory for a real world application

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Wim J.C.; Chizuwa, Shuhei; Kameyama, Michitaka

    2010-01-01

    A large number of real world applications, such as user support systems, can still not be performed easily by conventional algorithms in comparison with the human brain. Such intelligence is often implemented, by using probability based systems. This paper focuses on comparing the implementation of a cellular phone intention estimation example on a Bayesian Network and Hierarchical Temporal Memory. It is found that Hierarchical Temporal Memory is a system that requires little effort for desig...

  7. Capturing, processing, and rendering real-world scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Lars S.; Lastra, Anselmo A.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Fuchs, Henry

    2000-12-01

    While photographs vividly capture a scene from a single viewpoint, it is our goal to capture a scene in such a way that a viewer can freely move to any viewpoint, just as he or she would in an actual scene. We have built a prototype system to quickly digitize a scene using a laser rangefinder and a high-resolution digital camera that accurately captures a panorama of high-resolution range and color information. With real-world scenes, we have provided data to fuel research in many area, including representation, registration, data fusion, polygonization, rendering, simplification, and reillumination. The real-world scene data can be used for many purposes, including immersive environments, immersive training, re-engineering and engineering verification, renovation, crime-scene and accident capture and reconstruction, archaeology and historic preservation, sports and entertainment, surveillance, remote tourism and remote sales. We will describe our acquisition system, the necessary processing to merge data from the multiple input devices and positions. We will also describe high quality rendering using the data we have collected. Issues about specific rendering accelerators and algorithms will also be presented. We will conclude by describing future uses and methods of collection for real- world scene data.

  8. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  9. Predicting real-world functional milestones in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Anna-Karin; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Helldin, Lars

    2016-08-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe disorder that often causes impairments in major areas of functioning, and most patients do not achieve expected real-world functional milestones. The aim of this study was to identify which variables of demography, illness activity, and functional capacity predict patients' ability to attain real-world functional milestones. Participants were 235 outpatients, 149 men and 86 women, diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Our results showed that younger patients managed to achieve a higher level of functioning in educational level, marital status, and social contacts. Patients' functional capacity was primarily associated with educational level and housing situation. We also found that women needed less support regarding housing and obtained a higher level of marital status as compared with men. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering current symptoms, especially negative symptoms, and remission stability over time, together with age, duration of illness, gender, educational level, and current functional capacity, when predicting patients' future real-world functioning. We also conclude that there is an advantage in exploring symptoms divided into positive, negative, and general domains considering their probable impact on functional achievements.

  10. Enhancement of Hyperspectral Real World Images Using Hybrid Domain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Lal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents enhancement of hyperspectral real world images using hybrid domain approach. The proposed method consists of three phases: In first phase the discrete wavelet transform is applied and approximation coefficient is selected. In second phase approximation coefficient of discrete wavelet transform of image is process by automatic contrast adjustment technique and in third phase it takes logarithmic of output of second phase and after that adaptive filtering is applied for image enhancement in frequency domain. To judge the superiority of proposed method the image quality parameters such as measure of enhancement (EME and measure of enhancement factor (EMF is evaluated. Therefore, a better value of EME and EMF implies that the visual quality of the enhanced image is good. Simulation results indicates that proposed method provides better results as compared to other state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms for hyperspectral real world images. The proposed method is efficient and very effective method for contrast enhancement of hyperspectral real world images. This method can also be used in different applications where images are suffering from different contrast problems.

  11. Ubiquitous Talker Spoken Language Interaction with Real World Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Rekimoto, Jun

    1995-01-01

    Augmented reality is a research area that tries to embody an electronic information space within the real world, through computational devices. A crucial issue within this area, is the recognition of real world objects or situations. In natural language processing, it is much easier to determine interpretations of utterances, even if they are ill-formed, when the context or situation is fixed. We therefore introduce robust, natural language processing into a system of augmented reality with situation awareness. Based on this idea, we have developed a portable system, called the Ubiquitous Talker. This consists of an LCD display that reflects the scene at which a user is looking as if it is a transparent glass, a CCD camera for recognizing real world objects with color-bar ID codes, a microphone for recognizing a human voice and a speaker which outputs a synthesized voice. The Ubiquitous Talker provides its user with some information related to a recognized object, by using the display and voice. It also accep...

  12. A Tutorial on Parallel and Concurrent Programming in Haskell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton Jones, Simon; Singh, Satnam

    This practical tutorial introduces the features available in Haskell for writing parallel and concurrent programs. We first describe how to write semi-explicit parallel programs by using annotations to express opportunities for parallelism and to help control the granularity of parallelism for effective execution on modern operating systems and processors. We then describe the mechanisms provided by Haskell for writing explicitly parallel programs with a focus on the use of software transactional memory to help share information between threads. Finally, we show how nested data parallelism can be used to write deterministically parallel programs which allows programmers to use rich data types in data parallel programs which are automatically transformed into flat data parallel versions for efficient execution on multi-core processors.

  13. Wars, Revolutions and the First Real World Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es promover la discusión conceptual para una publicación más amplia “Los Ciclos del Imperialismo, Guerra, y Revolución”. Empieza desde una presuposición que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando una transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio non-eurocéntrico. Continua con la discusión histórica de los conceptos relacionados con la guerra, la reforma y la revolución y explica porque, en el contexto de la fase actual de la transición mundial y la Primera Verdadera Guerra Mundial, a pesar de la discusión anterior acerca de las revoluciones y revoluciones mundiales, es razonable sugerir que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial._____________________ABSTRACTThe purpose of this article is to engage in a conceptual discussion for a broader publication on “The Cycles of Imperialism, War and Revolution”. It departs from a presupposition that our common world is experiencing a transition from a broad Eurocentric historical context into a non-Eurocentric broad historical context. It proceeds by a historical discussion on the concepts related to wars, reforms and revolutions and explains why, in the context of the actual phase of global transition and the First Real World War, it is, despite earlier discussions on revolutions and world revolutions, meaningful to suggest that our common world is experiencing a First Real World Revolution.

  14. Modelling the world in real time: how robots engineer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew J

    2003-12-15

    Programming robots and other autonomous systems to interact with the world in real time is bringing into sharp focus general questions about representation, inference and understanding. These artificial agents use digital computation to interpret the data gleaned from sensors and produce decisions and actions to guide their future behaviour. In a physical system, however, finite computational resources unavoidably impose the need to approximate and make selective use of the information available to reach prompt deductions. Recent research has led to widespread adoption of the methodology of Bayesian inference, which provides the absolute framework to understand this process fully via modelling as informed, fully acknowledged approximation. The performance of modern systems has improved greatly on the heuristic methods of the early days of artificial intelligence. We discuss the general problem of real-time inference and computation, and draw on examples from recent research in computer vision and robotics: specifically visual tracking and simultaneous localization and mapping.

  15. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  16. Data Modeling for Mobile Services in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Speicys, L.

    2003-01-01

    . In contrast, this paper describes holistic concepts and techniques for mobile data modeling that are readily applicable in practice. Focus is on services to be delivered to mobile users, such as route guidance, point-of-interest search, road pricing, parking payment, traffic monitoring, etc. While geo......Research contributions on data modeling, data structures, query processing, and indexing for mobile services may have an impact in the longer term, but each contribution typically offers an isolated solution to one small part of the practical problem of delivering mobile services in the real world...

  17. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão;

    2013-01-01

    such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design...... of the available spectrum by nodes in a network, without centralized coordination. While proof-of-concept and statistical validation of such algorithms is typically achieved by using system level simulations, experimental activities are valuable contributions for the investigation of particular aspects...... to the setup of experiments. A practical example of experimentation process with a DSA algorithm is also provided....

  18. Precise perception of virtual object position in real world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Liping; Wu Pingdong; Huang Jie; Li Jian

    2009-01-01

    There is a deviation between actual and theoretical perceived positions of virtual object in stereoscopic display. Therefore, methods for precise position perception in real world are proposed in this paper. The causes for the deviation are analyzed on the basis of geometrical optics. Then deviation corrections are performed by error compensation with mathematic method and by remodeling virtual viewpoint dynamically with the movement of physical viewpoint. Experimental results show that these methods can reduce the position deviation to less than 10 millimeter, meeting the requirements for direct manipulation in multi-sensory virtual environment.

  19. Estimating risk aversion, Risk-Neutral and Real-World Densities using Brazilian Real currency options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fajardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Liu et al. (2007 approach to estimate the optionimplied Risk-Neutral Densities (RND, real-world density (RWD, and relative risk aversion from the Brazilian Real/US Dollar exchange rate distribution. Our empirical application uses a sample of exchange-traded Brazilian Real currency options from 1999 to 2011. Our estimated value of the relative risk aversion is around 2.7, which is in line with other articles for the Brazilian Economy. Our out-of-sample results showed that the RND has some ability to forecast the Brazilian Real exchange rate, but when we incorporate the risk aversion, the out-of-sample performance improves substantially.

  20. NASA World Wind Near Real Time Data for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Innovation requires open standards for data exchange, not to mention ^access to data^ so that value-added, the information intelligence, can be continually created and advanced by the larger community. Likewise, innovation by academia and entrepreneurial enterprise alike, are greatly benefited by an open platform that provides the basic technology for access and visualization of that data. NASA World Wind Java, and now NASA World Wind iOS for the iPhone and iPad, provides that technology. Whether the interest is weather science or climate science, emergency response or supply chain, seeing spatial data in its native context of Earth accelerates understanding and improves decision-making. NASA World Wind open source technology provides the basic elements for 4D visualization, using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) protocols, while allowing for customized access to any data, big or small, including support for NetCDF. NASA World Wind includes access to a suite of US Government WMS servers with near real time data. The larger community can readily capitalize on this technology, building their own value-added applications, either open or proprietary. Night lights heat map Glacier National Park

  1. Ask-Elle: An Adaptable Programming Tutor for Haskell Giving Automated Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Alex; Heeren, Bastiaan; Jeuring, Johan; van Binsbergen, L. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Ask-Elle is a tutor for learning the higher-order, strongly-typed functional programming language Haskell. It supports the stepwise development of Haskell programs by verifying the correctness of incomplete programs, and by providing hints. Programming exercises are added to Ask-Elle by providing a task description for the exercise, one or more…

  2. Ask-Elle: An Adaptable Programming Tutor for Haskell Giving Automated Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Alex; Heeren, Bastiaan; Jeuring, Johan; van Binsbergen, L. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Ask-Elle is a tutor for learning the higher-order, strongly-typed functional programming language Haskell. It supports the stepwise development of Haskell programs by verifying the correctness of incomplete programs, and by providing hints. Programming exercises are added to Ask-Elle by providing a task description for the exercise, one or more…

  3. Empirical extraction of mechanisms underlying real world network generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhack, Royi; Muchnik, Lev; Erez, Tom; Tsaban, Lea; Goldenberg, Jacob; Solomon, Sorin; Louzoun, Yoram

    2010-11-01

    The generation mechanisms of real world networks have been described using multiple models. The mathematical features of these models are usually extrapolated from statistical properties of a snapshot of these networks. We here propose an alternative method based on direct measurement of a sequence of consecutive snapshots to uncover the dynamics underlying real world generation. We assume that the probability of adding a node or an edge depends only on local features surrounding the newly added node/edge, and directly measure the contribution of these features to the node/edge addition probability. These measurements are performed using newly defined N-node local structures. Each N-node local structure represents the configuration of edges surrounding a newly added edge. The N-node local structure measurements reproduce for some networks the now classical addition of edges between high degree node mechanisms. It also provides quantitative estimates of more complex mechanisms driving other networks’ evolution, such as the effect of common first and second neighbors. This new methodology reveals the relative importance of different generation mechanisms. We show, for example, that the main mechanism driving hyperlink addition between two websites is the existence of a third website linking to both the source and the target of the new hyperlink.

  4. Motif structure and cooperation in real-world complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Rabiee, Hamid R.; Jalili, Mahdi

    2010-12-01

    Networks of dynamical nodes serve as generic models for real-world systems in many branches of science ranging from mathematics to physics, technology, sociology and biology. Collective behavior of agents interacting over complex networks is important in many applications. The cooperation between selfish individuals is one of the most interesting collective phenomena. In this paper we address the interplay between the motifs’ cooperation properties and their abundance in a number of real-world networks including yeast protein-protein interaction, human brain, protein structure, email communication, dolphins’ social interaction, Zachary karate club and Net-science coauthorship networks. First, the amount of cooperativity for all possible undirected subgraphs with three to six nodes is calculated. To this end, the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game is considered and the cooperativity of each subgraph is calculated as the percentage of cooperating agents at the end of the simulation time. Then, the three- to six-node motifs are extracted for each network. The significance of the abundance of a motif, represented by a Z-value, is obtained by comparing them with some properly randomized versions of the original network. We found that there is always a group of motifs showing a significant inverse correlation between their cooperativity amount and Z-value, i.e. the more the Z-value the less the amount of cooperativity. This suggests that networks composed of well-structured units do not have good cooperativity properties.

  5. Hyperbolicity Measures "Democracy" in Real-World Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Borassi, Michele; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. In our interpretation, a network with small hyperbolicity is "aristocratic", because it contains a small set of vertices involved in many shortest paths, so that few elements "connect" the systems, while a network with large hyperbolicity has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. We prove mathematically the soundness of this interpretation, and we derive its consequences by analyzing a large dataset of real-world networks. We confirm and improve previous results on hyperbolicity, and we analyze them in the light of our interpretation. Moreover, we study (for the first time in our knowledge) the hyperbolicity of the neighborhood of a given vertex. This allows to define an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks, like most social or peer-to-peer ne...

  6. Real-world resource use and costs of adjuvant treatment for stage III colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, C W M; de Groot, S; Tan, S S; Redekop, W K; Koopman, M; Punt, C J A; Uyl-de Groot, C A

    2015-01-01

    Since the generalisability of trial-based economic evaluations may be limited, there is an increasing focus on real-world cost-effectiveness. Real-world studies involve evaluating the effects and costs of treatments in daily clinical practice. This study reports on the real-world resource use and co

  7. The First Real World War and the Emerging Nuclear Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la problemática de la Auténtica Primera Guerra Mundial (APGM a la luz del emergente holocausto nuclear. La discusión comienza con una sinopsis de la novela de ciencia-ficción de Warren W. Wagars A Short History of Future y relacionado con esto el período de transición de cincuenta años dentro del análisis de sistema-mundo concebido como una gran bifurcación por Immanuel Wallerstein. Sostenemos que puede ser posible reconstruir la dinámica de la historia, de la actualidad y el futuro y anticipar lo venidero, posiblemente sin un holocausto nuclear y terminando la APGM sin consecuencias negativas que pudieran dar lugar a una Auténtica Segunda Guerra Mundial. Nuestro mundo también se afirma está experimentando una transición de un amplio contexto histórico basado en la globalización eurocéntrica a otra no eurocéntrica, que puede ser no capitalista.______________________ABSTRACT:In this article the problematic of the First Real World War (FRWW is discussed in the light of Emerging Nuclear Holocaust. This discussion begins with an overview of Warren W. Wagars science-faction novel A Short History of Future and related some fifty years transition period conceived within world-systems analysis and as that of a major bifurcation by Immanuel Wallerstein. It may thus be possible to pass into the future sooner than anticipated and reconstruct the passage of history, actuality and future in actuality and nearer than anticipated future, possibly without a Nuclear Holocaust and it may be possible to end the FRWW without further negative regressions into the past and without a Second Real World War. Our common world is also experiencing a transition from a broad historical context of Eurocentric globalization into a non-Eurocentric one, which may also be non-capitalistic.  

  8. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    of the available spectrum by nodes in a network, without centralized coordination. While proof-of-concept and statistical validation of such algorithms is typically achieved by using system level simulations, experimental activities are valuable contributions for the investigation of particular aspects...... such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design......The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing...

  9. Real-world experience with neuromuscular blockade reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groudine, Scott B; Minkowitz, Harold S; Valentine, Danny L

    2017-11-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents are used in many surgical procedures and have enabled new surgical advances. The expanded landscape of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal drugs allows for fast and complete NMB reversal and the reduction of postoperative complications from residual block. In the United States, neostigmine/glycopyrrolate and sugammadex are the primary agents for pharmacologic antagonism of neuromuscular blocking agents. Whereas neostigmine and an anticholinergic have been available for decades, sugammadex has only recently become available. We present real-world cases in a variety of surgical procedures and clinical settings in which the use of NMB reversal agents played a significant role in the patients’ clinical outcome. Online access: http://courses.elseviercme.com/nmb/711.

  10. Construction of Motion Database Based on Real-World Haptics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokura, Yuki; Katsura, Seiichiro

    This paper proposes a motion database based on real-world haptics. In order to treat advanced types of haptic information, the motion database contains not only the name of motion and position trajectory of a human operator but also force information. Moreover, the motion database is constructed and managed by a motion database management system, which performs the tasks of inserting, updating, retrieving, and deleting information pertaining to human motion. The motion database management system consists of a motion-copying system, which stores and reproduces the simple motions of the human operator. In this research, the validity and feasibility of the proposed method are verified. By using the proposed method, the motions of human operators in the industrial and medical fields can be stored, dynamically reproduced, and referred.

  11. Monocular Obstacle Detection for Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Erik; Schroeter, Christof; Gross, Horst-Michael

    In this paper, we present a feature based approach for monocular scene reconstruction based on extended Kaiman filters (EKF). Our method processes a sequence of images taken by a single camera mounted in front of a mobile robot. Using various techniques we are able to produce a precise reconstruction that is almost free from outliers and therefore can be used for reliable obstacle detection and avoidance. In real-world field tests we show that the presented approach is able to detect obstacles that can not be seen by other sensors, such as laser range finders. Furthermore, we show that visual obstacle detection combined with a laser range finder can increase the detection rate of obstacles considerably, allowing the autonomous use of mobile robots in complex public and home environments.

  12. TRAX - Real-World Tracking of Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2007-01-01

    accuracy. This paper presents the TRAX tracking system that supports several techniques capable of tracking the current positions of moving objects with guaranteed accuracies at low update and communication costs in real-world settings. The techniques are readily relevant for practical applications......Range of mobile services rely on knowing the current positions of populations of so-called moving objects. In the ideal setting, the positions of all objects are known always and exactly. While this is not possible in practice, it is possible to know each object's position with a certain guaranteed......, but they also have implications for continued research. The tracking techniques offer a realistic setting for existing query processing techniques that assume that it is possible to always know the exact positions of moving objects. The techniques enable studies of trade-offs between querying and update...

  13. Implementation science in the real world: a streamlined model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Herschel; Anaya, Henry D

    2012-01-01

    The process of quality improvement may involve enhancing or revising existing practices or the introduction of a novel element. Principles of Implementation Science provide key theories to guide these processes, however, such theories tend to be highly technical in nature and do not provide pragmatic nor streamlined approaches to real-world implementation. This paper presents a concisely comprehensive six step theory-based Implementation Science model that we have successfully used to launch more than two-dozen self-sustaining implementations. In addition, we provide an abbreviated case study in which we used our streamlined theoretical model to successfully guide the development and implementation of an HIV testing/linkage to care campaign in homeless shelter settings in Los Angeles County.

  14. Ultrasound: promoting electroanalysis in difficult real world media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Craig E; Compton, Richard G

    2004-08-01

    This article outlines the recent progress in the field of sonoelectroanalysis with strong emphasis on 'real world media' analysis. General principles of stripping analysis and the effects of ultrasound are explained. A section on 'Electroanalysis in extreme media' presents several examples of applications including detection of copper in beer, manganese in tea, lead and cadmium in saliva. The benefits of diamond electrodes are described and in the final section 'Metal ion detection in blood' several novel approaches based on the use of power ultrasound and based on bismuth electrodes are discussed. Specifically it is shown that the combination of ultrasound with classical stripping voltammetry permits quantifiable measurements in media hitherto impossible to study using conventional methods.

  15. Using Real-World Case Studies to Advance Hydrology Education in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Thorsten; Reed, Patrick; Zappe, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Hydrology originated as an engineering discipline mainly concerned with the estimation of floods and droughts. Since then, hydrology has evolved into one of the earth sciences and deals with water related issues in complex environmental systems at scales ranging from local to global. Current and future water issues, however, require new inter-disciplinary scientific approaches to provide solutions to engineering problems, often including significant social components. Climate and land use change introduce non-stationarities into the environment that many of the current engineering tools cannot consider, while a growing population continuously increase the stress on available water resources, particularly in less developed countries. Hydrology therefore remains an important part of the general civil and environmental engineering curriculum. However, the changes in the science of hydrology have not yet fully propagated into a changed approach to teaching this important subject in many engineering departments. We present the results of a three-semester long study in which we introduced real world case studies into a large (70-90 students) civil engineering undergraduate class to achieve this change. Over the past several semesters, students have expressed overwhelmingly positive thoughts on the course adjustments made, including the cases and other active learning elements utilized. We show and discuss evidence of the positive impact on student learning due to the closer link between the course material and real-world examples of a changing world.

  16. Cancer Models and Real-world Data: Better Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane J; Tosteson, Anna Na; Zauber, Ann G; Sprague, Brian L; Stout, Natasha K; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Armstrong, Katrina; Pruitt, Sandi L; Rutter, Carolyn M

    2016-02-01

    Decision-analytic models are increasingly used to inform health policy decisions. These models synthesize available data on disease burden and intervention effectiveness to project estimates of the long-term consequences of care, which are often absent when clinical or policy decisions must be made. While models have been influential in informing US cancer screening guidelines under ideal conditions, incorporating detailed data on real-world screening practice has been limited given the complexity of screening processes and behaviors throughout diverse health delivery systems in the United States. We describe the synergies that exist between decision-analytic models and health care utilization data that are increasingly accessible through research networks that assemble data from the growing number of electronic medical record systems. In particular, we present opportunities to enrich cancer screening models by grounding analyses in real-world data with the goals of projecting the harms and benefits of current screening practices, evaluating the value of existing and new technologies, and identifying the weakest links in the cancer screening process where efforts for improvement may be most productively focused. We highlight the example of the National Cancer Institute-funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR), a collaboration to harmonize and analyze screening process and outcomes data on breast, colorectal, and cervical cancers across seven research centers. The pairing of models with such data can create more robust models to not only better inform policy but also inform health care systems about best approaches to improve the provision of cancer screening in the United States.

  17. It Doesn't Break Just on Twitter. Characterizing Facebook content During Real World Events

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan, Prateek; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies in the past have analyzed the role and dynamics of the Twitter social network during real world events. However, little work has explored the content of other social media services, or compared content across two networks during real world events. We believe that social media platforms like Facebook also play a vital role in disseminating information on the Internet during real world events. In this work, we study and characterize the content posted on the world's biggest soc...

  18. Flat world versus real world : where is weathering the most important ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Mountain ranges are a key driver of the Earth climates. Acting on a large range of timescales, they modulate the atmospheric and oceanic circulations but also plays a crucial role in regulating the geological carbon cycle through their impacts on erosion and continental weathering. Since the 90's, there is an ongoing debate about the role of the mountain uplift on the long term global cooling of the Earth climate. Mountain ranges are thought to enhance silicate weathering and the associated CO2 consumption. But this has been repeatedly questioned in the recent years. Here we present a new method for modeling the spatial distribution of both physical erosion and coupled chemical weathering. The IPSL ocean-atmosphere model calculates the continental climate, which is used to force the erosion/weathering model. We first compare the global silicate weathering for two geographical configurations: the present-day world with mountain ranges, and a world where all mountains have been removed. Depending on the chosen formalism for silicate weathering and on the climate changes linked to the removal of mountains, it can be higher in the flat world than in the real world, or up to 5 times weaker. In the second part of the talk, we will explore the role of the Hercynian mountain range on the onset and demise of the late Paleozoic ice age, within the context of the Pangea assembly.

  19. Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano: the First Volcanological Observatory in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvisati, Gala; de Vita, Sandro; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Marotta, Enrica; Sangianantoni, Agata; Peluso, Rosario; Pasquale Ricciardi, Giovanni; Tulino, Sabrina; Uzzo, Tullia; Ghilardi, Massimo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano (ROV), historic home of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), is the oldest volcanological observatory in the world. It was founded in 1841 by the Bourbon king of Naples. The building is located on the western slope of Mount Vesuvius, one of the most famous and dangerous volcanoes in the world. Since its foundation, the ROV has always attracted researchers, visitors and students from many countries. The ROV site is an elegant neo-classical building which at present hosts permanent exhibitions of part of its inheritance of valuable mineral, scientific instrument and art collections. A radical change is now under way, starting with the structural reinforcement of the building, renewal and upgrading of services, and the redefinition of exhibition itineraries so as to make visits still more enjoyable and informative. This will include the integration of outdoor footpaths and theme-based routes designed for users of differing levels of expertise. This major transformation also involves a study and a number of operations aimed at the possibility of developing self-financed activities. To this end an analysis of tourist movements in Campania was conducted, in part so as to attract to the ROV a larger and more varied group of visitors. In an area that - despite its unique characteristics - is currently significantly degraded and underused, the creation of such a powerful tourist and cultural attraction would serve as a focus for the development of additional activities and services that would greatly enhance it and stimulate growth. These activities would, of course, be compatible with a territory that has a high risk of volcanic hazards - indeed, such growth would constitute an important component in mitigating this risk in the area. The example given illustrates how the restoration and enhancement of a piece of our historic, scientific and cultural heritage could be the driving force behind the economic revival of an

  20. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-08-01

    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The classification of vigilance tasks in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Fiona M

    2008-11-01

    The ability to generalise vigilance research to operational environments has been questioned, largely due to differences between laboratory research and real-world settings. The taxonomy of vigilance tasks proposed by Parasuraman and Davies (1977) represents an attempt to classify vigilance tasks so that tasks with similar information-processing demands can be compared and the ability to generalise results enhanced. Although the taxonomy originally included complexity, the term specifically referred to multiple sources of information. Complexity has been overlooked in much of the traditional vigilance literature, although it is included in more recent studies of jobs such as air traffic control. In this paper, the taxonomy is evaluated in relation to two vigilance intensive jobs - closed circuit television surveillance operators and air traffic controllers. In its present form, the existing taxonomy of experimental settings has limited applicability to these operational settings. Therefore, recommendations for expanding the taxonomy to include more aspects of complexity are made. It is argued that the revised taxonomy be used in conjunction with situation awareness, which makes provision for the cognitive processes involved in these jobs.

  2. Reinforcement Learning in Robotics: Applications and Real-World Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kormushev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In robotics, the ultimate goal of reinforcement learning is to endow robots with the ability to learn, improve, adapt and reproduce tasks with dynamically changing constraints based on exploration and autonomous learning. We give a summary of the state-of-the-art of reinforcement learning in the context of robotics, in terms of both algorithms and policy representations. Numerous challenges faced by the policy representation in robotics are identified. Three recent examples for the application of reinforcement learning to real-world robots are described: a pancake flipping task, a bipedal walking energy minimization task and an archery-based aiming task. In all examples, a state-of-the-art expectation-maximization-based reinforcement learning is used, and different policy representations are proposed and evaluated for each task. The proposed policy representations offer viable solutions to six rarely-addressed challenges in policy representations: correlations, adaptability, multi-resolution, globality, multi-dimensionality and convergence. Both the successes and the practical difficulties encountered in these examples are discussed. Based on insights from these particular cases, conclusions are drawn about the state-of-the-art and the future perspective directions for reinforcement learning in robotics.

  3. Load Disaggregation Technologies: Real World and Laboratory Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Butner, Ryan S.; Johnson, Erica M.

    2016-09-28

    Low cost interval metering and communication technology improvements over the past ten years have enabled the maturity of load disaggregation (or non-intrusive load monitoring) technologies to better estimate and report energy consumption of individual end-use loads. With the appropriate performance characteristics, these technologies have the potential to enable many utility and customer facing applications such as billing transparency, itemized demand and energy consumption, appliance diagnostics, commissioning, energy efficiency savings verification, load shape research, and demand response measurement. However, there has been much skepticism concerning the ability of load disaggregation products to accurately identify and estimate energy consumption of end-uses; which has hindered wide-spread market adoption. A contributing factor is that common test methods and metrics are not available to evaluate performance without having to perform large scale field demonstrations and pilots, which can be costly when developing such products. Without common and cost-effective methods of evaluation, more developed disaggregation technologies will continue to be slow to market and potential users will remain uncertain about their capabilities. This paper reviews recent field studies and laboratory tests of disaggregation technologies. Several factors are identified that are important to consider in test protocols, so that the results reflect real world performance. Potential metrics are examined to highlight their effectiveness in quantifying disaggregation performance. This analysis is then used to suggest performance metrics that are meaningful and of value to potential users and that will enable researchers/developers to identify beneficial ways to improve their technologies.

  4. Gender differences in real-world hearing protector attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, S M; Alberti, P W; Rokas, D

    1988-04-01

    This research investigated the possibility of differences in real-world attenuation attributable to gender. A total of 160 subjects, 80 males and 80 females, under the age of 45 years, and with normal hearing, were tested. Subjects were assigned to four hearing protector categories with the restriction that there were 20 males and 20 females in each group. The devices chosen for study were the E-A-R expandable foam plug, the Willson Sound Silencer premolded vinyl plug with double flange, the Bilsom Soft polyethylene encapsulated glass fiber plug, and the MSA Ear Defender (V-51R) premolded vinyl plug with single flange. Binaural headphone detection thresholds were measured in quiet with the open ear, and subsequently with protectors fitted binaurally for one-third octave noise bands centered at 250, 500, 1000, 3150 and 6300 Hz. The results indicated that attenuation scores achieved by females were less than those observed for males when the device was sold in only one size. Apart from the question of adequate sizing, for two of the insert protectors studied, mean achieved attenuation fell short of the manufacturer's specifications by as much as 18 dB, for particular frequencies tested. The relatively wide variation in scores observed for all four protectors in spite of experimenter-fit could not be accounted for by differences in either hearing threshold across subjects or by size of plug fit, for those devices available in several sizes.

  5. Real-world scenarios help improve selection of radiology employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, C L; Groff, K; Phillips, M

    1998-01-01

    Choosing the right candidate through the interview process is critical, particularly in light of rapidly changing skills in various technologies. The authors have changed the interviewing process at Jeanes Hospital in Philadelphia in order to examine and evaluate multiple objectives simultaneously. To do this, they created an instrument that elicits impromptu responses to real-world radiology situations. Such responses help assess a potential candidate's training, emotional strength, technical experience and growth potential. They also determine how much additional training the potential candidate will need to be effective in the department. Using the instrument helps sharpen the assessment of candidate traits such as face-to-face communication skills and response time. The impact on hiring is positive. Quality staff, improved patient care and improved patient safety are only some of the results. Many of the questions included on the instrument come from past problem situations and help the interviewers to determine whether a candidate understands underlying issues and the seriousness of situations. The goal is to ensure that patient care and productivity are not hampered by unusual situations. When a concrete difference is detected between a candidate's response and the department's needs, it is possible to assess the cost-effectiveness of training for the discrepancy. For entry-level candidates, the question is whether the person is trainable. Consistently using this interview document forces hiring managers to identify specific abilities, traits and experience desirable in the workplace.

  6. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S.; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others’ popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets’ sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity–social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity–valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members’ popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior. PMID:26598684

  7. Optical metrology: from the laboratory to the real world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, W.; Garbusi, E.; Fleischle, D.; Lyda, W.; Pruss, C.; Reichle, R.; Falldorf, C.

    2010-09-01

    Optical metrology has shown to be a versatile tool for the solution of many inspection problems. The main advantages of optical methods are the noncontact nature, the non-destructive and fieldwise working principle, the fast response, high sensitivity, resolution and accuracy. Consequently, optical principles are increasingly being considered in all steps of the evolution of modern products. However, the step out of the laboratory into the harsh environment of the factory floor was and is a big challenge for optical metrology. The advantages mentioned above must be paid often with strict requirements concerning the measurement conditions and the object under test. For instance, the request for interferometric precision in general needs an environment where high stability is guaranteed. If this cannot be satisfied to a great extent special measures have to be taken or compromises have to be accepted. But the rapid technological development of the components that are used for creating modern optical measurement systems, the unrestrained growth of the computing power and the implementation of new measurement and inspection strategies give cause for optimism and show that the high potential of optical metrology is far from being fully utilized. In this article current challenges to optical metrology are discussed and new technical improvements that help to overcome existing restrictions are treated. On example of selected applications the progress in bringing optical metrology to the real world is shown.

  8. Age differences in virtual environment and real world path integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Adamo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate path integration requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular self-motion cues and age effects associated with alterations in processing information from these systems may contribute to declines in path integration abilities. The present study investigated age-related differences in path integration in conditions that varied as a function of available sources of sensory information. Twenty-two healthy, young (23.8 ± 3.0 yrs. and 16 older (70.1 ± 6.4 yrs. adults participated in distance reproduction and triangle completion tasks performed in a virtual environment and two real world conditions: guided walking and wheelchair propulsion. For walking and wheelchair propulsion conditions, participants wore a blindfold and wore noise-blocking headphones and were guided through the workspace by the experimenter. For the virtual environment (VE condition, participants viewed self-motion information on a computer monitor and used a joystick to navigate through the environment. For triangle completion tasks, older compared to younger individuals showed greater errors in rotation estimations performed in the wheelchair condition; and for rotation and distance estimations in the VE condition. Distance reproduction tasks, in contrast, did not show any age effects. These findings demonstrate that age differences in path integration vary as a function of the available sources of information and by the complexity of outbound pathway.

  9. Monte Carlo modelling of positron transport in real world applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, S.; Banković, A.; Šuvakov, M.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2014-05-01

    Due to the unstable nature of positrons and their short lifetime, it is difficult to obtain high positron particle densities. This is why the Monte Carlo simulation technique, as a swarm method, is very suitable for modelling most of the current positron applications involving gaseous and liquid media. The ongoing work on the measurements of cross-sections for positron interactions with atoms and molecules and swarm calculations for positrons in gasses led to the establishment of good cross-section sets for positron interaction with gasses commonly used in real-world applications. Using the standard Monte Carlo technique and codes that can follow both low- (down to thermal energy) and high- (up to keV) energy particles, we are able to model different systems directly applicable to existing experimental setups and techniques. This paper reviews the results on modelling Surko-type positron buffer gas traps, application of the rotating wall technique and simulation of positron tracks in water vapor as a substitute for human tissue, and pinpoints the challenges in and advantages of applying Monte Carlo simulations to these systems.

  10. Tackling field-portable Raman spectroscopy of real world samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Neil C.

    2008-10-01

    A major challenge confronting first responders, customs authorities and other security-related organisations is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Currently, a range of hand portable Raman equipment is commercially available that is low cost and increasingly more sophisticated. These systems are generally based on the 785nm Stokes shifted Raman technique with many using dispersive grating spectrometers. This technique offers a broad range of capabilities including the ability to analyse illicit drugs, explosives, chemical weapons and pre-cursors but still has some fundamental constraints. 'Real world' samples, such as those found at a crime scene, will often not be presented in the most accessible manner. Simple issues such as glass fluorescence can make an otherwise tractable sample impossible to analyse in-situ. A new generation of portable Raman equipment is currently being developed to address these issues. Consideration is given to the use of longer wavelength for fluorescence reduction. Alternative optical designs are being tested to compensate for the signal reduction incurred by moving to longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the use of anti-Stokes spectroscopy is being considered as well as investigating the robustness and portability of traditional Fourier Transform interferometer designs along with future advances in detector technology and ultra small spectrometers.

  11. Field Balancing in the Real World: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, R.K.; Surrett, C.L.

    1999-10-06

    This paper is a follow-up to an earlier paper, Field Balancing in the Real World, which was presented at CSI Reliability Week 1997 in Nashville. Case studies of excessive vibrations on fans at ORNL will be discussed. Except for a few small sections from the earlier paper, this paper is entirely new. The case studies are new. As in the first paper, all fans are rigid-rotor type fans. Normal operation, therefore, is at less than the shaft's first critical speed. The presentation of case studies with root cause problems other than unbalance is a major departure from the first paper. We believe they belong here, since unbalance is suspected most of the time when a fan is vibrating excessively, even when it is not the root cause. In reality, unbalance is the underlying cause of the excess vibration on fans we have fixed at ORNL only about half the time. Furthermore, the analyst's credibility could be called into question upon an unsuccessful attempt at field balancing when underlying causes are later discovered and fixed. A demonstration will follow the case study presentation. The additional tests described in this paper to confirm centrifugal force (probable unbalance) will be performed.

  12. Multiple myeloma: patient outcomes in real-world practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Kwee; Delforge, Michel; Driessen, Christoph; Fink, Leah; Flinois, Alain; Gonzalez-McQuire, Sebastian; Safaei, Reza; Karlin, Lionel; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Raab, Marc S; Schoen, Paul; Cavo, Michele

    2016-10-01

    With increasing number of therapies available for the treatment of multiple myeloma, it is timely to examine the course of patients' journeys. We investigated patient characteristics, treatment durations and outcomes, and symptom burden across the treatment pathway in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and the UK. In total, 435 physicians retrospectively reviewed 4997 patient charts. Profiles of patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma during the last 12 months were similar across countries; bone pain was the most common presentation. Median duration of first-line therapy was 6 months, followed by a median treatment-free interval of 10 months; both these decreased with increasing lines of therapy, as did time to progression. Depth of response, as assessed by the treating physician, also decreased with each additional line of therapy: 74% of patients achieved at least a very good partial response at first line, compared with only 11% at fifth line. Deeper responses were associated with longer time to progression, although these were physician-judged. Toxicities and co-morbidities increased with later treatment lines, and were more likely to have led to discontinuation of treatment. These real-world data provide an insight into patient outcomes and treatment decisions being made in clinical practice. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. From top Above to Down Under: Linking the Real World With UnderWorld Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, D. R.; Heine, C.; May, D.; Moresi, L.

    2005-12-01

    Intraplate sedimentary basins often show a subsidence behaviour which can not be explained by the classical rift models. It appears that the basement heterogeneity is one of the major factors controlling the formation and long-term evolution of those basins. In our project we have tried to integrate the results of an observational study on global intraplate sedimentary basins with particle-in-cell finite element models. By using the UnderWorld(ex SNARK) and Ellipsis2d codes, we are building a numerical model library for different crustal extension scenarios involving a varying heterogeneous basement architecture and attempting to connect the ``pure'' numerical models with real world data as tightly as possible. The direct linking of numerical models with large scale observations offers a new powerful way to investigate the complex lithosphere dynamics and geological processes that account for the evolution of intraplate basins, and the influence of the basement architecture on basin evolution. Here we present the infrastructure and workflow of this new approach together with a first set of modelling results.

