WorldWideScience

Sample records for real time pricing

  1. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  2. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  3. Real Time Pricing and the Real Live Firm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moezzi, Mithra; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, Osman; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-05-26

    Energy economists have long argued the benefits of real time pricing (RTP) of electricity. Their basis for modeling customers response to short-term fluctuations in electricity prices are based on theories of rational firm behavior, where management strives to minimize operating costs and optimize profit, and labor, capital and energy are potential substitutes in the firm's production function. How well do private firms and public sector institutions operating conditions, knowledge structures, decision-making practices, and external relationships comport with these assumptions and how might this impact price response? We discuss these issues on the basis of interviews with 29 large (over 2 MW) industrial, commercial, and institutional customers in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation service territory that have faced day-ahead electricity market prices since 1998. We look at stories interviewees told about why and how they respond to RTP, why some customers report that they can't, and why even if they can, they don't. Some firms respond as theorized, and we describe their load curtailment strategies. About half of our interviewees reported that they were unable to either shift or forego electricity consumption even when prices are high ($0.50/kWh). Reasons customers gave for why they weren't price-responsive include implicit value placed on reliability, pricing structures, lack of flexibility in adjusting production inputs, just-in-time practices, perceived barriers to onsite generation, and insufficient time. We draw these observations into a framework that could help refine economic theory of dynamic pricing by providing real-world descriptions of how firms behave and why.

  4. The real-time price elasticity of electricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The real-time price elasticity of electricity contains important information on the demand response of consumers to the volatility of peak prices. Despite the importance, empirical estimates of the real-time elasticity are hardly available. This paper provides a quantification of the real-time

  5. Wealth Transfers from Implementing Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01

    Adoption of real-time electricity pricing %u2014 retail prices that vary hourly to reflect changing wholesale prices %u2014 removes existing cross-subsidies to those customers that consume disproportionately more when wholesale prices are highest. If their losses are substantial, these customers are likely to oppose RTP initiatives unless there is a supplemental program to offset their loss. Using data on a random sample of 636 industrial and commercial customers in southern California, I sho...

  6. The real-time price elasticity of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    The real-time price elasticity of electricity contains important information on the demand response of consumers to the volatility of peak prices. Despite the importance, empirical estimates of the real-time elasticity are hardly available. This paper provides a quantification of the real-time relationship between total peak demand and spot market prices. We find a low value for the real-time price elasticity, which may partly be explained from the fact that not all users observe the spot market price. If we correct for this phenomenon, we find the elasticity to be fairly low for consumers currently active in the spot market. If this conclusion applies to all users, this would imply a limited scope for government intervention in supply security issues. (Author)

  7. Microgrids Real-Time Pricing Based on Clustering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids are widely spreading in electricity markets worldwide. Besides the security and reliability concerns for these microgrids, their operators need to address consumers’ pricing. Considering the growth of smart grids and smart meter facilities, it is expected that microgrids will have some level of flexibility to determine real-time pricing for at least some consumers. As such, the key challenge is finding an optimal pricing model for consumers. This paper, accordingly, proposes a new pricing scheme in which microgrids are able to deploy clustering techniques in order to understand their consumers’ load profiles and then assign real-time prices based on their load profile patterns. An improved weighted fuzzy average k-means is proposed to cluster load curve of consumers in an optimal number of clusters, through which the load profile of each cluster is determined. Having obtained the load profile of each cluster, real-time prices are given to each cluster, which is the best price given to all consumers in that cluster.

  8. Frequency Based Real-time Pricing for Residential Prosumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambridge, Sarah Mabel

    This work is the first to explore frequency based pricing for secondary frequency control as a price-reactive control mechanism for residential prosumers. A frequency based real-time electricity rate is designed as an autonomous market control mechanism for residential prosumers to provide frequency support as an ancillary service. In addition, prosumers are empowered to participate in dynamic energy transactions, therefore integrating Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), and increasing distributed energy storage onto the distributed grid. As the grid transitions towards DERs, a new market based control system will take the place of the legacy distributed system and possibly the legacy bulk power system. DERs provide many benefits such as energy independence, clean generation, efficiency, and reliability to prosumers during blackouts. However, the variable nature of renewable energy and current lack of installed energy storage on the grid will create imbalances in supply and demand as uptake increases, affecting the grid frequency and system operation. Through a frequency-based electricity rate, prosumers will be encouraged to purchase energy storage systems (ESS) to offset their neighbor's distributed generation (DG) such as solar. Chapter 1 explains the deregulation of the power system and move towards Distributed System Operators (DSOs), as prosumers become owners of microgrids and energy cells connected to the distributed system. Dynamic pricing has been proposed as a benefit to prosumers, giving them the ability to make decisions in the energy market, while also providing a way to influence and control their behavior. Frequency based real-time pricing is a type of dynamic pricing which falls between price-reactive control and transactive control. Prosumer-to-prosumer transactions may take the place of prosumer-to-utility transactions, building The Energy Internet. Frequency based pricing could be a mechanism for determining prosumer prices and supporting

  9. Real-Time Pricing in the Nordic Power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas Savolainen, Maria; Svento, Rauli

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the potential effects of Real-Time Pricing (RTP) of electricity on the need for long-run capacities in the Nordic Power markets. A characteristic of the Nordic Power market is the large variety of production technologies, of which hydro and nuclear power are capacity constrained. We analyze the impact of RTP on: the need for total, peak and midmerit capacities; total demand; prices; peak demand hours; and economic welfare. We have also studied whether the results of RTP are sensitive to the simultaneous implementation of tradable emission permits. We find that RTP diminishes the need for total capacity even with inelastic demand. Our results show that even with modest assumptions related to RTP participation, the annual midmerit and peaker capacity efficiency savings amount to 97 million Euros, which are around 6% of their total annual investment costs. The price of the peak demand hour clearly diminishes as the share of the RTP customers increases or demand becomes more price elastic. We compare RTP and tradable emission permits as two separate instruments in reaching energy use efficiencies and show how these two instruments must be seen as complementary and not as substitutable instruments. We show how RTP and tradable emission permits have a positive correlation in promoting market access of renewable energy sources. We find that welfare effects of the implementation of RTP are positive. - Highlights: ► RTP diminishes the need for total capacity even with inelastic demand. ► The capacity efficiency savings are around 6% of their annual investment costs. ► RTP and ETS should be seen as complementary and not as substitutable instruments. ► RTP and ETS have a positive correlation in promoting market access of renewables. ► Welfare effects of the implementation of RTP are positive.

  10. Real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China based on system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongxiu; Zhang, Jixiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The system dynamics is used to research the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Four kinds of the real-time electricity pricing models are carried out and simulated. • It analysed the electricity price, the user satisfaction and the social benefits under the different models. • Market pricing is the trend of the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Initial development path of the real-time price mechanism for China is designed between 2015 and 2030. - Abstract: As an important means of demand-side response, the reasonable formulation of the electricity price mechanism will have an important impact on the balance between the supply and demand of electric power. With the introduction of Chinese intelligence apparatus and the rapid development of smart grids, real-time electricity pricing, as the frontier electricity pricing mechanism in the smart grid, will have great significance on the promotion of energy conservation and the improvement of the total social surplus. From the perspective of system dynamics, this paper studies different real-time electricity pricing mechanisms based on load structure, cost structure and bidding and analyses the situation of user satisfaction and the total social surplus under different pricing mechanisms. Finally, through the comparative analysis of examples under different real-time pricing scenarios, this paper aims to explore and design the future dynamic real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China, predicts the dynamic real-time pricing level and provides a reference for real-time electricity price promotion in the future

  11. A survey of utility experience with real time pricing: implications for policymakers seeking price responsive demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Economists and policy makers frequently propose real time pricing (RTP) as a strategy for facilitating price responsive demand, thereby improving the performance of electricity markets and regional networks. While theoretically appealing, many practical and empirical issues related to RTP remain unresolved or poorly understood. Over the past two decades, more than 70 utilities in the U.S. have offered voluntary RTP tariffs, on either a pilot or permanent basis. However, most have operated in relative obscurity, and little information has made its way into the public domain. To address this gap, we conducted a conducted a comprehensive review of voluntary RTP programs in the U.S. by surveying 43 U.S. utilities and reviewing regulatory documents, tariffs, program evaluations, and other publicly available sources. Based on this review of RTP program experience, we identify key trends related to utilities' motivations and goals for implementing RTP, evolution of RTP tariff design, program participation, participant price response, and program outlook. Experience with voluntary RTP programs has been mixed. Several utilities have demonstrated that voluntary RTP programs are capable of generating significant load reductions. However, most programs have attracted relatively few participants and therefore have generated quite limited load reductions. About 2700 non-residential customers were enrolled in RTP programs in 2003, representing more than 11 000 MW of load. We then draw from these findings to identify implications for policy makers and regulators that are currently considering RTP as a strategy for facilitating price responsive demand

  12. The voluntary price for the small consumer: Real-time pricing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldán Fernández, Juan Manuel; Payán, Manuel Burgos; Santos, Jesús Manuel Riquelme; García, Ángel Luis Trigo

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, a period of reform was initiated of the regulatory framework of the Spanish electricity sector. A year later, the methodology for the calculation of the Voluntary Price for the Small Consumer (VPSC) was approved: a real-time price tariff for small domestic consumers. Under this price-setting system, VPSC consumers are billed according to their hourly consumption and hourly prices along the day. Directive 27/2014/EU, on energy saving, was also transposed to Spanish regulation in 2014. The impact on the Spanish electricity market and domestic VPSC consumers of these two recent energy policy modifications are analyzed in this work. A qualitative model, based on the flexibility of the merit-order curves, is first introduced to formulate a number of hypotheses. A set of scenarios are then examined to quantify the main effects on the market and on domestic consumers. The results show that domestic energy-saving, and, to a lesser extent, load-shifting scenarios, can diminish the mean hourly price and the cost of the annual traded energy in the market. Nevertheless, these reductions are mainly granted to large qualified consumers, since domestic consumers mostly benefit from the reduction of their energy demand rather than from a reduction of the price. - Graphical abstract: Load saving and load-shifting performed by small VPSC consumers reduces the hourly clearing price and the traded energy leading to some rent transfer from the generators to the purchasing agents. The cost saving for VPSC consumers is mainly related to the energy they saved. They profit only partially from the market cost saving. - Highlights: • Merit-order effect related to energy saving and load-shifting are identified. • Domestic consumers are able to conduct energy saving and load-shifting at no cost. • Cyclic load-shifting reduces the traded energy and the economic cost in the market. • Rent transfer form generators to purchasing agents catalyzed by costumers’ saving.

  13. Real-time pricing when some consumers resist in saving electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens

    2013-01-01

    Successful real-time electricity pricing depends firstly upon consumers' willingness to subscribe to such terms and, secondly, on their ability to curb consumption levels. The present paper addresses both issues by considering consumers differentiated by their electricity saving costs, half of whom resist saving electricity. We demonstrate that when consumers are free to adopt real-time prices, producers prefer charging inefficient prices and, in so doing, discriminate against that portion of the consumer population which faces no saving costs. We also find that efficient marginal cost pricing is feasible, but is incompatible with mass adoption of real-time prices. - Highlights: • We model consumers switching from uniform to real-time electricity pricing (RTP). • Half the consumer population is pro-RTP and half resists saving electricity. • Efficient RTP is feasible but is incompatible with mass adoption

  14. Wealth Transfers Among Large Customers from Implementing Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of real-time electricity pricing — retail prices that vary hourly to reflect changing wholesale prices — removes existing cross-subsidies to those customers that consume disproportionately more when wholesale prices are highest. If their losses are substantial, these customers are likely to oppose RTP initiatives unless there is a supplemental program to offset their loss. Using data on a sample of 1142 large industrial and commercial customers in northern California, I show that RTP...

  15. Real-time pricing strategy of micro-grid energy centre considering price-based demand response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Gan

    2017-07-01

    With the development of energy conversion technology such as power to gas (P2G), fuel cell and so on, the coupling between energy sources becomes more and more closely. Centralized dispatch among electricity, natural gas and heat will become a trend. With the goal of maximizing the system revenue, this paper establishes the model of micro-grid energy centre based on energy hub. According to the proposed model, the real-time pricing strategy taking into account price-based demand response of load is developed. And the influence of real-time pricing strategy on the peak load shifting is discussed. In addition, the impact of wind power predicted inaccuracy on real-time pricing strategy is analysed.

  16. Important variables in explaining real-time peak price in the independent power market of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, I.E.A.; Marathe, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses support vector machines (SVM) based learning algorithm to select important variables that help explain the real-time peak electricity price in the Ontario market. The Ontario market was opened to competition only in May 2002. Due to the limited number of observations available, finding a set of variables that can explain the independent power market of Ontario (IMO) real-time peak price is a significant challenge for the traders and analysts. The kernel regressions of the explanatory variables on the IMO real-time average peak price show that non-linear dependencies exist between the explanatory variables and the IMO price. This non-linear relationship combined with the low variable-observation ratio rule out conventional statistical analysis. Hence, we use an alternative machine learning technique to find the important explanatory variables for the IMO real-time average peak price. SVM sensitivity analysis based results find that the IMO's predispatch average peak price, the actual import peak volume, the peak load of the Ontario market and the net available supply after accounting for load (energy excess) are some of the most important variables in explaining the real-time average peak price in the Ontario electricity market. (author)

  17. A Survey of Utility Experience with Real Time Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2004-12-01

    While more than 70 utilities in the U.S. have offered voluntary RTP tariffs on either a pilot or permanent basis, most have operated in relative obscurity. To bring this broad base of experience to bear on policymakers current efforts to stimulate price responsive demand, we conducted a survey of 43 voluntary RTP tariffs offered in 2003. The survey involved telephone interviews with RTP program managers and other utility staff, as well as a review of regulatory documents, tariff sheets, program evaluations, and other publicly available sources. Based on this review of RTP program experience, we identify key trends related to: utilities motivations for implementing RTP, evolution of RTP tariff design, program participation, participant price response, and program outlook. We draw from these findings to discuss implications for policymakers that are currently considering voluntary RTP as a strategy for developing price responsive demand.

  18. Real-time control of power systems using nodal prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion management in electrical power systems via nodal prices. We develop a dynamic controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow constraints in

  19. Analysis of relationships between hourly electricity price and load in deregulated real-time power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.L.; Wu, Y.K.

    2004-01-01

    Risk management in the electric power industry involves measuring the risk for all instruments owned by a company. The value of many of these instruments depends directly on electricity prices. In theory, the wholesale price in a real-time market should reflect the short-run marginal cost. However, most markets are not perfectly competitive, therefore by understanding the degree of correlation between price and physical drivers, electric traders and consumers can manage their risk more effectively and efficiently. Market data from two power-pool architectures, both pre-2003 ISO-NE and Australia's NEM, have been studied. The dynamic character of electricity price is mean-reverting, and consists of intra-day and weekly variations, seasonal fluctuations, and instant jumps. Parts of them are affected by load demands. Hourly signals on both price and load are divided into deterministic and random components with a discrete Fourier transform algorithm. Next, the real-time price-load relationship for periodic and random signals is examined. In addition, time-varying volatility models are constructed on random price and random load with the GARCH model, and the correlation between them analysed. Volatility plays a critical role on evaluating option pricing and risk management. (author)

  20. Real-time electricity pricing in a deregulated environment using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dondo, M.G.

    1998-12-31

    The challenge of implementing real-time pricing of electricity was discussed. Several electric utilities want to incorporate real-time pricing into their rate policies. Conventional programming methods are not fast enough to process and distribute information in real time. Therefore, a new method that would match the current advances in communication speeds is needed. Also, conventional programming methods do not incorporate the uncertainties that are inherent in the lives of humans. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate this fuzziness into the model. This study showed that the elements of speed and uncertainties can be readily incorporated into the determination of spot-pricing based electricity rates. A unique computational intelligence model was designed which consists of a feedforward neural network based on back-propagation training and a fuzzy logic model. The work has been demonstrated on the IEEE test systems and the Nova Scotia Power Corporation`s system.

  1. Real Time Updating Genetic Network Programming for Adapting to the Change of Stock Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Mabu, Shingo; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    The key in stock trading model is to take the right actions for trading at the right time, primarily based on the accurate forecast of future stock trends. Since an effective trading with given information of stock prices needs an intelligent strategy for the decision making, we applied Genetic Network Programming (GNP) to creating a stock trading model. In this paper, we propose a new method called Real Time Updating Genetic Network Programming (RTU-GNP) for adapting to the change of stock prices. There are three important points in this paper: First, the RTU-GNP method makes a stock trading decision considering both the recommendable information of technical indices and the candlestick charts according to the real time stock prices. Second, we combine RTU-GNP with a Sarsa learning algorithm to create the programs efficiently. Also, sub-nodes are introduced in each judgment and processing node to determine appropriate actions (buying/selling) and to select appropriate stock price information depending on the situation. Third, a Real Time Updating system has been firstly introduced in our paper considering the change of the trend of stock prices. The experimental results on the Japanese stock market show that the trading model with the proposed RTU-GNP method outperforms other models without real time updating. We also compared the experimental results using the proposed method with Buy&Hold method to confirm its effectiveness, and it is clarified that the proposed trading model can obtain much higher profits than Buy&Hold method.

  2. Optimal Energy Management for the Integrated Power and Gas Systems via Real-time Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, KangAn; Ai, Xiaomeng; Wen, Jinyu

    2018-01-01

    This work proposed a bi-level formulation for energy management in the integrated power and natural gas system via real-time price signals. The upper-level problem minimizes the operational cost, in which dynamic electricity price and dynamic gas tariff are proposed. The lower level problem...... and P2Gs plants follow the system operator’s preferences such as wind power accommodation, mitigation of unsupplied load and relieving the network congestion....

  3. A Probabilistic Approach to Control of Complex Systems and Its Application to Real-Time Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of complex systems is one of the fundamental problems in control theory. In this paper, a control method for complex systems modeled by a probabilistic Boolean network (PBN is studied. A PBN is widely used as a model of complex systems such as gene regulatory networks. For a PBN, the structural control problem is newly formulated. In this problem, a discrete probability distribution appeared in a PBN is controlled by the continuous-valued input. For this problem, an approximate solution method using a matrix-based representation for a PBN is proposed. Then, the problem is approximated by a linear programming problem. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to design of real-time pricing systems of electricity. Electricity conservation is achieved by appropriately determining the electricity price over time. The effectiveness of the proposed method is presented by a numerical example on real-time pricing systems.

  4. Pricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Ketter, W.; Collins, J.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing a pricing mechanism for precisely controlling the real-time balance in electricity markets, where retail brokers aggregate the supply and demand of a number of individual customers, and must purchase or sell power at the wholesale level such that the total supply

  5. Evaluating the Impacts of Real-Time Pricing on the Cost and Value of Wind Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siohansi, Ramteen

    2010-01-01

    One of the costs associated with integrating wind generation into a power system is the cost of redispatching the system in real-time due to day-ahead wind resource forecast errors. One possible way of reducing these redispatch costs is to introduce demand response in the form of real-time pricing (RTP), which could allow electricity demand to respond to actual real-time wind resource availability using price signals. A day-ahead unit commitment model with day-ahead wind forecasts and a real-time dispatch model with actual wind resource availability is used to estimate system operations in a high wind penetration scenario. System operations are compared to a perfect foresight benchmark, in which actual wind resource availability is known day-ahead. The results show that wind integration costs with fixed demands can be high, both due to real-time redispatch costs and lost load. It is demonstrated that introducing RTP can reduce redispatch costs and eliminate loss of load events. Finally, social surplus with wind generation and RTP is compared to a system with neither and the results demonstrate that introducing wind and RTP into a market can result in superadditive surplus gains.

  6. Riding the Electricity Market as an Energy Management Strategy: Savings from Real-Time Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiles, Thomas [U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. (United States); Shutika, Kenneth [U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. (United States); Coleman, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-03-13

    Dynamic pricing of electricity, in which retail prices facing customers are responsive to changes in the underlying wholesale markets, represents a step towards economic efficiency in that customers get exposed to some or all of the costs facing wholesale market players. But what do customers who opt for this greater exposure – available in the roughly 15 “de-regulated” states, as well as, to some extent, from some regulated utilities – get in return for their risks? The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) took a retrospective eight-year look at what the savings would have been had they let the loads for which they purchase electricity in the Washington, DC area buy electricity on the real-time pricing (RTP) market – the dynamic pricing option with the highest risk – as opposed to the strategy they chose in actuality, which was fixing flat prices with 3rd-party providers. We found that opting for RTP for the eight years of the study (2005 through 2012) would have resulted in 17% savings, or almost a quarter of a billion dollars, relative to GSA’s actual prices from the 3rd-party suppliers. This is particularly astonishing given that GSA appeared to have timed the market well during the study period, consistently beating the standard offer products provided by the distribution utilities. The issue of budgetary predictability poses an obstacle for customers (especially government ones) considering RTP and, to a lesser extent, other dynamic pricing options. Indeed, GSA would have lost money with RTP in two of the eight years, one of them substantially. But the magnitude of the savings is indisputably compelling and, even if it may be somewhat aberrational due to high congestion in the DC market, begs consideration by large electricity users currently paying to “lock in” fixed flat prices.

  7. Impact of optimal load response to real-time electricity price on power system constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to a real-time electricity price...... and may represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. A distribution system where wind power capacity is 126% of maximum loads is chosen as the study case. This paper presents a nonlinear load optimization method to real-time power price...... for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to a real-time electricity price has some good impacts on power system constraints in a distribution system with high wind power penetrations....

  8. Distribution Locational Real-Time Pricing Based Smart Building Control and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jun; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    This paper proposes an real-virtual parallel computing scheme for smart building operations aiming at augmenting overall social welfare. The University of Denver's campus power grid and Ritchie fitness center is used for demonstrating the proposed approach. An artificial virtual system is built in parallel to the real physical system to evaluate the overall social cost of the building operation based on the social science based working productivity model, numerical experiment based building energy consumption model and the power system based real-time pricing mechanism. Through interactive feedback exchanged between the real and virtual system, enlarged social welfare, including monetary cost reduction and energy saving, as well as working productivity improvements, can be achieved.

  9. The effects of residential real-time pricing contracts on transco loads, pricing, and profitability: Simulations using the N-ABLE trademark agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlen, Mark A.; Scholand, Andrew J.; Stamber, Kevin L.

    2007-01-01

    An agent-based model is constructed in which a demand aggregator sells both uniform-price and real-time price (RTP) contracts to households as means for adding price elasticity in residential power use sectors, particularly during peak-price hours of the day. Simulations suggest that RTP contracts help a demand aggregator (1) shift its long-term contracts toward off-peak hours, thereby reducing its cost of power and (2) increase its short-run profits if it is one of the first aggregators to have large numbers of RTP contracts; but (3) create susceptibilities to short-term market demand and price volatilities. (author)

  10. Real-Time Pricing-Based Scheduling Strategy in Smart Grids: A Hierarchical Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a scheduling strategy based on real-time pricing in smart grids. A hierarchical game is employed to analyze the decision-making process of generators and consumers. We prove the existence and uniqueness of Nash equilibrium and utilize a backward induction method to obtain the generation and consumption strategies. Then, we propose two dynamic algorithms for the generators and consumers to search for the equilibrium in a distributed fashion. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheduling strategy can match supply with demand and shift load away from peak time.

  11. Day Ahead Real Time Pricing and Critical Peak Pricing Based Power Scheduling for Smart Homes with Different Duty Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a demand side management (DSM scheme in the residential area for electricity cost and peak to average ratio (PAR alleviation with maximum users’ satisfaction. For this purpose, we implement state-of-the-art algorithms: enhanced differential evolution (EDE and teacher learning-based optimization (TLBO. Furthermore, we propose a hybrid technique (HT having the best features of both aforementioned algorithms. We consider a system model for single smart home as well as for a community (multiple homes and each home consists of multiple appliances with different priorities. The priority is assigned (to each appliance by electricity consumers and then the proposed scheme finds an optimal solution according to the assigned priorities. Day-ahead real time pricing (DA-RTP and critical peak pricing (CPP are used for electricity cost calculation. To validate our proposed scheme, simulations are carried out and results show that our proposed scheme efficiently achieves the aforementioned objectives. However, when we perform a comparison with existing schemes, HT outperforms other state-of-the-art schemes (TLBO and EDE in terms of electricity cost and PAR reduction while minimizing the average waiting time.

  12. Comparison of Solar and Wind Power Output and Correlation with Real-Time Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepfl, Kathryn E.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Solocha, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    This study presents a method that can be used to determine the least volatile power output of a wind and solar hybrid energy system in which wind and solar systems have the same peak power. Hourly data for wind and PV systems in Northwest Ohio are used to show that a combination of both types of sustainable energy sources produces a more stable power output and would be more valuable to the grid than either individually. This method could be used to determine the ideal ratio in any part of the country and should help convince electric utility companies to bring more renewable generation online. This study also looks at real-time market pricing and how each system (solar, wind, and hybrid) correlates with 2009 hourly pricing from the Midwest Interconnect. KEH acknowledges support from the NSF-REU grant PHY-1004649 to the Univ. of Toledo and Garland Energy Systems/Ohio Department of Development.

  13. AEP Ohio gridSMART Demonstration Project Real-Time Pricing Demonstration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek; Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.

    2014-02-01

    This report contributes initial findings from an analysis of significant aspects of the gridSMART® Real-Time Pricing (RTP) – Double Auction demonstration project. Over the course of four years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) worked with American Electric Power (AEP), Ohio and Battelle Memorial Institute to design, build, and operate an innovative system to engage residential consumers and their end-use resources in a participatory approach to electric system operations, an incentive-based approach that has the promise of providing greater efficiency under normal operating conditions and greater flexibility to react under situations of system stress. The material contained in this report supplements the findings documented by AEP Ohio in the main body of the gridSMART report. It delves into three main areas: impacts on system operations, impacts on households, and observations about the sensitivity of load to price changes.

  14. Aggregate modeling of fast-acting demand response and control under real-time pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassin, David P.; Rondeau, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Demand elasticity for fast-acting demand response load under real-time pricing. • Validated first-principles logistic demand curve matches random utility model. • Logistic demand curve suitable for diversified aggregate loads market-based transactive control systems. - Abstract: This paper develops and assesses the performance of a short-term demand response (DR) model for utility load control with applications to resource planning and control design. Long term response models tend to underestimate short-term demand response when induced by prices. This has two important consequences. First, planning studies tend to undervalue DR and often overlook its benefits in utility demand management program development. Second, when DR is not overlooked, the open-loop DR control gain estimate may be too low. This can result in overuse of load resources, control instability and excessive price volatility. Our objective is therefore to develop a more accurate and better performing short-term demand response model. We construct the model from first principles about the nature of thermostatic load control and show that the resulting formulation corresponds exactly to the Random Utility Model employed in economics to study consumer choice. The model is tested against empirical data collected from field demonstration projects and is shown to perform better than alternative models commonly used to forecast demand in normal operating conditions. The results suggest that (1) existing utility tariffs appear to be inadequate to incentivize demand response, particularly in the presence of high renewables, and (2) existing load control systems run the risk of becoming unstable if utilities close the loop on real-time prices.

  15. Real time pricing as a component of least-cost power strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramanis, M.C.; Tabors, R.D.; Daryanian, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Real Time Pricing (RTP) that is an electricity rate which varies with time in order to reflect the electric utility's time varying costs of generation, transmission, and distribution. Because RTP improves the economic efficiency of overall operation of the electric system, it can provide benefits to both the utility and the customers. It is a strategic tool which provides customers with the same type of cost and load management signals that are provided to the electric supply system. It is a critical element in economically efficient least-cost strategies because it provides the customer with symmetric signals that encourage both reduction in consumption (high prices) and also increases in consumption (low prices). This characteristic of symmetry makes it a unique method relative to others in the field of conservation and load management because RTP can be used to dispatch the customers; load, not merely turn it off when and if required by the utility. In the process of developing and implementing least-cost strategies, RTP can provide significant incremental benefits to existing demand-side as well as supply-side programs

  16. Real Time Information Based Energy Management Using Customer Preferences and Dynamic Pricing in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Babar Rasheed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents real time information based energy management algorithms to reduce electricity cost and peak to average ratio (PAR while preserving user comfort in a smart home. We categorize household appliances into thermostatically controlled (tc, user aware (ua, elastic (el, inelastic (iel and regular (r appliances/loads. An optimization problem is formulated to reduce electricity cost by determining the optimal use of household appliances. The operational schedules of these appliances are optimized in response to the electricity price signals and customer preferences to maximize electricity cost saving and user comfort while minimizing curtailed energy. Mathematical optimization models of tc appliances, i.e., air-conditioner and refrigerator, are proposed which are solved by using intelligent programmable communication thermostat ( iPCT. We add extra intelligence to conventional programmable communication thermostat (CPCT by using genetic algorithm (GA to control tc appliances under comfort constraints. The optimization models for ua, el, and iel appliances are solved subject to electricity cost minimization and PAR reduction. Considering user comfort, el appliances are considered where users can adjust appliance waiting time to increase or decrease their comfort level. Furthermore, energy demand of r appliances is fulfilled via local supply where the major objective is to reduce the fuel cost of various generators by proper scheduling. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms efficiently schedule the energy demand of all types of appliances by considering identified constraints (i.e., PAR, variable prices, temperature, capacity limit and waiting time.

  17. Contextual Intelligent Load Management Considering Real Time Pricing in a Smart Grid Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Luis; Fernandes, Filipe; Faria, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of demand response programs enables the adequate use of resources of small and medium players, bringing high benefits to the smart grid, and increasing its efficiency. One of the difficulties to proceed with this paradigm is the lack of intelligence in the management of small and medium...... size players. In order to make demand response programs a feasible solution, it is essential that small and medium players have an efficient energy management and a fair optimization mechanism to decrease the consumption without heavy loss of comfort, making it acceptable for the users. This paper...... addresses the application of real-time pricing in a house that uses an intelligent optimization module involving artificial neural networks....

  18. Modern Energy Markets Real-Time Pricing, Renewable Resources and Efficient Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Energy has moved to the forefront in terms of societal and economic development. Modern Energy Markets is a comprehensive, economically oriented, exploration of modern electricity networks from production and distribution to deregulation and liberalization processes. Updating previous work by the authors, different aspects are considered resulting in a complete and detailed picture of  the systems and characteristics of modern electricity markets. Modern Energy Markets provides clear detail whilst encompassing a broad scope of topics and includes: •A method to model energy production systems including the main characteristics of future demand side management, •Different applications of this model in nuclear and renewable energy scenarios, •An analysis of Real-Time Pricing of electricity and its potential effects across the market, and, •A discussion of the need for regulation in an easily monopolized industry. Engineering and Economics students alike will find that Modern Energy Markets is a succinct...

  19. Agent-Based Modeling of Day-Ahead Real Time Pricing in a Pool-Based Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Yousefi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an agent-based structure of the electricity retail market is presented based on which day-ahead (DA energy procurement for customers is modeled. Here, we focus on operation of only one Retail Energy Provider (REP agent who purchases energy from DA pool-based wholesale market and offers DA real time tariffs to a group of its customers. As a model of customer response to the offered real time prices, an hourly acceptance function is proposed in order to represent the hourly changes in the customer’s effective demand according to the prices. Here, Q-learning (QL approach is applied in day-ahead real time pricing for the customers enabling the REP agent to discover which price yields the most benefit through a trial-and-error search. Numerical studies are presented based on New England day-ahead market data which include comparing the results of RTP based on QL approach with that of genetic-based pricing.

  20. On the Trade-off Between Real-time Pricing and the Social Acceptability Costs of Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Hendrigo Batista; Santiago, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    on the social acceptability costs of implementing demand response programs, and we discuss the key features of implementing a real-time price to energy. Although the literature acknowledges the existence of a social acceptability cost, it does not propose an explicit approach to dealing with this issue. A model...... for investigating the implications of the social acceptability cost is thus introduced and through it, we discuss thoroughly the joint impact of the elasticity and externality parameters on the tariff design of a demand response program. We explore how the increases in elasticity and in externality effects...... influence price changes in such programs and how the social acceptability cost could be reduced as a function of pricing policies. We conclude by discussing the policy design mechanisms in line with demand elasticity and their role in decreasing price variations to cope with the minimum volatility principle...

