WorldWideScience

Sample records for real time observation

  1. Real time observation of the photocleavage of single DNA molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A method for real time observation of photo-cleavage of stretched λDNA at single molecular level by afluorescent microscope coupled with CCD is developed. DNAmolecules stained with YOYO-1 are stretched by the mo-lecular combing technique and fixed on a modified slide.Then the process of photocleavage and relaxation of DNAunder radiation of blue light is observed. We speculate thatthe conformation change of stretched DNA and the effect ofwater are likely to facilitate the effect of YOYO photocleav-age DNA molecules. The photocleavage effect of YOYO forstretched DNA may be useful to study DNA elasticity, cancerresearch as well as the interaction between DNA and dyes.

  2. Real-Time Fish Observation and Fish Category Database Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Pang Lin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed real-time video stream system for underwater fish observation in the real world. The system, based on a three-tier architecture, includes capture devices unit, stream processor unit, and display devices unit. It supports variety of capture source devices, such as HDV, DV, WebCam, TV Card, Capture Card, and video compression formats, such as WMV, FLV/SWF, MJPEG, MPEG-2/4. The system has been demonstrated in Taiwan for long-term underwater fish observation. CCTV cameras and high-definition cameras are deployed on our system. Video compression methods and image processing methods are implemented to reduce network transfer flow and data storage space. Marine ecologists and end users can browse these real-time video streams via the Internet to understand the ecological changes immediately. These video data is preserved to form a resource base for marine ecologists. Based on the video data, fish detection is implemented. However, it is complicated in the unconstrained underwater environment, due to the water flow causes the water plants sway severely. In this paper, a bounding-surrounding boxes method is proposed to overcome the problem. It efficiently classifies moving fish as the foreground objects and the swaying water plants as the background objects. It enables to remove the irrelevant information (without fish to reduce the massive amount of video data. Moreover, fish tracking is implemented to acquire multiple species of fish images with varied angles, sizes, shapes, and illumination to construct a fish category database.

  3. Near Real Time MISR Wind Observations for Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K. J.; Protack, S.; Rheingans, B. E.; Hansen, E. G.; Jovanovic, V. M.; Baker, N.; Liu, J.; Val, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) project, in association with the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), has this year adapted its original production software to generate near-real time (NRT) cloud-motion winds as well as radiance imagery from all nine MISR cameras. These products are made publicly available at the ASDC with a latency of less than 3 hours. Launched aboard the sun-synchronous Terra platform in 1999, the MISR instrument continues to acquire near-global, 275 m resolution, multi-angle imagery. During a single 7 minute overpass of any given area, MISR retrieves the stereoscopic height and horizontal motion of clouds from the multi-angle data, yielding meso-scale near-instantaneous wind vectors. The ongoing 15-year record of MISR height-resolved winds at 17.6 km resolution has been validated against independent data sources. Low-level winds dominate the sampling, and agree to within ±3 ms-1 of collocated GOES and other observations. Low-level wind observations are of particular interest to weather forecasting, where there is a dearth of observations suitable for assimilation, in part due to reliability concerns associated with winds whose heights are assigned by the infrared brightness temperature technique. MISR cloud heights, on the other hand, are generated from stereophotogrammetric pattern matching of visible radiances. MISR winds also address data gaps in the latitude bands between geostationary satellite coverage and polar orbiting instruments that obtain winds from multiple overpasses (e.g. MODIS). Observational impact studies conducted by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and by the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst) have both demonstrated forecast improvements when assimilating MISR winds. An impact assessment using the GEOS-5 system is currently in progress. To benefit air quality forecasts, the MISR project is currently investigating the feasibility of generating near-real time aerosol products.

  4. Near-Real-Time Earth Observation Data Supporting Wildfire Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia, V. G.; Zajkowski, T.; Quayle, B.

    2013-12-01

    During disaster events, the most critical element needed by responding personnel and management teams is situational intelligence / awareness. During rapidly-evolving events such as wildfires, the need for timely information is critical to save lives, property and resources. The wildfire management agencies in the US rely heavily on remote sensing information both from airborne platforms as well as from orbital assets. The ability to readily have information from those systems, not just data, is critical to effective control and damage mitigation. NASA has been collaborating with the USFS to mature and operationalize various asset-information capabilities to effect improved knowledge of fire-prone areas, monitor wildfire events in real-time, assess effectiveness of fire management strategies, and provide rapid, post-fire assessment for recovery operations. Specific examples of near-real-time remote sensing asset utility include daily MODIS data employed to assess fire potential / wildfire hazard areas, and national-scale hot-spot detection, airborne thermal sensor collected during wildfire events to effect management strategies, EO-1 ALI 'pointable' satellite sensor data to assess fire-retardant application effectiveness, and Landsat 8 and other sensor data to derive burn severity indices for post-fire remediation work. These cases of where near-real-time data is used operationally during the previous few fire seasons will be presented.

  5. Near Real Time website for IASI observations of atmospheric anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Catherine; Grainger, Don; Marsh, Kevin; Carboni, Elisa; Ventress, Lucy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Rapid analysis of satellite observations of the state of the atmosphere and the contaminant levels within it can be used for pollution monitoring, forest fire detection and volcanic activity monitoring. There are numerous operational satellite instruments for which this is possible. The IASI instruments, currently flying on board the MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellite platforms, are used to produce Near Real Time (NRT) data using analysis algorithms developed by Oxford University. The data is then displayed on a website within 3 hours of measurement. This allows for the semi-continuous monitoring of the state of the atmosphere over most of the globe, both in daylight and at night. Global coverage is achieved 4 times per day, which is a significant advantage over most of the alternatives, either geostationary, giving limited spatial coverage, or UV instruments which are only able to observe during the daylight side of the orbit. The website includes flags for atmospheric contaminants detectable by IASI, including dust, biomass burning-derived species and volcanic ash and SO2. In the near future, the website will be developed to also include a quantitative estimate of the mass loading of SO2 contained within any volcanic cloud. Emissions of volcanic products, such as ash and SO2, are useful indicators of a change in the activity level of a volcano. Since many volcanoes are only monitored by remote sensing methods, such as satellite instruments, this can be the only such indicator available. These emissions are also dangerous to passing aircraft, causing damage to external surfaces of the plane and to the engines, sometimes leading to failure. Evacuation of regions surrounding volcanoes, and cessation or diversion of air traffic around actively erupting volcanoes is costly and highly disruptive but is sometimes required. Up to date information is of critical importance as to when to make these sensitive decisions. An archive of data will be available to allow for easy

  6. Real-Time Observation of Cell and Carbon Nanotube Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michelle; Broman, Melanie; Mathews, Claire; McPherson, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been widely researched for disease diagnosis and drug delivery applications. However, its impact on biological systems is yet to be sufficiently understood. We studied optical imaging of Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells exposed to various carbon nanotubes concentrations at various time points. The cell stress due to carbon nanotubes exposure is accessed via morphological changes of the CHO cells. Data showed that cell death increases with increasing carbon nanotube concentration and time exposure. To continuously view such changes of any one individual cell, we constructed an optically transparent miniaturized incubator that fits on a microscope stage. This specific incubator is able to maintain desirable temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentration to allow proper cell growth. Such incubator can be used to track real-time interactions of any cells and nanomaterials for future data collection.

  7. Real-time Ocean Observations and Forecast Facility (ROOFF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to visualize "ocean weather" for selected ocean regions. The collection of satellite observations with numerical circulation models...

  8. Promoting discovery and access to real time observations produced by regional coastal ocean observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Snowden, D. P.; Bochenek, R.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the U.S. coastal waters, a network of eleven regional coastal ocean observing systems support real-time coastal and ocean observing. The platforms supported and variables acquired are diverse, ranging from current sensing high frequency (HF) radar to autonomous gliders. The system incorporates data produced by other networks and experimental systems, further increasing the breadth of the collection. Strategies promoted by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) ensure these data are not lost at sea. Every data set deserves a description. ISO and FGDC compliant metadata enables catalog interoperability and record-sharing. Extensive use of netCDF with the Climate and Forecast convention (identifying both metadata and a structured format) is shown to be a powerful strategy to promote discovery, interoperability, and re-use of the data. To integrate specialized data which are often obscure, quality control protocols are being developed to homogenize the QC and make these data more integrate-able. Data Assembly Centers have been established to integrate some specialized streams including gliders, animal telemetry, and HF radar. Subsets of data that are ingested into the National Data Buoy Center are also routed to the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) of the World Meteorological Organization to assure wide international distribution. From the GTS, data are assimilated into now-cast and forecast models, fed to other observing systems, and used to support observation-based decision making such as forecasts, warnings, and alerts. For a few years apps were a popular way to deliver these real-time data streams to phones and tablets. Responsive and adaptive web sites are an emerging flexible strategy to provide access to the regional coastal ocean observations.

  9. Real-time observation of collective excitations in photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemell, C.; Neppl, S.; Wachter, G.; Tőkési, K.; Ernstorfer, R.; Feulner, P.; Kienberger, R.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2015-06-01

    Ejection of an electron by absorption of an extreme ultraviolet (xuv) photon probes the many-electron response of a solid well beyond the single-particle picture. Photoemission spectra feature complex correlation satellite structures signifying the simultaneous excitation of single or multiple plasmons. The time delay of the plasmon satellites relative to the main line can be resolved in attosecond streaking experiments. Time-resolved photoemission thus provides the key to discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitation. We demonstrate the determination of the branching ratio between intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon generation for simple metals.

  10. Real-time molecular scale observation of crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Roy E; Houben, Lothar; Wolf, Sharon G; Leitus, Gregory; Lang, Zhong-Ling; Carbó, Jorge J; Poblet, Josep M; Neumann, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    How molecules in solution form crystal nuclei, which then grow into large crystals, is a poorly understood phenomenon. The classical mechanism of homogeneous crystal nucleation proceeds via the spontaneous random aggregation of species from liquid or solution. However, a non-classical mechanism suggests the formation of an amorphous dense phase that reorders to form stable crystal nuclei. So far it has remained an experimental challenge to observe the formation of crystal nuclei from five to thirty molecules. Here, using polyoxometallates, we show that the formation of small crystal nuclei is observable by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. We observe both classical and non-classical nucleation processes, depending on the identity of the cation present. The experiments verify theoretical studies that suggest non-classical nucleation is the lower of the two energy pathways. The arrangement in just a seven-molecule proto-crystal matches the order found by X-ray diffraction of a single bulk crystal, which demonstrates that the same structure was formed in each case.

  11. PBO Integrated Real-Time Observing Sites at Volcanic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.; Borsa, A.; Feaux, K.; Smith, S.

    2009-05-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory, an element of NSF's EarthScope program, has six integrated observatories in Yellowstone and four on Mt St Helens. These observatories consist of some combination of borehole strainmeters, borehole seismometers, GPS, tiltmeters, pore pressure, thermal measurements and meteorological data. Data from all these instruments have highly variable data rates and formats, all synchronized to GPS time which can cause significant congestion of precious communication resources. PBO has been experimenting with integrating these data streams to both maximize efficiency and minimize latency through the use of software that combines the streams, like Antelope, and VPN technologies.

  12. Bringing Real-time Astronomical Observations into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Sonoma State University Education and Public Outreach group (SSU E/PO) coordinates the Global Telescope Network (GTN) - an informal association of scientists, students, individuals and observatories interested in supporting NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) and Swift missions, as well as the joint ESA/NASA XMM-Newton mission. Partners and associates in the GTN obtain and reduce ground based observations for objects related to the primary science goals for these missions and work together with NASA mission scientists to conduct multi-wavelength studies of exotic objects such as monstrous black holes, and highly-magnetized neutron stars and white dwarfs. The Global Telescope Network provides hands-on classroom activities and engaging instructional materials for a range of levels and interests, including Cookie Cutter Photometry and Jelly Bean Spectroscopy. We also provide mentoring in research practices, telescope use, data analysis and other educational resources. Examples of ongoing research projects will be presented, and the educational resources available through the GTN will be discussed.

  13. Change Semantic Constrained Online Data Cleaning Method for Real-Time Observational Data Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yulin; Lin, Hui; Li, Rongrong

    2016-06-01

    Recent breakthroughs in sensor networks have made it possible to collect and assemble increasing amounts of real-time observational data by observing dynamic phenomena at previously impossible time and space scales. Real-time observational data streams present potentially profound opportunities for real-time applications in disaster mitigation and emergency response, by providing accurate and timeliness estimates of environment's status. However, the data are always subject to inevitable anomalies (including errors and anomalous changes/events) caused by various effects produced by the environment they are monitoring. The "big but dirty" real-time observational data streams can rarely achieve their full potential in the following real-time models or applications due to the low data quality. Therefore, timely and meaningful online data cleaning is a necessary pre-requisite step to ensure the quality, reliability, and timeliness of the real-time observational data. In general, a straightforward streaming data cleaning approach, is to define various types of models/classifiers representing normal behavior of sensor data streams and then declare any deviation from this model as normal or erroneous data. The effectiveness of these models is affected by dynamic changes of deployed environments. Due to the changing nature of the complicated process being observed, real-time observational data is characterized by diversity and dynamic, showing a typical Big (Geo) Data characters. Dynamics and diversity is not only reflected in the data values, but also reflected in the complicated changing patterns of the data distributions. This means the pattern of the real-time observational data distribution is not stationary or static but changing and dynamic. After the data pattern changed, it is necessary to adapt the model over time to cope with the changing patterns of real-time data streams. Otherwise, the model will not fit the following observational data streams, which may led

  14. CHANGE SEMANTIC CONSTRAINED ONLINE DATA CLEANING METHOD FOR REAL-TIME OBSERVATIONAL DATA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent breakthroughs in sensor networks have made it possible to collect and assemble increasing amounts of real-time observational data by observing dynamic phenomena at previously impossible time and space scales. Real-time observational data streams present potentially profound opportunities for real-time applications in disaster mitigation and emergency response, by providing accurate and timeliness estimates of environment’s status. However, the data are always subject to inevitable anomalies (including errors and anomalous changes/events caused by various effects produced by the environment they are monitoring. The “big but dirty” real-time observational data streams can rarely achieve their full potential in the following real-time models or applications due to the low data quality. Therefore, timely and meaningful online data cleaning is a necessary pre-requisite step to ensure the quality, reliability, and timeliness of the real-time observational data. In general, a straightforward streaming data cleaning approach, is to define various types of models/classifiers representing normal behavior of sensor data streams and then declare any deviation from this model as normal or erroneous data. The effectiveness of these models is affected by dynamic changes of deployed environments. Due to the changing nature of the complicated process being observed, real-time observational data is characterized by diversity and dynamic, showing a typical Big (Geo Data characters. Dynamics and diversity is not only reflected in the data values, but also reflected in the complicated changing patterns of the data distributions. This means the pattern of the real-time observational data distribution is not stationary or static but changing and dynamic. After the data pattern changed, it is necessary to adapt the model over time to cope with the changing patterns of real-time data streams. Otherwise, the model will not fit the following observational

  15. PONDER - A Real time software backend for pulsar and IPS observations at the Ooty Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Arun; Manoharan, P K; Krishnakumar, M A

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new real-time versatile backend, the Pulsar Ooty Radio Telescope New Digital Efficient Receiver (PONDER), which has been designed to operate along with the legacy analog system of the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). PONDER makes use of the current state of the art computing hardware, a Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) and sufficiently large disk storage to support high time resolution real-time data of pulsar observations, obtained by coherent dedispersion over a bandpass of 16 MHz. Four different modes for pulsar observations are implemented in PONDER to provide standard reduced data products, such as time-stamped integrated profiles and dedispersed time series, allowing faster avenues to scientific results for a variety of pulsar studies. Additionally, PONDER also supports general modes of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) measurements and very long baseline interferometry data recording. The IPS mode yields a single polarisation correlated time series of solar wind scintillation over a b...

  16. Real-time Observations of Metal Nanoparticle Etching in Ultraclean Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Andersen, Henrik; Jinschek, Jörg R.;

    We describe a range of experimental conditions under which we observe unprecedented long-term stability in suspended graphene membranes under intense electron beam irradiation in environmental TEM. The stability and lack of beam-induced contamination permits us to study in real-time the dynamics ...

  17. PONDER - A Real time software backend for pulsar and IPS observations at the Ooty Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Arun; Joshi, Bhal Chandra; Manoharan, P. K.; Krishnakumar, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a new real-time versatile backend, the Pulsar Ooty Radio Telescope New Digital Efficient Receiver (PONDER), which has been designed to operate along with the legacy analog system of the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). PONDER makes use of the current state of the art computing hardware, a Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) and sufficiently large disk storage to support high time resolution real-time data of pulsar observations, obtained by coherent dedispersion over a bandpass of 16 MHz. Four different modes for pulsar observations are implemented in PONDER to provide standard reduced data products, such as time-stamped integrated profiles and dedispersed time series, allowing faster avenues to scientific results for a variety of pulsar studies. Additionally, PONDER also supports general modes of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) measurements and very long baseline interferometry data recording. The IPS mode yields a single polarisation correlated time series of solar wind scintillation over a bandwidth of about four times larger (16 MHz) than that of the legacy system as well as its fluctuation spectrum with high temporal and frequency resolutions. The key point is that all the above modes operate in real time. This paper presents the design aspects of PONDER and outlines the design methodology for future similar backends. It also explains the principal operations of PONDER, illustrates its capabilities for a variety of pulsar and IPS observations and demonstrates its usefulness for a variety of astrophysical studies using the high sensitivity of the ORT.

  18. Real-time data and communications services of NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. J.; Daniels, M.; Stossmeister, G.

    2011-12-01

    Near real-time information is critical for mission management of atmospheric observing systems. Advances in satellite communications and Internet distribution have allowed the Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) of NCAR to provide data, information and imagery to the scientists during evolving weather situations. Real-time data are necessary for updating interactive displays that show products from forecast models and many disparate observation systems (e.g. satellite, soundings, surface radars and aircraft in-situ observations). At the same time, network-based collaborative tools such as chat and web conferencing facilitate interactive participation between remote groups of scientists, engineers, operations centers and the observing platforms. In the recent PREDICT deployment of the NSF/NCAR GV research aircraft, dropsondes were released from the aircraft at 45,000 ft over a 1000 km x 1000 km area to give profiles of pressure, temperature, humidity and wind below the aircraft. Real-time data from the sondes was collected by the aircraft and relayed by satcom into the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) and assimilated into forecast models. The model forecast results were then fed back into ground-based and airborne displays (along with a multitude of observations) for enhanced decision-making and mission guidance. This environment of streaming data in real-time also allows more experts to look at data and compare it with other measurements. One particular benefit is that it alerts instrument operators on the ground and in the air to instrument problems, which can then be addressed very rapidly. The resulting communications and collaborations infrastructure results in unprecedented improvements to our data quality and rapid targeting of mission resources to important weather events. Using several examples, this presentation will provide an overview of current tools and processes in use at EOL, and future needs will be discussed.