  14. Developing Humanoid Robots for Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Kuhlman, Michael; Assad, Chris; Keymeulen, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Humanoids are steadily improving in appearance and functionality demonstrated in controlled environments. To address the challenges of operation in the real-world, researchers have proposed the use of brain-inspired architectures for robot control, and the use of robot learning techniques that enable the robot to acquire and tune skills and behaviours. In the first part of the paper we introduce new concepts and results in these two areas. First, we present a cerebellum-inspired model that demonstrated efficiency in the sensory-motor control of anthropomorphic arms, and in gait control of dynamic walkers. Then, we present a set of new ideas related to robot learning, emphasizing the importance of developing teaching techniques that support learning. In the second part of the paper we propose the use in robotics of the iterative and incremental development methodologies, in the context of practical task-oriented applications. These methodologies promise to rapidly reach system-level integration, and to early identify system-level weaknesses to focus on. We apply this methodology in a task targeting the automated assembly of a modular structure using HOAP-2. We confirm this approach led to rapid development of a end-to-end capability, and offered guidance on which technologies to focus on for gradual improvement of a complete functional system. It is believed that providing Grand Challenge type milestones in practical task-oriented applications accelerates development. As a meaningful target in short-mid term we propose the 'IKEA Challenge', aimed at the demonstration of autonomous assembly of various pieces of furniture, from the box, following included written/drawn instructions.

  15. Assessing heart rate variability from real-world Holter reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Phyllis K

    2002-09-01

    Real world clinical Holter reports are often difficult to interpret from a heart rate variability (HRV) perspective. In many cases HRV software is absent. Step-by-step HRV assessment from clinical Holter reports includes: making sure that there is enough usable data, assessing maximum and minimum heart rates, assessing circadian HRV from hourly average heart rates, and assessing HRV from the histogram of R-R intervals and from the plot of R-R intervals or heart rate vs. time. If HRV data are available, time domain HRV is easiest to understand and less sensitive to scanning errors. SDNN (the standard deviation of all N-N intervals in ms) and SDANN (the standard deviation of the 5-min average of N-N intervals in ms) are easily interpreted. SDNN < 70 ms post-MI is a cut point for increased mortality risk. Two times ln SDANN is a good surrogate for ln ultra low frequency power and can be compared with published cut points. SDNNIDX (the average of the standard deviations of N-N intervals for each 5-min in ms) < 30 ms is associated with increased risk in patients with congestive heart failure. RMSSD (the root mean square of successive N-N interval difference in ms) < 17.5 ms has also been associated with increased risk post-myocardial infarction. Frequency domain HRV values are often not comparable to published data. However, graphical power spectral plots can provide additional information about whether the HRV pattern is normal and can also identify some patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  16. Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria Kalpouzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD, TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks.

  17. Towards a conceptual framework for identifying student difficulties with solving Real-World Problems in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...

  18. Application Exercises Improve Transfer of Statistical Knowledge in Real-World Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students' abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic…

  19. Towards a conceptual framework for identifying student difficulties with solving Real-World Problems in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem s...

  20. Key Real-World Applications of Classifier Ensembles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broad classes of statistical classification algorithms have beendeveloped and applied successfully to a wide range of real worlddomains. In general, ensuring that...

  1. Real-World Units in the Conceptual Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Blanca; Pierson, Bo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    During an eight-week series of investigations, a class of third-grade students learned how interactions between forces are used to advance technology in their world. This five-part forces and interaction unit was led by a guiding question: How does engineering and design work in the world, and how does it affect our lives? As they explored this…

  2. The Real Meaning of Complex Minkowski-Space World-Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, T M

    2009-01-01

    In connection with the study of shear-free null geodesics in Minkowski space, we investigate the real geometric effects in real Minkowski space that are induced by and associated with complex world-lines in complex Minkowski space. It was already known, in a formal manner, that complex analytic curves in complex Minkowski space induce shear-free null geodesic congruences. Here we look at the direct geometric connections of the complex line and the real structures. Among other items, we show, in particular, how a complex world-line projects into the real Minkowski space in the form of a real shear-free null geodesic congruence.

  3. Bridging Real World Semantics to Model World Semantics for Taxonomy Based Knowledge Representation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-Hum Kwon; Chee-Yang Song; Chang-Joo Moon; Doo-Kwon Baik

    2005-01-01

    As a mean to map ontology concepts, a similarity technique is employed. Especially a context dependent concept mapping is tackled, which needs contextual information from knowledge taxonomy. Context-based semantic similarity differs from the real world similarity in that it requires contextual information to calculate similarity. The notion of semantic coupling is introduced to derive similarity for a taxonomy-based system. The semantic coupling shows the degree of semantic cohesiveness for a group of concepts toward a given context. In order to calculate the semantic coupling effectively, the edge counting method is revisited for measuring basic semantic similarity by considering the weighting attributes from where they affect an edge's strength. The attributes of scaling depth effect, semantic relation type, and virtual connection for the edge counting are considered. Furthermore, how the proposed edge counting method could be well adapted for calculating context-based similarity is showed. Thorough experimental results are provided for both edge counting and context-based similarity. The results of proposed edge counting were encouraging compared with other combined approaches, and the context-based similarity also showed understandable results. The novel contributions of this paper come from two aspects.First, the similarity is increased to the viable level for edge counting. Second, a mechanism is provided to derive a contextbased similarity in taxonomy-based system, which has emerged as a hot issue in the literature such as Semantic Web, MDR,and other ontology-mapping environments.

  4. The skeptical environmentalist: measuring the real state of the world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lomborg, Bjr̜n

    2001-01-01

    ... in headline news across the world. His arguments are presented in non-technical, accessible language and are carefully backed up by over 2900 notes allowing readers to check sources for themselves...

  5. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  6. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and Department of Energy Test Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kar, Rahul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.

  7. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  8. Teriflunomide for multiple sclerosis in real-world setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Louise; Molnar, T; Illes, Z

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Teriflunomide 14 mg is a once-daily oral disease-modifying treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We examined adverse event (AE) profile and efficacy in real life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we retrospectively examined 1521 blood samples...

  9. Real-world research and its importance in respiratory medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Price (David); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); N. Roche (Nicolas); D. Freeman (Daryl); A. Chisholm (Alison)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractClinical practice requires a complex interplay between experience and training, research, guidelines and judgement, and must not only draw on data from traditional or classical randomised controlled trials (cRCTs), but also from pragmatically designed studies that better reflect real-lif

  10. Strategic Control in the Real World: A Multidisciplinary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Robert L.; Regel, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This research paper was developed after completing and publishing articles using the Balanced Scorecard as a means of achieving strategic objectives of over twenty destination ski resorts. We believe the balanced scorecard idea is essentially a new model of the way the world works and should be conceptualized. Our research has helped answer a…

  11. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models.

  12. IMI Workshop on Optimization in the Real World

    CERN Document Server

    Shinano, Yuji; Waki, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    This book clearly shows the importance, usefulness, and powerfulness of current optimization technologies, in particular, mixed-integer programming and its remarkable applications. It is intended to be the definitive study of state-of-the-art optimization technologies for students, academic researchers, and non-professionals in industry. The chapters of this book are based on a collection of selected and extended papers from the  “IMI Workshop on Optimization in the Real World” held in October 2014 in Japan.

  13. Tangible display systems: bringing virtual surfaces into the real world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferwerda, James A.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing tangible display systems that enable natural interaction with virtual surfaces. Tangible display systems are based on modern mobile devices that incorporate electronic image displays, graphics hardware, tracking systems, and digital cameras. Custom software allows the orientation of a device and the position of the observer to be tracked in real-time. Using this information, realistic images of surfaces with complex textures and material properties illuminated by environment-mapped lighting, can be rendered to the screen at interactive rates. Tilting or moving in front of the device produces realistic changes in surface lighting and material appearance. In this way, tangible displays allow virtual surfaces to be observed and manipulated as naturally as real ones, with the added benefit that surface geometry and material properties can be modified in real-time. We demonstrate the utility of tangible display systems in four application areas: material appearance research; computer-aided appearance design; enhanced access to digital library and museum collections; and new tools for digital artists.

  14. Modeling and verifying the polarizing reflectance of real-world metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kai; Weidlich, Andrea; Wilkie, Alexander; Magnor, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Using measurements of real-world samples of metals, the proposed approach verifies predictions of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models. It employs ellipsometry to verify both the actual polarizing effect and the overall reflectance behavior of the metallic surfaces.

  15. Food for Thought: Cross-Classification and Category Organization in a Complex Real-World Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    1999-01-01

    Seven studies involving 256 undergraduates examined how people represent, access, and make inferences about the real-world category domain, foods. Results give a detailed picture of the use of cross-classification in a complex domain. (SLD)

  16. OCA Oracle Database 11g database administration I : a real-world certification guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ries, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Developed as a practical book, ""Oracle Database 11g Administration I Certification Guide"" will show you all you need to know to effectively excel at being an Oracle DBA, for both examinations and the real world. This book is for anyone who needs the essential skills to become an Oracle DBA, pass the Oracle Database Administration I exam, and use those skills in the real world to manage secure, high performance, and highly available Oracle databases.

  17. Validation Of The Airspace Concept Evaluation System Using Real World Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of performing a validation of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) using real world historical flight operational data. ACES inputs are generated from select real world data and processed to create a realistic reproduction of a single day of operations within the National Airspace System (NAS). ACES outputs are then compared to real world operational metrics and delay statistics for the reproduced day. Preliminary results indicate that ACES produces delays and airport operational metrics similar to the real world with minor variations of delay by phase of flight. ACES is a nation-wide fast-time simulation tool developed at NASA Ames Research Center. ACES models and simulates the NAS using interacting agents representing center control, terminal flow management, airports, individual flights, and other NAS elements. These agents pass messages between one another similar to real world communications. This distributed agent based system is designed to emulate the highly unpredictable nature of the NAS, making it a suitable tool to evaluate current and envisioned airspace concepts. To ensure that ACES produces the most realistic results, the system must be validated. There is no way to validate future concepts scenarios using real world historical data, but current day scenario validations increase confidence in the validity of future scenario results. Each operational day has unique weather and traffic demand schedules. The more a simulation utilizes the unique characteristic of a specific day, the more realistic the results should be. ACES is able to simulate the full scale demand traffic necessary to perform a validation using real world data. Through direct comparison with the real world, models may continuee to be improved and unusual trends and biases may be filtered out of the system or used to normalize the results of future concept simulations.

  18. Challenges when using real-world bio-data to calibrate simulation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Elaine M; Ringleb, Stacie I; Tolk, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Computer simulations allow us to gain insight into biological systems that would not be possible without destroying or changing the system in significant ways. To ensure that results are relevant, real-world bio-data should be used to calibrate simulations. Real-world data contain uncertainty due to the nature of how it is obtained. This chapter provides various sources on uncertainty and methods to cope with this challenge.

  19. Sunitinib in mRCC: A systematic review of UK Real World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andrew Montgomery

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReal world data are increasingly used to inform drug reimbursement decisions, but it is unclear how well outcomes from real world studies compare to those of clinical trials. This systematic review seeks to compare outcomes for sunitinib in routine UK clinical practice with the sunitinib registrational and expanded access program clinical trials. MethodSystematic review of the real world published literature was undertaken. UK observational studies recording first or second line sunitinib efficacy were included. A qualitative summary of the results and comparison to the controlled clinical trials was conducted. 15 real world studies were included, 14 of which were only available as posters/presentations. ResultsReal world study reporting quality was generally low, making comparisons with the clinical trials difficult. Practice relating to starting dose, dose modification, timing of therapy initiation and other factors varied between centres. Median progression free survival and adverse events were generally comparable to the clinical trial outcomes, but overall survival was not. ConclusionsThere are few published data on sunitinib use in UK clinical practice. Studies are characterised by lack of peer reviewed publication and heterogeneity in design, reporting and analysis. For use of real world data in the reimbursement setting, data collection and reporting will need to improve.

  20. Spatial augmented reality merging real and virtual worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Bimber, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real

  1. GetReal in mathematical modelling : a review of studies predicting drug effectiveness in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayidou, Klea; Gsteiger, Sandro; Egger, Matthias; Kilcher, Gablu; Carreras, Máximo; Efthimiou, Orestis; Debray, Thomas P A; Trelle, Sven; Hummel, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a drug in a clinical trial setting often does not reflect its effect in daily clinical practice. In this third of three reviews, we examine the applications that have been used in the literature to predict real-world effectiveness from randomized controlled trial efficacy data. We

  2. Learning Local Binary Patterns for Gender Classification on Real-World Face Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gender recognition is one of fundamental face analysis tasks. Most of the existing studies have focused on face images acquired under controlled conditions. However, real-world applications require gender classification on real-life faces, which is much more challenging due to significant appearance

  3. Theory and Practice: How Filming "Learning in the Real World" Helps Students Make the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commander, Nannette Evans; Ward, Teresa E.; Zabrucky, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an assignment, titled "Learning in the Real World," designed for graduate students in a learning theory course. Students work in small groups to create high quality audio-visual films that present "real learning" through interviews and/or observations of learners. Students select topics relevant to theories we are discussing…

  4. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  5. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  6. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  7. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  8. Argus developer in practice real estate development modeling in the real world

    CERN Document Server

    Havard, Tim M

    2014-01-01

    First ""missing manual"" for Argus Developer--case studies show readers how to analyze a development, something Argus manuals don't do. Argus Developer is by far the leading program for real estate developers worldwide The book is an education in real estate finance as well as the program Author teaches seminars and consults with people using the program--back of room sales likely Author has three other books on real estate development Possibility that Argus gets behind the project The book will contain dozens of screenshots

  9. A turbidity current model for real world applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; Morales, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    Traditional turbidity current models suffer from several drawbacks. Among them not preserving freshwater mass, a missing pressure term, or not including terms related to deposition, erosion and entrainment in the momentum equation. In Morales et al.(2009) a new turbidity current model was proposed trying to overcome all these drawbacks. This model takes into account the interaction between the turbidity current and the bottom, considering deposition and erosion effects as well as solid bedload transport of particles at the bed due to the current. Moreover, this model includes the effects of the deposition, erosion and water entrainment into the momentum equation,commonly neglected in this type of models and, finally, in the absence of water entrainment, freshwater mass in the turbidity current is preserved. Despite these improvements, the numerical results obtained by this model when applied to real river systems were not satisfactory due to the simple form of the friction term that was considered. In the present work we propose a different parameterization of this term, where bottom and interface fluid frictions are separately parameterized with more complex expressions. Moreover, the discretization of the deposition/erosion terms is now performed semi-implicitly which guarantees the positivity of the volumetric concentration of sediments in suspension and in the erodible sediment layer at the bed. The numerical simulations obtained with this new turbidity current model (component of HySEA numerical computing platform) greatly improve previous numerical results for simplified geometries as well as for real river systems. Acknowledgements: This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069) and the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012-38383-C02-01) and Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Excelencia Andalucía TECH. References: T. Morales, M. Castro, C. Parés, and E. Fernández-Nieto (2009). On

  10. Map Matching and Real World Integrated Sensor Data Warehousing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, E.

    2014-02-01

    The inclusion of interlinked temporal and spatial elements within integrated sensor data enables a tremendous degree of flexibility when analyzing multi-component datasets. The presentation illustrates how to warehouse, process, and analyze high-resolution integrated sensor datasets to support complex system analysis at the entity and system levels. The example cases presented utilizes in-vehicle sensor system data to assess vehicle performance, while integrating a map matching algorithm to link vehicle data to roads to demonstrate the enhanced analysis possible via interlinking data elements. Furthermore, in addition to the flexibility provided, the examples presented illustrate concepts of maintaining proprietary operational information (Fleet DNA) and privacy of study participants (Transportation Secure Data Center) while producing widely distributed data products. Should real-time operational data be logged at high resolution across multiple infrastructure types, map matched to their associated infrastructure, and distributed employing a similar approach; dependencies between urban environment infrastructures components could be better understood. This understanding is especially crucial for the cities of the future where transportation will rely more on grid infrastructure to support its energy demands.

  11. Generating Scaled Replicas of Real-World Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Staudt, Christian L; Safro, Ilya; Gutfraind, Alexander; Meyerhenke, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Research on generative models plays a central role in the emerging field of network science, studying how statistical patterns found in real networks can be generated by formal rules. During the last two decades, a variety of models has been proposed with an ultimate goal of achieving comprehensive realism for the generated networks. In this study, we (a) introduce a new generator, termed ReCoN; (b) explore how models can be fitted to an original network to produce a structurally similar replica, and (c) aim for producing much larger networks than the original exemplar. In a comparative experimental study, we find ReCoN often superior to many other state-of-the-art network generation methods. Our design yields a scalable and effective tool for replicating a given network while preserving important properties at both micro- and macroscopic scales and (optionally) scaling the replica by orders of magnitude in size. We recommend ReCoN as a general practical method for creating realistic test data for the enginee...

  12. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Aaron S; Fox, Andrew S; Wing, Erik K; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M; Vack, Nathan J; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-07-22

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Significance statement: How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion.

  13. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  14. A Simple Take on Typed Abstract Syntax in Haskell-like Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple way to program typed abstract syntax in a language following a Hindley-Milner typing discipline, such as Haskell and ML, and we apply it to automate two proofs about normalization functions as embodied in type-directed partial evaluation for the simply typed lambda calculus...

  15. A Simple Take on Typed Abstract Syntax in Haskell-Like Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple way to program typed abstract syntax in a language following a Hindley-Milner typing discipline, such as Haskell and ML, and we apply it to automate two proofs about normalization functions as embodied in type-directed partial evaluation for the simply typed lambda calculus...

  16. 3D Interactions between Virtual Worlds and Real Life in an E-Learning Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lucke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual worlds became an appealing and fascinating component of today's internet. In particular, the number of educational providers that see a potential for E-Learning in such new platforms increases. Unfortunately, most of the environments and processes implemented up to now do not exceed a virtual modelling of real-world scenarios. In particular, this paper shows that Second Life can be more than just another learning platform. A flexible and bidirectional link between the reality and the virtual world enables synchronous and seamless interaction between users and devices across both worlds. The primary advantages of this interconnection are a spatial extension of face-to-face and online learning scenarios and a closer relationship between virtual learners and the real world.

  17. Assessing the Value of Real-life Brands in Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Barnes, Stuart; Hartley, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Worlds are a significant new market environment for brand-building through experiential customer service interactions. Using value theory, this paper aims to assess the experiential brand value of real-life brands that have moved to the Virtual World of Second Life. A key premise...... is that current brand offerings in Virtual Worlds do not offer consumers adequate experiential value. The results demonstrate both the validity of an axiological approach to examining brand value, and highlight significant problems in consumer perceptions of the experiential value of brands within the Virtual...... World. A key finding is the difficulty in creating emotional brand value in Second Life which has serious implications for the sustainability of current real-life brands in Virtual Worlds. The paper rounds off with conclusions and implications for future research and practice in this very new area....

  18. Haemophilia in a real-world setting: the value of clinical experience in data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Gerry; Iorio, Alfonso; Jokela, Vuokko; Juusola, Kristian; Lassila, Riitta

    2016-02-01

    At the 8th Annual Congress of the European Association for Haemophilia and Allied Disorders (EAHAD) held in Helsinki, Finland, in February 2015, Pfizer sponsored a satellite symposium entitled: 'Haemophilia in a real-world setting: The value of clinical experience in data collection' Co-chaired by Riitta Lassila (Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland) and Gerry Dolan (Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK); the symposium provided an opportunity to explore the practical value of real-world data in informing clinical decision-making. Gerry Dolan provided an introduction to the symposium by describing what is meant by real-world data (RWD), stressing the role RWD can play in optimising patient outcomes in haemophilia and highlighting the responsibility of all stakeholders to collaborate in continuous data collection. Kristian Juusola (Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland) then provided personal experience as a haemophilia nurse around patient views on adherence to treatment regimes, and how collecting insights into real-world use of treatment can shape approaches to improving adherence. The importance of elucidating pharmacokinetic parameters in a real-world setting was then explored by Vuokko Jokela (Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland). Finally, Alfonso Iorio (McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) highlighted the importance of quality data collection in translating clinical reality into scientific advances.

  19. 5th International Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wen; Ferrari, Federico; Zimmerling, Marco; Mottola, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This edited book presents the results of the 5th Workshop on Real-world Wireless Sensor Networks (REALWSN). The purpose of this workshop  was to bring together researchers and practitioners working in the area of sensor networks, with focus on real-world experiments or deployments of wireless sensor networks. Included were, nonetheless, emerging forms of sensing such as those that leverage smart phones, Internet of Things, RFIDs, and robots. Indeed, when working with real-world experiments or deployments, many new or unforeseen issues may arise: the network environment may be composed of a variety of different technologies, leading to very heterogeneous network structures; software development for large scale networks poses new types of problems; the performance of prototype networks may differ significantly from the deployed system; whereas actual sensor network deployments may need a complex combination of autonomous and manual configuration. Furthermore, results obtained through simulation are typically n...

  20. [Atrial fibrillation and adherence to guidelines in the real world: myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiltz, A; Zimmermann, M

    2009-03-04

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia with a prevalence increasing with the aging of the population. AF has become a public health problem in general clinical practice. Despite the conclusive evidence of numerous randomized trials and publication of unified guidelines, their application in the real-world is often sub-optimal, in particular concerning the anticoagulation prescription. Most of these reports have focused on hospitalized patients or were performed by generalists, whereas in the real-world AF is managed in an out-of-hospital setting with growing implication of cardiologists. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate that a strict adherence to international guidelines can be obtained in the real-world of AF management. However, some improvements are needed to get an optimal use of anticoagulation.

  1. Universal underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both spaces. The model is validated using big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the universal underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  2. Unified underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Zeng, An; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both cases. The model is validated using relatively big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the unified underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  3. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C Snow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects versus their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent. We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects versus color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition.

  4. Rivaroxaban real-world evidence: Validating safety and effectiveness in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Camm, A John; Coleman, Craig I; Tamayo, Sally

    2016-09-28

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard of clinical research as they use rigorous methodologies, detailed protocols, pre-specified statistical analyses and well-defined patient cohorts. However, RCTs do not take into account the complexity of real-world clinical decision-making. To tackle this, real-world data are being increasingly used to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of a given therapy in routine clinical practice and in patients who may not be represented in RCTs, addressing key clinical questions that may remain. Real-world evidence plays a substantial role in supporting the use of non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in clinical practice. By providing data on patient profiles and the use of anticoagulation therapies in routine clinical practice, real-world evidence expands the current awareness of NOACs, helping to ensure that clinicians are well-informed on their use to implement patient-tailored clinical decisions. There are various issues with current anticoagulation strategies, including under- or overtreatment and frequent monitoring with VKAs. Real-world studies have demonstrated that NOAC use is increasing (Dresden NOAC registry and Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-AF [GARFIELD-AF]), as well as reaffirming the safety and effectiveness of rivaroxaban previously observed in RCTs (XArelto on preveNtion of sTroke and non-central nervoUS system systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation [XANTUS] and IMS Disease Analyzer). This article will describe the latest updates in real-world evidence across a variety of methodologies, such as non-interventional studies (NIS), registries and database analyses studies. It is anticipated that these studies will provide valuable clinical insights into the management of thromboembolism, and enhance the current knowledge on anticoagulant use and outcomes for patients.

  5. Vision-Based Reaching Using Modular Deep Networks: from Simulation to the Real World

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fangyi; Leitner, Jürgen; Upcroft, Ben; Corke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a deep network architecture that maps visual input to control actions for a robotic planar reaching task with 100% reliability in real-world trials. Our network is trained in simulation and fine-tuned with a limited number of real-world images. The policy search is guided by a kinematics-based controller (K-GPS), which works more effectively and efficiently than $\\varepsilon$-Greedy. A critical insight in our system is the need to introduce a bottleneck in the networ...

  6. Neural basis of thinking: laboratory problems versus real-world problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive psychologists have long argued about the reality and significance of the distinction between well-structured and ill-structured problems. Laboratory problems are usually well-structured, whereas real-world problems have both well-structured and ill-structured components. This article shows how the neuropsychological data reinforce this distinction and suggests how this distinction may help to explain a puzzle about discontinuous performance of some neurological patients in laboratory and real-world problem situations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. EXAMINING THE MOVEMENTS OF MOBILE NODES IN THE REAL WORLD TO PRODUCE ACCURATE MOBILITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANWEER ALAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All communication occurs through a wireless median in an ad hoc network. Ad hoc networks are dynamically created and maintained by the individual nodes comprising the network. Random Waypoint Mobility Model is a model that includes pause times between changes in destination and speed. To produce a real-world environment within which an ad hoc network can be formed among a set of nodes, there is a need for the development of realistic, generic and comprehensive mobility models. In this paper, we examine the movements of entities in the real world and present the production of mobility model in an ad hoc network.

  8. Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Nieuwenhof, R. van den; Kupper, F.; Willems, F.; Kooijman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low

  9. Researching Real-World Web Use with Roxy: Collecting Observational Web Data with Informed Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Menchen-Trevino (Ericka); C. Karr (Chris)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOutside of a laboratory environment, it has been difficult for researchers to collect both behavioral and self-reported Web use data from the same participants. To address this challenge, we created Roxy, which is software that collects real-world Web-use data with participants' informed

  10. Building Real World Domain-Specific Social Network Websites as a Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kwok-Bun; De Silva, Dilhar; Kim, Dan; Aktepe, Mirac; Nagle, Stewart; Boerger, Chris; Jain, Anubha; Verma, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of using Content Management Software (CMS), specifically Joomla, to build a real world domain-specific social network site (SNS) as a capstone project for graduate information systems and computer science students. As Web 2.0 technologies become increasingly important in driving business application development,…

  11. Blended Learning: Beyond Initial Uses to Helping to Solve Real-World Academic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning strategies can be employed in innovative ways to solve real-world academic problems across all academic disciplines. This article can provide administrators and faculty with specific examples to guide them when making decisions about academic planning or institutional strategies for any discipline at all levels of higher…

  12. The Jasper Experiment: Using Video to Furnish Real-World Problem-Solving Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arithmetic Teacher, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a series of four problem-solving videodisc adventure stories designed for research purposes that provide students with open-ended problems based on real-world situations. Presents design principles, research results, the teacher's role, and technology issues related to the utilization of the series.…

  13. An Information Extraction Core System for Real World German Text Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, G; Baur, J; Becker, M; Braun, C

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes SMES, an information extraction core system for real world German text processing. The basic design criterion of the system is of providing a set of basic powerful, robust, and efficient natural language components and generic linguistic knowledge sources which can easily be customized for processing different tasks in a flexible manner.

  14. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  15. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  16. Assessing the real-world performance of modern pollutant abatement systems on motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

    The present statutory pollutant emission limits Euro-3 for motorcycles imply the use of modern emission abatement systems such as three-way catalytic converters. Determining the quality of implementation of these new systems in different driving situations such as real-world driving is important, since motorcycles are commonly used for personal transportation in urban areas. For this reason, a test bench series was carried out with a sample of 10 motorcycles of state-of-the-art certification category Euro-3. Emission factors of regulated pollutants and CO 2 are presented on the basis of the statutory driving cycle, the latest version of the real-world Worldwide Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) and the real-world Common Artemis Driving Cycle (CADC). The results of the statutory driving cycle show that 7 out of 10 motorcycles fail to comply with the present emission limits. The results of both real-world driving cycles confirm notable emissions of HC in urban and NO x in motorway driving conditions. CO emissions of motorcycles with small displacement increase significantly in the urban and extra-urban sections of the CADC, which has a more dynamic velocity profile than the equivalent WMTC. Although pollutant emissions of motorcycles show a marked improvement compared with earlier certification classes, they clearly exceed the emission levels of modern light gasoline passenger cars, especially for CO and HC.

  17. Teaching Molecular Phylogenetics through Investigating a Real-World Phylogenetic Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    A phylogenetics exercise is incorporated into the "Introduction to biocomputing" course, a junior-level course at Savannah State University. This exercise is designed to help students learn important concepts and practical skills in molecular phylogenetics through solving a real-world problem. In this application, students are required to identify…

  18. Real world thirty-day mortality in female patients with acute myocardial infarction from Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the gender differences on the short-term outcomes of patients with acute myocardial in-farction in the real world.Methods A total of 471 consecutive patients[male 368 (78.1%) and female103 (21.9%) ]with acute myocardial infarction<72 hours in cardiac care unit were included.The clinical data,

  19. A Resource for Using Real-World Examples in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Janelle; Rieger, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Physics Teaching for the 21st Century (://c21.phas.ubc.ca) is a free online resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real-world contexts. The materials on this site were developed by a team of physics faculty and graduate and undergraduate students at the Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British…

  20. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  1. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  2. Performance Evaluation of Super-Resolution Reconstruction Methods on Real-World Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Schutte, K.; Oudegeest, O.R.; Vliet, L.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a super-resolution (SR) reconstruction method on real-world data is not easy to measure, especially as a ground-truth (GT) is often not available. In this paper, a quantitative performance measure is used, based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD). The TOD measure, simula

  3. Detailed investigations and real-world emission performance of Euro 6 diesel passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    A study conducted on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment reveals that NOx emissions of a number of tested Euro 6 diesel passenger vehicles are significantly higher under real-world conditions than would be expected on the basis of the Euro 6 standard. The Euro 6 standa

  4. MIPLIB Truckload PDPTW Instances Derived from a Real-World Drayage Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srour, F.J.; Máhr, T.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Zuidwijk, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes five sets of 33 Mixed Integer Problem instances each, for a total of 165 instances, derived from a real-world full-truckload pick-up and delivery problem with time windows at the Port of Rotterdam. These instances represent 33 individual days of data encompassing 65 jobs and 40

  5. Working with Missing Data in Higher Education Research: A Primer and Real-World Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Bradley E.; McIntosh, Kadian; Reason, Robert D.; Terenzini, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all quantitative analyses in higher education draw from incomplete datasets-a common problem with no universal solution. In the first part of this paper, we explain why missing data matter and outline the advantages and disadvantages of six common methods for handling missing data. Next, we analyze real-world data from 5,905 students across…

  6. Real-World Experimentation Comparing Time-Sharing and Batch Processing in Teaching Computer Science,

    Science.gov (United States)

    effectiveness of time-sharing and batch processing in teaching computer science . The experimental design was centered on direct, ’real world’ comparison...ALGOL). The experimental sample involved all introductory computer science courses with a total population of 415 cadets. The results generally

  7. Learning in the "Real" World: Encounters with Radical Architectures (1960s-1970s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s architectural education saw to the emergence of radical attempts to reconnect pedagogy with "the real world" and to forge greater social responsibility in architecture. From this epoch of important political, social, and environmental action, this article discusses three "encounters" between…

  8. Researching Real-World Web Use with Roxy: Collecting Observational Web Data with Informed Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Menchen-Trevino (Ericka); C. Karr (Chris)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOutside of a laboratory environment, it has been difficult for researchers to collect both behavioral and self-reported Web use data from the same participants. To address this challenge, we created Roxy, which is software that collects real-world Web-use data with participants' informed

  9. Comparing presence, workload and situational awareness in a collaborative real world and augmented reality scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datcu, D.; Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares presence, workload and situational awareness in a real world and augmented reality scenario when collaboratively solving a complex problem. A game of jointly building a tower of colored blocks is used as an approximation of a shared task. Individual expertise is modeled as the po

  10. Real world experience with antiphospholipid antibody tests : how stable are results over time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkan, D; Derksen, WJM; Kaplan, [No Value; Sammaritano, L; Pierangeli, SS; Roubey, R; Lockshin, MD

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the stability and the degree of variation of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) results over time in a large cohort of well evaluated aPL positive patients; and to analyse factors contributing to aPL variation and the validity of aPL in a real world setting in which aPL tests ar

  11. Data Literacy: Real-World Learning through Problem-Solving with Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of deep learning by secondary students requires teaching approaches that draw students into task commitment, integrated curricula, and analytical thinking. By using real-world data sets in project based instructional units, teachers can guide students in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting quantitative data. Working with…

  12. MIMU-Wear: ontology-based sensor selection for real-world wearable activity recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalonga, Claudia; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio; Banos Legran, Oresti

    2017-01-01

    An enormous effort has been made during the recent years towards the recognition of human activity based on wearable sensors. Despite the wide variety of proposed systems, most existing solutions have in common to solely operate on predefined settings and constrained sensor setups. Real-world

  13. Stochastic Real-World Drive Cycle Generation Based on a Two Stage Markov Chain Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balau, A.E.; Kooijman, D.; Vazquez Rodarte, I.; Ligterink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as in

  14. Building Real World Domain-Specific Social Network Websites as a Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kwok-Bun; De Silva, Dilhar; Kim, Dan; Aktepe, Mirac; Nagle, Stewart; Boerger, Chris; Jain, Anubha; Verma, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of using Content Management Software (CMS), specifically Joomla, to build a real world domain-specific social network site (SNS) as a capstone project for graduate information systems and computer science students. As Web 2.0 technologies become increasingly important in driving business application development,…

  15. Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Zare, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ion chromatography (IC) as a means to teach important analytical concepts while giving the students a valuable opportunity to identify and investigate a real-world system of interest to them is described. A single IC apparatus can be tailored for different classes of analyses by the selection of different column-eluent combinations.

  16. Educating Students in Real-World Sustainability Research: Vision and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, Katja; Wiek, Arnim

    2011-01-01

    Readers are invited to imagine students helping to solve real-world sustainability problems brought to them by societal stakeholders and simultaneously learning about and contributing to sustainable changes in society. Effective sustainability research education engages students in just that. Higher education institutions are implementing this…

  17. The STAR*D study: treating depression in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynes, Bradley N; Rush, A John; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Spencer, Donald; Fava, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study evaluated feasible treatment strategies to improve clinical outcomes for real-world patients with treatment-resistant depression. Although the study found no clear-cut "winner", it does provide guidance on how to start therapy and how to proceed if initial treatment fails.

  18. Managing in the Virtual World: How Second Life is Rewriting the Rules of "Real Life" Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyld, David C.

    In this paper, we will explore the growth of virtual worlds - one of the most exciting and fast-growing concepts in the Web 2.0 era. We will see that while there has been significant growth across all demographic groups, online gaming in MMOGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Games) are finding particular appeal in today's youth - the so-called "digital native" generation. We then overview the today's virtual world marketplace, both in the youth and adult-oriented markets. Second Life is emerging as the most important virtual world today, due to the intense interest amongst both large organizations and individual entrepreneurs to conduct real business in the virtual environment. Due to its prominence today and its forecasted growth over the next decade, we take a look at the unscripted world of Second Life, examining the corporate presence in-world, as well as the economic, technical, legal, ethical and security issues involved for companies doing business in the virtual world. In conclusion, we present an analysis of where we stand in terms of virtual world development today and a projection of where we will be heading in the near future. Finally, we present advice to management practitioners and academicians on how to learn about virtual worlds and explore the world of opportunities in them.

  19. Auditory cortical processing in real-world listening: the auditory system going real.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Israel; Bizley, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab A; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-11-12

    The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of us lucky enough to have hearing. Whereas the early representations of sounds in the auditory system are based on their physical structure, higher auditory centers are thought to represent sounds in terms of their perceptual attributes. In this symposium, we will illustrate the current research into this process, using four case studies. We will illustrate how the spectral and temporal properties of sounds are used to bind together, segregate, categorize, and interpret sound patterns on their way to acquire meaning, with important lessons to other sensory systems as well.

  20. Spanning trees of the World Trade Web: real-world data and the gravity model of trade

    CERN Document Server

    Skowron, Patryk; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the statistical features of the weighted international-trade network. By finding the maximum weight spanning trees for this network we make the extraction of the truly relevant connections forming the network's backbone. We discuss the role of large-sized countries (strongest economies) in the tree. Finally, we compare the topological properties of this backbone to the maximum weight spanning trees obtained from the gravity model of trade. We show that the model correctly reproduces the backbone of the real-world economy.

  1. Modelling and Scheduling Autonomous Mobile Robot for a Real-World Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bøgh, Simon;

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with a real-world implementation of autonomous industrial mobile robot performing an industrial application at a factory of a pump manufacturer. In the implementation, the multi-criteria optimization problem of scheduling tasks of a mobile robot is also taken into account. The paper...... proposes an approach composing of: a mobile robot system design (“Little Helper”), an appropriate and comprehensive industrial application (multiple-part feeding tasks), an implementation concept for industrial environments (the bartender concept), and a real-time heuristics integrated into Mission...... Planning and Control software to schedule the mobile robot in the industrial application. Results from the real-world implementation show that “Little Helper” is capable of successfully serving four part feeders in three production cells within a given planning horizon using the best schedule generated...

  2. Hostility in the real world and online: the effect of internet addiction, depression, and online activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yi; Huang, Chun-Jen; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2011-11-01

    Hostility online has not been evaluated by an empirical investigation. This study aims to evaluate (a) the difference between hostility in the real world and that online and (b) whether the difference is associated with Internet addiction, depression, or online activities. A total of 2,348 college students (1,124 males and 1,224 females) were recruited and completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale, and the questionnaire for online activity. Further, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Chinese version-short form was utilized to evaluate hostility in both real and virtual worlds. The results demonstrated that the levels of all four dimensions of hostility were lower when getting online than those in the real world. Subjects with Internet addiction had higher hostility both in the real world and online as do subjects with depression. Further, college students with Internet addiction had increased expressive hostility behavior and those with depression had decreased hostility cognition, hostility affection, and suppressive hostility behavior when getting online. Lastly, the buffering effect of the Internet on hostility was attenuated among subjects paying the most online time in chatting, and those using the Internet mainly for online gaming had higher expressive hostility behavior not only in the real world but also online. These results suggest that attention should be paid to interventions concerning aggressive behavior among subjects with Internet addiction or online gaming and chatting. On the other hand, depressed college students would be less hostile after entering the Internet. It is suggested that the Internet would be one possible interactive media to provide intervention for depression.

  3. Real world evidence: a form of big data, transforming healthcare data into actionable real time insights and informed business decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Barick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data has always played an important role in assisting business decisions and overall improvement of a company’s strategies. The introduction of what has come to be named ‘BIG data’ has changed the industry paradigm altogether for a few domains like media, mobility, retail and social. Data from the real world is also considered as BIG data based on its magnitude, sources and the industry’s capacity to handle the same. Although, the healthcare industry has been using real world data for decades, digitization of health records has demonstrated its value to all the stakeholders with a reaffirmation of interest in it. Over time, companies are looking to adopt new technologies in linking these fragmented data for meaningful and actionable insights to demonstrate their value over competition. It has also been noticed that the consequences of not demonstrating the value of data are sometimes leads regulators and payers to be severe. The real challenge though is not in identifying data sets but transforming these data sets into actionable real time insights and business decisions. Evidence and value development frameworks need to work side by side, harnessing meaningful insights in parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management. This should in-turn create evidence and value-based insights for multiple stakeholders across the industry; ultimately supporting the patient as the end user to take informed decisions that impact access to care. This article attempts to review the current state of affairs in the area of BIG data in pharma OR BIG DIP as it is increasingly being referred to.