  1. Comparison of control systems for the optimisation of ice storage in a dynamic real time electricity pricing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.D.; O’Mahony, M.J.; Upton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cold thermal energy storage system model was created and validated. • Pseudo real time electricity pricing was derived to represent the smart grid. • A demand side management optimisation algorithm was developed. • Demand side management algorithm performance was compared to a standard controller. • Overall the demand side management algorithm produced modest cost savings. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of introducing a demand side management optimisation controller to a cold thermal storage ice bank. This controller consisted of an ice bank model, an air temperature forecast model and an optimisation algorithm. The financial and grid utilisation benefits produced by implementation of this controller over the current state of the art in ice bank load shifting control was tested in a day ahead real time electricity pricing forecast environment. This hypothetical real time electricity price was based on the cost of electricity in the Irish wholesale market. Multiple ice bank charge levels were simulated in order to quantify the performance of two control methods for varying operating conditions. First, the “standard controller” was based on the current modus operandi for ice bank systems where ice was generated for food cooling at night when the off-peak electricity tariff is available (00:00–08:00 h). Second, the “upgraded controller” was developed as a bespoke Demand Side Management control system for food refrigeration in a future electricity pricing environment. It consisted of a dual function load shifting optimisation algorithm, an ice bank model, and a predictive air temperature model. A preliminary study was also carried out to test the robustness of the controller’s performance in an uncertain real time electricity pricing forecast scenario. Both economic and grid management benefits were found by simulating the operation of the cold thermal storage load shifting controller in a

  2. A closed-loop energy price controlling method for real-time energy balancing in a smart grid energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagoz, B. Baykant; Kaygusuz, Asim; Akcin, Murat; Alagoz, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Future smart grids will require a flexible, observable, and controllable network for reliable and efficient energy delivery under uncertain generation and demand conditions. One of the mechanisms for efficient and reliable energy generation is dynamic demand-responsive generation management based on energy price adjustments that creates a balance in energy markets. This study presents a closed-loop PID (proportional–integral–derivative) controller-based price control method for autonomous and real-time balancing of energy demand and generation in smart grid electricity markets. The PID control system can regulate energy prices online to respond dynamically and instantaneously to the varying energy demands of grid consumers. Independent energy suppliers in the smart grid decide whether to sell their energy to the grid according to the energy prices declared by the closed-loop PID controller system. Energy market simulations demonstrate that PID-controlled energy price regulation can effectively maintain an energy balance for hourly demand fluctuations of consumers. - Highlights: • This study presents a control theoretic approach for management of energy balance. • A closed-loop PID controller-based price controlling method is used in smart grid. • The simulation results demonstrate advantages of PID-based energy price control. • This method is appropriate for demand responsive management of smart grid markets

  3. Operation Cost Minimization of Droop-Controlled DC Microgrids Based on Real-Time Pricing and Optimal Power Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; de Bosio, Federico; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal power flow problem is formulated in order to minimize the total operation cost by considering real-time pricing in DC microgrids. Each generation resource in the system, including the utility grid, is modeled in terms of operation cost, which combines the cost...... problem is solved in a heuristic way by using genetic algorithms. In order to test the proposed algorithm, a six-bus droop-controlled DC microgrid is used as a case-study. The obtained simulation results show that under variable renewable generation, load, and electricity prices, the proposed method can...

  4. Real-Time Pricing Strategy Based on the Stability of Smart Grid for Green Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huwei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing demand of energy efficiency and the strong awareness of environment have led to the enhanced interests in green Internet of things (IoTs. How to efficiently deliver power, especially, with the smart grid based on the stability of network becomes a challenge for green IoTs. Therefore, in this paper we present a novel real-time pricing strategy based on the network stability in the green IoTs enabled smart grid. Firstly, the outage is analyzed by considering the imbalance of power supply and demand as well as the load uncertainty. Secondly, the problem of power supply with multiple-retailers is formulated as a Stackelberg game, where the optimal price can be obtained with the maximal profit for retailers and users. Thirdly, the stability of price is analyzed under the constraints. In addition, simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed strategy.

  5. Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum

    2004-01-01

    This contribution reports on the considerable effort made recently towards extending and applying well-established timed automata technology to optimal scheduling and planning problems. The effort of the authors in this direction has to a large extent been carried out as part of the European...... projects VHS [22] and AMETIST [17] and are available in the recently released UPPAAL CORA [12], a variant of the real-time verification tool UPPAAL [20,5] specialized for cost-optimal reachability for the extended model of priced timed automata....

  6. Hydrogen from nuclear plus wind using real-time electricity prices. Abstract 154

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.; Fairlie, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' During the early years of hydrogen's use as a vehicle fuel, penetration of the market will be small. This favours distributed production by electrolysis, which avoids the scale-dependent costs of distribution from centralized plants. For electrolysis actually to be the preferred option, capital equipment for electrolysis must be reasonably cheap but the dominant cost component is the electricity price. By about 2006, advanced designs of nuclear reactors should be available to produce electricity at around 30 US$/MW.h. The best approach to producing low-cost electrolytic hydrogen is shown to be use of such reactors to supply electricity to the grid at times of peak price and demand and to make hydrogen at other times. This model has been analysed using the actual prices of electricity paid by the Alberta Power Pool in 2002 and 2003 and by the Ontario Grid for 2003. The analysis shows clearly that this route electrolytic hydrogen can comfortably meet the US Department of Energy's hydrogen production-cost target of 2000$/t. Because of its low availability wind-produced electricity cannot meet this cost target. However, if wind availability can reach 35% availability, an intermittent supplementary current of wind-generated electricity may economically be fed to an electrolytic plant primarily supplied by nuclear power. Additional current raises the voltage for electrolysis but there would be only small additional capital costs. The two non-CO 2 -emitting sources, nuclear and wind (or other intermittent renewables with costs comparable to advanced nuclear) could become complementary, providing an affordable way of storing wind-generated electricity. (author)

  7. A computationally efficient electricity price forecasting model for real time energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, Felipe; Silva, Walter; Das, Tapas K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A fast hybrid forecast model for electricity prices. • Accurate forecast model that combines K-means and machine learning techniques. • Low computational effort by elimination of feature selection techniques. • New benchmark results by using market data for year 2012 and 2015. - Abstract: Increased significance of demand response and proliferation of distributed energy resources will continue to demand faster and more accurate models for forecasting locational marginal prices. This paper presents such a model (named K-SVR). While yielding prediction accuracy comparable with the best known models in the literature, K-SVR requires a significantly reduced computational time. The computational reduction is attained by eliminating the use of a feature selection process, which is commonly used by the existing models in the literature. K-SVR is a hybrid model that combines clustering algorithms, support vector machine, and support vector regression. K-SVR is tested using Pennsylvania–New Jersey–Maryland market data from the periods 2005–6, 2011–12, and 2014–15. Market data from 2006 has been used to measure performance of many of the existing models. Authors chose these models to compare performance and demonstrate strengths of K-SVR. Results obtained from K-SVR using the market data from 2012 and 2015 are new, and will serve as benchmark for future models.

  8. Hydrogen from nuclear plus wind using real-time electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.; Fairlie, M.; Anders, P.

    2004-01-01

    During the early years of hydrogen's use as a vehicle fuel, penetration of the market will be small. This favours distributed production by electrolysis, which avoids the scale-dependent costs of distribution from centralized plants. For electrolysis actually to be the preferred option, capital equipment for electrolysis must be reasonably cheap but the dominant cost component is the electricity price. By about 2006, advanced designs of nuclear reactors should be available to produce electricity at around 30 US$/MW.h at the plant gate. The best approach to producing low-cost electrolytic hydrogen is shown to be use of such reactors to supply electricity to the grid at times of peak price and demand and to make hydrogen at other times In this paper, this model has been used to calculate the production costs for electrolytic hydrogen at the location where the electricity is generated, using the actual prices of electricity paid by the Alberta Power Pool in 2002 and 2003 and by the Ontario Grid for 2003. The analysis shows clearly that by optimizing the co-production of hydrogen and electricity (referred to as the H 2 /e process) the cost for hydrogen produced can comfortably meet the US Department of Energy's target of 2000 US$/tonne. Because of its lower availability factor, wind-produced electricity cannot meet this cost target. However, if wind power availability can reach 35%, an intermittent supplementary current of wind-generated electricity may economically be fed to an electrolytic plant primarily supplied by nuclear power. Additional current raises the voltage for electrolysis but there would be only small additional capital costs. The two non-CO 2 -emitting sources, nuclear and wind could become complementary, providing an affordable way of storing wind-generated electricity when the supply exceeds demand in electricity markets The analyses presented in this paper looks at the case of bulk production of H 2 /e in a 'wholesale' energy market and does not

  9. Real Time Pricing as a Default or Optional Service for C&ICustomers: A Comparative Analysis of Eight Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper,Nicole; Ting, Michael; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-08-01

    Demand response (DR) has been broadly recognized to be an integral component of well-functioning electricity markets, although currently underdeveloped in most regions. Among the various initiatives undertaken to remedy this deficiency, public utility commissions (PUC) and utilities have considered implementing dynamic pricing tariffs, such as real-time pricing (RTP), and other retail pricing mechanisms that communicate an incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their usage during periods of high generation supply costs or system reliability contingencies. Efforts to introduce DR into retail electricity markets confront a range of basic policy issues. First, a fundamental issue in any market context is how to organize the process for developing and implementing DR mechanisms in a manner that facilitates productive participation by affected stakeholder groups. Second, in regions with retail choice, policymakers and stakeholders face the threshold question of whether it is appropriate for utilities to offer a range of dynamic pricing tariffs and DR programs, or just ''plain vanilla'' default service. Although positions on this issue may be based primarily on principle, two empirical questions may have some bearing--namely, what level of price response can be expected through the competitive retail market, and whether establishing RTP as the default service is likely to result in an appreciable level of DR? Third, if utilities are to have a direct role in developing DR, what types of retail pricing mechanisms are most appropriate and likely to have the desired policy impact (e.g., RTP, other dynamic pricing options, DR programs, or some combination)? Given a decision to develop utility RTP tariffs, three basic implementation issues require attention. First, should it be a default or optional tariff, and for which customer classes? Second, what types of tariff design is most appropriate, given prevailing policy objectives, wholesale market

  10. Distributed Coordination of Electric Vehicle Charging in a Community Microgrid Considering Real-Time Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Schaltz, Erik; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    The predictable increasing adoption of EV by residential users imposes the necessity of Electric Vehicle charging coordination, in order to charge effectively while minimizing the impact on the grid. In this paper, a two-stage distributed coordination algorithm for electric vehicle charging...... management in a community microgrid is proposed. Each local EV charging controller is taken as an agent, which can manage the charging to achieve the optimization of the whole community by communicating in a sparse network. The proposed algorithm aims at optimizing real-time, which manages the charging...

  11. Demonstration of Market-Based Real-Time Electricity Pricing on a Congested Feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; le Ray, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Congestion management can delay grid reinforcements needed due to the growth of distributed technologies like photovoltaics and electric vehicles. This paper presents a method of congestion management for low voltage feeders using indirect control from the smart grid demonstration EcoGrid EU, where...... prices to 1900 houses, with a virtual feeder of 28 houses receiving congestion pricing. Simulations are used to calculate the cost from using this congestion management method, while demonstration results indicate that congestion can be managed successfully....

  12. Optimizing Greenhouse Lighting for Advanced Agriculture Based on Real Time Electricity Market Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mahdavian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s growing demand for food can be met by agricultural technology. Use of artificial light to supplement natural sunlight in greenhouse cultivation is one of the most common techniques to increase greenhouse production of food crops. However, artificial light requires significant electrical energy, which increases the cost of greenhouse production and can reduce profit. This paper models the increments to greenhouse productivity as well as the increases in cost from supplemental electric lighting, in a situation where the greenhouse is one of the elements of a smart grid, a system where the electric energy market is dynamic and prices vary over time. We used our models to calculate the optimum values for supplemental light and the required electrical energy for HPS lamps in the greenhouse environment, using cherry tomato cultivation as a case study crop. We considered two optimization techniques: iterative search (IS and genetic algorithm (GA. The two approaches produced similar results, although the GA method was much faster. Both approaches verify the advantages of using optimal supplemental light in terms of increasing production and hence profit.

  13. Real-Time Price Discovery in Global Stock, Bond and Foreign Exchange Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben G.; Bollerslev, Tim; Diebold, Francis X.

    Using a unique high-frequency futures dataset, we characterize the response of U.S., German and British stock, bond and foreign exchange markets to real-time U.S. macroeconomic news. We find that news produces conditional mean jumps; hence high-frequency stock, bond and exchange rate dynamics...... are linked to fundamentals. Equity markets, moreover, react differently to news depending on the stage of the business cycle, which explains the low correlation between stock and bond returns when averaged over the cycle. Hence our results qualify earlier work suggesting that bond markets react most strongly...... to macroeconomic news; in particular, when conditioning on the state of the economy, the equity and foreign exchange markets appear equally responsive. Finally, we also document important contemporaneous links across all markets and countries, even after controlling for the effects of macroeconomic news....

  14. Towards Efficient Energy Management of Smart Buildings Exploiting Heuristic Optimization with Real Time and Critical Peak Pricing Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheraz Aslam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid plays a vital role in decreasing electricity cost through Demand Side Management (DSM. Smart homes, a part of the smart grid, contribute greatly to minimizing electricity consumption cost via scheduling home appliances. However, user waiting time increases due to the scheduling of home appliances. This scheduling problem is the motivation to find an optimal solution that could minimize the electricity cost and Peak to Average Ratio (PAR with minimum user waiting time. There are many studies on Home Energy Management (HEM for cost minimization and peak load reduction. However, none of the systems gave sufficient attention to tackle multiple parameters (i.e., electricity cost and peak load reduction at the same time as user waiting time was minimum for residential consumers with multiple homes. Hence, in this work, we propose an efficient HEM scheme using the well-known meta-heuristic Genetic Algorithm (GA, the recently developed Cuckoo Search Optimization Algorithm (CSOA and the Crow Search Algorithm (CSA, which can be used for electricity cost and peak load alleviation with minimum user waiting time. The integration of a smart Electricity Storage System (ESS is also taken into account for more efficient operation of the Home Energy Management System (HEMS. Furthermore, we took the real-time electricity consumption pattern for every residence, i.e., every home has its own living pattern. The proposed scheme is implemented in a smart building; comprised of thirty smart homes (apartments, Real-Time Pricing (RTP and Critical Peak Pricing (CPP signals are examined in terms of electricity cost estimation for both a single smart home and a smart building. In addition, feasible regions are presented for single and multiple smart homes, which show the relationship among the electricity cost, electricity consumption and user waiting time. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme for single and multiple smart

  15. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...

  16. Estimating railway infrastructure project cost from transferring nominal price to real price by considering the working time possessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Salling, Kim Bang

    are varying depending on the working time possessions presented through the closure of the railway line. The effective working hours, type of construction work and construction speed are used as constraints to ensure the track closure plan remains feasible. To demonstrate the approach a Danish railway...... and 2) railway construction work costs are not transparent in the market. This paper suggests separating the costs into 3 sub-categories: materials, labour and machinery. Evidently, the materials are further broke-down into subcomponents which then remains fixed whereas the cost of labour and machinery...... construction project, the new line to the fixed link across Fehmarn Belt, is introduced where it is shown that the non-material cost is about 19% of the total expenditure. By assuming three sets of track blocking scenarios with the same amount of construction works it is proven that given an optimal track...

  17. Pricing the Ramping Reserve and Capacity Reserve in Real Time Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Hongxing; Li, Zuyi

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy in recent years has led to more uncertainties in power systems. In order to maintain system reliability and security, electricity market operators need to keep certain reserves in the Security-Constrained Economic Dispatch (SCED) problems. A new concept, deliverable generation ramping reserve, is proposed in this paper. The prices of generation ramping reserves and generation capacity reserves are derived in the Affine Adjustable Robust Optimizat...

  18. Optimum residential load management strategy for real time pricing (RTP) demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano-Rojas, Juan M.; Monteiro, Cláudio; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers that utilizes the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. The strategy considers predictions of electricity prices, energy demand, renewable power production, and power-purchase of energy of the consumer in determining the optimal relationship between hourly electricity prices and the use of different household appliances and electric vehicles in a typical smart house. The proposed strategy is illustrated using two study cases corresponding to a house located in Zaragoza (Spain) for a typical day in summer. Results show that the proposed model allows users to control their diary energy consumption and adapt their electricity bills to their actual economical situation. - Highlights: ► This work shows an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers. ► It has been considered the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. ► A study case shows the optimal utilization of some appliances and electric vehicles. ► Results showed that the proposed model allows users to reduce their electricity bill.

  19. Real-Time Pricing Decision Making for Retailer-Wholesaler in Smart Grid Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeming Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time pricing DSM (demand side management is widely used to dynamically change or shift the electricity consumption in the smart grid. In this paper, a game decision making scheme is proposed in the smart grid with DSM. The interaction between two retailers and their wholesaler is modeled as a two-stage game model. Considering the competition between two retailers, two different game models are developed in terms of the different action order between retailers and their wholesaler. Through analyzing the equilibrium revenues of the retailers for different situations we find that although the wholesaler expects to decentralize certain management powers to the retailers, it has retained the right to change the rules of the game and frequently reneged on the promises. More specifically, the law should ensure that any change of the revenue-sharing formula must go through certain legal procedures. Imposing legal restrictions on the wholesaler’s discretionary policy suggests that the time-inconsistency problem is mitigated. Numerical simulation shows the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  20. On Nonlinear Prices in Timed Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Bhave

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Priced timed automata provide a natural model for quantitative analysis of real-time systems and have been successfully applied in various scheduling and planning problems. The optimal reachability problem for linearly-priced timed automata is known to be PSPACE-complete. In this paper we investigate priced timed automata with more general prices and show that in the most general setting the optimal reachability problem is undecidable. We adapt and implement the construction of Audemard, Cimatti, Kornilowicz, and Sebastiani for non-linear priced timed automata using state-of-the-art theorem prover Z3 and present some preliminary results.

  1. Real-Time Pricing for Demand Response in Smart Grid Based on Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time pricing (RTP scheme is an ideal method to adjust the power balance between supply and demand in smart grid systems. This scheme has a profound impact on users’ behavior, system operation, and overall grid management in the electricity industry. In this research, we conduct an extended discussion of a RTP optimization model and give a theoretical analysis of the existence and uniqueness of the Lagrangian multiplier. A distributed optimization method based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM algorithm with Gaussian back substitution (GBS is proposed in this study. On the one hand, the proposed algorithm takes abundant advantage of the separability among variables in the model. On the other hand, the proposed algorithm can not only speed up the convergence rate to enhance the efficiency of computing, but also overcome the deficiency of the distributed dual subgradient algorithm, the possibility of nonconvergence in the iteration process. In addition, we give the theoretical proof of the convergence of the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the interdependent relationship between variables has been discussed in depth during numerical simulations in the study. Compared with the dual subgradient method, the simulation results validate that the proposed algorithm has a higher convergence speed and better implementation effect.

  2. Merit-order effects of renewable energy and price divergence in California’s day-ahead and real-time electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Moore, J.; Schneiderman, B.; Ho, T.; Olson, A.; Alagappan, L.; Chawla, K.; Toyama, N.; Zarnikau, J.

    2016-01-01

    We answer two policy questions: (1) what are the estimated merit-order effects of renewable energy in the California Independent System Operator’s (CAISO’s) day-ahead market (DAM) and real-time market (RTM)? and (2) what causes the hourly DAM and RTM prices to systematically diverge? The first question is timely and relevant because if the merit-order effect estimates are small, California’s renewable energy development is of limited help in cutting electricity consumers’ bills but also has a lesser adverse impact on the state’s investment incentive for natural-gas-fired generation. The second question is related to the efficient market hypothesis under which the hourly RTM and DAM prices tend to converge. Using a sample of about 21,000 hourly observations of CAISO market prices and their fundamental drivers during 12/12/2012–04/30/2015, we document statistically significant estimates (p-value≤0.01) for the DAM and RTM merit-order effects. This finding lends support to California’s adopted procurement process to provide sufficient investment incentives for natural-gas-fired generation. We document that the RTM-DAM price divergence partly depends on the CASIO’s day-ahead forecast errors for system loads and renewable energy. This finding suggests that improving the performance of the CAISO’s day-ahead forecasts can enhance trading efficiency in California’s DAM and RTM electricity markets. - Highlights: •Estimate the day-ahead and real-time merit-order effects of renewable energy in California. •Document statistically significant merit-order effects of solar and wind energy. •Document the difference between the day-ahead and real-time prices. •Attribute the price differences to forecast errors for load, solar and wind energy. •Discuss the evidence’s implications for California’s energy policy.

  3. Financial and technical feasibility of dynamic congestion pricing as a revenue generation source in Indiana : exploiting the availability of real-time information and dynamic pricing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    "Highway stakeholders continue to support research studies that address critical issues of the current era, including congestion mitigation and revenue generation. A mechanism that addresses both concerns is congestion pricing which establishes a dir...

  4. Product pricing in TAC SCM using adaptive real-time probability of acceptance estimations based on economic regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenboom, A.C.; Ketter, W.; Dalen, van Jan; Kaymak, U.; Collins, J.; Gupta, Alok

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic product pricing is a vital, yet non-trivial task in complex supply chains -- especially in case of limited visibility of the market environment. We propose to differentiate product pricing strategies using economic regimes. In our approach, we use economic regimes (characterizing market

  5. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  6. Efficient Power Scheduling in Smart Homes Using Hybrid Grey Wolf Differential Evolution Optimization Technique with Real Time and Critical Peak Pricing Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muqaddas Naz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of automated environments, energy demand by consumers is increasing rapidly. More than 80% of total electricity is being consumed in the residential sector. This brings a challenging task of maintaining the balance between demand and generation of electric power. In order to meet such challenges, a traditional grid is renovated by integrating two-way communication between the consumer and generation unit. To reduce electricity cost and peak load demand, demand side management (DSM is modeled as an optimization problem, and the solution is obtained by applying meta-heuristic techniques with different pricing schemes. In this paper, an optimization technique, the hybrid gray wolf differential evolution (HGWDE, is proposed by merging enhanced differential evolution (EDE and gray wolf optimization (GWO scheme using real-time pricing (RTP and critical peak pricing (CPP. Load shifting is performed from on-peak hours to off-peak hours depending on the electricity cost defined by the utility. However, there is a trade-off between user comfort and cost. To validate the performance of the proposed algorithm, simulations have been carried out in MATLAB. Results illustrate that using RTP, the peak to average ratio (PAR is reduced to 53.02%, 29.02% and 26.55%, while the electricity bill is reduced to 12.81%, 12.012% and 12.95%, respectively, for the 15-, 30- and 60-min operational time interval (OTI. On the other hand, the PAR and electricity bill are reduced to 47.27%, 22.91%, 22% and 13.04%, 12%, 11.11% using the CPP tariff.

  7. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  8. Convergence of European spot market prices for natural gas. A Real-Time Analysis of market integration using the Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siliverstovs, Boriss; Neumann, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a textbook example of an econometric analysis of the integration between two commodity markets and the subsequent price convergence or absence thereof. We analyze price relations between spot markets for natural gas in Europe. The European market for natural gas is currently undergoing a liberalization process with the aim of creating a single, unified market. We use time-varying coefficient estimation models, applying the Kalman filter to test whether price convergence between different locations is really taking place. Our results reveal that the construction of a pipeline between the UK and Zeebrugge (Belgium) has lead to almost perfect price convergence between theses locations; on the other hand, liberalization on the European continent does not seem to be working so far. (Author)

  9. Real Time Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip G.

    1985-12-01

    The call for abolishing photo reconnaissance in favor of real time is once more being heard. Ten years ago the same cries were being heard with the introduction of the Charge Coupled Device (CCD). The real time system problems that existed then and stopped real time proliferation have not been solved. The lack of an organized program by either DoD or industry has hampered any efforts to solve the problems, and as such, very little has happened in real time in the last ten years. Real time is not a replacement for photo, just as photo is not a replacement for infra-red or radar. Operational real time sensors can be designed only after their role has been defined and improvements made to the weak links in the system. Plodding ahead on a real time reconnaissance suite without benefit of evaluation of utility will allow this same paper to be used ten years from now.

  10. Construction of Discrete Time Shadow Price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogala, Tomasz; Stettner, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In the paper expected utility from consumption over finite time horizon for discrete time markets with bid and ask prices and strictly concave utility function is considered. The notion of weak shadow price, i.e. an illiquid price, depending on the portfolio, under which the model without bid and ask price is equivalent to the model with bid and ask price is introduced. Existence and the form of weak shadow price is shown. Using weak shadow price usual (called in the paper strong) shadow price is then constructed

  11. Optimal scheduling using priced timed automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum

    2005-01-01

    This contribution reports on the considerable effort made recently towards extending and applying well-established timed automata technology to optimal scheduling and planning problems. The effort of the authors in this direction has to a large extent been carried out as part of the European...... projects VHS [20] and AMETIST [16] and are available in the recently released UPPAAL CORA [12], a variant of the real-time verification tool UPPAAL [18, 5] specialized for cost-optimal reachability for the extended model of so-called priced timed automata....

  12. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  13. The effects of combining dynamic pricing, AC load control, and real-time energy feedback. SMUD'S 2011 Residential Summer Solutions Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, K. [Herter Energy Research Solutions, El Dorado Hills, CA (United States); Wood, V. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Blozis, S. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The 2011 Residential Summer Solutions Study compared the hourly load effects of three different real-time information treatments and two program options. The information treatments included: Baseline information (no real-time data), real-time Home information (whole-house data), and real-time Appliance information (data for the whole house plus three individual appliances). Compared to the Baseline group, real-time Home information lowered overall energy use by about 4 %. Real-time information at both the Home and Appliance levels had a significant effect on non-event peak loads: compared to the Baseline group, real-time Home data lowered peak load by 5 %, while Appliance data lowered peak load by 7 %. All three information treatments averaged a 1-kW (40 %) load shed during events. The customer-chosen program options included a dynamic time-of-use rate and a load control incentive program. Customers were more likely to sign up for the dynamic rate, and those who did saved significantly more peak load on both event days (>50 % savings) and non-event days (>20 % savings) than did those on the load control program alone. In addition, those on the dynamic rate saved twice as much on their summer bills as did those who chose to remain on the standard tiered rate. At the end of the summer, more than 90 % of participants signed up to participate again the following year.

  14. Price setting in turbulent times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursdóttir, Ásgerdur; Vignisdóttir, Karen Á.

    This price setting survey among Icelandic firms aims to make two contributions to the literature. First, it studies price setting in an advanced economy within a more turbulent macroeconomic environment than has previously been done. The results indicate that price adjustments are to a larger...... extent driven by exchange rate fluctuations than in most other advanced countries. The median Icelandic firm reviews its prices every four months and changes them every six months. The main sources of price rigidity and the most commonly used price setting methods are the same as in most other countries....... A second contribution to the literature is our analysis of the nexus between price setting and exchange rate movements, a topic that has attracted surprisingly limited attention in this survey-based literature. A novel aspect of our approach is to base our analysis on a categorisation of firms...

  15. Real-time shadows

    CERN Document Server

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  16. STOCK PRICES, 1900-1995: THE REAL AND NOMINAL STORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Weiher

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Prompted by the inflation-adjusted Dow Jones Industrials Average setting its first record high in almost thirty years in 1995, this paper studies the impact of inflation on nominal and real stock prices from a theoretical, historical, and empirical perspective. While stocks are an excellent longterm hedge against inflation, nominal stock prices stagnate and real stock prices fall during a period of rapid inflation. Both nominal and real stockprices then go through a catch-up phase during the subsequent disinflation period. The history for this century is consistent with this pattern. Regression analysis between real and nominal stock prices as the dependent variables and inflation as the independent variable shows statistically significant evidence that (a nominal stock returns are positively related to inflation while real stock returns are not; and (b both nominal and real stock returns are negatively related to accelerations of inflation and positively related to decelerations.

  17. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  18. Electricity price modeling with stochastic time change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovkova, Svetlana; Schmeck, Maren Diane

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel approach to electricity price modeling, based on the powerful technique of stochastic time change. This technique allows us to incorporate the characteristic features of electricity prices (such as seasonal volatility, time varying mean reversion and seasonally occurring price spikes) into the model in an elegant and economically justifiable way. The stochastic time change introduces stochastic as well as deterministic (e.g., seasonal) features in the price process' volatility and in the jump component. We specify the base process as a mean reverting jump diffusion and the time change as an absolutely continuous stochastic process with seasonal component. The activity rate of the stochastic time change can be related to the factors that influence supply and demand. Here we use the temperature as a proxy for the demand and hence, as the driving factor of the stochastic time change, and show that this choice leads to realistic price paths. We derive properties of the resulting price process and develop the model calibration procedure. We calibrate the model to the historical EEX power prices and apply it to generating realistic price paths by Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the simulated price process matches the distributional characteristics of the observed electricity prices in periods of both high and low demand. - Highlights: • We develop a novel approach to electricity price modeling, based on the powerful technique of stochastic time change. • We incorporate the characteristic features of electricity prices, such as seasonal volatility and spikes into the model. • We use the temperature as a proxy for the demand and hence, as the driving factor of the stochastic time change • We derive properties of the resulting price process and develop the model calibration procedure. • We calibrate the model to the historical EEX power prices and apply it to generating realistic price paths.

  19. Space-time modeling of timber prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongriorno

    2006-01-01

    A space-time econometric model was developed for pine sawtimber timber prices of 21 geographically contiguous regions in the southern United States. The correlations between prices in neighboring regions helped predict future prices. The impulse response analysis showed that although southern pine sawtimber markets were not globally integrated, local supply and demand...

  20. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  1. Can producer currency pricing models generate volatile real exchange rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Povoledo, L.

    2012-01-01

    If the elasticities of substitution between traded and nontraded and between Home and Foreign traded goods are sufficiently low, then the real exchange rate generated by a model with full producer currency pricing is as volatile as in the data.

  2. Real House Price Dynamics in OECD countries - The risk of large movements in prices

    OpenAIRE

    Mamre, Mari Olsen

    2014-01-01

    Using different econometric approaches and based on a panel of 21 OECD countries this thesis investigate whether differences in structural or policy factors significantly affects the price responsiveness of shocks to demand in the short run and in the cases of abrupt movements in real prices. Over such steeper areas of the housing cycle the analysis focus specifically on finding evidence of asymmetric responses of demand and structural factors on price dynamics. The study of asymmetries in th...

  3. Markets in real electric networks require reactive prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    Extending earlier seminal work, the author finds that locational spot price differences in an electric network provide the natural measure of the appropriate internodal transport charge. However, the problem of loop flow requires different economic intuition for interpreting the implications of spot pricing. The Direct Current model, which is the usual approximation for estimating spot prices, ignores reactive power effects; this approximation is best when thermal constraints create network congestion. However, when voltage constraints are problematic, the DC Load model is insufficient; a full AC Model is required to determine both real and reactive spot prices. 16 figs., 3 tabs., 22 refs

  4. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.

    2015-01-01

    A specification theory combines notions of specifications and implementations with a satisfaction relation, a refinement relation, and a set of operators supporting stepwise design. We develop a specification framework for real-time systems using Timed I/O Automata as the specification formalism......, with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar...

  5. Route around real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, Francois

    1996-01-01

    The greater and greater autonomy and complexity asked to the control and command systems lead to work on introducing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence or concurrent object programming in industrial applications. However, while the critical feature of these systems impose to control the dynamics of the proposed solutions, their complexity often imposes a high adaptability to a partially modelled environment. The studies presented start from low level control and command systems to more complex applications at higher levels, such as 'supervision systems'. Techniques such as temporal reasoning and uncertainty management are proposed for the first studies, while the second are tackled with programming techniques based on the real time object paradigm. The outcomes of this itinerary crystallize on the ACCORD project which targets to manage - on the whole life cycle of a real time application - these two problematics, sometimes antagonistic: control of the dynamics and adaptivity. (author) [fr

  6. Real time falling leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Balsa, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount...

  7. Real Time Strategy Language

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Roy; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2014-01-01

    Real Time Strategy (RTS) games provide complex domain to test the latest artificial intelligence (AI) research. In much of the literature, AI systems have been limited to playing one game. Although, this specialization has resulted in stronger AI gaming systems it does not address the key concerns of AI researcher. AI researchers seek the development of AI agents that can autonomously interpret learn, and apply new knowledge. To achieve human level performance, current AI systems rely on game...

  8. Real Time Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; ANDERSON, Dustin James; DOGLIONI, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The LHC provides experiments with an unprecedented amount of data. Experimental collaborations need to meet storage and computing requirements for the analysis of this data: this is often a limiting factor in the physics program that would be achievable if the whole dataset could be analysed. In this talk, I will describe the strategies adopted by the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS collaborations to overcome these limitations and make the most of LHC data: data parking, data scouting, and real-time analysis.

  9. Jumps and stochastic volatility in oil prices: Time series evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Karl; Nossman, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the empirical performance of affine jump diffusion models with stochastic volatility in a time series study of crude oil prices. We compare four different models and estimate them using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The support for a stochastic volatility model including jumps in both prices and volatility is strong and the model clearly outperforms the others in terms of a superior fit to data. Our estimation method allows us to obtain a detailed study of oil prices during two periods of extreme market stress included in our sample; the Gulf war and the recent financial crisis. We also address the economic significance of model choice in two option pricing applications. The implied volatilities generated by the different estimated models are compared and we price a real option to develop an oil field. Our findings indicate that model choice can have a material effect on the option values.

  10. Real Time Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ruchika Mehra Vijayan, E.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to illustrate real time analysis of large scale data. For practical implementation we are performing sentiment analysis on live Twitter feeds for each individual tweet. To analyze sentiments we will train our data model on sentiWordNet, a polarity assigned wordNet sample by Princeton University. Our main objective will be to efficiency analyze large scale data on the fly using distributed computation. Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop eco system is used as distributed computation platform with Java as development language

  11. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  12. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.E.; Struve, K.W.; Colella, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an invention which uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements

  13. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  14. Real time urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz Varona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, given the technological revolution of the society of information, the administrative management of the cities faces a new problem not as related to the projection of the urban space as to the capacity of controlling and measuring the process of direct and centralized production of the cities by part of some non-homogeneous social multitudes, in a hyper-accelerated time towards instantaneity. Against libertarian apologies of the new “participative urbanisms”, the article puts forward a discourse that shows the lost associated to the new problem of temporal instantaneity. In this regard we claim new process of mediation that allow administrations and urbanist monitoring the production of the city. To that end, a previous and necessary step will be the redefinition of the role of a new real time urbanist.

  15. Correlated continuous time random walk and option pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Longjin; Xiao, Jianbin; Fan, Liangzhong; Ren, Fuyao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study a correlated continuous time random walk (CCTRW) with averaged waiting time, whose probability density function (PDF) is proved to follow stretched Gaussian distribution. Then, we apply this process into option pricing problem. Supposing the price of the underlying is driven by this CCTRW, we find this model captures the subdiffusive characteristic of financial markets. By using the mean self-financing hedging strategy, we obtain the closed-form pricing formulas for a European option with and without transaction costs, respectively. At last, comparing the obtained model with the classical Black-Scholes model, we find the price obtained in this paper is higher than that obtained from the Black-Scholes model. A empirical analysis is also introduced to confirm the obtained results can fit the real data well.