  19. Land and Atmosphere Near-Real-Time Capability for Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near-real-time data from satellite sensors. The EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) was not originally designed to provide data with sufficiently low latency to satisfy the requirements for near-real-time users. The EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments aboard the Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites make global measurements daily, which are processed into higher-level 'standard' products within 8-40 hours of observation and then made available to users, primarily earth science researchers. However, applications users, operational agencies, and even researchers desire EOS products in near-real-time to support research and applications, including numerical weather and climate prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, ecological/invasive species, agriculture, air quality, disaster relief and homeland security. These users often need data much sooner than routine science processing allows, usually within 3 hours, and are willing to trade science product quality for timely access. While Direct Broadcast provides more timely access to data, it does not provide global coverage. In 2002, a joint initiative between NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), and the DOD (Department of Defense) was undertaken to provide data from EOS instruments in near-real-time. The NRTPE (Near Real Time Processing Effort) provided products within 3 hours of observation on a best-effort basis. As the popularity of these near-real-time products and applications grew, multiple near-real-time systems began to spring up such as the Rapid Response System. In recognizing the dependence of customers on this data and the need for highly reliable and timely data access, NASA's Earth Science Division sponsored the Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS)-led development of a new near-real-time system called

  20. REAL-TIME MONITORING SYSTEM USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE INTEGRATED WITH SENSOR OBSERVATION SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Witayangkurn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS and Sensor Service Grid (SSG to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  1. Approach for earth observation satellite real-time and playback data transmission scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    The scheduling of earth observation satel ites (EOSs) data transmission is a complex combinatorial optimization prob-lem. Current researches mainly deal with this problem on the assumption that the data transmission mode is fixed, either play-back or real-time transmission. Considering the characteristic of the problem, a multi-satel ite real-time and playback data trans-mission scheduling model is established and a novel algorithm based on quantum discrete particle swarm optimization (QDPSO) is proposed. Furthermore, we design the longest compatible trans-mission chain mutation operator to enhance the performance of the algorithm. Final y, some experiments are implemented to vali-date correctness and practicability of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Real-Time Difference Imaging Analysis of MOA Galactic Bulge Observations During 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, I. A.; Abe, F.; Dodd, R. J.; Hearnshaw, J. B.; Honda, M.; Jugaku, J.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Marles, A.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.(Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan); Nakamura, T.; Nankivell, G.; Noda, S.; Noguchi, C.

    2001-01-01

    We describe observations carried out by the MOA group of the Galactic Bulge during 2000 that were designed to detect efficiently gravitational microlensing of faint stars in which the magnification is high and/or of short duration. These events are particularly useful for studies of extra-solar planets and faint stars. Approximately 17 degrees square were monitored at a sampling rate of up to 6 times per night. The images were analysed in real-time using a difference imaging technique. Twenty...

  3. Fast X-ray micro-CT for real-time 4D observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, H; Yoshida, K; Tsuji, T; Koyama, T; Tsusaka, Y; Kagoshima, Y, E-mail: htakano@sci.u-hyogo.ac.j [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2009-09-01

    Fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) system with sub-second order measurement for single CT acquisition has been developed. The system, consisting of a high-speed sample rotation stage and a high-speed X-ray camera, is constructed at synchrotron radiation beamline in order to utilize fully intense X-rays. A time-resolving CT movie (i.e. 4D CT) can be available by operating the fast CT system continuously. Real-time observation of water absorbing process of super-absorbent polymer (SAP) has been successfully performed with the 4D CT operation.

  4. Application of Near Real-Time and Multiscale Three Dimensional Earth Observation Platforms in Disaster Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whey-Fone Tsai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan frequently experiences natural disasters such as typhoons, floods, landslides, debris flows, and earthquakes. Therefore, the instant acquisition of high-definition images and topographic or spatial data of affected areas as disasters occur is crucial for disaster response teams and making emergency aid decisions. The National Applied Research Laboratories has implemented the project “development of near real-time, high-resolution, global earth observation 3D platform for applications to environmental monitoring and disaster mitigation.” This developmental project integrates earth observation techniques, data warehousing, high-performance visualization displays, grids, and disaster prevention technology to establish a near real-time high-resolution three-dimensional (3D disaster prevention earth observation application platform for Taiwan. The main functions of this platform include (1 integration of observation information, such as Formosat-2 satellite remote sensing, aerial photography, and 3D photography of disaster sites, to provide multidimensional information of the conditions at the affected sites; (2 disaster prevention application technologies, such as large-sized high-resolution 3D projection system, medium-sized active stereo projection systems, and small-sized personal computers with multiscale 3D display systems; (3 a 3D geographical information network platform that integrates data warehousing and cloud services, complies with the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC international standard for image data exchange and release processes, and includes image overlaying and added-value analysis of disasters; and (4 near real-time and automated simulation of image processing procedures, which accelerates orthophoto processing once raw data are received from satellites and provides appropriate images for disaster prevention decision-making within 3 to 6 h. This study uses the 88 Flood event of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, Typhoon Fanapi

  5. Time-Expanded Sampling for Ensemble-Based Filters:Assimilation Experiments with Real Radar Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Huijuan; Qin XU; YAO Mingming; GAO Shouting

    2011-01-01

    By sampling perturbed state vectors from each ensenble prediction run at properly selected time levels in the vicinity of the analysis time, the recently proposed time-expanded sampling approach can enlarge the ensemble size without increasing the number of prediction runs and, hence, can reduce the computational cost of an ensemble-based filter. In this study, this approach is tested for the first time with real radar data from a tornadic thunderstorm. In particular, four assimilation experiments were performed to test the time-expanded sampling method against the conventional ensemble sampling method used by ensemblebased filters. In these experiments, the ensemble square-root filter (EnSRF) was used with 45 ensemble members generated by the time-expanded sampling and conventional sampling from 15 and 45 prediction runs, respectively, and quality-controlled radar data were compressed into super-observations with properly reduced spatial resolutions to improve the EnSRF performances. The results show that the time-expanded sampling approach not only can reduce the computational cost but also can improve the accuracy of the analysis, especially when the ensemble size is severely limited due to computational constraints for real-radar data assimilation. These potential merits are consistent with those previously demonstrated by assimilation experiments with simulated data.

  6. Exploiting crowdsourced observations: High-resolution mapping of real-time urban air quality throughout Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vallejo, Islen; van den Bossche, Joris; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    With the technology of air quality sensors improving rapidly in recent years and with an increasing number of initiatives for collecting air quality information being established worldwide, there is a rapidly increasing amount of information on air quality. Such datasets can provide unprecedented spatial detail and thus exhibit a significant potential for allowing to create observation-based high-resolution maps of air quality in the urban environment. However, most datasets of observations made within a citizen science or crowdsourcing framework tend to have highly variable characteristics in terms of quantity, accuracy, measured parameters, and representativeness, and many more. It is therefore currently unknown how to best exploit this information for mapping purposes. In order to address this challenge we present a novel approach for combining crowdsourced observations of urban air quality with model information, allowing us to produce near-real-time, high-resolution maps of air quality in the urban environment. The approach is based on data fusion techniques, which allow for combining observations with model data in a mathematically objective way and therefore provide a means of adding value to both the observations and the model. The observations are improved by filling spatio-temporal gaps in the data and the model is improved by constraining it with observations. The model further provides detailed spatial patterns in areas where no observations are available. As such, data fusion of observations from high-density low-cost sensor networks together with air quality models can contribute to significantly improving urban-scale air quality mapping. The system has been implemented to run in an automated fashion in near real-time (once every hour) for several cities in Europe. Evaluation of the methodology is being carried out using the leave-one-out cross validation technique and simulated datasets. We present case studies demonstrating the methodology for

  7. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  8. Experimental model and analytic solution for real-time observation of vehicle's additional steer angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Li, Liang; Pan, Deng; Cao, Chengmao; Song, Jian

    2014-03-01

    The current research of real-time observation for vehicle roll steer angle and compliance steer angle(both of them comprehensively referred as the additional steer angle in this paper) mainly employs the linear vehicle dynamic model, in which only the lateral acceleration of vehicle body is considered. The observation accuracy resorting to this method cannot meet the requirements of vehicle real-time stability control, especially under extreme driving conditions. The paper explores the solution resorting to experimental method. Firstly, a multi-body dynamic model of a passenger car is built based on the ADAMS/Car software, whose dynamic accuracy is verified by the same vehicle's roadway test data of steady static circular test. Based on this simulation platform, several influencing factors of additional steer angle under different driving conditions are quantitatively analyzed. Then ɛ-SVR algorithm is employed to build the additional steer angle prediction model, whose input vectors mainly include the sensor information of standard electronic stability control system(ESC). The method of typical slalom tests and FMVSS 126 tests are adopted to make simulation, train model and test model's generalization performance. The test result shows that the influence of lateral acceleration on additional steer angle is maximal (the magnitude up to 1°), followed by the longitudinal acceleration-deceleration and the road wave amplitude (the magnitude up to 0.3°). Moreover, both the prediction accuracy and the calculation real-time of the model can meet the control requirements of ESC. This research expands the accurate observation methods of the additional steer angle under extreme driving conditions.

  9. Real-time observation of Snell’s law for spin waves in thin ferromagnetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kenji; Matsumoto, Ryo; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Murakami, Shuichi; Moriyama, Takahiro; Chiba, Daichi; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo

    2014-05-01

    We report the real-time observation of spin-wave propagation across a step inserted between two ferromagnetic films with different thicknesses. Because the dispersion relation of the spin wave depends on the thickness of the film, the step works as a junction to affect the spin wave propagation. When the spin wave transmits through the junction, the wavenumber undergoes modulation as per Snell’s law, which states that the refraction index is proportional to the wavenumber. From the viewpoint of magnonics, the present achievement opens up new possibilities of controlling the wavenumber of spin waves.

  10. Observation of nuclear track in organic material by atomic force microscopy in real time during etching

    CERN Document Server

    Palmino, F; Labrune, J C

    1999-01-01

    The developments of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allow to investigated solid surfaces with a nanometer scale. These techniques are useful methods allowing direct observation of surface morphologies. Particularly in the nuclear track fields, they offer a new tool to give many new informations on track formation. In this paper we present the preliminary results of a new use of this technique to characterize continuously the formation of the revealed track in a cellulose nitrate detector (LR115) after an alpha particle irradiation. For that, a specific cell has been used to observe, by nano-observations, the evolution of track shapes simultaneously with chemical treatment. Thus, the track shape evolution has been studied; visualizing the evolution of the tracks in real time, in situ during the chemical etching process.

  11. Real time observables for the quark-gluon plasma from the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    found evidence for the emergence of a chromo-Weibel instability. We used a new gauge invariant approach to the spectral decomposition of the chromo-electric field, avoiding numerically costly gauge fixing routines. As for isotropization, we observed similar overall dynamics, when compared to equivalent SU(2) studies. However, computing the isotropization time we have found a significant difference. This suggests that the difference between different colour groups is not negligible when it comes to precise numbers. For the very first time we investigated quantitatively the effect of fermions on the isotropization process using a semi-classical approach to QCD. The observed energy transfer from bosons to fermions can be interpreted as fermion production from highly populated bosonic fields. In comparison to the pure bosonic study, the inclusion of fermions increased the isotropization from 9.3 fm to 13.2 fm using a fluctuation seed of Δ=0.7. This first study suggests that the inclusion of fermions has a non-negligible effect on the isotropization process. Overall, in this thesis we provide extensive studies on real time observables of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on a computation of the transport coefficient κ as well as an investigation of isotropization processes, we demonstrated that selected real time observables relevant in heavy ion collisions are accessible by lattice QCD and thus from first principles. This is particular important to give reliable predictions regarding the study of heavy ion collisions at RHIC, LHC and FAIR.

  12. Development of Real-Time Soil Carbon Ecoinformatics Infrastructure Using Observational Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J.; Risk, D. A.; Nickerson, N. R.

    2010-12-01

    To understand and model the temporal variability of soil respiration, we need high frequency, long-term data sets for model development and validation. Three observational stations equipped with Continuous Timeseries-Forced Diffusion (CTFD) probes were deployed in the summer of 2010 across a 1000 km transect in Atlantic Canada. At half hourly resolution, each observational station records soil CO2 efflux from two (2) probes and from a suite of meteorological sensors and peripherals. Each station is equipped with telemetry and data is continuously downloaded, quality controlled, processed, and made available for online display via several CGI, Java, and Perl scripts (http://fluxlab.stfx.ca/fieldsites/). This small network is intended to be the beginning developments of a larger Ecoinformatics Network. This presentation will display early data from this network and summarize real-time modeling efforts. The high-frequency observations show extremely dynamic systems which demonstrate CO2 efflux dependency to temperature and other important environmental drivers; pronounced increases in CO2 efflux after rain; differences across spatial scales; and short-term lags in data owing to gas or thermal transport. Other measurement methods (i.e. chambers) may miss many of these short-term flux variations in the absence of continuous data collection. Intra-site temporal observations (at sub-meter scale) show that spatially variable fluxes have similar scales of amplitude variation. All sites seem to show similar scales of temporal variability but CO2 fluxes can lag between probes across various time scales. These results suggest that site variably may be captured by measurements at only a few representative locations with high temporal frequency. Observation efforts will continue to monitor over winter and will provide unique data measuring fluxes under the snow pack at the soil interface. A key goal of this Ecoinformatics Network system is to develop improved soil models

  13. Real-time ultrasound-guided spinal anaesthesia: a prospective observational study of a new approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conroy, P H

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the subarachnoid space has traditionally been achieved by either a blind landmark-guided approach or using prepuncture ultrasound assistance. To assess the feasibility of performing spinal anaesthesia under real-time ultrasound guidance in routine clinical practice we conducted a single center prospective observational study among patients undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgery. A spinal needle was inserted unassisted within the ultrasound transducer imaging plane using a paramedian approach (i.e., the operator held the transducer in one hand and the spinal needle in the other). The primary outcome measure was the success rate of CSF acquisition under real-time ultrasound guidance with CSF being located in 97 out of 100 consecutive patients within median three needle passes (IQR 1-6). CSF was not acquired in three patients. Subsequent attempts combining landmark palpation and pre-puncture ultrasound scanning resulted in successful spinal anaesthesia in two of these patients with the third patient requiring general anaesthesia. Median time from spinal needle insertion until intrathecal injection completion was 1.2 minutes (IQR 0.83-4.1) demonstrating the feasibility of this technique in routine clinical practice.

  14. Real-Time Ultrasound-Guided Spinal Anaesthesia: A Prospective Observational Study of a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Conroy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the subarachnoid space has traditionally been achieved by either a blind landmark-guided approach or using prepuncture ultrasound assistance. To assess the feasibility of performing spinal anaesthesia under real-time ultrasound guidance in routine clinical practice we conducted a single center prospective observational study among patients undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgery. A spinal needle was inserted unassisted within the ultrasound transducer imaging plane using a paramedian approach (i.e., the operator held the transducer in one hand and the spinal needle in the other. The primary outcome measure was the success rate of CSF acquisition under real-time ultrasound guidance with CSF being located in 97 out of 100 consecutive patients within median three needle passes (IQR 1–6. CSF was not acquired in three patients. Subsequent attempts combining landmark palpation and pre-puncture ultrasound scanning resulted in successful spinal anaesthesia in two of these patients with the third patient requiring general anaesthesia. Median time from spinal needle insertion until intrathecal injection completion was 1.2 minutes (IQR 0.83–4.1 demonstrating the feasibility of this technique in routine clinical practice.

  15. Real-time observations of mechanical stimulus-induced enhancements of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xu; Liu Xiaoli; Sun Jialun [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300073 (China); He Shuojie [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300073 (China); Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Imshik [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300073 (China)], E-mail: ilee@nankai.edu.cn2; Pak, Hyuk Kyu [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Osteoblast, playing a key role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, is one of the mechanical stress sensitive cells. The effects of mechanical load-induced changes of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells were studied at real-time. Osteoblasts obtained from young Wister rats were exposed to mechanical loads in different frequencies and resting intervals generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tip and simultaneously measured the changes of the mechanical properties by AFM. The enhancement of the mechanical properties was observed and quantified by the increment of the apparent Young's modulus, E{sup *}. The observed mechanical property depended on the frequency of applied tapping loads. For the resting interval is 50 s, the mechanical load-induced enhancement of E{sup *}-values disappears. It seems that the enhanced mechanical property was recover able under no additional mechanical stimulus.

  16. Real time, in situ observation of the photocatalytic inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingtao [School of Food and Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Xiaoxin [Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Qi, E-mail: qili@imr.ac.cn [Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shang, Jian Ku [Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    An in situ microscopy technique was developed to observe in real time the photocatalytic inactivation process of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cells by palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (TiON/PdO) under visible light illumination. The technique was based on building a photocatalytic micro-reactor on the sample stage of a fluorescence/phase contrast microscopy capable of simultaneously providing the optical excitation to activate the photocatalyst in the micro-reactor and the illumination to acquire phase contrast images of the cells undergoing the photocatalytic inactivation process. Using TiON/PdO as an example, the technique revealed for the first time the vacuolar activities inside S. cerevisiae cells subjected to a visible light photocatalytic inactivation. The vacuoles responded to the photocatalytic attack by the first expansion of the vacuolar volume and then contraction, before the vacuole disappeared and the cell structure collapsed. Consistent with the aggregate behavior observed from the cell culture experiments, the transition in the vacuolar volume provided clear evidence that photocatalytic disinfection of S. cerevisiae cells started with an initiation period in which cells struggled to offset the photocatalytic damage and moved rapidly after the photocatalytic damage overwhelmed the defense mechanisms of the cells against oxidative attack. - Highlights: • Palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxidephotocatalyst (TiON/PdO) • Effective visible-light photocatalytic disinfection of yeast cells by TiON/PdO • Real time, in situ observation technique was developed for photocatalytic disinfection. • The fluorescence/phase contrast microscope with a photocatalytic micro-reactor • Yeast cell disinfection happened before the cell structure collapsed.

  17. Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Hohenleutner, M; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R

    2016-01-01

    Accelerating and colliding particles has been a key strategy to explore the texture of matter. Strong lightwaves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic (HH) radiation which encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of HH generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems and sparks hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not been observable in real time. Here, we study HH generation in a bulk solid directly in the time-domain, revealing a new quality of strong-field excitations in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits HH radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts which coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features hallmark a novel non-perturbative qua...

  18. The potential role of real-time geodetic observations in tsunami early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    experimental or testing stage and haven't been implemented yet in any standard TWS operations. Nonetheless, this is seen to be the future and the natural TWS evolving enhancement. In this context, improvement of the real-time estimates of tsunamigenic earthquake focal mechanism is of fundamental importance to trigger the appropriate computational chain. Quick discrimination between strike-slip and thrust-fault earthquakes, and equally relevant, quick assessment of co-seismic on-fault slip distribution, are exemplary cases to which a real-time geodetic monitoring system can contribute significantly. Robust inversion of geodetic data can help to reconstruct the sea floor deformation pattern especially if two conditions are met: the source is not too far from network stations and is well covered azimuthally. These two conditions are sometimes hard to satisfy fully, but in certain regions, like the Mediterranean and the Caribbean sea, this is quite possible due to the limited size of the ocean basins. Close cooperation between the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) community, seismologists, tsunami scientists and TWS operators is highly recommended to obtain significant progresses in the quick determination of the earthquake source, which can trigger a timely estimation of the ensuing tsunami and a more reliable and detailed assessment of the tsunami size at the coast.