  4. An Abstract Description Method of Map-Reduce-Merge Using Haskell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Map-Reduce-Merge is an improved parallel programming model based on Map-Reduce in cloud computing environment. Through the new Merge module, Map-Reduce-Merge can support processing multiple related heterogeneous datasets more efficiently. In order to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this new model, we present a rigorous description for Map-Reduce-Merge model using Haskell. Firstly, we describe the basic program skeleton of Map-Reduce-Merge programming model. Secondly, an abstract description for the Merge module is presented by analyzing the structure and function of the Merge module with Haskell as the description tool. Thirdly, we evaluate the Map-Reduce-Merge model on the basis of our description. We capture the functional characteristics of the Map-Reduce-Merge model by our abstract description, which can provide theoretical basis for designing more efficient parallel programming model to process join operation.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Super-Resolution Reconstruction Methods on Real-World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. van Vliet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a super-resolution (SR reconstruction method on real-world data is not easy to measure, especially as a ground-truth (GT is often not available. In this paper, a quantitative performance measure is used, based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD. The TOD measure, simulating a real-observer task, is capable of determining the performance of a specific SR reconstruction method under varying conditions of the input data. It is shown that the performance of an SR reconstruction method on real-world data can be predicted accurately by measuring its performance on simulated data. This prediction of the performance on real-world data enables the optimization of the complete chain of a vision system; from camera setup and SR reconstruction up to image detection/recognition/identification. Furthermore, different SR reconstruction methods are compared to show that the TOD method is a useful tool to select a specific SR reconstruction method according to the imaging conditions (camera's fill-factor, optical point-spread-function (PSF, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR.

  6. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making).

  7. The patient registry: a high-impact tool for real world evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BarickUttam, MohantyRituraj, GowdaArun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this world of seemingly infinite data across domains, one strives to acquire better tools and methodologies to fully exploit available data. This process begins with meticulous planning to gather relevant information and continues until there is an output in the form of credible evidence. The ability to generate real-world evidence would take such a process to new level: the factors that influence these processes under real-world conditions are varied, unpredictable, and unregulated. Results obtained in highly regulated or controlled conditions are universally accepted and sought after for regulatory approvals, but performance indicators in the real world will set the tone for the future. Hence, the demands for very reliant and robust tools and mechanisms for gathering evidence are all the more prominent and necessary. Patient registries fill this gap and stand tall among the various tools that could deliver the desired end results with acceptable accuracy. Over the years, pharmaceutical companies, along with policymakers and other stakeholders, have been actively involved in the development of such registries. Aims: Here we provide an overview of the usefulness of registries for the various stakeholders in healthcare in terms of conduct, approach, and barriers to initiating such studies. Conclusion: One of the impediments for the wider appeal and utility of registries is low awareness among the public and policymakers. Incorporating them as a part of the standard global healthcare system would involve setting up a regulatory framework.

  8. GetReal in mathematical modelling: a review of studies predicting drug effectiveness in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayidou, Klea; Gsteiger, Sandro; Egger, Matthias; Kilcher, Gablu; Carreras, Máximo; Efthimiou, Orestis; Debray, Thomas P A; Trelle, Sven; Hummel, Noemi

    2016-09-01

    The performance of a drug in a clinical trial setting often does not reflect its effect in daily clinical practice. In this third of three reviews, we examine the applications that have been used in the literature to predict real-world effectiveness from randomized controlled trial efficacy data. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE from inception to March 2014, the Cochrane Methodology Register, and websites of key journals and organisations and reference lists. We extracted data on the type of model and predictions, data sources, validation and sensitivity analyses, disease area and software. We identified 12 articles in which four approaches were used: multi-state models, discrete event simulation models, physiology-based models and survival and generalized linear models. Studies predicted outcomes over longer time periods in different patient populations, including patients with lower levels of adherence or persistence to treatment or examined doses not tested in trials. Eight studies included individual patient data. Seven examined cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and three neurological conditions. Most studies included sensitivity analyses, but external validation was performed in only three studies. We conclude that mathematical modelling to predict real-world effectiveness of drug interventions is not widely used at present and not well validated. © 2016 The Authors Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. New Teaching Environments Near Real-World-Like Laboratories for Power Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The Technical University of Denmark offers educations within power engineering at all levels: bachelor, master and PhD. Relevant bachelor programs use the CDIO educational framework, which allows the students to learn engineering fundaments in a context of conceiving, designing, implementing......, and operating real-world systems. The tool to be presented here is mainly establishment of teaching facilities at the Technical University of Denmark adjacent to the research facilities and where nearness to the ‘real world’ is essential and implemented by clearly visible research activities and by close...

  10. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  11. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  12. Real World NET, C#, and Silverlight Indispensible Experiences from 15 MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Evjen, Bill; Balassy, Gyorgy; Gleeren, Gill; Giard, David; Golesh, Alex; Grossnicklaus, Kevin; Jenkins, Caleb; Juday, Jeffrey; Lele, Vishwas; Likness, Jeremy; Millett, Scott; Nagel, Christian; Yöndem , Daron; Weyer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A team of MVP authors guides you through the .NET 4 Framework Written by a group of experienced MVPs, this unparalleled book delves into the intricate-and often daunting-world of .NET 4. Each author draws from a particular area of expertise to provide invaluable information on using the various .NET 4, C# 4, Silverlight 4, and Visual Studio tools in the real world. The authors break down the vast .NET 4 Framework into easily digestible portions to offer you a strong foundation on what makes .NET such a popular and successful framework for building a wide range of solutions.Breaks down the .NET

  13. [Exploration and demonstration study on drug combination from clinical real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yong-yan

    2014-09-01

    Drug combination is extensive in the clinical real world,which is an important part and the inherent requirements of the post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The key issues and technology include multi-domain and multi-disciplinary such as the rationality, efficacy and safety evaluation of combination drug starting from clinical real world, study on component in vivo and mechanism of combination drug, the risk/benefit assessment and cost-benefit evaluation of combination drug and so on. The topic has been studied as clinical demonstration on combination therapy of variety of diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, insomnia, depression, hepatitis, herpes zoster, psoriasis and ectopic pregnancy. Meanwhile, multi-disciplinary dynamic innovation alliance of clinical drug combination has been presented, which can promote the academic development and improving service ability and level of TCM.

  14. Guidance of Visual Attention by Semantic Information in Real-World Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien eWu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on attentional guidance in real-world scenes has focused on object recognition within the context of a scene. This approach has been valuable for determining some factors that drive the allocation of visual attention and determine visual selection. This article provides a review of experimental work on how different components of context, especially semantic information, affect attentional deployment. We review work from the areas of object recognition, scene perception, and visual search, highlighting recent studies examining semantic structure in real-world scenes. A better understanding on how humans parse scene representations will not only improve current models of visual attention but also advance next-generation computer vision systems and human-computer interfaces.

  15. Continuous real-world gait monitoring in community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Smith, Erin; Inomata, Akihiro; Bond, Rodd

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the collection of real-world gait data in a cohort of 7 community living older adults, who have fallen at least once in the previous year, while they live in a smart apartment for four days. It describes the approach used to collect various gait metrics, from inertial sensors placed on the lower shanks, where gait bouts can be contextualised by smart home data. Results from this study are presented with a brief discussion into the smart-home based contextualisation of outliers in the gait data. Future work will investigate the normative ranges of various gait metrics, and how such real-world gait data may be integrated into clinical practice.

  16. Successful life outcome and management of real-world memory demands despite profound anterograde amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Melissa C; Wszalek, Tracey; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2008-11-01

    We describe the case of Angie, a 50-year-old woman with profound amnesia (General Memory Index = 49, Full Scale IQ = 126) following a closed head injury in 1985. This case is unique in comparison to other cases reported in the literature in that, despite the severity of her amnesia, she has developed remarkable real-world life abilities, shows impressive self-awareness and insight into the impairment and sparing of various functional memory abilities, and exhibits ongoing maturation of her identity and sense of self following amnesia. The case provides insights into the interaction of different memory and cognitive systems in handling real-world memory demands and has implications for rehabilitation and for successful life outcome after amnesia.

  17. Know thyself: real-world behavioral correlates of self-appraisal accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Casey E; Rosen, Howard J; Taylor, H Gerry; Espy, Kimberly A; Schatz, Jeffrey; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Kramer, Joel H

    2011-07-01

    Accurate appraisal of one's own abilities is one metacognitive skill considered to be an important factor affecting learning and behavior in childhood. The present study measured self-appraisal accuracy in children using tasks of executive function, and investigated relations between self-appraisal and informant ratings of real-world behaviors measured by the BRIEF. We examined self-appraisal accuracy on fluency tasks in 91 children ages 10-17. More accurate self-appraisal was correlated with fewer informant ratings of real-world behavior problems in inhibition and shifting, independent of actual performance. Findings suggest that self-appraisal represents cognitive processes that are at least partially independent of other functions putatively dependent on the frontal lobes, and these self-appraisal-specific processes have unique implications for optimal daily function.

  18. Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-World Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, Maik; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    Embryogenic evolution emulates in silico cell-like entities to get more powerful methods for complex evolutionary tasks. As simulations have to abstract from the biological model, implicit information hidden in its physics is lost. Here, we propose to use cell-like entities as a real-world in vitro testbed. In analogy to evolutionary robotics, where solutions evolved in simulations may be tested in real-world on macroscale, the proposed vesicular testbed would do the same for the embryogenic evolutionary tasks on mesoscale. As a first step towards a vesicular testbed emulating growth, cell division, and cell differentiation, we present a modified vesicle production method, providing custom-tailored chemical cargo, and present a novel self-assembly procedure to provide vesicle aggregates of programmable composition.

  19. Ubiquitousness of link-density and link-pattern communities in real-world networks

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro

    2011-01-01

    Community structure appears to be an intrinsic property of many complex real-world networks. However, recent work shows that real-world networks reveal even more sophisticated modules than classical cohesive (link-density) communities. In particular, networks can also be naturally partitioned according to similar patterns of connectedness between the nodes, revealing link-pattern communities. We here propose a balanced propagation based algorithm that can extract both link-density and link-pattern communities, without any prior knowledge of the true structure. The algorithm was first validated on different classes of synthetic benchmark networks with community structure, and also on random networks. We have then further applied the algorithm to different social, information, technological and biological networks, where it indeed reveals meaningful (composites of) link-density and link-pattern communities. The results thus seem to imply that, similarly as link-density counterparts, link-pattern communities app...

  20. A real world dissemination and implementation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; Szafranski, Derek D; Shead, Sarah D

    2017-03-01

    Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies is challenging in real world clinical settings. Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for affective disorders was developed with dissemination and implementation in clinical settings in mind. The present study investigated a voluntary local dissemination and implementation effort, involving 28 providers participating in a four-hour training on TBT. Providers completed immediate (n=22) and six-month follow-up (n=12) training assessments and were encouraged to collect data on their TBT patients (delivery fidelity was not investigated). Findings demonstrated that providers endorsed learning of and interest in using TBT after the training. At six-months, 50% of providers reported using TBT with their patients and their perceived effectiveness of TBT to be very good to excellent. Submitted patient outcome data evidenced medium to large effect sizes. Together, these findings provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of a real world dissemination and implementation of TBT.

  1. Acoustic Classification and Optimization for Multi-Modal Rendering of Real-World Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schissler, Carl; Loftin, Christian; Manocha, Dinesh

    2017-02-09

    We present a novel algorithm to generate virtual acoustic effects in captured 3D models of real-world scenes for multimodal augmented reality. We leverage recent advances in 3D scene reconstruction in order to automatically compute acoustic material properties. Our technique consists of a two-step procedure that first applies a convolutional neural network (CNN) to estimate the acoustic material properties, including frequency-dependent absorption coefficients, that are used for interactive sound propagation. In the second step, an iterative optimization algorithm is used to adjust the materials determined by the CNN until a virtual acoustic simulation converges to measured acoustic impulse responses. We have applied our algorithm to many reconstructed real-world indoor scenes and evaluated its fidelity for augmented reality applications.

  2. Node-weighted interacting network measures improve the representation of real-world complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedermann, Marc; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Network theory provides a rich toolbox consisting of methods, measures, and models for studying the structure and dynamics of complex systems found in nature, society, or technology. Recently, it has been pointed out that many real-world complex systems are more adequately mapped by networks of interacting or interdependent networks, e.g., a power grid showing interdependency with a communication network. Additionally, in many real-world situations it is reasonable to include node weights into complex network statistics to reflect the varying size or importance of subsystems that are represented by nodes in the network of interest. E.g., nodes can represent vastly different surface area in climate networks, volume in brain networks or economic capacity in trade networks. In this letter, combining both ideas, we derive a novel class of statistical measures for analysing the structure of networks of interacting networks with heterogeneous node weights. Using a prototypical spatial network model, we show that th...

  3. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill; Galbriath, Peter; Niss, Mogens

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental that "enable" year 10/11 students to successfully begin the modelling process, that is, formulate and mathematise a real world problem. The 3-year study will take a design research approach in working intensively with six schools across two educational jurisdictions. It is anticipated that this research will generate new theoretical and practical insights into the role of "enablers" within the process of mathematisation, leading to the development of principles for the design and implementation for tasks that support students' development as modellers.

  4. Scientific computation of big data in real-world clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozheng; Zuo, Xuewen; Liu, Baoyan

    2014-09-01

    The advent of the big data era creates both opportunities and challenges for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study describes the origin, concept, connotation, and value of studies regarding the scientific computation of TCM. It also discusses the integration of science, technology, and medicine under the guidance of the paradigm of real-world, clinical scientific research. TCM clinical diagnosis, treatment, and knowledge were traditionally limited to literature and sensation levels; however, primary methods are used to convert them into statistics, such as the methods of feature subset optimizing, multi-label learning, and complex networks based on complexity, intelligence, data, and computing sciences. Furthermore, these methods are applied in the modeling and analysis of the various complex relationships in individualized clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as in decision-making related to such diagnosis and treatment. Thus, these methods strongly support the real-world clinical research paradigm of TCM.

  5. From image pair to a computer generated hologram for a real-world scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sihao; Cao, Siyang; Zheng, Yuan F; Ewing, Robert L

    2016-09-20

    We propose an approach to produce computer generated holograms (CGHs) from image pairs of a real-world scene. The ratio of the three-dimensional (3D) physical size of the object is computed from the image pair to provide the correct depth cue. A multilayer wavefront recording plane method completed with a two-stage occlusion culling process is carried out for wave propagation. Multiple holograms can be generated by propagating the wave toward the desired angles, to cover the circular views that are wider than the viewing angle restricted by the wavelength and pitch size of a single hologram. The impact of the imperfect depth information extracted from the image pair on CGH is examined. The approach is evaluated extensively on image pairs of real-world 3D scenes, and the results demonstrate that the circular-view CGH can be produced from a pair of stereo images using the proposed approach.

  6. Ranibizumab for the treatment of wet AMD: a summary of real-world studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, V

    2016-02-01

    Data from real-world studies of ranibizumab in neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration suggest that outcomes in clinical practice fail to match those seen in clinical trials. These real-world studies follow treatment regimens that differ from the fixed dosing used in the pivotal clinical trial programme. To better understand the effectiveness of ranibizumab in clinical practice, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of 12-month outcomes reported in peer-reviewed 'real-world' publications. Key measures included in our analysis were mean change in visual acuity (VA) and the proportion of patients gaining ≥15 letters or losing ≤15 letters. Twenty studies were eligible for inclusion in our study, with 18 358 eyes having sufficient data for analysis of 12-month outcomes. Mean baseline VA ranged from 48.8 to 61.6 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters. Mean change in VA was between -2.0 and +5.5 letters, with a grand mean of +2.9±3.2, and a weighted mean (adjusted for the number of eyes in the study) of +1.95. Eleven studies reported that 19±7.5 (mean value) of patients gained ≥15 letters, while in 12 studies the mean percentage of patient losing ≤15 letters was 89±6.5%. Our comprehensive analysis of real-world ranibizumab study data confirm that patient outcomes are considerably poorer than those reported in randomised control trials of both fixed and pro re nata regimens.

  7. Real-World Validation of Three Tipover Algorithms for Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Real-World Validation of Three Tipover Algorithms for Mobile Robots Philip R. Roan, Aaron Burmeister, Amin Rahimi, Kevin Holz, and David Hooper...Additionally, tipover can result in bending or breaking parts of the robot, requiring expensive repairs. Mobile robots are given critical tasks and sent...vehicle is remotely or autonomously operated, as is often the case with small mobile robots . These robots are likely to tipover because they encounter

  8. The Development of High-Order Methods for Real World Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    visualization environment. • For fast linear algebra , we decided to use the high-speed Armadillo C++ library.[87] Armadillo interfaces platform-specific LAPACK... linear algebra library for fast prototyping and computationally intensive experiments. [88] SB, P., 2013. Turbulent Flows. Cambridge Univ. Press...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0403 The Development of High-Order Methods for Real World Applications Zhi Wang UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS CENTER FOR RESEARCH INC

  9. Cognitive Processes in Craving: From the Laboratory to the Real World.

    OpenAIRE

    Skorka-Brown, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory posits that craving involves mental imagery in the same sensory modalities as the craved substance or activity. Visual imagery predominates, therefore craving should selectively interfere with performance on visual task, and conversely visual tasks should interfere with craving. This thesis reports tests of this prediction, both in the laboratory and real-world settings, to provide a basis for designing practical tasks for interfering with cravings in a natura...

  10. Understanding real-world implementation quality and "active ingredients" of PBIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Lauren E; Moore, Julia E; Trail, Jessica; Van Epps, John James; Hopfer, Suellen

    2013-12-01

    Programs delivered in the "real world" often look substantially different from what was originally intended by program developers. Depending on which components of a program are being trimmed or altered, such modifications may seriously undermine the effectiveness of a program. In the present study, these issues are explored within a widely used school-based, non-curricular intervention, Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports. The present study takes advantage of a uniquely large dataset to gain a better understanding of the "real-world" implementation quality of PBIS and to take a first step toward identifying the components of PBIS that "matter most" for student outcomes. Data from 27,689 students and 166 public primary and secondary schools across seven states included school and student demographics, indices of PBIS implementation quality, and reports of problem behaviors for any student who received an office discipline referral during the 2007-2008 school year. Results of the present study identify three key components of PBIS that many schools are failing to implement properly, three program components that were most related to lower rates of problem behavior (i.e., three "active ingredients" of PBIS), and several school characteristics that help to account for differences across schools in the quality of PBIS implementation. Overall, findings highlight the importance of assessing implementation quality in "real-world" settings, and the need to continue improving understanding of how and why programs work. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy.

  11. Detection and classification of postural transitions in real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganea, Raluca; Paraschiv-lonescu, Anisoara; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-09-01

    This study proposes a new robust classifier for sit-to-stand (SiSt) and stand-to-sit (StSt) detection in daily activity. The monitoring system consists of a single inertial sensor placed on the trunk. By using dynamic time warping, the trunk acceleration patterns of SiSt and StSi are classified based on their similarity with specific templates. The classification algorithm is validated with actual data obtained in a real-world environment (five healthy subjects and five chronic pain patients); the best accuracy is obtained through using a custom template defined for each subject ( > 95% for healthy subjects and 89% for chronic pain). Real-world examinations are found to be preferable because after validating results collected in both real-world and laboratory conditions, the controlled conditions' predictions are too optimistic. Finally, the potential of the new method in clinical evaluation is studied in both healthy and frail elderly subjects. Frail elderly participants show a significantly lower rate of postural transitions, longer SiSt duration, and lower SiSt trunk tilt and acceleration compared to healthy elderly subjects. We conclude that the proposed wearable system provides a simple method to detect and characterize postural transitions in healthy, chronic pain, and frail elderly subjects.

  12. Real-world data in the United Kingdom: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Laura; Lambrelli, Dimitra; Wasiak, Radek; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2016-06-24

    Real-world data is that collected outside the constraints of controlled clinical trials and is increasingly informing decision-making in healthcare. The landscape of real-world data in the United Kingdom is set to evolve over the coming months as the government plans to build on databases currently in place by collecting patient data from all family practices and linking this information with hospital records. This initiative, called care.data, has the potential to be an invaluable resource. However, the programme has been criticized on grounds of data privacy, which has led to an extended delay in its implementation and the expectation that a large number of people will opt out. Opt-outs may introduce substantial biases to the dataset, and understanding how to account for these presents a significant challenge for researchers. For the scope and quality of real-world evidence in the United Kingdom to be realised, and for this information to be used effectively, it is essential to address this challenge.

  13. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  14. Virtual- and real-world operation of mobile robotic manipulators: integrated simulation, visualization, and control environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ChuXin; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    1992-03-01

    This research is focused on enhancing the overall productivity of an integrated human-robot system. A simulation, animation, visualization, and interactive control (SAVIC) environment has been developed for the design and operation of an integrated robotic manipulator system. This unique system possesses the abilities for multisensor simulation, kinematics and locomotion animation, dynamic motion and manipulation animation, transformation between real and virtual modes within the same graphics system, ease in exchanging software modules and hardware devices between real and virtual world operations, and interfacing with a real robotic system. This paper describes a working system and illustrates the concepts by presenting the simulation, animation, and control methodologies for a unique mobile robot with articulated tracks, a manipulator, and sensory modules.

  15. Influence of real-world environments on the motion of catalytic bubble-propelled micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Wang, Hong; Khezri, Bahareh; Webster, Richard D; Pumera, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Self-propelled autonomous micromachines have recently been tasked to carry out various roles in real environments. In this study, we expose the microjets to various types of water that are present in the real world, examples include tap water, rain water, lake water and sea water, and we sought to investigate their behaviors under real world conditions. We observed that the viability and mobility of the catalytic bubble jet engines are strongly influenced by the type of environmental water sample. Amongst the four water samples tested, the seawater sample exhibits the strongest influence, completely disabling any motions arising from the microjets. The motion of the microjets is also reduced in tap water, which contains large quantities of inorganic ions that have been purposely introduced into tap water via processing in water treatment plants. Lake water and rain water samples exhibited the least influence on the microjet's motion. All of the four water samples were also characterized by determining their ion compositions and conductivities, and we will show that there is a distinct correlation between the reduced mobility of the microjets with the ion content of the water found in real environments.

  16. A HYBRID METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT IN REAL WORLD NOISY ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Shrawankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that, speech recognition systems perform well when the system is used in conditions similar to the one used to train the acoustic models. However, mismatches degrade the performance. In adverse environment, it is very difficult to predict the category of noise in advance in case of real world environmental noise and difficult to achieve environmental robustness. After doing rigorous experimental study it is observed that, a unique method is not available that will clean the noisy speech as well as preserve the quality which have been corrupted by real natural environmental (mixed noise. It is also observed that only back-end techniques are not sufficient to improve the performance of a speech recognition system. It is necessary to implement performance improvement techniques at every step of back-end as well as front-end of the Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR model. Current recognition systems solve this problem using a technique called adaptation. This study presents an experimental study that aims two points, first is to implement the hybrid method that will take care of clarifying the speech signal as much as possible with all combinations of filters and enhancement techniques. The second point is to develop a method for training all categories of noise that can adapt the acoustic models for a new environment that will help to improve the performance of the speech recognizer under real world environmental mismatched conditions. This experiment confirms that hybrid adaptation methods improve the ASR performance on both levels, (Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNR improvement as well as word recognition accuracy in real world noisy environment.

  17. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT: REAL-WORLD EVIDENCE FOR PUBLIC HEALTHCARE SUSTAINABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Júnior, Augusto Afonso; Pires de Lemos, Lívia Lovato; Godman, Brian; Bennie, Marion; Osorio-de-Castro, Cláudia Garcia Serpa; Alvares, Juliana; Heaney, Aine; Vassallo, Carlos Alberto; Wettermark, Björn; Benguria-Arrate, Gaizka; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Santos, Vania Cristina Canuto; Petramale, Clarice Alegre; Acurcio, Fransciso de Assis

    2017-01-01

    Health technology financing is often based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are often the same ones used for licensing. Because they are designed to show the best possible results, typically Phase III studies are conducted under ideal and highly controlled conditions. Consequently, it is not surprising that technologies do not always perform in real life in the same way as controlled conditions. Because financing (and price paid) decisions can be made with overestimated results, health authorities need to ask whether health systems achieve the results they expect when they choose to pay for a technology. The optimal way to answer this question is to assess the performance of financed technologies in real-world settings. Health technology performance assessment (HTpA) refers to the systematic evaluation of the properties, effects, and/or impact of a health intervention or health technology in the real world to provide information for investment/disinvestment decisions and clinical guideline updates. The objective is to describe the development and principal aspects of the Guideline for HTpA commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Our methods used include extensive literature review, refinement with experts across countries, and public consultation. A comprehensive guideline was developed, which has been adopted by the Brazilian government. We believe the guideline, with its particular focus on disinvestment, along with the creation of a specific program for HTpA, will allow the institutionalization and continuous improvement of the scientific methods to use real-world evidence to optimize available resources not only in Brazil but across countries.

  18. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellamil, Melissa; Berson, Joshua; Wong, Jen; Buckley, Louis; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100–150 beats per minute). Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm) and of the music (song popularity). These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life. PMID:27764167

  19. Can virtual field trips be substituted for real-world field trips in an eighth grade geology curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel B.

    This study compares student learning from a real-world field trip with student learning from a virtual field trip. A field trip was designed to show students the way geologists believe the Grand Coulee in eastern Washington State was created. A real-world version and a virtual version (panoramic photographs) were constructed. Participants in the study were eighth grade Earth Science students. At the end of the study it was found that there was no significant difference on the final assessment between the scores of real-world field trip participants and the scores of virtual field trip participants.

  20. An accelerometry-based methodology for assessment of real-world bilateral upper extremity activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Bailey

    Full Text Available The use of both upper extremities (UE is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry.Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated.The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02, and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01 across tasks.These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments.

  1. When functional capacity and real-world functioning converge: the role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Veronica; Abel, Stephanie; Bowie, Christopher R; Tiznado, Denisse; Depp, Colin A; Patterson, Thomas L; Jeste, Dilip V; Mausbach, Brent T

    2013-07-01

    Although functional capacity is typically diminished, there is substantial heterogeneity in functional outcomes in schizophrenia. Motivational factors likely play a significant role in bridging the capacity-to-functioning gap. Self-efficacy theory suggests that although some individuals may have the capacity to perform functional behaviors, they may or may not have confidence they can successfully perform these behaviors in real-world settings. We hypothesized that the relationship between functional capacity and real-world functioning would be moderated by the individual's self-efficacy in a sample of 97 middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia (mean age = 50.9 ± 6.5 years). Functional capacity was measured using the Brief UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B), self-efficacy with the Revised Self-Efficacy Scale, and Daily Functioning via the Specific Level of Functioning (SLOF) scale and self-report measures. Results indicated that when self-efficacy was low, the relationship between UPSA-B and SLOF scores was not significant (P = .727). However, when self efficacy was high, UPSA-B scores were significantly related to SLOF scores (P = .020). Similar results were observed for self-reported social and work functioning. These results suggest that motivational processes (ie, self-efficacy) may aid in understanding why some individuals have the capacity to function well but do not translate this capacity into real-world functioning. Furthermore, while improvement in capacity may be necessary for improved functioning in this population, it may not be sufficient when motivation is absent.

  2. Real-world vehicle emission factors in Chinese metropolis city--Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-dong; HE Ke-bin; HUO Hong; James Lents

    2005-01-01

    The dynamometer tests with different driving cycles and the real-world tests are presented. Results indicated the pollutants emission factors and fuel consumption factor with ECE15 + EUDC driving cycle usually take the lowest value and with real world driving cycle occur the highest value, and different driving cycles will lead to significantly different vehicle emission factors with the same vehicle.Relative to the ECE15 + EUDC driving cycle, the increasing rate of pollutant emission factors of CO, NOx and HC are - 0.42-2.99,- 0.32-0.81 and - 0.11-11 with FTP75 testing, 0.11-1.29, - 0.77-0.64 and 0.47-10.50 with Beijing 1997 testing and 0.25-1.83,0.09-0.75 and - 0.58-1.50 with real world testing. Compared to the carburetor vehicles, the retrofit and MPI + TWC vehicles' pollution emission factors decrease with different degree. The retrofit vehicle (Santana) will reduce 4.44%-58.44% CO, - 4.95%-36.79% NOx, - 32.32%-33.89% HC, and - 9.39%-14.29% fuel consumption, and especially that the MPI + TWC vehicle will decrease CO by 82.48%-91.76%, NOx by 44.87%-92.79%, HC by 90.00%-93.89% and fuel consumption by 5.44%-10.55%. Vehicles can cause pollution at a very high rate when operated in high power modes; however, they may not often operate in these high power modes.In analyzing vehicle emissions, it describes the fraction of time that vehicles operate in various power modes. In Beijing, vehicles spend 90% of their operation in low power modes or decelerating.

  3. Evaluation of Teaching Signals for Motor Control in the Cerebellum during Real-World Robot Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon Morales, Ruben Dario; Hirata, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning in the cerebellum is believed to entail plastic changes at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, induced by the teaching signal conveyed in the climbing fiber (CF) input. Despite the abundant research on the cerebellum, the nature of this signal is still a matter of debate. Two types of movement error information have been proposed to be plausible teaching signals: sensory error (SE) and motor command error (ME); however, their plausibility has not been tested in the real world. Here, we conducted a comparison of different types of CF teaching signals in real-world engineering applications by using a realistic neuronal network model of the cerebellum. We employed a direct current motor (simple task) and a two-wheeled balancing robot (difficult task). We demonstrate that SE, ME or a linear combination of the two is sufficient to yield comparable performance in a simple task. When the task is more difficult, although SE slightly outperformed ME, these types of error information are all able to adequately control the robot. We categorize granular cells according to their inputs and the error signal revealing that different granule cells are preferably engaged for SE, ME or their combination. Thus, unlike previous theoretical and simulation studies that support either SE or ME, it is demonstrated for the first time in a real-world engineering application that both SE and ME are adequate as the CF teaching signal in a realistic computational cerebellar model, even when the control task is as difficult as stabilizing a two-wheeled balancing robot. PMID:27999381

  4. Evaluation of Teaching Signals for Motor Control in the Cerebellum during Real-World Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Dario Pinzon Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning in the cerebellum is believed to entail plastic changes at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, induced by the teaching signal conveyed in the climbing fiber (CF input. Despite the abundant research on the cerebellum, the nature of this signal is still a matter of debate. Two types of movement error information have been proposed to be plausible teaching signals: sensory error (SE and motor command error (ME; however, their plausibility has not been tested in the real world. Here, we conducted a comparison of different types of CF teaching signals in real-world engineering applications by using a realistic neuronal network model of the cerebellum. We employed a direct current motor (simple task and a two-wheeled balancing robot (difficult task. We demonstrate that SE, ME or a linear combination of the two is sufficient to yield comparable performance in a simple task. When the task is more difficult, although SE slightly outperformed ME, these types of error information are all able to adequately control the robot. We categorize granular cells according to their inputs and the error signal revealing that different granule cells are preferably engaged for SE, ME or their combination. Thus, unlike previous theoretical and simulation studies that support either SE or ME, it is demonstrated for the first time in a real-world engineering application that both SE and ME are adequate as the CF teaching signal in a realistic computational cerebellar model, even when the control task is as difficult as stabilizing a two-wheeled balancing robot.

  5. Analysis of finite element models for head injury investigation: reconstruction of four real-world impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Melanie; Fildes, Brian; Zhang, Liying; Yang, King; Sparke, Laurie

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that both excessive linear and rotational accelerations are the cause of head injuries. Although the head injury criterion has been beneficial as an indicator of head injury risk, it only considers linear acceleration, so there is a need to consider both types of motion in future safety standards. Advanced models of the head/brain complex have recently been developed to gain a better understanding of head injury biomechanics. While these models have been verified against laboratory experimental data, there is a lack of suitable real-world data available for validation. Hence, using two computer models of the head/brain, the objective of the current study was to reconstruct four real-world crashes with known head injury outcomes in a full-vehicle crash laboratory, simulate head/brain responses using kinematics obtained during these reconstructions, and to compare the results predicted by the models against the actual injuries sustained by the occupant. Cases where the occupant sustained no head injuries (AIS 0) and head injuries of severity AIS 4, AIS 5, and multiple head injuries were selected. Data collected from a 9-accelerometer skull were input into the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM) and the NHTSA Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon). The results demonstrated that both models were able to predict varying injury severities consistent with the difference in AIS injury levels in the real-world cases. The WSUHIM predicted a slightly higher injury threshold than the SIMon, probably due to the finer mesh and different software used for the simulations, and could also determine regions of the brain which had been injured. With further validation, finite element models can be used to establish an injury criterion for each type of brain injury in the future.

  6. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eMazurek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cognitive abilities decline with aging, making it difficult to detect pathological changes against a background of natural changes in cognition. Most of the tests to assess cognitive decline are artificial tasks that have little resemblance to the problems faced by people in everyday life. This means both that people may have little practice doing such tasks (potentially contributing to the decline in performance and that the tasks may not be good predictors of real-world cognitive problems.In this study, we test the performance of young people (18-25 years and older people (60+-year-olds on a novel, more ecologically valid test of episodic memory: the real-world What-Where-When (WWW memory test. We also compare them on a battery of other cognitive tests, including working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Older people show the expected age-related declines on the test battery. In the WWW memory task, older people were more likely to fail to remember any What-Where-When combination than younger people were, although they did not significantly differ in their overall WWW score due to some older people performing as well as or better than most younger people. WWW memory performance was significantly predicted by other measures of episodic memory, such as the single-trial learning and long-term retention in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task and Combined Object Location Memory in the Object Relocation task. Self-reported memory complaints also predicted performance on the WWW task.These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies.

  7. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie E. Roos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or IAT revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or ALPS and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  8. Perils of using speed zone data to assess real-world compliance to speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anna; Clarke, Elizabeth; Chevalier, Aran John; Brown, Julie; Coxon, Kristy; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-04-05

    Real-world driving studies, including those involving speeding alert devices and autonomous vehicles, can gauge an individual vehicle's speeding behavior by comparing measured speed with mapped speed zone data. However, there are complexities with developing and maintaining a database of mapped speed zones over a large geographic area that may lead to inaccuracies within the data set. When this approach is applied to large-scale real-world driving data or speeding alert device data to determine speeding behavior, these inaccuracies may result in invalid identification of speeding. We investigated speeding events based on service provider speed zone data. We compared service provider speed zone data (Speed Alert by Smart Car Technologies Pty Ltd., Ultimo, NSW, Australia) against a second set of speed zone data (Google Maps Application Programming Interface [API] mapped speed zones). We found a systematic error in the zones where speed limits of 50-60 km/h, typical of local roads, were allocated to high-speed motorways, which produced false speed limits in the speed zone database. The result was detection of false-positive high-range speeding. Through comparison of the service provider speed zone data against a second set of speed zone data, we were able to identify and eliminate data most affected by this systematic error, thereby establishing a data set of speeding events with a high level of sensitivity (a true positive rate of 92% or 6,412/6,960). Mapped speed zones can be a source of error in real-world driving when examining vehicle speed. We explored the types of inaccuracies found within speed zone data and recommend that a second set of speed zone data be utilized when investigating speeding behavior or developing mapped speed zone data to minimize inaccuracy in estimates of speeding.

  9. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cherinka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.

  10. Construction of a shared system-based real-world clinical research system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huikun; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Fan; Xie, Dan; Li, Hui; Huang, Jingjing; Guo, Mingxing

    2014-09-01

    Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine established research outpatient clinics to contribute to the major disease-entity research conducted by the National Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Research Base and to the construction of the National Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment and Clinical Research Information Sharing System. With a view of developing a "real-world traditional Chinese medicine clinical research paradigm," these clinics explored the mode of constructing research outpatient clinics from the aspects of clinical research, health management, and characteristics diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Understanding the GOLD 2011 Strategy as applied to a real-world COPD population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.; Vogelmeier, C.; Small, M.

    2014-01-01

    Study objectives: The aim of this analysis was to understand the implications of the GOLD 2011 multidimensional system for the assessment and management of COPD, using data from a real-world observational study. Methods: Data were drawn from the Adelphi Respiratory Disease Specific Programme...... burden, increased airflow limitation and exacerbation, and further illustrated the importance of including exacerbation history in the assessment of COPD to identify patients at high risk. As based on data from current clinical practice, this study also highlighted the frequent and potentially...

  12. Project Manager Street Smarts A Real World Guide to PMP Skills

    CERN Document Server

    Zaval, Linda Kretz

    2011-01-01

    The perfect workbook for project managers and PMP exam candidates seeking practical experience New project managers and students pursuing the Project Management Professional certification are looking for practical experience to solidify their skills. The step-by-step tasks presented in this book offer them an opportunity to practice the common tasks project managers face in the real world. The authors, both expert project management trainers and consultants, explore each phase of project management: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, and closing the project, with in-depth

  13. Programming and Tuning a Quantum Annealing Device to Solve Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    Solving real-world applications with quantum algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language to tuning parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on the performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. Although we will focus on applications of interest to NASA's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the methods and concepts presented here apply to a broader family of hard discrete optimization problems, including those that occur in many machine-learning algorithms.

  14. Android arcade game app a real world project : case study approach

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Apress, the leading Android books publisher, continues to provide you with very hands-on, practical books for teaching and showing app developers how to build and design apps, including game apps, that can be built and deployed in the various Android app stores out there. Android Arcade Game App:  A Real World Project - Case Study Approach is no different in that it walks you through creating an arcade style Prison Break game app-top to bottom-for an Android smartphone or tablet.  This book teaches you the unique characteristics and challenges of creating an Arcade style game And it provides y

  15. Efficient Algorithm for Computing Link-based Similarity in Real World Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yuanzhe; Cong, Gao; Xu, Jia

    2009-01-01

    algorithm, namely Power-SimRank, with guaranteed error bound to efficiently compute link-based similarity measure. We also prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm. Extensive experiments conducted on real world datasets and synthetic datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms Sim......Similarity calculation has many applications, such as information retrieval, and collaborative filtering, among many others. It has been shown that link-based similarity measure, such as SimRank, is very effective in characterizing the object similarities in networks, such as the Web, by exploiting......Rank by four-five times in terms of efficiency while the error generated by the approximation is small....