  16. Real time spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, A.; O'Prey, D.G.; Tait, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of a composite pulse-height spectrum into its unresolved component parts, which belong to a set of measured library spectra. The method allows real-time estimation giving running estimates during acquisition of the spectrum, minimises computation space, especially for a number of parallel calculations, estimates in advance the rms errors, and produces a significance measure for the hypothesis that the composite contains only the library spectra. Least squares curve-fitting, and other methods, can be compared, with the formalism developed, allowing analytical comparison of the effect of detector energy resolution and detection efficiency. A rational basis for the choice between the various methods of spectrum analysis follows from the theory, minimising rms estimation errors. The method described is applicable for very low numbers of counts and poor resolution. (orig.)

  17. Recovering a time-homogeneous stock price process from perpetual option prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik; Hobson, David

    2009-01-01

    It is well known how to determine the price of perpetual American options if the underlying stock price is a time-homogeneous diffusion. In the present paper we consider the inverse problem, that is, given prices of perpetual American options for different strikes, we show how to construct a time-homogeneous stock price model which reproduces the given option prices.

  18. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  19. The Availability of Residential Real Estate Increasing by Means of State Compensation of Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Viktorovich Ivanitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of natural monopolies on the value of residential property, discusses the basic energy resources affecting it. Oil is defined as the main energy resource, its main brands, and their features are considered. The different authors’ perspectives of the impact of oil prices on the real estate prices are considered (“no effect”, “direct effect” and “indirect effect”. Schemes (models, clearly demonstrating the cause-and-effect relations of the impact of prices of the main energy resources on each other and on the value of residential property, are provided. The stability of relations between the prices of the major energy recourses (between each other as well as between each resource and real estate prices and residential property prices in the primary market are analyzed. The interval of “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is defined. The impact of the energy in “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is analyzed. The impact of oil prices on the residential property prices is proved through the cement as the main price-determining element in the construction. The introduction of the state target compensation allowing to increase the availability of residential property is proposed as one of the elements of a comprehensive solution of the “housing question”. The size of the state target compensation in absolute (in rubles and relative (% prices for residential real estate values is determined, taking into account the sufficient reproduction of the population, and restrictions on the right to use it are introduced. The total value of the state target compensation per total number of homebuyers is calculated, and its share in the expenditures of the consolidated budget and budgets of state extra-budgetary funds is determined. The realization of the state target compensation based on an average annual growth among the major countries of the world is grounded.

  20. Valuing and timing R and D using a real options pricing framework; including an application to the development of Lunar Helium-3 fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation uses the real options framework to study the valuation and optimal investment policies for R and D projects. The models developed integrate and extend the literature by taking into account the unique characteristics of such projects including uncertain investment in R and D, time-to-build, and multiple investment opportunities. The models were developed to examine the optimal R and D investment policy for the Lunar Helium-3 fusion project but have general applicability. Models are development which model R and D investment as an information gathering process where R and D investment remaining changes as investment is expended. The value of the project increased as the variance of required investment increases. An extension of this model combines a stochastic benefit with stochastic investment. Both the value of the R and D project and the region prescribing continued investment increased. The policy implications are significant: When uncertainty of R and D investment is ignored, the value of the project is underestimated and a tendency toward underinvestment in R and D will result; the existence of uncertainty in R and D investment will cause R and D projects to experience larger declines in value before discontinuation of investment. The model combining stochastic investment with the stochastic benefit is applied to the Lunar Helium-3 fusion project. Investment in fusion should continue at the maximum level of $1 billion annually given current levels of costs of alternative fuels and the perceived uncertainty of R and D investment in the project. A model is developed to examine the valuation and optimal split of funding between R and D projects when there are two competing new technologies. Without interaction between research expenditures and benefits across technologies, the optimal investment strategy is to invest in one or the other technology or neither. The multiple technology model is applied to analyze competing R and D projects, namely

  1. Pricing by timing: innovating broadband data plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sangtae; Joe-Wong, Carlee; Sen, Soumya; Chiang, Mung

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Internet usage is doubling every year. Users are using more of high bandwidth data applications, and the heavy usage concentrates on several peak hours in a day, forcing ISPs to overprovision their networks accordingly. In order to remain profitable, ISPs have been using pricing as a congestion management tool. We review many of such pricing schemes in practice today and argue that they do not solve ISPs' problem of growing data traffic. We believe that dynamic, time-dependent usage pricing, which charges users based on when they access the Internet, can incentivize users to spread out their bandwidth consumption more evenly across different times of the day, thus helping ISPs to overcome the problem of peak congestion. Congestion pricing is not a new idea in itself, but the time for its implementation in data networks has finally arrived. Our key contribution lies in developing new analysis and a fully integrated system architecture, called TUBE (Time-dependent Usage-based Broadband price Engineering) that enables ISPs to implement the proposed TDP plan. The theory, simulation, and system implementation of TUBE system is further complemented with consumer surveys conducted in India and the US, along with preparations for a field trial that is currently underway.

  2. Correlation between Chinese and international energy prices based on a HP filter and time difference analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongxiu; Wang, Bing; Wang, Jianhui; Xiong, Wei; Xia, Tian

    2013-01-01

    To establish a reasonable system and mechanism for Chinese energy prices, we use the Granger causality test, Hodrick–Prescott (HP) filter and time difference analysis to research the pricing relationship between Chinese and international energy prices. We find that Chinese and international crude oil prices changed synchronously while Chinese refined oil prices follow the changes of international oil prices with the time difference being about 1 month to 2 months. Further, Australian coal prices Granger causes Chinese coal prices, and there is a high correlation between them. The U.S. electricity price is influenced by the WTI crude oil price, the U.S. gasoline price and the HenryHub gas price. Due to the unreasonable price-setting mechanism and regulation from the central government, China′s terminal market prices for both electricity and natural gas do not reflect the real supply–demand situation. This paper provides quantitative results on the correlation between Chinese and international energy prices to better predict the impact of international energy price fluctuations on China′s domestic energy supply and guide the design of more efficient energy pricing policies. Moreover, it provides references for developing countries to improve their energy market systems and trading, and to coordinate domestic and international energy markets. -- Highlights: •The Hodrick-Prescott filter and time difference analysis are used to research the correlation among energy prices. •Our study finds that the U.S. and British refined oil prices Granger cause the Chinese refined oil price. •Both Chinese and the Australian coal prices play an important role in the international coal market. •The Chinese terminal electric power and terminal natural gas prices are not highly correlated. •The results are useful for guiding the design of more efficient energy pricing policies in China

  3. Oil prices and the rise and fall of the U.S. real exchange rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, R.A.; Norden, S. van.

    1993-12-01

    It is examined whether a link exists between oil price shocks and the U.S. real effective exchange rate. Data used for the study are described and their time series properties and the long-run explanatory power of oil prices for the real exchange rate are examined. Apparent causal relationships between exchange rates and oil prices are examined. An unrestricted error correction model is reduced until an error correction model with reasonable properties is derived. Results show that the two variables appear to be cointegrated and that causality runs from oil prices to the exchange rate and not vice-versa. The single equation error correction model linking these two variables is stable and captures much of the in- and out-of-sample movement in the exchange rate in dynamic simulation. Tests are presented to show that the error correction model has significant post-sample predictive ability for both the size and sign of changes in the real effective exchange rate. The results suggest that oil prices may have been the dominant source of persistant real exchange rate shocks over the post-Bretton Woods period and that energy prices may have important implications for future work on exchange rate behaviour. 61 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Beyond the sticker price: including and excluding time in comparing food prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanliang; Davis, George C; Muth, Mary K

    2015-07-01

    An ongoing debate in the literature is how to measure the price of food. Most analyses have not considered the value of time in measuring the price of food. Whether or not the value of time is included in measuring the price of a food may have important implications for classifying foods based on their relative cost. The purpose of this article is to compare prices that exclude time (time-exclusive price) with prices that include time (time-inclusive price) for 2 types of home foods: home foods using basic ingredients (home recipes) vs. home foods using more processed ingredients (processed recipes). The time-inclusive and time-exclusive prices are compared to determine whether the time-exclusive prices in isolation may mislead in drawing inferences regarding the relative prices of foods. We calculated the time-exclusive price and time-inclusive price of 100 home recipes and 143 processed recipes and then categorized them into 5 standard food groups: grains, proteins, vegetables, fruit, and dairy. We then examined the relation between the time-exclusive prices and the time-inclusive prices and dietary recommendations. For any food group, the processed food time-inclusive price was always less than the home recipe time-inclusive price, even if the processed food's time-exclusive price was more expensive. Time-inclusive prices for home recipes were especially higher for the more time-intensive food groups, such as grains, vegetables, and fruit, which are generally underconsumed relative to the guidelines. Focusing only on the sticker price of a food and ignoring the time cost may lead to different conclusions about relative prices and policy recommendations than when the time cost is included. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Probabilistic real-time contingency ranking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijuskovic, N.A.; Stojnic, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time contingency method based on a probabilistic index-expected energy not supplied. This way it is possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the electric power system equipment outages. This approach enables more comprehensive ranking of contingencies and it is possible to form reliability cost values that can form the basis for hourly spot price calculations. The electric power system of Serbia is used as an example for the method proposed. (author)

  6. Granger Causalities Between Interest Rate, Price Level, Money Supply and Real Gdp in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Urbanovský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate relationships between selected macroeconomic variables – interest rate, price level, money supply and real GDP – in the Czech Republic in order to find out definite implications of its interactions and give recommendations to macroeconomic policy authorities. Two implemented vector autoregression models with different lag length reached slightly different conclusions. VAR(1 suggests that three pairs of Granger causality exist, in particular between price level and interest rate, between real GDP and interest rate and between real GDP and price level. VAR(2 uncovered two more pairs of Granger causality between money supply and interest rate and between money supply and price level. Despite better prediction power of VAR(2 in case of money supply, low correlation coefficient comprising variable money supply raises doubts about the factual existence of causality between money supply and other variables. However, both models allow forecasting the direction of change in case of variables interest rate and real GDP with the same success rate nearly 82 %. Both VARs also agreed that interest rate could be changed by change of price level and that interest rate could be changed by change of real GDP. These conclusions represent potential recommendations to macroeconomic policy authorities. For the purpose of further research, exchange rate variable will be included in the model instead of interest rate, because effect of interest rate turned out to be limited in times of weakened state of Czech economy.

  7. Cluster Computing for Embedded/Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D.; Kepner, J.

    1999-01-01

    Embedded and real-time systems, like other computing systems, seek to maximize computing power for a given price, and thus can significantly benefit from the advancing capabilities of cluster computing.

  8. Nominal and real price convergence in Romania – Statistical evaluation -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Gheorghe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The creation of both the Economic and Monetary Union and of the single common market have meant two very important steps in getting a more and more compact Union. The first step regarding EMU lead to the adoption of a single currency and to the elimination of the exchange rates fluctuations, while the second one lead to the elimination of physical, administrative and technical barriers in order to achieve a sustainable economic growth and a stimulation of competition. Romanian authorities set out a new target year for the Euro adoption. Technically, the euro adoption as of 1 January 2019 would imply participation in the ERM II starting 1 January 2016 for the minimum 2-year stay. During this period the EU authorities will assess whether Romania meet the determined criteria for entering the third stage of EMU. The purpose of the paper is to assess the nominal and real convergence of Romanian prices, before and after the admission to the European Union (EU. The paper provides a short presentation of technical consideration of the both indices used to measure the price convergence, namely Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP and the price level estimated in the PEC framework. A retrospective analysis since the EU admission show that in Romania, the inflation measured by the harmonized index of consumer prices has been on a downward trend, but is still relatively high, at an average rate of 3,2% in 2013. In Romania the price level is significantly lower as compared to the EU 15 average (46%, most probably this is due to the low per capita income level. In addition, the poor marketing and the low reputation of the domestic goods and services can also be regarded as factors reducing the convergence of prices in Romania and the EU.

  9. Pricing real estate index options under stochastic interest rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pu; Dai, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Real estate derivatives as new financial instruments are not merely risk management tools but also provide a novel way to gain exposure to real estate assets without buying or selling the physical assets. Although real estate derivatives market has exhibited a rapid development in recent years, the valuation challenge of real estate derivatives remains a great obstacle for further development in this market. In this paper, we derive a partial differential equation contingent on a real estate index in a stochastic interest rate environment and propose a modified finite difference method that adopts the non-uniform grids to solve this problem. Numerical results confirm the efficiency of the method and indicate that constant interest rate models lead to the mispricing of options and the effects of stochastic interest rates on option prices depend on whether the term structure of interest rates is rising or falling. Finally, we have investigated and compared the different effects of stochastic interest rates on European and American option prices.

  10. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    0196 or 413 545-0720 PI E-mail Address: krithi@nirvan.cs.umass.edu, stankovic(ocs.umass.edu Grant or Contract Title: Dependable Real - Time Systems Grant...Dependable Real - Time Systems " Grant or Contract Number: N00014-85-k-0398 L " Reporting Period: 1 Oct 87 - 30 Sep 91 , 2. Summary of Accomplishments ’ 2.1 Our...in developing a sound approach to scheduling tasks in complex real - time systems , (2) developed a real-time operating system kernel, a preliminary

  11. The importance of time cost in pricing outpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, S

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the component of the full price charged to patients using outpatient care. The full price of a visit to a physician is equal to out-of-pocket payment (money price), and time costs. In particular, the article discusses the concept of time price (marginal value of time for a patient), and presents a specific example to illustrate the concept of time price elasticity. The concepts and information presented in this article can help marketing managers in setting pricing strategy that would explicitly consider time price.

  12. Development of Energy and Reserve Pre-dispatch and Re-dispatch Models for Real-time Price Risk and Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Xie, Min; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    electricity market design may not cope with the future challenges the power system faces. The development of smart grid will enable power system scheduling and the electricity market to operate in a shorter time horizon for better integrating renewable energy sources into power systems. This paper presents......In the future energy framework of European Union and other countries, renewable energy plays an important role tackling the problems of the climate change and security of energy supply. The share of fluctuating and less predictable renewable power production will increase significantly the needs...... of securing proper balancing between generation and demand. The high penetration of renewable energy sources will also increase the burden of system operator for maintaining system reliabilities. However the current strategy of reliability management developed for conventional power systems and existing...

  13. The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackelline Favro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency

  14. Real Time Baseball Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  15. Exploring the oil price and real GDP nexus for a small island economy, the Fiji Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Arti; Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Narayan, Jashwini

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship between real GDP and oil prices using time series data for the period 1970-2005. Our main finding is that an increase in oil has a positive, albeit inelastic, impact on real GDP, inconsistent with the bulk of the literature. We argue that this is not a surprising result for the Fiji Islands. Our central argument focuses on two aspects of the Fijian economy: (1) the fact that actual output in Fiji has been around 50 per cent less than potential output; thus, Fiji's actual output has not reached a threshold level at which oil prices can negatively impact output; and (2) a rise in oil prices filters through to value added, which in turn is reflected in a larger actual output

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCARCITY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR REAL PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Toth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long running concern about resource depletion. Some argue this concern is misplaced, while others consider it to be an urgent problem requiring immediate action. Economists suggest that long term prices, adjusted for inflation (real prices, provide a useful and effective indicator of resource scarcity. This study tests this hypothesis in consideration of the accepted theory that traditional price deflators, such as the US consumer price index, overestimate inflation-, and accordingly-, are likely to underestimate long term commodity prices. To investigate the usefulness of real prices as an indicator of scarcity, a case study of two metals considered to be expensive (platinum and rhodium and two considered to be relatively inexpensive (copper and lead was used. Real long term price indices were constructed and econometric analysis used to determine the direction and significance of long-term price trends and whether real prices were correlated with other scarcity indicators such as the Reserves-toproduction ratio. The results show, when an appropriate adjustment is made to the deflator, long-run trends in real metal prices are all upward, and there is a significant relationship between the real prices and scarcity indicators, such as the reserves-to-production ratios, for platinum and rhodium, but not for copper and lead. These findings suggest that real prices of platinum and rhodium are more affected by their scarcity, while copper and lead prices are likely to be more dependent on other factors such as high substitutability with other virgin and recycled materials.

  17. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  18. The Triggers, Timing and Speed of New Product Price Landings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hernández-Mireles (Carlos); D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMany high-tech products and durable goods exhibit exactly one significant price cut some time after their launch. We call this sudden transition from high to low prices the price landing. In this paper we present a new model that describes two important features of price landings: their

  19. Real-Time Parameter Identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have implemented in the control room a technique for estimating in real time the aerodynamic parameters that describe the stability and control...

  20. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  1. Towards Real-Time Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente JULIÁN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time coordination with the more general approach of reaching real-time agreements in MAS. Concretely, this work proposes a real-time argumentation framework in an attempt to provide agents with the ability of engaging in argumentative dialogues and come with a solution for their underlying agreement process within a bounded period of time. The framework has been implemented and evaluated in the domain of a customer support application. Concretely, we consider a society of agents that act on behalf of a group of technicians that must solve problems in a Technology Management Centre (TMC within a bounded time. This centre controls every process implicated in the provision of technological and customer support services to private or public organisations by means of a call centre. The contract signed between the TCM and the customer establishes penalties if the specified time is exceeded.

  2. Is there an upward long term trend in Danish real house prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, like in other countries, there is no agreement on the fundamental long term path of real house prices and the sustainability of the present price level. The paper presents Danish house price indices and discusses the question of quality correction of the indices. Subsequently, factors...... behind the long term trend in real house prices and its sustainability are discussed. The paper finds an annual real growth trend around 1.5 per cent for Danish single family house prices likely for the coming ten years....

  3. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Factors Affecting Real Property Price Index From Case Study Research In Istanbul/Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denli, H. H.; Koc, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of real properties depending on standards is difficult to apply in time and location. Regression analysis construct mathematical models which describe or explain relationships that may exist between variables. The problem of identifying price differences of properties to obtain a price index can be converted into a regression problem, and standard techniques of regression analysis can be used to estimate the index. Considering regression analysis for real estate valuation, which are presented in real marketing process with its current characteristics and quantifiers, the method will help us to find the effective factors or variables in the formation of the value. In this study, prices of housing for sale in Zeytinburnu, a district in Istanbul, are associated with its characteristics to find a price index, based on information received from a real estate web page. The associated variables used for the analysis are age, size in m2, number of floors having the house, floor number of the estate and number of rooms. The price of the estate represents the dependent variable, whereas the rest are independent variables. Prices from 60 real estates have been used for the analysis. Same price valued locations have been found and plotted on the map and equivalence curves have been drawn identifying the same valued zones as lines.

  4. Economic Evaluation for Energy Business Using Real Options Pricing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Recently, facing the new era of restructuring, privatization, and liberalization the energy industry in the world is changing rapidly, and thus the uncertain factors tend to increase. This would imply that energy-related business is now confronted with new market risks as well as the simple price risks. The traditional investment valuation method using the concept of net present value (NPV) or internal rate of revenue (IRR) might not incorporate the managerial alternatives which enable managers to respond flexibly to the changes in business environment. This study pointed out the problems of the traditional discounted cash flow (DCF) method when evaluating a certain capital investment in energy industry. As an alternative, the real option pricing method (ROPM) was proposed, which is widely adopted in the field of profit projection for the venture business. In addition, when applying to energy sector the feasibility of ROPM was discussed, and the frameworks and major results of previous related studies were described. For those using the ROPM in real business, I explained the detailed procedures and solutions of ROPM, and introduced the log-transformed binomial model which provides a more efficient solution. In order to verify the usefulness of the ROPM, this study performed an empirical analysis for a virtual construction and operation project of power plant. And, the results from the ROPM was compared to those from the traditional DCF method. Based on the empirical results, the values of various investment opportunities were shown to be high. Therefore, the project not justified in terms of traditional DCF would turn into the project with a positive gross project value, properly reflecting managerial flexibilities inherent in the original project. (author). 58 refs., 32 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Process algebra with timing : real time and discrete time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.J.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    We present real time and discrete time versions of ACP with absolute timing and relative timing. The starting-point is a new real time version with absolute timing, called ACPsat, featuring urgent actions and a delay operator. The discrete time versions are conservative extensions of the discrete

  6. Process algebra with timing: Real time and discrete time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present real time and discrete time versions of ACP with absolute timing and relative timing. The startingpoint is a new real time version with absolute timing, called ACPsat , featuring urgent actions and a delay operator. The discrete time versions are conservative extensions of the discrete

  7. Space-time modeling of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Girum Dagnachew; Haldrup, Niels

    In this paper we derive a space-time model for electricity spot prices. A general spatial Durbin model that incorporates the temporal as well as spatial lags of spot prices is presented. Joint modeling of space-time effects is necessarily important when prices and loads are determined in a network...... in the spot price dynamics. Estimation of the spatial Durbin model show that the spatial lag variable is as important as the temporal lag variable in describing the spot price dynamics. We use the partial derivatives impact approach to decompose the price impacts into direct and indirect effects and we show...... that price effects transmit to neighboring markets and decline with distance. In order to examine the evolution of the spatial correlation over time, a time varying parameters spot price spatial Durbin model is estimated using recursive estimation. It is found that the spatial correlation within the Nord...

  8. Real-time holographic endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Paul; Albe, Felix; Dischli, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Some new experiments concerning holographic endoscopy are presented. The quantitative measurements of deformations of objects are obtained by the double-exposure and double- reference beam method, using either a cw-laser or a pulsed laser. Qualitative experiments using an argon laser with time-average holographic endoscopy are also presented. A video film on real-time endoscopic holographic interferometry was recorded with the help of a frequency-doubled YAG-laser working at 25 Hz for the first time.

  9. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  10. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel ® Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  11. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  12. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  13. Real Time Conference 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetta, Adriano

    2017-06-01

    This is a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science containing papers from the invited, oral, and poster presentation of the 20th Real Time Conference (RT2016). The conference was held June 6-10, 2016, at Centro Congressi Padova “A. Luciani,” Padova, Italy, and was organized by Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The Real Time Conference is multidisciplinary and focuses on the latest developments in real-time techniques in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics, nuclear fusion, medical physics, space instrumentation, nuclear power instrumentation, general radiation instrumentation, and real-time security and safety. Taking place every second year, it is sponsored by the Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Sciences technical committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. RT2016 attracted more than 240 registrants, with a large proportion of young researchers and engineers. It had an attendance of 67 students from many countries.

  14. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2...

  15. Dynamic Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes h...... of dynamic pricing can lead to increased willingness of consumers to participate in DR programs which in turn improve the operation of liberalized electricity markets.......Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes...

  16. Clearwood quality and softwood lumber prices: what's the real premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Waggener; Roger D. Fight

    1999-01-01

    Diminishing quantities of appearance grade lumber and rising price premiums for it have accompanied the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber. The price premiums for better grades are an incentive for producers to undertake investments to increase the yield of those higher valued products. Price premiums, however, are also an incentive for users to...

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. Quantitative (real-time) PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, S.E.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many nucleic acid-based probe and PCR assays have been developed for the detection tracking of specific microbes within the rumen ecosystem. Conventional PCR assays detect PCR products at the end stage of each PCR reaction, where exponential amplification is no longer being achieved. This approach can result in different end product (amplicon) quantities being generated. In contrast, using quantitative, or real-time PCR, quantification of the amplicon is performed not at the end of the reaction, but rather during exponential amplification, where theoretically each cycle will result in a doubling of product being created. For real-time PCR, the cycle at which fluorescence is deemed to be detectable above the background during the exponential phase is termed the cycle threshold (Ct). The Ct values obtained are then used for quantitation, which will be discussed later

  19. Real time psychrometric data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Eight Mine Weather Stations (MWS) installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to monitor the underground ventilation system are helping to simulate real-time ventilation scenarios. Seasonal weather extremes can result in variations of Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP) which can significantly effect the ventilation system. The eight MWS(s) (which previously collected and stored temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity data for subsequent NVP calculations) were upgraded to provide continuous real-time data to the site wide Central monitoring System. This data can now be utilized by the ventilation engineer to create realtime ventilation simulations and trends which assist in the prediction and mitigation of NVP and psychrometric related events

  20. EVALUATION OF LAND BASED ON MARKET PRICE OBJECTS OF REAL ESTATE IN UKRAINE: PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF THEIR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTYN А. G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. During the reform of land and property relations, has been carried out in Ukraine since the early 1990s, land plots and buildings received the status of goods, participate in economic turnover, have value and price. At the same time, not the most important prerequisite for the introduction in Ukraine of a mass valuation of real estate, which is intended to become a base for the fair taxation of land plots and other real estate, should be the systematic collection of mass data on the market prices of real estate. Constant changes, additions and improvements to the current normative monetary assessment of land do not give a real change in the methodology of assessment because it is based on regulatory indicators, there is a non-market based assessment. This approach does not give positive results and in the overwhelming majority we distort the evaluation indicators. As a result, there is a situation where in some places the price of a square meter is much lower than the market (real price, while in others it is much higher than the actual price. Thus, the transition to the use of monetary land valuation, which is based on mass market indicators (mass valuation, will get rid of the regulatory indicators by introducing a market valuation base. Purpose. Conduct an analysis of the current state of monetary valuation of land in Ukraine, form the main problems of the modern land assessment area and guide the ways to improve and transition to market valuation of land based on widespread use of mass data on market prices of real estate. Conclusion. The analysis of the current state of the monetary valuation of land shows a significant deviation of the evaluation results with real market prices, indicating the imperfection of the existing method of normative monetary evaluation. Mass evaluation in the short term can solve the problems with the reliability of the estimates and improve the system of land taxation.

  1. Impact of Rainfall, Sales Method, and Time on Land Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Steve; Schurle, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Land prices in Western Kansas are analyzed using regression to estimate the influence of rainfall, sales method, and time of sale. The estimates from regression indicate that land prices decreased about $27 for each range that was farther west which can be converted to about $75 per inch of average rainfall. In addition, the influence of method of sale (private sale or auction) is estimated along with the impact of time of sale. Auction sales prices are approximately $100 higher per acre than...

  2. The real time rolling shutter

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel E.; Cleary, Anne; Connolly, Denis

    2015-01-01

    From an early age children are often told either, you are creative you should do art but stay away from science and maths. Or that you are mathematical you should do science but you're not that creative. Compounding this there also exist some traditional barriers of artistic rhetoric that say, "don't touch, don't think and don't be creative, we've already done that for you, you can just look...". The Real Time Rolling Shutter is part of a collaborative Art/Science partnership whose core tenet...

  3. Real time analysis under EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs

  4. Priced Timed Automata:  Theory and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    Priced timed automata are emerging as useful formalisms for modeling and analysing a broad range of resource allocation problems. In this extended abstract, we highlight recent (un)deci\\-dability results related to priced timed automata as well as point to a number of open problems....

  5. A real time monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Horacio; Galdoz, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    A real time monitoring system is described. It was initially developed to be used as a man-machine interface between a basic principles simulator of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and the operators. This simulator is under construction at the Bariloche Atomic Center's Process Control Division. Due to great design flexibility, this system can also be used in real plants. The system is designed to be run on a PC XT or AT personal computer with high resolution graphics capabilities. Three interrelated programs compose the system: 1) Graphics Editor, to build static image to be used as a reference frame where to show dynamically updated data. 2) Data acquisition and storage module. It is a memory resident module to acquire and store data in background. Data can be acquired and stored without interference with the operating system, via serial port or through analog-to-digital converter attached to the personal computer. 3) Display module. It shows the acquired data according to commands received from configuration files prepared by the operator. (Author) [es

  6. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  7. Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...

  8. The pricing of capital services over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, A.P.D.; Watkins, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    In 1982, the Canadian National Energy Board and McGill University sponsored a conference on pipeline regulation in an inflationary era, focussing especially on the possible introduction of some form of tariff levelling. Ironically, shortly after the conference proceedings were published the very concerns addressed receded: inflation declined markedly and emerging weaknesses in oil and gas prices saw the demise or deferral of big projects with large up-front investments, the very projects which had excited interest in developing new regulatory techniques. This paper is organized in three main sections. Section I outlines the problems raised by traditional tariff regulation. Section II develops and discusses theoretical aspects of alternative rate structures. Section II focuses on practical problems of implementing rate structures that, on the face of it, have a better economic rationale than cost-of-service style pricing. Concluding remarks are made in Section IV

  9. Real time 3D photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; García-Botella, A.; Romo, J.; Serrano, Ana

    2017-09-01

    The photometry and radiometry measurement is a well-developed field. The necessity of measuring optical systems performance involves the use of several techniques like Gonio-photometry. The Gonio photometers are a precise measurement tool that is used in the lighting area like office, luminaire head car lighting, concentrator /collimator measurement and all the designed and fabricated optical systems that works with light. There is one disadvantage in this kind of measurements that obtain the intensity polar curves and the total flux of the optical system. In the industry, there are good Gonio photometers that are precise and reliable but they are very expensive and the measurement time is long. In industry the cost can be of minor importance but measuring time that is around 30 minutes is of major importance due to trained staff cost. We have designed a system to measure photometry in real time; it consists in a curved screen to get a huge measurement angle and a CCD. The system to be measured projects light onto the screen and the CCD records a video of the screen obtaining an image of the projected profile. A complex calibration permits to trace screen data (x,y,z) to intensity polar curve (I,αγ). This intensity is obtained in candels (cd) with an image + processing time below one second.

  10. Monetary Policy and Real Estate Prices: A Disaggregated Analysis for Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Berlemann, Michael; Freese, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Most empirical studies found that monetary policy has a significant effect on house prices while stock markets remain unaffected by interest rate shocks. In this paper we conduct a more detailed analysis by studying various sub-segments of the real estate market. Em-ploying a new dataset for Switzerland we estimate vector autoregressive models and find substitution effects between house and apartment prices on the one hand and rental prices on the other. Interestingly enough, commercial prope...

  11. Consumer responses to time varying prices for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsnes, Paul; Williams, John; Lawson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    We report new experimental evidence of the household response to weekday differentials in peak and off-peak electricity prices. The data come from Auckland, New Zealand, where peak residential electricity consumption occurs in winter for heating. Peak/off-peak price differentials ranged over four randomly selected groups from 1.0 to 3.5. On average, there was no response except in winter. In winter, participant households reduced electricity consumption by at least 10%, took advantage of lower off-peak prices but did not respond to the peak price differentials. Response varied with house and household size, time spent away from home, and whether water was heated with electricity. - Highlights: ► Seasonal effects in winter. ► High conservation effect from information. ► Higher peak prices no effect on peak use. ► Low off-peak prices encourage less conservation off-peak.

  12. Price discovery in a continuous-time setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Fernandes, Marcelo; Scherrer, Cristina

    We formulate a continuous-time price discovery model in which the price discovery measure varies (stochastically) at daily frequency. We estimate daily measures of price discovery using a kernel-based OLS estimator instead of running separate daily VECM regressions as standard in the literature. We...... show that our estimator is not only consistent, but also outperforms the standard daily VECM in finite samples. We illustrate our theoretical findings by studying the price discovery process of 10 actively traded stocks in the U.S. from 2007 to 2013....

  13. Option Pricing with Time-changed Lévy Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Kim, Young Shin; Rachev, Svetlozar T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we introduce two new six-parameter processes based on time-changing tempered stable distributions and develop an option pricing model based on these processes. This model provides a good fit to observed option prices. To demonstrate the advantages of the new processes, we conduct...

  14. Discount-Optimal Infinite Runs in Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new discounting semantics for priced timed automata. Discounting provides a way to model optimal-cost problems for infinite traces and has applications in optimal scheduling and other areas. In the discounting semantics, prices decrease exponentially, so that the contribution...

  15. Electricity Futures Prices : Time Varying Sensitivity to Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-E. Fleten (Stein-Erik); R. Huisman (Ronald); M. Kilic (Mehtap); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); S. Westgaard (Sjur)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides insight in the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of prices of contracts for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the

  16. Scalable Real-Time Negotiation Toolkit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lesser, Victor

    2004-01-01

    ... to implement an adaptive distributed sensor network. These activities involved the development of a distributed soft, real-time heuristic resource allocation protocol, the development of a domain-independent soft, real time agent architecture...

  17. Time scale defined by the fractal structure of the price fluctuations in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yoshiaki

    2010-04-01

    In this contribution, a new time scale named C-fluctuation time is defined by price fluctuations observed at a given resolution. The intraday fractal structures and the relations of the three time scales: real time (physical time), tick time and C-fluctuation time, in foreign exchange markets are analyzed. The data set used is trading prices of foreign exchange rates; US dollar (USD)/Japanese yen (JPY), USD/Euro (EUR), and EUR/JPY. The accuracy of the data is one minute and data within a minute are recorded in order of transaction. The series of instantaneous velocity of C-fluctuation time flowing are exponentially distributed for small C when they are measured by real time and for tiny C when they are measured by tick time. When the market is volatile, for larger C, the series of instantaneous velocity are exponentially distributed.

  18. The Impact of Staging Olympic Games on Real Estate Price in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Xuebing; Yao Yongling

    2012-01-01

    The price of the real estate in many cities of China has been rising up rapidly since a couple of years ago. Particularly, the increasing period is coinciding with the period of economic rising in Beijing. Therefore, many people thank that the higher price is mostly made by holding Olympic Game in 2008. In order to separate Olympic factor and non-Olympic factors, which were supposed to impact the price of real estate in Beijing, Differences-in-Differences (DD) method will be adopted in this p...

  19. Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...... and a new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....

  20. Hard Real-Time Networking on Firewire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Orlic, Bojan; Visser, Peter; Broenink, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using standard, low-cost, widely used FireWire as a new generation fieldbus medium for real-time distributed control applications. A real-time software subsys- tem, RT-FireWire was designed that can, in combination with Linux-based real-time operating

  1. Modular specification of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inal, Recep

    1994-01-01

    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notation...