  19. Real-time observation of the conformational dynamics of mitochondrial Hsp70 by spFRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikor, Martin; Mapa, Koyeli; von Voithenberg, Lena Voith; Mokranjac, Dejana; Lamb, Don C

    2013-05-29

    The numerous functions of the important class of molecular chaperones, heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70), rely on cycles of intricate conformational changes driven by ATP-hydrolysis and regulated by cochaperones and substrates. Here, we used Förster resonance energy transfer to study the conformational dynamics of individual molecules of Ssc1, a mitochondrial Hsp70, in real time. The intrinsic dynamics of the substrate-binding domain of Ssc1 was observed to be uncoupled from the dynamic interactions between substrate- and nucleotide-binding domains. Analysis of the fluctuations in the interdomain separation revealed frequent transitions to a nucleotide-free state. The nucleotide-exchange factor Mge1 did not induce ADP release, as expected, but rather facilitated binding of ATP. These results indicate that the conformational cycle of Ssc1 is more elaborate than previously thought and provide insight into how the Hsp70s can perform a wide variety of functions.

  20. Real-time interactive 3D manipulation of particles viewed in two orthogonal observation planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, I.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized phase contrast (GPC) method has been applied to transform a single TEM00 beam into a manifold of counterpropagating-beam traps capable of real-time interactive manipulation of multiple microparticles in three dimensions (3D). This paper reports on the use of low numerical aperture...... (NA), non-immersion, objective lenses in an implementation of the GPC-based 3D trapping system. Contrary to high-NA based optical tweezers, the GPC trapping system demonstrated here operates with long working distance (>10 mm), and offers a wider manipulation region and a larger field of view...... for imaging through each of the two opposing objective lenses. As a consequence of the large working distance, simultaneous monitoring of the trapped particles in a second orthogonal observation plane is demonstrated. (C) 2005 Optical Society of America....

  1. Real time simulation of nonlinear generalized predictive control for wind energy conversion system with nonlinear observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouari, Kamel; Rekioua, Toufik; Ouhrouche, Mohand

    2014-01-01

    In order to make a wind power generation truly cost-effective and reliable, an advanced control techniques must be used. In this paper, we develop a new control strategy, using nonlinear generalized predictive control (NGPC) approach, for DFIG-based wind turbine. The proposed control law is based on two points: NGPC-based torque-current control loop generating the rotor reference voltage and NGPC-based speed control loop that provides the torque reference. In order to enhance the robustness of the controller, a disturbance observer is designed to estimate the aerodynamic torque which is considered as an unknown perturbation. Finally, a real-time simulation is carried out to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller.

  2. Real-time Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Quercellini, Claudia; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Quartin, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the possibility of measuring the temporal change of radial and transverse position of sources in the sky in real time have become conceivable thanks to the thoroughly improved technique applied to new astrometric and spectroscopic experiments, leading to the research domain we call Real-time cosmology. We review for the first time great part of the work done in this field, analysing both the theoretical framework and some endeavor to foresee the observational strategies and their capability to constrain models. We firstly focus on real time measurements of the overall redshift drift and angular separation shift in distant source, able to trace background cosmic expansion and large scale anisotropy, respectively. We then examine the possibility of employing the same kind of observations to probe peculiar and proper acceleration in clustered systems and therefore the gravitational potential. The last two sections are devoted to the short time future change of the cosmic microwave background, as ...

  3. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Alexandra [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Haller, Merrick; Walker, David [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lynett, Pat [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    This project addressed Topic 3: “Wave Measurement Instrumentation for Feed Forward Controls” under the FOA number DE-FOA-0000971. The overall goal of the program was to develop a phase-resolving wave forecasting technique for application to the active control of Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices. We have developed an approach that couples a wave imaging marine radar with a phase-resolving linear wave model for real-time wave field reconstruction and forward propagation of the wave field in space and time. The scope of the project was to develop and assess the performance of this novel forecasting system. Specific project goals were as follows: Develop and verify a fast, GPU-based (Graphical Processing Unit) wave propagation model suitable for phase-resolved computation of nearshore wave transformation over variable bathymetry; Compare the accuracy and speed of performance of the wave model against a deep water model in their ability to predict wave field transformation in the intermediate water depths (50 to 70 m) typical of planned WEC sites; Develop and implement a variational assimilation algorithm that can ingest wave imaging radar observations and estimate the time-varying wave conditions offshore of the domain of interest such that the observed wave field is best reconstructed throughout the domain and then use this to produce model forecasts for a given WEC location; Collect wave-resolving marine radar data, along with relevant in situ wave data, at a suitable wave energy test site, apply the algorithm to the field data, assess performance, and identify any necessary improvements; and Develop a production cost estimate that addresses the affordability of the wave forecasting technology and include in the Final Report. The developed forecasting algorithm (“Wavecast”) was evaluated for both speed and accuracy against a substantial synthetic dataset. Early in the project, performance tests definitively demonstrated that the system was capable of

  4. Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. Teachers are generally not trained in observational astronomy techniques and are unfamiliar with the most basic astronomical concepts. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The problem becomes even more challenging in inner cities, remote rural areas and low socioeconomic communities where educational emphasis on topics in astronomy as well as access to observing facilities is limited or non existent. Access to most optical telescope facilities is limited to monthly observing nights that cater to a small percentage of the general public living near the observatory. Even here, the observing experience is a one-time event detached from the process of scientific enquiry and sustained educational application. Additionally, a number of large, "research grade" observatory facilities are largely unused, partially due to the slow creep of light pollution around the facilities as well as the development of newer, more capable telescopes. Though cutting edge science is often no longer possible at these sights, real research opportunities in astronomy remain numerous for these facilities as educational tools. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible through classrooms, after school, and community based programs all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA sponsored Telescopes In Education project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy

  5. Real-time characterization of partially observed epidemics using surrogate models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safta, Cosmin; Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Crary, David (Applied Research Associates, Arlington, VA); Sargsyan, Khachik; Cheng, Karen (Applied Research Associates, Arlington, VA)

    2011-09-01

    We present a statistical method, predicated on the use of surrogate models, for the 'real-time' characterization of partially observed epidemics. Observations consist of counts of symptomatic patients, diagnosed with the disease, that may be available in the early epoch of an ongoing outbreak. Characterization, in this context, refers to estimation of epidemiological parameters that can be used to provide short-term forecasts of the ongoing epidemic, as well as to provide gross information on the dynamics of the etiologic agent in the affected population e.g., the time-dependent infection rate. The characterization problem is formulated as a Bayesian inverse problem, and epidemiological parameters are estimated as distributions using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, thus quantifying the uncertainty in the estimates. In some cases, the inverse problem can be computationally expensive, primarily due to the epidemic simulator used inside the inversion algorithm. We present a method, based on replacing the epidemiological model with computationally inexpensive surrogates, that can reduce the computational time to minutes, without a significant loss of accuracy. The surrogates are created by projecting the output of an epidemiological model on a set of polynomial chaos bases; thereafter, computations involving the surrogate model reduce to evaluations of a polynomial. We find that the epidemic characterizations obtained with the surrogate models is very close to that obtained with the original model. We also find that the number of projections required to construct a surrogate model is O(10)-O(10{sup 2}) less than the number of samples required by the MCMC to construct a stationary posterior distribution; thus, depending upon the epidemiological models in question, it may be possible to omit the offline creation and caching of surrogate models, prior to their use in an inverse problem. The technique is demonstrated on synthetic data as well as

  6. Real-time observations of stressful events in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlNassar Sami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify and quantify factors causing stress in the operating room (OR and evaluate the relationship between these factors and surgeons′ stress level. Methods: This is a prospective observational study from 32 elective surgical procedures conducted in the OR of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Before each operation, each surgeon was asked of stressors. Two interns observed 16 surgeries each, separately. The interns watched and took notes during the entire surgical procedure. During each operation, the observer recorded anxiety-inducing activities and events that occurred in real time by means of a checklist of 8 potential stressors: technical, patient problems, teamwork problems, time and management issues, distractions and interruptions, equipment problems, personal problems, and teaching. After each operation, surgeons were asked to answer the validated State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and self-report on their stress level from the 8 sources using a scale of 1-8 (1: stress free, 8: extremely stressful. The observer also recorded perceived stress levels experienced by the surgeons during the operation. Results: One hundred ten stressors were identified. Technical problems most frequently caused stress (16.4% and personal issues the least often (6.4%. Frequently encountered stressors (teaching and distractions/interruptions caused less stress to the surgeons. Technical factors, teamwork, and equipment problems occurred frequently and were also a major contributor to OR stress. All patients were discharged in good health and within 1 week of surgery. Conclusion: Certain stressful factors do occur among surgeons in the OR and can increase the potential for errors. Further research is required to determine the impact of stress on performance and the outcome of surgery.

  7. Real-time observations of stressful events in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Alnassar; Waseem, Hajjar; Nourah, Alsubaie; Areej, Alhummaid; Afnan, Almarshedi; Ghadeer, Al-Shaikh; Abdulaziz, Alsaif; Arthur, Isnani

    2012-04-01

    To identify and quantify factors causing stress in the operating room (OR) and evaluate the relationship between these factors and surgeons' stress level. This is a prospective observational study from 32 elective surgical procedures conducted in the OR of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Before each operation, each surgeon was asked of stressors. Two interns observed 16 surgeries each, separately. The interns watched and took notes during the entire surgical procedure. During each operation, the observer recorded anxiety-inducing activities and events that occurred in real time by means of a checklist of 8 potential stressors: technical, patient problems, teamwork problems, time and management issues, distractions and interruptions, equipment problems, personal problems, and teaching. After each operation, surgeons were asked to answer the validated State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and self-report on their stress level from the 8 sources using a scale of 1-8 (1: stress free, 8: extremely stressful). The observer also recorded perceived stress levels experienced by the surgeons during the operation. One hundred ten stressors were identified. Technical problems most frequently caused stress (16.4%) and personal issues the least often (6.4%). Frequently encountered stressors (teaching and distractions/interruptions) caused less stress to the surgeons. Technical factors, teamwork, and equipment problems occurred frequently and were also a major contributor to OR stress. All patients were discharged in good health and within 1 week of surgery. Certain stressful factors do occur among surgeons in the OR and can increase the potential for errors. Further research is required to determine the impact of stress on performance and the outcome of surgery.

  8. Combining satellite observations to develop a global soil moisture product for near-real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enenkel, Markus; Reimer, Christoph; Dorigo, Wouter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Pfeil, Isabella; Parinussa, Robert; De Jeu, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from 10 different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI product for daily global updates via satellite-derived near-real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced Scatterometer on-board the two MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. In addition to adaptations of the ESA CCI SM processing chain for NRT datasets, the quality of the NRT datasets is a main source of uncertainty. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new CCI NRT dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average global correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.80. An initial validation with 40 in situ observations in France, Spain, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT, respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT product is nearly as accurate as the existing ESA CCI SM product and, therefore, of significant value for operational applications such as drought and flood forecasting, agricultural index insurance or weather forecasting.

  9. Multiple indices method for real-time tsunami inundation forecast using a dense offshore observation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N.; Aoi, S.; Hirata, K.; Suzuki, W.; Kunugi, T.; Nakamura, H.

    2015-12-01

    We started to develop a new methodology for real-time tsunami inundation forecast system (Aoi et al., 2015, this meeting) using densely offshore tsunami observations of the Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (S-net), which is under construction along the Japan Trench (Kanazawa et al., 2012, JpGU; Uehira et al., 2015, IUGG). In our method, the most important concept is involving any type and/or form uncertainties in the tsunami forecast, which cannot be dealt with any of standard linear/nonlinear least square approaches. We first prepare a Tsunami Scenario Bank (TSB), which contains offshore tsunami waveforms at the S-net stations and tsunami inundation information calculated from any possible tsunami source. We then quickly select several acceptable tsunami scenarios that can explain offshore observations by using multiple indices and appropriate thresholds, after a tsunami occurrence. At that time, possible tsunami inundations coupled with selected scenarios are forecasted (Yamamoto et al., 2014, AGU). Currently, we define three indices: correlation coefficient and two variance reductions, whose L2-norm part is normalized either by observations or calculations (Suzuki et al., 2015, JpGU; Yamamoto et al., 2015, IUGG). In this study, we construct the TSB, which contains various tsunami source models prepared for the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment in the Japan Trench region (Hirata et al., 2014, AGU). To evaluate the propriety of our method, we adopt the fault model based on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as a pseudo "observation". We also calculate three indices using coastal maximum tsunami height distributions between observation and calculation. We then obtain the correlation between coastal and offshore indices. We notice that the index value of coastal maximum tsunami heights is closer to 1 than the index value of offshore waveforms, i.e., the coastal maximum tsunami height may be predictable within appropriate thresholds defined for

  10. Real-time observation of nanoscale topological transitions in epitaxial PbTe/CdTe heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Groiss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The almost completely immiscible PbTe/CdTe heterostructure has recently become a prototype system for self-organized quantum dot formation based on solid-state phase separation. Here, we study by real-time transmission electron microscopy the topological transformations of two-dimensional PbTe-epilayers into, first, a quasi-one-dimensional percolation network and subsequently into zero-dimensional quantum dots. Finally, the dot size distribution coarsens by Ostwald ripening. The whole transformation sequence occurs during all stages in the fully coherent solid state by bulk diffusion. A model based on the numerical solution of the Cahn-Hilliard equation reproduces all relevant morphological and dynamic aspects of the experiments, demonstrating that this standard continuum approach applies to coherent solids down to nanometer dimensions. As the Cahn-Hilliard equation does not depend on atomistic details, the observed morphological transformations are general features of the model. To confirm the topological nature of the observed shape transitions, we developed a parameter-free geometric model. This, together with the Cahn-Hilliard approach, is in qualitative agreement with the experiments.

  11. Real-time observation of nanoscale topological transitions in epitaxial PbTe/CdTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groiss, H., E-mail: heiko.groiss@jku.at, E-mail: istvan.daruka@jku.at; Daruka, I., E-mail: heiko.groiss@jku.at, E-mail: istvan.daruka@jku.at; Springholz, G.; Schäffler, F. [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz 4040 (Austria); Koike, K.; Yano, M. [Nanomaterials Microdevices Research Center, Osaka Institute of Technology, Asahi-ku Ohmiya, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan); Hesser, G. [Center for Surface- and Nanoanalytics (ZONA), Johannes Kepler University, Linz 4040 (Austria); Zakharov, N.; Werner, P. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle 06120 (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The almost completely immiscible PbTe/CdTe heterostructure has recently become a prototype system for self-organized quantum dot formation based on solid-state phase separation. Here, we study by real-time transmission electron microscopy the topological transformations of two-dimensional PbTe-epilayers into, first, a quasi-one-dimensional percolation network and subsequently into zero-dimensional quantum dots. Finally, the dot size distribution coarsens by Ostwald ripening. The whole transformation sequence occurs during all stages in the fully coherent solid state by bulk diffusion. A model based on the numerical solution of the Cahn-Hilliard equation reproduces all relevant morphological and dynamic aspects of the experiments, demonstrating that this standard continuum approach applies to coherent solids down to nanometer dimensions. As the Cahn-Hilliard equation does not depend on atomistic details, the observed morphological transformations are general features of the model. To confirm the topological nature of the observed shape transitions, we developed a parameter-free geometric model. This, together with the Cahn-Hilliard approach, is in qualitative agreement with the experiments.

  12. First real-time observation of transverse division in azooxanthellate scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yuki; Haraguchi, Hiroko; Ezaki, Yoichi

    2017-02-01

    Asexual reproduction is one of the most important traits in the evolutionary history of corals. No real-time observations of asexual reproduction in azooxanthellate solitary scleractinian corals have been conducted to date. Here, we describe previously unknown aspects of asexual reproduction by using Truncatoflabellum spheniscus (Family Flabellidae) based on observations of transverse division conducted over 1200 days. The findings revealed that (1) transverse division was caused by decalcification; (2) compared to the anthocyathus (upper part of the divided corallum), the soft parts of the anthocaulus (lower part of the divided corallum) were severely damaged and injured during division; (3) these injuries were repaired rapidly; and (4) the anthocaulus regrew and repeatedly produced anthocyathi by means of transverse division. Differences in the patterns of soft-part regeneration and repair, as well as differences in skeletal growth rates between the anthocaulus and the anthocyathus imply that the ecological requirements and reproductive success are different from each other immediately after division. The findings provide important clues for unravelling why asexual reproduction appeared frequently in free-living corals, and the extent to which those modes of reproduction has affected the adaptive and evolutionary success of scleractinian corals throughout the Phanerozoic.

  13. NEAR REAL-TIME DETERMINATION OF EARTHQUAKE SOURCE PARAMETERS FOR TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING FROM GEODETIC OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manneela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exemplifying the tsunami source immediately after an earthquake is the most critical component of tsunami early warning, as not every earthquake generates a tsunami. After a major under sea earthquake, it is very important to determine whether or not it has actually triggered the deadly wave. The near real-time observations from near field networks such as strong motion and Global Positioning System (GPS allows rapid determination of fault geometry. Here we present a complete processing chain of Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS, starting from acquisition of geodetic raw data, processing, inversion and simulating the situation as it would be at warning center during any major earthquake. We determine the earthquake moment magnitude and generate the centroid moment tensor solution using a novel approach which are the key elements for tsunami early warning. Though the well established seismic monitoring network, numerical modeling and dissemination system are currently capable to provide tsunami warnings to most of the countries in and around the Indian Ocean, the study highlights the critical role of geodetic observations in determination of tsunami source for high-quality forecasting.

  14. Near Real-Time Determination of Earthquake Source Parameters for Tsunami Early Warning from Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manneela, Sunanda; Srinivasa Kumar, T.; Nayak, Shailesh R.

    2016-06-01

    Exemplifying the tsunami source immediately after an earthquake is the most critical component of tsunami early warning, as not every earthquake generates a tsunami. After a major under sea earthquake, it is very important to determine whether or not it has actually triggered the deadly wave. The near real-time observations from near field networks such as strong motion and Global Positioning System (GPS) allows rapid determination of fault geometry. Here we present a complete processing chain of Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS), starting from acquisition of geodetic raw data, processing, inversion and simulating the situation as it would be at warning center during any major earthquake. We determine the earthquake moment magnitude and generate the centroid moment tensor solution using a novel approach which are the key elements for tsunami early warning. Though the well established seismic monitoring network, numerical modeling and dissemination system are currently capable to provide tsunami warnings to most of the countries in and around the Indian Ocean, the study highlights the critical role of geodetic observations in determination of tsunami source for high-quality forecasting.

  15. Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenleutner, M; Langer, F; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R

    2015-07-30

    Acceleration and collision of particles has been a key strategy for exploring the texture of matter. Strong light waves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic radiation that encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of high-harmonic generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems, and provides hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not so far been observable in real time. Here we study high-harmonic generation in a bulk solid directly in the time domain, and reveal a new kind of strong-field excitation in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits high-harmonic radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts that coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features are characteristic of a non-perturbative quantum interference process that involves electrons from multiple valence bands. These results identify key mechanisms for future solid-state attosecond sources and next-generation light-wave electronics. The new quantum interference process justifies the hope for all-optical band-structure reconstruction and lays the foundation for possible quantum logic operations at optical clock rates.