  16. Real World SharePoint 2010 Indispensable Experiences from 22 MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, Scot; Bishop, Darrin; Bleeker, Todd; Bogue, Robert; Bosch, Karine; Brotto, Claudio; Buenz, Adam; Connell, Andrew; Drisgill, Randy; Lapointe, Gary; Medero, Jason; Molnar, Agnes; O'Brien, Chris; Klindt, Todd; Poelmans, Joris; Rehmani, Asif; Ross, John; Swan, Nick; Walsh, Mike; Williams, Randy; Young, Shane; Macori, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Proven real-world best practices from leading Microsoft SharePoint MVPsSharePoint enables Web sites to host shared workspaces and is a leading solution for Enterprise Content Management. The newest version boasts significant changes, impressive enhancements, and new features, requiring developers and administrators of all levels of experience to quickly get up to speed on the latest changes. This book is a must-have anthology of current best practices for SharePoint 2010 from 20 of the top SharePoint MVPs. They offer insider advice on everything from installation, workflow, and Web parts to bu

  17. Mobile computing deployment and management real world skills for Comptia Mobility+ certification and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Mobile computing skills are becoming standard in the IT industry Mobile Computing Deployment and Management: Real World Skills for CompTIA Mobility+ Certification and Beyond is the ultimate reference for mobile computing. Certified Wireless Network Expert Robert J. Bartz guides IT and networking professionals through the fundamental and advanced concepts of mobile computing, providing the information and instruction necessary to get up to speed on current technology and best practices. The book maps to the CompTIA Mobility+ (MB0-001) exam, making it an ideal resource for those s

  18. Real-world reasoning toward scalable, uncertain spatiotemporal, contextual and causal inference

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Coelho, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    The general problem addressed in this book is a large and important one: how to usefully deal with huge storehouses of complex information about real-world situations. Every one of the major modes of interacting with such storehouses - querying, data mining, data analysis - is addressed by current technologies only in very limited and unsatisfactory ways. The impact of a solution to this problem would be huge and pervasive, as the domains of human pursuit to which such storehouses are acutely relevant is numerous and rapidly growing. Finally, we give a more detailed treatment of one potential

  19. Real World Experiences: Pirfenidone and Nintedanib are Effective and Well Tolerated Treatments for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF now has two licensed treatments available. Pirfenidone was the first drug to be licensed and approved for use, followed by nintedanib. We set out our real world experience with these agents in terms of their adverse events profile outside the restrictions of a clinical trial. We have demonstrated in the real world setting, that side effects are common and predominantly gastrointestinal with both therapies. Our study shows that the side effects can be effectively managed in the majority of patients with an acceptable discontinuation rate similar to that seen in the clinical trials. These findings are compelling despite the fact that the patients in our study are older, have severer disease as depicted by baseline lung function and more co-morbidities. Our data provides ongoing evidence of the safety and tolerability of both pirfenidone and nintedanib in patients who would not have met the rigorous criteria to be included in a clinical trial. Both these agents are effective in the management of IPF and slow the progression of this debilitating life limiting condition.

  20. Harnessing real world data from wearables and self-monitoring devices: feasibility, confounders and ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Barick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing usage of smart phones has compelled mobile technology to become a universal part of everyday life. From wearable gadgets to sophisticated implantable medical devices, the advent of mobile technology has completely transformed the healthcare delivery scenario. Self-report measures enabled by mobile technology are increasingly becoming a more time and cost efficient method of assessing real world health outcomes. But, amidst all the optimism, there are concerns also on adopting this technology as regulations and ethical considerations on privacy legislations of end users are unclear. In general, the healthcare industry functions on some stringent regulations and compliances to ensure the safety and protection of patient information. A couple of the most common regulations are Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (HIPPA and Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH. To harness the true potential of mobile technology to empower stakeholders and provide them a common platform which seamlessly integrates healthcare delivery and research, it is imperative that challenges and drawbacks in the sphere are identified and addressed. In this age of information and technology, no stones should be left unturned to ensure that the human race has access to the best healthcare services without an intrusion into his/her confidentiality. This article is an overview of the role of tracking and self-monitoring devices in data collection for real world evidence/observational studies in context to feasibility, confounders and ethical considerations.

  1. Modeling State Space Search Technique for a Real World Adversarial Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kester O. Omoregie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In problem solving, there is a search for the appropriate solution. A state space is a problem domain consisting of the start state, the goal state and the operations that will necessitate the various moves from the start state to the goal state. Each move operation takes one away from the start state and closer to the goal state. In this work we have attempted implementing this concept in adversarial problem solving, which is a more complex problem space. We noted that real world adversarial problems vary in their types and complexities, and therefore solving an adversarial problem would depend on the nature of the adversarial problem itself. Specifically, we examined a real world case, "the prisoner's dilemma" which is a critical, mutually independent, decision making adversarial problem. We combined the idea of the Thagard's Theory of Explanatory Coherence (TEC with Bayes' theorem of conditional probability to construct the model of an opponent that includes the opponent's model of the agent. A further conversion of the model into a series of state space structures led us into the use of breadth-first search strategy to arrive at our decision goal.

  2. Face recognition across makeup and plastic surgery from real-world images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    A study for feature extraction is proposed to handle the problem of facial appearance changes including facial makeup and plastic surgery in face recognition. To extend a face recognition method robust to facial appearance changes, features are individually extracted from facial depth on which facial makeup and plastic surgery have no effect. Then facial depth features are added to facial texture features to perform feature extraction. Accordingly, a three-dimensional (3-D) face is reconstructed from only a single two-dimensional (2-D) frontal image in real-world scenarios. Then the facial depth is extracted from the reconstructed model. Afterward, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is applied to both texture and reconstructed depth images to extract the feature vectors. Finally, the final feature vectors are generated by combining 2-D and 3-D feature vectors, and are then classified by adopting the support vector machine. Promising results have been achieved for makeup-invariant face recognition on two available image databases including YouTube makeup and virtual makeup, and plastic surgery-invariant face recognition on a plastic surgery face database is compared to several state-of-the-art feature extraction methods. Several real-world scenarios are also planned to evaluate the performance of the proposed method on a combination of these three databases with 1102 subjects.

  3. Modes of interaction between individuals dominate the topologies of real world networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insuk Lee

    Full Text Available We find that the topologies of real world networks, such as those formed within human societies, by the Internet, or among cellular proteins, are dominated by the mode of the interactions considered among the individuals. Specifically, a major dichotomy in previously studied networks arises from modeling networks in terms of pairwise versus group tasks. The former often intrinsically give rise to scale-free, disassortative, hierarchical networks, whereas the latter often give rise to single- or broad-scale, assortative, nonhierarchical networks. These dependencies explain contrasting observations among previous topological analyses of real world complex systems. We also observe this trend in systems with natural hierarchies, in which alternate representations of the same networks, but which capture different levels of the hierarchy, manifest these signature topological differences. For example, in both the Internet and cellular proteomes, networks of lower-level system components (routers within domains or proteins within biological processes are assortative and nonhierarchical, whereas networks of upper-level system components (internet domains or biological processes are disassortative and hierarchical. Our results demonstrate that network topologies of complex systems must be interpreted in light of their hierarchical natures and interaction types.

  4. Modes of interaction between individuals dominate the topologies of real world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Insuk; Kim, Eiru; Marcotte, Edward M

    2015-01-01

    We find that the topologies of real world networks, such as those formed within human societies, by the Internet, or among cellular proteins, are dominated by the mode of the interactions considered among the individuals. Specifically, a major dichotomy in previously studied networks arises from modeling networks in terms of pairwise versus group tasks. The former often intrinsically give rise to scale-free, disassortative, hierarchical networks, whereas the latter often give rise to single- or broad-scale, assortative, nonhierarchical networks. These dependencies explain contrasting observations among previous topological analyses of real world complex systems. We also observe this trend in systems with natural hierarchies, in which alternate representations of the same networks, but which capture different levels of the hierarchy, manifest these signature topological differences. For example, in both the Internet and cellular proteomes, networks of lower-level system components (routers within domains or proteins within biological processes) are assortative and nonhierarchical, whereas networks of upper-level system components (internet domains or biological processes) are disassortative and hierarchical. Our results demonstrate that network topologies of complex systems must be interpreted in light of their hierarchical natures and interaction types.

  5. Multistep greedy algorithm identifies community structure in real-world and computer-generated networks

    CERN Document Server

    Schuetz, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    We have recently introduced a multistep extension of the greedy algorithm for modularity optimization. The extension is based on the idea that merging l pairs of communities (l>1) at each iteration prevents premature condensation into few large communities. Here, an empirical formula is presented for the choice of the step width l that generates partitions with (close to) optimal modularity for 17 real-world and 1100 computer-generated networks. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the communities of two real-world networks (the metabolic network of the bacterium E. coli and the graph of coappearing words in the titles of papers coauthored by Martin Karplus) provides evidence that the partition obtained by the multistep greedy algorithm is superior to the one generated by the original greedy algorithm not only with respect to modularity but also according to objective criteria. In other words, the multistep extension of the greedy algorithm reduces the danger of getting trapped in local optima of modularity a...

  6. Combining bosentan and sildenafil in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients failing monotherapy: real-world insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardi, Fabio; Manes, Alessandra; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Bachetti, Cristina; Mazzanti, Gaia; Rinaldi, Andrea; Albini, Alessandra; Gotti, Enrico; Monti, Enrico; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Galiè, Nazzareno

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe disease with a complex pathogenesis, for which combination therapy is an attractive option.This study aimed to assess the impact of sequential combination therapy on both short-term responses and long-term outcomes in a real-world setting.Patients with idiopathic/heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension, or pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease or connective tissue disease and who were not meeting treatment goals on either first-line bosentan or sildenafil monotherapy, were given additional sildenafil or bosentan and assessed after 3-4 months. Double combination therapy significantly improved clinical and haemodynamic parameters, independent of aetiology or the order of drug administration. Significant improvements in functional class were observed in patients with idiopathic/heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival estimates were 91%, 69% and 59%, respectively. Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue disease had significantly poorer survival rates compared to other aetiologies (p<0.003).The favourable short-term haemodynamic results and good survival rates, observed in patients receiving both bosentan and sildenafil, supports the use of sequential combination therapy in patients failing on monotherapy in a real-world setting.

  7. Real-World Verbal Communication Performance of Children Provided With Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Hartmut; Keilmann, Annerose; Leonhard, Katharina; Streicher, Barbara; Müller, Linda; Lang-Roth, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    To compare the real-world verbal communication performance of children provided with cochlear implants (CIs) with their peers with hearing aids (HAs). Cross-sectional study in university tertiary referral centers and at hearing aid dispensers. Verbal communication performance was assessed by the Functioning after Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI) instrument. The FAPCI was administered to 38 parents of children using CIs and 62 parents of children with HAs. According to the WHO classification, children with HAs were categorized into three groups (mild-moderate-severe hearing loss). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the FAPCI scores, with study group, hearing age (i.e., device experience), and age at hearing intervention as sources of variation. ANOVA showed that hearing age and study group significantly contribute to the FAPCI outcome. In all study groups except the children with mild hearing loss, FAPCI scores increased alongside growing experience with the devices. Children with mild hearing loss using HAs showed higher scores than those with severe hearing loss or implanted children. There were no significant differences between the children with CIs and the children with moderate or severe hearing loss using HAs. Real-world verbal communication abilities of children with CIs are similar to those of children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss using amplification. Because hearing age significantly influences performance, children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss using HAs and implanted children catch up with children with mild hearing loss at a hearing age of approximately 3 years.

  8. Real-World Emission of Particles from Vehicles: Volatility and the Effects of Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jonathan M; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Zimmerman, Naomi; Healy, Robert M; Hilker, Nathan; Evans, Greg J

    2017-03-16

    A majority of the ultrafine particles observed in real-world conditions are systematically excluded from many measurements that help to guide regulation of vehicle emissions. To investigate the impact of this exclusion, coincident near-road particle number (PN) emission factors were quantified up- and downstream of a thermodenuder during two seasonal month-long campaigns with wide-ranging ambient temperatures (-19 to +30 °C) to determine the volatile fraction of particles. During colder temperatures (20 °C). Additionally, mean PN emission factors were a factor of 3.8 higher during cold compared to warm periods. On the basis of 130 000 vehicle plumes including three additional campaigns, fleet mean emission factors were calculated for PN (8.5 × 10(14) kg-fuel(-1)), black carbon (37 mg kg-fuel(-1)), organic aerosol (51 mg kg-fuel(-1)), and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (0.7 mg kg-fuel(-1)). These findings demonstrate that significant differences exist between particles in thermally treated vehicle exhaust as compared to in real-world vehicle plumes to which populations in near-road environments are actually exposed. Furthermore, the magnitude of these differences are dependent upon season and may be more extreme in colder climates.

  9. Familiar Real-World Spatial Cues Provide Memory Benefits in Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-02-23

    Episodic memory, future thinking, and memory for scenes have all been proposed to rely on the hippocampus, and evidence suggests that these all decline in healthy aging. Despite this age-related memory decline, studies examining the effects of context reinstatement on episodic memory have demonstrated that reinstating elements of the encoding context of an event leads to better memory retrieval in both younger and older adults. The current study was designed to test whether more familiar, real-world contexts, such as locations that participants visited often, would improve the detail richness and vividness of memory for scenes, autobiographical events, and imagination of future events in young and older adults. The predicted age-related decline in internal details across all 3 conditions was accompanied by persistent effects of contextual familiarity, in which a more familiar spatial context led to increased detail and vividness of remembered scenes, autobiographical events, and, to some extent, imagined future events. This study demonstrates that autobiographical memory, imagination of the future, and scene memory are similarly affected by aging, and all benefit from being associated with more familiar (real-world) contexts, illustrating the stability of contextual reinstatement effects on memory throughout the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Real World Experiences: Pirfenidone and Nintedanib are Effective and Well Tolerated Treatments for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth; Toellner, Hannah; Morris, Helen; Leonard, Colm; Chaudhuri, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) now has two licensed treatments available. Pirfenidone was the first drug to be licensed and approved for use, followed by nintedanib. We set out our real world experience with these agents in terms of their adverse events profile outside the restrictions of a clinical trial. We have demonstrated in the real world setting, that side effects are common and predominantly gastrointestinal with both therapies. Our study shows that the side effects can be effectively managed in the majority of patients with an acceptable discontinuation rate similar to that seen in the clinical trials. These findings are compelling despite the fact that the patients in our study are older, have severer disease as depicted by baseline lung function and more co-morbidities. Our data provides ongoing evidence of the safety and tolerability of both pirfenidone and nintedanib in patients who would not have met the rigorous criteria to be included in a clinical trial. Both these agents are effective in the management of IPF and slow the progression of this debilitating life limiting condition. PMID:27598213

  11. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars' Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo's statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts.

  12. Can We Model Driver Perceptions? An In-Situ Experiment in Real-World Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. Tawfik, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that perceptions play a significant role in traveler decisions. Consequently, traveler perceptions are a corner stone in the feasibility of traveler information systems; for traveler information systems are only valuable if the drivers are incapable of accurately acquiring the provided information on their own, and if the provided information is relevant for the drivers' decision criteria. Accuracy of traveler perceptions has been repeatedly researched in public transportation, and has been found to vary according to different reasons. However, in spite of the clear significance of traveler perceptions, minimal effort has been put into modeling it. Almost all travel behavior models are based on traveler experiences, which are assumed to reflect traveler perceptions via the addition of some random error component. This works introduces an alternative approach: instead of adding an error component to represent driver perceptions, it proposes to model driver perceptions. This work is based on a real-world route choice experiment of a sample of 20 drivers who made more than 2,000 real-world route choices. Each of the drivers' experiences, perceptions, and choices were recorded, analyzed and cross examined. The paper demonstrates that: i driver experiences are different from driver perceptions, ii driver perceptions explain driver choices better than driver experiences, iii it is possible to model and predict driver perceptions of travel distance, time and speed.

  13. Evidence of Absolute Decoupling from Real World Policy Mixes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Fedrigo-Fazio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In resource economics, decoupling from environmental impacts is assumed to be beneficial. However, the success of efforts to increase resource productivity should be placed within the context of the earth’s resources and ecosystems as theoretically finite and contingent on a number of threshold values. Thus far relatively few analyses exist of policies which have successfully implemented strategies for decoupling within these limits. Through ex-post evaluation of a number of real world policy mixes from European Union member states, this paper further develops definitions of the concept of decoupling. Beyond absolute (and relative decoupling, “absolute decoupling within limits” is proposed as an appropriate term for defining resource-productivity at any scale which respects the existing real world limits on resources and ecosystems and as such, contributes to meeting sustainability objectives. Policy mixes presented here cover a range of resources such as fish stocks, fertilizers, aggregates and fossil based materials (plastics. Policy mixes demonstrating absolute decoupling and at least one where absolute decoupling within limits has occurred, provide insights on developing resource efficiency policies in Europe and beyond.

  14. BRAIN INJURY BIOMECHANICS IN REAL WORLD VEHICLE ACCIDENT USING MATHEMATICAL MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jikuang; XU Wei; OTTE Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating brain injury mechanisms and predicting head injuries in real world accidents. For this purpose, a 3D human head finite element model (HBM-head) was developed based on head-brain anatomy. The HBM head model was validated with two experimental tests. Then the head finite element(FE) model and a multi-body system (MBS) model were used to carry out reconstructions of real world vehicle-pedestrian accidents and brain injuries. The MBS models were used for calculating the head impact conditions in vehicle impacts. The HBM-head model was used for calculating the injury related physical parameters, such as intracranial pressure, stress, and strain. The calculated intracranial pressure and strain distribution were correlated with the injury outcomes observed from accidents. It is shown that this model can predict the intracranial biomechanical response and calculate the injury related physical parameters. The head FE model has good biofidelity and will be a valuable tool for the study of injury mechanisms and the tolerance level of the brain.

  15. Providing Geospatial Education and Real World Applications of Data across the Climate Initiative Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Bugbee, K.

    2015-12-01

    Various organizations such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) have developed a structure for general thematic areas in Earth science research, however the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) is addressing the challenging goal of organizing such datasets around core themes specifically related to climate change impacts. These thematic areas, which currently include coastal flooding, food resilience, ecosystem vulnerability, water, transportation, energy infrastructure, and human health, form the core of a new college course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville developed around real-world applications in the Earth sciences. The goal of this course is to educate students on the data available and scope of GIS applications in Earth science across the CDI climate themes. Real world applications and datasets serve as a pedagogical tool that provide a useful medium for instruction in scientific geospatial analysis and GIS software. With a wide range of potential research areas that fall under the rubric of "Earth science", thematic foci can help to structure a student's understanding of the potential uses of GIS across sub-disciplines, while communicating core data processing concepts. The learning modules and use-case scenarios for this course demonstrate the potential applications of CDI data to undergraduate and graduate Earth science students.

  16. The attraction of visual attention to texts in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2012-06-19

    When we look at real-world scenes, attention seems disproportionately attracted by texts that are embedded in these scenes, for instance, on signs or billboards. The present study was aimed at verifying the existence of this bias and investigating its underlying factors. For this purpose, data from a previous experiment were reanalyzed and four new experiments measuring eye movements during the viewing of real-world scenes were conducted. By pairing text objects with matching control objects and regions, the following main results were obtained: (a) Greater fixation probability and shorter minimum fixation distance of texts confirmed the higher attractiveness of texts; (b) the locations where texts are typically placed contribute partially to this effect; (c) specific visual features of texts, rather than typically salient features (e.g., color, orientation, and contrast), are the main attractors of attention; (d) the meaningfulness of texts does not add to their attentional capture; and (e) the attraction of attention depends to some extent on the observer's familiarity with the writing system and language of a given text.

  17. Real-world program evaluation of integrated behavioral health care: Improving scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Jennifer S; Shepardson, Robyn L

    2017-06-01

    Designing systematic, scientifically rigorous program evaluations (PE) is 1 way to contribute to the significant need to build best practices and a stronger evidence base for integrated behavioral health care. However, there are many potential pitfalls when conducting PE in real-world settings, and many clinicians and administrators may be hesitant to engage in PE due to lack of training or resources. Rigorous PE can be achieved feasibly and efficiently. This article discusses common challenges that arise when conducting PE in integrated behavioral health care settings and illustrates ways to increase the methodological quality of PE efforts using lessons learned from 2 real-world case examples. The first example included a PE of a training program for brief alcohol interventions, and the second example included a PE of a depression medication monitoring service. The case examples demonstrate the need for strategic planning beforehand, including the use of a conceptual framework as well as appropriate study designs/methodology, measurement, and the need for consistency to achieve a well-designed PE. Using the recommendations within this article, it is hoped that the quality of PEs can be improved resulting in more generalizable data that can be used to inform organizations and policymakers to improve health care delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Virtual Worlds: Relationship Between Real Life and Experience in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Anstadt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unique applications of virtual reality in many modern contexts, Second Life (SL offers inimitable opportunities for research and exploration and experiential learning as part of a distance learning curriculum assignment. A review of current research regarding SL examined real world social influences in online interactions and what the effects on users may be. This aids students in understanding the social constructionist perceptions and worldview of those persons they may serve in social services. This suggests the importance of developing an understanding of the relationship between users’ real life (RL and their SL. Some research has begun to reveal the effectiveness of telecommunication and computer simulation with certain clients in the fields of mental health and social work, yet there is a lack of sufficient research done within the context of virtual worlds. The current study surveyed users of several educationally and health focused SIMS (simulations as to what motivates their SL and RL interactions. The data explores associations between users’ RL and their SL in several areas,potentially addressing the future role of educating social work students regarding research methodology in online virtual reality interactions. Implications for social work are discussed including engaging clients using incentives for social participation built into the SL milieu.

  19. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  20. Physical Analytics: An emerging field with real-world applications and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    In the past most information on the internet has been originated by humans or computers. However with the emergence of cyber-physical systems, vast amount of data is now being created by sensors from devices, machines etc digitizing the physical world. While cyber-physical systems are subject to active research around the world, the vast amount of actual data generated from the physical world has attracted so far little attention from the engineering and physics community. In this presentation we use examples to highlight the opportunities in this new subject of ``Physical Analytics'' for highly inter-disciplinary research (including physics, engineering and computer science), which aims understanding real-world physical systems by leveraging cyber-physical technologies. More specifically, the convergence of the physical world with the digital domain allows applying physical principles to everyday problems in a much more effective and informed way than what was possible in the past. Very much like traditional applied physics and engineering has made enormous advances and changed our lives by making detailed measurements to understand the physics of an engineered device, we can now apply the same rigor and principles to understand large-scale physical systems. In the talk we first present a set of ``configurable'' enabling technologies for Physical Analytics including ultralow power sensing and communication technologies, physical big data management technologies, numerical modeling for physical systems, machine learning based physical model blending, and physical analytics based automation and control. Then we discuss in detail several concrete applications of Physical Analytics ranging from energy management in buildings and data centers, environmental sensing and controls, precision agriculture to renewable energy forecasting and management.

  1. Informing Architecture and Urban Modeling with Real-world Data on 3D Tangible Interfaces and Augmented Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tore; Salim, Flora; Jaworski, Przemyslaw;

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of online and digital data in our world yields unprecedented opportunities for connecting physical and digital parametric models with live data input and feedback. Tangible interfaces and augmented displays provide theatrical settings for designers to visualize real-world data a...

  2. Adaptive internal state space construction method for reinforcement learning of a real-world agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, K; Omori, T

    1999-10-01

    One of the difficulties encountered in the application of the reinforcement learning to real-world problems is the construction of a discrete state space from a continuous sensory input signal. In the absence of a priori knowledge about the task, a straightforward approach to this problem is to discretize the input space into a grid, and to use a lookup table. However, this method suffers from the curse of dimensionality. Some studies use continuous function approximators such as neural networks instead of lookup tables. However, when global basis functions such as sigmoid functions are used, convergence cannot be guaranteed. To overcome this problem, we propose a method in which local basis functions are incrementally assigned depending on the task requirement. Initially, only one basis function is allocated over the entire space. The basis function is divided according to the statistical property of locally weighted temporal difference error (TD error) of the value function. We applied this method to an autonomous robot collision avoidance problem, and evaluated the validity of the algorithm in simulation. The proposed algorithm, which we call adaptive basis division (ABD) algorithm, achieved the task using a smaller number of basis functions than the conventional methods. Moreover, we applied the method to a goal-directed navigation problem of a real mobile robot. The action strategy was learned using a database of sensor data, and it was then used for navigation of a real machine. The robot reached the goal using a smaller number of internal states than with the conventional methods.

  3. Integrating Real-time, Real-world Geoscience Experiences into Classroom Instruction with EarthLabs and the JOIDES Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Cooper, S. K.; Ledley, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Inspiring the next generation of geoscientists and preparing students for the 21st century workforce requires lifting science outside of the classroom and giving learners the opportunity to think critically about real-world geoscience problems. The EarthLabs suite of climate science modules challenges students with a variety of learning experiences including current scientific data analysis, computer visualizations, satellite imagery, and engaging videos. Each module includes a series of hands-on activities to allow students to explore Earth's complex and dynamic climate history, leading to a deeper understanding of present and future changes to our planet. A new EarthLabs module in development 'Climate Detectives: An Expedition on board the JOIDES Resolution," focuses on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 to Southern Alaska. The module is structured to allow students to work collaboratively, mimicking scientific research groups on the JOIDES Resolution. As students assume the role of a scientist, learn about data collection methods, and analyze authentic data, they learn about the climate history and tectonic processes of the Southern Alaska continental margin, as well as explore the relationship between climate, sedimentation, and tectonics. The Project Based Learning (PBL) approach used in the module teaches students how to analyze data and solve problems like scientists, strengthening the development of higher order thinking skills and preparing them for college coursework. The 'Climate Detectives' Module also provides students with opportunities to interact with scientists through live video conferencing and pre-recorded video presentations by scientists. In this presentation, Expedition 341 Education Officer, Alison Mote, describes the new module, which takes students on an educational journey as they learn about the scientific objectives, methods, and data collection tools scientists use to conduct research on sediment cores retrieved

  4. Real-World Rib Fracture Patterns in Frontal Crashes in Different Restraint Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen L; Craig, Matthew; Scarboro, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the detailed medical injury information in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) to evaluate patterns of rib fractures in real-world crash occupants in both belted and unbelted restraint conditions. Fracture patterns binned into rib regional levels were examined to determine normative trends associated with belt use and other possible contributing factors. Front row adult occupants with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ rib fractures, in frontal crashes with a deployed frontal airbag, were selected from the CIREN database. The circumferential location of each rib fracture (with respect to the sternum) was documented using a previously published method (Ritchie et al. 2006) and digital computed tomography scans. Fracture patterns for different crash and occupant parameters (restraint use, involved physical component, occupant kinematics, crash principal direction of force, and occupant age) were compared qualitatively and quantitatively. There were 158 belted and 44 unbelted occupants included in this study. For belted occupants, fractures were mainly located near the path of the shoulder belt, with the majority of fractures occurring on the inboard (with respect to the vehicle) side of the thorax. For unbelted occupants, fractures were approximately symmetric and distributed across both sides of the thorax. There were negligible differences in fracture patterns between occupants with frontal (0°) and near side (330° to 350° for drivers; 10° to 30° for passengers) crash principal directions of force but substantial differences between groups when occupant kinematics (and contacts within the vehicle) were considered. Age also affected fracture pattern, with fractures tending to occur more anteriorly in older occupants and more laterally in younger occupants (both belted and unbelted). Results of this study confirmed with real-world data that rib fracture patterns in unbelted occupants were more distributed

  5. Selenium poisoning of fish and wildlife in nature: lessons from twelve real-world examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorupa, J.P. [United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The chapter presents an inventory of real-world case studies of clearly confirmed or highly probable selenium poisoning in nature. These are of: Belews Lake, North Carolina, Hyco Reservoir in North Carolina, and Martin Reservoir, Texas, all constructed to provide cooling water for large coal-fired power plants; constructed wetland at the Chevron Richmond oil refinery California; Salton Sea, Kesterson Reservoir and Tulane Basin in California, constructed for agricultural drainage; seepage wetlands constructed for the Kenrick Reclamation Project near Casper, Wyoming and at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuse in Utah; an agroforestry demonstration site at Red Rock Ranch, California; Swietzer Lake, Colorado, constructed for recreational purposes and Lake Oltertjarn in Sweden, treated with selenite to mitigate mercury levels in fish. Lessons learned from these studies and the applicability of the US GPA`s freshwater chronic criterion for selenium of 5 {mu}g/L are discussed. 116 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Listing All Maximal Cliques in Large Sparse Real-World Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Eppstein, David

    2011-01-01

    We implement a new algorithm for listing all maximal cliques in sparse graphs due to Eppstein, L\\"offler, and Strash (ISAAC 2010) and analyze its performance on a large corpus of real-world graphs. Our analysis shows that this algorithm is the first to offer a practical solution to listing all maximal cliques in large sparse graphs. All other theoretically-fast algorithms for sparse graphs have been shown to be significantly slower than the algorithm of Tomita et al. (Theoretical Computer Science, 2006) in practice. However, the algorithm of Tomita et al. uses an adjacency matrix, which requires too much space for large sparse graphs. Our new algorithm opens the door for fast analysis of large sparse graphs whose adjacency matrix will not fit into working memory.

  7. Synthetic graph generation for data-intensive HPC benchmarking: Scalability, analysis and real-world application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allows the emulation of a broad spectrum of application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report described the in-depth analysis of the generated synthetic graphs' properties at a variety of scales using different generator implementations and examines their applicability to replicating real world datasets.

  8. Performance analysis of Xen virtual machines in real-world scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Heissler, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of the performance benchmarks of the Open Source hypervisor Xen. The study focuses on the network related performance as well as on the application related performance of multiple virtual machines that were running on the same Xen hypervisor. The comparison was carried out using a self-developed benchmark suite that consists of easily available Open Source tools. The goal is to measure the performance of the hypervisor in typical real-world application scenarios when used for "mass virtual hosting", such as hosting solutions of so called virtual private servers for small-to-medium sized businesses environments. The results of the benchmarks show, that the tested Xen setup offers good performance with respect to network traffic stress tests, but only 75% of the performance of the non-virtualized reference environment. This application performance score decreases as more virtual machines are running simultaneously.

  9. Using Real-World Car Traffic Dataset in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rivoirard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networking is an emerging paradigm which is gaining much interest with the development of new topics such as the connected vehicle, the autonomous vehicle, and also new high-speed mobile communication technologies such as 802.11p and LTE-D. This paper presents a brief review of different mobility models used for evaluating performance of routing protocols and applications designed for vehicular ad hoc networks. Particularly, it describes how accurate mobility traces can be built from a real-world car traffic dataset that embeds the main characteristics affecting vehicle-to-vehicle communications. An effective use of the proposed mobility models is illustrated in various road traffic conditions involving communicating vehicles equipped with 802.11p. This study shows that such dataset actually contains additional information that cannot completely be obtained with other analytical or simulated mobility models, while impacting the results of performance evaluation in vehicular ad hoc networks.

  10. Combining top-down processes to guide eye movements during real-world scene search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, George L; Henderson, John M

    2010-02-10

    Eye movements can be guided by various types of information in real-world scenes. Here we investigated how the visual system combines multiple types of top-down information to facilitate search. We manipulated independently the specificity of the search target template and the usefulness of contextual constraint in an object search task. An eye tracker was used to segment search time into three behaviorally defined epochs so that influences on specific search processes could be identified. The results support previous studies indicating that the availability of either a specific target template or scene context facilitates search. The results also show that target template and contextual constraints combine additively in facilitating search. The results extend recent eye guidance models by suggesting the manner in which our visual system utilizes multiple types of top-down information.

  11. Experimenting with ecosystem interaction networks in search of threshold potentials in real-world marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Parkes, Samantha; Lohrer, Andrew M; Pilditch, Conrad; Woodin, Sarah A; Wethey, David S; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Asnaghi, Valentina; De Juan, Silvia; Kraan, Casper; Rodil, Ivan; Savage, Candida; Van Colen, Carl

    2014-06-01

    Thresholds profoundly affect our understanding and management of ecosystem dynamics, but we have yet to develop practical techniques to assess the risk that thresholds will be crossed. Combining ecological knowledge of critical system interdependencies with a large-scale experiment, we tested for breaks in the ecosystem interaction network to identify threshold potential in real-world ecosystem dynamics. Our experiment with the bivalves Macomona liliana and Austrovenus stutchburyi on marine sandflats in New Zealand demonstrated that reductions in incident sunlight changed the interaction network between sediment biogeochemical fluxes, productivity, and macrofauna. By demonstrating loss of positive feedbacks and changes in the architecture of the network, we provide mechanistic evidence that stressors lead to break points in dynamics, which theory predicts predispose a system to a critical transition.

  12. Replication protocol analysis: a method for the study of real-world design thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kovacs, L. B.

    1996-01-01

    ’ is refined into a method called ‘replication protocol analysis’ (RPA), and discussed from a methodological perspective of design research. It is argued that for the study of real-world design thinking this method offers distinct advantages over traditional ‘design protocol analysis’, which seeks to capture......Given the brief of an architectural competition on site planning, and the design awarded the first prize, the first author (trained as an architect but not a participant in the competition) produced a line of reasoning that might have led from brief to design. In the paper, such ‘design replication...... the designer’s authentic line of reasoning. To illustrate how RPA can be used, the site planning case is briefly presented, and part of the replicated line of reasoning analysed. One result of the analysis is a glimpse of a ‘logic of design’; another is an insight which sheds new light on Darke’s classical...

  13. Real-World Outcomes and Critical Thinking: Differential Analysis by Academic Major and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Real-World Outcomes is an inventory that measures everyday problematic behaviors that represent decisions where critical thinking is presumably absent; assessing the negative outcomes of poor daily decisions helps to infer the degree of critical thinking that mediates everyday reasoning. In the present paper, we describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of this inventory to Portuguese. We present evidence of its administration to 259 college students concerning reliability, and differences based on academic major and gender. No statistically significant differences were found, either due to academic major or gender. Results suggest the value of this instrument to assessing daily decision making and life outcomes, and also, to estimate the quality of critical thinking in everyday life.

  14. Planning in the real world: preschool children's scripts and plans for familiar events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J A; Shapiro, L R; Sosa, B B

    1995-08-01

    3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds reported either scripts or verbal plans for 2 familiar events, going grocery shopping and going to the beach, and also constructed plans to remedy and prevent mishaps that might occur for each event. With increasing age, children reported more information, focused more on onset activities, and mentioned more specific planning activities in their plans than in their scripts. Although children at all ages provided adequate remedy plans, only 5-year-olds provided adequate prevention plans. In general, children were better at planning for the beach than for grocery shopping. Results indicate that developmental differences in event knowledge, in the ability to reflect upon event knowledge, and the event that they are planning for affect preschoolers' planning for real-world events.

  15. A wearable device for measuring eye dynamics in real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Simon; Bones, Philip; Weddell, Stephen; Innes, Carrie; Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Drowsiness and lapses of responsiveness have the potential to cause fatalities in many occupations. One subsystem of a prototype device which aims to detect these lapses as they occur is described. A head-mounted camera measures several features of the eye that are known to correlate with drowsiness. The system was tested with eight combinations of eye colour, ambient lighting, and eye glasses to simulate typical real-world input conditions. A task was completed for each set of conditions to simulate a range of eye movement-saccades, tracking, and eye closure. Our image processing software correctly classified 99.3% of video frames as open/closed/partly closed, and the error rate was not affected by the combinations of input conditions. Most errors occurred during eyelid movement. The accuracy of the pupil localisation was also not influenced by input conditions, with the possible exception of one subject's glasses.

  16. A protocol for evaluating video trackers under real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Tahir; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The absence of a commonly adopted performance evaluation framework is hampering advances in the design of effective video trackers. In this paper, we present a single-score evaluation measure and a protocol to objectively compare trackers. The proposed measure evaluates tracking accuracy and failure, and combines them for both summative and formative performance assessment. The proposed protocol is composed of a set of trials that evaluate the robustness of trackers on a range of test scenarios representing several real-world conditions. The protocol is validated on a set of sequences with a diversity of targets (head, vehicle and person) and challenges (occlusions, background clutter, pose changes and scale changes) using six state-of-the-art trackers, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses on more than 187000 frames. The software implementing the protocol and the evaluation results are made available online and new results can be included, thus facilitating the comparison of trackers.

  17. Decoding dexterous finger movements in a neural prosthesis model approaching real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joshua; Baker, Justin; House, Paul A; Greger, Bradley

    2012-11-01

    Dexterous finger movements can be decoded from neuronal action potentials acquired from a nonhuman primate using a chronically implanted Utah Electrode Array. We have developed an algorithm that can, after training, detect and classify individual and combined finger movements without any a priori knowledge of the data, task, or behavior. The algorithm is based on changes in the firing rates of individual neurons that are tuned for one or more finger movement types. Nine different movement types, which consisted of individual flexions, individual extensions, and combined flexions of the thumb, index finger, and middle finger, were decoded. The algorithm performed reliably on data recorded continuously during movement tasks, including a no-movement state, with an overall average sensitivity and specificity that were both > 92%. These results demonstrate a viable algorithm for decoding dexterous finger movements under conditions similar to those required for a real-world neural prosthetic application.

  18. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  19. Cascade Probability Control to Mitigate Bufferbloat under Multiple Real-World TCP Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh To

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistently full buffer problem, commonly known as bufferbloat, causes unnecessary additional latency and throughput degradation whenever congestion happens in Internet. Several proposed queue management schemes, with the debloat mission, are almost based on the modification of one-loop feedback control where the instability and bad transient behavior are still big challenges. In this paper, we present a cascade probability control scheme using margin optimal method to address such challenges under different kinds of real-world TCP stacks. Simulation results guarantee the measured round trip time tracking to a low value of delay (e.g., ≈180 ms under TCP Reno, and ≈130 ms under TCP Cubic and ≈50% delay reduction in comparison to current deployed queue management schemes in network devices.

  20. Learning to train neural networks for real-world control problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Lee A.; Puskorius, G. V.; Davis, L. I., Jr.; Yuan, F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, our group has concentrated on the application of neural network methods to the training of controllers for real-world systems. This presentation describes our approach, surveys what we have found to be important, mentions some contributions to the field, and shows some representative results. Topics discussed include: (1) executing model studies as rehearsal for experimental studies; (2) the importance of correct derivatives; (3) effective training with second-order (DEKF) methods; (4) the efficacy of time-lagged recurrent networks; (5) liberation from the tyranny of the control cycle using asynchronous truncated backpropagation through time; and (6) multistream training for robustness. Results from model studies of automotive idle speed control serve as examples for several of these topics.

  1. A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Greg [Anywhere Software, Albany, CA (United States); Kurt, Murat [International Computer Institute, Ege University (Turkey); Bonneel, Nicolas [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The utilization of real-world materials has been hindered by a lack of standards for sharing and interpreting measured data. This paper presents an XML representation and an Open Source C library to support bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) in data-driven lighting simulation and rendering applications.The library provides for the efficient representation, query, and Monte Carlo sampling of arbitrary BSDFs in amodel-free framework. Currently, we support two BSDF data representations: one using a fixed subdivision of thehemisphere, and one with adaptive density. The fixed type has advantages for certain matrix operations, while theadaptive type can more accurately represent highly peaked data. We discuss advanced methods for data-drivenBSDF rendering for both types, including the proxy of detailed geometry to enhance appearance and accuracy.We also present an advanced interpolation method to reduce measured data into these standard representations.We end with our plan for future extensions and sharing of BSDF data.