  2. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  3. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  4. A Canadian case study : the value of real time electricity monitoring : a real-time cost utility management solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, S.; Dittburner, D.

    2006-01-01

    Energy prices can vary significantly over the course of a single day in response to changing levels in energy demand and availability of supply. The impacts of varying energy prices on business and industry means that hourly electricity costs can fluctuate widely over the course of a day even though energy use remains stable. This presentation gave details of an energy efficiency initiative at Unilever's Rexdale site which has resulted in $4 million saved through reductions in energy consumption and equipment retrofits. The Rexdale plant won an energy efficiency award in 2005, and the success of the initiative was attributed to the use of Utility 3 + , an energy management software tool. A turn key system with integrated software and hardware, Utility 3 + is capable of measuring how much energy is being used and can provide details of costs using a combination of historical and forecast prices. The tool is equipped with alarms with pre-set thresholds to match real-time rises in energy prices. Real-time prices are relayed from the Internet along with a 2 way data communication system. It was concluded that use of the tool has resulted in improved cash flow management and greater control of energy costs. A system description of the tool was provided, as well as details of various equipment retrofits. refs.., tabs., figs

  5. A Canadian case study : the value of real time electricity monitoring : a real-time cost utility management solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, S. [Energy at Work, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dittburner, D. [Unilever Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Energy prices can vary significantly over the course of a single day in response to changing levels in energy demand and availability of supply. The impacts of varying energy prices on business and industry means that hourly electricity costs can fluctuate widely over the course of a day even though energy use remains stable. This presentation gave details of an energy efficiency initiative at Unilever's Rexdale site which has resulted in $4 million saved through reductions in energy consumption and equipment retrofits. The Rexdale plant won an energy efficiency award in 2005, and the success of the initiative was attributed to the use of Utility 3{sup +}, an energy management software tool. A turn key system with integrated software and hardware, Utility 3{sup +} is capable of measuring how much energy is being used and can provide details of costs using a combination of historical and forecast prices. The tool is equipped with alarms with pre-set thresholds to match real-time rises in energy prices. Real-time prices are relayed from the Internet along with a 2 way data communication system. It was concluded that use of the tool has resulted in improved cash flow management and greater control of energy costs. A system description of the tool was provided, as well as details of various equipment retrofits. refs.., tabs., figs.

  6. Real price and affordability as challenges for effective tobacco control policies: an analysis for Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iglesias, Germán; González-Rozada, Martín; Champagne, Beatriz Marcet; Schoj, Verónica

    2015-02-01

    To describe the evolution of cigarettes' real price and affordability during the last decade in Argentina. To analyze the real price of cigarettes, the weighted average monthly price of a pack of 20 cigarettes was divided by the consumer price index (CPI) from 2004 to 2014. The relative income price (RIP) was evaluated for the same period, defining RIP as the percentage of the income required to buy 100 packs of 20-per-pack cigarettes. The RIP was calculated for first-quartile, median, and third-quartile income groups. The lower the RIP, the higher the affordability. The nominal price of a pack of 20 cigarettes sold in Argentina increased from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 14.36 in June 2014 (nominal price increase of about 19.7% per year). The real price fell from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 2.11 in June 2014 (real price drop of about 0.6% per year). Between June 2004 and June 2014, the RIP decreased about 39% for the 3rd quartile income group (from 31.3% to 19.2%), about 42% for the median (from 55.7% to 32.0%), and about 50% for the 1st quartile (from 104.4% to 51.8%). In Argentina, inflation and rising income were greater than growth in cigarette prices. Cigarette affordability increased for each income group, with the highest shifts occurring among the poorest and most vulnerable income earners. The increased affordability of cigarettes might reduce the impact of implemented tobacco control policies.

  7. Real price and affordability as challenges for effective tobacco control policies: an analysis for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodríguez-Iglesias

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the evolution of cigarettes' real price and affordability during the last decade in Argentina. Methods. To analyze the real price of cigarettes, the weighted average monthly price of a pack of 20 cigarettes was divided by the consumer price index (CPI from 2004 to 2014. The relative income price (RIP was evaluated for the same period, defining RIP as the percentage of the income required to buy 100 packs of 20-per-pack cigarettes. The RIP was calculated for first-quartile, median, and third-quartile income groups. The lower the RIP, the higher the affordability. Results. The nominal price of a pack of 20 cigarettes sold in Argentina increased from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 14.36 in June 2014 (nominal price increase of about 19.7% per year. The real price fell from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 2.11 in June 2014 (real price drop of about 0.6% per year. Between June 2004 and June 2014, the RIP decreased about 39% for the 3rd quartile income group (from 31.3% to 19.2%, about 42% for the median (from 55.7% to 32.0%, and about 50% for the 1st quartile (from 104.4% to 51.8%. Conclusions. In Argentina, inflation and rising income were greater than growth in cigarette prices. Cigarette affordability increased for each income group, with the highest shifts occurring among the poorest and most vulnerable income earners. The increased affordability of cigarettes might reduce the impact of implemented tobacco control policies.

  8. Loss Aversion and Time-Differentiated Electricity Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    I develop a model of loss aversion over electricity expenditure, from which I derive testable predictions for household electricity consumption while on combination time-of-use (TOU) and critical peak pricing (CPP) plans. Testing these predictions results in evidence consistent with loss aversion: (1) spillover effects - positive expenditure shocks resulted in significantly more peak consumption reduction for several weeks thereafter; and (2) clustering - disproportionate probability of consuming such that expenditure would be equal between the TOUCPP or standard flat-rate pricing structures. This behavior is inconsistent with a purely neoclassical utility model, and has important implications for application of time-differentiated electricity pricing.

  9. Analysis for Embedded Systems: Experiments with Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovatman, Tolga; Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2010-01-01

    costs of those models. In order to achieve this, a basic model is built using priced timed automata and some resource consumption scenarios are verified. Even though the experiments are performed on small and basic models, we believe we have taken a basis step in showing that it is promising to use...... priced timed automata and Uppaal Cora as a model checking tool in reasoning about resource consumption of embedded systems....

  10. Resource-Optimal Scheduling Using Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum; Subramani, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the simple structure of the linear programs encountered during symbolic minimum-cost reachability analysis of priced timed automata can be exploited in order to substantially improve the performance of the current algorithm. The idea is rooted in duality of linear......-80 percent performance gain. As a main application area, we show how to solve energy-optimal task graph scheduling problems using the framework of priced timed automata....

  11. Students Collecting Real time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  12. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  13. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  14. Optimal Infinite Runs in One-Clock Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Ejsing-Duun, Daniel; Fontani, Lisa

    We address the problem of finding an infinite run with the optimal cost-time ratio in a one-clock priced timed automaton and pro- vide an algorithmic solution. Through refinements of the quotient graph obtained by strong time-abstracting bisimulation partitioning, we con- struct a graph with time...

  15. Triskaidekaphobia and North American Residential Real Estate Prices

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Larsen

    2015-01-01

    A previous study led its authors to conclude that superstition impacts price formation for single-family dwellings in the Vancouver area. Houses there with an address that ends in the ¡§unlucky¡¨ number 13 are found to sell at a discount compared to otherwise similar houses. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether the previous results apply in another North American housing market. Hedonic regression is applied to single-family house transactions that occurred in Montgomer...

  16. Coordinating Transit Transfers in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Transfers are a major source of travel time variability for transit passengers. Coordinating transfers between transit routes in real time can reduce passenger waiting times and travel time variability, but these benefits need to be contrasted with t...

  17. Value of time: Speeding behavior and gasoline prices

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Do drivers reduce speeds when gasoline prices are high? Previous research investigating this energy conservation hypothesis produced mixed results. We take a fresh look at the data and estimate a significant negative relationship between speeding and gasoline prices. This presents a new methodology of deriving the 'Value of Time' (VOT) based on the intensive margin (previous VOT studies compare across the extensive margin) which has important advantages to circumvent potential omitted variabl...

  18. Volatility Analysis of Bitcoin Price Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Pichl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitcoin has the largest share in the total capitalization of cryptocurrency markets currently reaching above 70 billion USD. In this work we focus on the price of Bitcoin in terms of standard currencies and their volatility over the last five years. The average day-to-day return throughout this period is 0.328%, amounting in exponential growth from 6 USD to over 4,000 USD per 1 BTC at present. Multi-scale analysis is performed from the level of the tick data, through the 5 min, 1 hour and 1 day scales. Distribution of trading volumes (1 sec, 1 min, 1 hour and 1 day aggregated from the Kraken BTCEUR tick data is provided that shows the artifacts of algorithmic trading (selling transactions with volume peaks distributed at integer multiples of BTC unit. Arbitrage opportunities are studied using the EUR, USD and CNY currencies. Whereas the arbitrage spread for EUR-USD currency pair is found narrow at the order of a percent, at the 1 hour sampling period the arbitrage spread for USD-CNY (and similarly EUR-CNY is found to be more substantial, reaching as high as above 5 percent on rare occasions. The volatility of BTC exchange rates is modeled using the day-to-day distribution of logarithmic return, and the Realized Volatility, sum of the squared logarithmic returns on 5-minute basis. In this work we demonstrate that the Heterogeneous Autoregressive model for Realized Volatility Andersen et al. (2007 applies reasonably well to the BTCUSD dataset. Finally, a feed-forward neural network with 2 hidden layers using 10-day moving window sampling daily return predictors is applied to estimate the next-day logarithmic return. The results show that such an artificial neural network prediction is capable of approximate capture of the actual log return distribution; more sophisticated methods, such as recurrent neural networks and LSTM (Long Short Term Memory techniques from deep learning may be necessary for higher prediction accuracy.

  19. Index of Real Sector Returns as Price Benchmarking for Islamic Banking Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Researchers of Islamic Banking Department

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Islamic Banking is closely related to the real sector. Then, its operation should reflect the real sector which is expected to contribute to the sustainable economic growth. Nevertheless, Islamic banks are still benchmarking the price of their products (profit sharing and sales on interest rate. This is as an implication of the implementation of the dual banking system. Moreover, the small portion of Islamic banking compared to the total national banks causes the competitiveness of Islamic banking product in terms of pricing has a high correlation with the interest rate of conventional counterpart. This phenomenon indicates the need to find.Method – This research employed library research method since this paper relies on secondary data by thoroughly reviewing the most relevant literature. The paper attempt to propose a pricing indicator which is based on the real sector activities as the root of Islamic banking operations.Result – Theoretically, this indicator can reflect the real rate of return of every industry sector. In addition, it can help Bank Indonesia to monitor the real sector performance and analyze the possible gap between real sector activities and financial sector. Furthermore, when the benchmark of real rate of real sector return is available, the return index of Islamic banking reflecting the profit sharing performance of the whole Islamic banking industry can be formulated. This concept is different with other indexes which are corresponding to the price of financial assets.Conclusion – In general, return index of real sector as a reference for Islamic banking product pricing is expected to define the way of non-interest return analysis, to calculate the non-interest return of selected sectors that becomes the focus of analysis using Cash Recovery Rates (CRR, forming an index of industry by sector in the second stage, by doing a certain weighting of those companies, to analyze the relationship between macro

  20. Alternative Strategies for Pricing Home Work Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D.; Bryant, W. Keith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses techniques for measuring the value of home work time. Estimates obtained using the reservation wage technique are contrasted with market alternative estimates derived with the same data set. Findings suggest that the market alternative cost method understates the true value of a woman's home time to the household. (JOW)

  1. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  2. Archtecture of distributed real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Leung, Cheuk

    2013-01-01

    CRAFTERS (Constraint and Application Driven Framework for Tailoring Embedded Real-time System) project aims to address the problem of uncertainty and heterogeneity in a distributed system by providing seamless, portable connectivity and middleware. This thesis contributes to the project by investigating the techniques that can be used in a distributed real-time embedded system. The conclusion is that, there is a list of specifications to be meet in order to provide a transparent and real-time...

  3. Research Directions in Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes a survey of published research in real time systems . Material is presented that provides an overview of the topic, focusing on...communications protocols and scheduling techniques. It is noted that real - time systems deserve special attention separate from other areas because of...formal tools for design and analysis of real - time systems . The early work on applications as well as notable theoretical advances are summarized

  4. A Real-Time Systems Symposium Preprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Real - Time Systems Symposium Preprint Interim Tech...estimate of the occurence of the error. Unclassii ledSECUqITY CLASSIF’ICA T" NO MI*IA If’ inDI /’rrd erter for~~ble. ’Corrputnqg A REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM...ABSTRACT This technical report contains a preprint of a paper accepted for presentation at the REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM, Arlington,

  5. Heterogeneous Investors, Negotiation Strength & Asset Prices in Private Markets: Evidence from Commercial Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Ling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of heterogeneous investors with asymmetric bargaining positions on transaction prices in private commercial real estate markets. Using a dataset that contains nearly 100,000 commercial real estate transactions during 1997-2009, we examine the extent to which common conditions of sale and buyer characteristics affect bargaining power and negotiated prices. We find that tax-motivated buyers seeking to complete a delayed Section 1031 exchange pay an average price premium of 12.5% when purchasing smaller properties. However, these price premiums for exchange motivated buyers are not observed among more expensive properties. We find strong evidence that out-of-state buyers pay significantly more (8 - 11% premium for commercial properties than in-state buyers. Consistent with our expectations, we find that sellers of distressed properties negotiate significantly lower transaction prices (13 - 15% discount than sellers of non-distressed properties, all else equal. Finally, we find evidence that REITs pay price premiums between 14 - 16% for office and industrial and retail properties. Our results strongly support the notion that relative bargaining power influences negotiated transaction prices.

  6. STOCHASTIC PRICING MODEL FOR THE REAL ESTATE MARKET: FORMATION OF LOG-NORMAL GENERAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Rusakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a stochastic model of real estate pricing. The method of the pricing construction is based on a sequential comparison of the supply prices. We proof that under standard assumptions imposed upon the comparison coefficients there exists an unique non-degenerated limit in distribution and this limit has the lognormal law of distribution. The accordance of empirical distributions of prices to thetheoretically obtained log-normal distribution we verify by numerous statistical data of real estate prices from Saint-Petersburg (Russia. For establishing this accordance we essentially apply the efficient and sensitive test of fit of Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Basing on “The Russian Federal Estimation Standard N2”, we conclude that the most probable price, i.e. mode of distribution, is correctly and uniquely defined under the log-normal approximation. Since the mean value of log-normal distribution exceeds the mode - most probable value, it follows that the prices valued by the mathematical expectation are systematically overstated.

  7. The tell-tale look: viewing time, preferences, and prices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Gunia

    Full Text Available Even the simplest choices can prompt decision-makers to balance their preferences against other, more pragmatic considerations like price. Thus, discerning people's preferences from their decisions creates theoretical, empirical, and practical challenges. The current paper addresses these challenges by highlighting some specific circumstances in which the amount of time that people spend examining potential purchase items (i.e., viewing time can in fact reveal their preferences. Our model builds from the gazing literature, in a purchasing context, to propose that the informational value of viewing time depends on prices. Consistent with the model's predictions, four studies show that when prices are absent or moderate, viewing time provides a signal that is consistent with a person's preferences and purchase intentions. When prices are extreme or consistent with a person's preferences, however, viewing time is a less reliable predictor of either. Thus, our model highlights a price-contingent "viewing bias," shedding theoretical, empirical, and practical light on the psychology of preferences and visual attention, and identifying a readily observable signal of preference.

  8. The tell-tale look: viewing time, preferences, and prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C; Murnighan, J Keith

    2015-01-01

    Even the simplest choices can prompt decision-makers to balance their preferences against other, more pragmatic considerations like price. Thus, discerning people's preferences from their decisions creates theoretical, empirical, and practical challenges. The current paper addresses these challenges by highlighting some specific circumstances in which the amount of time that people spend examining potential purchase items (i.e., viewing time) can in fact reveal their preferences. Our model builds from the gazing literature, in a purchasing context, to propose that the informational value of viewing time depends on prices. Consistent with the model's predictions, four studies show that when prices are absent or moderate, viewing time provides a signal that is consistent with a person's preferences and purchase intentions. When prices are extreme or consistent with a person's preferences, however, viewing time is a less reliable predictor of either. Thus, our model highlights a price-contingent "viewing bias," shedding theoretical, empirical, and practical light on the psychology of preferences and visual attention, and identifying a readily observable signal of preference.

  9. Model Checking Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2018-01-01

    This chapter surveys timed automata as a formalism for model checking real-time systems. We begin with introducing the model, as an extension of finite-state automata with real-valued variables for measuring time. We then present the main model-checking results in this framework, and give a hint...

  10. Exponential smoothing approaches for prediction in real-time electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Tryggvi; Pinson, Pierre; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2014-01-01

    The optimal design of offering strategies for wind power producers is commonly based on unconditional (and, hence, constant) expectation values for prices in real-time markets, directly defining their loss function in a stochastic optimization framework. This is why it may certainly be advantageous...... to account for the seasonal and dynamic behavior of such prices, hence translating to time-varying loss functions. With that objective in mind, forecasting approaches relying on simple models that accommodate the seasonal and dynamic nature of real-time prices are derived and analyzed. These are all based...

  11. Essays in real-time forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Liebermann, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays in the field of real-time econometrics, and more particularlyforecasting.The issue of using data as available in real-time to forecasters, policymakers or financialmarkets is an important one which has only recently been taken on board in the empiricalliterature. Data available and used in real-time are preliminary and differ from ex-postrevised data, and given that data revisions may be quite substantial, the use of latestavailable instead of real-time can s...

  12. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  13. Multiplexing real-time timed events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, M.J.; Cools, W.A.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of RELTEQ, a timed event management algorithm based on relative event times, supporting long event interarrival time, long lifetime of the event queue, no drift and low overhead. It is targeted at embedded operating systems. RELTEQ has been conceived

  14. Optimal Conditional Reachability for Multi-Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we prove decidability of the optimal conditional reachability problem for multi-priced timed automata, an extension of timed automata with multiple cost variables evolving according to given rates for each location. More precisely, we consider the problem of determining the minimal...

  15. On using priced timed automata to achieve optimal scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob Illum; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Subramani, K.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution reports on the considerable effort made recently towards extending and applying well-established timed automata technology to optimal scheduling and planning problems. The effort of the authors in this direction has to a large extent been carried out as part of the European proj...... of so-called priced timed automata....

  16. Fuel price and technological uncertainty in a real options model for electricity planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, Sabine; Szolgayova, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Electricity generation is an important source of total CO 2 emissions, which in turn have been found to relate to an acceleration of global warming. Given that many OECD countries have to replace substantial portions of their electricity-generating capacity over the next 10-20 years, investment decisions today will determine the CO 2 -intensity of the future energy mix. But by what type of power plants will old (mostly fossil-fuel-fired) capacity be replaced? Given that modern, less carbon-intensive technologies are still expensive but can be expected to undergo improvements due to technical change in the near future, they may become more attractive, especially if fossil fuel price volatility makes traditional technologies more risky. At the same time, technological progress is an inherently uncertain process itself. In this paper, we use a real options model with stochastic technical change and stochastic fossil fuel prices in order to investigate their impact on replacement investment decisions in the electricity sector. We find that the uncertainty associated with the technological progress of renewable energy technologies leads to a postponement of investment. Even the simultaneous inclusion of stochastic fossil fuel prices in the same model does not make renewable energy competitive compared to fossil-fuel-fired technology in the short run based on the data used. This implies that policymakers have to intervene if renewable energy is supposed to get diffused more quickly. Otherwise, old fossil-fuel-fired equipment will be refurbished or replaced by fossil-fuel-fired capacity again, which enforces the lock-in of the current system into unsustainable electricity generation. (author)

  17. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  18. LabVIEW Real-Time

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Flockhart, Ronald Bruce; Seppey, P

    2003-01-01

    With LabVIEW Real-Time, you can choose from a variety of RT Series hardware. Add a real-time data acquisition component into a larger measurement and automation system or create a single stand-alone real-time solution with data acquisition, signal conditioning, motion control, RS-232, GPIB instrumentation, and Ethernet connectivity. With the various hardware options, you can create a system to meet your precise needs today, while the modularity of the system means you can add to the solution as your system requirements grow. If you are interested in Reliable and Deterministic systems for Measurement and Automation, you will profit from this seminar. Agenda: Real-Time Overview LabVIEW RT Hardware Platforms - Linux on PXI Programming with LabVIEW RT Real-Time Operating Systems concepts Timing Applications Data Transfer

  19. 3D Weight Matrices in Modeling Real Estate Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimis, A.

    2016-10-01

    Central role in spatial econometric models of real estate data has the definition of the weight matrix by which we capture the spatial dependence between the observations. The weight matrices presented in literature so far, treats space in a two dimensional manner leaving out the effect of the third dimension or in our case the difference in height where the property resides. To overcome this, we propose a new definition of the weight matrix including the third dimensional effect by using the Hadamard product. The results illustrated that the level effect can be absorbed into the new weight matrix.

  20. Comparison of extended mean-reversion and time series models for electricity spot price simulation considering negative prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keles, Dogan; Genoese, Massimo; Möst, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates different financial price and time series models, such as mean reversion, autoregressive moving average (ARMA), integrated ARMA (ARIMA) and general autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) process, usually applied for electricity price simulations. However, as these models are developed to describe the stochastic behaviour of electricity prices, they are extended by a separate data treatment for the deterministic components (trend, daily, weekly and annual cycles) of electricity spot prices. Furthermore price jumps are considered and implemented within a regime-switching model. Since 2008 market design allows for negative prices at the European Energy Exchange, which also occurred for several hours in the last years. Up to now, only a few financial and time series approaches exist, which are able to capture negative prices. This paper presents a new approach incorporating negative prices. The evaluation of the different approaches presented points out that the mean reversion and the ARMA models deliver the lowest mean root square error between simulated and historical electricity spot prices gained from the European Energy Exchange. These models posses also lower mean average errors than GARCH models. Hence, they are more suitable to simulate well-fitting price paths. Furthermore it is shown that the daily structure of historical price curves is better captured applying ARMA or ARIMA processes instead of mean-reversion or GARCH models. Another important outcome of the paper is that the regime-switching approach and the consideration of negative prices via the new proposed approach lead to a significant improvement of the electricity price simulation. - Highlights: ► Considering negative prices improves the results of time-series and financial models for electricity prices. ► Regime-switching approach captures the jumps and base prices quite well. ► Removing and separate modelling of deterministic annual, weekly and daily

  1. On the link between oil price and exchange rate: A time-varying VAR parameter approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, Vincent; Razafindrabe, Tovonony; Hache, Emmanuel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between the effective exchange rate of the dollar and the oil price dynamics from 1976 to 2013. In this context, we propose to explore the economic literature dedicated to financial channels factors (exchange rate, monetary policy, and international liquidity) that could affect the oil price dynamics. In addition to oil prices and the effective exchange rate of the dollar, we use the dry cargo index as a proxy for the real economic activity and prices for precious and industrial raw materials. Using a Bayesian time-varying parameter vector auto-regressive estimation, our main results show that the US Dollar effective exchange rate elasticity of the crude oil prices is not constant across the time and remains negative from 1989. It then highlights that a depreciation of the effective exchange rate of the dollar leads to an increase of the crude oil prices. Our paper also demonstrates the growing influence of financial and commodities markets development upon the global economy. (authors)

  2. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Jansen, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  3. Towards exascale real-time RFI mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an extremely scalable real-time RFI mitigation method, based on the offline AOFlagger. All algorithms scale linearly in the number of samples. We describe how we implemented the flagger in the LOFAR real-time pipeline, on both CPUs and GPUs. Additionally,

  4. Real time refractive index measurement by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torroba, R.; Joenathan, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method to measure refractive index variations in real time is reported. A technique to introduce reference fringes in real time is discussed. Both the theoretical and experimental results are presented and an example with phase shifting is given. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  5. De toekomst van Real Time Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Berg, C.H. van den

    2013-01-01

    Al direct vanaf de start van de Nationale Politie is gewerkt aan het opzetten van tien real-time intelligence centra in Nederland. Van daaruit worden 24 uur per dag en zeven dagen in de week agenten op straat actief ondersteund met real-time informatie bij de melding waar ze op af gaan. In de visie

  6. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  7. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to verify...

  8. Real time programming environment for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  9. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Quinton

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  10. MARTe: A Multiplatform Real-Time Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, André C.; Sartori, Filippo; Piccolo, Fabio; Vitelli, Riccardo; De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Zabeo, Luca; Barbalace, Antonio; Fernandes, Horacio; Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Batista, Antonio J. N.

    2010-04-01

    Development of real-time applications is usually associated with nonportable code targeted at specific real-time operating systems. The boundary between hardware drivers, system services, and user code is commonly not well defined, making the development in the target host significantly difficult. The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a framework built over a multiplatform library that allows the execution of the same code in different operating systems. The framework provides the high-level interfaces with hardware, external configuration programs, and user interfaces, assuring at the same time hard real-time performances. End-users of the framework are required to define and implement algorithms inside a well-defined block of software, named Generic Application Module (GAM), that is executed by the real-time scheduler. Each GAM is reconfigurable with a set of predefined configuration meta-parameters and interchanges information using a set of data pipes that are provided as inputs and required as output. Using these connections, different GAMs can be chained either in series or parallel. GAMs can be developed and debugged in a non-real-time system and, only once the robustness of the code and correctness of the algorithm are verified, deployed to the real-time system. The software also supplies a large set of utilities that greatly ease the interaction and debugging of a running system. Among the most useful are a highly efficient real-time logger, HTTP introspection of real-time objects, and HTTP remote configuration. MARTe is currently being used to successfully drive the plasma vertical stabilization controller on the largest magnetic confinement fusion device in the world, with a control loop cycle of 50 ?s and a jitter under 1 ?s. In this particular project, MARTe is used with the Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI)/Linux operating system exploiting the new ?86 multicore processors technology.

  11. Pricing and simulation for real estate index options: Radial basis point interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pu; Zou, Dong; Wang, Jiayue

    2018-06-01

    This study employs the meshfree radial basis point interpolation (RBPI) for pricing real estate derivatives contingent on real estate index. This method combines radial and polynomial basis functions, which can guarantee the interpolation scheme with Kronecker property and effectively improve accuracy. An exponential change of variables, a mesh refinement algorithm and the Richardson extrapolation are employed in this study to implement the RBPI. Numerical results are presented to examine the computational efficiency and accuracy of our method.

  12. Housing price gradient and immigrant population: Data from the Italian real estate market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniucci, Valentina; Marella, Giuliano

    2018-02-01

    The database presented here was collected by Antoniucci and Marella to analyze the correlation between the housing price gradient and the immigrant population in Italy during 2016. It may also be useful in other statistical analyses, be they on the real estate market or in another branches of social science. The data sample relates to 112 Italian provincial capitals. It provides accurate information on urban structure, and specifically on urban density. The two most significant variables are original indicators constructed from official data sources: the housing price gradient, or the ratio between average prices in the center and suburbs by city; and building density, which is the average number of housing units per residential building. The housing price gradient is calculated for the two residential sub-markets, new-build and existing units, providing an original and detailed sample of the Italian residential market. Rather than average prices, the housing price gradient helps to identify potential divergences in residential market trends. As well as house prices, two other data clusters are considered: socio-economic variables, which provide a framework of each city, in terms of demographic and economic information; and various data on urban structure, which are rarely included in the same database.

  13. The capital-asset pricing model reconsidered: tests in real terms on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper extends previous work of the authors to reconsider the capital-asset pricing model (CAPM) in South Africa in real terms. As in that work, the main question this study aimed to answer remains: Can the CAPM be accepted in the South African market for the purposes of the stochastic modelling of investment returns ...

  14. Research of real-time communication software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maotang; Guo, Jingbo; Liu, Yuzhong; Li, Jiahong

    2003-11-01

    Real-time communication has been playing an increasingly important role in our work, life and ocean monitor. With the rapid progress of computer and communication technique as well as the miniaturization of communication system, it is needed to develop the adaptable and reliable real-time communication software in the ocean monitor system. This paper involves the real-time communication software research based on the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system. The object-oriented design method is adopted, which can transmit and receive video data and audio data as well as engineering data by satellite channel. In the real-time communication software, some software modules are developed, which can realize the point-to-point satellite intercommunication in the ocean monitor system. There are three advantages for the real-time communication software. One is that the real-time communication software increases the reliability of the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system working. Second is that some optional parameters are intercalated, which greatly increases the flexibility of the system working. Third is that some hardware is substituted by the real-time communication software, which not only decrease the expense of the system and promotes the miniaturization of communication system, but also aggrandizes the agility of the system.

  15. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  16. Dense time discretization technique for verification of real time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makackas, Dalius; Miseviciene, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Verifying the real-time system there are two different models to control the time: discrete and dense time based models. This paper argues a novel verification technique, which calculates discrete time intervals from dense time in order to create all the system states that can be reached from the initial system state. The technique is designed for real-time systems specified by a piece-linear aggregate approach. Key words: real-time system, dense time, verification, model checking, piece-linear aggregate

  17. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs

  18. Real time detecting system for turning force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaobin, Yue [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Machinery Manufacturing Technology

    2001-07-01

    How to get the real-time value of forces dropped on the tool in the course of processing by piezoelectric sensors is introduced. First, the analog signals of the cutting force were achieved by these sensors, amplified and transferred into digital signals by A/D transferring card. Then real-time software reads the information, put it into its own coordinate, drew the curve of forces, displayed it on the screen by the real time and saved it for the technicians to analyze the situation of the tool. So the cutting parameter can be optimized to improve surface quality of the pieces.

  19. Dynamic Relationships between Price and Net Asset Value for Asian Real Estate Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hiang LIOW

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines short- and long-term behavior of the price-to net asset value ratio in six Asian public real estate markets. We find mean-reverting behavior of the ratio and spillover effects, where each of the examined public real estate markets correlates with other markets. Additionally, the unexpected shock correlating with the price-to-net asset value ratio in one market has a positive or negative correlation with the ratios of other markets. Our results offer fresh insights to portfolio managers, policymakers, and academic researchers into the regional and country market dynamics of public real estate valuation and cross-country interaction from the long-term and short-term perspectives.

  20. The Effect of Macroeconomic Factors on Stock Prices of Swiss Real Estate Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ligocká

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock values of companies listed on stock exchanges could be influenced by many factors. The aim of this article is to examine existence and character of relationship between stock prices of selected Swiss real estate companies and macroeconomic fundamentals (GDP, interest rate, price level. The existence of long-run equilibrium relationship between stock prices and macroeconomic fundamentals is tested with the Johansen cointegration. The short run dynamics between the variables is examined by Vector Error Correction modelling and the Granger causality test. During the period 2005 – 2014 we revealed a long‑run equilibrium for five of the six analyzed stocks. We also confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the interest rate in particular, can explain a long-run behavior of stock prices. By contrast, macroeconomic variables are usually short in explanation of short‑run dynamics of stock prices. However, the results differ substantially among the stocks and, hence, they prevent us from drawing any general conclusion for the entire real estate sector in Switzerland.

  1. Fractality of profit landscapes and validation of time series models for stock prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Il Gu; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Beom Jun

    2013-08-01

    We apply a simple trading strategy for various time series of real and artificial stock prices to understand the origin of fractality observed in the resulting profit landscapes. The strategy contains only two parameters p and q, and the sell (buy) decision is made when the log return is larger (smaller) than p (-q). We discretize the unit square (p,q) ∈ [0,1] × [0,1] into the N × N square grid and the profit Π(p,q) is calculated at the center of each cell. We confirm the previous finding that local maxima in profit landscapes are scattered in a fractal-like fashion: the number M of local maxima follows the power-law form M ˜ Na, but the scaling exponent a is found to differ for different time series. From comparisons of real and artificial stock prices, we find that the fat-tailed return distribution is closely related to the exponent a ≈ 1.6 observed for real stock markets. We suggest that the fractality of profit landscape characterized by a ≈ 1.6 can be a useful measure to validate time series model for stock prices.

  2. The relationship between global oil price shocks and China's output: A time-varying analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Jamie; Nguyen, Bao H.

    2017-01-01

    We employ a class of time-varying Bayesian vector autoregressive (VAR) models on new standard dataset of China's GDP constructed by to examine the relationship between China's economic growth and global oil market fluctuations between 1992Q1 and 2015Q3. We find that: (1) the time varying parameter VAR with stochastic volatility provides a better fit as compared to it's constant counterparts; (2) the impacts of intertemporal global oil price shocks on China's output are often small and temporary in nature; (3) oil supply and specific oil demand shocks generally produce negative movements in China's GDP growth whilst oil demand shocks tend to have positive effects; (4) domestic output shocks have no significant impact on price or quantity movements within the global oil market. The results are generally robust to three commonly employed indicators of global economic activity: Kilian's global real economic activity index, the metal price index and the global industrial production index, and two alternative oil price metrics: the US refiners' acquisition cost for imported crude oil and the West Texas Intermediate price of crude oil. - Highlights: • A class of time-varying BVARs is used to examine the relationship between China's economic growth and global oil market fluctuations. • The impacts of intertemporal global oil price shocks on China's output are often small and temporary in nature. • Oil supply and specific oil demand shocks generally produce negative movements in China's GDP growth while oil demand shocks tend to have positive effects. • Domestic output shocks have no significant impact on price or quantity movements within the global oil market.