  16. Real-time observation of cation exchange kinetics and dynamics at the muscovite-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Nagy, Kathryn L.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2017-06-01

    Ion exchange at charged solid-liquid interfaces is central to a broad range of chemical and transport phenomena. Real-time observations of adsorption/desorption at the molecular-scale elucidate exchange reaction pathways. Here we report temporal variation in the distribution of Rb+ species at the muscovite (001)-water interface during exchange with Na+. Time-resolved resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity measurements at 25 °C reveal that Rb+ desorption occurs over several tens of seconds during which thermodynamically stable inner-sphere Rb+ slowly transforms to a less stable outer-sphere Rb+. In contrast, Rb+ adsorption is about twice as fast, proceeding from Rb+ in the bulk solution to the stable inner-sphere species. The Arrhenius plot of the adsorption/desorption rate constants measured from 9 to 55 °C shows that the pre-exponential factor for desorption is significantly smaller than that for adsorption, indicating that this reduced attempt frequency of cation detachment largely explains the slow cation exchange processes at the interface.

  17. Real-time radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  18. Observations of Real-Time Captioning in the Elementary English Language Learner Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Nissa

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study reviews the effects of real-time captioning on vocabulary acquisition of a novice elementary English language learner (ELL). Triangulation of data was completed through review of teacher journaling, captioning transcripts, and student pretest and posttest assessments. Results illuminate improved retention and usage of…

  19. Observer Interface Analysis for Standardization to a Cloud Based Real-Time Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, J.

    2013-09-01

    The interface analysis from an observer of space objects makes a standard necessary. This standardized dataset serves as input for a cloud based service, which aimed for a near real-time Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. The system contains all advantages of a cloud based solution, like redundancy, scalability and an easy way to distribute information. For the standard based on the interface analysis of the observer, the information can be separated in three parts. One part is the information about the observer e.g. a ground station. The next part is the information about the sensors that are used by the observer. And the last part is the data from the detected object. Backbone of the SSA System is the cloud based service which includes the consistency check for the observed objects, a database for the objects, the algorithms and analysis as well as the visualization of the results. This paper also provides an approximation of the needed computational power, data storage and a financial approach to deliver this service to a broad community. In this context cloud means, neither the user nor the observer has to think about the infrastructure of the calculation environment. The decision if the IT-infrastructure will be built by a conglomerate of different nations or rented on the marked should be based on an efficiency analysis. Also combinations are possible like starting on a rented cloud and then go to a private cloud owned by the government. One of the advantages of a cloud solution is the scalability. There are about 3000 satellites in space, 900 of them are active, and in total there are about ~17.000 detected space objects orbiting earth. But for the computation it is not a N(active) to N problem it is more N(active) to N(apo peri) quantity of N(all). Instead of 15.3 million possible collisions to calculate a computation of only approx. 2.3 million possible collisions must be done. In general, this Space Situational Awareness System can be used as a

  20. Observing real-time social interaction via telecommunication methods in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Seki, Yoshimasa

    2016-07-01

    Humans communicate with one another not only face-to-face but also via modern telecommunication methods such as television and video conferencing. We readily detect the difference between people actively communicating with us and people merely acting via a broadcasting system. We developed an animal model of this novel communication method seen in humans to determine whether animals also make this distinction. We built a system for two animals to interact via audio-visual equipment in real-time, to compare behavioral differences between two conditions, an "interactive two-way condition" and a "non-interactive (one-way) condition." We measured birds' responses to stimuli which appeared in these two conditions. We used budgerigars, which are small, gregarious birds, and found that the frequency of vocal interaction with other individuals did not differ between the two conditions. However, body synchrony between the two birds was observed more often in the interactive condition, suggesting budgerigars recognized the difference between these interactive and non-interactive conditions on some level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. What can be observed in real time PCR and when does it show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigansky, Pavel; Jagers, Peter; Klebaner, Fima C

    2017-06-30

    Real time, or quantitative, PCR typically starts from a very low concentration of initial DNA strands. During iterations the numbers increase, first essentially by doubling, later predominantly in a linear way. Observation of the number of DNA molecules in the experiment becomes possible only when it is substantially larger than initial numbers, and then possibly affected by the randomness in individual replication. Can the initial copy number still be determined? This is a classical problem and, indeed, a concrete special case of the general problem of determining the number of ancestors, mutants or invaders, of a population observed only later. We approach it through a generalised version of the branching process model introduced in Jagers and Klebaner (J Theor Biol 224(3):299-304, 2003. doi: 10.1016/S0022-5193(03)00166-8 ), and based on Michaelis-Menten type enzyme kinetical considerations from Schnell and Mendoza (J Theor Biol 184(4):433-440, 1997). A crucial role is played by the Michaelis-Menten constant being large, as compared to initial copy numbers. In a strange way, determination of the initial number turns out to be completely possible if the initial rate v is one, i.e all DNA strands replicate, but only partly so when [Formula: see text], and thus the initial rate or probability of succesful replication is lower than one. Then, the starting molecule number becomes hidden behind a "veil of uncertainty". This is a special case, of a hitherto unobserved general phenomenon in population growth processes, which will be adressed elsewhere.

  2. Real-time observation of Zn electro-deposition with high-resolution microradiology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, W L; Hwu, Y; Chen, C H; Chang, L W; Je, J H; Margaritondo, G

    2003-01-01

    We used phase contrast radiography to study the electro-deposition of Zn in real time and with high lateral resolution. Using unmonochromatic synchrotron X-rays and an optics-less imaging setup, we were able to obtain real-time radiographs of the electro-deposition in situ with mu m resolution. A detailed analysis of the microstructure evolution relates the different growth parameters - such as the electric current density, the voltage bias, the pH value and the ion concentration - to very different growth morphology, ranging from film, porous, whisker and dendrite deposition. This link is both global and local. Local variations of the metal ion concentration in the electrolyte were also successfully imaged and the density profile is used to compare with the standard theory to explain the phenomenon of metal ion depletion near the electrode. The potential application of this technique to study growth with micropatterned electrodes and pulsed electric current is evaluated.

  3. Observability and confidence of stability and control derivatives determined in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Alfonso

    Stability and control derivatives of an aircraft were estimated from real flight test data in real time. A higher language block diagram library was developed for this purpose. Parameter identification techniques and requirements were used to detect and rate maneuvers present in the data. These ratings were used to blend newly calculated derivatives with previously known values by means of a Kalman filter. The Kalman filter output was used to identify the health of control surfaces actuators. Statistical and measured data were used to predict the probability that an actuator failure has occurred at any given time during the flight. Sweeps of all the tuning parameters of the system were performed, and it was demonstrated that these tuning parameters can be used to obtain the desired performance based on requirements.

  4. A virtual remote sensing observation network for continuous, near-real-time monitoring of atmospheric instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporov, Maria; Löhnert, Ulrich; Potthast, Roland; Cimini, Domenico; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Short-term forecasts of current high-resolution numerical weather prediction models still have large deficits in forecasting the exact temporal and spatial location of severe, locally influenced weather such as summer-time convective storms or cool season lifted stratus or ground fog. Often, the thermodynamic instability - especially in the boundary layer - plays an essential role in the evolution of weather events. While the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere is well measured close to the surface (i.e. 2 m) by in-situ sensors and in the upper troposphere by satellite sounders, the planetary boundary layer remains a largely under-sampled region of the atmosphere where only sporadic information from radiosondes or aircraft observations is available. The major objective of the presented DWD-funded project ARON (Extramural Research Programme) is to overcome this observational gap and to design an optimized network of ground based microwave radiometers (MWR) and compact Differential Absorption Lidars (DIAL) for a continuous, near-real-time monitoring of temperature and humidity in the atmospheric boundary layer in order to monitor thermodynamic (in)stability. Previous studies showed, that microwave profilers are well suited for continuously monitoring the temporal development of atmospheric stability (i.e. Cimini et al., 2015) before the initiation of deep convection, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the vertical resolution of microwave temperature profiles is best in the lowest kilometer above the surface, decreasing rapidly with increasing height. In addition, humidity profile retrievals typically cannot be resolved with more than two degrees of freedom for signal, resulting in a rather poor vertical resolution throughout the troposphere. Typical stability indices used to assess the potential of convection rely on temperature and humidity values not only in the region of the boundary layer but also in the layers above. Therefore, satellite

  5. Real time observations of coastal algal blooms by an early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H. W.; Hodgkiss, I. J.; Wong, K. T. M.; Lam, I. H. Y.

    2005-10-01

    In eutrophic sub-tropical coastal waters around Hong Kong, phytoplankton or unicellular microalgae can grow rapidly to very high concentrations under favourable environmental conditions. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have led to massive fish kills, hypoxia, and beach closures. However, to date the causality and mechanism of coastal algal blooms are still poorly understood. A remotely controlled autonomous real time field monitoring system has been developed to continuously track the changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, dissolved oxygen and other hydro-meteorological variables at two representative mariculture zones. The system can give an alarm when a bloom is detected, so that timely manual water quality sampling can be carried out to supplement the telemetric data. During 2000-2003, the system has successfully tracked 19 algal blooms. In the shallow weakly flushed coastal water (depth 7-10 m, tidal current 5-19 cm s -1), the bloom is short-lived, typically lasting a few days to over a week, with chlorophyll and DO concentrations in the range of 20-40 mg m -3 and 2-15 g m -3, respectively. It is found that: (1) the chlorophyll concentration is strongly correlated with its past values in the previous week, suggesting an auto-regressive type of algal dynamics; (2) the dissolved oxygen can reach highly super-saturated levels (12 g m -3) during a diatom bloom, and decreases to below 4 g m -3 at the tail of the growth phase; (3) in contrast, a dinoflagellate bloom is characterized by a much more pronounced vertical structure. Diel vertical migration and aggregation to dense layers are clearly observed. Significant dissolved oxygen consumption is associated with the migration, resulting in DO drops by as much as 6 g m -3 during the bloom; (4) the predominance of diatoms and dinoflagellates at the two sites can be explained in terms of the different hydrographic and nutrient conditions (the N:P ratio). Net algal growth rate, sinking and swimming velocities are

  6. Real-time performance analysis of wireless multimedia networks based on partially observed multivariate point processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2000-07-01

    Third-generation (3G) wireless networks will support integrated multimedia services based on a cellular extension of a packet-switched architecture using variants of the Internet protocol (IP). Services can be categorized as real- time and delay-sensitive, or non-real-time and delay- insensitive. Each call, arriving to or active within the network, carries demand for one or more services in parallel; each service type with a guaranteed quality of service (QoS). Admission of new calls to the wireless IP network (WIN) from the gateway of a wired network or from a mobile subscriber (MS) is allowed by call admission control procedures. Roaming of the MSs among the nodes of the WIN is controlled by handoff procedures between base stations (BSs), or BS controllers, and the MSs. Metrics such as the probabilities of call blocking and dropping, handoff transition time, processing latency of a call, throughput, and capacity are used to evaluate the performance of network control procedures. The metrics are directly related to the network resources required to provide the QoS for the integrated services.

  7. Real-Time Observation of Internal Motion within Ultrafast Dissipative Optical Soliton Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Nithyanandan, K.; Andral, Ugo; Tchofo-Dinda, Patrice; Grelu, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Real-time access to the internal ultrafast dynamics of complex dissipative optical systems opens new explorations of pulse-pulse interactions and dynamic patterns. We present the first direct experimental evidence of the internal motion of a dissipative optical soliton molecule generated in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser. We map the internal motion of a soliton pair molecule by using a dispersive Fourier-transform imaging technique, revealing different categories of internal pulsations, including vibrationlike and phase drifting dynamics. Our experiments agree well with numerical predictions and bring insights to the analogy between self-organized states of lights and states of the matter.

  8. Real time observation and automated measurement of red blood cells agglutination inside a passive microfluidic biochip containing embedded reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Maxime; Cubizolles, Myriam; Buhot, Arnaud

    2016-09-20

    The process of agglutination is commonly used for the detection of biomarkers like proteins or viruses. The multiple bindings between micrometer sized particles, either latex beads or red blood cells (RBCs), create aggregates that are easily detectable and give qualitative information about the presence of the biomarkers. In most cases, the detection is made by simple naked-eye observation of agglutinates without any access to the kinetics of agglutination. In this study, we address the development of a real-time time observation of RBCs agglutination. Using ABO blood typing as a proof-of-concept, we developed i) an integrated biological protocol suitable for further use as point-of-care (POC) analysis and ii) two dedicated image processing algorithms for the real-time and quantitative measurement of agglutination. Anti-A or anti-B typing reagents were dried inside the microchannel of a passive microfluidic chip designed to enhance capillary flow. A blood drop deposit at the tip of the biochip established a simple biological protocol. In situ agglutination of autologous RBCs was achieved by means of embedded reagents and real time agglutination process was monitored by video recording. Using a training set of 24 experiments, two real-time indicators based on correlation and variance of gray levels were optimized and then further confirmed on a validation set. 100% correct discrimination between positive and negative agglutinations was performed within less than 2min by measuring real-time evolution of both correlation and variance indicators.

  9. Method for diagnostics of characteristic patterns of observable time series and its real-time experimental implementation for neurophysiological signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovchinnikov, A.; Hramov, A.E.; Luttjohann, A.K.; Koronovskii, A.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed for analysis and automatic diagnostics of characteristic oscillatory patterns of the electric activity of the brain in real time on the basis of a continuous wavelet transformation. The results of experimental investigation of automatic recognition of epileptic activity episodes

  10. Real-time observation of ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitons and plasmons in metal/molecular aggregate hybrid nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerullo G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate ultrafast coherent manipulation of the normal mode splitting in metal/molecular-aggregate nanostructures by real-time observation of Rabi oscillations between excitons and surface-plasmon-polaritons. Oscillations in exciton density on a 10-fs timescale control the Rabi splitting.

  11. Real-time observation of intersystem crossing induced by charge recombination during bimolecular electron transfer reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsam, Amani Abdu

    2016-09-21

    Real-time probing of intersystem crossing (ISC) and triplet-state formation after photoinduced electron transfer (ET) is a particularly challenging task that can be achieved by time-resolved spectroscopy with broadband capability. Here, we examine the mechanism of charge separation (CS), charge recombination (CR) and ISC of bimolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between poly[(9,9-di(3,3′-N,N’-trimethyl-ammonium) propyl fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)] diiodide salt (PFN) and dicyanobenzene (DCB) using time-resolved spectroscopy. PET from PFN to DCB is confirmed by monitoring the transient absorption (TA) and infrared spectroscopic signatures for the radical ion pair (DCB─•-PFN+•). In addition, our time-resolved results clearly demonstrate that CS takes place within picoseconds followed by CR within nanoseconds. The ns-TA data exhibit the clear spectroscopic signature of PFN triplet-triplet absorption, induced by the CR of the radical ion pairs (DCB─•-PFN+•). As a result, the triplet state of PFN (3PFN*) forms and subsequently, the ground singlet state is replenished within microseconds. © 2016

  12. Accessing near real-time Antarctic meteorological data through an OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Peter; Breen, Paul

    2013-04-01

    We wish to highlight outputs of a project conceived from a science requirement to improve discovery and access to Antarctic meteorological data in near real-time. Given that the data was distributed in both spatial and temporal domains and is to be accessed across several science disciplines, the creation of an interoperable, OGC compliant web service was deemed the most appropriate approach. We will demonstrate an implementation of the OGC SOS Interface Standard to discover, browse, and access Antarctic meteorological data-sets. A selection of programmatic (R, Perl) and web client interfaces utilizing open technologies ( e.g. jQuery, Flot, openLayers ) will be demonstrated. In addition we will show how high level abstractions can be constructed to allow the users flexible and straightforward access to SOS retrieved data.

  13. Clinical applications of a real-time scanning-slit confocal microscope designed for real-time observations of the in-vivo human cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1995-05-01

    We describe a new, real-time, flying slit confocal microscope, that has unique features and imaging characteristics for in vivo human ocular imaging. In vivo real-time confocal microscopy is currently used to investigate the tear film, renewal of the ocular surface, the role of epithelial innervation in epithelial cell proliferation, wound healing, kinetics of drug penetration, the effects of laser refractive surgery on the keratocyte activation and distribution in the stroma, and the nature of endothelial defects. The following clinical examples will be presented and discussed: confocal microscopy of normal human basal and wing cells in the epithelium, confocal microscopy of lamellar and penetrating corneal grafts, confocal microscopy of corneal ulcer, confocal microscopy of scar formation after herpes keratitis, and confocal microscopy of corneal innervation. The use of scanning slit confocal microscopes has unique advantages over other instrumental systems based on pinhole-containing Nipkow disks (tandem-scanning confocal microscopes) for clinical in vivo confocal microscopy.

  14. Direct mapping rather than motor prediction subserves modulation of corticospinal excitability during observation of actions in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Mc Cabe, Sofia I; Villalta, Jorge I; Grafton, Scott T; Della-Maggiore, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Motor facilitation refers to the specific increment in corticospinal excitability (CSE) elicited by the observation of actions performed by others. To date, the precise nature of the mechanism at the basis of this phenomenon is unknown. One possibility is that motor facilitation is driven by a predictive process reminiscent of the role of forward models in motor control. Alternatively, motor facilitation may result from a model-free mechanism by which the basic elements of the observed action are directly mapped onto their cortical representations. Our study was designed to discern these alternatives. To this aim, we recorded the time course of CSE for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) during observation of three grasping actions in real time, two of which strongly diverged in kinematics from their natural (invariant) form. Although artificially slow movements used in most action observation studies might enhance the observer's discrimination performance, the use of videos in real time is crucial to maintain the time course of CSE within the physiological range of daily actions. CSE was measured at 4 time points within a 240-ms window that best captured the kinematic divergence from the invariant form. Our results show that CSE of the FDI, not the ADM, closely follows the functional role of the muscle despite the mismatch between the natural and the divergent kinematics. We propose that motor facilitation during observation of actions performed in real time reflects the model-free coding of perceived movement following a direct mapping mechanism. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Real time in situ x-ray topographic observation of deformation of single crystals and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.B.; Hershberger, J.; Chiaramonti, A.; Bilello, J.C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rek, Z.U. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.

    1998-12-31

    An experimental apparatus, which is capable of performing real time in situ X-ray topographic observation of deformation process via synchrotron white beam topography, has been developed. This device enables both tensile data (load-displacement) and topographic images to be recorded simultaneously. It has been utilized to study the deformation behaviors of crystals of Mo and W. These specimens have been subject to mechanical cycling with increasing load, and their deformation processes have been observed in real time and in situ via x-ray topography. This leads to the observation of several phenomena, which would have been difficult to reveal by other experimental techniques. They include stress concentration, microyielding, reversible variation of contrasts and stress relaxation. In addition, the deformation behaviors of small angle grain boundaries have also been examined. Furthermore, the specimens can be heated through a heating device attached to the tensile stage, which allows high temperature topography to be performed in real time. The technique has been applied to the Ta films on Si (100) substrates. With increasing temperature, the topographic observations have revealed that the Ta films yields, fracture and then proceed to delaminate from their substrates.