  2. Do as eye say: gaze cueing and language in a real-world social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Ross G; Tatler, Benjamin W

    2013-03-11

    Gaze cues are important in communication. In social interactions gaze cues usually occur with spoken language, yet most previous research has used artificial paradigms without dialogue. The present study investigates the interaction between gaze and language using a real-world paradigm. Each participant followed instructions to build a series of abstract structures out of building blocks, while their eye movements were recorded. The instructor varied the specificity of the instructions (unambiguous or ambiguous) and the presence of gaze cues (present or absent) between participants. Fixations to the blocks were recorded and task performance was measured. The presence of gaze cues led to more accurate performance, more accurate visual selection of the target block and more fixations towards the instructor when ambiguous instructions were given, but not when unambiguous instructions were given. We conclude that people only utilize the gaze cues of others when the cues provide useful information.

  3. An ensemble symbiosis organisms search algorithm and its application to real world problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Nama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an ensemble algorithm has been proposed, called Quasi-Oppositional Symbiosis Organisms Search (QOSOS algorithms, by incorporating the quasi-oppositional based learning (QOBL strategy into the newly proposed Symbiosis Organisms Search (SOS algorithm for solving unconstrained global optimization problems. The QOBL is incorporated into the basic SOS algorithm due to the balance of the exploration capability of QOBL and the exploitation potential of SOS algorithm. To validate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed Quasi-Oppositional Symbiosis Organisms Search (QOSOS algorithms, it is applied to solve unconstrained global optimization problems. Also, the proposed QOSOS algorithm is applied to solve two real world global optimization problems. One is gas transmission compressor design optimization problem and another is optimal capacity of the gas production facilities optimization problem. The performance of the QOSOS algorithm is extensively evaluated and compares favorably with many progressive algorithms.

  4. Local self-similarity descriptor for point-of-interest reconstruction of real-world scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xianglu; Wan, Weibing; Zhao, Qunfei; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-08-01

    Scene reconstruction is utilized commonly in close-range photogrammetry, with diverse applications in fields such as industry, biology, and aerospace industries. Presented surfaces or wireframe three-dimensional (3D) model reconstruction applications are either too complex or too inflexible to accommodate various types of real-world scenes, however. This paper proposes an algorithm for acquiring point-of-interest (referred to throughout the study as POI) coordinates in 3D space, based on multi-view geometry and a local self-similarity descriptor. After reconstructing several POIs specified by a user, a concise and flexible target object measurement method, which obtains the distance between POIs, is described in detail. The proposed technique is able to measure targets with high accuracy even in the presence of obstacles and non-Lambertian surfaces. The method is so flexible that target objects can be measured with a handheld digital camera. Experimental results further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  5. Real-world datasets for portfolio selection and solutions of some stochastic dominance portfolio models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bruni

    2016-09-01

    We provide here several datasets for portfolio selection generated using real-world price values from several major stock markets. The datasets contain weekly return values, adjusted for dividends and for stock splits, which are cleaned from errors as much as possible. The datasets are available in different formats, and can be used as benchmarks for testing the performances of portfolio selection models and for comparing the efficiency of the algorithms used to solve them. We also provide, for these datasets, the portfolios obtained by several selection strategies based on Stochastic Dominance models (see “On Exact and Approximate Stochastic Dominance Strategies for Portfolio Selection” (Bruni et al. [2]. We believe that testing portfolio models on publicly available datasets greatly simplifies the comparison of the different portfolio selection strategies.

  6. Are numbers real the uncanny relationship of mathematics and the physical world

    CERN Document Server

    Clegg, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Have you ever wondered what humans did before numbers existed? How they organized their lives, traded goods, or kept track of their treasures? What would your life be like without them? Numbers began as simple representations of everyday things, but mathematics rapidly took on a life of its own, occupying a parallel virtual world. In Are Numbers Real?, Brian Clegg explores the way that math has become more and more detached from reality, and yet despite this is driving the development of modern physics. From devising a new counting system based on goats, through the weird and wonderful mathematics of imaginary numbers and infinity, to the debate over whether mathematics has too much influence on the direction of science, this fascinating and accessible book opens the reader’s eyes to the hidden reality of the strange yet familiar entities that are numbers.

  7. Noise-robust cortical tracking of attended speech in real-world acoustic scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Søren; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Selectively attending to one speaker in a multi-speaker scenario is thought to synchronize low-frequency cortical activity to the attended speech signal. In recent studies, reconstruction of speech from single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) data has been used to decode which talker a listener...... is attending to in a two-talker situation. It is currently unclear how this generalizes to more complex sound environments. Behaviorally, speech perception is robust to the acoustic distortions that listeners typically encounter in everyday life, but it is unknown whether this is mirrored by a noise......-robust neural tracking of attended speech. Here we used advanced acoustic simulations to recreate real-world acoustic scenes in the laboratory. In virtual acoustic realities with varying amounts of reverberation and number of interfering talkers, listeners selectively attended to the speech stream...

  8. Experiences from Real-World Deployment of Context-Aware Technologies in a Hospital Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Mogensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    and discuss our experiences from an ongoing deployment of a suite of context-aware technologies and applications in a hospital environment, including a context-awareness infrastructure, a location tracking system, and two context-aware applications running on interactive wall displays and mobile phones. Based...... on an analysis of the use of these systems, we observe that many of the ideas behind context-aware computing are valid, and that the context-aware applications are useful for clinicians in their work. By reflecting on the nature of the designed context-aware technologies, we present a model which states......Context-aware computing is a central concept in ubiquitous computing and many suggestions for context-aware technologies and applications have been proposed. There is, however, little evidence on how these concepts and technologies play out in a real-world setting. In this paper we describe...

  9. Real-world costs of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the Nordics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    -3. CONCLUSIONS: Costs associated with ADPKD are significant and the progression of the disease is associated with an increased frequency and intensity of medical resource utilisation. Interventions that can slow the progression of the disease have the potential to lead to substantial reductions in costs......BACKGROUND: There is limited real-world data on the economic burden of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The objective of this study was to estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of patients with ADPKD by severity of the disease: chronic kidney disease (CKD...... in absolute terms across all disease strata. Mean total annual costs were highest in dialysis patients, driven by maintenance dialysis care, while the use of immunosuppressants was the main cost component for transplant care. Costs were twice as high in patients with CKD stages 4-5 compared to CKD stages 1...

  10. Real-world car-to-pedestrian-crash data from an urban centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes Gerrit

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedestrians are at a high risk for crash and injury. This study aims at comparing data from real world crashes with data gathered from experimental settings. Methods IMPAIR (In-Depth Medical Pedestrian Accident Investigation and Reconstruction was a prospective, observational study performed in a metropolitan area. Data was collected on-scene, from clinical records, and interviews. Data comprise crash data, details on injury pattern and injury severity. Results Thirty-seven pedestrians (of which 19 males with a mean 37.1 years of age were included in the study. The mean collision speed was 49.5 km/h (SD 13.7, range, 28 - 93. The mean ISS (31.0, SD 25.4 and the 24% fatality rate indicate a substantial trauma load. The most common AIS 4+ injuries were to the head (23 subjects, followed by chest (8, pelvis (4, and abdomen (2. An association of impact side and injury side (right/left was found for abdominal, chest, pelvic, and upper limb injuries. Primary head impacts were documented on the windscreen (19 subjects, hood (10, A-pillar (2, and edge of the car roof (2. With bivariate analysis, a significant increase of MAIS 4+ head injury risk was found for collision speeds of >40 km/h (OR 9.00, 95% CI 1.96-41.36. Conclusion The real-world data from this study is in agreement with previous findings from biomechanical models and other simulations. This data suggest that there may be reason to include further pedestrian regulations in EuroNCAP.

  11. Brain-to-Brain Synchrony Tracks Real-World Dynamic Group Interactions in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Wan, Lu; Davidesco, Ido; Kaggen, Lisa; Oostrik, Matthias; McClintock, James; Rowland, Jess; Michalareas, Georgios; Van Bavel, Jay J; Ding, Mingzhou; Poeppel, David

    2017-05-08

    The human brain has evolved for group living [1]. Yet we know so little about how it supports dynamic group interactions that the study of real-world social exchanges has been dubbed the "dark matter of social neuroscience" [2]. Recently, various studies have begun to approach this question by comparing brain responses of multiple individuals during a variety of (semi-naturalistic) tasks [3-15]. These experiments reveal how stimulus properties [13], individual differences [14], and contextual factors [15] may underpin similarities and differences in neural activity across people. However, most studies to date suffer from various limitations: they often lack direct face-to-face interaction between participants, are typically limited to dyads, do not investigate social dynamics across time, and, crucially, they rarely study social behavior under naturalistic circumstances. Here we extend such experimentation drastically, beyond dyads and beyond laboratory walls, to identify neural markers of group engagement during dynamic real-world group interactions. We used portable electroencephalogram (EEG) to simultaneously record brain activity from a class of 12 high school students over the course of a semester (11 classes) during regular classroom activities (Figures 1A-1C; Supplemental Experimental Procedures, section S1). A novel analysis technique to assess group-based neural coherence demonstrates that the extent to which brain activity is synchronized across students predicts both student class engagement and social dynamics. This suggests that brain-to-brain synchrony is a possible neural marker for dynamic social interactions, likely driven by shared attention mechanisms. This study validates a promising new method to investigate the neuroscience of group interactions in ecologically natural settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Real-world emissions from model year 1993, 2000, and 2010 passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M.; Goodwin, R.; Watkins, R. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Air pollution by cars and light trucks is a major problem in metropolitan areas in the United States and around the world. Much of the discussion of this issue is based on the emissions per vehicle mile as determined under somewhat artificial testing conditions. The pollutants actually emitted vary considerably with the particular vehicle and the way it is driven, but the average emissions per mile are much higher than the test values. This report concerns the sources and levels of excess emissions, and the potential for reducing them. The history of automotive emissions regulation reveals remarkable success in reducing the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from new automobiles - as measured in certification tests. The grams-per-mile (g/mile) standards for these tests are stringent, with 96% reductions mandated in comparison to the estimated pre-control (mid-1960s) levels for CO and HC; and 75% reductions mandated for NO{sub x}. Powerful new technologies have been developed and incorporated into every new vehicle in order to accomplish these reductions. Most noteworthy are the catalytic converter and closed-loop engine controls; the latter includes sensors before and after the engine proper, and computer analysis of the information leading to real-time control of fuel injection, with the principal objective of maintaining just the right chemical balance of fuel and air. The average lifetime real-world g/mile emissions associated with conventional gasoline fueled cars for model years 1993, 2000, and 2010 have been projected. Results are discussed.

  13. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Kadijk, G.

    2009-11-15

    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  14. Implementing Peer Learning in Clinical Education: A Framework to Address Challenges In the "Real World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna Hong Meng; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Peer learning has many benefits and can assist students in gaining the educational skills required in future years when they become teachers themselves. Peer learning may be particularly useful in clinical learning environments, where students report feeling marginalized, overwhelmed, and unsupported. Educational interventions often fail in the workplace environment, as they are often conceived in the "ideal" rather than the complex, messy real world. This work sought to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing peer learning activities in a clinical curriculum. Previous peer learning research results and a matrix of empirically derived peer learning activities were presented to local clinical education experts to generate discussion around the realities of implementing such activities. Potential barriers and limitations of and strategies for implementing peer learning in clinical education were the focus of the individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the data identified three key considerations for real-world implementation of peer learning: culture, epistemic authority, and the primacy of patient-centered care. Strategies for peer learning implementation were also developed from themes within the data, focusing on developing a culture of safety in which peer learning could be undertaken, engaging both educators and students, and establishing expectations for the use of peer learning. Insights: This study identified considerations and strategies for the implementation of peer learning activities, which took into account both educator and student roles. Reported challenges were reflective of those identified within the literature. The resultant framework may aid others in anticipating implementation challenges. Further work is required to test the framework's application in other contexts and its effect on learner outcomes.

  15. Bringing Real World Underwater Science, Engineering and Technology in Tomorrow's Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, C.

    2012-04-01

    What do Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Ocean Science, Engineering and Technology have in common with science education in today's classroom? They all meet the growing demand for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals in tomorrow's U.S. workforce. Engaging students in real world science experiences will help them develop skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, innovation, and creativity. These skills are crucial to building a strong, competitive workforce in an integrated global economy. Fifth grade students from St. Andrew's School of Math and Science in Charleston, SC, USA science classes were introduced to engineering and robotics by using a combination of two underwater ROVs programs from the Office of Naval Research (SeaPerch) and Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE). Students were grouped in teams as "real scientists" to design and construct a ROV. Students selected their role from a list of engineering positions, and researched how to construct the best ROV. Students created blueprints and models of their ROV design. Scientists/engineers from various local agencies were scheduled to come and share their expertise with the students. On World Ocean Day, a presentation was planned for fifth grade students to work closely with kindergarten through fourth grade students. The purpose of the day was two-fold; it provided students the opportunity to peer teach and the opportunity to present their experiences to a wide audience. All students presented their designs and demonstrated their ROV's movement capabilities in child size pools. They also modeled how submersible pilots communicate with scientists and other researchers while operating their newly designed ROV. As a culminating event, students visited a local marine science high school class with similar ROVs and evaluated their engineering designs in a fresh water pond.

  16. Development of a Mandarin-English Bilingual Speech Recognition System for Real World Music Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Pan, Jielin; Lin, Yang; Shao, Jian; Yan, Yonghong

    In recent decades, there has been a great deal of research into the problem of bilingual speech recognition-to develop a recognizer that can handle inter- and intra-sentential language switching between two languages. This paper presents our recent work on the development of a grammar-constrained, Mandarin-English bilingual Speech Recognition System (MESRS) for real world music retrieval. Two of the main difficult issues in handling the bilingual speech recognition systems for real world applications are tackled in this paper. One is to balance the performance and the complexity of the bilingual speech recognition system; the other is to effectively deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language**. In order to process the intra-sentential language switching and reduce the amount of data required to robustly estimate statistical models, a compact single set of bilingual acoustic models derived by phone set merging and clustering is developed instead of using two separate monolingual models for each language. In our study, a novel Two-pass phone clustering method based on Confusion Matrix (TCM) is presented and compared with the log-likelihood measure method. Experiments testify that TCM can achieve better performance. Since potential system users' native language is Mandarin which is regarded as a matrix language in our application, their pronunciations of English as the embedded language usually contain Mandarin accents. In order to deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language, different non-native adaptation approaches are investigated. Experiments show that model retraining method outperforms the other common adaptation methods such as Maximum A Posteriori (MAP). With the effective incorporation of approaches on phone clustering and non-native adaptation, the Phrase Error Rate (PER) of MESRS for English utterances was reduced by 24.47% relatively compared to the baseline monolingual English system while the PER on Mandarin utterances was

  17. Neural evidence for distracter suppression during visual search in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Katharina N; Peelen, Marius V; Kastner, Sabine

    2012-08-22

    Selecting visual information from cluttered real-world scenes involves the matching of visual input to the observer's attentional set--an internal representation of objects that are relevant for current behavioral goals. When goals change, a new attentional set needs to be instantiated, requiring the suppression of the previous set to prevent distraction by objects that are no longer relevant. In the present fMRI study, we investigated how such suppression is implemented at the neural level. We measured human brain activity in response to natural scene photographs that could contain objects from (1) a currently relevant (target) category, (2) a previously but not presently relevant (distracter) category, and/or (3) a never relevant (neutral) category. Across conditions, multivoxel response patterns in object-selective cortex carried information about objects present in the scenes. However, this information strongly depended on the task relevance of the objects. As expected, information about the target category was significantly increased relative to the neutral category, indicating top-down enhancement of task-relevant information. Importantly, information about the distracter category was significantly reduced relative to the neutral category, indicating that the processing of previously relevant objects was suppressed. Such active suppression at the level of high-order visual cortex may serve to prevent the erroneous selection of, or interference from, objects that are no longer relevant to ongoing behavior. We conclude that the enhancement of relevant information and the suppression of distracting information both contribute to the efficient selection of visual information from cluttered real-world scenes.

  18. A real-world evaluation of indacaterol and other bronchodilators in COPD: the INFLOW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvelekian, Georges; El-Sorougi, Waleed; Pothirat, Chaicharn; Yunus, Faisal; De Guia, Teresita; Kuo, Han-Pin; Basu Patnaik, Shalma; Pilipovic, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    INFLOW (INdacaterol eFfectiveness and utiLizatiOn in COPD: real World evaluation) was a prospective, noninterventional study assessing the effectiveness and safety of long-acting bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from the Middle East, Asia, and South Africa. Patients newly prescribed or switched to indacaterol or other long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), or tiotropium (monotherapy or in combination) were evaluated over 6 months. The primary endpoint was the clinical COPD questionnaire overall score at the end of the study. Data were analyzed from 1,710 patients (mean postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 59% predicted) who received indacaterol (n=1,179), other LABA (n=68), tiotropium (n=271), indacaterol plus tiotropium (n=167), or other LABA plus tiotropium (n=25). Across treatments, clinical COPD questionnaire overall score improved from baseline by 0.81-1.26 points (all Pindacaterol inhaler was rated easy/very easy to use by the majority of patients, and physicians considered its use clearly understood by most patients. All treatments had acceptable tolerability. In real life clinical practice across a diverse region, indacaterol and other long-acting bronchodilators improved health status and were well regarded by patients and physicians.

  19. Recognition of "real-world" musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Olszewski, Carol; Rychener, Marly; Sena, Kimberly; Knutson, John F; Witt, Shelley; Macpherson, Beth

    2005-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to compare recognition of "real-world" music excerpts by postlingually deafened adults using cochlear implants and normal-hearing adults; (b) to compare the performance of cochlear implant recipients using different devices and processing strategies; and (c) to examine the variability among implant recipients in recognition of musical selections in relation to performance on speech perception tests, performance on cognitive tests, and demographic variables. Seventy-nine cochlear implant users and 30 normal-hearing adults were tested on open-set recognition of systematically selected excerpts from musical recordings heard in real life. The recognition accuracy of the two groups was compared for three musical genre: classical, country, and pop. Recognition accuracy was correlated with speech recognition scores, cognitive measures, and demographic measures, including musical background. Cochlear implant recipients were significantly less accurate in recognition of previously familiar (known before hearing loss) musical excerpts than normal-hearing adults (p performance on selected speech perception tests, and the amount of focused music listening following implantation. Current-day cochlear implants are not effective in transmitting several key structural features (i.e., pitch, harmony, timbral blends) of music essential to open-set recognition of well-known musical selections. Consequently, implant recipients must rely on extracting those musical features most accessible through the implant, such as song lyrics or a characteristic rhythm pattern, to identify the sorts of musical selections heard in everyday life.

  20. Efficiency of attack strategies on complex model and real-world networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bellingeri, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of attack strategies to network nodes when targeting several complex model and real-world networks. We tested 5 attack strategies, 3 of which were introduced in this work for the first time, to attack 3 model (Erdos and Renyi, Barabasi and Albert preferential attachment network, and scale-free network configuration models) and 3 real networks (Gnutella peer-to-peer network, email network of the University of Rovira i Virgili, and immunoglobulin interaction network). Nodes were removed sequentially according to the importance criterion defined by the attack strategy. We used the size of the largest connected component (LCC) as a measure of network damage. We found that the efficiency of attack strategies (fraction of nodes to be deleted for a given reduction of LCC size) depends on the topology of the network, although attacks based on the number of connections of a node and betweenness centrality were often the most efficient strategies. Sequential deletion of nodes in decreasin...

  1. A Resource for Using Real-World Examples in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Janelle; Rieger, Georg

    2013-02-01

    Physics Teaching for the 21st Century (://c21.phas.ubc.ca) is a free online resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real-world contexts. The materials on this site were developed by a team of physics faculty and graduate and undergraduate students at the Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, based on issues of great current concern—reusable energy, climate change, and medical advancement. Topics on the website also focus on applications of physics in the natural world around us. There are currently about 70 different topics on the website and it is not possible to justly give a sense of the website in total here. Instead we will present one complete example of the resources available on our website and show how it can be used in the classroom or in lecture. The example discussed here is suitable for a first-year university course and focuses on diffraction through a circular aperture and Rayleigh's resolution criterion by looking at the effect of pupil size on the minimum angle of resolution. The original idea came from reading a book on zoological physics,2 and a short example was later found in a first-year physics textbook.3

  2. Evaluating climate field reconstruction techniques using improved emulations of real-world conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoproxy experiments (PPEs have become an essential framework for evaluating paleoclimate reconstruction methods. Most existing PPE studies assume constant proxy availability through time and uniform proxy quality across the pseudoproxy network. Real multi-proxy networks are, however, marked by pronounced disparities in proxy quality, and a steep decline in proxy availability back in time, either of which may have large effects on reconstruction skill. Additionally, an investigation of a real-world global multi-proxy network suggests that proxies are not exclusively indicators of local climate; rather, many are indicative of large-scale teleconnections. A suite of PPEs constructed from a millennium-length general circulation model simulation is thus designed to mimic these various real-world characteristics. The new pseudoproxy network is used to evaluate four climate field reconstruction (CFR techniques: truncated total least square embedded within the regularized EM algorithm (RegEM-TTLS, the Mann et al. (2009 implementation of RegEM-TTLS (M09, canonical correlation analysis (CCA, and Gaussian graphical models embedded within RegEM (GraphEM. Each method's risk properties are also assessed via a 100-member noise ensemble. Contrary to expectation, it is found that reconstruction skill does not vary monotonically with proxy availability, but rather is a function of the type of climate variability (forced events vs. internal variability. The use of realistic spatiotemporal pseudoproxy characteristics also exposes large inter-method differences. Despite the comparable fidelity in reconstructing the global mean temperature, spatial skill varies considerably between CFR techniques. Both GraphEM and CCA efficiently exploit teleconnections, and produce consistent reconstructions across the ensemble. RegEM-TTLS and M09 appear advantageous for reconstructions on highly noisy data, but are subject to larger stochastic variations across different

  3. Effectiveness of inhaler types for real-world asthma management: retrospective observational study using the GPRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available David Price1,2 John Haughney1, Erika Sims2, Muzammil Ali2, Julie von Ziegenweidt2, Elizabeth V Hillyer2, Amanda J Lee3, Alison Chisholm2, Neil Barnes41Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Research in Real Life Ltd, Cawston, Norwich, UK; 3Section of Population Health, University of Aberdeen, UK; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, London Chest Hospital, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London, UKPurpose: Results of randomized controlled trials may not predict effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS in real-world clinical practice, where inhaler technique and device characteristics can influence effectiveness. We compared asthma outcomes for ICS delivered via three different inhaler devices: pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI, breath-actuated MDI (BAI, and dry powder inhaler (DPI.Patients and methods: This retrospective database study evaluated 1-year outcomes for primary care patients with asthma aged 5–60 years prescribed their first ICS (initiation population by pMDI (n = 39,746, BAI (n = 9809, or DPI (n = 6792, or their first ICS dose increase (step-up population by pMDI (n = 6245, BAI (n = 1388, or DPI (n = 1536. Co-primary outcome measures were composite proxy measures of asthma control (no hospital attendance for asthma, oral corticosteroids, or antibiotics for lower respiratory infection and severe exacerbations (unscheduled hospital admission, emergency room attendance, or oral corticosteroids. Outcomes were adjusted for potential confounding factors identified during a baseline year.Results: In the initiation population, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI] for asthma control, as compared with pMDIs, were significantly better for BAIs (1.08 [1.02–1.14] and DPIs (1.13 [1.06–1.21], while adjusted exacerbation rate ratios (95% CI were 1.00 (0.93–1.08 and 0.88 (0.81–0.95, respectively. In the step-up population, adjusted odds of asthma control were 1.21 (1.05–1.39 for

  4. Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization for Real-World Delivery Problems Based on Real Time and Predicted Traffic in Wide Area Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ochiai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to real-world delive ry problems for home delivery services where a large number of roads exist in cities and the tra ffic on the roads rapidly changes with time. The methodology for finding the shortest-travel-tim e tour includes a hybrid meta-heuristic that combines ant colony optimization with Dijkstra’s al gorithm, a search technique that uses both real-time traffic and predicted traffic, and a way to use a real-world road map and measured traffic in Japan. Experimental results using a map of central Tokyo and historical traffic data indicate that the proposed method can find a better solution than conventional methods.

  5. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2015-02-01

    It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.

  6. Declarative Combinatorics: Isomorphisms, Hylomorphisms and Hereditarily Finite Data Types in Haskell

    CERN Document Server

    Tarau, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an exploration in a functional programming framework of isomorphisms between elementary data types (natural numbers, sets, finite functions, permutations binary decision diagrams, graphs, hypergraphs, parenthesis languages, dyadic rationals etc.) and their extension to hereditarily finite universes through hylomorphisms derived from ranking/unranking and pairing/unpairing operations. An embedded higher order combinator language provides any-to-any encodings automatically. A few examples of "free algorithms" obtained by transferring operations between data types are shown. Other applications range from stream iterators on combinatorial objects to succinct data representations and generation of random instances. The paper is part of a larger effort to cover in a declarative programming paradigm some fundamental combinatorial generation algorithms along the lines of Knuth's recent work \\cite{knuth06draft}. In 440 lines of Haskell code we cover 20 data types and, through the use of the embedded comb...

  7. Performance on a computerized shopping task significantly predicts real world functioning in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloyaux, Julien; Pellegrini, Nadia; Mourad, Haitham; Bertrand, Hervé; Domken, Marc-André; Van der Linden, Martial; Larøi, Frank

    2013-12-15

    Persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder often suffer from cognitive impairments. However, little is known concerning how these cognitive deficits impact their real world functioning. We developed a computerized real-life activity task, where participants are required to shop for a list of grocery store items. Twenty one individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 21 matched healthy controls were administered the computerized shopping task. Moreover, the patient group was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests and clinical scales. Performance on the shopping task significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for two variables: Total time to complete the shopping task and Mean time spent to consult the shopping list. Moreover, in the patient group, performance on these variables from the shopping task correlated significantly with cognitive functioning (i.e. processing speed, verbal episodic memory, planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition) and with clinical variables including duration of illness and real world functioning. Finally, variables from the shopping task were found to significantly explain 41% of real world functioning of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. These findings suggest that the shopping task provides a good indication of real world functioning and cognitive functioning of persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hierarchical Event Descriptors (HED): Semi-Structured Tagging for Real-World Events in Large-Scale EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Cockfield, Jeremy; Makeig, Scott; Rognon, Thomas; La Valle, Chris; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Robbins, Kay A.

    2016-01-01

    Real-world brain imaging by EEG requires accurate annotation of complex subject-environment interactions in event-rich tasks and paradigms. This paper describes the evolution of the Hierarchical Event Descriptor (HED) system for systematically describing both laboratory and real-world events. HED version 2, first described here, provides the semantic capability of describing a variety of subject and environmental states. HED descriptions can include stimulus presentation events on screen or in virtual worlds, experimental or spontaneous events occurring in the real world environment, and events experienced via one or multiple sensory modalities. Furthermore, HED 2 can distinguish between the mere presence of an object and its actual (or putative) perception by a subject. Although the HED framework has implicit ontological and linked data representations, the user-interface for HED annotation is more intuitive than traditional ontological annotation. We believe that hiding the formal representations allows for a more user-friendly interface, making consistent, detailed tagging of experimental, and real-world events possible for research users. HED is extensible while retaining the advantages of having an enforced common core vocabulary. We have developed a collection of tools to support HED tag assignment and validation; these are available at hedtags.org. A plug-in for EEGLAB (sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab), CTAGGER, is also available to speed the process of tagging existing studies. PMID:27799907

  9. Hierarchical Event Descriptors (HED: Semi-structured tagging for real-world events in large-scale EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Bigdely-Shamlo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-world brain imaging by EEG requires accurate annotation of complex subject-environment interactions in event-rich tasks and paradigms. This paper describes the evolution of the HED (Hierarchical Event Descriptor system for systematically describing both laboratory and real-world events. HED version 2, first described here, provides the semantic capability of describing a variety of subject and environmental states. HED descriptions can include stimulus presentation events on screen or in virtual worlds, experimental or spontaneous events occurring in the real world environment, and events experienced via one or multiple sensory modalities. Furthermore, HED 2 can distinguish between the mere presence of an object and its actual (or putative perception by a subject. Although the HED framework has implicit ontological and linked data representations, the user-interface for HED annotation is more intuitive than traditional ontological annotation. We believe that hiding the formal representations allows for a more user-friendly interface, making consistent, detailed tagging of experimental and real-world events possible for research users. HED is extensible while retaining the advantages of having an enforced common core vocabulary. We have developed a collection of tools to support HED tag assignment and validation; these are available at hedtags.org. A plug-in for EEGLAB (sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab, CTAGGER, is also available to speed the process of tagging existing studies.

  10. Association Between NCAP Ratings and Real-World Rear Seat Occupant Risk of Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kristina B; Gruschow, Siobhan; Durbin, Dennis R; Curry, Allison E

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated the correlation between U.S. or Euro New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings and injury risk to front seat occupants, in particular driver injuries. Conversely, little is known about whether NCAP 5-star ratings predict real-world risk of injury to restrained rear seat occupants. The NHTSA has identified rear seat occupant protection as a specific area under consideration for improvements to its NCAP. In order to inform NHTSA's efforts, we examined how NCAP's current 5-star rating system predicts risk of moderate or greater injury among restrained rear seat occupants in real-world crashes. We identified crash-involved vehicles, model year 2004-2013, in NASS-CDS (2003-2012) with known make and model and nonmissing occupant information. We manually matched these vehicles to their NCAP star ratings using data on make, model, model year, body type, and other identifying information. The resultant linked NASS-CDS and NCAP database was analyzed to examine associations between vehicle ratings and rear seat occupant injury risk; risk to front seat occupants was also estimated for comparison. Data were limited to restrained occupants and occupant injuries were defined as any injury with a maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or greater. We linked 95% of vehicles in NASS-CDS to a specific vehicle in NCAP. The 18,218 vehicles represented an estimated 6 million vehicles with over 9 million occupants. Rear seat passengers accounted for 12.4% of restrained occupants. The risk of injury in all crashes for restrained rear seat occupants was lower in vehicles with a 5-star driver rating in frontal impact tests (1.4%) than with 4 or fewer stars (2.6%, P =.015); results were similar for the frontal impact passenger rating (1.3% vs. 2.4%, P =.024). Conversely, side impact driver and passenger crash tests were not associated with rear seat occupant injury risk (driver test: 1.7% for 5-star vs. 1.8% for 1-4 stars; passenger test: 1.6% for 5

  11. Using trainable hearing aids to examine real-world preferred gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, H Gustav; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Weber, Jennifer E

    2008-01-01

    While there have been many studies of real-world preferred hearing aid gain, few data are available from participants using hearing aids with today's special features activated. Moreover, only limited data have been collected regarding preferred gain for individuals using trainable hearing aids. To determine whether real-world preferred hearing aid gain with trainable modern hearing aids is in agreement with previous work in this area, and to determine whether the starting programmed gain setting influences preferred gain outcome. An experimental crossover study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. Following initial treatment, each subject crossed to the opposite group and experienced that treatment. Twenty-two adults with downward sloping sensorineural hearing loss served as participants (mean age 64.5; 16 males, 6 females). All were experienced users of bilateral amplification. Using a crossover design, participants were fitted to two different prescriptive gain conditions: VC (volume control) start-up 6 dB above NAL-NL1 (National Acoustic Laboratories-Non-linear 1) target or VC start-up 6 dB below NAL-NL1 target. The hearing aids were used in a 10 to 14 day field trial for each condition, and using the VC, the participants could "train" the overall hearing aid gain to their preferred level. During the field trial, daily hearing aid use was logged, as well as the listening situations experienced by the listeners based on the hearing instrument's acoustic scene analysis. The participants completed a questionnaire at the start and end of each field trial in which they rated loudness perceptions and their satisfaction with aided loudness levels. Because several participants potentially experienced floor or ceiling effects for the range of trainable gain, the majority of the statistical analysis was conducted using 12 of the 22 participants. For both VC-start conditions, the trained preferred gain differed significantly from the NAL

  12. [Characteristics and drug analysis associated with vertigo disease in real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-09-01

    To explore the characteristics and influenced factors associated with the onset of vertigo disease, analysis of 3 719 cases of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease from the real world. Analysis the date of patients diagnosed with vertigo disease from the hospital information system of 19 grade-III class-A hospital from 2004 to 2011, include general information, the doctor's advice, other diseases combined, diagnostic information and the relationship with the onset of 24 solar terms, and the treatment drugs. The median age of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease was 59, the number of women (65.91%) was more than men (34.09%), manual workers (85.32%) were the majority career, most patients (81.63%) condition were general by the time they were hospital admission, patients more like admitted to neurologist (70.34%) when they first time to outpatient serves, hospitalization days were in 8-14 days (46.65%), 46.04% of the patients in the hospital total cost is in 5 000 RMB to 10 000 RMB, 73.86% of patients paid by National Health Medical Insurance. Hypertension (20.79%) was the most common underlying health problems, The most common syndromes was deficiency of liver-Yin and kidney-Yin(44. 21%) , followed by hyperactivity of liver-yang, disease of phlegm turbidity in mongolia and deficiency of Qi and blood. There were more deficiency syndrome and less excess syndrome. The highest rate of hospital admission solar terms in 2009 was the insects awaken throttle (5.21%), In 2010, the highest rate solar terms of hospital admission was the rain throttle (6.14%). The most frequently used traditional Chinese medicine was gastrodine injection (20.55%), the most frequently used western medicine for betahistine (10.19%), gastrodine injection was the most traditional Chinese medicine that combination with other western medicine. Hypertension was the most underlying health problems in the patients with vertigo disease in the real world, although the mental factors should

  13. Eye Movement Patterns during Locomotion in Real-World and Simulated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eye movements in a search-and-count walking task were compared between a simulated (SE and real-world environment (RE. Eye movements were recorded using the mobile WearCam in either RE or the StroMoHab locomotion simulator, a treadmill-based system for gait mobility rehabilitation. For Experiment 1, a RE was prepared with objects (coloured balls and occluding barriers placed along a 38 m long corridor. A video was captured from a walker's viewpoint at 1.3 km/hr. Fifteen subjects per environment reported the total object count after completing a walk while viewing the video in the SE (at 0, 1.3, or 2.5 km/h and RE (at 1.3 km/h. Examining the number of eye transitions (TotET between objects in relation to walking speed in SE, revealed significant increases between 0 and 2.5 km/h (F3, 56 =20.62, p = .02 and 1.3 and 2.5 km/h (F3, 56 =20.62, p = .039, despite no change in video speed; no significant difference was found between 0 and 1.3 km/h. In Experiment 2, 15 subjects viewed a static checkered screen and were instructed to ‘view the screen’ while walking. TotET decreased significantly, between 1.3 km/h and 5.2 km/h (F2, 27 =3.437, p = .014; no significant differences were observed between 2.6 km/h and either 1.3 km/h or 5.2 km/h. In real-world conditions, walking faster increases the difficulty of search tasks, with a likely correlated increase in eye movements. Apparently, the expectation of increased difficulty carries over to SE, even if the visual task is not more difficult. The findings point to physiological and perceptual correlations between locomotion and eye movements.