  3. Benefits of real-time gas management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolty, R.; Dolezalek, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In today's competitive gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation business environment, the requirements to do business are continually changing. These changes arise from government regulations such as the amendments to the Clean Air Act concerning the environment and FERC Order 636 concerning business practices. Other changes are due to advances in technology such as electronic flow measurement (EFM) and real-time communications capabilities within the gas industry. Gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation companies must be flexible in adapting to these changes to remain competitive. These dynamic requirements can be met with an open, real-time gas management computer information system. Such a system provides flexible services with a variety of software applications. Allocations, nominations management and gas dispatching are examples of applications that are provided on a real-time basis. By providing real-time services, the gas management system enables operations personnel to make timely adjustments within the current accounting period. Benefits realized from implementing a real-time gas management system include reduced unaccountable gas, reduced imbalance penalties, reduced regulatory violations, improved facility operations and better service to customers. These benefits give a company the competitive edge. This article discusses the applications provided, the benefits from implementing a real-time gas management system, and the definition of such a system

  4. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  5. Investment Risk in the Context of Price Changes on the Real Estate and Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolski Rafał

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential real estate market is thought to show a tendency for wide fluctuations in prices, as a result of which price bubbles appear. This element of risk has a direct bearing on investors interested in speculation and those seeking to meet their housing needs. Wide fluctuations in the values of real estate affect the investors’ financial situation in many ways, by determining the possibility of meeting one’s housing needs, reducing or sometimes raising creditworthiness, and by increasing investment risk measured by volatility. Omitting the obvious social dimension of the residential real estate market and concentrating on its financial aspects, the author of the article analyses to what degree wide swings in prices can be recognized as specific to this market. To this end, the volatility of prices in the stock market and in the secondary housing market in Poland is compared. An analysis is performed to establish which of them has higher average volatility measures or rates of return, i.e. which of them is more profitable or secure for investors. Statistical tests are used to find out whether average rates of return or measures of risk are equal or different between the two markets. The results of the research show that the secondary housing market and the stock market differ concerning cumulative average rates of return and standard deviations. In the first of them, they are respectively higher and lower.

  6. Flexible Demand Management under Time-Varying Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yong

    In this dissertation, the problem of flexible demand management under time-varying prices is studied. This generic problem has many applications, which usually have multiple periods in which decisions on satisfying demand need to be made, and prices in these periods are time-varying. Examples of such applications include multi-period procurement problem, operating room scheduling, and user-end demand scheduling in the Smart Grid, where the last application is used as the main motivating story throughout the dissertation. The current grid is experiencing an upgrade with lots of new designs. What is of particular interest is the idea of passing time-varying prices that reflect electricity market conditions to end users as incentives for load shifting. One key component, consequently, is the demand management system at the user-end. The objective of the system is to find the optimal trade-off between cost saving and discomfort increment resulted from load shifting. In this dissertation, we approach this problem from the following aspects: (1) construct a generic model, solve for Pareto optimal solutions, and analyze the robust solution that optimizes the worst-case payoffs, (2) extend to a distribution-free model for multiple types of demand (appliances), for which an approximate dynamic programming (ADP) approach is developed, and (3) design other efficient algorithms for practical purposes of the flexible demand management system. We first construct a novel multi-objective flexible demand management model, in which there are a finite number of periods with time-varying prices, and demand arrives in each period. In each period, the decision maker chooses to either satisfy or defer outstanding demand to minimize costs and discomfort over a certain number of periods. We consider both the deterministic model, models with stochastic demand or prices, and when only partial information about the stochastic demand or prices is known. We first analyze the stochastic

  7. Scala for Real-Time Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Java served well as a general-purpose language. However, during its two decades of constant change it has gotten some weight and legacy in the language syntax and the libraries. Furthermore, Java's success for real-time systems is mediocre. Scala is a modern object-oriented and functional language...... with interesting new features. Although a new language, it executes on a Java virtual machine, reusing that technology. This paper explores Scala as language for future real-time systems....

  8. Real time monitoring of electron processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.; Kneeland, D.R.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    A real time radiation monitor (RTRM) has been developed for monitoring the dose rate (current density) of electron beam processors. The system provides continuous monitoring of processor output, electron beam uniformity, and an independent measure of operating voltage or electron energy. In view of the device's ability to replace labor-intensive dosimetry in verification of machine performance on a real-time basis, its application to providing archival performance data for in-line processing is discussed. (author)

  9. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  10. Real options theory to the pricing of allowances contract to carbon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Leticia Takahashi; Parente, Virginia; Goldemberg, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a pricing model contract for allowances to emit carbon through Real Options. Emissions allowances are equivalent tons of carbon traded between Annex I countries from companies that have the ability to reduce their emissions beyond what is assigned to it. The surplus of emission reductions produced by these companies may be sold in the emissions market. Thus, this work can contribute to improving the management of contractual risk and enable companies estimated the price at which a contract can be signed. Properly evaluate the contracts that the market environment is a challenge for companies. The historic low of information and randomness in the price of carbon allowances in the spot market suggest extreme caution in its use. (author)

  11. Real-time PCR in virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Ian M; Arden, Katherine E; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-03-15

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of PCR product during real-time PCR. These are the DNA binding fluorophores, the 5' endonuclease, adjacent linear and hairpin oligoprobes and the self-fluorescing amplicons, which are described in detail. We also discuss factors that have restricted the development of multiplex real-time PCR as well as the role of real-time PCR in quantitating nucleic acids. Both amplification hardware and the fluorogenic detection chemistries have evolved rapidly as the understanding of real-time PCR has developed and this review aims to update the scientist on the current state of the art. We describe the background, advantages and limitations of real-time PCR and we review the literature as it applies to virus detection in the routine and research laboratory in order to focus on one of the many areas in which the application of real-time PCR has provided significant methodological benefits and improved patient outcomes. However, the technology discussed has been applied to other areas of microbiology as well as studies of gene expression and genetic disease.

  12. Optimal pricing and lot-sizing for perishable inventory with price and time dependent ramp-type demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S.; Saha, S.; Basu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Product perishability is an important aspect of inventory control. To minimise the effect of deterioration, retailers in supermarkets, departmental store managers, etc. always want higher inventory depletion rate. In this article, we propose a dynamic pre- and post-deterioration cumulative discount policy to enhance inventory depletion rate resulting low volume of deterioration cost, holding cost and hence higher profit. It is assumed that demand is a price and time dependent ramp-type function and the product starts to deteriorate after certain amount of time. Unlike the conventional inventory models with pricing strategies, which are restricted to a fixed number of price changes and to a fixed cycle length, we allow the number of price changes before as well as after the start of deterioration and the replenishment cycle length to be the decision variables. Before start of deterioration, discounts on unit selling price are provided cumulatively in successive pricing cycles. After the start of deterioration, discounts on reduced unit selling price are also provided in a cumulative way. A mathematical model is developed and the existence of the optimal solution is verified. A numerical example is presented, which indicates that under the cumulative effect of price discounting, dynamic pricing policy outperforms static pricing strategy. Sensitivity analysis of the model is carried out.

  13. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  14. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  15. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  16. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  17. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input...

  18. Multivariate Option Pricing with Time Varying Volatility and Correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In recent years multivariate models for asset returns have received much attention, in particular this is the case for models with time varying volatility. In this paper we consider models of this class and examine their potential when it comes to option pricing. Specifically, we derive the risk...... neutral dynamics for a general class of multivariate heteroskedastic models, and we provide a feasible way to price options in this framework. Our framework can be used irrespective of the assumed underlying distribution and dynamics, and it nests several important special cases. We provide an application...... to options on the minimum of two indices. Our results show that not only is correlation important for these options but so is allowing this correlation to be dynamic. Moreover, we show that for the general model exposure to correlation risk carries an important premium, and when this is neglected option...

  19. A real-time architecture for time-aware agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouskas, Konstantinos-Vassileios; Pitt, Jeremy V

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the specification and implementation of a new three-layer time-aware agent architecture. This architecture is designed for applications and environments where societies of humans and agents play equally active roles, but interact and operate in completely different time frames. The architecture consists of three layers: the April real-time run-time (ART) layer, the time aware layer (TAL), and the application agents layer (AAL). The ART layer forms the underlying real-time agent platform. An original online, real-time, dynamic priority-based scheduling algorithm is described for scheduling the computation time of agent processes, and it is shown that the algorithm's O(n) complexity and scalable performance are sufficient for application in real-time domains. The TAL layer forms an abstraction layer through which human and agent interactions are temporally unified, that is, handled in a common way irrespective of their temporal representation and scale. A novel O(n2) interaction scheduling algorithm is described for predicting and guaranteeing interactions' initiation and completion times. The time-aware predicting component of a workflow management system is also presented as an instance of the AAL layer. The described time-aware architecture addresses two key challenges in enabling agents to be effectively configured and applied in environments where humans and agents play equally active roles. It provides flexibility and adaptability in its real-time mechanisms while placing them under direct agent control, and it temporally unifies human and agent interactions.

  20. Testing of real-time-software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesland, G.; Ovenhausen, H.

    1975-05-01

    The situation in the area of testing real-time-software is unsatisfactory. During the first phase of the project PROMOTE (prozessorientiertes Modul- und Gesamttestsystem) an analysis of the momentary situation took place, results of which are summarized in the following study about some user interviews and an analysis of relevant literature. 22 users (industry, software-houses, hardware-manufacturers, and institutes) have been interviewed. Discussions were held about reliability of real-time software with special interest to error avoidance, testing, and debugging. Main aims of the analysis of the literature were elaboration of standard terms, comparison of existing test methods and -systems, and the definition of boundaries to related areas. During the further steps of this project some means and techniques will be worked out to systematically test real-time software. (orig.) [de

  1. Failure analysis of real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalashgar, A.; Stoelen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights essential aspects of real-time software systems that are strongly related to the failures and their course of propagation. The significant influence of means-oriented and goal-oriented system views in the description, understanding and analysing of those aspects is elaborated. The importance of performing failure analysis prior to reliability analysis of real-time systems is equally addressed. Problems of software reliability growth models taking the properties of such systems into account are discussed. Finally, the paper presents a preliminary study of a goal-oriented approach to model the static and dynamic characteristics of real-time systems, so that the corresponding analysis can be based on a more descriptive and informative picture of failures, their effects and the possibility of their occurrence. (author)

  2. Real Time Linux - The RTOS for Astronomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P. N.

    The BoF was attended by about 30 participants and a free CD of real time Linux-based upon RedHat 5.2-was available. There was a detailed presentation on the nature of real time Linux and the variants for hard real time: New Mexico Tech's RTL and DIAPM's RTAI. Comparison tables between standard Linux and real time Linux responses to time interval generation and interrupt response latency were presented (see elsewhere in these proceedings). The present recommendations are to use RTL for UP machines running the 2.0.x kernels and RTAI for SMP machines running the 2.2.x kernel. Support, both academically and commercially, is available. Some known limitations were presented and the solutions reported e.g., debugging and hardware support. The features of RTAI (scheduler, fifos, shared memory, semaphores, message queues and RPCs) were described. Typical performance statistics were presented: Pentium-based oneshot tasks running > 30kHz, 486-based oneshot tasks running at ~ 10 kHz, periodic timer tasks running in excess of 90 kHz with average zero jitter peaking to ~ 13 mus (UP) and ~ 30 mus (SMP). Some detail on kernel module programming, including coding examples, were presented showing a typical data acquisition system generating simulated (random) data writing to a shared memory buffer and a fifo buffer to communicate between real time Linux and user space. All coding examples were complete and tested under RTAI v0.6 and the 2.2.12 kernel. Finally, arguments were raised in support of real time Linux: it's open source, free under GPL, enables rapid prototyping, has good support and the ability to have a fully functioning workstation capable of co-existing hard real time performance. The counter weight-the negatives-of lack of platforms (x86 and PowerPC only at present), lack of board support, promiscuous root access and the danger of ignorance of real time programming issues were also discussed. See ftp://orion.tuc.noao.edu/pub/pnd/rtlbof.tgz for the StarOffice overheads

  3. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  4. Replacing OSE with Real Time capable Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Simon; Rutgersson, Olof

    2009-01-01

    For many years OSE has been a common used operating system, with real time extensions enhancements, in embed-ded systems. But in the last decades, Linux has grown and became a competitor to common operating systems and, in recent years, even as an operating system with real time extensions. With this in mind, ÅF was interested in replacing the quite expensive OSE with some distribution of the open source based Linux on a PowerPC MPC8360. Therefore, our purpose with thesis is to implement Linu...

  5. SignalR real time application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2013-01-01

    This step-by-step guide gives you practical advice, tips, and tricks that will have you writing real-time apps quickly and easily.If you are a .NET developer who wants to be at the cutting edge of development, then this book is for you. Real-time application development is made simple in this guide, so as long as you have basic knowledge of .NET, a copy of Visual Studio, and NuGet installed, you are ready to go.

  6. Real-time ISEE data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Baker, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time ISEE data system directed toward predicting geomagnetic substorms and storms is discussed. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution.

  7. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities

  8. Automated real-time software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  9. True Time API Link (real time arrival info)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This link will take you to the site where you can create an account to access Port Authority's real time arrival information. To request access to Port Authority's...

  10. Real time automatic discriminating of ultrasonic flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohd Hanif Md Saad; Marzuki Mustafa; Mohd Redzwan Rosli

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the real time automatic discriminating of flaws from two categories; i. cracks (planar defect) and ii. Non-cracks (volumetric defect such as cluster porosity and slag) using pulse-echo ultrasound. The raw ultrasonic flaws signal were collected from a computerized robotic plane scanning system over the whole of each reflector as the primary source of data. The signal is then filtered and the analysis in both time and frequency domain were executed to obtain the selected feature. The real time feature analysis techniques measured the number of peaks, maximum index, pulse duration, rise time and fall time. The obtained features could be used to distinguish between quantitatively classified flaws by using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. The proposed algorithm and complete system were implemented in a computer software developed using Microsoft Visual BASIC 6.0 (author)

  11. Real-time versus day-ahead market power in a hydro-based electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Mauritzen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We analyse in a theoretical framework the link between real-time and day-ahead market performance in a hydro-based and imperfectly competitive wholesale electricity market. Theoretical predictions of the model are tested on data from the Nordic power exchange, Nord Pool Spot (NPS).We reject the hypothesis that prices at NPS were at their competitive levels throughout the period under examination. The empirical approach uses equilibrium prices and quantities and does not rely on bid data nor o...

  12. Early experience in centralized real time energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaywan, Z.; Hernandez, L.; Martin, M.

    2005-01-01

    The current structure of the California Independent System Operator (ISO) was described. The study provided an outline of California's transition from a decentralized pool operation to a forward bilateral market through the implementation of a centralized real time market. Details of the institutional, economic and technological history of the power system were provided. Although the California real time market was implemented in order to simplify the power system, a number of operational challenges were observed. Discontinuities in the energy curve resulted in the implementation of a target price process, which aimed to resolve the overlap in energy bids. The design of the ISO's real time market did not provide a mechanism for bidders to execute real time energy trades. Regulation bidders also internalized energy in their regulation capacity bids. The real time market application (RTMA) provided the ISO with a substantial computer program to determine and account for nearly all aspects of generation unit scheduling and physical characteristics with a multiple ramp rate. The program combined optimal power flow (OPF) logic for energy flows in addition to mixed-integer nonlinear optimization of trading schedules, and system and security constraints. The RTMA used a multi-period security constrained economic dispatch (SCED) function to optimize energy dispatch schedules. Other features of the RTMA included security constrained unit commitment, security constrained economic dispatch, and dispatch schedule post processes. It was concluded that implementation of the RTMA has increased the efficiency of the ISO. A case study of the RTMA during an outage in November 2004 was provided. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  13. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-based monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  14. Real-Time Operating System/360

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  15. Advances in Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Samarjit

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Farber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects.

  16. Collecting data in real time with postcards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Systems. These methods often involve cross-sectional, retrospective data collection. This paper describes the postcard method for prospective real-time data collection, both in paper format and electronic format. This paper then describes the results obtained using postcard techniques in Denmark...

  17. Studying Complex Interactions in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The study of human behavior must take into account the social context, and real-time, networked experiments with multiple participants is one increasingly popular way to achieve this. In this paper a framework based on Python and XMPP is presented that aims to make it easy to develop...

  18. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    seeks to implement and assess existing reconstruction algorithms using multi-processors of modern graphics cards and many-core computer processors and to cover some of the potential clinical applications which might benefit from using an interactive real-time MRI system. First an off...

  19. Real-time PCR gene expression profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubista, Mikael; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Šindelka, Radek; Jonák, Jiří; Andrade, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 56-60 ISSN 1360-8606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500520601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : real - time PCR, * expression profiling * statistical analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  1. Real-time systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Phillip A

    2004-01-01

    "Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis, Third Edition is essential for students and practicing software engineers who want improved designs, faster computation, and ultimate cost savings. Chapters discuss hardware considerations and software requirements, software systems design, the software production process, performance estimation and optimization, and engineering considerations."--Jacket.

  2. Temporal logics and real time expert systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert

  3. Ray Tracing for Real-time Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes efficient rendering algorithms based on ray tracing, and the application of these algorithms to real-time games. Compared to rasterizationbased approaches, rendering based on ray tracing allows elegant and correct simulation of important global effects, such as shadows,

  4. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-base monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  5. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  6. Composing Synchronisation and Real-Time Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    There have been a number of publications illustrating the successes of object-oriented techniques in creating highly reusable software systems. Several concurrent languages have been proposed for specifying reusable synchronization specifications. Recently, a number of real-time object-oriented

  7. Concepts of real time and semi-real time material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief consideration of the traditional material balance accounting on an MBA basis, this paper explores the basic concepts of real time and semi-real time material control, together with some of the major problems to be solved. Three types of short-term material control are discussed: storage, batch processing, and continuous processing. (DLC)

  8. Real time animation of space plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.F.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images

  9. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  10. Real time process algebra with time-dependent conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We extend the main real time version of ACP presented in [6] with conditionals in which the condition depends on time. This extension facilitates flexible dependence of proccess behaviour on initialization time. We show that the conditions concerned generalize the conditions introduced earlier

  11. Real-time video quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Narvekar, Niranjan; Wang, Beibei; Ding, Ran; Zou, Dekun; Cash, Glenn; Bhagavathy, Sitaram; Bloom, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    The ITU-T Recommendation G.1070 is a standardized opinion model for video telephony applications that uses video bitrate, frame rate, and packet-loss rate to measure the video quality. However, this model was original designed as an offline quality planning tool. It cannot be directly used for quality monitoring since the above three input parameters are not readily available within a network or at the decoder. And there is a great room for the performance improvement of this quality metric. In this article, we present a real-time video quality monitoring solution based on this Recommendation. We first propose a scheme to efficiently estimate the three parameters from video bitstreams, so that it can be used as a real-time video quality monitoring tool. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm based on the G.1070 model that provides more accurate quality prediction is proposed. Finally, to use this metric in real-world applications, we present an example emerging application of real-time quality measurement to the management of transmitted videos, especially those delivered to mobile devices.

  12. Time Series Analysis of Wheat flour Price Shocks in Pakistan: A Case Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Raza Abdi; Ali Hassan Halepoto; Aisha Bashir Shah; Faiz M. Shaikh

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates the wheat flour Price Shocks in Pakistan: A case analysis. Data was collected by using secondary sources by using Time series Analysis, and data were analyzed by using SPSS-20 version. It was revealed that the price of wheat flour increases from last four decades, and trend of price shocks shows that due to certain market variation and supply and demand shocks also play a positive relationship in price shocks in the wheat prices. It was further revealed th...

  13. Green pastures: Do US real estate prices respond to population health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Claudia; Bishai, David

    2018-01-01

    We investigate whether communities with improving population health will subsequently experience rising real estate prices. Home price indices (HPIs) for 371 MSAs from 1990 to 2010 are regressed against life-expectancy five years prior. HPIs come from the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Life expectancy estimates come from the Institute of Health Metrics. Our analysis uses random and fixed effect models with a comprehensive set of controls. Life expectancy predicted increases in the HPI controlling for potential confounders. We found that, this effect varied spatially. Communities that invest their revenue from property taxes in public health infrastructure could benefit from a virtuous cycle of better health leading to higher property values. Communities that do not invest in health could enter vicious cycles and this could widen geospatial health and wealth disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  15. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G.; Florez, J.; Borelli, R.; Fong, W.; Miko, J.; Trujillo, C.

    1989-01-01

    With the construction of several new large aperture telescopes and the development of large format array detectors in the near IR, the ability to obtain diffraction limited seeing via IR array speckle interferometry offers a powerful tool. We are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element 2D complex FFT, and to average the power spectrum all within the 25 msec coherence time for speckles at near IR wavelength. The processor is a compact unit controlled by a PC with real time display and data storage capability. It provides the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with off-line methods

  16. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos

    1989-02-01

    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  17. Real Time Structured Light and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob

    Structured light scanning is a versatile method for 3D shape acquisition. While much faster than most competing measurement techniques, most high-end structured light scans still take in the order of seconds to complete. Low-cost sensors such as Microsoft Kinect and time of flight cameras have made......, increased processing power, and methods presented in this thesis, it is possible to perform structured light scans in real time with 20 depth measurements per second. This offers new opportunities for studying dynamic scenes, quality control, human-computer interaction and more. This thesis discusses...... several aspects of real time structured light systems and presents contributions within calibration, scene coding and motion correction aspects. The problem of reliable and fast calibration of such systems is addressed with a novel calibration scheme utilising radial basis functions [Contribution B...

  18. Time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion and option pricing with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hui; Liang, Jin-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Xiu

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing by a fractional subdiffusive Black-Scholes model. The price of the underlying stock follows a time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion. By a mean self-financing delta-hedging argument, the pricing formula for the European call option in discrete time setting is obtained.

  19. Pricing of Claims in Discrete Time with Partial Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien Dahl, Kristina, E-mail: kristrd@math.uio.no [University of Oslo, Department of Mathematics (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    We consider the pricing problem of a seller with delayed price information. By using Lagrange duality, a dual problem is derived, and it is proved that there is no duality gap. This gives a characterization of the seller's price of a contingent claim. Finally, we analyze the dual problem, and compare the prices offered by two sellers with delayed and full information respectively.

  20. Pricing of Claims in Discrete Time with Partial Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien Dahl, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    We consider the pricing problem of a seller with delayed price information. By using Lagrange duality, a dual problem is derived, and it is proved that there is no duality gap. This gives a characterization of the seller’s price of a contingent claim. Finally, we analyze the dual problem, and compare the prices offered by two sellers with delayed and full information respectively

  1. Timing organization of a real-time multicore processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Real-time systems need a time-predictable computing platform. Computation, communication, and access to shared resources needs to be time-predictable. We use time division multiplexing to statically schedule all computation and communication resources, such as access to main memory or message...... passing over a network-on-chip. We use time-driven communication over an asynchronous network-on-chip to enable time division multiplexing even in a globally asynchronous, locally synchronous multicore architecture. Using time division multiplexing at all levels of the architecture yields in a time...

  2. Real-time interactive treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an interactive treatment planning platform that permits real-time manipulation of dose distributions including DVHs and other dose metrics. The hypothesis underlying the approach proposed here is that the process of evaluating potential dose distribution options and deciding on the best clinical trade-offs may be separated from the derivation of the actual delivery parameters used for the patient’s treatment. For this purpose a novel algorithm for deriving an Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) was developed. The ADE algorithm is computationally efficient so as to update dose distributions in effectively real-time while accurately incorporating the limits of what can be achieved in practice. The resulting system is a software environment for interactive real-time manipulation of dose that permits the clinician to rapidly develop a fully customized 3D dose distribution. Graphical navigation of dose distributions is achieved by a sophisticated method of identifying contributing fluence elements, modifying those elements and re-computing the entire dose distribution. 3D dose distributions are calculated in ∼2–20 ms. Including graphics processing overhead, clinicians may visually interact with the dose distribution (e.g. ‘drag’ a DVH) and display updates of the dose distribution at a rate of more than 20 times per second. Preliminary testing on various sites shows that interactive planning may be completed in ∼1–5 min, depending on the complexity of the case (number of targets and OARs). Final DVHs are derived through a separate plan optimization step using a conventional VMAT planning system and were shown to be achievable within 2% and 4% in high and low dose regions respectively. With real-time interactive planning trade-offs between Target(s) and OARs may be evaluated efficiently providing a better understanding of the dosimetric options available to each patient in static or adaptive RT. (paper)

  3. Real time ultrasonography in obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyung Sik; Kim, Ho Kyun; Sung, Nak Kwan; Kim, Soon Yong

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a predominantly accurate, relatively simple unique diagnostic method of obstructive jaundice. The ultrasonographic findings of obstructive jaundice are dilated intra- and extrahepatic duct with intraluminal hyper reflective echo or mass in and/ or around the bile duct. The superiority of high resolution real time ultrasonography for the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice is bases on the easy detectability of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts by its multiple sectional images in a short time, the flexibility of probe and small crystal size. Author evaluated real time sonographic findings 46 obstructive jaundice patients confirmed by surgery or radiographical examinations. The results were: 1. Diameter of extrahepatic duct in obstructive jaundice were varied from normal to 4.0 Cm, mostly 8 to 10 mm in diameter (26%). Degree of dilatation of biliary duct appeared more prominent in cancer patients than other causes of obstruction. 2. The site of obstruction was detected in 85% (39/46) and its common site was common bile duct in 63% (29/46). 3. The diagnostic accuracy of choledocholithiasis and cancer was 82% (22/27) and 44% (4/9), respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of the real time ultrasonography in obstructive jaundice was over all 75% (34/46)

  4. Real-time earthquake data feasible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Scientists agree that early warning devices and monitoring of both Hurricane Hugo and the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption saved thousands of lives. What would it take to develop this sort of early warning and monitoring system for earthquake activity?Not all that much, claims a panel assigned to study the feasibility, costs, and technology needed to establish a real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) system. The panel, drafted by the National Academy of Science's Committee on Seismology, has presented its findings in Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring. The recently released report states that “present technology is entirely capable of recording and processing data so as to provide real-time information, enabling people to mitigate somewhat the earthquake disaster.” RTEM systems would consist of two parts—an early warning system that would give a few seconds warning before severe shaking, and immediate postquake information within minutes of the quake that would give actual measurements of the magnitude. At this time, however, this type of warning system has not been addressed at the national level for the United States and is not included in the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, according to the report.

  5. Tuning Linux to meet real time requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Richard S.; Le, Dang N.

    2007-04-01

    There is a desire to use Linux in military systems. Customers are requesting contractors to use open source to the maximal possible extent in contracts. Linux is probably the best operating system of choice to meet this need. It is widely used. It is free. It is royalty free, and, best of all, it is completely open source. However, there is a problem. Linux was not originally built to be a real time operating system. There are many places where interrupts can and will be blocked for an indeterminate amount of time. There have been several attempts to bridge this gap. One of them is from RTLinux, which attempts to build a microkernel underneath Linux. The microkernel will handle all interrupts and then pass it up to the Linux operating system. This does insure good interrupt latency; however, it is not free [1]. Another is RTAI, which provides a similar typed interface; however, the PowerPC platform, which is used widely in real time embedded community, was stated as "recovering" [2]. Thus this is not suited for military usage. This paper provides a method for tuning a standard Linux kernel so it can meet the real time requirement of an embedded system.

  6. Temporal logics and real time expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, J A

    1996-10-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert systems, where a fixed (and usually small) response time must be guaranteed. One such expert system, Fagan's VM, is reviewed, and a delineation is given of how to formally describe and reason with time in medical protocols. It is shown that Petri net theory is a useful tool to check the correctness of formalised protocols.

  7. CUDA-based real time surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youquan; De, Suvranu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a general software platform that enables real time surgery simulation on the newly available compute unified device architecture (CUDA)from NVIDIA. CUDA-enabled GPUs harness the power of 128 processors which allow data parallel computations. Compared to the previous GPGPU, it is significantly more flexible with a C language interface. We report implementation of both collision detection and consequent deformation computation algorithms. Our test results indicate that the CUDA enables a twenty times speedup for collision detection and about fifteen times speedup for deformation computation on an Intel Core 2 Quad 2.66 GHz machine with GeForce 8800 GTX.

  8. Real-time ISEE data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Baker, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic substorms and storms would be of great scientific and commercial interest. A real-time ISEE data system directed toward this purpose is discussed in detail. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution. 6 figures, 1 table

  9. Real-time sonography in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S G

    1978-03-01

    Three hundred fifty real-time scans were performed on pregnant women for various indications. Placental localization was satisfactorily obtained in 173 of 174 studies. Estimates of fetal gestation from directly measured biparietal diameter were +/-2 weeks of actual gestation in 153 of 172 (88.9%) measurements. The presence or absence of fetal motion and cardiac activity established a diagnosis of fetal viability or fetal death in 32 patients after the first trimester. Accurate diagnosis was made in 52 of 57 patients with threatened abortions, and two of these errors occurred in scans performed before completion of the eighth postmenstrual week. Because of the ability to demonstrate fetal motion, real-time sonography should have many applications in obstetrics.

  10. Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.

  11. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  12. Advanced real time radioscopy and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, Ch.; Nuding, W.; Grimm, R.; Wiacker, H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes three x-ray inspection systems. One radioscopic system is designed for the inspection of castings. The next integrates a radioscopic and a tomographic mode. The radioscopy has a high resolution camera and real time image processor. Radiation sources are a 450 kV industrial and a 200 kV microfocus tube. The third system is a tomographic system with 30 scintillation detectors for the inspection of nuclear waste containers. (author)

  13. Real time computer controlled weld skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A real time, adaptive control, automatic welding system was developed. This system utilizes the general case geometrical relationships between a weldment and a weld skate to precisely maintain constant weld speed and torch angle along a contoured workplace. The system is compatible with the gas tungsten arc weld process or can be adapted to other weld processes. Heli-arc cutting and machine tool routing operations are possible applications.

  14. Real-time controller for hydrostatic transmission

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M. Ing. (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) This dissertation describes the development of a modular real-time controller implemented on a personal computer for a hydrostatically driven vehicle. In such a vehicle the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced with a hydrostatic pump and two hydrostatic motors, making use of the secondary control principle. The infinitely variable transmission and wheel pair controller gives the vehicle superior traction and mobility over conventi...

  15. Telepositional portable real time radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu, Jeni; Matei, Corina; Popescu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    Technology development for complex portable networks is on going to meet the area dosimetry challenge, improving the basic design using new telepositional GPS satellite methods and GSM terrestrial civil radio transmission networks. The system and devices proposed overcome the limitations of fixed and portable dosimeters, providing wireless real time radiations data and geospatial information's means, using many portable dosimeter stations and a mobile dosimeter computerised central console. (authors)

  16. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide; Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  17. Boundary Correct Real-Time Soft Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bjarke; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Larsen, Bent Dalgaard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method to determine correct shadow boundaries from an area light source using umbra and penumbra volumes. The light source is approximated by a circular disk as this gives a fast way to extrude the volumes. The method also gives a crude estimate of the visibility of the are...... for implementation on most programmable hardware. Though some crude approximations are used in the visibility function, the method can be used to produce soft shadows with correct boundaries in real time....

  18. Real-time Astrometry Using Phase Congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A.; Polo, M.; Tang, Y.

    Phase congruency is a computer vision technique that proves to perform well for determining the tracks of optical objects (Flewelling, AMOS 2014). We report on a real-time implementation of this using an FPGA and CMOS Image Sensor, with on-sky data. The lightweight instrument can provide tracking update signals to the mount of the telescope, as well as determine abnormal objects in the scene.

  19. The Effects of Oil Price Shocks on real GDP in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Khosravi Larijani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks on GDP have been investigated by co-integration analysis in Iran economy during the period 1960-2010. We used Hodrick-Prescott filtering to separate positive shocks from negative shocks. The results showed that in long run the negative shocks have stronger effects on output than positive ones that can have damaging repercussions on economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts

  20. Real-time multiple image manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenson, J.S.; Shalev, S.; Legris, J.; Goertzen, Y.

    1984-01-01

    There are many situations in which it is desired to manipulate two or more images under real-time operator control. The authors have investigated a number of such cases in order to determine their value and applicability in clinical medicine and laboratory research. Several examples are presented in detail. The DICOM-8 video image computer system was used due to its capability of storing two 512 x 512 x 8 bit images and operating on them, and/or an incoming video frame, with any of a number of real time operations including addition, subtraction, inversion, averaging, logical AND, NAND, OR, NOR, NOT, XOR and XNOR, as well as combinations of these. Some applications involve manipulations of or among the stored images. In others, a stored image is used as a mask or template for positioning or adjusting a second image to be grabbed via a video camera. The accuracy of radiotherapy treatment is verified by comparing port films with the original radiographic planning film, which is previously digitized and stored. Moving the port film on the light box while viewing the real-time subtraction image allows for adjustments of zoom, translation and rotation, together with contrast and edge enhancement

  1. The Raptor Real-Time Processing Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, M.; Starr, D.; Wozniak, P.; Brozdin, K.

    The primary goal of Raptor is ambitious: to identify interesting optical transients from very wide field of view telescopes in real time, and then to quickly point the higher resolution Raptor ``fovea'' cameras and spectrometer to the location of the optical transient. The most interesting of Raptor's many applications is the real-time search for orphan optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts. The sequence of steps (data acquisition, basic calibration, source extraction, astrometry, relative photometry, the smarts of transient identification and elimination of false positives, telescope pointing feedback, etc.) is implemented with a ``component'' approach. All basic elements of the pipeline functionality have been written from scratch or adapted (as in the case of SExtractor for source extraction) to form a consistent modern API operating on memory resident images and source lists. The result is a pipeline which meets our real-time requirements and which can easily operate as a monolithic or distributed processing system. Finally, the Raptor architecture is entirely based on free software (sometimes referred to as ``open source'' software). In this paper we also discuss the interplay between various free software technologies in this type of astronomical problem.