  16. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  17. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  18. Towards real-time assimilation of crowdsourced observations in hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Verlaan, Martin; Alfonso, Leonardo; Norbiato, Daniele; Monego, Martina; Ferri, Michele; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The continued technological advances have stimulated the spread of low-cost sensors that can be used by citizens to provide crowdsourced observations (CO) of different hydrological variables. An example of such low-cost sensors is a staff gauge connected to a QR code on which people can read the water level indication and send the measurement via a mobile phone application. The goal of this study is to assess the combined effect of the assimilation of CO coming from a distributed network of low-cost sensors, and the existing streamflow observations from physical sensors, on the performance of a semi-distributed hydrological model. The methodology is applied to the Bacchiglione catchment, North East of Italy, where an early warning system is used by the Alto Adriatico Water Authority to issue forecasted water level along the river network which cross important cities such as Vicenza and Padua. In this study, forecasted precipitation values are used as input in the hydrological model to estimate the simulated streamflow hydrograph used as boundary condition for the hydraulic model. Observed precipitation values are used to generate realistic synthetic streamflow values with various characteristics of arrival frequency and accuracy, to simulate CO coming at irregular time steps. These observations are assimilated into the semi-distributed model using a Kalman filter based method. The results of this study show that CO, asynchronous in time and with variable accuracy, can still improve flood prediction when integrated in hydrological models. When both physical and low-cost sensors are located at the same places, the assimilation of CO gives the same model improvement than the assimilation of physical observations only for high number of non-intermittent sensors. However, the integration of observations from low-cost sensors and single physical sensors can improve the flood prediction even when small a number of intermittent CO are available. This study is part of the

  19. Real-time observation of cardiac movement and structures in congenital and acquired heart diseases employing high-speed ultrasonocardiotomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K; Hibi, N; Kato, T; Fukui, Y; Arakawa, T

    1976-09-01

    Echocardiography has proved useful for cardiac diagnosis during the past several years; however, the conventional one-dimensional ultrasound pulse echo method cannot easily visualize the anatomical relationships of the various cardiac structures. To overcome the limitation, the authors attempted a real-time observation of cardiac structures and introduced high-speed ultrasonocardiotomography with a Sonolayergraph Model SSL-51H (Toshiba) having a logarithmic amplifier. Thirty sector images are produced per second by a mechanically operated, single flat or 75 mm. focus transducer measuring 10 mm. in diameter. The angle of a sector image composed of about 120 scanning lines is arbitrarily changeable from null to 65 degrees. The fast succession of images produced enables clear observation of the movement of cardiac structures in real time. Study of 230 patients by means of the proposed system suggests that it is advantageous as a quick method to provide two-dimensional echocardiograms for cardiac diagnosis and assessment, especially in noninvasive diagnosis.

  20. Advances in Web-Based, Near Real-Time Climate Data Ingest For NOAA's Cooperative Volunteer Observation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Redmond, K.; McCurdy, G.; Kelly, G.; Bonack, B.; Somrek, B.; Doesken, N.; Bollinger, J.

    2006-12-01

    NOAA is charged with collection, preservation and accessibility of a quality digital record of Cooperative Network data and metadata. This record has historically been derived through the imaging and keying of so- called "B-91' forms that are sent by observers and the National Weather Service to the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The processing time, including quality assurance checks and serial publication, typically is 45-60 days beyond the data month. Technological and communication advances, coupled with integrated climate and weather and water reporting needs have reached a threshold where near real-time (i.e., daily) reporting of observations is desirable. While ASOS data have long been directly reported to NCDC in this time horizon, National Weather Service Cooperative Network (COOP) data has continued to be recorded on forms. Timely data reporting is fundamental to the success of the U.S. effort in Global Earth Observations, especially for monitoring drought as part of the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS). Coupled with implementation planning for transition of Legacy COOP under NOAA's Environmental Real-Time Observing Network (NERON), work toward such a system is timely. NOAA is working closely with Regional Climate Centers, State Climatologists and other partners to develop a web-based interface based on existing systems (e.g., WxCoder, CoCoRAHS and COOLTAP) to provide for the electronic submission of daily COOP data to NCDC and the climate community. To this end, the following guiding principles have been identified: 1) Provide efficient, easy-to-use data entry system for participating COOP observers, 2) Ensure timely availability of COOP data for all customers, 3) Improve data quality through automated near-real-time data QA/QC, 4) Achieve a paperless electronic data collection, transmission, and archiving system. 5) Allow system flexibility to meet demands of integrating data from future observing systems This presentation

  1. Real-time observations of lithium battery reactions-operando neutron diffraction analysis during practical operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminato, Sou; Yonemura, Masao; Shiotani, Shinya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Nagao, Miki; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Ukyo, Yoshio; Adipranoto, Dyah Sulistyanintyas; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-06-30

    Among the energy storage devices for applications in electric vehicles and stationary uses, lithium batteries typically deliver high performance. However, there is still a missing link between the engineering developments for large-scale batteries and the fundamental science of each battery component. Elucidating reaction mechanisms under practical operation is crucial for future battery technology. Here, we report an operando diffraction technique that uses high-intensity neutrons to detect reactions in non-equilibrium states driven by high-current operation in commercial 18650 cells. The experimental system comprising a time-of-flight diffractometer with automated Rietveld analysis was developed to collect and analyse diffraction data produced by sequential charge and discharge processes. Furthermore, observations under high current drain revealed inhomogeneous reactions, a structural relaxation after discharge, and a shift in the lithium concentration ranges with cycling in the electrode matrix. The technique provides valuable information required for the development of advanced batteries.

  2. Real-time observations of lithium battery reactions—operando neutron diffraction analysis during practical operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminato, Sou; Yonemura, Masao; Shiotani, Shinya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Nagao, Miki; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Ukyo, Yoshio; Adipranoto, Dyah Sulistyanintyas; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-06-01

    Among the energy storage devices for applications in electric vehicles and stationary uses, lithium batteries typically deliver high performance. However, there is still a missing link between the engineering developments for large-scale batteries and the fundamental science of each battery component. Elucidating reaction mechanisms under practical operation is crucial for future battery technology. Here, we report an operando diffraction technique that uses high-intensity neutrons to detect reactions in non-equilibrium states driven by high-current operation in commercial 18650 cells. The experimental system comprising a time-of-flight diffractometer with automated Rietveld analysis was developed to collect and analyse diffraction data produced by sequential charge and discharge processes. Furthermore, observations under high current drain revealed inhomogeneous reactions, a structural relaxation after discharge, and a shift in the lithium concentration ranges with cycling in the electrode matrix. The technique provides valuable information required for the development of advanced batteries.

  3. Real-time observations of lithium battery reactions—operando neutron diffraction analysis during practical operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminato, Sou; Yonemura, Masao; Shiotani, Shinya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Nagao, Miki; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Ukyo, Yoshio; Adipranoto, Dyah Sulistyanintyas; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Among the energy storage devices for applications in electric vehicles and stationary uses, lithium batteries typically deliver high performance. However, there is still a missing link between the engineering developments for large-scale batteries and the fundamental science of each battery component. Elucidating reaction mechanisms under practical operation is crucial for future battery technology. Here, we report an operando diffraction technique that uses high-intensity neutrons to detect reactions in non-equilibrium states driven by high-current operation in commercial 18650 cells. The experimental system comprising a time-of-flight diffractometer with automated Rietveld analysis was developed to collect and analyse diffraction data produced by sequential charge and discharge processes. Furthermore, observations under high current drain revealed inhomogeneous reactions, a structural relaxation after discharge, and a shift in the lithium concentration ranges with cycling in the electrode matrix. The technique provides valuable information required for the development of advanced batteries. PMID:27357605

  4. Real-time observation of the isothermal crystallization kinetics in a deeply supercooled liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, M.; Cormier, L.; Hennet, L.; Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.

    2017-01-01

    Below the melting temperature Tm, crystals are the stable phase of typical elemental or molecular systems. However, cooling down a liquid below Tm, crystallization is anything but inevitable. The liquid can be supercooled, eventually forming a glass below the glass transition temperature Tg. Despite their long lifetimes and the presence of strong barriers that produces an apparent stability, supercooled liquids and glasses remain intrinsically a metastable state and thermodynamically unstable towards the crystal. Here we investigated the isothermal crystallization kinetics of the prototypical strong glassformer GeO2 in the deep supercooled liquid at 1100 K, about half-way between Tm and Tg. The crystallization process has been observed through time-resolved neutron diffraction for about three days. Data show a continuous reorganization of the amorphous structure towards the alpha-quartz phase with the final material composed by crystalline domains plunged into a low-density, residual amorphous matrix. A quantitative analysis of the diffraction patterns allows determining the time evolution of the relative fractions of crystal and amorphous, that was interpreted through an empirical model for the crystallization kinetics. This approach provides a very good description of the experimental data and identifies a predator-prey-like mechanism between crystal and amorphous, where the density variation acts as a blocking barrier. PMID:28255173

  5. Real-time shadows

    CERN Document Server

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  6. Development of real time monitor system displaying seismic waveform data observed at seafloor seismic network, DONET, for disaster management information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, H.; Takaesu, M.; Sueki, K.; Takahashi, N.; Sonoda, A.; Miura, S.; Tsuboi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Mega-thrust earthquakes are anticipated to occur in the Nankai Trough in southwest Japan. In the source areas, we have deployed seafloor seismic network, DONET (Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunamis), in 2010 in order to monitor seismicity, crustal deformations, and tsunamis. DONET system consists of totally 20 stations, which is composed of six kinds of sensors, including strong-motion seismometers and quartz pressure gauges. Those stations are densely distributed with an average spatial interval of 15-20 km and cover near the trench axis to coastal areas. Observed data are transferred to a land station through a fiber-optical cable and then to JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) data management center through a private network in real time. After 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, each local government close to Nankai Trough try to plan disaster prevention scheme. JAMSTEC will disseminate DONET data combined with research accomplishment so that they will be widely recognized as important earthquake information. In order to open DONET data observed for research to local government, we have developed a web application system, REIS (Real-time Earthquake Information System). REIS is providing seismic waveform data to some local governments close to Nankai Trough as a pilot study. As soon as operation of DONET is ready, REIS will start full-scale operation. REIS can display seismic waveform data of DONET in real-time, users can select strong motion and pressure data, and configure the options of trace view arrangement, time scale, and amplitude. In addition to real-time monitoring, REIS can display past seismic waveform data and show earthquake epicenters on the map. In this presentation, we briefly introduce DONET system and then show our web application system. We also discuss our future plans for further developments of REIS.

  7. The 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa earthquake, California: Observations from real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapenthin, Ronni; Johanson, Ingrid; Allen, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, progress has been made to demonstrate feasibility and benefits of including real-time GPS (rtGPS) in earthquake early warning and rapid response systems. Most concepts, however, have yet to be integrated into operational environments. The Berkeley Seismological Laboratory runs an rtGPS-based finite fault inversion scheme in real time. This system (G-larmS) detected the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake in California. We review G-larmS' performance during this event and 13 aftershocks and present rtGPS observations and real-time modeling results for the main shock. The first distributed slip model and magnitude estimates were available 24s after the event origin time, which, after optimizations, was reduced to 14s (≈8s S wave travel time, ≈6s data latency). G-larmS' solutions for the aftershocks (that had no measurable surface displacements) demonstrate that, in combination with the seismic early warning magnitude, Mw 6.0 is our current resolution limit.

  8. The CHORDS Portal: Lowering the Barrier for Internet Collection, Archival and Distribution of Real-Time Geophysical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Dye, M. J.; Daniels, M. D.; Keiser, K.; Maskey, M.; Graves, S. J.; Kerkez, B.; Chandrasekar, V.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences (CHORDS) project tackles the challenges of collecting and disseminating geophysical observational data in real-time, especially for researchers with limited IT budgets and expertise. The CHORDS Portal is a component that allows research teams to easily configure and operate a cloud-based service which can receive data from dispersed instruments, manage a rolling archive of the observations, and serve these data to any client on the Internet. The research group (user) creates a CHORDS portal simply by running a prepackaged "CHORDS appliance" on Amazon Web Services. The user has complete ownership and management of the portal. Computing expenses are typically very small. RESTful protocols are employed for delivering and fetching data from the portal, which means that any system capable of sending an HTTP GET message is capable of accessing the portal. A simple API is defined, making it straightforward for non-experts to integrate a diverse collection of field instruments. Languages with network access libraries, such as Python, sh, Matlab, R, IDL, Ruby and JavaScript (and most others) can retrieve structured data from the portal with just a few lines of code. The user's private portal provides a browser-based system for configuring, managing and monitoring the health of the integrated real-time system. This talk will highlight the design goals, architecture and agile development of the CHORDS Portal. A running portal, with operational data feeds from across the country, will be presented.

  9. Near real time observational data collection for SPRUCE experiment- PakBus protocol for slow satellite connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul; Riggs, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Climate change studies are one of the most important aspects of modern science and related experiments are getting bigger and more complex. One such experiment is the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE, http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) conducted in in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The SPRUCE experimental mission is to assess ecosystem-level biological responses of vulnerable, high carbon terrestrial ecosystems to a range of climate warming manipulations and an elevated CO2 atmosphere. This manipulation experiment generates a lot of observational data and requires a reliable onsite data collection system, dependable methods to transfer data to a robust scientific facility, and real-time monitoring capabilities. This publication shares our experience of establishing near real time data collection and monitoring system via a satellite link using PakBus protocol.

  10. Observability transition in real networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Radicchi, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    We consider the observability model in networks with arbitrary topologies. We introduce a system of coupled nonlinear equations, valid under the locally treelike ansatz, to describe the size of the largest observable cluster as a function of the fraction of directly observable nodes present in the network. We perform a systematic analysis on 95 real-world graphs and compare our theoretical predictions with numerical simulations of the observability model. Our method provides almost perfect predictions in the majority of the cases, even for networks with very large values of the clustering coefficient. Potential applications of our theory include the development of efficient and scalable algorithms for real-time surveillance of social networks, and monitoring of technological networks.

  11. Observability transition in real networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We consider the observability model in networks with arbitrary topologies. We introduce a system of coupled nonlinear equations, valid under the locally tree-like ansatz, to describe the size of the largest observable cluster as a function of the fraction of directly observable nodes present in the network. We perform a systematic analysis on 95 real-world graphs and compare our theoretical predictions with numerical simulations of the observability model. Our method provides almost perfect predictions in the majority of the cases, even for networks with very large values of the clustering coefficient. Potential applications of our theory include the development of efficient and scalable algorithms for real-time surveillance of social networks, and monitoring of technological networks.

  12. Does type of hospital ownership influence physicians' daily work schedules? An observational real-time study in German hospital departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schöffel Norman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last two decades the German hospital sector has been engaged in a constant process of transformation. One obvious sign of this is the growing amount of hospital privatization. To date, most research studies have focused on the effects of privatization regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the effects of privatization on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real-time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. By analysing working hours, further impacts of hospital privatization can be assessed and areas of improvement identified. Methods Observations were made by shadowing 100 physicians working in private, for-profit or non-profit as well as public hospital departments individually during whole weekday shifts in urban German settings. A total of 300 days of observations were conducted. All working activities were recorded, accurate to the second, by using a mobile personal computer. Results Results have shown significant differences in physicians' working activities, depending on hospital ownership, concerning working hours and time spent on direct and indirect patient care. Conclusion This is the first real-time analysis on differences in work activities depending on hospital ownership. The study provides an objective insight into physicians' daily work routines at hospitals of different ownership, with additional information on effects of hospital privatization.

  13. Does type of hospital ownership influence physicians' daily work schedules? An observational real-time study in German hospital departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Scutaru, Cristian; Vitzthum, Karin; Quarcoo, David; Schöffel, Norman; Welte, Tobias; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last two decades the German hospital sector has been engaged in a constant process of transformation. One obvious sign of this is the growing amount of hospital privatization. To date, most research studies have focused on the effects of privatization regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the effects of privatization on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real-time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. By analysing working hours, further impacts of hospital privatization can be assessed and areas of improvement identified. Methods Observations were made by shadowing 100 physicians working in private, for-profit or non-profit as well as public hospital departments individually during whole weekday shifts in urban German settings. A total of 300 days of observations were conducted. All working activities were recorded, accurate to the second, by using a mobile personal computer. Results Results have shown significant differences in physicians' working activities, depending on hospital ownership, concerning working hours and time spent on direct and indirect patient care. Conclusion This is the first real-time analysis on differences in work activities depending on hospital ownership. The study provides an objective insight into physicians' daily work routines at hospitals of different ownership, with additional information on effects of hospital privatization. PMID:19473487

  14. Medical work Assessment in German hospitals: a Real-time Observation study (MAGRO – the study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mache Stefanie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing economic pressure characterizes the current situation in health care and the need to justify medical decisions and organizational processes due to limited financial resources is omnipresent. Physicians tend to interpret this development as a decimation of their own medical influence. This becomes even more obvious after a change in hospital ownership i.e. from a public to a private profit oriented organization. In this case each work procedure is revised. To date, most research studies have focused mainly on differences between hospitals of different ownership regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Little attention has been devoted to the effects of hospital ownership on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. Methods The consequences of different management types on the organizational structures of the physicians' work situation and on job satisfaction in the ward situation are monitored by objective real time studies and multi-level psycho diagnostic measurements. Discussion This study is unique in its focus. To date no results have been found for computer-based real time studies on work activity in the clinical field in order to objectively evaluate a physician's work-related stress. After a complete documentation of the physicians' work processes the daily work flow can be estimated and systematically optimized. This can stimulate an overall improvement of health care services in Germany.

  15. Real-Time Fault Detection Approach for Nonlinear Systems and its Asynchronous T-S Fuzzy Observer-Based Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Ding, Steven X; Qiu, Jianbin; Yang, Ying

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with a real-time observer-based fault detection (FD) approach for a general type of nonlinear systems in the presence of external disturbances. To this end, in the first part of this paper, we deal with the definition and the design condition for an L ∞ / L 2 type of nonlinear observer-based FD systems. This analytical framework is fundamental for the development of real-time nonlinear FD systems with the aid of some well-established techniques. In the second part, we address the integrated design of the L ∞ / L 2 observer-based FD systems by applying Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy dynamic modeling technique as the solution tool. This fuzzy observer-based FD approach is developed via piecewise Lyapunov functions, and can be applied to the case that the premise variables of the FD system is nonsynchronous with the premise variables of the fuzzy model of the plant. In the end, a case study on the laboratory setup of three-tank system is given to show the efficiency of the proposed results.