  14. Smartphone-Based Psychotherapeutic Micro-Interventions to Improve Mood in a Real-World Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Oh, Minkyung; Jung, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Alfano, Janine; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Tegethoff, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes. As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects-after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition-underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good-bad, GB; awake-tired, AT; and calm-nervous, CN). Twenty-seven men participated on at least 11 days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13%) and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30%) being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood [GB: b = 0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI) [0.068, 0.860], t (613.3) = 2.298, p = 0.022] and became more awake [AT: b = 0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t (612.4) = 2.456, p = 0.014] and calmer [CN: b = 0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t (612.3) = 4.137, p mindfulness-based psychotherapy, transcendental meditation, and other contemplative therapies. The results encourage exploring these techniques' capability to improve mood in randomized controlled studies and patients. Smartphone-based micro-interventions are promising to modify mood in real-world settings, complementing other psychotherapeutic interventions, in

  15. Real-world evaluation of compliance and preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai MC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Chyi Pai,1,2 Hany Aref,3 Nazem Bassil,4 Nagaendran Kandiah,5 Jae-Hong Lee,6 AV Srinivasan,7 Shelley diTommaso,8 Ozgur Yuksel81Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, 2Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan; 3Department of Neurology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Saint Georges Hospital Medical Center, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 6Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul, South Korea; 7The Tamil Nadu Dr MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; 8Novartis Pharma AG, Postfach, Basel, SwitzerlandPurpose: Rivastigmine transdermal patch has shown higher caregiver satisfaction and greater preference than oral formulation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, there is limited literature available related to caregiver preference or treatment compliance in real-world clinical settings. To date, no such data are available from Asia and the Middle East, which account for a sizeable proportion of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment preference and compliance with oral and transdermal medications in daily clinical practice in an ethnically diverse patient population from Asia and the Middle East with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.Patients and methods: RECAP (Real-world Evaluation of Compliance And Preference in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease was a 24-week, multicenter, prospective, noninterventional study. Two treatment cohorts were observed during the study: oral (cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine and transdermal (rivastigmine patch. Caregiver preference, physician preference, and patient compliance were evaluated at week 24.Results: A total of 978 of 1

  16. Efficacy and safety of tenofovir in chronic hepatitis B: Australian real world experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Grace C; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David M; Holmes, Jacinta A; Chen, Robert; Demediuk, Barbara; Shaw, Gideon; Bell, Sally J; Desmond, Paul V; Thompson, Alexander J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the long-term treatment outcomes of tenofovir therapy in patients in a real world Australian tertiary care setting. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes among treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients receiving a minimum 3 mo tenofovir therapy through St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne, Australia. We included patients receiving tenofovir [tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)] monotherapy, as well as patients treated with TDF in combination with a second antiviral agent. Patients were excluded if they demonstrated human immune-deficiency virus/hepatitis C virus/hepatitis delta virus coinfection or were less than 18 years of age. We considered virological and biochemical response, as well as safety outcomes. Virological response was determined by measurement of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA using sensitive assays; biochemical response was determined via serum liver function tests; histological response was determined from liver biopsy and fibroscan; safety analysis focused on glomerular renal function and bone mineral density. The primary efficacy endpoint was complete virological suppression over time, defined by HBV DNA < 20 IU/mL. Secondary efficacy endpoints included rates of biochemical response, and HB e antigen (HBeAg)/HB surface antigen loss and seroconversion over time. RESULTS Ninety-two patients were identified who fulfilled the enrolment criteria. Median follow-up was 26 mo (range 3-114). Mean age was 46 (24-78) years, 64 (70%) were male and 77 (84%) were of Asian origin. 55 (60%) patients were treatment-naïve and 62 patients (67%) were HBeAg-negative. Complete virological suppression was achieved by 45/65 (71%) patients at 12 mo, 37/46 (80%) at 24 mo and 25/28 (89%) at 36 mo. Partial virological response (HBV DNA 20-2000 IU/mL) was achieved by 89/92 (96.7%) of patients. Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between virological suppression at end of follow-up and baseline HBV DNA

  17. Testing the hybrid-3D Hillslope Hydrological Model in a Real-World Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Gochis, D. J.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    Hillslopes play an important role for converting rainfall into runoff, and as such, influence theterrestrial dynamics of the Earth's climate system. Recently, we have developed a hybrid-3D (h3D) hillslope hydrological model that couples a 1D vertical soil column model with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow model. The h3D model gives similar results as the CATchment HYdrological model (CATHY), which simulates the subsurface movement of water with the 3D Richards equation, though the runtime efficiency of the h3D model is about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster. In the current work, the ability of the h3D model to predict real-world hydrological dynamics is assessed using a number of recharge-drainage experiments within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at the Biosphere 2 near Tucson, Arizona, USA. LEO offers accurate and high-resolution (both temporally and spatially) observations of the inputs, outputs and storage dynamics of several hillslopes. The level of detail of these observations is generally not possible with real-world hillslope studies. Therefore, LEO offers an optimal environment to test the h3D model. The h3D model captures the observed storage, baseflow, and overland flow dynamics of both a larger and a smaller hillslope. Furthermore, it simulates overland flow better than CATHY. The h3D model has difficulties correctly representing the height of the saturated zone close to the seepage face of the smaller hillslope, though. There is a gravel layer near this seepage face, and the numerical boundary condition of the h3D model is insufficient to capture the hydrological dynamics within this region. In addition, the h3D model is used to test the hypothesis that model parameters change through time due to the migration of soil particles during the recharge-drainage experiments. An in depth calibration of the h3D model parameters reveals that the best results are obtained by applying an event-based optimization procedure as compared

  18. Electrochemistry Experiments to Develop Novel Sensors for Real-World Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available These novel STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics Electrochemistry experiments have been designed to increase the integrated science content, pedagogical, and technological knowledge for real-world applications. This study has focused on (1 the fundamental understanding on the relationship of metal oxide films and polymers to electrochemical sensors, and (2 the development of new materials which have great application of electrode materials. Following the inquiry based learning strategy the research students learn to develop and study the electrode surfaces to meet the needs of stability and low detection limits. Recently, new advances in environmental health are revealing the anthropogenic or naturally occurring harmful organic chemicals in sources of water supply expose a great health threat to human and aquatic life. Due to their well-known carcinogenic and lethal properties, the presence of human produced toxic chemicals such as phenol and its derivatives poses a critical threat to human health and aquatic life in such water resources. In order to achieve effective assessment and monitoring of these toxic chemicals there is a need to develop in-situ (electrochemical sensors methods to detect rapidly. Electrochemical sensors have attracted more attention to analytical chemist and electrochemistry engineers due to its simplicity, rapidness and high sensitivity. However, there will be real challenges of achieving successful analysis of chemicals (phenol in the presence of common interferences in water resources, which will be discussed regarding the students challenging learning experiences in developing an electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor developed (TiO2 , ZrO2 or sol-gel mixture TiO2/ZrO2 will be illustrated and the successes will be shown by cyclic voltammetry data in detection of 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes (catechol, dopamine and phenol.

  19. Electrochemistry Experiments to Develop Novel Sensors for Real-World Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available These novel STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics Electrochemistry experiments have been designed to increase the integrated science content, pedagogical, and technological knowledge for real-world applications. This study has focused on (1 the fundamental understanding on the relationship of metal oxide films and polymers to electrochemical sensors, and (2 the development of new materials which have great application of electrode materials. Following the inquiry based learning strategy the research students learn to develop and study the electrode surfaces to meet the needs of stability and low detection limits. Recently, new advances in environmental health are revealing the anthropogenic or naturally occurring harmful organic chemicals in sources of water supply expose a great health threat to human and aquatic life. Due to their well-known carcinogenic and lethal properties, the presence of human produced toxic chemicals such as phenol and its derivatives poses a critical threat to human health and aquatic life in such water resources. In order to achieve effective assessment and monitoring of these toxic chemicals there is a need to develop in-situ (electrochemical sensors methods to detect rapidly. Electrochemical sensors have attracted more attention to analytical chemist and electrochemistry engineers due to its simplicity, rapidness and high sensitivity. However, there will be real challenges of achieving successful analysis of chemicals (phenol in the presence of common interferences in water resources, which will be discussed regarding the students challenging learning experiences in developing an electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor developed (TiO2 , ZrO2 or sol-gel mixture TiO2/ZrO2 will be illustrated and the successes will be shown by cyclic voltammetry data in detection of 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes (catechol, dopamine and phenol.

  20. Web Browser History Detection as a Real-World Privacy Threat

    CERN Document Server

    Janc, A

    2010-01-01

    Web browser history detection using CSS $visited$ styles has long been dismissed as an issue of marginal impact. However, due to recent changes in Web usage patterns, coupled with browser performance improvements, the long-standing issue has now become a significant threat to the privacy of Internet users. In this paper we analyze the impact of CSS-based history detection and demonstrate the feasibility of conducting practical attacks with minimal resources. We analyze Web browser behavior and detectability of content loaded via standard protocols and with various HTTP response codes. We develop an algorithm for efficient examination of large link sets and evaluate its performance in modern browsers. Compared to existing methods our approach is up to 6 times faster, and is able to detect up to 30,000 visited links per second. We present a novel Web application capable of effectively detecting clients’ browsing histories and discuss real-world results obtained from 271,576 Internet users. Our results indicat...

  1. Semantics-Based Composition of Integrated Cardiomyocyte Models Motivated by Real-World Use Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Maxwell L; Carlson, Brian E; Thompson, Christopher T; James, Ryan C; Kim, Karam G; Tran, Kenneth; Crampin, Edmund J; Cook, Daniel L; Gennari, John H

    2015-01-01

    Semantics-based model composition is an approach for generating complex biosimulation models from existing components that relies on capturing the biological meaning of model elements in a machine-readable fashion. This approach allows the user to work at the biological rather than computational level of abstraction and helps minimize the amount of manual effort required for model composition. To support this compositional approach, we have developed the SemGen software, and here report on SemGen's semantics-based merging capabilities using real-world modeling use cases. We successfully reproduced a large, manually-encoded, multi-model merge: the "Pandit-Hinch-Niederer" (PHN) cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction model, previously developed using CellML. We describe our approach for annotating the three component models used in the PHN composition and for merging them at the biological level of abstraction within SemGen. We demonstrate that we were able to reproduce the original PHN model results in a semi-automated, semantics-based fashion and also rapidly generate a second, novel cardiomyocyte model composed using an alternative, independently-developed tension generation component. We discuss the time-saving features of our compositional approach in the context of these merging exercises, the limitations we encountered, and potential solutions for enhancing the approach.

  2. Maverick total disc replacement in a real-world patient population: a prospective, multicentre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaker, Richard; Ritter-Lang, Karsten; Vardon, Dominique; Litrico, Stéphane; Fuentes, Stéphane; Putzier, Michael; Franke, Jörg; Jarzem, Peter; Guigui, Pierre; Nakach, Gérard; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2015-09-01

    Controlled trials have shown that total disc replacement (TDR) can provide pain and disability relief to patients with degenerative disc disease; however, whether these outcomes can also be achieved for patients treated in normal surgical practice has not been well documented. This prospective, international study observed changes in disability and back pain in 134 patients who were implanted with Maverick TDR within the framework of routine clinical practice and followed for 2 years post-surgery. Primary and secondary outcomes were the differences from baseline to 6 months post-surgery in the means of the Oswestry Disability Index and the change in back pain intensity assessed on a 10-cm visual analogue scale, respectively. Mean patient age at surgery was 43 years, but ranged up to 65 years. One hundred twenty-three patients had an implant at one level, 10 patients at two levels, and one patient at three levels. Statistically significant improvements in mean disability (-25.4) and low back pain intensity (-4.0) scores were observed at 6 months postoperatively (P 10 TDRs per centre). During the study, 56 patients (42 %) experienced a complication or adverse event. This is the first international observational study to report outcomes of TDR in real-world clinical settings. We showed statistically significant improvements in disability and pain scores at 6 months following Maverick TDR, which were maintained for 2 years alongside an acceptable rate of perioperative complications. The safety and tolerability shown in this observational study were comparable to those from controlled trials.

  3. Semantics-Based Composition of Integrated Cardiomyocyte Models Motivated by Real-World Use Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell L Neal

    Full Text Available Semantics-based model composition is an approach for generating complex biosimulation models from existing components that relies on capturing the biological meaning of model elements in a machine-readable fashion. This approach allows the user to work at the biological rather than computational level of abstraction and helps minimize the amount of manual effort required for model composition. To support this compositional approach, we have developed the SemGen software, and here report on SemGen's semantics-based merging capabilities using real-world modeling use cases. We successfully reproduced a large, manually-encoded, multi-model merge: the "Pandit-Hinch-Niederer" (PHN cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction model, previously developed using CellML. We describe our approach for annotating the three component models used in the PHN composition and for merging them at the biological level of abstraction within SemGen. We demonstrate that we were able to reproduce the original PHN model results in a semi-automated, semantics-based fashion and also rapidly generate a second, novel cardiomyocyte model composed using an alternative, independently-developed tension generation component. We discuss the time-saving features of our compositional approach in the context of these merging exercises, the limitations we encountered, and potential solutions for enhancing the approach.

  4. Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2009-05-01

    Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. The authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 patients with medicated schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia.

  5. The orbitofrontal cortex, real-world decision making, and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denburg, Natalie L; Cole, Catherine A; Hernandez, Michael; Yamada, Torricia H; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine; Wallace, Robert B

    2007-12-01

    The present series of three studies aims at investigating the hypothesis that some seemingly normal older persons have deficits in reasoning and decision making due to dysfunction in a neural system which includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortices. This hypothesis is relevant to the comprehensive study of aging, and also addresses the question of why so many older adults fall prey to fraud. To our knowledge, this work represents the first of its kind to begin to identify, from an individual-differences perspective, the behavioral, psychophysiological, and consumer correlates of defective decision making among healthy older adults. Our findings, in a cross-sectional sample of community-dwelling participants, demonstrate that a sizeable subset of older adults (approximately 35-40%) perform disadvantageously on a laboratory measure of decision making that closely mimics everyday life, by the manner in which it factors in reward, punishment, risk, and ambiguity. These same poor decision makers display defective autonomic responses (or somatic markers), reminiscent of that previously established in patients with acquired prefrontal lesions. Finally, we present data demonstrating that poor decision makers are more likely to fall prey to deceptive advertising, suggesting compromise of real-world judgment and decision-making abilities.

  6. Real-world datasets for portfolio selection and solutions of some stochastic dominance portfolio models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Renato; Cesarone, Francesco; Scozzari, Andrea; Tardella, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    A large number of portfolio selection models have appeared in the literature since the pioneering work of Markowitz. However, even when computational and empirical results are described, they are often hard to replicate and compare due to the unavailability of the datasets used in the experiments. We provide here several datasets for portfolio selection generated using real-world price values from several major stock markets. The datasets contain weekly return values, adjusted for dividends and for stock splits, which are cleaned from errors as much as possible. The datasets are available in different formats, and can be used as benchmarks for testing the performances of portfolio selection models and for comparing the efficiency of the algorithms used to solve them. We also provide, for these datasets, the portfolios obtained by several selection strategies based on Stochastic Dominance models (see "On Exact and Approximate Stochastic Dominance Strategies for Portfolio Selection" (Bruni et al. [2])). We believe that testing portfolio models on publicly available datasets greatly simplifies the comparison of the different portfolio selection strategies.

  7. Prescribing patterns of duloxetine in France: a prescription assessment study in real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augendre-Ferrante, Beatrice; Picard, Hernan; Evans, David; Arkoub, Hafida; Pamulapati, Sireesha; Perrot, Serge; Valensi, Paul; Rouillon, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Duloxetine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved in the European Union for the treatment of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain in adults. This study aimed to assess the real-world conditions of duloxetine use in France. Between April 2009 and January 2010, 290 dispensing pharmacies, randomly selected from a nationally representative list, included 1,104 patients who presented a duloxetine prescription and consented to the study. Demographic, clinical, and prescription data were extracted from pharmacy records and requested from prescribing physicians. Of the 294 patients with full data available, the mean age (standard deviation) was 54.5 (13.5) years; 74.1% were female; and 86.7% presented with a renewal prescription. 73.5% of patients had major depressive disorder; 3.4% generalized anxiety disorder; and 3.4% diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Overall, 78.2% (95% CI: 73.1; 82.8) of patients received duloxetine for an EU-approved indication; 95.2% (95% CI: 92.1; 97.4) of patients had no contra-indication to duloxetine; and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.0; 99.8) received an approved dose. Combining these three criteria, the overall approved use of duloxetine was 73.7% (95% CI: 68.3; 78.7). The strengths and limitations of the study design are discussed.

  8. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  9. Functioning in the Real World: Using Storytelling to Improve Validity in the Assessment of Executive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annotti, Lee A; Teglasi, Hedwig

    2016-08-02

    Real-world contexts differ in the clarity of expectations for desired responses, as do assessment procedures, ranging along a continuum from maximal conditions that provide well-defined expectations to typical conditions that provide ill-defined expectations. Executive functions guide effective social interactions, but relations between them have not been studied with measures that are matched in the clarity of response expectations. In predicting teacher-rated social competence (SC) from kindergarteners' performance on tasks of executive functions (EFs), we found better model-data fit indexes when both measures were similar in the clarity of response expectations for the child. The maximal EF measure, the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, presents well-defined response expectations, and the typical EF measure, 5 scales from the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), presents ill-defined response expectations (i.e., Abstraction, Perceptual Integration, Cognitive-Experiential Integration, and Associative Thinking). To assess SC under maximal and typical conditions, we used 2 teacher-rated questionnaires, with items, respectively, that emphasize well-defined and ill-defined expectations: the Behavior Rating Inventory: Behavioral Regulation Index and the Social Skills Improvement System: Social Competence Scale. Findings suggest that matching clarity of expectations improves generalization across measures and highlight the usefulness of the TAT to measure EF.

  10. Treatment decisions in multiple sclerosis - insights from real-world observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojano, Maria; Tintore, Mar; Montalban, Xavier; Hillert, Jan; Kalincik, Tomas; Iaffaldano, Pietro; Spelman, Tim; Sormani, Maria Pia; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2017-02-01

    The complexity of multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment means that doctors and decision-makers need the best available evidence to make the best decisions for patient care. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are accepted as the gold standard for assessing the efficacy and safety of any new drug, but conclusions of these trials do not always aid in daily decision-making processes. Indeed, RCTs are usually conducted in ideal conditions, so can measure efficacy only in restricted and unrepresentative populations. In the past decade, a growing number of MS databases and registries have started to produce long-term outcome data from large cohorts of patients with MS treated with disease-modifying therapies in real-world settings. Such observational studies are addressing issues that are otherwise difficult or impossible to study. In this Review, we focus on the most recently published observational studies designed to identify predictors of poor outcome and treatment response or failure, and to evaluate the relative and long-term effectiveness of currently used MS treatments. We also outline the statistical approaches that are most commonly used to reduce bias and limitations in these studies, and the challenges associated with the use of 'big MS data' to facilitate the implementation of personalized medicine in MS.

  11. Apparatus to characterize gas sensor response under real-world conditions in the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, J; Eberhardt, A; Walden, P; Ortiz Pérez, A; Wöllenstein, J; Palzer, S

    2014-05-01

    The use of semiconducting metal-oxide (MOX) based gas sensors in demanding applications such as climate and environmental research as well as industrial applications is currently hindered by their poor reproducibility, selectivity, and sensitivity. This is mainly due to the sensing mechanism which relies on the change of conductivity of the metal-oxide layer. To be of use for advanced applications metal-oxide (MOX) gas sensors need to be carefully prepared and characterized in laboratory environments prior to deployment. This paper describes the working principle, design, and use of a new apparatus that can emulate real-world conditions in the laboratory and characterize the MOX gas sensor signal in tailor-made atmospheres. In particular, this includes the control of trace gas concentrations and the control of oxygen and humidity levels which are important for the surface chemistry of metal-oxide based sensors. Furthermore, the sensor temperature can be precisely controlled, which is a key parameter of semiconducting, sensitive layers, and their response to particular gas compositions. The setup also allows to determine the power consumption of each device individually which may be used for performance benchmarking or monitoring changes of the temperature of the gas composition. Both, the working principle and the capabilities of the gas measurement chamber are presented in this paper employing tin dioxide (SnO2) based micro sensors as exemplary devices.

  12. Reward guides attention to object categories in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Clayton; Kaiser, Daniel; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-04-01

    Reward is thought to motivate animal-approach behavior in part by automatically facilitating the perceptual processing of reward-associated visual stimuli. Studies have demonstrated this effect for low-level visual features such as color and orientation. However, outside of the laboratory, it is rare that low-level features uniquely characterize objects relevant for behavior. Here, we test whether reward can prime representations at the level of object category. Participants detected category exemplars (cars, trees, people) in briefly presented photographs of real-world scenes. On a subset of trials, successful target detection was rewarded and the effect of this reward was measured on the subsequent trial. Results show that rewarded selection of a category exemplar caused other members of this category to become visually salient, disrupting search when subsequently presented as distractors. It is important to note that this occurred even when there was little opportunity for the repetition of visual features between examples, with the rewarded selection of a human body increasing the salience of a subsequently presented face. Thus, selection of a category example appears to activate representations of prototypical category characteristics even when these are not present in the stimulus. In this way, reward can guide attention to categories of stimuli even when individual examples share no visual characteristics.

  13. Validating vignette and conjoint survey experiments against real-world behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Yamamoto, Teppei

    2015-02-24

    Survey experiments, like vignette and conjoint analyses, are widely used in the social sciences to elicit stated preferences and study how humans make multidimensional choices. However, there is a paucity of research on the external validity of these methods that examines whether the determinants that explain hypothetical choices made by survey respondents match the determinants that explain what subjects actually do when making similar choices in real-world situations. This study compares results from conjoint and vignette analyses on which immigrant attributes generate support for naturalization with closely corresponding behavioral data from a natural experiment in Switzerland, where some municipalities used referendums to decide on the citizenship applications of foreign residents. Using a representative sample from the same population and the official descriptions of applicant characteristics that voters received before each referendum as a behavioral benchmark, we find that the effects of the applicant attributes estimated from the survey experiments perform remarkably well in recovering the effects of the same attributes in the behavioral benchmark. We also find important differences in the relative performances of the different designs. Overall, the paired conjoint design, where respondents evaluate two immigrants side by side, comes closest to the behavioral benchmark; on average, its estimates are within 2% percentage points of the effects in the behavioral benchmark.

  14. [Post-marketing surveillance of Tanreqing injection in children: a real world study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X X; Zhuo, L; Yang, Y H; Zhan, S Y; Zhai, S D

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To evaluate the safety of Tanreqing injection among children in the real world. Methods: A multicenter, large sample, ambispective cohort study, with registration-type clinical safety monitoring. A total of 6 188 inpatients and patients from the emergency units, aged ≤ 14 years who all had been using Tanreqing injection in 59 secondary and tertiary hospitals in China, were recruited between January, 2014 and May, 2015. The main outcomes would include incidence and severity of adverse drug reaction (ADR)/adverse drug event (ADE) of Tanreqing injection. Univariate analysis was used to explain the risk factors of ADR. Results: The overall incidence of ADE was 4.20‰ (26 cases), including 4 serious ones. The incidence of ADR was 3.07‰ (19 cases), including 17 cases of general ADR and 2 cases of new ADR. All the ADR cases were mild or moderate, mostly showing damages in skin and appendages. The onset of disease happened in 24 hours after the Tanreqing injection but all the ADR cases got improved or cured. Having histories of allergies to drugs or foods would increase the incidence of ADR. Conclusion:Tanreqing injection caused low incidence of ADR in children. Progams as stratifying high-risk patients and improving administrative management could further increase the safety level of Tanreqing injection.

  15. Microinverter Thermal Performance in the Real-World: Measurements and Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akram Hossain

    Full Text Available Real-world performance, durability and reliability of microinverters are critical concerns for microinverter-equipped photovoltaic systems. We conducted a data-driven study of the thermal performance of 24 new microinverters (Enphase M215 connected to 8 different brands of PV modules on dual-axis trackers at the Solar Durability and Lifetime Extension (SDLE SunFarm at Case Western Reserve University, based on minute by minute power and thermal data from the microinverters and PV modules along with insolation and environmental data from July through October 2013. The analysis shows the strengths of the associations of microinverter temperature with ambient temperature, PV module temperature, irradiance and AC power of the PV systems. The importance of the covariates are rank ordered. A multiple regression model was developed and tested based on stable solar noon-time data, which gives both an overall function that predicts the temperature of microinverters under typical local conditions, and coefficients adjustments reecting refined prediction of the microinverter temperature connected to the 8 brands of PV modules in the study. The model allows for prediction of internal temperature for the Enphase M215 given similar climatic condition and can be expanded to predict microinverter temperature in fixed-rack and roof-top PV systems. This study is foundational in that similar models built on later stage data in the life of a device could reveal potential influencing factors in performance degradation.

  16. Physical modeling of real-world slingshots for accurate speed predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Yeats, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the physics and modeling of latex-rubber slingshots. The goal is to get accurate speed predictions inspite of the significant real world difficulties of force drift, force hysteresis, rubber ageing, and the very non- linear, non-ideal, force vs. pull distance curves of slingshot rubber bands. Slingshots are known to shoot faster under some circumstances when the bands are tapered rather than having constant width and stiffness. We give both qualitative understanding and numerical predictions of this effect. We consider two models. The first is based on conservation of energy and is easier to implement, but cannot determine the speeds along the rubber bands without making assumptions. The second, treats the bands as a series of mass points subject to being pulled by immediately adjacent mass points according to how much the rubber has been stretched on the two adjacent sides. This is a classic many-body F=ma problem but convergence requires using a particular numerical technique. It gives accurate p...

  17. Energy Consumption Prediction for Electric Vehicles Based on Real-World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric De Cauwer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV energy consumption is variable and dependent on a number of external factors such as road topology, traffic, driving style, ambient temperature, etc. The goal of this paper is to detect and quantify correlations between the kinematic parameters of the vehicle and its energy consumption. Real-world data of EV energy consumption are used to construct the energy consumption calculation models. Based on the vehicle dynamics equation as underlying physical model, multiple linear regression is used to construct three models. Each model uses a different level of aggregation of the input parameters, allowing predictions using different types of available input parameters. One model uses aggregated values of the kinematic parameters of trips. This model allows prediction with basic, easily available input parameters such as travel distance, travel time, and temperature. The second model extends this by including detailed acceleration data. The third model uses the raw data of the kinematic parameters as input parameters to predict the energy consumption. Using detailed values of kinematic parameters for the prediction in theory increases the link between the statistical model and its underlying physical principles, but requires these parameters to be available as input in order to make predictions. The first two models show similar results. The third model shows a worse fit than the first two, but has a similar accuracy. This model has great potential for future improvement.

  18. Why is binocular rivalry uncommon? Discrepant monocular images in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Henry Arnold

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available When different images project to corresponding points in the two eyes they can instigate a phenomenon called binocular rivalry (BR, wherein each image seems to intermittently disappear such that only one of the two images is seen at a time. Cautious readers may have noted an important caveat in the opening sentence – this situation can instigate BR, but usually it doesn’t. Unmatched monocular images are frequently encountered in daily life due to either differential occlusions of the two eyes or because of selective obstructions of just one eye, but this does not tend to induce BR. Here I will explore the reasons for this and discuss implications for BR in general. It will be argued that BR is resolved in favour of the instantaneously stronger neural signal, and that this process is driven by an adaptation that enhances the visibility of distant fixated objects over that of more proximate obstructions of an eye. Accordingly, BR would reflect the dynamics of an inherently visual operation that usually deals with real-world constraints.

  19. Google unveils a glimpse of allergic rhinitis in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M-G; Song, W-J; Choi, S; Kim, H; Ha, H; Kim, S-H; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Yoon, S; Chang, Y-S

    2015-01-01

    Google Trends (GT) is a Web-based surveillance tool used to explore the searching trends of specific queries on Google. Recent studies have suggested the utility of GT in predicting outbreaks of influenza and other diseases. However, this utility has not been thoroughly evaluated for allergic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the utility of GT for predicting the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. In the USA, GT for allergic rhinitis showed repetitive seasonality that peaked in late April and early May and then rapidly decreased, and a second small peak occurred in September. These trends are highly correlated with the searching trends for other queries such as 'pollen count', antihistamines such as loratadine and cetirizine (all r > 0.88 and all P Google Trends for allergic rhinitis was similar to the monthly changes in rhinitis symptoms according to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, sales for Claritin(®) and all over-the-counter antihistamines, and the number of monthly page views of 'claritin.com'. In conclusion, GT closely reflects the real-world epidemiology of allergic rhinitis in the USA and could potentially be used as a monitoring tool for allergic rhinitis.

  20. Lesions to right prefrontal cortex impair real-world planning through premature commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Vartanian, Oshin; Bartolo, Angela; Hakim, Lila; Ferraro, Anna Maria; Isella, Valeria; Appollonio, Ildebrando; Drei, Silvia; Nichelli, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    While it is well accepted that the left prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in planning and problem-solving tasks, very little is known about the role of the right prefrontal cortex. We addressed this issue by testing five neurological patients with focal lesions to right prefrontal cortex on a real-world travel planning task, and compared their performance with the performance of five neurological patients with focal lesions to left prefrontal cortex, five neurological patients with posterior lesions, and five normal controls. Only patients with lesions to right prefrontal cortex generated substandard solutions compared to normal controls. Examination of the underlying cognitive processes and strategies revealed that patients with lesions to right prefrontal cortex approached the task at an excessively precise, concrete level compared to normal controls, and very early locked themselves into substandard solutions relative to the comparison group. In contrast, the behavior of normal controls was characterized by a judicious interplay of concrete and abstract levels/modes of representations. We suggest that damage to the right prefrontal system impairs the encoding and processing of more abstract and vague representations that facilitate lateral transformations, resulting in premature commitment to precise concrete patterns, and hasty albeit substandard conclusions (because the space of possibilities has not been properly explored).

  1. Effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in real-world clinical practice: Review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian J; Fernández, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown that natalizumab is highly effective for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a targeted review of data from country-specific observational studies and registries of natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing MS in order to more fully investigate the longer-term effectiveness and safety of this disease-modifying therapy in real-world clinical practice settings. A PubMed search was conducted on March 13, 2014, using the terms (natalizumab AND multiple sclerosis) AND (observational OR registry OR post-marketing OR clinical practice). Only English-language papers that reported effectiveness (in terms of effects on relapses, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging findings) and/or safety results from studies were included. Data from 22 studies/registries were included. Annualized relapse rates decreased by 73%-94% from baseline across the studies, with improvement maintained for up to 5 years during natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab effectiveness was also demonstrated via assessment of disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale), radiological measures, and no-evidence-of-disease-activity measures (clinical, radiological, and overall). Results were similar among patient groups stratified by level of disease activity. Safety outcomes were consistent with natalizumab's known safety profile. Data from country-specific observational studies and registries varying in size and scope support the effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a broad range of patients in clinical practice.

  2. Association between volume and momentum of online searches and real-world collective unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Johnson, Daniela; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Neil F.

    A fundamental idea from physics is that macroscopic transitions can occur as a result of an escalation in the correlated activity of a many-body system's constituent particles. Here we apply this idea in an interdisciplinary setting, whereby the particles are individuals, their correlated activity involves online search activity surrounding the topics of social unrest, and the macroscopic phenomenon being measured are real-world protests. Our empirical study covers countries in Latin America during 2011-2014 using datasets assembled from multiple sources by subject matter experts. We find specifically that the volume and momentum of searches on Google Trends surrounding mass protest language, can detect - and may even pre-empt - the macroscopic on-street activity. Not only can this simple open-source solution prove an invaluable aid for monitoring civil order, our study serves to strengthen the increasing literature in the physics community aimed at understanding the collective dynamics of interacting populations of living objects across the life sciences.

  3. Innovations in preventing and managing chronic conditions: what's working in the real world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassil, Alwyn

    2010-06-01

    Wellness and prevention strategies are fast becoming a standard feature of employer-based health benefits in hopes of countering rapidly rising health care costs that drive higher insurance premiums. At the same time, payers and health care providers are experimenting with how to improve care coordination for high-cost patients with multiple chronic conditions, an ongoing challenge in the fragmented U.S. health care system. Promoting health and wellness and improving the care of people with chronic conditions offer promise in helping to improve the value of health care and control costs, according to experts at a Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) conference titled, Innovations in Preventing and Managing Chronic Conditions: What's Working in the Real World? Panelists explored how effective employer-sponsored wellness and prevention initiatives focus on health improvement as a business strategy and foster work and community environments that help people lower risk factors--smoking, diet, lack of exercise--that lead to disease. Panelists also discussed various models--centered on strong primary care-to improve care for people with chronic conditions.

  4. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  5. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Hooker, Christine I; Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal-striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal-striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  6. Reconstruction of a real world social network using the Potts model and Loopy Belief Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eBisconti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, aiming at the reconstruction of a networked structure from observations of the states of the nodes in the network.The inverse Potts model, normally applied to observations of quantum states, is here addressed to observations of the node states in a network and their (anticorrelations, thus inferring interactions as links connecting the nodes. Adopting the Bethe approximation, such an inverse problem is known to be tractable.Within this operational framework, we discuss and apply this network-reconstruction method to a small real-world social network, where it is easy to track statuses of its members: the Italian parliament, adopted as a case study. The dataset is made of (cosponsorships of law proposals by parliament members. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages.

  7. Real-World-Time Simulation of Memory Consolidation in a Large-Scale Cerebellar Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosui, Masato; Yamazaki, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    We report development of a large-scale spiking network model of the cerebellum composed of more than 1 million neurons. The model is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs), which are dedicated hardware for parallel computing. Using 4 GPUs simultaneously, we achieve realtime simulation, in which computer simulation of cerebellar activity for 1 s completes within 1 s in the real-world time, with temporal resolution of 1 ms. This allows us to carry out a very long-term computer simulation of cerebellar activity in a practical time with millisecond temporal resolution. Using the model, we carry out computer simulation of long-term gain adaptation of optokinetic response (OKR) eye movements for 5 days aimed to study the neural mechanisms of posttraining memory consolidation. The simulation results are consistent with animal experiments and our theory of posttraining memory consolidation. These results suggest that realtime computing provides a useful means to study a very slow neural process such as memory consolidation in the brain.

  8. Reconstruction of a Real World Social Network using the Potts Model and Loopy Belief Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Cristian; Corallo, Angelo; Fortunato, Laura; Gentile, Antonio A; Massafra, Andrea; Pellè, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, for the reconstruction of the structure of a social network. The inverse Potts model, traditionally applied to recursive observations of quantum states in an ensemble of particles, is here addressed to observations of the members' states in an organization and their (anti)correlations, thus inferring interactions as links among the members. Adopting proper (Bethe) approximations, such an inverse problem is showed to be tractable. Within an operational framework, this network-reconstruction method is tested for a small real-world social network, the Italian parliament. In this study case, it is easy to track statuses of the parliament members, using (co)sponsorships of law proposals as the initial dataset. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with such standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages.

  9. Finite element aortic injury reconstruction of near side lateral impacts using real world crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwadi, Aditya; Siegel, John H; Singh, Aadarsh; Smith, Joyce A; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) remains the second most common cause of death associated with motor vehicle crashes, only less prevalent than brain injury. On average, nearly 8000 people die annually in the United States due to blunt injury to the aorta. It is observed that over 80% of occupants who suffer an aortic injury die at the scene due to exsanguination into the chest cavity. In the current study, eight near side lateral impacts, in which TRA occurred, were reconstructed using a combination of real world crash data reported in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database, finite element (FE) models of vehicles, and the Wayne State Human Body Model - II (WSHBM). For the eight CIREN cases reconstructed, the high strain regions in the aorta closely matched with the autopsy data provided. The peak average maximum principal strains in all of the eight CIREN cases were localized in the isthmus region of the aorta, distal to the left subclavian artery, and averaged at 22 ± 6.2% while the average maximum pressure in the aorta was found to be 117 ± 14.7 kPa.

  10. Differences in Energy Consumption in Electric Vehicles: An Exploratory Real-World Study in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezhen Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs are widely regarded as a promising solution to reduce air pollution in cities and key to a low carbon mobility future. However, their environmental benefits depend on the temporal and spatial context of actual usage (journey energy efficiency and the rolling out of EVs is complicated by issues such as limited range. This paper explores how the energy efficiency of EVs is affected and shaped by driving behavior, personal driving styles, traffic conditions, and infrastructure design in the real world. Tests have been conducted with a Nissan LEAF under a typical driving cycle on the Beijing road network in order to improve understanding of variations in energy efficiency among drivers under different urban traffic conditions. Energy consumption and operation parameters were recorded in both peak and off-peak hours for a total of 13 drivers. The analysis reported in this paper shows that there are clear patterns in energy consumption along a route that are in part related to differences in infrastructure design, traffic conditions, and personal driving styles. The proposed method for analyzing time series data about energy consumption along routes can be used for research with larger fleets of EVs in the future.

  11. Playing Tetris decreases drug and other cravings in real world settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; Whalley, Ben; May, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Most research on cognitive processes in craving has been carried out in the laboratory and focuses on food craving. This study extends laboratory findings to real world settings and cravings for drugs or activities as well as food. Previous laboratory research has found that playing Tetris reduces craving strength. The present study used an ecological momentary assessment protocol in which 31 undergraduate participants carried iPods for a week and were prompted 7 times each day, by SMS message, to use their iPod to report craving. Participants reported craving target and strength (0-100), whether they indulged their previous craving (yes/no), and whether they were under the influence of alcohol (yes/no). Those randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n=15) then played Tetris for 3min and reported their craving again. Those in the monitoring-only control condition (n=16) provided baseline craving data to test if Tetris reduced the incidence and strength of spontaneous cravings across the week. Playing Tetris decreased craving strength for drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine), food and drink, and activities (sex, exercise, gaming), with a mean reduction of 13.9 percentage points, effect size f(2)=0.11. This effect was consistent across the week. This is the first demonstration that visual cognitive interference can be used in the field to reduce cravings for substances and activities other than eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Driver trust in five driver assistance technologies following real-world use in four production vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; Cicchino, Jessica B; Reagan, Ian J; Kerfoot, Laura B

    2017-05-29

    Information about drivers' experiences with driver assistance technologies in real driving conditions is sparse. This study characterized driver interactions with forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, active lane keeping, side-view assist, and lane departure warning systems following real-world use. Fifty-four Insurance Institute for Highway Safety employees participated and drove a 2016 Toyota Prius, 2016 Honda Civic, 2017 Audi Q7, or 2016 Infiniti QX60 for up to several weeks. Participants reported mileage and warnings from the technologies in an online daily-use survey. Participants reported their level of agreement with five statements regarding trust in an online post-use survey. Responses were averaged to create a composite measure of trust ranging from -2 (strongly disagree) to +2 (strongly agree) for each technology. Mixed-effect regression models were constructed to compare trust among technologies and separately among the study vehicles. Participants' free-response answers about what they liked least about each system were coded and examined. Participants reported driving 33,584 miles during 4 months of data collection. At least one forward collision warning was reported in 26% of the 354 daily reports. The proportion of daily reports indicating a forward collision warning was much larger for the Honda (70%) than for the Audi (18%), Infiniti (15%), and Toyota (10%). Trust was highest for side-view assist (0.98) and lowest for active lane keeping (0.20). Trust in side-view assist was significantly higher than trust in active lane keeping and lane departure warning (0.53). Trust in active lane keeping was significantly lower than trust in adaptive cruise control (0.67) and forward collision warning (0.71). Trust in adaptive cruise control was higher for the Audi (0.72) and Toyota (0.75) compared with the Honda (0.30), and significantly higher for the Infiniti (0.93). Trust in Infiniti's side-view assist (0.58) was significantly lower than

  13. Particle number concentration near road traffic in Amsterdam (the Netherlands): Comparison of standard and real-world emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Zandveld, P.; Verhagen, H.; Stelwagen, U.; Jonge de, D.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, NOx and particle number concentration (PNC) at an urban background and a traffic location were measured in the city of Amsterdam (the Netherlands). Modelled and measured contributions to NOx and PNC at the traffic location were used to derive real-world PN emission factors for average urban road traffic. The results for NOx were applied to validate our approach. The real-world PN emission factors (#.km-1) were 2.9E+14 (urban road) and 3E+14 (motorway). These values were at least a factor eight higher than dynamometer-based PN emission factors from COPERT 4 and HBEFA databases. The real-world PN emission factors were used to model the contribution to PNC near road traffic in 2014. This was two to three times higher than the PNC urban background along urban roads over 20,000 vehicles per day and near motorways. The discrepancy between dynamometer-based and real-world emission factors demonstrates the need for more PNC observations to assess actual PN emissions from road traffic.

  14. Solving Real World Problems with Alternate Reality Gaming: Student Experiences in the Global Village Playground Capstone Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…

  15. A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Real-World Problem in Mathematics: Looking for Signs of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of "access" and "relevance" feature prominently in the discourse of change in mathematics education in South Africa. One way in which these concepts have been played out in mathematics classrooms is in the use of mathematical problems with real-world contexts. This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis of…

  16. Assessing the real-world cost-effectiveness of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hedden, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Among women with surgically removed, high-risk HER-2\\/neu-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab has demonstrated significant improvements in disease-free and overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the currently recommended 12-month adjuvant protocol of trastuzumab using a Markov modeling approach and real-world cost data.