  2. The third oil price surge. What's different this time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesicki, Fabian

    2010-01-01

    The period from 2003 to 2008 was marked by an oil price increase comparable to the two oil price crises in the 1970s. This paper looks in detail at the situation of the oil price crises 30 years ago and compares them along various aspects on the demand and supply side with the recent price increase to identify similarities and differences. While both oil price crises in 1973 and 1979/1980 were ultimately caused by supply actions of members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), all three oil price crises were preceded by high demand growth. Other aspects that favoured a high oil price in all three cases were low investments in new oil fields, as a consequence low spare capacity, and a weak US dollar. In addition, the recent oil price surge has been characterised by a high global refinery utilisation and refineries that did not adapt fast enough to the rising demand for lighter oil products. Moreover, broader geopolitical uncertainties, combined with risks associated with the oil trade helped push the oil price into a triple-digit zone. Speculation played only a limited and temporary role in accelerating price movements during the recent price increase. (author)

  3. A stochastic model for stationary dynamics of prices in real estate markets. A case of random intensity for Poisson moments of prices changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, Oleg; Laskin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    We consider a stochastic model of changes of prices in real estate markets. We suppose that in a book of prices the changes happen in points of jumps of a Poisson process with a random intensity, i.e. moments of changes sequently follow to a random process of the Cox process type. We calculate cumulative mathematical expectations and variances for the random intensity of this point process. In the case that the process of random intensity is a martingale the cumulative variance has a linear grows. We statistically process a number of observations of real estate prices and accept hypotheses of a linear grows for estimations as well for cumulative average, as for cumulative variance both for input and output prises that are writing in the book of prises.

  4. Real-Time Thevenin Impedance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    2013-01-01

    operating state, and strict time constraints are difficult to adhere to as the complexity of the grid increases. Several suggested approaches for real-time stability assessment require Thevenin impedances to be determined for the observed system conditions. By combining matrix factorization, graph reduction......, and parallelization, we develop an algorithm for computing Thevenin impedances an order of magnitude faster than previous approaches. We test the factor-and-solve algorithm with data from several power grids of varying complexity, and we show how the algorithm allows realtime stability assessment of complex power...

  5. Analyzer of neutron flux in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Carrillo M, R.A.; Balderas, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    With base in the study of the real signals of neutron flux of instability events occurred in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant where the nucleus oscillation phenomena of the reactor are in the 0 to 2.5 Hz range, it has been seen the possibility about the development a surveillance and diagnostic equipment capable to analyze in real time the behavior of nucleus in this frequencies range. An important method for surveillance the stability of the reactor nucleus is the use of the Power spectral density which allows to determine the frequencies and amplitudes contained in the signals. It is used an instrument carried out by LabVIEW graphic programming with a data acquisition card of 16 channels which works at Windows 95/98 environment. (Author)

  6. Real-time fetal ECG system design using embedded microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Muddu, Harikrishna; Schinhaerl, Sebastian; Kumm, Martin; Zipf, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emphasis of this project lies in the development and evaluation of new robust and high fidelity fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) systems to determine the fetal heart rate (FHR). Recently several powerful algorithms have been suggested to improve the FECG fidelity. Until now it is unknown if these algorithms allow a real-time processing, can be used in mobile systems (low power), and which algorithm produces the best error rate for a given system configuration. In this work we have developed high performance, low power microprocessor-based biomedical systems that allow a fair comparison of proposed, state-of-the-art FECG algorithms. We will evaluate different soft-core microprocessors and compare these solutions to other commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardcore solutions in terms of price, size, power, and speed.

  7. The psychophysiology of real-time financial risk processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Andrew W; Repin, Dmitry V

    2002-04-01

    A longstanding controversy in economics and finance is whether financial markets are governed by rational forces or by emotional responses. We study the importance of emotion in the decision-making process of professional securities traders by measuring their physiological characteristics (e.g., skin conductance, blood volume pulse, etc.) during live trading sessions while simultaneously capturing real-time prices from which market events can be detected. In a sample of 10 traders, we find statistically significant differences in mean electrodermal responses during transient market events relative to no-event control periods, and statistically significant mean changes in cardiovascular variables during periods of heightened market volatility relative to normal-volatility control periods. We also observe significant differences in these physiological responses across the 10 traders that may be systematically related to the traders' levels of experience.

  8. REAL STOCK PRICES AND THE LONG-RUN MONEY DEMAND FUNCTION IN MALAYSIA: Evidence from Error Correction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziruddin Abdullah

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts the error correction model to empirically investigate the role of real stock prices in the long run-money demand in the Malaysian financial or money market for the period 1977: Q1-1997: Q2. Specifically, an attempt is made to check whether the real narrow money (M1/P is cointegrated with the selected variables like industrial production index (IPI, one-year T-Bill rates (TB12, and real stock prices (RSP. If a cointegration between the variables, i.e., the dependent and independent variables, is found to be the case, it may imply that there exists a long-run co-movement among these variables in the Malaysian money market. From the empirical results it is found that the cointegration between money demand and real stock prices (RSP is positive, implying that in the long run there is a positive association between real stock prices (RSP and demand for real narrow money (M1/P. The policy implication that can be extracted from this study is that an increase in stock prices is likely to necessitate an expansionary monetary policy to prevent nominal income or inflation target from undershooting.

  9. Real-time Tactical and Strategic Sales Management for Intelligent Agents Guided By Economic Regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M. Gini (Maria); A. Gupta (Alok); P. Schrater (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMany enterprises that participate in dynamic markets need to make product pricing and inventory resource utilization decisions in real-time. We describe a family of statistical models that address these needs by combining characterization of the economic environment with the ability to

  10. Real-Time Tactical and Strategic Sales Management for Intelligent Agents Guided by Economic Regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M. Gini (Maria); A. Gupta (Alok); P. Schrater (Paul)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMany enterprises that participate in dynamic markets need to make product pricing and inventory resource utilization decisions in real time. We describe a family of statistical models that addresses these needs by combining characterization of the economic environment with the ability to

  11. Enabling demand response by extending the European electricity markets with a real-time market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyeng, P.; Kok, K.; Pineda, S.; Grande, O.; Sprooten, J.; Hebb, B.; Nieuwenhout, F.

    2013-01-01

    The EcoGrid concept proposes to extend the current wholesale electricity market to allow participation of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and domestic end-consumers in system balancing. Taking advantage of the smart grid technology, the EcoGrid market publishes the real-time prices that entail

  12. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  13. Resource-Parameterized Timing Analysis of Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Legay, Axel; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    on a specic platform. For the same reason, a configuration of platforms cannot be independent from applications in most cases. This paper proposes a new analysis framework of real-time systems where an application and a platform can be analyzed in a fully independent way such that not only the application...

  14. Software Design Methods for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This module describes the concepts and methods used in the software design of real time systems . It outlines the characteristics of real time systems , describes...the role of software design in real time system development, surveys and compares some software design methods for real - time systems , and

  15. Real-time inextensible surgical thread simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lang; Liu, Qian

    2018-03-27

    This paper discusses a real-time simulation method of inextensible surgical thread based on the Cosserat rod theory using position-based dynamics (PBD). The method realizes stable twining and knotting of surgical thread while including inextensibility, bending, twisting and coupling effects. The Cosserat rod theory is used to model the nonlinear elastic behavior of surgical thread. The surgical thread model is solved with PBD to achieve a real-time, extremely stable simulation. Due to the one-dimensional linear structure of surgical thread, the direct solution of the distance constraint based on tridiagonal matrix algorithm is used to enhance stretching resistance in every constraint projection iteration. In addition, continuous collision detection and collision response guarantee a large time step and high performance. Furthermore, friction is integrated into the constraint projection process to stabilize the twining of multiple threads and complex contact situations. Through comparisons with existing methods, the surgical thread maintains constant length under large deformation after applying the direct distance constraint in our method. The twining and knotting of multiple threads correspond to stable solutions to contact and friction forces. A surgical suture scene is also modeled to demonstrate the practicality and simplicity of our method. Our method achieves stable and fast simulation of inextensible surgical thread. Benefiting from the unified particle framework, the rigid body, elastic rod, and soft body can be simultaneously simulated. The method is appropriate for applications in virtual surgery that require multiple dynamic bodies.

  16. Real-time applications of neural nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs

  17. Real-time applications of neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Real-time applications of neural nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas e.g. improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. In this paper, such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed

  19. Simultaneous real-time data collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klincsek, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of electronic test equipment which executes, supervises, and reports on various tests. This validation process uses computers to analyze test results and report conclusions. The test equipment consists of an electronics component and the data collection and reporting unit. The PC software, display screens, and real-time data-base are described. Pass-fail procedures and data replay are discussed. The OS2 operating system and Presentation Manager user interface system were used to create a highly interactive automated system. The system outputs are hardcopy printouts and MS DOS format files which may be used as input for other PC programs.

  20. Real-time PCR in virology

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Ian M.; Arden, Katherine E.; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of P...

  1. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  2. Real-time modeling of heat distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Li, Hongfei; Yarlanki, Srinivas

    2018-01-02

    Techniques for real-time modeling temperature distributions based on streaming sensor data are provided. In one aspect, a method for creating a three-dimensional temperature distribution model for a room having a floor and a ceiling is provided. The method includes the following steps. A ceiling temperature distribution in the room is determined. A floor temperature distribution in the room is determined. An interpolation between the ceiling temperature distribution and the floor temperature distribution is used to obtain the three-dimensional temperature distribution model for the room.

  3. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  4. A real-time Global Warming Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K; Allen, M R; Forster, P M; Otto, F E L; Mitchell, D M; Matthews, H D; Frame, D J

    2017-11-13

    We propose a simple real-time index of global human-induced warming and assess its robustness to uncertainties in climate forcing and short-term climate fluctuations. This index provides improved scientific context for temperature stabilisation targets and has the potential to decrease the volatility of climate policy. We quantify uncertainties arising from temperature observations, climate radiative forcings, internal variability and the model response. Our index and the associated rate of human-induced warming is compatible with a range of other more sophisticated methods to estimate the human contribution to observed global temperature change.

  5. General purpose computers in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    I see three main trends in the use of general purpose computers in real time. The first is more processing power. The second is the use of higher speed interconnects between computers (allowing more data to be delivered to the processors). The third is the use of larger programs running in the computers. Although there is still work that needs to be done, I believe that all indications are that the online need for general purpose computers should be available for the SCC and LHC machines. 2 figs

  6. Robust synthesis for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Traonouez, Luois-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Specification theories for real-time systems allow reasoning about interfaces and their implementation models, using a set of operators that includes satisfaction, refinement, logical and parallel composition. To make such theories applicable throughout the entire design process from an abstract...... of introducing small perturbations into formal models. We address this problem of robust implementations in timed specification theories. We first consider a fixed perturbation and study the robustness of timed specifications with respect to the operators of the theory. To this end we synthesize robust...... specification to an implementation, we need to reason about the possibility to effectively implement the theoretical specifications on physical systems, despite their limited precision. In the literature, this implementation problem has been linked to the robustness problem that analyzes the consequences...

  7. CONSIDERATIONS ON REAL TIME DATA WAREHOUSING (RTDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Bogdan DINU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The RTDW concept originated in the early 2000s. By that time, computing power had increased to a level that was allowing extraction of data collections for reporting purposes. Such collections were used almost in real time and at speeds nearly comparable to what an operation system was capable to deliver. The main idea will be to eliminate some of the components of the classic extraction process which is basically the most costly factor less time - consuming. We anticipate that the following factors will be decisive: elimination of batch-type processes [1], data compression techniques, data capture techniques, ability to keep in cache a large volume of data, parallel processing, and data mining algorithms that can adapt to such applications.

  8. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...... from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and may present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in both clinical and veterinarian settings....

  9. Price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The price terms in wheeling contracts very substantially, reflecting the differing conditions affecting the parties contracting for the service. These terms differ in the manner in which rates are calculated, the formulas used, and the philosophy underlying the accord. For example, and EEI study found that firm wheeling rates ranged from 20 cents to $1.612 per kilowatt per month. Nonfirm rates ranged from .15 mills to 5.25 mills per kilowatt-hour. The focus in this chapter is on cost-based rates, reflecting the fact that the vast majority of existing contracts are based on rate designs reflecting embedded costs. This situation may change in the future, but, for now, this fact can't be ignored

  10. Detecting Chaos from Agricultural Product Price Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the characteristics of agricultural product price volatility and trend forecasting are necessary to formulate and implement agricultural price control policies. Taking wholesale cabbage prices as an example, a multiple test methodology has been adopted to identify the nonlinearity, fractality, and chaos of the data. The approaches used include the R/S analysis, the BDS test, the power spectra, the recurrence plot, the largest Lyapunov exponent, the Kolmogorov entropy, and the correlation dimension. The results show that there is chaos in agricultural wholesale price data, which provides a good theoretical basis for selecting reasonable forecasting models as prediction techniques based on chaos theory can be applied to forecasting agricultural prices.

  11. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy.

  12. A real-time radiation mapping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoggins, W.A.; VanEtten, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype of a real-time radiation mapping system, Ranger, was developed to respond to an accident involving the release of plutonium for the Department of Energy's Accident Response Group. In 1987 Ranger demonstrated that it can provide an efficient method of monitoring large areas of land for radioactive contamination. With the experience gained from the operation of the prototype, the external computer and software are being upgraded in order to obtain a fully operational system. The new system uses the prototype's commercially available line-of-sight microwave system for determining position and the same radiation detection instruments. The data obtained from the radiation detection instrument(s) are linked back to the external computer along with the relative position of the measurement through the ranging system. The data are displayed on a gridded map as colored circles and permanently stored in real-time. The different colors represent different contamination levels. Contours can be drawn using the permanently stored data. 4 figs

  13. Real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Choi, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    EPRI has produced a real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system. This system is called SMART ChemWorks and is based on the EPRI ChemWorks codes. System models, chemistry parameter relationships and diagnostic approaches from these codes are integrated with real time data collection, an intelligence engine and Internet technologies to allow for automated analysis of system chemistry. Significant data management capabilities are also included which allow the user to evaluate data and create automated reporting. Additional features have been added to the system in recent years including tracking and evaluation of primary chemistry as well as the calculation and tracking of primary to secondary leakage in PWRs. This system performs virtual sensing, identifies normal and upset conditions, and evaluates the consistency of on-line monitor and grab sample readings. The system also makes use of virtual fingerprinting to identify the cause of any chemistry upsets. This technology employs plant-specific data and models to determine the chemical state of the steam cycle. (authors)

  14. Interfacing real-time information with OILMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Spaulding, M.

    1993-01-01

    OILMAP is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based oil spill response system applicable to oil spill contingency planning and real-time response for any location in the world. OILMAP has a graphic user interface and was designed in a modular framework so that different spill models could be incorporated into the system, as well as a suite of sophisticated data management tools, without increasing the complexity of the user interface. The basic OILMAP configuration contains a surface trajectory model intended for rapid, first-order estimates of spill movement. A variety of additional models are available within the OILMAP shell to address issues such as weathering, cleanup activities, and probabilities of oiling. A simplified geographic information system (GIS) allows display and manipulation of point, line, and area data geographically referenced to the spill domain. The GIS can import raster data so that images collected by satellite and aerial photography may be displayed. Several new capabilities have been implemented for OILMAP that allow real-time data to be integrated. These features include linking with the OILTRACKER free-floating buoys via a global positioning system, linking of hydrodynamic data from the Ocean Data and Information Network, the Harvard ocean forecasting system, and SeaSonde radar, and the capability of importing spill observations from any remotely sensed data. A further link between OILMAP's GIS and spill models has been developed which allows model predictions to be corrected to observed oil locations while the model runs. 13 refs., 6 figs

  15. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  16. Operational and real-time Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ioana SANDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component of a company’s IT framework is a business intelligence (BI system. BI enables business users to report on, analyze and optimize business operations to reduce costs and increase revenues. Organizations use BI for strategic and tactical decision making where the decision-making cycle may span a time period of several weeks (e.g., campaign management or months (e.g., improving customer satisfaction.Competitive pressures coming from a very dynamic business environment are forcing companies to react faster to changing business conditions and customer requirements. As a result, there is now a need to use BI to help drive and optimize business operations on a daily basis, and, in some cases, even for intraday decision making. This type of BI is usually called operational business intelligence and real-time business intelligence.

  17. Real time ray tracing based on shader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, JiangHeng; Li, Min

    2017-07-01

    Ray tracing is a rendering algorithm for generating an image through tracing lights into an image plane, it can simulate complicate optical phenomenon like refraction, depth of field and motion blur. Compared with rasterization, ray tracing can achieve more realistic rendering result, however with greater computational cost, simple scene rendering can consume tons of time. With the GPU's performance improvement and the advent of programmable rendering pipeline, complicated algorithm can also be implemented directly on shader. So, this paper proposes a new method that implement ray tracing directly on fragment shader, mainly include: surface intersection, importance sampling and progressive rendering. With the help of GPU's powerful throughput capability, it can implement real time rendering of simple scene.

  18. Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2009-01-01

    Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.

  19. Real-time rockmass response from microseismics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew King; Michael Lofgren; Matt van de Werken [CSIRO Exploration and Mining (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a prototype real-time microseismic monitoring system for strata control management and forewarning of geotechnical hazards. Power and communications problems have been addressed by developing a wirelessly connected network of solar-powered acquisition nodes, one at the top of each instrumented borehole. The open-source 'earthworm' earthquake acquisition software, which can run on different hardware platforms and use different acquisition cards, was modified for use in a coal environment by developing special new arrival-picking and event-location procedures. The system was field-trialled at Moranbah North mine. The acquisition software performed well, as did wireless communications and solar power. There were issues with the acquisition hardware selected, including problems with timing synchronisation, which is essential for seismic event location. Although these were fixed during the test, different hardware is likely to be used in future installations.

  20. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, K C

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  1. Real Time Monitor of Grid job executions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colling, D J; Martyniak, J; McGough, A S; Krenek, A; Sitera, J; Mulac, M; Dvorak, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and operation of the Real Time Monitor (RTM), developed by the Grid team in the HEP group at Imperial College London. This is arguably the most popular dissemination tool within the EGEE [1] Grid. Having been used, on many occasions including GridFest and LHC inauguration events held at CERN in October 2008. The RTM gathers information from EGEE sites hosting Logging and Bookkeeping (LB) services. Information is cached locally at a dedicated server at Imperial College London and made available for clients to use in near real time. The system consists of three main components: the RTM server, enquirer and an apache Web Server which is queried by clients. The RTM server queries the LB servers at fixed time intervals, collecting job related information and storing this in a local database. Job related data includes not only job state (i.e. Scheduled, Waiting, Running or Done) along with timing information but also other attributes such as Virtual Organization and Computing Element (CE) queue - if known. The job data stored in the RTM database is read by the enquirer every minute and converted to an XML format which is stored on a Web Server. This decouples the RTM server database from the client removing the bottleneck problem caused by many clients simultaneously accessing the database. This information can be visualized through either a 2D or 3D Java based client with live job data either being overlaid on to a 2 dimensional map of the world or rendered in 3 dimensions over a globe map using OpenGL.

  2. An ill-posed problem for the Black-Scholes equation for a profitable forecast of prices of stock options on real market data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanov, Michael V.; Kuzhuget, Andrey V.; Golubnichiy, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    A new empirical mathematical model for the Black-Scholes equation is proposed to forecast option prices. This model includes new interval for the price of the underlying stock, new initial and new boundary conditions. Conventional notions of maturity time and strike prices are not used. The Black-Scholes equation is solved as a parabolic equation with the reversed time, which is an ill-posed problem. Thus, a regularization method is used to solve it. To verify the validity of our model, real market data for 368 randomly selected liquid options are used. A new trading strategy is proposed. Our results indicates that our method is profitable on those options. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of two simple extrapolation-based techniques is much worse. We conjecture that our method might lead to significant profits of those financial insitutions which trade large amounts of options. We caution, however, that further studies are necessary to verify this conjecture.

  3. Implementing Run-Time Evaluation of Distributed Timing Constraints in a Real-Time Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C. H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing run-time evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time environments......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing run-time evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time environments...

  4. Optimal Load Response to Time-of-Use Power Price for Demand Side Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    -of-use power price for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. 3 typical different kinds of loads (industrial load, residential load and commercial load) in Denmark are chosen as study cases. The energy costs decrease up to 9.6% with optimal load response to time......-of-use power price for different loads. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to time-of-use power price for demand side management generates different load profiles and reduces the load peaks. This kind of load patterns may also have significant effects on the power system normal operation.......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents a load optimization method to time...

  5. REAL TIME SPEED ESTIMATION FROM MONOCULAR VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Temiz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed studies have been performed for developing a real time system to be used for surveillance of the traffic flow by using monocular video cameras to find speeds of the vehicles for secure travelling are presented. We assume that the studied road segment is planar and straight, the camera is tilted downward a bridge and the length of one line segment in the image is known. In order to estimate the speed of a moving vehicle from a video camera, rectification of video images is performed to eliminate the perspective effects and then the interest region namely the ROI is determined for tracking the vehicles. Velocity vectors of a sufficient number of reference points are identified on the image of the vehicle from each video frame. For this purpose sufficient number of points from the vehicle is selected, and these points must be accurately tracked on at least two successive video frames. In the second step, by using the displacement vectors of the tracked points and passed time, the velocity vectors of those points are computed. Computed velocity vectors are defined in the video image coordinate system and displacement vectors are measured by the means of pixel units. Then the magnitudes of the computed vectors in the image space are transformed to the object space to find the absolute values of these magnitudes. The accuracy of the estimated speed is approximately ±1 – 2 km/h. In order to solve the real time speed estimation problem, the authors have written a software system in C++ programming language. This software system has been used for all of the computations and test applications.

  6. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Kawchuk

    Full Text Available Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  7. Implementing GIS in real estate price prediction and mass valuation: the case study of Nicosia District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiorkas, Charalambos; Dimopoulos, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    When the European Commission, International Monetary Fund and European Central Bank arrived in Cyprus to assist for a sustainable solution on the crisis on the banking sector, one of the first things they ordered was a New General Valuation (a mass appraisal that would revalue all properties in Cyprus as on 1st of January 2013), that it would be used for taxation purposes. The above indicates the importance of property mass appraising tools. This task was successfully conducted by the Department of Lands and Surveys. Authors aim to move a step further and implement the use of GIS and GWR techniques to improve the results of the New General Valuation. On a sample of comparative evidences for flats in Nicosia District, GIS was used to measure the impact of spatial attributes on real estate prices and to construct a prediction model in terms of spatially estimating apartment values. In addition to the structural property characteristics, some spatial attributes (landmarks) were also analysed to assess their contribution on the prices of the apartments, including the Central Business District (CBD), schools and universities, as well as the major city roads and the restricted zone that divides the country into two parts; the occupied by Turkish area and the Greek area. The values of the spatial attributes, or locational characteristics, were determined by employing GIS, considering an established model of multicriteria analysis. The price prediction model was analysed using the OLS method and calibrated based on the GWR method. The results of the statistic process indicate an accuracy of 81.34%, showing better performance than the mass valuation system applied by the Department of Land and Surveys in Cyprus with accuracy of 66.76%. This approach suggests that GIS systems are fundamentally important in mass valuation procedures in order to identify the spatial pattern of the attributes, provided that the database is comprised by a sufficient number of comparable

  8. Real time biometric surveillance with gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Subasish; Swain, Anisha; Das, Manaswini; Mohanty, Subhadarshini

    2018-04-01

    Bio metric surveillance has become indispensable for every system in the recent years. The contribution of bio metric authentication, identification, and screening purposes are widely used in various domains for preventing unauthorized access. A large amount of data needs to be updated, segregated and safeguarded from malicious software and misuse. Bio metrics is the intrinsic characteristics of each individual. Recently fingerprints, iris, passwords, unique keys, and cards are commonly used for authentication purposes. These methods have various issues related to security and confidentiality. These systems are not yet automated to provide the safety and security. The gait recognition system is the alternative for overcoming the drawbacks of the recent bio metric based authentication systems. Gait recognition is newer as it hasn't been implemented in the real-world scenario so far. This is an un-intrusive system that requires no knowledge or co-operation of the subject. Gait is a unique behavioral characteristic of every human being which is hard to imitate. The walking style of an individual teamed with the orientation of joints in the skeletal structure and inclinations between them imparts the unique characteristic. A person can alter one's own external appearance but not skeletal structure. These are real-time, automatic systems that can even process low-resolution images and video frames. In this paper, we have proposed a gait recognition system and compared the performance with conventional bio metric identification systems.

  9. Spying on real-time computers to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taff, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The sampled program-counter histogram, an established technique for shortening the execution times of programs, is described for a real-time computer. The use of a real-time clock allows particularly easy implementation. (Auth.)

  10. RTMOD: Real-Time MODel evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G; Galmarini, S.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 - 1999 RTMOD project is a system based on an automated statistical evaluation for the inter-comparison of real-time forecasts produced by long-range atmospheric dispersion models for national nuclear emergency predictions of cross-boundary consequences. The background of RTMOD was the 1994 ETEX project that involved about 50 models run in several Institutes around the world to simulate two real tracer releases involving a large part of the European territory. In the preliminary phase of ETEX, three dry runs (i.e. simulations in real-time of fictitious releases) were carried out. At that time, the World Wide Web was not available to all the exercise participants, and plume predictions were therefore submitted to JRC-Ispra by fax and regular mail for subsequent processing. The rapid development of the World Wide Web in the second half of the nineties, together with the experience gained during the ETEX exercises suggested the development of this project. RTMOD featured a web-based user-friendly interface for data submission and an interactive program module for displaying, intercomparison and analysis of the forecasts. RTMOD has focussed on model intercomparison of concentration predictions at the nodes of a regular grid with 0.5 degrees of resolution both in latitude and in longitude, the domain grid extending from 5W to 40E and 40N to 65N. Hypothetical releases were notified around the world to the 28 model forecasters via the web on a one-day warning in advance. They then accessed the RTMOD web page for detailed information on the actual release, and as soon as possible they then uploaded their predictions to the RTMOD server and could soon after start their inter-comparison analysis with other modelers. When additional forecast data arrived, already existing statistical results would be recalculated to include the influence by all available predictions. The new web-based RTMOD concept has proven useful as a practical decision-making tool for realtime

  11. UPPAAL-SMC: Statistical Model Checking for Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    on a series of extensions of the statistical model checking approach generalized to handle real-time systems and estimate undecidable problems. U PPAAL - SMC comes together with a friendly user interface that allows a user to specify complex problems in an efficient manner as well as to get feedback...... in the form of probability distributions and compare probabilities to analyze performance aspects of systems. The focus of the survey is on the evolution of the tool – including modeling and specification formalisms as well as techniques applied – together with applications of the tool to case studies....

  12. Real-time ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Gopichand; Nair, Satish; Liu, Harry; Brown, Lawrence M.

    1996-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing techniques are currently used as an alternative to radiography for detecting, classifying,and sizing weld defects, and for evaluating weld quality. Typically, ultrasonic weld inspections are performed manually, which require significant operator expertise and time. Thus, in recent years, the emphasis is to develop automated methods to aid or replace operators in critical weld inspections where inspection time, reliability, and operator safety are major issues. During this period, significant advances wee made in the areas of weld defect classification and sizing. Very few of these methods, however have found their way into the market, largely due to the lack of an integrated approach enabling real-time implementation. Also, not much research effort was directed in improving weld acceptance criteria. This paper presents an integrated system utilizing state-of-the-art techniques for a complete automation of the weld inspection procedure. The modules discussed include transducer tracking, classification, sizing, and weld acceptance criteria. Transducer tracking was studied by experimentally evaluating sonic and optical position tracking techniques. Details for this evaluation are presented. Classification is obtained using a multi-layer perceptron. Results from different feature extraction schemes, including a new method based on a combination of time and frequency-domain signal representations are given. Algorithms developed to automate defect registration and sizing are discussed. A fuzzy-logic acceptance criteria for weld acceptance is presented describing how this scheme provides improved robustness compared to the traditional flow-diagram standards.

  13. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  14. Performance evaluation of real time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Saravanan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The Real Time Radiography (RTR) system can be studied completely by knowing the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the whole system. The MTF curve is a special form of contrast/detail-size diagram in which the image contrast is plotted against the spatial frequency of a test object measured in line-pairs per millimetre (lp/mm). MTF curves are widely used to measure the characteristics of optical equipment, particularly for assessing the contribution of individual items in a complex imaging transfer system. Codes of practice indicate that the image intensifier systems should be checked periodically to assess its performance through the use of MTF curves and step wedges for contrast ratio. Authors, instead, suggest the use of performance curves which are simple to obtain and can be easily interpreted by radiographers. (author)

  15. Optimal, real-time control--colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1991-05-01

    With reasonable definitions, optimal control is possible for both classical and quantal systems with new approaches called PISC(Parallel) and NISC(Neural) from analogy with RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing). If control equals interaction, observation and comparison to some figure of merit with interaction via external fields, then optimization comes from varying these fields to give design or operating goals. Structural stability can then give us tolerance and design constraints. But simulations use simplified models, are not in real-time and assume fixed or stationary conditions, so optimal control goes far beyond convergence rates of algorithms. It is inseparable from design and this has many implications for colliders. 12 refs., 3 figs

  16. Development of the real time monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Tadashi; Kaburaki, Hideo

    1996-10-01

    Large-scale simulation technique is studied at the Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering (CCSE) for the computational science research in nuclear fields. Visualization and animation processing technique are studied and developed for efficient understanding of simulation results. The real time monitor system, in which on-going simulation results are transferred from a supercomputer or workstation to a graphic workstation and are visualized and recorded, is described in this report. This system is composed of the graphic workstation and the video equipment connected to the network. The control shell programs are the job-execution shell for simulations on supercomputers, the file-transfer shell for output files for visualization, and the shell for starting visualization tools. Special image processing technique and hardware are not necessary in this system and the standard visualization tool AVS and the UNIX commands are used, so that this system can be implemented and applied in various computer environments. (author)

  17. Real-time Human Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albukhary, N.; Mustafah, Y. M.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional Closed-circuit Television (CCTV) system requires human to monitor the CCTV for 24/7 which is inefficient and costly. Therefore, there’s a need for a system which can recognize human activity effectively in real-time. This paper concentrates on recognizing simple activity such as walking, running, sitting, standing and landing by using image processing techniques. Firstly, object detection is done by using background subtraction to detect moving object. Then, object tracking and object classification are constructed so that different person can be differentiated by using feature detection. Geometrical attributes of tracked object, which are centroid and aspect ratio of identified tracked are manipulated so that simple activity can be detected.

  18. The RHIC real time data link system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.

    1997-01-01

    The RHIC Real Time Data Link (RTDL) System distributes to all locations around the RHIC ring machine parameters of general interest to accelerator systems and users. The system, along with supporting host interface, is centrally located. The RTDL System is comprised of two module types: the Encoder Module (V105) and the Input Module (V106). There is only one V105 module, but many (up to 128) Input Modules. Multiple buffered outputs are provided for use locally or for retransmission to other RHIC equipment locations. Machine parameters are generated from the V115 Waveform Generator Module (WFG) or from machine hardware and coupled directly through a fiber optic serial link to one of the V106 input channels

  19. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES (11505)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  20. A distributed real-time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuynman, F.; Hertzberger, L.O.

    1984-07-01

    A distributed real-time operating system, Fados, has been developed for an embedded multi-processor system. The operating system is based on a host target approach and provides for communication between arbitrary processes on host and target machine. The facilities offered are, apart from process communication, access to the file system on the host by programs on the target machine and monitoring and debugging of programs on the target machine from the host. The process communication has been designed in such a way that the possibilities are the same as those offered by the Ada programming language. The operating system is implemented on a MC 68000 based multiprocessor system in combination with a Unix host. (orig.)

  1. Recovery of time-dependent volatility in option pricing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zui-Cha; Hon, Y. C.; Isakov, V.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we investigate an inverse problem of determining the time-dependent volatility from observed market prices of options with different strikes. Due to the non linearity and sparsity of observations, an analytical solution to the problem is generally not available. Numerical approximation is also difficult to obtain using most of the existing numerical algorithms. Based on our recent theoretical results, we apply the linearisation technique to convert the problem into an inverse source problem from which recovery of the unknown volatility function can be achieved. Two kinds of strategies, namely, the integral equation method and the Landweber iterations, are adopted to obtain the stable numerical solution to the inverse problem. Both theoretical analysis and numerical examples confirm that the proposed approaches are effective. The work described in this paper was partially supported by a grant from the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Project No. CityU 101112) and grants from the NNSF of China (Nos. 11261029, 11461039), and NSF grants DMS 10-08902 and 15-14886 and by Emylou Keith and Betty Dutcher Distinguished Professorship at the Wichita State University (USA).

  2. Real Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K.; Kato, T.

    2003-12-01

    An early earthquake notification system in Japan had been developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) as a governmental organization responsible for issuing earthquake information and tsunami forecasts. The system was primarily developed for prompt provision of a tsunami forecast to the public with locating an earthquake and estimating its magnitude as quickly as possible. Years after, a system for a prompt provision of seismic intensity information as indices of degrees of disasters caused by strong ground motion was also developed so that concerned governmental organizations can decide whether it was necessary for them to launch emergency response or not. At present, JMA issues the following kinds of information successively when a large earthquake occurs. 1) Prompt report of occurrence of a large earthquake and major seismic intensities caused by the earthquake in about two minutes after the earthquake occurrence. 2) Tsunami forecast in around three minutes. 3) Information on expected arrival times and maximum heights of tsunami waves in around five minutes. 4) Information on a hypocenter and a magnitude of the earthquake, the seismic intensity at each observation station, the times of high tides in addition to the expected tsunami arrival times in 5-7 minutes. To issue information above, JMA has established; - An advanced nationwide seismic network with about 180 stations for seismic wave observation and about 3,400 stations for instrumental seismic intensity observation including about 2,800 seismic intensity stations maintained by local governments, - Data telemetry networks via landlines and partly via a satellite communication link, - Real-time data processing techniques, for example, the automatic calculation of earthquake location and magnitude, the database driven method for quantitative tsunami estimation, and - Dissemination networks, via computer-to-computer communications and facsimile through dedicated telephone lines. JMA operationally

  3. Application of XML in real-time data warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Wang, Beizhan; Liu, Lizhao; Ye, Su

    2009-07-01

    At present, XML is one of the most widely-used technologies of data-describing and data-exchanging, and the needs for real-time data make real-time data warehouse a popular area in the research of data warehouse. What effects can we have if we apply XML technology to the research of real-time data warehouse? XML technology solves many technologic problems which are impossible to be addressed in traditional real-time data warehouse, and realize the integration of OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing) and OLTP (Online transaction processing) environment. Then real-time data warehouse can truly be called "real time".