  16. Neutral molecular cluster formation of sulfuric acid-dimethylamine observed in real time under atmospheric conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreas Kürten; Tuija Jokinen; Mario Simon; Mikko Sipilä; Nina Sarnela; Heikki Junninen; Alexey Adamov; João Almeida; Antonio Amorim; Federico Bianchi; Martin Breitenlechner; Josef Dommen; Neil M. Donahue; Jonathan Duplissy; Sebastian Ehrhart; Richard C. Flagan; Alessandro Franchin; Jani Hakala; Armin Hansel; Martin Heinritzi; Manuel Hutterli; Juha Kangasluoma; Jasper Kirkby; Ari Laaksonen; Katrianne Lehtipalo; Markus Leiminger; Vladimir Makhmutov; Serge Mathot; Antti Onnela; Tuukka Petäjä; Arnaud P. Praplan; Francesco Riccobono; Matti P. Rissanen; Linda Rondo; Siegfried Schobesberger; John H. Seinfeld; Gerhard Steiner; António Tomé; Jasmin Tröstl; Paul M. Winkler; Christina Williamson; Daniela Wimmer; Penglin Ye; Urs Baltensperger; Kenneth S. Carslaw; Markku Kulmala; Douglas R. Worsnop; Joachim Curtius

    2014-01-01

    For atmospheric sulfuric acid (SA) concentrations the presence of dimethylamine (DMA) at mixing ratios of several parts per trillion by volume can explain observed boundary layer new particle formation rates...

  17. Real-time Observation of Vo ordering dynamics in LaCoO3 /STO superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae Hyuck; Mishra, Rohan; Kim, Young-Min; He, Qian; Qiao, Liang; Biegalski, Michael D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Oak Ridge National Lab. Collaboration; Vanderbilt University Collaboration; Korea Basic Science Institute Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Properties of solid oxide fuel cell, catalysts etc. is dependent on the distribution and transport behavior of oxygen ions. In this study, we observe the dynamics of vacancy ordering in LaCoO3/SrTiO3 (LCO/STO) superlattice and LCO films using high angle annular dark field and annular bright field (ABF) STEM. Vo ordering was directly observed by tracking interatomic spacings, withs nucleation, propagation and interaction of different Vo nuclei demonstrated. Moreover, ABF images show that on 1-D (110) vacancy channels form in the depleted layers.In the case for superlattice, very small contribution of vacancy injection was observed. When this approach is applied to 15 u.c. LCO film, however, a sequence of different phases is observed, starting from disordered perovskite LaCoO3-x to a brownmillerite La3Co3O8-x to eventually brownmillerite La2Co2O5-x. Kinetics of the ordering and vacancy injection, as well as implications for beam-driven phase-transformation at an atomic scale, will be discussed. Research at ORNL supported by the MSE division, BES U.S. DOE, and through a user project supported by ORNL's CMMS, which is also sponsored by BES U.S. DOE.

  18. Making sense of crowdsourced observations: Data fusion techniques for real-time mapping of urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vogt, Matthias; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    With an ever-increasing amount of environmental observations available through crowdsourcing, one of the major emerging challenges is how to best make sense of the vast amount of collected observations and how to provide citizens and other end-users with a relevant value-added product. Regarding air quality, a high-density network of low-cost sensors provided by crowdsourcing has significant potential for improving spatial mapping in general and in urban areas in particular. However, most datasets of observations made within a crowdsourcing framework contain substantial data gaps and the observations are generally point measurements, which are only representative of a relatively small area. This poses a significant challenge for mapping applications. One way to overcome these issues is to combine the crowdsourced data with spatially continuous data from a model. We present a novel data fusion-based technique for combining real-time crowdsourced observations with model output that allows to provide highly detailed, up-to-date maps of urban air quality. The EU-funded CITI-SENSE project is deploying a dense network of low-cost sensors measuring air quality in eight cities around Europe. These crowdsourced observations are used for mapping urban quality in real-time by fusing them with data obtained from statistical or deterministic air quality models. Data fusion techniques allow for combining observations with model data in a mathematically objective way and therefore provide a means of adding value to both the observations and the model. The observations are improved by filling spatio-temporal gaps in the data and the model is improved by constraining it with observations. The model further provides detailed spatial patterns in areas where no observations are available. As such, data fusion of observations from high-density low-cost sensor networks together with models can contribute to significantly improving urban-scale air quality mapping. The data fusion

  19. Investigation on Formation Mechanism of Irregular Shape Porosity in Hypoeutectic Aluminum Alloy by X-Ray Real Time Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hengcheng; Zhao, Lei; Wu, Yuna; Fan, Ran; Wang, Qigui; Pan, Ye

    2012-08-01

    The formation mechanism of irregular shape porosity in hypoeutectic aluminum silicon alloy (A356) was investigated by X-ray real time observation on porosity evolution during solidification and re-melting. Porosity in the hypoeutectic aluminum A356 alloy with high hydrogen content (>0.3 mL/100 g Al) first forms in the liquid as small spherical gas bubbles, then expands along with the pressure drop in the mushy zone due to shrinkage and lack of feeding, and finally deforms into irregular morphology by the impingement of aluminum dendrite network. Degassing is a key to eliminate porosity in aluminum alloy castings.

  20. Real-Time Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNHCR

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A real-time evaluation (RTE is a timely, rapid andinteractive review of a fast evolving humanitarianoperation undertaken at an early phase. Its broadobjectives are to gauge the effectiveness and impactof a given UNHCR response and to ensure that itsfindings are used as an immediate catalyst fororganisational and operational change.

  1. Real-Time Observation of Organic Cation Reorientation in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Lovrincic, Robert; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Zhuoying; Walsh, Aron; Frost, Jarvist M.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of a mobile and polarized organic moiety as a cation in 3D lead-iodide perovskites brings fascinating optoelectronic properties to these materials. The extent and the time scales of the orientational mobility of the organic cation and the molecular mechanism behind its motion remain

  2. Real-Time Delivery of Global Environmental Observation Data From Space-Based Sensors using the Inmarsat BGAN System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, C. C.; Lenz, C.; Yunck, T.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes a technique and the resulting improvements in quality and latency related to the collection, processing, and distribution of environmental observation data that is collected globally, from space-based sensors. The technique employs a newly developed transceiver which allows a spacecraft in low-earth orbit to communicate with the ground in real-time, globally, via the existing constellation of Inmarsat commercial communication satellites. The ability to communicate with the space-based platform and its sensors at all times, with data latencies measured in milliseconds rather than tens of minutes opens up new opportunities for the collection and application of data captured by sensors in space, as well as the ability for closed-loop tasking of the space based instruments or uploading large data sets to the instruments. The authors describe the technology involved, followed by the description of how this technology is being applied for the real-time collection of space weather observations. The process of collection, data transfer, processing, and distribution is described, highlighting the areas where this new technology improves value of the collected data with the reduced latency. Finally, the paper provides a glance at other applications and data products where this technology and approach could be employed to improve data value and to develop new applications of data collected on space-based platforms.

  3. Real-time observation of vibrational revival in the fastest molecular system

    OpenAIRE

    Rudenko, A.; Ergler, Th.; Feuerstein, B.; Zrost, K.; Schröter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2006-01-01

    After preparing a coherent vibrational wave packet in the hydrogen molecular ion by ionizing neutral H2 molecules with a 6.5 fs, 760 nm laser pulse at 3 × 1014 W/cm2, we map its spatio-temporal evolution by the fragmentation induced with a second 6.5 fs laser pulse of doubled intensity. In this proof-of-principle experiment, we visualize the oscillations of this most fundamental molecular system, observe a dephasing of the vibrational wave packet and its subsequent revival. Whereas the experi...

  4. Neutral molecular cluster formation of sulfuric acid–dimethylamine observed in real time under atmospheric conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, Andreas; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Junninen, Heikki; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Hutterli, Manuel; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Seinfeld, John H; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomé, António; Tröstl, Jasmin; Winkler, Paul M; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Curtius, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    For atmospheric sulfuric acid (SA) concentrations the presence of dimethylamine (DMA) at mixing ratios of several parts per trillion by volume can explain observed boundary layer new particle formation rates. However, the concentration and molecular composition of the neutral (uncharged) clusters have not been reported so far due to the lack of suitable instrumentation. Here we report on experiments from the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research revealing the formation of neutral particles containing up to 14 SA and 16 DMA molecules, corresponding to a mobility diameter of about 2 nm, under atmospherically relevant conditions. These measurements bridge the gap between the molecular and particle perspectives of nucleation, revealing the fundamental processes involved in particle formation and growth. The neutral clusters are found to form at or close to the kinetic limit where particle formation is limited only by the collision rate of SA molecules. Even tho...

  5. Real-Time Shading

    CERN Document Server

    Olano, Marc

    2002-01-01

    This book covers real-time shading systems, their design and how they work. Procedural shading, long valued for off-line rendering and production animation is now possible on interactive graphics hardware. These developments are important for areas such as game development, product design, and scientific visualization, among others. The authors include examples of techniques for achieving common effects efficiently in a real-time shading language ranging from full procedural shading on advanced specialized hardware to limited, yet surprisingly flexible shading on unextended OpenGL, to modern P

  6. Real-Time Observation of Cuprates Structural Dynamics by Ultrafast Electron Crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Carbone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonon-mediated attractive interaction between carriers leads to the Cooper pair formation in conventional superconductors. Despite decades of research, the glue holding Cooper pairs in high-temperature superconducting cuprates is still controversial, and the same is true for the relative involvement of structural and electronic degrees of freedom. Ultrafast electron crystallography (UEC offers, through observation of spatiotemporally resolved diffraction, the means for determining structural dynamics and the possible role of electron-lattice interaction. A polarized femtosecond (fs laser pulse excites the charge carriers, which relax through electron-electron and electron-phonon couplings, and the consequential structural distortion is followed diffracting fs electron pulses. In this paper, the recent findings obtained on cuprates are summarized. In particular, we discuss the strength and symmetry of the directional electron-phonon coupling in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (BSCCO, as well as the c-axis structural instability induced by near-infrared pulses in La2CuO4 (LCO. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed with focus on the possibility of charge stripes being significant in accounting for the polarization anisotropy of BSCCO, and cohesion energy (Madelung calculations being descriptive of the c-axis instability in LCO.

  7. Neutral molecular cluster formation of sulfuric acid-dimethylamine observed in real time under atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürten, Andreas; Jokinen, Tuija; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Junninen, Heikki; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Hutterli, Manuel; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Seinfeld, John H; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomé, António; Tröstl, Jasmin; Winkler, Paul M; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Curtius, Joachim

    2014-10-21

    For atmospheric sulfuric acid (SA) concentrations the presence of dimethylamine (DMA) at mixing ratios of several parts per trillion by volume can explain observed boundary layer new particle formation rates. However, the concentration and molecular composition of the neutral (uncharged) clusters have not been reported so far due to the lack of suitable instrumentation. Here we report on experiments from the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research revealing the formation of neutral particles containing up to 14 SA and 16 DMA molecules, corresponding to a mobility diameter of about 2 nm, under atmospherically relevant conditions. These measurements bridge the gap between the molecular and particle perspectives of nucleation, revealing the fundamental processes involved in particle formation and growth. The neutral clusters are found to form at or close to the kinetic limit where particle formation is limited only by the collision rate of SA molecules. Even though the neutral particles are stable against evaporation from the SA dimer onward, the formation rates of particles at 1.7-nm size, which contain about 10 SA molecules, are up to 4 orders of magnitude smaller compared with those of the dimer due to coagulation and wall loss of particles before they reach 1.7 nm in diameter. This demonstrates that neither the atmospheric particle formation rate nor its dependence on SA can simply be interpreted in terms of cluster evaporation or the molecular composition of a critical nucleus.

  8. Neutral molecular cluster formation of sulfuric acid–dimethylamine observed in real time under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürten, Andreas; Jokinen, Tuija; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Junninen, Heikki; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Hutterli, Manuel; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Seinfeld, John H.; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomé, António; Tröstl, Jasmin; Winkler, Paul M.; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Curtius, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    For atmospheric sulfuric acid (SA) concentrations the presence of dimethylamine (DMA) at mixing ratios of several parts per trillion by volume can explain observed boundary layer new particle formation rates. However, the concentration and molecular composition of the neutral (uncharged) clusters have not been reported so far due to the lack of suitable instrumentation. Here we report on experiments from the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research revealing the formation of neutral particles containing up to 14 SA and 16 DMA molecules, corresponding to a mobility diameter of about 2 nm, under atmospherically relevant conditions. These measurements bridge the gap between the molecular and particle perspectives of nucleation, revealing the fundamental processes involved in particle formation and growth. The neutral clusters are found to form at or close to the kinetic limit where particle formation is limited only by the collision rate of SA molecules. Even though the neutral particles are stable against evaporation from the SA dimer onward, the formation rates of particles at 1.7-nm size, which contain about 10 SA molecules, are up to 4 orders of magnitude smaller compared with those of the dimer due to coagulation and wall loss of particles before they reach 1.7 nm in diameter. This demonstrates that neither the atmospheric particle formation rate nor its dependence on SA can simply be interpreted in terms of cluster evaporation or the molecular composition of a critical nucleus. PMID:25288761

  9. Communication: Real time observation of unimolecular decay of Criegee intermediates to OH radical products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Liu, Fang; Barber, Victoria P.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; McCoy, Anne B.; Lester, Marsha I.

    2016-02-01

    In the atmosphere, a dominant loss process for carbonyl oxide intermediates produced from alkene ozonolysis is also an important source of hydroxyl radicals. The rate of appearance of OH radicals is revealed through direct time-domain measurements following vibrational activation of prototypical methyl-substituted Criegee intermediates under collision-free conditions. Complementary theoretical calculations predict the unimolecular decay rate for the Criegee intermediates in the vicinity of the barrier for 1,4 hydrogen transfer that leads to OH products. Both experiment and theory yield unimolecular decay rates of ca. 108 and 107 s-1 for syn-CH3CHOO and (CH3)2COO, respectively, at energies near the barrier. Tunneling through the barrier, computed from high level electronic structure theory and experimentally validated, makes a significant contribution to the decay rate. Extension to thermally averaged unimolecular decay of stabilized Criegee intermediates under atmospheric conditions yields rates that are six orders of magnitude slower than those evaluated directly in the barrier region.

  10. Development of an Integrated Microfluidic Perfusion Cell Culture System for Real-Time Microscopic Observation of Biological Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chin Oh-Yang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an integrated microfluidic perfusion cell culture system consisting of a microfluidic cell culture chip, and an indium tin oxide (ITO glass-based microheater chip for micro-scale perfusion cell culture, and its real-time microscopic observation. The system features in maintaining both uniform, and stable chemical or thermal environments, and providing a backflow-free medium pumping, and a precise thermal control functions. In this work, the performance of the medium pumping scheme, and the ITO glass microheater were experimentally evaluated. Results show that the medium delivery mechanism was able to provide pumping rates ranging from 15.4 to 120.0 μL·min−1. In addition, numerical simulation and experimental evaluation were conducted to verify that the ITO glass microheater was capable of providing a spatially uniform thermal environment, and precise temperature control with a mild variation of ±0.3 °C. Furthermore, a perfusion cell culture was successfully demonstrated, showing the cultured cells were kept at high cell viability of 95 ± 2%. In the process, the cultured chondrocytes can be clearly visualized microscopically. As a whole, the proposed cell culture system has paved an alternative route to carry out real-time microscopic observation of biological cells in a simple, user-friendly, and low cost manner.

  11. Real-time observation of drying kinetics and morphology evolution in organic bulk heterojunctions (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldal, Nusret S.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Osvet, Andres; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-08-01

    In organic photovoltaics field, an optimized bulk heterojunction film consists of an electron-donating conjugated polymer and an electron-accepting fullerene derivative, which is organized in a well phase-separated, yet interconnected network. This sensitive morphology, affecting the light absorption, exciton dissociation and subsequent charge generation-extraction, is determined by the film formation during solution casting under certain processing conditions. Therefore, a number of previous studies focused on characterizing the thin film formation during solution casting, mainly with in-situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering methods, accompanied by various optical methods, such as ellipsometry/reflectometry and UV-VIS absorption. Although these studies provided invaluable information on the matter, the development of nanoscale morphology is yet to be fully understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a portable in-situ characterization chamber, which can characterize any organic/hybrid thin film during solution casting. The chamber is a miniature doctor blade under controlled atmosphere, equipped with white light reflectometry (WLR), photoluminescence (PL) and laser light scattering (LLS). WLR was used to monitor the thickness reduction of the thin film during the drying, enabling to establish a drying curve. LLS informed the time scale of aggregate/crystallite formation. PL monitored molecular arrangement and enabled the estimation of microstructure. The combined data is used to understand the competition between thermodynamics (e.g. solubility, miscibility) and kinetics of morphology formation. In this study, we measured different BHJ systems with binary and ternary solvent mixtures under different processing conditions, from which we built a roadmap for microstructure formation in organic thin films, used in organic photovoltaics.

  12. 3D Visualization of near real-time remote-sensing observation for hurricanes field campaign using Google Earth API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q.; Knosp, B.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Poulsen, W. L.; Licata, S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is planning a new field experiment, the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP), in the summer of 2010 to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes. The DC-8 aircraft and the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) will be deployed loaded with instruments for measurements including lightning, temperature, 3D wind, precipitation, liquid and ice water contents, aerosol and cloud profiles. During the field campaign, both the spaceborne and the airborne observations will be collected in real-time and integrated with the hurricane forecast models. This observation-model integration will help the campaign achieve its science goals by allowing team members to effectively plan the mission with current forecasts. To support the GRIP experiment, JPL developed a website for interactive visualization of all related remote-sensing observations in the GRIP’s geographical domain using the new Google Earth API. All the observations are collected in near real-time (NRT) with 2 to 5 hour latency. The observations include a 1KM blended Sea Surface Temperature (SST) map from GHRSST L2P products; 6-hour composite images of GOES IR; stability indices, temperature and vapor profiles from AIRS and AMSU-B; microwave brightness temperature and rain index maps from AMSR-E, SSMI and TRMM-TMI; ocean surface wind vectors, vorticity and divergence of the wind from QuikSCAT; the 3D precipitation structure from TRMM-PR and vertical profiles of cloud and precipitation from CloudSAT. All the NRT observations are collected from the data centers and science facilities at NASA and NOAA, subsetted, re-projected, and composited into hourly or daily data products depending on the frequency of the observation. The data products are then displayed on the 3D Google Earth plug-in at the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) website. The data products offered by the TCIS in the Google Earth display include image overlays, wind vectors, clickable

  13. Real-time, Quasi-Global, Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis Using TRMM and other Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A TRMM-based 3-hr analyses that use TRMM observations to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites) and geosynchronous IR observations and merges the various calibrated observations into a final, 3-hr resolution map is described. This TRMM standard product will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) in 2003 as part of Version 6 of the TRMM products. A real-time version of this merged product is being produced and is available at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50 N-500S. Examples will be shown, including its use in monitoring flood conditions and in relating weather-scale patterns to climate-scale patterns. Plans to incorporate the TRMM data and 3-hourly analysis into the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) products are outlined. The outcome in the near future should be an improved global analysis and climatology on monthly scales for the 23 year period and finer time scale analyses for more recent periods, including 3-hourly analyses over the globe. These technique developments are potential prototypes for analyses with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  14. Real Time Processing

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; ANDERSON, Dustin James; DOGLIONI, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The LHC provides experiments with an unprecedented amount of data. Experimental collaborations need to meet storage and computing requirements for the analysis of this data: this is often a limiting factor in the physics program that would be achievable if the whole dataset could be analysed. In this talk, I will describe the strategies adopted by the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS collaborations to overcome these limitations and make the most of LHC data: data parking, data scouting, and real-time analysis.