  17. Evidence-Based Practice in School Substance Use Prevention: Fidelity of Implementation under Real-World Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, S. T.; Haws, S.; Ringwalt, C. L.; Vincus, A. A.; Hanley, S.; Bowling, J. M.; Rohrbach, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of program implementation under real-world conditions is a critical issue in the dissemination of evidence-based school substance use prevention curricula. Program effects are diminished when programs are implemented with poor fidelity. We assessed five domains of fidelity--adherence, exposure (dosage), quality of delivery, participant…

  18. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source ap

  19. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Sáez, Aida; Viana, Mar; Barrios, Carmen C; Rubio, Jose R; Amato, Fulvio; Pujadas, Manuel; Querol, Xavier

    2012-10-16

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source apportionment by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was carried out to interpret the real-world driving conditions. Three emission patterns were identified: (F1) cruise conditions, with medium-high speeds, contributing in this circuit with 60% of total particle number and a particle size distribution dominated by particles >52 nm and around 60 nm; (F2) transient conditions, stop-and-go conditions at medium-high speed, contributing with 25% of the particle number and mainly emitting particles in the nucleation mode; and (F3) creep-idle conditions, representing traffic congestion and frequent idling periods, contributing with 14% to the total particle number and with particles in the nucleation mode (conditions. Differences between real-world emission patterns and regulatory cycles (NEDC) are also presented, which evidence that detecting particle number emissions real-world driving conditions.

  20. Training School Personnel to Implement a Universal School-Based Prevention of Depression Program under Real-World Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, P.H.; Dadds, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of a universal prevention of depression program [the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] when implemented under real-world conditions in a school setting. Prior research has found the RAP program to be beneficial for high-school students when the program was implemented by university staff selected,…

  1. On the early detection of threats in the real world based on open-source information on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Rajadell Rojas, O.; Worm, D.T.H.; Versloot, C.A.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to detect threats in an early stage and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time con

  2. A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Real-World Problem in Mathematics: Looking for Signs of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of "access" and "relevance" feature prominently in the discourse of change in mathematics education in South Africa. One way in which these concepts have been played out in mathematics classrooms is in the use of mathematical problems with real-world contexts. This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis of…

  3. Brief Report: Relationship between Self-Awareness of Real-World Behavior and Treatment Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Marijnissen, N.; Berger, H. J. C.; Oudshoorn, J.; van der Sijde, A.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of self-awareness of real-world behavior on treatment outcome in adolescents with ASD. For this purpose we followed 28 adolescents with ASD during their first year of specialized treatment. Results showed that better self-awareness at start of treatment was related with an increase in…

  4. Brief report: relationship between self-awareness of real-world behavior and treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Marijnissen, N.; Berger, H.J.C.; Oudshoorn, J.; Sijde, A. van der; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of self-awareness of real-world behavior on treatment outcome in adolescents with ASD. For this purpose we followed 28 adolescents with ASD during their first year of specialized treatment. Results showed that better self-awareness at sta

  5. Effects of an Augmented Reality-Based Educational Game on Students' Learning Achievements and Attitudes in Real-World Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Wu, Po-Han; Chen, Chi-Chang; Tu, Nien-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has been recognized as a potential technology to help students link what they are observing in the real world to their prior knowledge. One of the most challenging issues of AR-based learning is the provision of effective strategy to help students focus on what they need to observe in the field. In this study, a competitive…

  6. 21st-Century Urban Renewal: Mathematical Understanding of Real-World Graphical Data Using Geospatial Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBay, Dennis J.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of real-world, meaningful tasks in mathematics classrooms promises to create opportunities for enhancing students' learning through active engagement with mathematical ideas; however, researchers have given little consideration to the contexts in which urban high-school students live. The case study of three students reported in…

  7. Brief report: relationship between self-awareness of real-world behavior and treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Marijnissen, N.; Berger, H.J.C.; Oudshoorn, J.; Sijde, A. van der; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of self-awareness of real-world behavior on treatment outcome in adolescents with ASD. For this purpose we followed 28 adolescents with ASD during their first year of specialized treatment. Results showed that better self-awareness at

  8. On the early detection of threats in the real world based on open-source information on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Rajadell Rojas, O.; Worm, D.T.H.; Versloot, C.A.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to detect threats in an early stage and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time

  9. Ultra-thin strut cobalt chromium bare metal stent usage in a complex real-world setting. (SOLSTICE Registry)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, M. J.; Stella, P. R.; Dens, J.; McKenzie, J. M.; Park, K. S.; Frambach, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report clinical follow-up at 6 months after implantation of the ultra-thin strut cobalt chromiumSolarFlex stent in a real-world setting. Methods and results Patients (n=240) with single or multiple vessel coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at four site

  10. Building I.S. Professionals through a Real-World Client Project in a Database Application Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeschi, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Information systems curricula are increasingly using active learning methodologies to help students learn "through" technology rather than just "about" technology. While one way to achieve this is through the assignment of semester-long projects, previous research suggests that real-world projects provide more meaningful…

  11. The Atlas of the Real World Mapping the Way We Live Daniel Dorling, Mark Newman, Anna Barford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Atlas The Atlas of the Real World – Mapping the Way We Live D. Dorlinga, M. Newmana i A. Barford objavljen je 2008. u izdanju Thames & Hudson, New York. Sastoji se od 366 tematskih karata svijeta svrstanih u šest cjelina i 16 odjeljaka.

  12. Efficient computation of exposure profiles on real-world and risk-neutral scenarios for Bermudan swaptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Q.; Jain, S.; Karlsson, P.K.; Kandhai, B.D.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient technique for the computation of exposure distributions at any future time under the risk-neutral and some observed real-world probability measures; these are needed for the computation of credit valuation adjustment (CVA) and potential future exposure

  13. Effects of an Augmented Reality-Based Educational Game on Students' Learning Achievements and Attitudes in Real-World Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Wu, Po-Han; Chen, Chi-Chang; Tu, Nien-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has been recognized as a potential technology to help students link what they are observing in the real world to their prior knowledge. One of the most challenging issues of AR-based learning is the provision of effective strategy to help students focus on what they need to observe in the field. In this study, a competitive…

  14. Quality labeled faces in the wild (QLFW): a database for studying face recognition in real-world environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Lina J.; Zhu, Tong

    2015-03-01

    The varying quality of face images is an important challenge that limits the effectiveness of face recognition technology when applied in real-world applications. Existing face image databases do not consider the effect of distortions that commonly occur in real-world environments. This database (QLFW) represents an initial attempt to provide a set of labeled face images spanning the wide range of quality, from no perceived impairment to strong perceived impairment for face detection and face recognition applications. Types of impairment include JPEG2000 compression, JPEG compression, additive white noise, Gaussian blur and contrast change. Subjective experiments are conducted to assess the perceived visual quality of faces under different levels and types of distortions and also to assess the human recognition performance under the considered distortions. One goal of this work is to enable automated performance evaluation of face recognition technologies in the presence of different types and levels of visual distortions. This will consequently enable the development of face recognition systems that can operate reliably on real-world visual content in the presence of real-world visual distortions. Another goal is to enable the development and assessment of visual quality metrics for face images and for face detection and recognition applications.

  15. Long-term safety of icatibant treatment of patients with angioedema in real-world clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanichelli, A; Maurer, M; Aberer, W

    2017-01-01

    The Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) is an observational study monitoring safety and effectiveness of icatibant in the real-world setting. We analyzed safety data from 3025 icatibant-treated attacks in 557 patients (enrolled between July 2009 and February 2015). Icatibant was generally well tolerat...

  16. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of real world data comparative effectiveness research of systemic therapies in lung oncology: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Bas J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824585; Janssen, Vivi E.M.T.; Schramel, Franz M.; van de Garde, Ewoudt M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841528

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The growing interest in comparative effectiveness research (CER) based on data from routine clinical practice also extends towards lung oncology. Although CER studies using real world data (RWD) have the potential to assist clinical decision-making, concerns about the quality and validi

  17. Efficient computation of exposure profiles on real-world and risk-neutral scenarios for Bermudan swaptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis); Q. Feng (Qian); S. Jain (Shashi); P.K. Karlsson (Patrik); B.D. Kandhai

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper presents a computationally efficient technique for the computation of exposure distributions at any future time under the risk-neutral and some observed real-world probability measures; these are needed for the computation of credit valuation adjustment (CVA) and potential

  18. What is missing from the Spoken English classroom? : The gap between classroom learning and real world application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇

    2015-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by many English learners is taking the knowledge learnt in the classroom and applying it to real world situations.Simply participating in class does not guarantee that a student will be able to cope in real world interactions,especially in casual or informal settings.Many structured teaching materials in classroom have missed out significant elements which reflect the nature of informal communication.Several factors will be discussed here that could affect the quality of spoken language teaching materials in the classroom.These include the structure and content of teaching materials and classroom activities,the types of external resources used in class or recommended as a complementary learning tools,and the way that specific skills are taught.Identifying these areas of weaknessallows students to develop the practical skills to independently bridge the gap between classroom activities and real life interactions.

  19. What is missing from the Spoken English classroom?:The gap between classroom learning and real world application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇

    2015-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by many English learners is taking the knowledge learnt in the classroom and applying it to real world situations.Simply participating in class does not guarantee that a student will be able to cope in real world interactions, especially in casual or informal settings. Many structured teaching materials in classroom have missed out significant elements which reflect the nature of informal communication.Several factors will be discussed here that could affect the quality of spoken language teaching materials in the classroom.These include the structure and content of teaching materials and classroom activities, the types of external resources used in class or recommended as a complementary learning tools, and the way that specific skills are taught.Identifying these areas of weaknessallows students to develop the practical skills to independently bridge the gap between classroom activities and real life interactions.

  20. A real-world evaluation of indacaterol and other bronchodilators in COPD: the INFLOW study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvelekian G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Georges Juvelekian,1 Waleed El-Sorougi,2 Chaicharn Pothirat,3 Faisal Yunus,4 Teresita De Guia,5 Han-Pin Kuo,6 Shalma Basu Patnaik,7 Virginia Pilipovic8 1St Georges Hospital University Medical Center, Ashrafieh, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Chest Department, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta Timur, Indonesia; 5Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Philippine Heart Center, Quezon City, Philippines; 6Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan Hsien, Taiwan, ROC; 7Novartis Healthcare Pvt Ltd, Rangareddy, Telangana, India; 8Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Aim: INFLOW (INdacaterol eFfectiveness and utiLizatiOn in COPD: real World evaluation was a prospective, noninterventional study assessing the effectiveness and safety of long-acting bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD from the Middle East, Asia, and South Africa.Methods: Patients newly prescribed or switched to indacaterol or other long-acting β2-agonist (LABA, or tiotropium (monotherapy or in combination were evaluated over 6 months. The primary endpoint was the clinical COPD questionnaire overall score at the end of the study.Results: Data were analyzed from 1,710 patients (mean postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 59% predicted who received indacaterol (n=1,179, other LABA (n=68, tiotropium (n=271, indacaterol plus tiotropium (n=167, or other LABA plus tiotropium (n=25. Across treatments, clinical COPD questionnaire overall score improved from baseline by 0.81–1.26 points (all P<0.0001, 63%–84% of patients were satisfied/very satisfied, and physicians rated effectiveness as good/very good in 63%–80% of cases. The indacaterol inhaler was rated easy/very easy to use by the majority

  1. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches Based on Real-World Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, R. B.; Briley, L. J.; Brown, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly two decades of experience using both seasonal and long-term climate model projections has led to the identification of a set of characteristics of the successful use of climate knowledge in planning and adaptation applications. These characteristics include end-to-end knowledge systems, co-generation or co-production of solution approaches by scientists and practitioners, and tailoring climate model information to the decision-making processes of the specific application. Glisaclimate.org strives to apply the growing body of research into the successful use of climate knowledge using a set of prototype, real-world applications. We describe an online problem-solving environment whose design is based on the characteristics of the successful use of climate predictions and projections by practitioners such as resource managers, urban planners, public health professionals, and policy makers. Design features of Glisaclimate.org include: Based on principles extracted from social science studies of the use of climate information. Anchored on structured templates of problem solving with the identification of common steps in problem solving that are repeated in one application to the next. Informed by interviews with real-world users who desire to incorporate climate-science knowledge into their decision making. Built with open-source tools to allow participation of a community of developers and to facilitate the sustainability of the effort. A structured approach to problem solving is described by four functions of information management. At the foundation of problem solving is the collection of existing information, an inventory stage. Following the collection of the information there are analysis and evaluation stages. In the analysis stage interfaces are described and knowledge gaps are identified. The evaluation stage assesses the quality of the information and the relevance of the information to the specific attributes of the problem. The development of plans

  2. Smartphone-based psychotherapeutic micro-interventions to improve mood in a real-world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Meinlschmidt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes.Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects – after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition – underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN. Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least eleven days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13% and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30% being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood (GB: b=0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3=2.298, p=0.022 and became more awake (AT: b=0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4=2.456, p=0.014 and calmer (CN: b=0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3=4.137, p<0.001 from pre- to post-micro-intervention. These mood improvements from pre- to post-micro-intervention were associated with changes in mood from the first day until the last day with regard to GB mood (r=0.614, 95%CI [0.297, 0.809], p<0.001, but not AT mood (r=0.279, 95%CI [-0.122, 0.602], p=0.167 and CN mood (r=0.277, 95

  3. Smartphone-Based Psychotherapeutic Micro-Interventions to Improve Mood in a Real-World Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Oh, Minkyung; Jung, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Alfano, Janine; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Tegethoff, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes. Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects—after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition—underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN). Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least 11 days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13%) and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30%) being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood [GB: b = 0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI) [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3) = 2.298, p = 0.022] and became more awake [AT: b = 0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4) = 2.456, p = 0.014] and calmer [CN: b = 0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3) = 4.137, p < 0.001] from pre- to post-micro-intervention. These mood improvements from pre- to post-micro-intervention were associated with changes in mood from the 1st day until the last day with regard to GB mood (r = 0.614, 95%CI [0.297, 0.809], p < 0.001), but not AT mood (r = 0.279, 95%CI [−0.122, 0.602], p = 0.167) and CN mood (r

  4. External validation of the SEDAN score: The real world practice of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombat Muengtaweepongsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH is the most serious adverse event in stroke patients who received i.v. rt-PA and is usually associated with poor outcomes. The SEDAN score is built up to predict sICH. We aim to externally validate the SEDAN score in Thai patients from single center in the real world practice. Methods: The SEDAN score of stroke patients treated with intravenous rt-PA at Thammasat University Hospital from January 2010 to June 2012 was calculated. Patients were divided into three groups including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH, asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (AsICH and no intracerebral hemorrhage (NoICH. The primary outcome of analyses was sICH. Each parameter of the SEDAN score and correlation between score and sICH were analyzed with univariate and multivariate model. Results: 295 patients (18.6% of stroke admission were treated with i.v. rt-PA. 13 patients (4.4% had sICH and 31 patients (10.4% had AsICH. Baseline blood sugar >12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10(SEDAN were associated with sICH by univariate analysis (P value = 0.018, 12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10 were 1.248, 2.503, 1.107, 1.532 and 1.263 respectively. Conclusions: The SEDAN score was practical to use and predictive in Thai population. Each parameter of the SEDAN score was an independent risk factor for sICH after treatment with i.v. rt-PA.

  5. Stable operation of a Secure QKD system in the real-world setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akihisa

    2007-06-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) now steps forward from the proof of principle to the validation of the practical feasibility. Nevertheless, the QKD technology should respond to the challenges from the real-world such as stable operation against the fluctuating environment, and security proof under the practical setting. We report our recent progress on stable operation of a QKD system, and key generation with security assurance. A QKD system should robust to temperature fluctuation in a common office environment. We developed a loop-mirror, a substitution of a Faraday mirror, to allow easy compensation for the temperature dependence of the device. Phase locking technique was also employed to synchronize the system clock to the quantum signals. This technique is indispensable for the transmission system based on the installed fiber cables, which stretch and shrink due to the temperature change. The security proof of QKD, however, has assumed the ideal conditions, such as the use of a genuine single photon source and/or unlimited computational resources. It has been highly desirable to give an assurance of security for practical systems, where the ideal conditions are no longer satisfied. We have constructed a theory to estimate the leakage information on the transmitted key under the practically attainable conditions, and have developed a QKD system equipped with software for secure key distillation. The QKD system generates the final key at the rate of 2000 bps after 20 km fiber transmission. Eavesdropper's information on the final key is guaranteed to be less than 2-7 per bit. This is the first successful generation of the secure key with quantitative assurance of the upper bound of the leakage information. It will put forth the realization of highly secure metropolitan optical communication network against any types of eavesdropping.

  6. Optimizing the energy efficiency of capacitive deionization reactors working under real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Lado, Julio; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2013-10-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a rapidly emerging desalination technology that promises to deliver clean water while storing energy in the electrical double layer (EDL) near a charged surface in a capacitive format. Whereas most research in this subject area has been devoted to using CDI for removing salts, little attention has been paid to the energy storage aspect of the technology. However, it is energy storage that would allow this technology to compete with other desalination processes if this energy could be stored and reused efficiently. This requires that the operational aspects of CDI be optimized with respect to energy used both during the removal of ions as well as during the regeneration cycle. This translates into the fact that currents applied during deionization (charging the EDL) will be different from those used in regeneration (discharge). This paper provides a mechanistic analysis of CDI in terms of energy consumption and energy efficiencies during the charging and discharging of the system under several scenarios. In a previous study, we proposed an operational buffer mode in which an effective separation of deionization and regeneration steps would allow one to better define the energy balance of this CDI process. This paper reports on using this concept, for optimizing energy efficiency, as well as to improve upon the electro-adsorption of ions and system lifetime. Results obtained indicate that real-world operational modes of running CDI systems promote the development of new and unexpected behavior not previously found, mainly associated with the inhomogeneous distribution of ions across the structure of the electrodes.

  7. Real world clinical outcomes and patient characteristics for canagliflozin treated patients in a specialty diabetes clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, June Felice; Parsa, Rahul; Bailey, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To examine characteristics and outcomes of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients prescribed canagliflozin (CANA) and managed in the real-world setting of a diabetes clinic. Primary outcome was change in A1c, and secondary outcomes were change in weight and blood pressure. Study was an electronic health record (EHR) review of CANA prescribed at the diabetes clinic from June 2013 to June 2015. Patients were included in the study if they were adults with T2DM, received routine follow-up diabetes care at the diabetes clinic, received an initial prescription for CANA from a diabetes clinic prescriber, and returned for at least one follow-up office visit (OV) after initial CANA prescribing. Paired t-tests were performed on the primary and secondary outcomes, and p CANA) 3.58. Men comprised 60% of patients. At baseline, 54% of patients were prescribed insulin. A1c decreased by 1.06% and 1.09% (p < .0001), weight decreased by 2.01% and 1.83% (p < .001), systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased by 3.2% and 2.4% (p < .0001), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased by 2.59% and 2.16% (p = .0002) from baseline to first and second follow-up OV, respectively. Study limitations included retrospective design, inability to control for confounding factors (e.g. changes in nutrition, exercise, medical care plan, medications), missing information in the EHR, potential lack of generalizability of results to those in a non-specialty diabetes clinic, inability to assess adherence, and inability to assess reliable adverse event data. ANA was associated with a statistically and clinically significant reduction in A1c, weight, and blood pressure when added to multiple diabetes medication regimens by prescribers in a diabetes clinic.

  8. Health and Healthcare: Assessing the Real World Data Policy Landscape in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miani, Celine; Robin, Enora; Horvath, Veronika; Manville, Catriona; Cave, Jonathan; Chataway, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Real-world data (RWD) is an umbrella term for different types of data that are not collected in conventional randomised controlled trials. RWD in the healthcare sector comes from various sources and includes patient data, data from clinicians, hospital data, data from payers and social data. There are already examples of ways in which research has contributed to the provision, construction and capture of RWD to improve health outcomes. However, to maximise the potential of these new pools of data in the healthcare sector, stakeholders need to identify pathways and processes which will allow them to efficiently access and use RWD in order to achieve better research outcomes and improved healthcare delivery. Current efforts to improve access to RWD and facilitate its use take place in a context of resource scarcity. Based on a literature review, case studies, a small set of interviews of experts from public and private organisations and a scenario based workshop, the study outlined possible strategies to illustrate how RWD standards development could facilitate RWD-based research. By investigating the current forms and uses of RWD in Europe, this study has highlighted their significant potential for assessing the (short- or long-term) impact of different drugs or medical treatments and for informing and improving healthcare service delivery. Although the potential of RWD use seems quite clear, this research reveals barriers that restrict further development towards its full exploitation: the absence of common standards for defining the content and quality of RWD, methodological barriers that may limit the potential benefits of RWD analysis, governance issues underlying the absence of standards for collaboration between stakeholders, and privacy concerns and binding data protection legislation which can be seen to restrict access and use of data.

  9. [Clinical analysis of Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection based on real world hospital information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuai-Ling; Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yin; Yi, Dan-Hui; Zhuang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the clinical application of Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection in the real world, in order to define the characteristics of clinical drug use and correlation, and provide reference for risk management and further study for Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection. Descriptive analysis and association rules analysis were performed on 37 721 cases using Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection in 26 hospitals nationwide. Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection were mostly adopted by patients aged between 45 and 64(39.84%); mainly used to treat fracture patients in clinic(17 362 cases, 33.97%); 12 mL(41.81%) was the commonest dosage. And the course of treatment mainly lasted for 1-3 days(28 467 cases, 76.26%), which was basically consistent with the description of package insert. In clinic, traditional Chinese medicines, such as blood activating and stasis removing agents and Bushen Zhuanggu agents, were frequently combined with it(rule support degree of 19.38%). Such western medicine as antibiotics and nutritional drugs were frequently combined with it(rule support 39.9%). The main single combined medicine were vitamin C(13 202 cases, 35%), and Jintiange capsule(7 285 cases, 19.31%). The commonly used combined drug pairs were Hulisan capsule and Jintiange capsule (rule support 4.458%), phenobarbital and ceftazidime azole oxazoline(rule support degree of 10.62%). Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection is mainly adopted by elderly patients in clinic, used to treat fracture patients, and often combined with blood activating and stasis removing agents, Bushen Zhuanggu agents, antibiotics, and nutritional medicine to enhance fracture healing. In clinical application, attention shall be paid to drug safety of elderly patients and types of combined medicines and their interaction, so as to prevent adverse reactions. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Real-world efficacy, toxicity and clinical management of ipilimumab treatment in metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Leila; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Ye, Qian; Gedye, Craig; Chappell, Maryanne; Hogg, David; Butler, Marcus O; Joshua, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011, the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab has delivered a survival benefit of ≥3 years in a subset of metastatic melanoma patients. After participating in the registration trial, patients were treated with this agent in routine practice. Toxicity and efficacy of agents in "real world" settings may differ from trials. The present study aimed to evaluate, with respect to toxicity and outcome, all patients treated with ipilimumab to date at the Princess Margaret Hospital (Toronto, Canada). Patients treated with ipilimumab between 2008 and 2013 were identified, and patient characteristics (age, gender, tumour burden, oncogenic mutation status, number of treatments received and toxicities from treatment) were collected. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the commencement of ipilimumab treatment. Associations between clinical characteristics and outcome or toxicity were assessed. Between 2008 and 2013, 129 patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma were treated. Since, during this period, ipilimumab was approved in the second line setting, ipilimumab was delivered in the second or subsequent line in all patients, and 70% did not receive any further anticancer therapy. Immune-related toxicities were observed, the onset of which varied from 1 to 162 days. The majority resolved within 6 weeks of the final treatment, with the exception of endocrinopathies and bowel related toxicity. The median PFS and OS were 2.83 and 8.44 months, respectively. No pre-treatment factor independently predicted toxicity. The number of infusions (4 vs. ≤3) and presence of toxicity were significantly associated with superior survival. The onset of toxicity secondary to ipilimumab could occur later than previously reported. Toxicities were manageable, but required long-term vigilance.

  11. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  12. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  13. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  14. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  15. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  16. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.

  17. The relative importance of real-time in-cab and external feedback in managing fatigue in real-world commercial transport operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Michael; Liu, Sara; Stephens, Amanda N; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-05-29

    Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This article has three objectives: (1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck-driving operations, (2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and (3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24/7 monitoring and feedback to employers. Data collected from a commercially available in-vehicle camera-based driver monitoring system installed in a commercial truck fleet operating in Australia were analyzed. The real-time driver monitoring system makes continuous assessments of driver drowsiness based on eyelid position and other factors. Data were collected in a baseline period where no feedback was provided to drivers. Real-time feedback to drivers then occurred via in-cab auditory and haptic warnings, which were further enhanced by direct feedback by company management when fatigue events were detected by external 24/7 monitors. Fatigue incidence rates and their timing of occurrence across the three time periods were compared. Relative to no feedback being provided to drivers when fatigue events were detected, in-cab warnings resulted in a 66% reduction in fatigue events, with a 95% reduction achieved by the real-time provision of direct feedback in addition to in-cab warnings (p company on driver fatigue events in real time provides greater benefit than feedback to the driver alone has implications for companies seeking to mitigate risks associated with fatigue. Having fewer fatigue events is likely a reflection of the device itself and the accompanying safety culture of the company in terms of how the information is used. Data were analysed on a per-truck trip basis, and the findings are indicative of fatigue events in a

  18. Real-World Executive Functions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Profiles of Impairment and Associations with Adaptive Functioning and Co-Morbid Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Pugliese, Cara E.; Popal, Haroon S.; White, Emily I.; Brodsky, Emily; Martin, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although executive functioning (EF) difficulties are well documented among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about real-world measures of EF among adults with ASD. Therefore, this study examined parent-reported real-world EF problems among 35 adults with ASD without intellectual disability and their…

  19. A longitudinal examination of the moderating effects of symptoms on the relationship between functional competence and real world functional performance in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Best

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Residual negative and depressive symptoms are distinct constructs that impede the use of functional skills in the real world. Depressive symptoms are often overlooked in schizophrenia but appear to be an important factor that limits the use of functional ability in real world environments.

  20. Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X Peng,1 P Sun,2 D Novick,1 J Andrews,1 S Sun2 1Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Kailo Research Group, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objectives: To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009. Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results: Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years, percentage of women (87%–88%, and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis. In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%. The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05, any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05, and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05. From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort

  1. Real-World Economic Burden Associated with Transplantation-Related Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Miguel-Angel; Bonafede, Machaon; Cai, Qian; Garfin, Phillip M; McMorrow, Donna; Josephson, Neil C; Richhariya, Akshara

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 20,000 hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) procedures are performed annually in the United States. Real-world data on the costs associated with post-transplantation complications are limited. Patients with hematologic malignancies aged ≥18 years undergoing autologous HCT (auto-HCT) or allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) between January 1, 2011, and June 30, 2014, were identified in the Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases. Patients were required to have 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy enrollment before and after HCT; patients who experience inpatient death within 12 months post-HCT were also included. Patients with previous HCT were excluded. Potential HCT-related complications were identified if they had a medical claim with a diagnosis code for relapse; infection; cardiovascular, renal, neurologic, pulmonary, hepatic, or gastrointestinal disease; secondary malignancy; thrombotic microangiopathy; or posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome within 1 year post-HCT. Healthcare costs attributable to these complications were evaluated by comparing total costs in HCT recipients with complications and those without complications. The MarketScan Research Databases were further linked to the Social Security Administration's Master Death File to obtain patient death events in a subset of patients. A total of 2672 HCT recipients were included in the analysis. The mean ± SD age of recipients was 54.5 ± 11.6 years, and the majority of recipients (63.6%) underwent auto-HCT. Complications were identified in 81% of auto-HCT recipients and in 95.5% of allo-HCT recipients. Most complications occurred within 180 days post-HCT. Compared with Auto-HCT recipients without complications, those with complications incurred $51,475 higher adjusted total costs (P < .01). Compared with allo-HCT recipients without complications, those with complications incurred $181,473 higher adjusted total costs (P < .01). Among the patients with mortality data

  2. Spatial Thinking and Visualisation of Real-World Concepts using GeoMapApp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Commonly, geoscience data is presented to students in the lab and classroom in the form of data tables, maps and graphs. Successful data interpretation requires learners to become proficient with spatial thinking skills, allowing them to gain insight and understanding of the underlying real-world 3-D processes and concepts. Yet, educators at both the school and university level often witness students having difficulty in performing that translation. As a result, tools and resources that help to bridge that spatial capability gap can have useful application in the educational realm. A free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory caters to students and teachers alike by providing a variety of data display and manipulation techniques that enhance geospatial awareness. Called GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), the tool provides access to hundreds of built-in authentic geoscience data sets. Examples include earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, lithospheric plate boundary information, geochemical, oceanographic, and environmental data. Barriers to entry are lowered through easy installation, seamless integration of research-grade data sets, intuitive menus, and project-saving continuity. The default base map is a cutting-edge elevation model covering the oceans and land. Dynamic contouring, artificial illumination, 3-D visualisations, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Data sets can also be layered for easier comparison. Students may import their own data sets in Excel, ASCII, shapefile, and gridded format, and they can gain a sense of ownership by being able to tailor their data explorations and save their own projects. GeoMapApp is adaptable to a range of learning environments from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. A new Save Session

  3. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with "porcelain" aorta (from a Multicenter Real World Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Ralf; Schiele, Rudolf; Gerckens, Ulrich; Linke, Axel; Sievert, Horst; Kahlert, Philipp; Hambrecht, Rainer; Sack, Stefan; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Hoffmann, Ellen; Senges, Jochen

    2013-02-15

    The presence of severe atherosclerosis of the ascending aorta, and its extreme form the "porcelain" aorta, is associated with a worse clinical outcome in patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement. Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis can overcome this problem: 1,374 TAVI procedures were performed at 27 hospitals in 147 patients (10.7%) with and 1,227 (89.3%) without a porcelain aorta. The mean reported prevalence of a porcelain aorta at the hospitals was 7.8% ± 14.8% (range 0% to 70%). Diabetes mellitus (46.3% vs 33.2%, p = 0.00018), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (43.5% vs 22.2%, p <0.0001), and peripheral arterial obstructive disease (34.7% vs 20.0%, p <0.0001) were more prevalent in patients with a porcelain aorta. In patients with a porcelain aorta, coronary ischemia occurred more often (2.0% vs 0.1%, p <0.0001), with a tendency toward a greater stroke rate (5.5% vs 2.8%, p = 0.08), greater in-hospital death rate (10.9% vs 8.1%, p = 0.24), and greater death or stroke rate (14.4% vs 10.2%, p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, the presence of a porcelain aorta was not associated with in-hospital death (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 0.72 to 2.55, p = 0.3441) nor in-hospital death or stroke (odds ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 2.47, p = 0.2207). In conclusion, in this real-world TAVI registry, a "porcelain" aorta was diagnosed in almost every tenth patient. Although differences were found in its frequency among the participating hospitals, the presence of a porcelain aorta was not associated with in-hospital death or stroke.

  4. Preparing laboratory and real-world EEG data for large-scale analysis: A containerized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdely-Shamlo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface (BCI models.. However, the absence of standard-ized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the diffi-culty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a containerized approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of an-notating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS comprises three data Levels, each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1 data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2 suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are in-creasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at eegstudy.org, and a central cata-log of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at study-catalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to ena-ble data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org.

  5. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  6. Big data to smart data in Alzheimer's disease: Real-world examples of advanced modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Magali; Stephenson, Diane; Romero, Klaus; Gordon, Mark Forrest; Zach, Neta; Geerts, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Many disease-modifying clinical development programs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed to date, and development of new and advanced preclinical models that generate actionable knowledge is desperately needed. This review reports on computer-based modeling and simulation approach as a powerful tool in AD research. Statistical data-analysis techniques can identify associations between certain data and phenotypes, such as diagnosis or disease progression. Other approaches integrate domain expertise in a formalized mathematical way to understand how specific components of pathology integrate into complex brain networks. Private-public partnerships focused on data sharing, causal inference and pathway-based analysis, crowdsourcing, and mechanism-based quantitative systems modeling represent successful real-world modeling examples with substantial impact on CNS diseases. Similar to other disease indications, successful real-world examples of advanced simulation can generate actionable support of drug discovery and development in AD, illustrating the value that can be generated for different stakeholders.

  7. SAIMeR: Self-adapted method for the identification of metastable states in real-world time series

    CERN Document Server

    Vega, Iliusi; Conrad, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of time series analysis with recurrence networks, we introduce SAIMeR, a heuristic self-adapted method that determines the elusive recurrence threshold and identifies metastable states in complex time series. To identify metastable states as well as the transitions between them, we use graph theory concepts and a fuzzy partitioning clustering algorithm. We illustrate SAIMeR by applying it to three real-world time series and show that it is able to identify metastable states in real-world data with noise and missing data points. Finally, we suggest a way to choose the embedding parameters used to construct the state space in which this method is performed, based on the analysis of how the values of these parameters affect two recurrence quantitative measurements: recurrence rate and entropy.

  8. Can real-world diesel exhaust particle size distribution be reproduced in the laboratory? A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2010-10-01

    Real-world particulate emission measurements usually include a fresh nanoparticle mode called the nucleation mode. The formation of the nucleation mode during mixing, dilution, and cooling of diesel exhaust is discussed based on existing experimental and modeling data. The further evolution of the nucleation mode and the local dilution ratio within the vehicle exhaust is reviewed. The nucleation mode forms at low dilution ratios (engine load, engine and aftertreatment technology, as well as fuel and lubricant composition.

  9. How does age-related macular degeneration affect real-world visual ability and quality of life? A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Deanna J; Hobby, Angharad E; Binns, Alison M; Crabb, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review systematically the evidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affecting real-world visual ability and quality of life (QoL). To explore trends in specific topics within this body of the literature. Design Systematic review. Methods A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES and Health and Psychosocial Instruments for articles published up to January 2015 for studies including people diagnosed with AMD, ass...

  10. The real relationship in a postmodern world: theoretical and empirical explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelso, Charles J

    2009-05-01

    A theory of the real relationship, including its place in the overall therapeutic relationship, is amplified. The real relationship is seen as a key component of all psychotherapy relationships. It exists from the first moment of contact between therapist and patient, and it deepens as the work progresses. Recently, reliable measures of the real relationship from the therapist's and client's perspectives have been developed, and these measures have demonstrated sound beginning validity. Studies have explored the variables with which the real relationship correlates and have demonstrated significant relationships to treatment progress and outcome. The real relationship appears to be a promising variable for future study, and potentially fruitful directions for such study are noted.

  11. Virtual World, Real Education: A Descriptive Study of Instructional Design in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual worlds like Second Life are emerging technologies that have gained popularity among educators. As these worlds emerged, greater focus has been placed on the design of the environments themselves rather than the design of instruction within them. Educators have begun using these environments for teaching and instructional designers are now…

  12. Real-world scene representations in high-level visual cortex: it's the spaces more than the places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight J; Peng, Cynthia S; Baker, Chris I

    2011-05-18

    Real-world scenes are incredibly complex and heterogeneous, yet we are able to identify and categorize them effortlessly. In humans, the ventral temporal parahippocampal place area (PPA) has been implicated in scene processing, but scene information is contained in many visual areas, leaving their specific contributions unclear. Although early theories of PPA emphasized its role in spatial processing, more recent reports of its function have emphasized semantic or contextual processing. Here, using functional imaging, we reconstructed the organization of scene representations across human ventral visual cortex by analyzing the distributed response to 96 diverse real-world scenes. We found that, although individual scenes could be decoded in both PPA and early visual cortex (EVC), the structure of representations in these regions was vastly different. In both regions, spatial rather than semantic factors defined the structure of representations. However, in PPA, representations were defined primarily by the spatial factor of expanse (open, closed) and in EVC primarily by distance (near, far). Furthermore, independent behavioral ratings of expanse and distance correlated strongly with representations in PPA and peripheral EVC, respectively. In neither region was content (manmade, natural) a major contributor to the overall organization. Furthermore, the response of PPA could not be used to decode the high-level semantic category of scenes even when spatial factors were held constant, nor could category be decoded across different distances. These findings demonstrate, contrary to recent reports, that the response PPA primarily reflects spatial, not categorical or contextual, aspects of real-world scenes.

  13. A Prospective Real World Experience of Moxonidine Use in Indian Hypertensive Patients–Prescription beyond Current Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarad, Suresh V; Biradar-Kerure, Sudha; MR, Ramakrishna; Kumar S, Chaitanya; Reddy, S S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to assess the use of moxonidine, a centrally acting anti–hypertensive agent in real world practice. Material and Methods: Patients who attended out-patients clinic with diagnosis of hypertension were enrolled in the study. Demographics with co-morbid illnesses of all patients were recorded. Patient’s prescriptions were recorded and anti-hypertensive medications were also analysed. Results: A total of 990 patients were eligible during the study period. Moxonidine was used in 4.54% of patients. Two groups could be identified in moxonidine users – one Group with resistant hypertension (30 patients, 3.03% of total, 66.66% of moxonidine users) on multiple drugs to control BP and another Group with intolerance to conventional, first line drugs (15 patients 1.51% of total, 33.33% of moxonidine users). Moxonidine was not used in newly diagnosed hypertension cases. Resistant hypertension and renal failure predicted the use of moxonidine. Majority of drug used was as per current guidelines. Conclusions: Our study results reflected real world practice of current anti-hypertensive therapy. Patients generally receive medications in accordance with current recommendations and guidelines. Small but significant proportion of patients may require use of drugs like moxonidine to control high BP. Guidelines need to incorporate these real world practices. PMID:24298479

  14. Real world programs, real world strategies, real world successes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, K. [EPA, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a very brief overview of market opportunities for using energy efficient technology. A brief summary of greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change concludes that the threat of global warming must be taken seriously. It is stated that there are numerous technologies available which can reduce energy use by up to 50%, while offering attractive rates of return. Market analysis has identified a trillion dollar market for high efficiency products and services over the next decade. Three main areas of business opportunity for capitalizing on the growing market for energy efficiency are identified: (1) using efficient energy technology in-house, (2) marketing energy efficient products, and (3) international markets.

  15. Temporal and kinematic variables for real-world falls harvested from lumbar sensors in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A K; Klenk, J; Schwickert, L; Aminian, K; Ihlen, E A F; Helbostad, J L; Chiari, L; Becker, C

    2015-01-01

    Automatic fall detection will reduce the consequences of falls in the elderly and promote independent living, ensuring people can confidently live safely at home. Inertial sensor technology can distinguish falls from normal activities. However, fall data recorded from elderly people in real life. The FARSEEING project has compiled a database of real life falls from elderly people, to gain new knowledge about fall events. We have extracted temporal and kinematic parameters to further improve the development of fall detection algorithms. A total of 100 real-world falls were analysed. Subjects with a known fall history were recruited, inertial sensors were attached to L5 and a fall report, following a fall, was used to extract the fall signal. This data-set was examined, and variables were extracted that include upper and lower impact peak values, posture angle change during the fall and time of occurrence. These extracted parameters, can be used to inform the design of fall-detection algorithms for real-world falls detection in the elderly.