  4. Advanced real-time manipulation of video streams

    CERN Document Server

    Herling, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.

  5. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  6. The Fast Tracker Real Time Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to the SLHC Phase I level and beyond, the high rates, multiplicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the physics we are most interested in, and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK)[1], is a proposed upgrade to the current ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK solves the combinatorial challenge inherent to tracking by exploiting massive parallelism of associative memories [2] that ...

  7. Real-time scheduling of software tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, L.T.

    1995-01-01

    When designing real-time systems, it is often desirable to schedule execution of software tasks based on the occurrence of events. The events may be clock ticks, interrupts from a hardware device, or software signals from other software tasks. If the nature of the events, is well understood, this scheduling is normally a static part of the system design. If the nature of the events is not completely understood, or is expected to change over time, it may be necessary to provide a mechanism for adjusting the scheduling of the software tasks. RHIC front-end computers (FECs) provide such a mechanism. The goals in designing this mechanism were to be as independent as possible of the underlying operating system, to allow for future expansion of the mechanism to handle new types of events, and to allow easy configuration. Some considerations which steered the design were programming paradigm (object oriented vs. procedural), programming language, and whether events are merely interesting moments in time, or whether they intrinsically have data associated with them. The design also needed to address performance and robustness tradeoffs involving shared task contexts, task priorities, and use of interrupt service routine (ISR) contexts vs. task contexts. This paper will explore these considerations and tradeoffs

  8. Immigration, Real Estate Prices and the Consumption Decisions of Native Households

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Zeno; Blickle, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Since house prices govern the consumption decisions of renters and owners alike, changing house prices can have far-reaching macroeconomic consequences. We analyze how the disposable income and consumption decisions of households are affected by exogenous house price changes in Switzerland. We look at consumption of both housing and non-durable goods to establish a comprehensive picture. We ensure that our house price variation is exogenous by instrumenting house prices with origin-shift immi...

  9. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  10. On Real-Time Systems Using Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    87-35 July, 1987 CS-TR-1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks*I VShem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit...1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks* Shem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit Department of Computer Science...constraints and the clock systems that feed the time to real - time systems . A model for real-time system based on LAN communication is presented in

  11. Approaching near real-time biosensing: microfluidic microsphere based biosensor for real-time analyte detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noa; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Golberg, Alexander; Konry, Tania

    2015-04-15

    In this study we describe a simple lab-on-a-chip (LOC) biosensor approach utilizing well mixed microfluidic device and a microsphere-based assay capable of performing near real-time diagnostics of clinically relevant analytes such cytokines and antibodies. We were able to overcome the adsorption kinetics reaction rate-limiting mechanism, which is diffusion-controlled in standard immunoassays, by introducing the microsphere-based assay into well-mixed yet simple microfluidic device with turbulent flow profiles in the reaction regions. The integrated microsphere-based LOC device performs dynamic detection of the analyte in minimal amount of biological specimen by continuously sampling micro-liter volumes of sample per minute to detect dynamic changes in target analyte concentration. Furthermore we developed a mathematical model for the well-mixed reaction to describe the near real time detection mechanism observed in the developed LOC method. To demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed real time monitoring LOC approach, we applied the device for clinically relevant analytes: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokine and its clinically used inhibitor, anti-TNF-α antibody. Based on the reported results herein, the developed LOC device provides continuous sensitive and specific near real-time monitoring method for analytes such as cytokines and antibodies, reduces reagent volumes by nearly three orders of magnitude as well as eliminates the washing steps required by standard immunoassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using time series structural characteristics to analyze grain prices in food insecure countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Frank; Funk, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Two components of food security monitoring are accurate forecasts of local grain prices and the ability to identify unusual price behavior. We evaluated a method that can both facilitate forecasts of cross-country grain price data and identify dissimilarities in price behavior across multiple markets. This method, characteristic based clustering (CBC), identifies similarities in multiple time series based on structural characteristics in the data. Here, we conducted a simulation experiment to determine if CBC can be used to improve the accuracy of maize price forecasts. We then compared forecast accuracies among clustered and non-clustered price series over a rolling time horizon. We found that the accuracy of forecasts on clusters of time series were equal to or worse than forecasts based on individual time series. However, in the following experiment we found that CBC was still useful for price analysis. We used the clusters to explore the similarity of price behavior among Kenyan maize markets. We found that price behavior in the isolated markets of Mandera and Marsabit has become increasingly dissimilar from markets in other Kenyan cities, and that these dissimilarities could not be explained solely by geographic distance. The structural isolation of Mandera and Marsabit that we find in this paper is supported by field studies on food security and market integration in Kenya. Our results suggest that a market with a unique price series (as measured by structural characteristics that differ from neighboring markets) may lack market integration and food security.

  13. Business Hypervisors for Real-time Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perneel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available System virtualization is one of the hottest trends in information technology today. It is not just another nice to use technology but has become fundamental across the business world. It is successfully used with many business application classes where cloud computing is the most visual one. Recently, it started to be used for soft Real-Time (RT applications such as IP telephony, media servers, audio and video streaming servers, automotive and communication systems in general. Running these applications on a traditional system (Hardware + Operating System guarantee their Quality of Service (QoS; virtualizing them means inserting a new layer between the hardware and the (virtual Operating System (OS, and thus adding extra overhead. Although these applications’ areas do not always demand hard time guarantees, they require the underlying virtualization layer supports low latency and provide adequate computational resources for completion within a reasonable or predictable timeframe. These aspects are intimately intertwined with the logic of the hypervisor scheduler. In this paper, a series of tests are conducted on three hypervisors (VMware ESXi, Hyper-V server and Xen to provide a benchmark of the latencies added to the applications running on top of them. These tests are conducted for different scenarios (use cases to take into consideration all the parameters and configurations of the hypervisors’ schedulers. Finally, this benchmark can be used as a reference for choosing the best hypervisor-application combination.

  14. Market News Price Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Real-time price data collected by the Boston Market News Reporter. The NOAA Fisheries' "Fishery Market News" began operations in New York City on February 14, 1938....

  15. Real time measurement of air radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Craciunescu, T.; Teles, S.

    1998-01-01

    A Local Meteorological and Radiological Monitoring System was developed in our institute for several purposes: local monitoring, extending our experience in other location such as Cernavoda NPP and research. This system has meteorological sensors for wind speed and direction, air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, rainfall, dose ratemeter (Geiger-Muller counter - TIEX), Alpha-Beta Activity-in-Air Monitor (AB96), Iodine Monitor and Eberline Intelligent Ionization Chamber (FHT 6010). All data are collected by a programmable interface Delta-T Logger that is controlled by a software (ODAS - 'On-line Data Acquisition Software'). ODAS was developed in IFIN-HH. It has the capability to acquire, calculate and transmit real meteorological and radiological data through local network. The developed software controls the interface, the flux of input data through the serial port RS232 and after some processing (system, configuration, input data, connection to the network checking, etc) it creates data files. These files are transmitted on-line to our workstation or in any other place connected to Internet. Data can be collected from the logger at any time during logging. There is no need to stop logging. Data output from the logger can be controlled either from the logger's keypad or from other user terminals. ODAS is operated as follows: - First, the last written file and the date-time of acquired readings are checked. For establishing communication with logger a RS232 level signal must be sent to it. The logger wakes if asleep and sends back RDY signal. Powering the logger may take up to 100 ms to establish a correct RS232 level. Noise on the output lines occurs during this period and communication software may need to take into account such spurious signals. A command must be sent to the logger within 2 s to confirm that the last signal received is real and not spurious. Otherwise, the logger interprets the signal as noise and sleeps. The software sends further

  16. Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) addresses the future safety need for Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) in aviation and progressively...

  17. Specification and Automated Verification of Real-Time Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Andersen, J.H.; Skou, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties.......In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties....

  18. Specification and Automated Verification of Real-Time Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.H.; Kristensen, C.H.; Skou, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties.......In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties....

  19. Internet-accessible real-time weather information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Gouveia, A.D.

    An internet-accessible real-time weather information system has been developed. This system provides real-time accessibility to weather information from a multitude of spatially distributed weather stations. The Internet connectivity also offers...

  20. An integrated technique for developing real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooman, J.J.M.; Vain, J.

    1995-01-01

    The integration of conceptual modeling techniques, formal specification, and compositional verification is considered for real time systems within the knowledge engineering context. We define constructive transformations from a conceptual meta model to a real time specification language and give

  1. Virtual timers in hierarchical real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Holenderski, M.J.; Cools, W.A.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from welldefined subsystems. This paper describes an approach to provide hierarchically scheduled real-time applications with virtual event timers, motivated by the need for integrating priority

  2. Real-time subway information for improving transit ridership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the standardization of transit schedule information has yielded a dramatic increase in the accessibility of computerized transit schedules and given rise to real-time service schedules. Two such real-time service schedules are the Ge...

  3. Improving Timeliness in Real-Time Secure Database Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Son, Sang H; David, Rasikan; Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition to real-time requirements, security is usually required in many applications. Multilevel security requirements introduce a new dimension to transaction processing in real-time database systems...

  4. Time is up: increasing shadow price of time in primary-care office visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai-Seale, Ming; McGuire, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    A physician's own time is a scarce resource in primary care, and the physician must constantly evaluate the gain from spending more time with the current patient against moving to address the health-care needs of the next. We formulate and test two alternative hypotheses. The first hypothesis is based on the premise that with time so scarce, physicians equalize the marginal value of time across patients. The second, alternative hypothesis states that physicians allocate the same time to each patient, regardless of how much the patient benefits from the time at the margin. For our empirical work, we examine the presence of a sharply increasing subjective shadow price of time around the 'target' time using video recordings of 385 visits by elderly patients to their primary care physician. We structure the data at the 'topic' level and find evidence consistent with the alternative hypothesis. Specifically, time elapsed within a visit is a very strong determinant of the current topic being the 'last topic'. This finding implies the physician's shadow price of time is rising during the course of a visit. We consider whether dislodging a target-time mentality from physicians (and patients) might contribute to more productive primary care practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Branch and price for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabia, Said; Dabia, Said; Van Woensel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    of column generation, and a tailored labeling algorithm is used to solve the pricing problem. We introduce new dominance criteria that allow more label dominance. For our numerical results, we modified Solomon's data sets by adding time dependency. Our algorithm is able to solve about 63% of the instances...... solution methods to the DM-TDVRPTW are based on (meta-)heuristics. The decomposition of an arc-based formulation leads to a setpartitioning problem as the master problem, and a time-dependent shortest path problem with resource constraints as the pricing problem. The master problem is solved by means...... with 25 customers, 38% of the instances with 50 customers, and 15% of the instances with 100 customers. © 2013 INFORMS....

  6. Orchestrating utility supply and demand in real-time via the Internet, home networks, and smart appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, R.F. III [Power Networks, Big Indian, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a model to illustrate the efficient coordination between the supply-side and demand-side of household electricity use and the magnitude of demand that can be managed using real-time pricing. In real-time supply and demand side management, a variable price for service is sent via Internet from the supply-side to the demand-side. The 3 benefits to this type of demand-side management are that traditional fossil-fuelled electrical capacity can operate less of the time and more efficiently; renewable electrical capacity such as wind and solar power can be put to use more efficiently when it becomes available; and additional means are available to protect the transmission and distribution infrastructure of the utility. A critical requirement is that pricing should change frequently throughout the day so that budget conscious consumers do not have to wait too long for favourable pricing to use their appliances. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Real balance effects, timing, and equilibrium determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenberg, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    By assuming that money balances at the beginning instead of at the end of the period provide transaction services, standard results on nominal and real determinacy in monetary models are overturned. The key is that predetermined real money balances can be a state variable. Whereas the determination

  8. Real-time heterogeneous video transcoding for low-power applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elarabi, Tarek; Bayoumi, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces a novel transcoding algorithm for real time video applications, designed to overcome inter-operability problems between MPEG-2 to H.264/AVC. The new algorithm achieves 92.8% reduction in the transcoding run time at a price of an acceptable Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) degradation, enabling readers to use it for real time video applications. The algorithm described is evaluated through simulation and experimental results. In addition, the authors present a hardware implementation of the new algorithm using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Application-specific standard products (ASIC).   • Describes a novel transcoding algorithm for real time video applications, designed to overcome inter-operability problems between H.264/AVC to MPEG-2; • Implements algorithm presented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Application-specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC); • Demonstrates the solution to real problems, with verification through simulation and experimental result...

  9. Energy efficient approach for transient fault recovery in real time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Keywords: DVS, Fault tolerance, Real Time System, Transient Fault. ... in which missing the deadline may cause a failure and soft real time system, ..... Pillai, P., Shin, K., Real-time dynamic voltage scaling for low-power embedded operating ...

  10. ClockWork: a Real-Time Feasibility Analysis Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Mullender, Sape J.

    ClockWork shows that we can improve the flexibility and efficiency of real-time kernels. We do this by proposing methods for scheduling based on so-called Real-Time Transactions. ClockWork uses Real-Time Transactions which allow scheduling decisions to be taken by the system. A programmer does not

  11. Temporal Specification and Verification of Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    of concrete real - time systems can be modeled adequately. Specification: We present two conservative extensions of temporal logic that allow for the...logic. We present both model-checking algorithms for the automatic verification of finite-state real - time systems and proof methods for the deductive verification of real - time systems .

  12. The Colliderscope: a real-time show

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-six LED lights distributed over the facade of the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Blegdamsvej (Denmark) reproduce the actual signals coming from the Transition Radiation Detector (TRT) in ATLAS. Thanks to the Colliderscope, when a collision occurs below the ground in Geneva, people passing by in Blegdamsvej will be aware of it almost in real-time.   Niels Bohr Institute facade lit up to reflect the latest data from ATLAS-TRT . The pattern, intensity and duration of the Colliderscope’s flashes of light depend on the physical parameters of particles crossing the ATLAS TRT detector. “At the Colliderscope very little happens randomly”, explains Troels Petersen, a physicist at NBI and one of the people who conceived it. “Particularly interesting events, such as electrons, are shown by a bright light that remains on the facade for several seconds”. The Niels Bohr Institute has participated in the development of the TRT detector, and this is why t...

  13. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  14. Real-time control of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation fusion experiments, e.g. ITER, will be highly complex and raise new challenges in the field of control and data acquisition systems. The more advanced operation scenarios have to be capable of sustaining long pulse steady-state plasma and to suppress plasma instabilities almost completely. Such scenarios will heavily rely on Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) fast control systems. To ensure safety for the operation these systems have to be robust and resilient to faults while ensuring high availability. Mindful of the importance of such features for future fusion experiments ATCA based systems have been successfully used in fusion experiment as MIMO fast controller. This is the most promising architecture to substantially enhance the performance and capability of existing standard systems delivering well high throughput as well as high availability. The real-time control needs of a fusion experiment, the rational for the presently pursued solutions, the existing problems and the broad scientific and technical questions that need to be addressed on the path to a fusion power plant will be discussed.

  15. Real-time petroleum spill detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakin, D.T.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time autonomous oil and fuel spill detection system has been developed to rapidly detect of a wide range of petroleum products floating on, or suspended in water. The system consists of an array of spill detection buoys distributed within the area to be monitored. The buoys are composed of a float and a multispectral fluorometer, which looks up through the top 5 cm of water to detect floating and suspended petroleum products. The buoys communicate to a base station computer that controls the sampling of the buoys and analyses the data from each buoy to determine if a spill has occurred. If statistically significant background petroleum levels are detected, the system raises an oil spill alarm. The system is useful because early detection of a marine oil spill allows for faster containment, thereby minimizing the contaminated area and reducing cleanup costs. This paper also provided test results for biofouling, various petroleum product detection, water turbidity and wave tolerance. The technology has been successfully demonstrated. The UV light source keeps the optic window free from biofouling, and the electronics are fully submerged so there is no risk that the unit could ignite the vapours of a potential oil spill. The system can also tolerate moderately turbid waters and can therefore be used in many rivers, harbours, water intakes and sumps. The system can detect petroleum products with an average thickness of less than 3 micrometers floating on the water surface. 3 refs., 15 figs

  16. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  17. Mobility and language change in real time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    Diachronic studies of the interrelationship between mobility and language change leave us with some unanswered questions of causation. The most important question is whether language change is caused by mobility, or if mobile informants mark themselves linguistically different than their non-mobi...... mobile and non-mobile informants. I also suggest a human geographic approach to place to explain the differences between the language change of the mobile informants (e.g. Britain 2009; Johnstone 2004).......Diachronic studies of the interrelationship between mobility and language change leave us with some unanswered questions of causation. The most important question is whether language change is caused by mobility, or if mobile informants mark themselves linguistically different than their non......-mobile peers prior to being geographically and socially mobile (e.g. Andersson & Thelander 1994). In the presentation I discuss this question by presenting a real time panel-study of language change in 23 speakers from three municipalities in distinct dialect areas in Denmark. The language change of six mobile...

  18. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  19. An improved real time superresolution FPGA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Mudigoudar, Basavaraj; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2009-05-01

    In numerous computer vision applications, enhancing the quality and resolution of captured video can be critical. Acquired video is often grainy and low quality due to motion, transmission bottlenecks, etc. Postprocessing can enhance it. Superresolution greatly decreases camera jitter to deliver a smooth, stabilized, high quality video. In this paper, we extend previous work on a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware. A gradient based technique is used to register the frames at the sub-pixel level. Once we get the high resolution grid, we use an improved regularization technique in which the image is iteratively modified by applying back-projection to get a sharp and undistorted image. The algorithm was first tested in software and migrated to hardware, to achieve 320x240 -> 1280x960, about 30 fps, a stunning superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Various input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as in FPGA hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The proposed system is robust and highly efficient. We have shown the performance improvement of the hardware superresolution over the software version (C code).

  20. Optimizing near real time accountability for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2010-01-01

    Near Real Time Accountability (NRTA) of actinides at high precision in reprocessing plants has been a long sought-after goal in the safeguards community. Achieving this goal is hampered by the difficulty of making precision measurements in the reprocessing environment, equipment cost, and impact to plant operations. Thus the design of future reprocessing plants requires an optimization of different approaches. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used to evaluate a number of NRTA strategies in a UREX+ reprocessing plant. Strategies examined include the incorporation of additional actinide measurements of internal plant vessels, more use of process monitoring data, and the option of periodic draining of inventory to key tanks. Preliminary results show that the addition of measurement technologies can increase the overall measurement uncertainty due to additional error propagation, so care must be taken when designing an advanced system. Initial results also show that relying on a combination of different NRTA techniques will likely be the best option. The model provides a platform for integrating all the data. The modeling results for the different NRTA options under various material loss conditions will be presented.

  1. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan M. M.; Sultana S.; Foo C.K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUI)operating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time e...

  2. Real or perceived impediments to minimum pricing of alcohol in Australia: public opinion, the industry and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Carragher, Natacha; Davoren, Sondra; O'Brien, Paula

    2013-11-01

    A burgeoning body of empirical evidence demonstrates that increases in the price of alcohol can reduce per capita alcohol consumption and harmful drinking. Taxes on alcohol can be raised to increase prices, but this strategy can be undermined if the industry absorbs the tax increase and cross-subsidises the price of one alcoholic beverage with other products. Such loss-leading strategies are not possible with minimum pricing. We argue that a minimum (or floor) price for alcohol should be used as a complement to alcohol taxation. Several jurisdictions have already introduced minimum pricing (e.g., Canada, Ukraine) and others are currently investigating pathways to introduce a floor price (e.g., Scotland). Tasked by the Australian government to examine the public interest case for a minimum price, Australia's peak preventative health agency recommended against setting one at the present time. The agency was concerned that there was insufficient Australian specific modelling evidence to make robust estimates of the net benefits. Nonetheless, its initial judgement was that it would be difficult for a minimum price to produce benefits for Australia at the national level. Whilst modelling evidence is certainly warranted to support the introduction of the policy, the development and uptake of policy is influenced by more than just empirical evidence. This article considers three potential impediments to minimum pricing: public opinion and misunderstandings or misgivings about the operation of a minimum price; the strength of alcohol industry objections and measures to undercut the minimum price through discounts and promotions; and legal obstacles including competition and trade law. The analysis of these factors is situated in an Australian context, but has salience internationally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stock price forecasting based on time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wan Le

    2018-05-01

    Using the historical stock price data to set up a sequence model to explain the intrinsic relationship of data, the future stock price can forecasted. The used models are auto-regressive model, moving-average model and autoregressive-movingaverage model. The original data sequence of unit root test was used to judge whether the original data sequence was stationary. The non-stationary original sequence as a first order difference needed further processing. Then the stability of the sequence difference was re-inspected. If it is still non-stationary, the second order differential processing of the sequence is carried out. Autocorrelation diagram and partial correlation diagram were used to evaluate the parameters of the identified ARMA model, including coefficients of the model and model order. Finally, the model was used to forecast the fitting of the shanghai composite index daily closing price with precision. Results showed that the non-stationary original data series was stationary after the second order difference. The forecast value of shanghai composite index daily closing price was closer to actual value, indicating that the ARMA model in the paper was a certain accuracy.

  4. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); Han, Soorim [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  5. Impact of speculator's expectations of returns and time scales of investment on crude oil price behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Based on time series of crude oil prices (daily spot), this paper analyses price fluctuation with two significant parameters τ (speculators' time scales of investment) and ε (speculators' expectations of return) by using Zipf analysis technique, specifically, by mapping τ-returns of prices into 3-alphabeted sequences (absolute frequencies) and 2-alphabeted sequences (relative frequencies), containing the fundamental information of price fluctuations. This paper empirically explores parameters and identifies various types of speculators' cognition patterns of price behavior. In order to quantify the degree of distortion, a feasible reference is proposed: an ideal speculator. Finally, this paper discusses the similarities and differences between those cognition patterns of speculators' and those of an ideal speculator. The resultant analyses identify the possible distortion of price behaviors by their patterns. (author)

  6. Integration of MDSplus in real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2006-01-01

    RFX-mod makes extensive usage of real-time systems for feedback control and uses MDSplus to interface them to the main Data Acquisition system. For this purpose, the core of MDSplus has been ported to VxWorks, the operating system used for real-time control in RFX. Using this approach, it is possible to integrate real-time systems, but MDSplus is used only for non-real-time tasks, i.e. those tasks which are executed before and after the pulse and whose performance does not affect the system time constraints. More extensive use of MDSplus in real-time systems is foreseen, and a real-time layer for MDSplus is under development, which will provide access to memory-mapped pulse files, shared by the tasks running on the same CPU. Real-time communication will also be integrated in the MDSplus core to provide support for distributed memory-mapped pulse files

  7. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUIoperating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based real-time kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium IIIbased system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical real-time system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  8. Real-time volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this brief review is to review the current status of real-time 3D scintillation dosimetry and what has been done so far in this area. The basic concept is to use a large volume of a scintillator material (liquid or solid) to measure or image the dose distributions from external radiation therapy (RT) beams in three dimensions. In this configuration, the scintillator material fulfills the dual role of being the detector and the phantom material in which the measurements are being performed. In this case, dose perturbations caused by the introduction of a detector within a phantom will not be at issue. All the detector configurations that have been conceived to date used a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera to measure the light produced within the scintillator. In order to accurately measure the scintillation light, one must correct for various optical artefacts that arise as the light propagates from the scintillating centers through the optical chain to the CCD chip. Quenching, defined in its simplest form as a nonlinear response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) charged particles, is one of the disadvantages when such systems are used to measure the absorbed dose from high-LET particles such protons. However, correction methods that restore the linear dose response through the whole proton range have been proven to be effective for both liquid and plastic scintillators. Volumetric scintillation dosimetry has the potential to provide fast, high-resolution and accurate 3D imaging of RT dose distributions. Further research is warranted to optimize the necessary image reconstruction methods and optical corrections needed to achieve its full potential

  9. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  10. Real-time data access layer for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; Luchetta, A.; Taliercio, C.; Fredian, T.; Stillerman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent extensions to MDSplus allow data handling in long discharges and provide a real-time data access and communication layer. The real-time data access layer is an additional component of MDSplus: it is possible to use the traditional MDSplus API during normal operation, and to select a subset of data items to be used in real time. Real-time notification is provided by a communication layer using a publish-subscribe pattern. The notification covers processes sharing the same data items even running on different machines, thus allowing the implementation of distributed control systems. The real-time data access layer has been developed for Windows, Linux, and VxWorks; it is currently being ported to Linux RTAI. In order to quantify the fingerprint of the presented system, the performance of the real-time access layer approach is compared with that of an ad hoc, manually optimized program in a sample real-time application

  11. Real Options in Capital Budgeting. Pricing the Option to Delay and the Option to Abandon a Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vintila

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional discounted cash-flows method for assessing projects assumes that investment decision is an irreversible one, which is not correct. Managers can and must reconsider their initial decision as the new information arises during the project life. This is managerial flexibility and it creates strategic value for a project, only if management takes advantage of the opportunities associated with an analyzed project. Real options represent a new approach in capital budgeting, using the theory of pricing financial options for investments in real assets. In this paper, we emphasize the characteristics and valuation methodologies of real options. The objective in the last section is pricing the option to delay and the option to abandon a project in construction materials field.

  12. Real-Time Wireless Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Emilio J.; Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Mata, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Current and future aerospace requirements demand the creation of a new breed of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors must possess a high degree of intelligence to provide critical data efficiently and in real-time. Intelligence will include self-calibration, self-health assessment, and pre-processing of raw data at the sensor level. Most of these features are already incorporated in the Wireless Sensors Network (SensorNet(TradeMark)), developed by the Instrumentation Group at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A system based on the SensorNet(TradeMark) architecture consists of data collection point(s) called Central Stations (CS) and intelligent sensors called Remote Stations (RS) where one or more CSs can be accommodated depending on the specific application. The CS's major function is to establish communications with the Remote Stations and to poll each RS for data and health information. The CS also collects, stores and distributes these data to the appropriate systems requiring the information. The system has the ability to perform point-to-point, multi-point and relay mode communications with an autonomous self-diagnosis of each communications link. Upon detection of a communication failure, the system automatically reconfigures to establish new communication paths. These communication paths are automatically and autonomously selected as the best paths by the system based on the existing operating environment. The data acquisition system currently under development at KSC consists of the SensorNet(TradeMark) wireless sensors as the remote stations and the central station called the Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN). The RFF1N is the central station which remotely communicates with the SensorNet(TradeMark) sensors to control them and to receive data. The system's salient feature is the ability to provide deterministic sensor data with accurate time stamps for both time critical and non-time

  13. Exponential Smoothing Approaches for Prediction in Real-Time Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tryggvi Jónsson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal design of offering strategies for wind power producers is commonly based on unconditional (and, hence, constant expectation values for prices in real-time markets, directly defining their loss function in a stochastic optimization framework. This is why it may certainly be advantageous to account for the seasonal and dynamic behavior of such prices, hence translating to time-varying loss functions. With that objective in mind, forecasting approaches relying on simple models that accommodate the seasonal and dynamic nature of real-time prices are derived and analyzed. These are all based on the well-known Holt–Winters model with a daily seasonal cycle, either in its conventional form or conditioned upon exogenous variables, such as: (i day-ahead price; (ii system load; and (iii wind power penetration. The superiority of the proposed approach over a number of common benchmarks is subsequently demonstrated through an empirical investigation for the Nord Pool, mimicking practical forecasting for a three-year period over 2008–2011.

  14. Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Silva, Marco

    2013-01-01

    ’ behaviour and also the impact in load diagram. The paper proposes the energy price variation according to the relation between wind generation and power consumption. The proposed strategy was tested in two different days in the Danish power system. January 31st and August 13th 2013 were selected because......The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners...... of the high quantities of wind generation. The main goal is to evaluate the changes in the EVs charging diagram with the energy price preventing wind curtailment....

  15. Temporal Proof Methodologies for Real-Time Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    real time systems that communicate either through shared variables or by message passing and real time issues such as time-outs, process priorities (interrupts) and process scheduling. The authors exhibit two styles for the specification of real - time systems . While the first approach uses bounded versions of temporal operators the second approach allows explicit references to time through a special clock variable. Corresponding to two styles of specification the authors present and compare two fundamentally different proof

  16. Timing of Investment and Dynamic Pricing in Privatized Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Tarola, Ornella; Trento, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Firms in equipment-intensive sectors, where investment in production is performed at diminishing marginal cost, spend billions of dollars in equipment and production capacity. Typically, this expenditure is induced by either the replacement of existing equipment, which deteriorates with age and can result in higher operating costs and lower production capacity, or further investment, to benefit from any technological improvement embedded in new equipment. We identify the optimal price policy,...

  17. Analysis of China's real estate prices and macroeconomy based on evolutionary co-spectral method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper investigates the dynamic interaction between the real estate market and the macroeconomic environment of China by use of dynamic coherence function based on co-spectral analysis. Design/methodology/approach: Through a theoretical perspective, the dynamic interrelationship among economic variables at different time intervals (both long and short terms is analyzed. Findings: The empirical results show that China’s real estate market features a high coherence with the change of the long-term interest rate, employment rate and money supply, while there is a moderate coherence between the real estate market and the inflation rate and economic growth rate, and the coherence between the short-term rate of interest and the real estate market is the lowest. Research implications: Previous researches have some shortcomings. They do not consider the dependence between nonlinear series, but the latter is crucial to avoid the deviation of results. In this paper, we proposed a new method of experience to overcome these shortcomings. Originality/value: The paper provides a reasonable explanation accordingly to different coherences between the real estate market and the macroeconomic variables.

  18. MINIX4RT: Real-Time Semaphores

    OpenAIRE

    Pessolani, Pablo Andrés

    2007-01-01

    MINIX4RT es una extensión del conocido Sistema Operativo MINIX que incorpora servicios de Tiempo Real Estricto en un nuevo microkernel pero manteniendo compatibilidad con las versiones anteriores del MINIX estándar. Los semáforos son el mecanismo primitivo para la sincronización y exclusion mutua en varios sistemas operativos, pero MINIX no brinda esa facilidad. Se adicionaron semáforos a MINIX4RT y, como éste es un Sistema Operativo de Tiempo Real, deben reunir ciertos requisitos de procesam...

  19. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  20. Real Time Seismic Loss Estimation in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goretti, A.; Sabetta, F.

    2009-04-01

    By more than 15 years the Seismic Risk Office is able to perform a real-time evaluation of the earthquake potential loss in any part of Italy. Once the epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake are made available by the National Institute for Geophysiscs and Volca-nology, the model, based on the Italian Geographic Information Sys-tems, is able to evaluate the extent of the damaged area and the consequences on the built environment. In recent years the model has been significantly improved with new methodologies able to conditioning the uncertainties using observa-tions coming from the fields during the first days after the event. However it is reputed that the main challenges in loss analysis are related to the input data, more than to methodologies. Unlike the ur-ban scenario, where the missing data can be collected with enough accuracy, the country-wise analysis requires the use of existing data bases, often collected for other purposed than seismic scenario evaluation, and hence in some way lacking of completeness and homogeneity. Soil properties, building inventory and population dis-tribution are the main input data that are to be known in any site of the whole Italian territory. To this end the National Census on Popu-lation and Dwellings has provided information on the residential building types and the population that lives in that building types. The critical buildings, such as Hospital, Fire Brigade Stations, Schools, are not included in the inventory, since the national plan for seismic risk assessment of critical buildings is still under way. The choice of a proper soil motion parameter, its attenuation with distance and the building type fragility are important ingredients of the model as well. The presentation will focus on the above mentioned issues, highlight-ing the different data sets used and their accuracy, and comparing the model, input data and results when geographical areas with dif-ferent extent are considered: from the urban scenarios

  1. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  2. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  3. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-31

    This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and

  4. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Hasan; S. Sultana; C.K. Foo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI) operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time...

  5. Integration of capacity, pricing, and lead-time decisions in a decentralized supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Stuart X.

    We consider a decentralized supply chain consisting of a supplier and a retailer facing price- and lead-time-sensitive demand. The decision process is modelled by a Stackelberg game where the supplier, as a leader, determines the capacity and the wholesale price, and the retailer, as a follower,

  6. Pricing and Timing Strategies for New Product Using Agent-Based Simulation of Behavioural Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Keeheon Lee; Hoyeop Lee; Chang Ouk Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we are interested in the problem of determining the pricing and timing strategies of a new product by developing an agent-based product diffusion simulation. In the proposed simulation model, agents imitate behavioural consumers, who are reference dependent and risk averse in the evaluation of new products and whose interactions create word-of-mouth regarding new products. Pricing and timing strategies involve the timing of a new product release, the timing of providing a disco...

  7. Real-time monitoring and operational control of drinking-water systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos; Pérez, Ramon; Cembrano, Gabriela; Quevedo, Joseba; Escobet, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a set of approaches for the real-time monitoring and control of drinking-water networks based on advanced information and communication technologies. It shows the reader how to achieve significant improvements in efficiency in terms of water use, energy consumption, water loss minimization, and water quality guarantees. The methods and approaches presented are illustrated and have been applied using real-life pilot demonstrations based on the drinking-water network in Barcelona, Spain. The proposed approaches and tools cover: • decision-making support for real-time optimal control of water transport networks, explaining how stochastic model predictive control algorithms that take explicit account of uncertainties associated with energy prices and real demand allow the main flow and pressure actuators—pumping stations and pressure regulation valves—and intermediate storage tanks to be operated to meet demand using the most sustainable types of source and with minimum electricity costs;...