  15. Real Time Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, M. Hashem; Timmermann, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the problems facing decision makers using econometric models in real time. It identifies the key stages involved and highlights the role of automated systems in reducing the effect of data snooping. It sets out many choices that researchers face in construction of automated systems and discusses some of the possible ways advanced in the literature for dealing with them. The role of feedbacks from the decision maker?s actions to the data generating process is also discusse...

  16. A Robust Nonlinear Observer for Real-Time Attitude Estimation Using Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Castellanos, José Fermi; Madrigal-Sastre, Heberto; Durand, Sylvain; Torres, Lizeth; Muñoz-Hernández, German Ardul

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the attitude estimation of a rigid body equipped with angular velocity sensors and reference vector sensors. A quaternion-based nonlinear observer is proposed in order to fuse all information sources and to obtain an accurate estimation of the attitude. It is shown that the observer error dynamics can be separated into two passive subsystems connected in “feedback”. Then, this property is used to show that the error dynamics is input-to-state stable when the measurement disturbance is seen as an input and the error as the state. These results allow one to affirm that the observer is “robustly stable”. The proposed observer is evaluated in real-time with the design and implementation of an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) based on low-cost MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) Inertial Measure Unit (IMU) and magnetic sensors and a 16-bit microcontroller. The resulting estimates are compared with a high precision motion system to demonstrate its performance. PMID:24201316

  17. Pilot study on real-time motion detection in UAS video data by human observer and image exploitation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Voit, Michael; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Real-time motion video analysis is a challenging and exhausting task for the human observer, particularly in safety and security critical domains. Hence, customized video analysis systems providing functions for the analysis of subtasks like motion detection or target tracking are welcome. While such automated algorithms relieve the human operators from performing basic subtasks, they impose additional interaction duties on them. Prior work shows that, e.g., for interaction with target tracking algorithms, a gaze-enhanced user interface is beneficial. In this contribution, we present an investigation on interaction with an independent motion detection (IDM) algorithm. Besides identifying an appropriate interaction technique for the user interface - again, we compare gaze-based and traditional mouse-based interaction - we focus on the benefit an IDM algorithm might provide for an UAS video analyst. In a pilot study, we exposed ten subjects to the task of moving target detection in UAS video data twice, once performing with automatic support, once performing without it. We compare the two conditions considering performance in terms of effectiveness (correct target selections). Additionally, we report perceived workload (measured using the NASA-TLX questionnaire) and user satisfaction (measured using the ISO 9241-411 questionnaire). The results show that a combination of gaze input and automated IDM algorithm provides valuable support for the human observer, increasing the number of correct target selections up to 62% and reducing workload at the same time.

  18. Using CATS Near-Real-time Lidar Observations to Monitor and Constrain Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. J.; Yorks, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; da Silva, A. M.; Mcgill, M.

    2016-01-01

    An eruption of Italian volcano Mount Etna on 3 December 2015 produced fast-moving sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate aerosol clouds that traveled across Asia and the Pacific Ocean, reaching North America in just 5 days. The Ozone Profiler and Mapping Suite's Nadir Mapping UV spectrometer aboard the U.S. National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite observed the horizontal transport of the SO2 cloud. Vertical profiles of the colocated volcanic sulfate aerosols were observed between 11.5 and 13.5 km by the new Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) space-based lidar aboard the International Space Station. Backward trajectory analysis estimates the SO2 cloud altitude at 7-12 km. Eulerian model simulations of the SO2 cloud constrained by CATS measurements produced more accurate dispersion patterns compared to those initialized with the back trajectory height estimate. The near-real-time data processing capabilities of CATS are unique, and this work demonstrates the use of these observations to monitor and model volcanic clouds.

  19. Integrated Coastal Observation Network (ICON) for real-time monitoring of sea-level, sea-state, and surface-meteorological data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Mehra, P.; VijayKumar, K.; Luis, R.

    with automated real-time running numerical models for operational forecast. In contrast to the limited bandwidth provided by INSAT transmitters, coastal observations at high bandwidth at significantly low cost have become realizable using cellular GPRS network...

  20. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  1. In-situ observation of oxidation of Ti(0001) surface by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Takakuwa, Y; Yoshigoe, A; Teraoka, Y; Mizuno, Y; Tonda, H; Homma, T

    2003-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the initial oxidation kinetics of Ti(0001) surface was investigated by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and real-time photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation of surface- and bulk-sensitive photon energies. LEED observation revealed that oxide layers grow epitaxially with different surface structures depending on temperature: 1x1 at 200degC and sq root 3 x sq root 3 at 400degC. From the oxygen uptake curve measured by O 1s photo-electron intensity, it was clarified that oxygen diffusion through the epitaxially grown oxide layer is significantly enhanced with raising temperature, making the oxide layer thicker than 70A at 400degC. The chemical shift components observed for Ti 2p showed that TiO sub 2 becomes predominant at the subsurface with O sub 2 dose, while the stoichiometry of oxide near the interface is maintained as TiO and Ti sub 2 O sub 3 , for both cases at 200degC and 400degC. Thus it is concluded that the epitaxial growth of a very thin oxide on the Ti...

  2. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  3. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  4. Mapping urban air quality in near real-time using observations from low-cost sensors and model information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R; Lahoz, William A; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-09-01

    The recent emergence of low-cost microsensors measuring various air pollutants has significant potential for carrying out high-resolution mapping of air quality in the urban environment. However, the data obtained by such sensors are generally less reliable than that from standard equipment and they are subject to significant data gaps in both space and time. In order to overcome this issue, we present here a data fusion method based on geostatistics that allows for merging observations of air quality from a network of low-cost sensors with spatial information from an urban-scale air quality model. The performance of the methodology is evaluated for nitrogen dioxide in Oslo, Norway, using both simulated datasets and real-world measurements from a low-cost sensor network for January 2016. The results indicate that the method is capable of producing realistic hourly concentration fields of urban nitrogen dioxide that inherit the spatial patterns from the model and adjust the prior values using the information from the sensor network. The accuracy of the data fusion method is dependent on various factors including the total number of observations, their spatial distribution, their uncertainty (both in terms of systematic biases and random errors), as well as the ability of the model to provide realistic spatial patterns of urban air pollution. A validation against official data from air quality monitoring stations equipped with reference instrumentation indicates that the data fusion method is capable of reproducing city-wide averaged official values with an R(2) of 0.89 and a root mean squared error of 14.3 μg m(-3). It is further capable of reproducing the typical daily cycles of nitrogen dioxide. Overall, the results indicate that the method provides a robust way of extracting useful information from uncertain sensor data using only a time-invariant model dataset and the knowledge contained within an entire sensor network. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published

  5. Measurements by Mail: Satellite-Controlled Balloons for Making Real-Time Atmospheric Observations Anywhere on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, P. B.

    2008-12-01

    While most of the atmosphere is only a few tens of kilometers overhead, gaining access to this critical region of the earth system is notoriously difficult. Aircraft have been highly successful as atmospheric research platforms but their use can be limited by high costs, complex logistics, and need for ground-support infrastructure. While small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) carry far fewer instruments, they promise to overcome some of these limitations, especially if regulatory and air safety issues can be resolved. Here we describe five years of development on a new type of unmanned platform that can be flown with far fewer restrictions than current UAS. This altitude-controlled balloon can be mailed to collaborators almost anywhere in the world, launched within hours, and flown remotely from our laboratory via satellite link. It can be commanded to perform soundings, track atmospheric layers, or navigate divergent wind fields over periods ranging from days to potentially weeks; meteorological and chemical observations from the balloon are processed on the ground and distributed via the internet in near real time. These controlled balloons have been used in several recent atmospheric research campaigns and are now providing new possibilities for long-distance collaboration, low-cost deployments, and research in previously inaccessible parts of the lower atmosphere.

  6. MACHO Alert 95-30 First Real-Time Observation of Extended Source Effects in Gravitational Microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock, C B; Allsman, R A; Alves, D R; Axelrod, T S; Banks, T; Beaulieu, S F; Becker, A C; Becker, R H; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Carter, B S; Cook, K H; Dodd, R J; Freeman, K C; Gregg, M D; Griest, K; Hearnshaw, J B; Heller, A; Honda, M; Juga Ku Jun; Kabe, S; Kaspi, S; Kilmartin, P M; Kitamura, A; Kovo, O; Lehner, M J; Love, T E; Maoz, D; Marshall, S L; Matsubara, Y; Minniti, D; Miyamoto, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, T; Peterson, B A; Pratt, M R; Quinn, P J; Reid, I N; Reid, M; Reiss, D; Retter, A; Rodgers, A W; Sargent, W L W; Sato, H; Sekiguchi, M; Stetson, P B; Stubbs, C W; Sullivan, D J; Sutherland, W; Tomaney, A B; Vandehei, T; Watase, Y; Welch, D L; Yanagisawa, T; Yoshizawa, M; Yock, P C M

    1997-01-01

    We present analysis of MACHO Alert 95-30, a dramatic gravitational microlensing event towards the Galactic bulge whose peak magnification departs significantly from the standard point-source microlensing model. Alert 95-30 was observed in real-time by the Global Microlensing Alert Network (GMAN), which obtained densely sampled photometric and spectroscopic data throughout the event. We interpret the light-curve ``fine structure'' as indicating transit of the lens across the extended face of the source star. This signifies resolution of a star several kpc distant. We find a lens angular impact parameter theta_{min}/theta_{source} = 0.715 +/- 0.003. This information, along with the radius and distance of the source, provides an additional constraint on the lensing system. Spectroscopic and photometric data indicate the source is an M4 III star of radius 61 +/- 12 Rsun, located on the far side of the bulge at 9 kpc. We derive a lens angular velocity, relative to the source, of 21.5 +/- 4.9 km/s/kpc, where the er...

  7. Real-time implementation of an LQG tip-tilt controller for regular science observation on GeMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Gaetano; Juvénal, Rémy; Kulcsár, Caroline; Garrel, Vincent; Gigoux, Pedro; Raynaud, Henri-François; Marin, Eduardo; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Rambold, William; Montes, Vanessa; Moreno, Cristian; Donahue, Jeff; Carrasco, Rodrigo; van Dam, Marcos; Neichel, Benoît; Leboulleux, Lucie; Trujillo, Chad

    2016-07-01

    AO systems aim at detecting and correcting for optical distortions induced by atmospheric turbulences. They are also extremely sensitive to extraneous sources of perturbation such as vibrations, which degrade the performance. The Gemini South telescope has currently two main AO systems: the Gemini Multi Conjugated AO System GeMS and the Gemini Planet Imager GPI. GeMS is operational and regularly used for science observation delivering close to diffraction limit resolution over a large field of view (85×85 arcsec2). Performance limitation due to the use of an integrator for tip-tilt control is here explored. In particular, this type of controller does not allow for the mitigation of vibrations with an arbitrary natural frequency. We have thus implemented a tip-tilt Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller with different underlying perturbation models: (i) a sum of autoregressive models of order 2 identified from an estimated power spectrum density (s-AR2) of the perturbation,1 already tested on CANARY2 and routinely used on SPHERE;3 (ii) cascaded ARMA models of order 2 identified using prediction error minimization (c-PEM) as proposed in.4, 5 Both s-AR2 and c-PEM were parameterized to produce tip or tilt state-space models up to order 20 and 30 respectively. We discuss the parallelized implementation in the real time computer and the expected performance. On-sky tests are scheduled during the November 2016 run or the January 2017 run.

  8. A DTN-ready application for the real-time dissemination of Earth Observation data received by Direct Readout stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronis, Dimitris; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Tsigkanos, Antonis; Ghita, Bogdan; Evans, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The majority of Earth observation satellites operate in low Earth sun-synchronous orbit and transmit data captured by a variety of sensors. The effective dissemination of satellite data in real-time is a crucial parameter for disaster monitoring in particular. Generally, a spacecraft collects data and then stores it on-board until it passes over dedicated ground stations to transmit the data. Additionally, some satellites (e.g. Terra, Aqua, Suomi-NPP, NOAA series satellites) have the so-called Direct Broadcast (DB) capability, which is based on a real-time data transmission sub-system. Compatible Direct Readout (DR) stations in direct line of sight are able to receive these transmissions. To date data exchange between DR stations have not been fully exploited for real-time data dissemination. Stations around the world store data locally, which is then disseminated on demand via Internet gateways based on the standard TCP-IP protocols. On the other hand, Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), which deliver data by enabling store-and-forward transmission in order to cope with link failures, service disruptions and network congestion, could prove as an alternative/complementary transmission mechanism for the efficient dissemination of data. The DTN architecture allows for efficient utilization of the network, using in-network storage and taking advantage of the network availability among the interconnected nodes. Although DTNs were originally developed for high-propagation delay, challenged connectivity environments such as deep space, the broader research community has investigated possible architectural enhancements for various emerging applications (e.g., terrestrial infrastructure, ground-to-air communications, content retrieval and dissemination). In this paper, a scheme for the effective dissemination of DB data is conceptualized, designed and implemented based on store-and-forward transmission capabilities provided by DTNs. For demonstration purposes, a set-up has

  9. Exploring the Potential of an Isotopic N2O Analyzer to Observe Soil Biogeochemical Processes in Real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, R.; Koyama, A.; von Fischer, J. C.; Gupta, M.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the potential applications of an Isotopic Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Analyzer (Los Gatos Research), which can measure isotopic values of N2O (δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ15N and δ18O) as well as [N2O] at real-time. The analyzer can provide continuous and precise measurements of the isotopic values with a quantum cascade laser along with cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy technique. We evaluated the analyzer by quantifying N2O produced from soils and sediments, N2O dissolved in water, and a N2O standard for δ15N and δ18O. In quantifying N2O production from soils, we used four soils collected from diverse grassland sites across the North American Great Plains. In this lobe of the study, we investigated the relationship between N2O production rates and soil water content (SWC) by manipulating soil water levels in a lab setting. We hypothesized that N2O production rates would be positively correlated with SWC because we expected denitrification to be a more important N2O source than nitrification. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that soils adjusted at high SWC (20 to 50%) produced significant N2O. Parallel experiments using 15N labeling (15NH4+ and 15NO3-) suggested that N2O from the soils with high SWC was produced mostly via denitrification. Most of the soils adjusted with low SWC (10 to 20%) produced little N2O. When we observed measurable N2O from one soil with low SWC, the 15N labeling experiment suggested that N2O was produced via nitrification. Our measurements demonstrate that the Isotopic N2O Analyzer can be a powerful tool to investigate N2O dynamics in various materials, such as soils and water, in different environmental settings.

  10. Assessing the interactivity and prescriptiveness of faculty professional development workshops: The real-time professional development observation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Alice; Turpen, Chandra

    2016-12-01

    Professional development workshops are one of the primary mechanisms used to help faculty improve their teaching, and draw in many STEM instructors every year. Although workshops serve a critical role in changing instructional practices within our community, we rarely assess workshops through careful consideration of how they engage faculty. Initial evidence suggests that workshop leaders often overlook central tenets of education research that are well established in classroom contexts, such as the role of interactivity in enabling student learning [S. Freeman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 8410 (2014)]. As such, there is a need to develop more robust, evidence-based models of how best to support faculty learning in professional development contexts, and to actively support workshop leaders in relating their design decisions to familiar ideas from other educational contexts. In response to these needs, we have developed an observation tool, the real-time professional development observation tool (R-PDOT), to document the form and focus of faculty engagement during workshops. In this paper, we describe the motivation and methodological considerations behind the development of the R-PDOT, justify our decisions to highlight particular aspects of workshop sessions, and demonstrate how the R-PDOT can be used to analyze three sessions from the Physics and Astronomy New Faculty Workshop. We also justify the accessibility and potential utility of the R-PDOT output as a reflective tool using preliminary data from interviews with workshop leaders, and consider the roles the R-PDOT could play in supporting future research on faculty professional development.

  11. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  12. Decision-Making Using Real-Time Observations for Environmental Sustainability; an integrated 802.11 sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A.; Kleissl, J.; Farhadi, M.; Kim, D.; Liu, W.; Mao, Y.; Nguyen, H. T.; Roshandell, M.; Sankur, M.; Shiga, Y.; Linden, P.; Hodgkiss, W.

    2007-12-01

    Meteorological conditions have important implications on human activities. They affect human comfort, productivity, and health, and contribute to material wear and tear. The University of California, San Diego (UCSD)'s proximity to the Pacific Ocean places it in a temperate microclimate which has unique advantages and disadvantages for campus water and energy use and air quality. In particular, the daily sea-breezes provide cool, moist, and salt-laden air to campus. For the Decision-Making Using Real-Time Observations for Environmental Sustainability (DEMROES) project a heterogeneous wireless network of monitoring stations is being set up across the UCSD campus and beyond. Conditions to be monitored include temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, surface temperatures, solar radiation, particulate matter, CO, NO2, rainfall, and soil moisture. Stations are strategically placed on rooftops and lampposts across campus, as well as select off-campus locations and will transmit data over the UCSD 802.11 wireless network. In addition to rooftop and lamppost stations, mobile stations will be deployed via remotely controlled ground and air units, and stations affixed to campus shuttle busses. These mobile stations will allow for greater spatial resolution of the environmental conditions across campus and inter-sensor calibration. The hardware consists of meteorological, hydrological, and air quality sensors connected to (a) commercial Campbell datalogging systems with serial2IP modules and wireless bridges, and (b) sensor and 802.11 boards based on the dpac technology developed in-house. The measurements will serve campus facilities management with information to feed the energy management system (EMS) for building operation and energy conservation, and irrigation management. The technology developed for this project can be applied elsewhere thereby contributing to hydrologic and ecologic observatories. Through extensive student involvement a new generation of

  13. Observations of Gas Emissions from Cascade Range Volcanoes (USA) using a Portable Real-Time Sensor Package and Evacuated Flasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P. J.; Werner, C. A.; Evans, W.; Ingebritsen, S.; Tucker, D.

    2012-12-01

    ratios from 10 to 16 in fumarole plumes versus flask CO2/H2S ratios (n = 2) of 13 and 16 on 9 July 2011, and on 28 July 2012 the sensor package yielded an average CO2/H2S ratio of 12 versus flask ratios (n = 2) of 13 (both sets of flask samples obtained in the Crater Rock area). At Mt. Baker, the sensor package yielded average CO2/H2S ratios from 19 to 22 whereas flask ratios (n = 3) were higher, from 25 to 32 (both fumarole-plume and flask samples obtained in the Sherman Crater area) on 22 July 2011. The mismatch falls slightly outside expected analytical uncertainty for the sensor package (about 20% relative for CO2/H2S ratios). However, flask samples collected in Sherman Crater in 2006 and 2007 (n = 5) yielded CO2/H2S ratios from 18 to 29, which nearly spans the range of observations in 2011. Therefore, one explanation for the small mismatch between the results of the sensor package and direct samples is that the sensor package measures bulk plume compositions that may integrate emissions from several chemically distinct fumaroles and the direct samples better represent the composition of discrete vents. Overall, the sensor package and evacuated flask data show good agreement and demonstrate that the real-time technique is a viable means for monitoring major volcanic gas species.