  16. Mimewrighting: Preparing Students for the Real World of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    READING, WRITING, & ENACTING SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL LITERATURE: Mimewrighting applies the art of mime as an interpretive springboard to integrate conceptual understanding across all content areas. Mimewrighting guides students to read and express complex ideas in carefully crafted movement integrations, mediating experience, so that students obtain an intuitive grasp of difficult and abstract ideas. THE PROBLEM: Reading science writing presents obstacles for middle and high school students, to the point that many students are turned OFF to science altogether. A typical science abstract, written for colleagues, is as densely packed with concept-laden words as a black hole is densely packed with matter- and just as mysterious. What reads to a science colleague as a richly crafted paragraph, from which a myriad of elegantly interrelated concepts can unfold to point to the significance and context of the study at hand, reads as jabberwocky nonsense to the uninitiated student. So, how do we turn such kids (and teachers) back ON to the inquiry-driven desire to seek out challenging and educative experiences? How do we step up to the national challenge to prepare ALL students adequately for the REAL-WORLD demands of science, technology, engineering, math, (STEM) and communications? How do we help kids read, write, and understand scientific and technical literature? AN UNCONVENTIONAL ANSWER: Mimewrighting applies the classic art of mime to unpack the meaning of science writing. We help students view the text as sequences of action, scenarios that can be enacted theatrically for understanding. HOW DOES IT WORK? READ ALOUD, MIME ALONG: It's as simple as read aloud and mime along. And as complex, in that it requires taking the time to acknowledge each concept packed into the passage. Three opening sentences might involve twenty minutes of mimewrighting activity to ensure that students apprehend the patterns, perceive the relationships, and comprehend the dynamics of such a

  17. Transition to life--a sendoff to the real world for graduating medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Wendy C; Spector, Tahlia S; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Graduating medical students will enter the workforce, often for the first time. Many have spent the past 20 years as students, receiving financial support from parents, and have not managed real-life issues such as financial planning, real estate, balancing well-being with employment, and integrating into a new community with stressful working conditions. To address a perceived need, we designed an intervention to introduce graduating medical students to financial planning, real estate choices, physician wellness during relocation/internship, and traits of efficient interns. The objectives of this study are to (a) assess baseline experience, knowledge, and comfort of seniors about "real-life" experiences, and (b) assess the efficacy of a 4-hr educational intervention on perceptions of understanding financial planning, real estate choices, intern preparedness, and physician wellness. Acute Care College seniors (classes of 2009 and 2010) attended the intervention after match day and completed a survey to gather demographic data and assess preexisting knowledge and a postintervention survey (1-7 Likert scale). Forty-nine students (45% male; M age = 25.5 years) participated. Prior experiences: 43% no break in education, 51% no full-time job, 38% never signed a rental lease and 94% had not purchased real estate, 90% did not have (or were not aware of having) disability insurance, and 82% had educational debt exceeding $50,000. Following the workshop, students felt more confident in their understanding of life skills topics (real estate, 83%; financial planning, 94%; well-being, 86%). Our workshop assisted in preparing for life after medical school for 98% of the participants. Graduating medical students can gain knowledge about real-life responsibilities and confidence during an educational session prior to starting residency.

  18. The Brave New World of Real-time GPS for Hazards Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C.; Webb, F.

    2016-12-01

    Real-time GPS position streams are desirable for a variety of seismic and tsunami monitoring and hazard mitigation applications. We report on progress in our development of a comprehensive real-time GPS-based seismic monitoring system for the Cascadia subduction zone. This system is based on 1 Hz point position estimates computed in the ITRF08 reference frame. Convergence from phase and range observables to point position estimates is accelerated using a Kalman filter based, in-line stream editor that produces independent estimations of carrier phase integer biases and other parameters. Positions are then estimated using streamed satellite clock and orbit products from the International GNSS Service (IGS). The resulting positions show typical RMS scatter of 2.5 cm in the horizontal and 5 cm in the vertical with latencies below 2 seconds. To facilitate the use of these point position streams for applications such as seismic monitoring, we broadcast real-time positions and covariances using custom-built aggregation-distribution software based on RabbitMQ messaging platform. To demonstrate the power of this approach, we have developed a Java-based front-end that provides a real-time visual display of time-series, displacement vector fields, and map-view, contoured, peak ground displacement. This Java-based front-end is available for download through the PANGA(.org) website. We currently analyze 120 PBO and PANGA stations along the Cascadia margin and San Andreas system in California along with another 50 from the circum-Pacific. We are gearing up to process all available west-coast real-time stations. These will serve as milestones towards our over-arching goal of extending our processing to include all of the available real-time streams from the Pacific rim. In addition, we have developed a Kalman filter to combine CWU real-time PPP solutions with those from Scripps Institute of Oceanography's PPP-AR real-time solutions as well as real-time solutions from other

  19. 基于Haskell语言的泛型扩展研究%Generic Extension Research Based on Haskell Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 于尚超; 王朋

    2012-01-01

    泛型即通过参数化类型来实现在同一份代码上操作多种数据类型.泛型编程是一种编程范式,它利用“参数化类型”将类型抽象化,实现灵活的软件复用.泛型编程思想已经在多种语言中得到运用,并已取得了不小的成果.文中旨在Haskell语言上进行泛型的研究与应用,Haskell语言是一门广为流行的函数式语言,它的计算模型简单,程序语法清晰,易于编写,易于维护.文中利用一些规则对Haskell语言的语法进行扩展,同时引入泛型编程的思想来研究新的函数定义方法,最后在Haskell语言上实现泛型功能.%Generic can treat the types as arguments. Then many kinds of data-types can be processed by the same source code. Generic programming is a normal form of programming. It can make types abstract by a method called type parameterization. So realize the goal of software reuse agilely. For the moment, the idea of generic programming has been realized in many languages .which have got great achievement. It is intended to make some research in the field of Haskeli language,and give an application as an example. Haskell is a popular language, and it is functional too. It has a lot of advantages,such as simple module,clarity syntax,etc. So the programmer can write and modify Haskell sentence easily. It shows the extension of the grammar of Haskell according to some rules, which also introduces the idea of generic programming, and gives some methods to define functions. Finally, the function of generic would be completed in Haskell.

  20. Applying a toolkit for dissemination and analysis of near real-time data through the World Wide Web: integration of the Antelope Real Time System, ROADNet, and PHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Foley, S.; Orcutt, J.

    2005-12-01

    The ROADNet project has enabled the acquisition and storage of diverse data streams through seamless integration of the Antelope Real Time System (ARTS) with (for example) ecological, seismological and geodetic instrumentation. The robust system architecture allows researchers to simply network data loggers with relational databases; however, the ability to disseminate these data to policy makers, scientists and the general public has (until recently) been provided on an 'as needed' basis. The recent development of a Datascope interface to the popular open source scripting language PHP has provided an avenue for presenting near real time data (such as integers, images and movies) from within the ARTS framework easily on the World Wide Web. The interface also indirectly provided the means to transform data types into various formats using the extensive function libraries that accompany a PHP installation (such as image creation and manipulation, data encryption for sensitive information, and XML creation for structured document interchange through the World Wide Web). Using a combination of Datascope and PHP library functions, an extensible tool-kit is being developed to allow data managers to easily present their products on the World Wide Web. The tool-kit has been modeled after the pre-existing ARTS architecture to simplify the installation, development and ease-of-use for both the seasoned researcher and the casual user. The methodology and results of building the applications that comprise the tool-kit are the focus of this presentation, including procedural vs. object oriented design, incorporation of the tool-kit into the existing contributed software libraries, and case-studies of researchers who are employing the tools to present their data. http://anf.ucsd.edu

  1. The Brave New World of Real-time GPS for Hazards Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over 600 continuously-operating, real-time telemetered GPS receivers operate throughout California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. These receivers straddle active crustal faults, volcanoes and landslides, the magnitude-9 Cascadia and northeastern Alaskan subduction zones and their attendant tsunamigenic regions along the Pacific coast. Around the circum-Pacific, there are hundreds more and the number is growing steadily as real-time networks proliferate. Despite offering the potential for sub-cm positioning accuracy in real-time useful for a broad array of hazards mitigation, these GPS stations are only now being incorporated into routine seismic, tsunami, volcanic, land-slide, space-weather, or meterologic monitoring. We will discuss NASA's READI (Real-time Earthquake Analysis for DIsasters) initiative. This effort is focussed on developing all aspects of real-time GPS for hazards mitigation, from establishing international data-sharing agreements to improving basic positioning algorithms. READI's long-term goal is to expand real-time GPS monitoring throughout the circum-Pacific as overseas data become freely available, so that it may be adopted by NOAA, USGS and other operational agencies responsible for natural hazards monitoring. Currently ~100 stations are being jointly processed by CWU and Scripps Inst. of Oceanography for algorithm comparison and downstream merging purposes. The resultant solution streams include point-position estimates in a global reference frame every second with centimeter accuracy, ionospheric total electron content and tropospheric zenith water content. These solutions are freely available to third-party agencies over several streaming protocols to enable their incorporation and use in hazards monitoring. This number will ramp up to ~400 stations over the next year. We will also discuss technical efforts underway to develop a variety of downstream applications of the real-time position streams, including the ability to broadcast

  2. The Third Place in Second Life: Real Life Community in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peachey, Anna

    In June 2006 The Open University (OU) purchased its first land in Second LifeTM (SL). Over a two and a half year period, the OU presence evolved and grew to a point where an average of between 150 and 250 unique users in any 7-day period are active in an OU area. This chapter charts the history of the development of the OU Second Life social community and considers the nature of that activity at a point of critical change, in January 2009, shortly before a new island is developed to provide a permanent home for the community. In order for the community to continue evolving it is necessary to understand the nature of the core activities of these users, and to consider this in a context of sustainable development. Through reference to aspects of socialisation and physical community, the author proposes that a virtual world environment can be described using the physical world concept of a Third Place in the information age, and considers the value of virtual space to a learning community. From a perspective of ethnography, this chapter captures a community development within SL and proposes that physical world concepts of community and Third Place are exhibited in a virtual world, and that there are equivalent benefits in the sense of support and belonging to a virtual world community.

  3. Evaluation of Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection Algorithms on Real-World Falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagala, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elders. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing s

  4. University Facilities as Real-World Foci of Multidisciplinary Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdak, Jeremy; Guinan, Judy; Wirgau, Joseph; Kugler, Charles; Hammond, Georgia; Small, Christine; Manyara, Charles; Singer, Frederick; Watts, Chester; Bodo, Bethany; Baldwin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The authors sought to better approximate the practice of "real" science in our classrooms by having students study a newly built storm-water remediation wetland on campus. The wetland was meant to gather and clean storm water running off of student parking lots--thus students had ownership in the problem and potential solution. Participating…

  5. Producing near-real-time intelligence: predicting the world of tomorrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, A.I.; Broek, A.C. van den; Dalen, J.A. van; Vecht, B. van der; Wevers, J.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity and dynamics of current military operations demand reliable and up-to-date intelligence and in particular near-real-time threat assessment. This paper explores the potential of operational analysis techniques in supporting military personnel in processing information from different so

  6. Academy and the Real World: Developing Realistic Notions of Career in the Performing Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Performing arts courses within the university sector retain a necessarily strong practical focus as they prepare graduates for work within a highly competitive environment. However, the reality for graduates is a world in which performance is only one component of the myriad activities required to build a sustainable career. This article reports…

  7. The Corporate Communication Culture Project: Studying the Real World of Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, James T.; Kuseski, Brenda K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a business communication class assignment that helps students discover the assumptions and expectations of business culture, and develop the skills needed for the world of work in at least four areas: team skills; time and project management skills; use of technology to research, prepare, and present the project; and networking with…

  8. Can virtual science foster real skills? A study of inquiry skills in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Heather E.

    Online education has grown into a part of the educational market answering the demand for learning at the learner's choice of time and place. Inquiry skills such as observing, questioning, collecting data, and devising fair experiments are an essential element of 21st-century online science coursework. Virtual immersive worlds such as Second Life are being used as new frontiers in science education. There have been few studies looking specifically at science education in virtual worlds that foster inquiry skills. This quantitative quasi-experimental nonrandomized control group pretest and posttest study explored what affect a virtual world experience had on inquiry skills as measured by the TIPS (Test of Integrated Process Skills) and TIPS II (Integrated Process Skills Test II) instruments. Participants between the ages of 18 and 65 were recruited from educator mailing lists and Second Life discussion boards and then sorted into the experimental group, which received instructions to utilize several displays in Mendelian genetics at the Genome Island location within Second Life, or the control group, which received text-based PDF documents of the same genetics course content. All participants, in the form of avatars, were experienced Second Life residents to reduce any novelty effect. This study found a greater increase in inquiry skills in the experimental group interacting using a virtual world to learn science content (0.90 points) than a control group that is presented only with online text-based content (0.87 points). Using a mixed between-within ANOVA (analysis of variance), with an alpha level of 0.05, there was no significant interaction between the control or experimental groups and inquiry skills, F (1, 58) = .783, p = .380, partial eta squared = .013, at the specified .05 alpha level suggesting no significant difference as a result of the virtual world exercise. However, there is not enough evidence to state that there was no effect because there was a

  9. Real-world fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energiepolitik und Energiesysteme

    2015-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO{sub 2} emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO{sub 2}/km and the annual CO{sub 2} savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  10. Dabigatran in real-world atrial fibrillation. Meta-analysis of observational comparison studies with vitamin K antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, João; Moscoso Costa, Francisco; Ferreira, Jorge; Mendes, Miguel

    2016-09-27

    In the RE-LY clinical trial, dabigatran presented a better effectiveness/safety profile when compared to warfarin. However, clinical trials are not very representative of the real-world setting. We aimed to assess the performance of dabigatran in real-world patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational comparison studies with vitamin K antagonists (VKA). We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases until November 2015 and selected studies according to the following criteria: observational study performed with nonvalvular AF patients; reporting adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of clinical events in a follow-up period; for dabigatran 75 mg, 110 mg or 150 mg versus VKA. Twenty studies were selected which included 711,298 patients, 210,279 of which were treated with dabigatran and the remaining 501,019 with VKA. Ischaemic stroke incidence was of 1.65 /100 patient-years for dabigatran and 2.85/100 patient-years for VKA (HR 0.86, 95 % confidence interval of 0.74-0.99). Major bleeding rate was 3.93/100 patient-years for dabigatran and 5.61/100 patient-years for VKA (0.79, 0.69-0.89). Risk of mortality (0.73, 0.61-0.87) and intracranial bleeding (0.45, 0.38-0.52) were significantly lower in patients treated with dabigatran when compared to patients on VKA. Risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was significantly higher in patients treated with dabigatran (1.13, 1.00-1.28). No significant difference was observed in risk of myocardial infarction (0.99, 0.89-1.11). In this combined analysis of real-world observational comparison studies with VKA, dabigatran was associated with a lower risk of ischaemic stroke, major bleeding, intracranial bleeding and mortality, higher risk of GI bleeding and a similar risk of myocardial infarction.

  11. Real world clinical performance of the zotarolimus eluting coronary stent system in Chinese patients: a prospective,multicenter registry study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ya-ling; XU Kai; WANG Wei-min; HUO Yong; CHEN Ji-yan; XU Bo; YAN Hong-bing; WANG Le-feng; LI Wei-min; CONG Hong-liang; JING Quan-min; WANG Shou-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Early clinical trials with the Endeavor zotarolimus eluting stent (ZES) in western populations demonstrated low rates of target lesion revascularization with a favorable safety profile including low late stent thrombosis with up to 5 years of follow-up.The aim of this clinical registry study was to evaluate real world clinical performance of the ZES coronary system in Chinese patients.Methods The China Endeavor Registry is a prospective,multicenter registry assessing the safety of the ZES system in a real world patient population.It was conducted at 46 centers in China in routine treatment of patients with coronary artery stenosis,including patients with clinical characteristics or lesion types that are often excluded from randomized controlled trials.The registry included 2210 adult patients who underwent single-vessel or multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention.The primary end point was the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12 months.Results The 12-month rate of MACE for all patients in the registry was 3.03%.Cardiac death or myocardial infarction rate was 1.28% and target lesion revascularization rate was 1.66%,non-target lesion target vessel revascularization (TVR) was 0.52%,TVR was 2.18%,and target vessel failure was 3.22%.There was only one case of emergent cardiac bypass surgery.The 12-month overall incidence of all Academic Research Consortium (ARC)-defined stent thrombosis was 0.43%.Conclusion Mid-term results from the real-world China Endeavor Registry suggest that Endeavor ZES was safe and effective in Chinese patients.

  12. Play with online virtual pets as a method to improve mirror neuron and real world functioning in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a severe disease with no known cause and no cure or treatment. Recently, ourselves and subsequently others found that so-called "mirror neurons" - neurons that respond not only when a person moves, but upon observation of movement in another - are dysfunctional in autistic children. Here I suggest an easy, simple, inexpensive and fun method to improve mirror neuron functioning in autistic children, increase appreciation in autistic children for the theory of mind and thinking of others, and most importantly hopefully to improve real world functioning: play with virtual online pets that are the "embodiment" of a stuffed animal the child has. Adoption and then care and play with online pets forces, in a fun way, one to think about the world through the eyes and needs of the pet. A simple method to test this play with online virtual pet therapy is described.

  13. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2014-09-01

    It is widely understood that cold-temperature engine operation negatively impacts vehicle fuel use due to a combination of increased friction (high-viscosity engine oil) and temporary enrichment (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large number of driving cycles and ambient conditions. This work leverages high-quality dynamometer data collected at various ambient conditions to develop a modeling framework for quantifying engine cold-start fuel penalties over a wide array of real-world usage profiles. Additionally, mitigation strategies including energy retention and exhaust heat recovery are explored with benefits quantified for each approach.

  14. SQL Server 2008 Administration Real World Skills for MCITP Certification and Beyond (Exams 70-432 and 40-450)

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for SQL Server 2008 database administrators. If you manage and administer SQL Server 2008 in the real world, you need this detailed guide at your desk. From planning to disaster recovery, this practical book explores tasks and scenarios that a working SQL Server DBA faces regularly and shows you step by step how to handle them. Topics include installation and configuration, creating databases and tables, optimizing the database server, planning for high availability, and more. And, if you're preparing for MCTS or MCITP certification in SQL Server 2008 admin

  15. Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administration Real World Skills for MCITP Certification and Beyond (Exam 70-668)

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Delivers the information that SharePoint 2010 administrators in the field need most This book shows you how to design, deploy, and implement a SharePoint 2010 environment, providing practical skills and real-world techniques and scenarios you'll be able to apply on the job. You'll not only thoroughly learn SharePoint 2010, but you'll also get up to speed on business continuity and solutions. In addition, those preparing for the MCITP: SharePoint 2010 Administration certification exam 70-668 will find thorough coverage of all exam objectives.Shows you how to design, deploy, administer, and main

  16. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  17. Post-Marketing Safety Surveillance of the Salvia Miltiorrhiza Depside Salt for Infusion: A Real World Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying-Ying; Yang, Yi-Heng; Wang, Wei-Wei; Pan, Yu-Ting; Zhan, Si-Yan; Sun, Ming-Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Suo-Di

    2017-01-01

    Background Salvia Miltiorrhiza Depside Salt for Infusion (SMDS) is made of a group of highly purified listed drugs. However, its safety data is still reported limitedly. Compared with the clinical trials, its safety in the real world setting is barely assessed. Objective To investigate the safety issues, including adverse events (AEs), adverse events related to SMDS (ADEs), and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of the SMDS in the real world clinical practice. Methods This is a prospective, multicenter, pharmacist-led, cohort study in the real world setting. Consecutive patients prescribed with SMDS were all included in 36 sites. Pharmacists were well trained to standardized collect the patients information, including demographics, medical history, prescribing patterns of SMDS, combined medications, adverse events, laboratory investigations, outcomes of the treatment when discharge, and interventions by pharmacists. Adverse events and adverse drug reactions were collected in details. Multivariate possion regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors associated with ADEs using the significance level (α) 0.05. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01872520. Results Thirty six hospitals were participated in the study and 30180 consecutive inpatients were included. The median age was 62 (interquartile range [IQR], 50–73) years, and male was 17384 (57.60%) among the 30180 patients. The incidences of the AEs, ADEs and ADRs were 6.40%, 1.57% and 0.79%, respectively. There were 9 kinds of new ADEs which were not on the approved label found in the present study. According to the multivariate analysis, male (RR = 1.381, P = 0.009, 95%CI [1.085~1.759]), more concomitant medications (RR = 1.049, P<0.001, 95%CI [1.041~1.057]), longer duration of SMDS therapy (RR = 1.027, P<0.001, 95%CI [1.013~1.041]), higher drug concentration (RR = 1.003, P = 0.014, 95%CI [1.001~1.006]), and resolvent unapproved (RR = 1.900, P = 0.002, 95%CI [1.260~2.866]) were the independent risk

  18. Net clinical benefit of new oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) versus no treatment in a 'real world' atrial fibrillation population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, A; Lane, D A; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    2012-01-01

    of bleeding and stroke are both high, all three new drugs appear to have a greater net clinical benefit than warfarin. In the absence of head-to-head trials for these new OACs, our analysis may help inform decision making processes when all these new OACs become available to clinicians for stroke prevention...... in AF. Using 'real world' data, our modelling analysis has shown that when the risk of bleeding and stroke are both high, all three new drugs appear to have a greater net clinical benefit compared to warfarin....

  19. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (p<0.05) in a BEAS-2B cell line. This study contributes novel data on real-world, nonroad engine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure

  20. Post-Marketing Safety Surveillance of the Salvia Miltiorrhiza Depside Salt for Infusion: A Real World Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying-Ying; Yang, Yi-Heng; Wang, Wei-Wei; Pan, Yu-Ting; Zhan, Si-Yan; Sun, Ming-Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Suo-Di

    2017-01-01

    Salvia Miltiorrhiza Depside Salt for Infusion (SMDS) is made of a group of highly purified listed drugs. However, its safety data is still reported limitedly. Compared with the clinical trials, its safety in the real world setting is barely assessed. To investigate the safety issues, including adverse events (AEs), adverse events related to SMDS (ADEs), and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of the SMDS in the real world clinical practice. This is a prospective, multicenter, pharmacist-led, cohort study in the real world setting. Consecutive patients prescribed with SMDS were all included in 36 sites. Pharmacists were well trained to standardized collect the patients information, including demographics, medical history, prescribing patterns of SMDS, combined medications, adverse events, laboratory investigations, outcomes of the treatment when discharge, and interventions by pharmacists. Adverse events and adverse drug reactions were collected in details. Multivariate possion regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors associated with ADEs using the significance level (α) 0.05. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01872520. Thirty six hospitals were participated in the study and 30180 consecutive inpatients were included. The median age was 62 (interquartile range [IQR], 50-73) years, and male was 17384 (57.60%) among the 30180 patients. The incidences of the AEs, ADEs and ADRs were 6.40%, 1.57% and 0.79%, respectively. There were 9 kinds of new ADEs which were not on the approved label found in the present study. According to the multivariate analysis, male (RR = 1.381, P = 0.009, 95%CI [1.085~1.759]), more concomitant medications (RR = 1.049, P<0.001, 95%CI [1.041~1.057]), longer duration of SMDS therapy (RR = 1.027, P<0.001, 95%CI [1.013~1.041]), higher drug concentration (RR = 1.003, P = 0.014, 95%CI [1.001~1.006]), and resolvent unapproved (RR = 1.900, P = 0.002, 95%CI [1.260~2.866]) were the independent risk factors of the ADEs. Moreover, following the

  1. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  2. Effectiveness and safety of apixaban versus warfarin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients in "real-world" clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Deitelzweig, Steve; Keshishian, Allison

    2017-01-01

    ) of NVAF patients newly initiating apixaban or warfarin from January 1, 2013 to September 30, 2015. After 1:1 warfarin-apixaban propensity score matching (PSM) within each database, the resulting patient records were pooled. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate...... to warfarin treatment. This is the largest "real-world" study on apixaban effectiveness and safety to date, showing that apixaban initiation was associated with significant risk reductions in stroke/SE and major bleeding compared to warfarin initiation after PSM. These benefits were consistent across various...

  3. Real-world uptake of a tailored, text message pregnancy smoking cessation programme (MiQuit) when offered online

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Joanne; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking is a major public health concern and uptake of NHS cessation support is low in this group. Text message-based self-help is a promising intervention for this population but little is known about its likely real-world uptake, an essential parameter for estimating public health impact. Aims were to explore uptake (including cost) of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers (‘MiQuit’) when offered online. Methods: Links to a website pr...

  4. Searching for superspreaders of information in real-world social media

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, Sen; Andrade, Jose S; Zheng, Zhiming; Makse, Hernan A

    2014-01-01

    A number of predictors have been suggested to detect the most influential spreaders of information in online social media across various domains such as Twitter or Facebook. In particular, degree, PageRank, k-core and other centralities have been adopted to rank the spreading capability of users in information dissemination media. So far, validation of the proposed predictors has been done by simulating the spreading dynamics rather than following real information flow in social networks. Consequently, only model-dependent contradictory results have been achieved so far for the best predictor. Here, we address this issue directly. We search for influential spreaders by following the real spreading dynamics in a wide range of networks. We find that the widely-used degree and PageRank fail in ranking users' influence. We find that the best spreaders are consistently located in the k-core across dissimilar social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Livejournal and scientific publishing in the American Physical ...

  5. An evaluation of the EuroNCAP crash test safety ratings in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui-Gomez, Maria; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Frampton, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the rating obtained in the EuroNCAP test procedures correlates with injury protection to vehicle occupants in real crashes using data in the UK Cooperative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database from 1996 to 2005. Multivariate Poisson regression models were developed, using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score by body region as the dependent variable and the EuroNCAP score for that particular body region, seat belt use, mass ratio and Equivalent Test Speed (ETS) as independent variables. Our models identified statistically significant relationships between injury severity and safety belt use, mass ratio and ETS. We could not identify any statistically significant relationships between the EuroNCAP body region scores and real injury outcome except for the protection to pelvis-femur-knee in frontal impacts where scoring "green" is significantly better than scoring "yellow" or "red".

  6. An Evaluation of the Euroncap Crash Test Safety Ratings in the Real World

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the rating obtained in the EuroNCAP test procedures correlates with injury protection to vehicle occupants in real crashes using data in the UK Cooperative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database from 1996 to 2005. Multivariate Poisson regression models were developed, using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score by body region as the dependent variable and the EuroNCAP score for that particular body region, seat belt use, mass ratio and Equivalent Test Speed (ETS) as ind...

  7. Stellar Evolution: Theory and the Real World I. AGB Stars - Fantasy, Fact, and Fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    This paper discusses the impact which observations with telescopes at Cerro Tololo of bright M- and C-stars in the Magellanic Clouds have had on the elucidation of the final phases of the evolution of intermediate mass stars, emphasizing that the behavior of real asymptotic giant branch stars is quite different from that predicted by the theory of stellar evolution as it stood prior to the observational work.

  8. Unix Philosophy and the Real World: Control Software for Humanoid Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Thomas Dantam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robot software combines the challenges of general purpose and real-time software, requiring complex logic and bounded resource use. Physical safety, particularly for dynamic systems such as humanoid robots, depends on correct software. General purpose computation has converged on unix-like operating systems -- standardized as POSIX, the Portable Operating System Interface -- for devices from cellular phones to supercomputers. The modular, multi-process design typical of POSIX applications is effective for building complex and reliable software. Absent from POSIX, however, is an interproccess communication mechanism that prioritizes newer data as typically desired for control of physical systems. We address this need in the Ach communication library which provides suitable semantics and performance for real-time robot control. Although initially designed for humanoid robots, Ach has broader applicability to complex mechatronic devices -- humanoid and otherwise -- that require real-time coupling of sensors, control, planning, and actuation. The initial user space implementation of Ach was limited in the ability to receive data from multiple sources. We remove this limitation by implementing Ach as a Linux kernel module, enabling Ach's high-performance and latest-message-favored semantics within conventional POSIX communication pipelines. We discuss how these POSIX interfaces and design principles apply to robot software, and we present a case study using the Ach kernel module for communication on the Baxter robot.

  9. Judging a Book by Its Cover: Children's Facial Trustworthiness as Judged by Strangers Predicts Their Real-World Trustworthiness and Peer Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinggong; Heyman, Gail D; Mei, Jing; Lee, Kang

    2017-08-03

    This longitudinal research examined whether children's facial trustworthiness as judged by strangers can predict their real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) judged the facial trustworthiness of 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 100) solely based on their photographs. The children's classmates were asked to report their real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Children's facial trustworthiness reliably predicted these outcomes both initially when the photographs were taken, as well as 1 year later, and this effect was mediated by the initial ratings of real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. These results provide evidence for a long-lasting linkage between children's facial and real-world trustworthiness. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. A "world" distribution of income and of real poverty and affluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotopoulos, P A

    1987-01-01

    International comparative estimates of income distribution are formulated using data from household income and expenditure surveys for nine developing and five developed countries. The focus is on a comparison among countries concerning the percentage and number of the affluent and those living in poverty. The results show a decrease since the 1960s in the number of those living in poverty. The significance for economic development of the growth of an affluent population in the developing world is considered.

  11. On the agreement between small-world-like OFC model and real earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Douglas S.R., E-mail: douglas.ferreira@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Paracambi, RJ (Brazil); Geophysics Department, Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Papa, Andrés R.R., E-mail: papa@on.br [Geophysics Department, Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Menezes, Ronaldo, E-mail: rmenezes@cs.fit.edu [BioComplex Laboratory, Computer Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne (United States)

    2015-03-20

    In this article we implemented simulations of the OFC model for earthquakes for two different topologies: regular and small-world, where in the latter the links are randomly rewired with probability p. In both topologies, we have studied the distribution of time intervals between consecutive earthquakes and the border effects present in each one. In addition, we also have characterized the influence that the probability p produces in certain characteristics of the lattice and in the intensity of border effects. From the two topologies, networks of consecutive epicenters were constructed, that allowed us to analyze the distribution of connectivities of each one. In our results distributions arise belonging to a family of non-traditional distributions functions, which agrees with previous studies using data from actual earthquakes. Our results reinforce the idea that the Earth is in a critical self-organized state and furthermore point towards temporal and spatial correlations between earthquakes in different places. - Highlights: • OFC model simulations for regular and small-world topologies. • For small-world topology distributions agree remarkably well with actual earthquakes. • Reinforce the idea of a critical self-organized state for the Earth's crust. • Point towards temporal and spatial correlations between far earthquakes in far places.

  12. Real-World Assessment of Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Lower-Risk Myelofibrosis Receiving Treatment with Ruxolitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Few trial-based assessments of ruxolitinib in patients with lower-risk myelofibrosis (MF have been conducted, and no studies have made such assessments in a real-world population. We assessed changes in spleen size and constitutional symptoms during ruxolitinib treatment using a retrospective, observational review of anonymized US medical record data of patients diagnosed with IPSS low-risk (n=25 or intermediate-1-risk (n=83 MF. The majority of patients were male (low risk, 60%; intermediate-1 risk, 69%. Most patients (92% and 77% were still receiving ruxolitinib at the medical record abstraction date (median observation/exposure time, 8 months. The proportion of patients with moderate or severe palpable splenomegaly (≥10 cm decreased from diagnosis (56% to best response (12%. Fatigue was reported in 47% of patients and was the most common constitutional symptom. For most symptoms in both risk groups, shifts in the distribution of severity from more to less severe from diagnosis to best response were observed. Both patients with low-risk and intermediate-1-risk MF experienced a substantial decrease in spleen size with ruxolitinib treatment in real-world settings. For most symptoms examined, there were distinct improvements in the distribution of severity during ruxolitinib treatment. These findings suggest that patients with lower-risk MF may benefit clinically from ruxolitinib treatment.

  13. Top-down and bottom-up aspects of active search in a real-world environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Chapman, Craig; Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-03-01

    Visual search has been studied intensively in the labouratory, but lab search often differs from search in the real world in many respects. Here, we used a mobile eye tracker to record the gaze of participants engaged in a realistic, active search task. Participants were asked to walk into a mailroom and locate a target mailbox among many similar mailboxes. This procedure allowed control of bottom-up cues (by making the target mailbox more salient; Experiment 1) and top-down instructions (by informing participants about the cue; Experiment 2). The bottom-up salience of the target had no effect on the overall time taken to search for the target, although the salient target was more likely to be fixated and found once it was within the central visual field. Top-down knowledge of target appearance had a larger effect, reducing the need for multiple head and body movements, and meaning that the target was fixated earlier and from further away. Although there remains much to be discovered in complex real-world search, this study demonstrates that principles from visual search in the labouratory influence gaze in natural behaviour, and provides a bridge between these labouratory studies and research examining vision in natural tasks.

  14. A path model investigation of neurocognition, theory of mind, social competence, negative symptoms and real-world functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Shannon M; Granholm, Eric L; Fish, Scott C

    2011-02-01

    Problems in real-world functioning are pervasive in schizophrenia and much recent effort has been devoted to uncovering factors which contribute to poor functioning. The goal of this study was to examine the role of four such factors: social cognition (theory of mind), neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functional capacity (social competence). 178 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of theory of mind, neurocognition, negative symptoms, social competence, and self-reported functioning. Path models sought to determine the relationships among these variables. Theory of mind as indexed by the Hinting Task partially mediated the relationship between neurocognition and social competence, and negative symptoms and social competence demonstrated significant direct paths with self-reported functioning. Study results suggest theory of mind serves as an important mediator in addition to previously investigated social cognitive domains of emotional and social perception. The current study also highlights the need to determine variables which mediate the relationship between functional capacity and real-world functioning.

  15. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis

    2008-06-01

    The reduction of transport-generated CO2 emissions is currently a problem of global interest. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as one promising technological solution for limiting transport-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the number of HEVs in the market remains limited, but this picture will change in the years to come as HEVs are expected to pave the way for cleaner technologies in transport. In this paper, results are presented regarding fuel economy and pollutant emissions measurements of two hybrid electric production vehicles. The measurements were conducted on a Prius II and a Honda Civic IMA using both the European legislated driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) and real-world simulation driving cycles (Artemis). In addition to the emissions measurements, other vehicle-operating parameters were studied in an effort to better quantify the maximum CO2 reduction potential. Data from real-world operation of a Prius II vehicle were also used in the evaluation. Results indicate that in most cases both vehicles present improved energy efficiency and pollutant emissions compared to conventional cars. The fuel economy benefit of the two HEVs peaked under urban driving conditions where reductions of 60% and 40% were observed, respectively. Over higher speeds the difference in fuel economy was lower, reaching that of conventional diesel at 95 km h-1. The effect of ambient temperature on fuel consumption was also quantified. It is concluded that urban operation benefits the most of hybrid technology, leading to important fuel savings and urban air quality improvement.

  16. Concentration measurement in a road tunnel as a method to assess "real-world" vehicles exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, G.; Berico, M.; Monforti, F.; Vitali, L.; Zambonelli, S.; Chiavarini, S.; Georgiadis, T.; Nardino, M.

    An experiment aimed at comparing particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations produced in a road tunnel by buses is described. The experiment took place in 2001 in Bologna when a couple of buses belonging to the public transport fleet where driven backwards and forwards in a road tunnel closed to all other vehicles. Buses run in the tunnel for 8 h a day for 4 experiment days, each day using a different fuel: biodiesel, diesel-water emulsion, diesel-water emulsion with low sulphur content and commercial diesel. Average daily concentrations of PM of different sizes and of 12 PHAs were measured and comparison between different fuels was attempted in order to assess "real-world" exhaust emissions of different fuels. Due to heterogeneity of experimental conditions in different days and the relatively large measurement uncertainties, the effort was only partially successful, and it was not possible to state any firm conclusion on fuels reliability even if some indications in agreement with literature were found. Nevertheless, the experiment and the data analysis method developed could be of interest as a methodological approach for future experiments aimed at evaluating "real-world" exhaust emissions of single vehicles.

  17. Navigational strategy used to intercept fly balls under real-world conditions with moving visual background fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; McBeath, Michael K; Sugar, Thomas G

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the navigational strategy used to intercept fly balls in a real-world environment under conditions with moving visual background fields. Fielders ran across a gymnasium attempting to catch fly balls that varied in distance and direction. During each trial, the launched balls traveled in front of a moving background texture that was projected onto an entire wall of a gymnasium. The background texture consisted of a field of random dots that moved together, at a constant speed and direction that varied between trials. The fielder route deviation was defined as the signed area swept out between the actual running path and a straight-line path to the destination, and these route deviation values were compared as a function of the background motion conditions. The findings confirmed that the moving visual background fields systematically altered the fielder running paths, which curved more forward and then to the side when the background gradient moved laterally with the ball, and curved more to the side and then forward when the background gradient moved opposite the ball. Fielder running paths deviated systematically, in a manner consistent with the use of a geometric optical control strategy that helps guide real-world perception-action tasks of interception, such as catching balls.

  18. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  19. A Path Model Investigation of Neurocognition, Theory of Mind, Social Competence, Negative Symptoms and Real-World Functioning in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Shannon M.; Granholm, Eric L.; Fish, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Problems in real-world functioning are pervasive in schizophrenia and much recent effort has been devoted to uncovering factors which contribute to poor functioning. The goal of this study was to examine the role of four such factors: social cognition (theory of mind), neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functional capacity (social competence). 178 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of theory of mind, neurocognition, negative symptoms, social competence, and self-reported functioning. Path models sought to determine the relationships among these variables. Theory of mind as indexed by the Hinting Task partially mediated the relationship between neurocognition and social competence, and negative symptoms and social competence demonstrated significant direct paths with self-reported functioning. Study results suggest theory of mind serves as an important mediator in addition to previously investigated social cognitive domains of emotional and social perception. The current study also highlights the need to determine variables which mediate the relationship between functional capacity and real-world functioning. PMID:20965699

  20. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: comparisons from real-world clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Garzotto A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analia Rodriguez Garzotto,1 Oliver Heine,2 Matthew Turner,3 Francisco Rebollo Laserna,4 Andreas Lorenz5 1Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Ctra Andalucía, Madrid, Spain; 2Zentralklinikum Suhl, Suhl, 3Sandoz International GmbH, Holzkirchen, Germany; 4Sandoz Farmaceutica SA, Madrid, Spain; 5Frauenarztpraxis, Hildburghausen, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to report real-world data on the relative effectiveness of a biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA; Binocrit®, and other available ESAs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia.Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from single centers in Spain (n=284 and Germany (n=145. Hemoglobin outcomes, transfusion requirements, and serious drug-related adverse events were assessed for each ESA.Results: Hemoglobin outcomes and transfusion requirements were generally similar in the different ESA treatment groups assessed. No serious drug-related adverse events were recorded in any of the treatment groups.Conclusion: These data confirm the real-world effectiveness and safety of a biosimilar ESA (Binocrit® for the treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia.Keywords: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, chemotherapy-induced anemia, biosimilar