  8. Hardware locks for a real-time Java chip multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A software locking mechanism commonly protects shared resources for multithreaded applications. This mechanism can, especially in chip-multiprocessor systems, result in a large synchronization overhead. For real-time systems in particular, this overhead increases the worst-case execution time....... This improvement can allow a larger number of real-time tasks to be reliably scheduled on a multiprocessor real-time platform....

  9. PERTS: A Prototyping Environment for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Liu, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    PERTS is a prototyping environment for real-time systems. It is being built incrementally and will contain basic building blocks of operating systems for time-critical applications, tools, and performance models for the analysis, evaluation and measurement of real-time systems and a simulation/emulation environment. It is designed to support the use and evaluation of new design approaches, experimentations with alternative system building blocks, and the analysis and performance profiling of prototype real-time systems.

  10. A Faster Algorithm for Solving One-Clock Priced Timed Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    previously known time bound for solving one-clock priced timed games was 2O(n2+m) , due to Rutkowski. For our improvement, we introduce and study a new algorithm for solving one-clock priced timed games, based on the sweep-line technique from computational geometry and the strategy iteration paradigm from......One-clock priced timed games is a class of two-player, zero-sum, continuous-time games that was defined and thoroughly studied in previous works. We show that one-clock priced timed games can be solved in time m 12 n n O(1), where n is the number of states and m is the number of actions. The best...

  11. A Faster Algorithm for Solving One-Clock Priced Timed Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    previously known time bound for solving one-clock priced timed games was 2^(O(n^2+m)), due to Rutkowski. For our improvement, we introduce and study a new algorithm for solving one-clock priced timed games, based on the sweep-line technique from computational geometry and the strategy iteration paradigm from......One-clock priced timed games is a class of two-player, zero-sum, continuous-time games that was defined and thoroughly studied in previous works. We show that one-clock priced timed games can be solved in time m 12^n n^(O(1)), where n is the number of states and m is the number of actions. The best...

  12. An algorithm for learning real-time automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2007-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for learning simple timed automata, known as real-time automata. The transitions of real-time automata can have a temporal constraint on the time of occurrence of the current symbol relative to the previous symbol. The learning algorithm is similar to the redblue fringe

  13. Compilation and synthesis for real-time embedded controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Müller-Olm, Markus

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview over two constructive approaches to provably correct hard real-time code generation where hard real-time code is generated from abstract requirements rather than verified against the timing requirements a posteriori. The first, more pragmatic approach is concerne......-time systems at a very high level of abstraction....

  14. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...... subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking...

  15. Musrfit-Real Time Parameter Fitting Using GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locans, Uldis; Suter, Andreas

    High transverse field μSR (HTF-μSR) experiments typically lead to a rather large data sets, since it is necessary to follow the high frequencies present in the positron decay histograms. The analysis of these data sets can be very time consuming, usually due to the limited computational power of the hardware. To overcome the limited computing resources rotating reference frame transformation (RRF) is often used to reduce the data sets that need to be handled. This comes at a price typically the μSR community is not aware of: (i) due to the RRF transformation the fitting parameter estimate is of poorer precision, i.e., more extended expensive beamtime is needed. (ii) RRF introduces systematic errors which hampers the statistical interpretation of χ2 or the maximum log-likelihood. We will briefly discuss these issues in a non-exhaustive practical way. The only and single purpose of the RRF transformation is the sluggish computer power. Therefore during this work GPU (Graphical Processing Units) based fitting was developed which allows to perform real-time full data analysis without RRF. GPUs have become increasingly popular in scientific computing in recent years. Due to their highly parallel architecture they provide the opportunity to accelerate many applications with considerably less costs than upgrading the CPU computational power. With the emergence of frameworks such as CUDA and OpenCL these devices have become more easily programmable. During this work GPU support was added to Musrfit- a data analysis framework for μSR experiments. The new fitting algorithm uses CUDA or OpenCL to offload the most time consuming parts of the calculations to Nvidia or AMD GPUs. Using the current CPU implementation in Musrfit parameter fitting can take hours for certain data sets while the GPU version can allow to perform real-time data analysis on the same data sets. This work describes the challenges that arise in adding the GPU support to t as well as results obtained

  16. A Programmable Microkernel for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems Christoph M. Kirsch Thomas A. Henzinger Marco A.A. Sanvido Report No. UCB/CSD-3-1250 June 2003...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems ∗ Christoph M

  17. Design Specifications for Adaptive Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    TICfl \\ E CT E Design Specifications for JAN’\\ 1992 Adaptive Real - Time Systems fl Randall W. Lichota U, Alice H. Muntz - December 1991 \\ \\\\/ 0 / r...268-2056 Technical Report CMU/SEI-91-TR-20 ESD-91-TR-20 December 1991 Design Specifications for Adaptive Real - Time Systems Randall W. Lichota Hughes...Design Specifications for Adaptive Real - Time Systems Abstract: The design specification method described in this report treats a software

  18. Proceedings of the Real-Time Systems Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    real - time systems engineering. The workshop was held as part of the SEI Symposium in...Washington, DC, during September 2000. The objective of the workshop was to identify key issues and obtain feedback from attendees concerning real - time systems engineering...and interoperability. This report summarizes the workshop in terms of foundation, management, and technical topics, and it contains a discussion related to developing a community of interest for real - time systems

  19. Static Schedulers for Embedded Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Because of the need for having efficient scheduling algorithms in large scale real time systems , software engineers put a lot of effort on developing...provide static schedulers for he Embedded Real Time Systems with single processor using Ada programming language. The independent nonpreemptable...support the Computer Aided Rapid Prototyping for Embedded Real Time Systems so that we determine whether the system, as designed, meets the required

  20. Design Recovery Technology for Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    RL-TR-95-208 Final Technical Report October 1995 DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL TIME SYSTEMS The MITRE Corporation Lester J. Holtzblatt...92 - Jan 95 4. TTTLE AND SUBTITLE DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lester J. Holtzblatt, Richard Piazza, and Susan...behavior of real - time systems in general, our initial efforts have centered on recovering this information from one system in particular, the Modular

  1. Pricing of electricity in a time of change - some key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, W.

    1995-01-01

    The paper covers four topics: (I) what does full cost coverage mean in the Eastern European power sector, (II) LRMC (Long Run Marginal Cost) pricing in regulated utilities versus free market prices; (III) limits to the internalization of external costs in fuel pricing, (IV) pricing of IPPs (Independent Power Producer). The paper argues that the tariff which allows full cost coverage in the Eastern European power sector should be defined as the minimum tariff which allows 30% self-financing of investments and a rate of return of at least 5% on invested assets. The appropriate level of self-financing relates to the appropriate capital structure of the company; the rate of return to the ability to attract finance in the long run. During the last twenty years there has been general consensus among power economists that the application of the LRMC pricing principle for the setting of tariffs was the best principle to ensure efficiency on both the demand as well as the supply side. In free markets involving TPA (Third Party Access) and spot markets, that principle can no longer be applied. In times of scarcity, prices will be above LMRC; in times of surplus capacity below LRMC. Economists have argued for years that external costs and benefits have to be ''internalized'' in tariffs and prices in order to provide consumers and investors with the right pricing principles

  2. Flexible Scheduling by Deadline Inheritance in Soft Real Time Kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.; Wygerink, Emiel

    1996-01-01

    Current Hard Real Time (HRT) kernels have their timely behaviour guaranteed on the cost of a rather restrictive use of the available resources. This makes HRT scheduling techniques inadequate for use in Soft Real Time (SRT) environment where we can make a considerable profit by a better and more

  3. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...-Time System Management Information Program AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Real-Time System Management Information Program and general information about current and planned... establishing requirements for the Real-Time System Management Information Program on November 8, 2010, at 75 FR...

  4. 75 FR 68418 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-Time System Management Information Program AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION...) to establish a Real-Time System Management Information Program that provides, in all States, the... traveler information. The purposes of the Real-Time System Management Information Program are to: (1...

  5. Quo vadis? : persuasive computing using real time queue information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meys, Wouter; Groen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    By presenting tourists with real-time information an increase in efficiency and satisfaction of their day planning can be achieved. At the same time, real-time information services can offer the municipality the opportunity to spread the tourists throughout the city centre. An important factor for

  6. Timeliness and Predictability in Real-Time Database Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Son, Sang H

    1998-01-01

    The confluence of computers, communications, and databases is quickly creating a globally distributed database where many applications require real time access to both temporally accurate and multimedia data...

  7. Building Real-Time Collaborative Applications with a Federated Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ojanguren-Menendez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time collaboration is being offered by multiple libraries and APIs (Google Drive Real-time API, Microsoft Real-Time Communications API, TogetherJS, ShareJS, rapidly becoming a mainstream option for webservices developers. However, they are offered as centralised services running in a single server, regardless if they are free/open source or proprietary software. After re-engineering Apache Wave (former Google Wave, we can now provide the first decentralised and federated free/open source alternative. The new API allows to develop new real-time collaborative web applications in both JavaScript and Java environments.

  8. Real Time Investments with Adequate Portfolio Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kvietkauskienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify investment decision makingschemes using the adequate portfolio model. This approach can be employed to project investment in stocks, using the opportunities offered by the markets and investor intelligence. It was decided to use adequate portfolio theory for investment decision making, simulation of financial markets, and optimisation of utility function. The main conclusion of article suggests investigating return on individual portfolio level. Real investment is a way to make sure of the soundness of applicable strategies.

  9. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  10. Performance evaluation of near-real-time accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Examples are given illustrating the application of near-real-time accounting concepts and principles to actual nuclear facilities. Experience with prototypical systems at the AGNS reprocessing plant and the Los Alamos plutonium facility is described using examples of actual data to illustrate the performance and effectiveness of near-real-time systems. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) identify the major components of near-real-time accounting systems; (2) describe qualitatively the advantages, limitations, and performance of such systems in real nuclear facilities; (3) identify process and facility design characteristics that affect the performance of near-real-time systems; and (4) describe qualitatively the steps necessary to implement a near-real-time accounting and control system in a nuclear facility

  11. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarcel, D.F.; Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J.; Sartori, F.; Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 μs. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  12. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based realtime kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium III based system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical realtime system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  13. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarcel, D.F., E-mail: danielv@ipfn.ist.utl.p [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sartori, F. [Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB Oxon (United Kingdom); Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-15

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 {mu}s. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  14. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  15. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Lilian M. de; Houllier, Melanie A.; Tamvakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly increase the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynamics are evolving, and the fuel–electricity price nexus that has been described in the literature is likely to reflect this evolution. This study investigates associations between spot prices from the British, French and Nordpool markets with those in connected electricity markets and fuel input prices, from December 2005 to October 2013. In order to assess the time-varying dynamics of electricity spot price series, localized autocorrelation functions are used. Electricity spot prices in the three markets are found to have stationary and non-stationary periods. When a trend in spot prices is observed, it is likely to reflect the trend in fuel prices. Cointegration analysis is then used to assess co-movement between electricity spot prices and fuel inputs to generation. The results show that British electricity spot prices are associated with fuel prices and not with price developments in connected markets, while the opposite is observed in the French and Nordpool day-ahead markets. - Highlights: • Electricity market integration policies may have altered EU spot electricity prices. • LACF is used to assess the changing nature of electricity spot prices. • EU electricity spot prices show both stationary and non-stationary periods. • Carbon and fuel prices have greater impact on British spot prices. • In continental Europe, electricity prices have decoupled from fuel prices.

  16. GNSS global real-time augmentation positioning: Real-time precise satellite clock estimation, prototype system construction and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Qile; Hu, Zhigang; Jiang, Xinyuan; Geng, Changjiang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang

    2018-01-01

    Lots of ambiguities in un-differenced (UD) model lead to lower calculation efficiency, which isn't appropriate for the high-frequency real-time GNSS clock estimation, like 1 Hz. Mixed differenced model fusing UD pseudo-range and epoch-differenced (ED) phase observations has been introduced into real-time clock estimation. In this contribution, we extend the mixed differenced model for realizing multi-GNSS real-time clock high-frequency updating and a rigorous comparison and analysis on same conditions are performed to achieve the best real-time clock estimation performance taking the efficiency, accuracy, consistency and reliability into consideration. Based on the multi-GNSS real-time data streams provided by multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and Wuhan University, GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning prototype system is designed and constructed, including real-time precise orbit determination, real-time precise clock estimation, real-time Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) and real-time Standard Point Positioning (RT-SPP). The statistical analysis of the 6 h-predicted real-time orbits shows that the root mean square (RMS) in radial direction is about 1-5 cm for GPS, Beidou MEO and Galileo satellites and about 10 cm for Beidou GEO and IGSO satellites. Using the mixed differenced estimation model, the prototype system can realize high-efficient real-time satellite absolute clock estimation with no constant clock-bias and can be used for high-frequency augmentation message updating (such as 1 Hz). The real-time augmentation message signal-in-space ranging error (SISRE), a comprehensive accuracy of orbit and clock and effecting the users' actual positioning performance, is introduced to evaluate and analyze the performance of GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning system. The statistical analysis of real-time augmentation message SISRE is about 4-7 cm for GPS, whlile 10 cm for Beidou IGSO/MEO, Galileo and about 30 cm

  17. Rushing into American Dream? House Prices, Timing of Homeownership, and Adjustment of Consumer Credit

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sumit; Hu, Luojia; Huang, Xing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use a large panel of individuals from Consumer Credit Panel dataset to study the timing of homeownership as a function of credit constraints and expectations of future house price. Our panel data allows us to track individuals over time and we model the transition probability of their first home purchase. We find that in MSAs with highest quartile house price growth, the median individual become homeowners earlier by 5 years in their lifecycle compared to MSAs with lowest qua...

  18. Impact of Stock Market Structure on Intertrade Time and Price Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Yuen, Ainslie; Perakakis, Pandelis

    2014-01-01

    We analyse times between consecutive transactions for a diverse group of stocks registered on the NYSE and NASDAQ markets, and we relate the dynamical properties of the intertrade times with those of the corresponding price fluctuations. We report that market structure strongly impacts the scale-invariant temporal organisation in the transaction timing of stocks, which we have observed to have long-range power-law correlations. Specifically, we find that, compared to NYSE stocks, stocks registered on the NASDAQ exhibit significantly stronger correlations in their transaction timing on scales within a trading day. Further, we find that companies that transfer from the NASDAQ to the NYSE show a reduction in the correlation strength of transaction timing on scales within a trading day, indicating influences of market structure. We also report a persistent decrease in correlation strength of intertrade times with increasing average intertrade time and with corresponding decrease in companies' market capitalization–a trend which is less pronounced for NASDAQ stocks. Surprisingly, we observe that stronger power-law correlations in intertrade times are coupled with stronger power-law correlations in absolute price returns and higher price volatility, suggesting a strong link between the dynamical properties of intertrade times and the corresponding price fluctuations over a broad range of time scales. Comparing the NYSE and NASDAQ markets, we demonstrate that the stronger correlations we find in intertrade times for NASDAQ stocks are associated with stronger correlations in absolute price returns and with higher volatility, suggesting that market structure may affect price behavior through information contained in transaction timing. These findings do not support the hypothesis of universal scaling behavior in stock dynamics that is independent of company characteristics and stock market structure. Further, our results have implications for utilising transaction timing

  19. Impact of stock market structure on intertrade time and price dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Yuen, Ainslie; Perakakis, Pandelis

    2014-01-01

    We analyse times between consecutive transactions for a diverse group of stocks registered on the NYSE and NASDAQ markets, and we relate the dynamical properties of the intertrade times with those of the corresponding price fluctuations. We report that market structure strongly impacts the scale-invariant temporal organisation in the transaction timing of stocks, which we have observed to have long-range power-law correlations. Specifically, we find that, compared to NYSE stocks, stocks registered on the NASDAQ exhibit significantly stronger correlations in their transaction timing on scales within a trading day. Further, we find that companies that transfer from the NASDAQ to the NYSE show a reduction in the correlation strength of transaction timing on scales within a trading day, indicating influences of market structure. We also report a persistent decrease in correlation strength of intertrade times with increasing average intertrade time and with corresponding decrease in companies' market capitalization-a trend which is less pronounced for NASDAQ stocks. Surprisingly, we observe that stronger power-law correlations in intertrade times are coupled with stronger power-law correlations in absolute price returns and higher price volatility, suggesting a strong link between the dynamical properties of intertrade times and the corresponding price fluctuations over a broad range of time scales. Comparing the NYSE and NASDAQ markets, we demonstrate that the stronger correlations we find in intertrade times for NASDAQ stocks are associated with stronger correlations in absolute price returns and with higher volatility, suggesting that market structure may affect price behavior through information contained in transaction timing. These findings do not support the hypothesis of universal scaling behavior in stock dynamics that is independent of company characteristics and stock market structure. Further, our results have implications for utilising transaction timing

  20. A behavioral asset pricing model with a time-varying second moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarella, Carl; He Xuezhong; Wang, Duo

    2006-01-01

    We develop a simple behavioral asset pricing model with fundamentalists and chartists in order to study price behavior in financial markets when chartists estimate both conditional mean and variance by using a weighted averaging process. Through a stability, bifurcation, and normal form analysis, the market impact of the weighting process and time-varying second moment are examined. It is found that the fundamental price becomes stable (unstable) when the activities from both types of traders are balanced (unbalanced). When the fundamental price becomes unstable, the weighting process leads to different price dynamics, depending on whether the chartists act as either trend followers or contrarians. It is also found that a time-varying second moment of the chartists does not change the stability of the fundamental price, but it does influence the stability of the bifurcations. The bifurcation becomes stable (unstable) when the chartists are more (less) concerned about the market risk characterized by the time-varying second moment. Different routes to complicated price dynamics are also observed. The analysis provides an analytical foundation for the statistical analysis of the corresponding stochastic version of this type of behavioral model

  1. Real-time Avatar Animation from a Single Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Jason M; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2011-01-01

    A real time facial puppetry system is presented. Compared with existing systems, the proposed method requires no special hardware, runs in real time (23 frames-per-second), and requires only a single image of the avatar and user. The user's facial expression is captured through a real-time 3D non-rigid tracking system. Expression transfer is achieved by combining a generic expression model with synthetically generated examples that better capture person specific characteristics. Performance of the system is evaluated on avatars of real people as well as masks and cartoon characters.

  2. "The Real Thing:" Nominal Price Rigidity of the Nickel Coke, 1886-1959

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Levy; Andrew T. Young

    2004-01-01

    We report that the price of a 6.5oz Coke was 5¢ from 1886 until 1959. Thus, we are documenting a nominal price rigidity that lasted more than 70 years! The case of Coca-Cola is particularly interesting because during the 70-year period there were substantial changes in the soft drink industry as well as two World Wars, the Great Depression, and numerous regulatory interventions and lawsuits, which led to substantial changes in the Coca-Cola market conditions. The nickel price of Coke, neverth...

  3. Academic Training: Real Time Process Control - Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 7, 8 and 9 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Real Time Process Control T. Riesco / CERN-TS What exactly is meant by Real-time? There are several definitions of real-time, most of them contradictory. Unfortunately the topic is controversial, and there does not seem to be 100% agreement over the terminology. Real-time applications are becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and can be found in diverse environments such as the automatic braking system on an automobile, a lottery ticket system, or robotic environmental samplers on a space station. These lectures will introduce concepts and theory like basic concepts timing constraints, task scheduling, periodic server mechanisms, hard and soft real-time.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  4. A real-time photogrammetry system based on embedded architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the demand of real-time spatial data processing and improve the online processing capability of photogrammetric system, a kind of real-time photogrammetry method is proposed in this paper. According to the proposed method, system based on embedded architecture is then designed: using FPGA, ARM+DSP and other embedded computing technology to build specialized hardware operating environment, transplanting and optimizing the existing photogrammetric algorithm to the embedded system, and finally real-time photogrammetric data processing is realized. At last, aerial photogrammetric experiment shows that the method can achieve high-speed and stable on-line processing of photogrammetric data. And the experiment also verifies the feasibility of the proposed real-time photogrammetric system based on embedded architecture. It is the first time to realize real-time aerial photogrammetric system, which can improve the online processing efficiency of photogrammetry to a higher level and broaden the application field of photogrammetry.

  5. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  6. Real-Time Plasma Control Tools for Advanced Tokamak Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C. A. F.; Sousa, J.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Carvalho, B. B.; Fernandes, H.; Batista, A. J.; Cruz, N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time control will play an important role in the operation and scientific exploitation of the new generation fusion devices. This paper summarizes the real-time systems and diagnostics developed by the Portuguese Fusion Euratom Association based on digital signal processors and field programmable gate arrays

  7. Real-Time Adaptation of Influence Strategies in Online Selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on

  8. Real-Time Engagement Area Development Program (READ-Pro)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burger, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The Real Time Engagement Area Development Program (READ-Pro) is a PC-based prototype system which provides company-level commanders with real-time operational analysis tools to develop ENGAGEMENT AREAS(EA) for direct fire (DF) systems...

  9. Real-time centre detection of an OLED structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.S.; Jonker, P.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this paper focuses on real-time image processing for visual servoing, i.e. the positioning of a x-y table by using a camera only instead of encoders. A camera image stream plus real-time image processing determines the position in the next iteration of the table controller.

  10. Real-Time Center Detection of an OLED Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.S.; Jonker, P.P.; Nijmeijer, H.; Blanc-Talon, J.; Philips, W.; Popescu, D.; Scheunders, P.

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this paper focuses on real-time image processing for visual servoing, i.e. the positioning of a x-y table by using a camera only instead of encoders. A camera image stream plus real-time image processing determines the position in the next iteration of the table controller.

  11. Real-Time PCR for Universal Phytoplasma Detection and Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the most efficient detection and precise quantification of phytoplasmas is by real-time PCR. Compared to nested PCR, this method is less sensitive to contamination and is less work intensive. Therefore, a universal real-time PCR method will be valuable in screening programs and in other...

  12. Real-Time Operating Systems for Multicore Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Honda, Shinya; Takada, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Multicore systems-on-chip have become popular inthe design of embedded systems in order to simultaneously achieve high performance and low power consumption. On the software side, real-time operating systems are necessary in orderto handle growing complexity of embedded software. This paper describes requirements, design principles and implementation techniques for real-time operating systems to be used inasymmetric multicore systems.

  13. Parametric Room Acoustic workflows with real-time acoustic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages......The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages...

  14. Issues Involved in Developing Ada Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-15

    expensive modifications to the compiler or Ada runtime system to fit a particular application. Whether we can solve the problems of programming real - time systems in...lock in solutions to problems that are not yet well understood in standards as rigorous as the Ada language. Moreover, real - time systems typically have

  15. The Synthesis of Intelligent Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-09

    Synthesis of Intelligent Real - Time Systems . The purpose of the effort was to develop and extend theories and techniques that facilitate the design and...implementation of intelligent real - time systems . In particular, Teleos has extended situated-automata theory to apply to situations in which the system has

  16. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Felici, F.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on TCV paired with the flexibility of plasma shaping and ECRH actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for fusion applications. The ability to control MHD instabilities is particularly

  17. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodriques, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV) coupled with the flexibility of plasma shaping and electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for

  18. Real Time Synchronization for Creativity in Distributed Innovation Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Dennis Kjaersgaard; Dolog, Peter; Pedersen, Esben Staunsbjerg

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings....

  19. Distributed, Embedded and Real-time Java Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wellings, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Research on real-time Java technology has been prolific over the past decade, leading to a large number of corresponding hardware and software solutions, and frameworks for distributed and embedded real-time Java systems.  This book is aimed primarily at researchers in real-time embedded systems, particularly those who wish to understand the current state of the art in using Java in this domain.  Much of the work in real-time distributed, embedded and real-time Java has focused on the Real-time Specification for Java (RTSJ) as the underlying base technology, and consequently many of the Chapters in this book address issues with, or solve problems using, this framework. Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service and communication systems supporting real-time Java applications; Includes coverage of multiprocessor embedded systems and parallel programming; Discusses state-of-the-art resource management for embedded systems, including Java’s real-time garbage collect...

  20. Real time ray tracing of skeletal implicit surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouiller, Olivier; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    Modeling and rendering in real time is usually done via rasterization of polygonal meshes. We present a method to model with skeletal implicit surfaces and an algorithm to ray trace these surfaces in real time in the GPU. Our skeletal representation of the surfaces allows to create smooth models...

  1. Real-time communication for distributed plasma control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchetta, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)], E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Barbalace, A.; Manduchi, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    Real-time control applications will benefit in the near future from the enhanced performance provided by multi-core processor architectures. Nevertheless real-time communication will continue to be critical in distributed plasma control systems where the plant under control typically is distributed over a wide area. At RFX-mod real-time communication is crucial for hard real-time plasma control, due to the distributed architecture of the system, which consists of several VMEbus stations. The system runs under VxWorks and uses Gigabit Ethernet for sub-millisecond real-time communication. To optimize communication in the system, a set of detailed measurements has been carried out on the target platforms (Motorola MVME5100 and MVME5500) using either the VxWorks User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack or raw communication based on the data link layer. Measurements have been carried out also under Linux, using its UDP stack or, in alternative, RTnet, an open source hard real-time network protocol stack. RTnet runs under Xenomai or RTAI, two popular real-time extensions based on the Linux kernel. The paper reports on the measurements carried out and compares the results, showing that the performance obtained by using open source code is suitable for sub-millisecond real-time communication in plasma control.

  2. Innovative tools for real-time simulation of dynamic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palli, Gianluca; Carloni, Raffaella; Melchiorri, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a software architecture, based on RTAI-Linux, for the real-time simulation of dynamic systems and for the rapid prototyping of digital controllers. Our aim is to simplify the testing phase of digital controllers by providing the real-time simulation of the plant with the

  3. The Fast Tracker Real Time Processor: high quality real-time tracking at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Stabile, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to the design level of 1x1034 cm−2 s−1 and beyond, the high rates, multiplicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the most important physics and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK)[1], [2] is a proposed upgrade to the current ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK is a dedicated Super Computer based on a mixture of advanced technologies. The architecture broadly employs powerf...

  4. Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Gu Jeong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Indirect load control (ILC is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, the customer can reduce the energy cost through an energy storage system (ESS. However, because this tariff is fixed for several months, the ESS operation does not truly reflect the wholesale market price, which could widely fluctuate. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an incentive pricing method in which the load-serving entity (LSE gives the incentive pricing signal to the customers with ESSs. Because the ESS charging schedule is determined by the customer through ILC, a bilevel optimization problem that includes the customer optimization problem is utilized to determine the incentive pricing signal. Further, the bilevel optimization problem is reformulated into a one-level problem to be solved by an interior point method. In the proposed incentive scheme: (1 the social welfare increases and (2 the increased social welfare can be equitably divided between the LSE and the customer; and (3 the proposed incentive scheme leads the customer to voluntarily follow the pricing signal.

  5. Subtyping of swine influenza viruses using a high-throughput real time PCR platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goecke, Nicole Bakkegård; Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    ). The results revealed that the performance of the dynamic chip was similar to conventional real time analysis. Discussion and conclusion. Application of the chip for subtyping of swine influenza has resulted in a significant reduction in time, cost and working hours. Thereby, it is possible to offer diagnostic...... test and subsequent subtyping is performed by real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) but several assays are needed to cover the wide range of circulating subtypes which is expensive,resource and time demanding. To mitigate these restrictions the high-throughput qPCR platform BioMark (Fluidigm) has been explored...... services with reduced price and turnover time which will facilitate choice of vaccines and by that lead to reduction of antibiotic used....

  6. Recent achievements in real-time computational seismology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time computational seismology is currently possible to be achieved which needs highly connection between seismic database and high performance computing. We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) by using continuous BATS records and moment tensor inversion (CMT) technique. The real-time online earthquake simulation service is also ready to open for researchers and public earthquake science education (ROS). Combine RMT with ROS, the earthquake report based on computational seismology can provide within 5 minutes after an earthquake occurred (RMT obtains point source information ROS completes a 3D simulation real-time now. For more information, welcome to visit real-time computational seismology earthquake report webpage (RCS).

  7. The FERMI-Elettra distributed real-time framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivetta, L.; Gaio, G.; Passuello, R.; Scalamera, G.

    2012-01-01

    FERMI-Elettra is a Free Electron Laser (FEL) based on a 1.5 GeV linac. The pulsed operation of the accelerator and the necessity to characterize and control each electron bunch requires synchronous acquisition of the beam diagnostics together with the ability to drive actuators in real-time at the linac repetition rate. The Adeos/Xenomai real-time extensions have been adopted in order to add real-time capabilities to the Linux based control system computers running the Tango software. A software communication protocol based on Gigabit Ethernet and known as Network Reflective Memory (NRM) has been developed to implement a shared memory across the whole control system, allowing computers to communicate in real-time. The NRM architecture, the real-time performance and the integration in the control system are described. (authors)

  8. Self-Organization in Embedded Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkschulte, Uwe; Rettberg, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the emerging field of self-organizing, multicore, distributed and real-time embedded systems.  Self-organization of both hardware and software can be a key technique to handle the growing complexity of modern computing systems. Distributed systems running hundreds of tasks on dozens of processors, each equipped with multiple cores, requires self-organization principles to ensure efficient and reliable operation. This book addresses various, so-called Self-X features such as self-configuration, self-optimization, self-adaptation, self-healing and self-protection. Presents open components for embedded real-time adaptive and self-organizing applications; Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service, communications supporting organic real-time applications; Covers multi-/many-core embedded systems supporting real-time adaptive systems and power-aware, adaptive hardware and software systems; Includes case studies of open embedded real-time self-organizi...

  9. Real-Time Fault Tolerant Networking Protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    We made significant progress in the areas of video streaming, wireless protocols, mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks, peer-to-peer systems, fault tolerant algorithms, dependability and timing analysis...

  10. Forecasting electricity spot-prices using linear univariate time-series models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo; Hlouskova, Jaroslava; Kossmeier, Stephan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the forecasting abilities of a battery of univariate models on hourly electricity spot prices, using data from the Leipzig Power Exchange. The specifications studied include autoregressive models, autoregressive-moving average models and unobserved component models. The results show that specifications, where each hour of the day is modelled separately present uniformly better forecasting properties than specifications for the whole time-series, and that the inclusion of simple probabilistic processes for the arrival of extreme price events can lead to improvements in the forecasting abilities of univariate models for electricity spot prices. (Author)

  11. Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Urriza, José M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

  12. An Experimental Evaluation of Real-Time DVFS Scheduling Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is an extensively studied energy manage- ment technique, which aims to reduce the energy consumption of computing platforms by dynamically scaling the CPU frequency. Real-Time DVFS (RT-DVFS) is a branch of DVFS, which reduces CPU energy consumption through DVFS, while at the same time ensures that task time constraints are satisfied by constructing appropriate real-time task schedules. The literature presents numerous RT-DVFS schedul...

  13. On Real-Time Operating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    1Ri2 193 ONREAL-TIME OPERATING SYS EMS(U MAYLAN UN V COLLG PARK DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE S LEVI ET AL APR 87 CS-TR-1838 NOSO14-87-K-9124 UNCLASSIFIED...and processes. In each instance the abstraction takes the form of some non- physical resource and benefits both the system and the user. ...The...service, which is important as an inter-process service (for physical synchronization) as well as an internal service for a process. A time service in a

  14. A Process For Performance Evaluation Of Real-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Kornecki

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time developers and engineers must not only meet the system functional requirements, but also the stringent timing requirements. One of the critical decisions leading to meeting these timing requirements is the selection of an operating system under which the software will be developed and run. Although there is ample documentation on real-time systems performance and evaluation, little can be found that combines such information into an efficient process for use by developers. As the software industry moves towards clearly defined processes, creation of appropriate guidelines describing a process for performance evaluation of real-time system would greatly benefit real-time developers. This technology transition research focuses on developing such a process. PROPERT (PROcess for Performance Evaluation of Real Time systems - the process described in this paper - is based upon established techniques for evaluating real-time systems. It organizes already existing real-time performance criteria and assessment techniques in a manner consistent with a well-formed process, based on the Personal Software Process concepts.

  15. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  16. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems

  17. A Heterogeneous Agent Model of Asspet Price with Three Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Matsumoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a continuous-time heterogeneous agent model ofa ...nancial market with one risky asset, two types of agents (i.e., thefundamentalists and the chartists, and three time delays. The chartistdemand is determined through a nonlinear function of the di¤erence be-tween the current price and a weighted moving average of the delayedprices whereas the fundamentalist demand is governed by the di¤erencebetween the current price and the fundamental value. The asset price dy-namics is described by a nonlinear delay di¤erential equation. Two mainresults are analytically and numerically shown:(i the delay destabilizes the market price and generates cyclic oscillationsaround the equilibrium;(ii under multiple delays, stability loss and gain repeatedly occurs as alength of the delay increases.

  18. Carbon financial markets: A time-frequency analysis of CO2 prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Rita; Aguiar-Conraria, Luís; Soares, Maria Joana

    2014-11-01

    We characterize the interrelation of CO2 prices with energy prices (electricity, gas and coal), and with economic activity. Previous studies have relied on time-domain techniques, such as Vector Auto-Regressions. In this study, we use multivariate wavelet analysis, which operates in the time-frequency domain. Wavelet analysis provides convenient tools to distinguish relations at particular frequencies and at particular time horizons. Our empirical approach has the potential to identify relations getting stronger and then disappearing over specific time intervals and frequencies. We are able to examine the coherency of these variables and lead-lag relations at different frequencies for the time periods in focus.

  19. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized

  20. Fault Tolerant Real-Time Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-30

    Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, editors Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control. Fourth International Workshop (HSCC󈧅, Rome, Italy, March 2001...average dwell time by solving optimization problems. In Ashish Tiwari and Joao P. Hespanha, editors, Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC 06