  14. Real-time DNP NMR observations of acetic acid uptake, intracellular acidification, and of consequences for glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille R; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde H; Meier, Sebastian

    2013-09-27

    Uptake and upshot in vivo: Straightforward methods that permit the real-time observation of organic acid influx, intracellular acidification, and concomitant effects on cellular-reaction networks are crucial for improved bioprocess monitoring and control. Herein, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR is used to observe acetate influx, ensuing intracellular acidification and the metabolic consequences on alcoholic fermentation and glycolysis in living cells.

  15. Real-time observation system development for high-temperature liquid/solid interfaces and its application to solid-source solution growth of AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kusaba, Akira; Sumiyoshi, Hiroaki; Miyake, Hideto; Boćkowski, Michał; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Interfacial phenomena at the liquid/solid interface under high temperatures were observed in real time to understand the growth process of AlN during solid-source solution growth. In this study, we used an AlN/α-Al2O3 template as the substrate; these wide-bandgap materials made the substrate transparent to visible light. Therefore, we observed the morphology of the liquid/solid interface through the template from the bottom. In this investigation, a polycrystal formed because of melt-back etching during the initial stage of growth; nevertheless, we succeeded in obtaining real-time images of interfacial phenomena.

  16. Development of tools for evaluating rainfall estimation models in real- time using the Integrated Meteorological Observation Network in Castilla y León (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Andres; Guerrero-Higueras, Angel Manuel; López, Laura; Gascón, Estibaliz; Sánchez, José Luis; Lorente, José Manuel; Marcos, José Luis; Matía, Pedro; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Nafría, David; Fernández-González, Sergio; Weigand, Roberto; Hermida, Lucía; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The integration of various public and private observation networks into the Observation Network of Castile-León (ONet_CyL), Spain, allows us to monitor the risks in real-time. One of the most frequent risks in this region is severe precipitation. Thus, the data from the network allows us to determine the area where precipitation was registered and also to know the areas with precipitation in real-time. The observation network is managed with a LINUX system. The observation platform makes it possible to consult the observation data in a specific point in the region, or otherwise to see the spatial distribution of the precipitation in a user-defined area and time interval. In this study, we compared several rainfall estimation models, based on satellite data for Castile-León, with precipitation data from the meteorological observation network. The rainfall estimation models obtained from the meteorological satellite data provide us with a precipitation field covering a wide area, although its operational use requires a prior evaluation using ground truth data. The aim is to develop a real-time evaluation tool for rainfall estimation models that allows us to monitor the accuracy of its forecasting. This tool makes it possible to visualise different Skill Scores (Probability of Detection, False Alarm Ratio and others) of each rainfall estimation model in real time, thereby not only allowing us to know the areas where the rainfall models indicate precipitation, but also the validation of the model in real-time for each specific meteorological situation. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Regional Government of Castile-León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2. This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22).

  17. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  18. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  19. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES) in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  20. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  1. Observation of development of breast cancer cell lines in real time by fluorescence microscopy under simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavan, David; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Sanabria, Gabriela; Orihuela, Diego; Suarez, Juan; Quispe, Marco; Chuchon, Mariano; Martin, David; Maroto, Marcos; Egea, Javier

    2016-07-01

    This project consist in the implementation of a fluorescence microscope for the in real time monitoring of biological labeled samples by several fluorophores in microgravity conditions keeping the temperature, humidity, and (CO)2 controlled by an electronic platform. The system (fluorescence microscope and incubator) is integrated to a microgravity simulator machine which was presented on the "30th Annual American Society for Gravitation and Space Research Meeting" October 2014 in Pasadena, CA, USA. Currently, we have the microgravity machine biologically validated by genetic expression studies in pupal stage of Drosophila melanogaster. The fluorescence microscope has a platform designed to hold a culture flask, and a fluorescence camera (Leica DFC3000 G) connected to an optical system (Fluorescence Light source Leica EL6000, optic fiber, fiber adapter, and fluorescence filter) in order to take images in real time. The mechanical system of the fluorescence microsc ope is designed to allow the displacement of the fluorescence camera through a parallel plane to the culture flask's plane and also the movement of the platform through a perpendicular axis to the culture flask in order to focus the samples to the optical system. The mechanical system is propelled by four DC moto-reductors with encoder (A-max 26 Maxon motor, GP 32S screw and MR encoder) that generate displacements in the order of micrometers. The angular position control of the DC motoreductor's shaft of all the DC moto-reductors is done by PWM signals based on the interpretation of the signals provided by the encoders during the movement. The system is remotely operated by a graphic interface installed on a personal computer or any mobile device (smartphone, laptop or tablet) by using the internet. Acknowledgments: Grant of INNOVATE PERU (Formerly FINCYT)

  2. Real-Time DNP NMR Observations of Acetic Acid Uptake, Intracellular Acidification, and of Consequences for Glycolysis and Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Rose; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde Hauge

    2013-01-01

    Uptake and upshot in vivo: Straightforward methods that permit the real-time observation of organic acid influx, intracellular acidification, and concomitant effects on cellular-reaction networks are crucial for improved bioprocess monitoring and control (see scheme). Herein, dynamic nuclear pola...... polarization (DNP) NMR is used to observe acetate influx, ensuing intracellular acidification and the metabolic consequences on alcoholic fermentation and glycolysis in living cells....

  3. Real-time volume graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Klaus; Kniss, Joe; Rezk-Salama, Christof; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Based on course notes of SIGGRAPH course teaching techniques for real-time rendering of volumetric data and effects; covers both applications in scientific visualization and real-time rendering. Starts with the basics (texture-based ray casting) and then improves and expands the algorithms incrementally. Book includes source code, algorithms, diagrams, and rendered graphics.

  4. Real-time observation of hydrogen absorption by LaNi{sub 5} with quasi-dynamic neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Bradley M., E-mail: bwood6@tigers.lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Ham, Kyungmin, E-mail: kham1@lsu.edu [Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Hussey, Daniel S., E-mail: daniel.hussey@nist.gov [Neutron Imaging Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Mail Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8461 (United States); Jacobson, David L., E-mail: david.jacobson@nist.gov [Neutron Imaging Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Mail Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8461 (United States); Faridani, Adel, E-mail: faridani@science.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kaestner, Anders, E-mail: anders.kaestner@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, Neutron Imaging and Activation Group, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Vajo, John J., E-mail: JJVajo@hrl.com [HRL Labs LLC, Malibu, CA 90265 (United States); Liu, Ping, E-mail: PLiu@hrl.com [HRL Labs LLC, Malibu, CA 90265 (United States); Dobbins, Tabbetha A., E-mail: Dobbins@rowan.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028-1701 (United States); Butler, Leslie G., E-mail: lbutler@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The uptake of hydrogen by lanthanum pentanickel (LaNi{sub 5}) to form lanthanum nickel hydride (LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}) is followed with three-dimensional imaging by neutron tomography. The hydrogen absorption process is slower than the time needed for acquiring a single radiograph, about 10 s, but fast relative to the time to acquire a fully-sampled tomographic data set, about 6000 s. A novel data acquisition scheme is used with angles based upon the Greek Golden ratio, a scheme which allows considerable flexibility in post-acquisition tomography reconstruction. Even with tomographic undersampling, the granular structure for the conversion of LaNi{sub 5} particles to LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6} particles is observed and visually tracked in 3D. Over the course of five sequential hydrogen uptake runs with various initial hydrogen pressures, some grains are repeatedly observed.

  5. Real-Time seismic waveforms monitoring with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) observations for the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays more and more high-rate Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data become available in real time, which provide more opportunities to monitor the seismic waveforms. China's GNSS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), has already satisfied the requirement of stand-alone precise positioning in Asia-Pacific region with 14 in-orbit satellites, which promisingly suggests that BDS could be applied to the high-precision earthquake monitoring as GPS. In the present paper, real-time monitoring of seismic waveforms using BDS measurements is assessed. We investigate a so-called "variometric" approach to measure real-time seismic waveforms with high-rate BDS observations. This approach is based on time difference technique and standard broadcast products which are routinely available in real time. The 1HZ BDS data recorded by Beidou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) during the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake is analyzed. The results indicate that the accuracies of velocity estimation from BDS are 2-3 mm/s in horizontal components and 8-9 mm/s in vertical component, respectively, which are consistent with GPS. The seismic velocity waveforms during earthquake show good agreement between BDS and GPS. Moreover, the displacement waveforms is reconstructed by an integration of velocity time series with trend removal. The displacement waveforms with the accuracy of 1-2 cm are derived by comparing with post-processing GPS precise point positioning (PPP).

  6. Real Time Baseball Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  7. Real-time analysis keratometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Iwao P. (Inventor); Adachi, Yoshifumi (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A computer assisted keratometer in which a fiducial line pattern reticle illuminated by CW or pulsed laser light is projected on a corneal surface through lenses, a prismoidal beamsplitter quarterwave plate, and objective optics. The reticle surface is curved as a conjugate of an ideal corneal curvature. The fiducial image reflected from the cornea undergoes a polarization shift through the quarterwave plate and beamsplitter whereby the projected and reflected beams are separated and directed orthogonally. The reflected beam fiducial pattern forms a moire pattern with a replica of the first recticle. This moire pattern contains transverse aberration due to differences in curvature between the cornea and the ideal corneal curvature. The moire pattern is analyzed in real time by computer which displays either the CW moire pattern or a pulsed mode analysis of the transverse aberration of the cornea under observation, in real time. With the eye focused on a plurality of fixation points in succession, a survey of the entire corneal topography is made and a contour map or three dimensional plot of the cornea can be made as a computer readout in addition to corneal radius and refractive power analysis.

  8. Improved near real-time data management procedures for the Mediterranean ocean Forecasting System-Voluntary Observing Ship program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. R. Manzella

    Full Text Available A "ship of opportunity" program was launched as part of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project. During the operational period (September 1999 to May 2000, six tracks covered the Mediterranean from the northern to southern boundaries approximately every 15 days, while a long eastwest track from Haifa to Gibraltar was covered approximately every month. XBT data were collected, sub-sampled at 15 inflection points and transmitted through a satellite communication system to a regional data centre. It was found that this data transmission system has limitations in terms of quality of the temperature profiles and quantity of data successfully transmitted. At the end of the MFSPP operational period, a new strategy for data transmission and management was developed. First of all, VOS-XBT data are transmitted with full resolution. Secondly, a new data management system, called Near Real Time Quality Control for XBT (NRT.QC.XBT, was defined to produce a parallel stream of high quality XBT data for further scientific analysis. The procedure includes: (1 Position control; (2 Elimination of spikes; (3 Re-sampling at a 1 metre vertical interval; (4 Filtering; (5 General malfunctioning check; (6 Comparison with climatology (and distance from this in terms of standard deviations; (7 Visual check; and (8 Data consistency check. The first six steps of the new procedure are completely automated; they are also performed using a new climatology developed as part of the project. The visual checks are finally done with a free-market software that allows NRT final data assessment.

    Key words. Oceanography: physical (instruments and techniques; general circulation; hydrography

  9. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  10. Landsat-based Earth Observations and Crowd-sourced Data Provide Near Real-time Monitoring of Chimpanzee Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackoney, J.; Pintea, L.; Jantz, S.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The endangered chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is threatened by habitat loss from resource extraction and land conversion, as well as hunting, disease and the illegal pet trade. It has been estimated that more than 70% of chimpanzee's tropical forest habitats in Africa are now threatened by land use change. Recent developments in remote sensing and cloud computing enable the use of satellite observations to provide a synoptic view of chimpanzee habitats at finer spatial and temporal resolutions that are locally relevant and consistent across the entire species' range. We present a practical Decision Support System to be used by the Jane Goodall Institute and partners to annually monitor and forecast chimpanzee habitat health in Africa. The system integrates Earth observations from 30-meter resolution Landsat data with a species-specific habitat model and a model forecasting future land use change, enhanced by crowd-sourced field data collected by local communities and rangers using the Open Data Kit app and Android mobile smartphones and tablets. While coarser-scale and static chimpanzee habitat models have been previously developed, this project is the first to develop a dynamic monitoring system updated annually via Earth observations data that will systematically monitor threats and changes in habitat over time. Since the chimpanzee is an important keystone, flagship and umbrella species, an annual chimpanzee habitat health index would support conservation goals of other species within its large 2.5 million sq. km range and could be an important indicator of overall ecosystem health of tropical forests in Africa.

  11. The real-time HF frequency prediction service based on the development of an assimilative IRI model using the Digisonde observation in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Jun; Chung, Jong-Kyun; Lee, Sungho; Lee, Jeong-Deok; Moon, Joon-Cheol

    The IRI(International Reference Ionosphere) is an international project sponsored by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), and it has produced an empirical standard model of the ionosphere based on all available data sources from the worldwide network of ionosonde. The model is now widely used to provide HF prediction services to HF users by the radio science-related organizations in the world. However, the accurate representation of the regional ionosphere, especially the effect of space weather, for a real-time HF prediction by using lRI, is hampered by the limitation of its performance since the model is designed as a climatological model. We have developed an assimilative IRI model using the real-time Digisonde data from two stations (Icheon and Jeju) in Korea. The data stream from the stations is ingested by the model every 30 minute to create the real-time updated CCIR/URSI maps of coefficients that are applied for the real-time usable HF frequency prediction service. Test results for the model output comparing with observed data are presented and we briefly introduce the HF prediction service operated by Korean Space Weather Center, Radio Research Agency (KSWC, RRA), Korea.

  12. Direct Observations of Parenting and Real-time Negative Affect among Adolescent Smokers and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melanie J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and non-smokers. Method Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6- and 24-months via ecological momentary assessment. Results Among both smoking and non-smoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for non-smokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  13. Towards Real-Time Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente JULIÁN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time coordination with the more general approach of reaching real-time agreements in MAS. Concretely, this work proposes a real-time argumentation framework in an attempt to provide agents with the ability of engaging in argumentative dialogues and come with a solution for their underlying agreement process within a bounded period of time. The framework has been implemented and evaluated in the domain of a customer support application. Concretely, we consider a society of agents that act on behalf of a group of technicians that must solve problems in a Technology Management Centre (TMC within a bounded time. This centre controls every process implicated in the provision of technological and customer support services to private or public organisations by means of a call centre. The contract signed between the TCM and the customer establishes penalties if the specified time is exceeded.

  14. Evaluating real-time forecasts in real-time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); F. Ravazzolo (Francesco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe accuracy of real-time forecasts of macroeconomic variables that are subject to revisions may crucially depend on the choice of data used to compare the forecasts against. We put forward a flexible time-varying parameter regression framework to obtain early estimates of the final valu

  15. Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics of individual rotational states in a molecular wavepacket with strong-field-ionization-induced nitrogen lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Bin; Li, Guihua; Yao, Jinping; Zhang, Haisu; Ni, Jielei; Jing, Chenrui; Xie, Hongqiang; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Molecular rotational spectroscopy based on strong-field-ionization-induced nitrogen laser is employed to investigate the time evolution of the rotational wave packet composed by a coherent superposition of quantum rotational states created in a field-free molecular alignment. We show that this technique uniquely allows real-time observation of the ultrafast dynamics of the individual rotational states in the rotational wavepacket. Our analysis also shows that there exist two channels of generation of the nitrogen laser, shedding new light on the population inversion mechanism behind the air laser generated by intense femtosecond laser pulses.

  16. Real-time alignment of the LHCb vertex detector and observation of charmless baryonic decays $B^0_{(s)} \\rightarrow p \\overline{p} h^+ h^{\\prime-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Dujany, Giulio

    This thesis presents measurements of the branching fractions of the charmless baryonic decays $B^0_{(s)}\\to p\\overline{p} h^+h^{\\prime-}$ , where $h^{(\\prime)}$ denotes a kaon or a pion. Three new modes ($B^0\\to p\\overline{p} \\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^0_{s}\\to p\\overline{p} K^+K^-$ and $B^0_{s}\\to p\\overline{p} K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$) are observed for the first time and evidence is found for a fourth ($B^0\\to p\\overline{p} K^+K^-$). The inclusive branching fraction of $B^0\\to p\\overline{p} K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$ is measured for the first time and the upper limit is set on the branching fraction of the $B^0_{s}\\to p\\overline{p} \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay. This represents the first observation of four-body charmless baryonic decays of a $B_s$ meson and one of the first observations of baryonic $B^0_{s}$ decays. The implementation of the real-time alignment of LHCb's vertex detector is also described. The novel real-time alignment and calibration strategy adopted by LHCb is essential to allow more stable data taking conditions and an optima...

  17. AROME-WMED, a real-time mesoscale model designed for the HyMeX special observation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fourrié

    2015-07-01

    remains useful for scheduling observation deployment. The characteristics of parameters, such as precipitation, temperature or humidity, are illustrated by one heavy precipitation case study that occurred over the south of Spain.

  18. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  19. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  20. Real Time Conference 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetta, Adriano

    2017-06-01

    This is a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science containing papers from the invited, oral, and poster presentation of the 20th Real Time Conference (RT2016). The conference was held June 6-10, 2016, at Centro Congressi Padova “A. Luciani,” Padova, Italy, and was organized by Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The Real Time Conference is multidisciplinary and focuses on the latest developments in real-time techniques in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics, nuclear fusion, medical physics, space instrumentation, nuclear power instrumentation, general radiation instrumentation, and real-time security and safety. Taking place every second year, it is sponsored by the Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Sciences technical committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. RT2016 attracted more than 240 registrants, with a large proportion of young researchers and engineers. It had an attendance of 67 students from many countries.

  1. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israël, Menno; Broek, van den Egon L.; Putten, van der Peter; Uyl, den Marten J.; Verbrugge, R.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  2. Decentralized Real-Time Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    917-932, August, 1987. [ Daniels 86] D. C. Daniels and H. F. Wedde. Real-Time Performance of a Completely Distributed Operating System. In Proceedings...imnmediate execuoon The schedule c.-eated by the SeltctPhaseProcfj procedure is an ordere-d lis t of mocl -phnise pairs, each placed according to the

  3. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  4. An integrated user-oriented weather forecast system for air traffic using real-time observations and model data

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Caroline; Tafferner, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Weather Forecast User-oriented System Including Object Nowcasting (WxFUSION), an integrated weather forecast system for air traffic. The system is currently under development within a new project named “Weather and Flying” under the leadership of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). WxFUSION aims at combining data from various sources, as there are weather observations, remote sensing, nowcasting and numerical model forecast ...

  5. Real-time observation on surface diffusion and molecular orientations for phthalocyanine thin films at nanometer spacial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuji; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Shimoyama, Iwao; Honda, Mitsunori; Hirao, Norie; Narita, Ayumi; Deng, Juzhi

    2009-08-01

    The morphology, electronic structure and ordering of the phthalocyanine thin films have been investigated at nanometer scale by photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) excited by polarized soft X-rays from synchrotron light source. The sample investigated was micropattern of silicon phthalocyanine deposited on gold surface. The incident angle dependences of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra at the silicon K-edge revealed that the molecules of 5-layered films are lying nearly flat on the surface. Clear image of the micropattern was observed by PEEM, showing that the molecules are deposited via Volmer-Weber (VW) mode at room temperature. While, the surface diffusion was observed upon heating, and the micropattern image almost disappeared at 240 °C, representing the deposition mode changes from VW-mode to Frank-van der Merwe (FM)-one. On the basis of the photon-energy dependences of the brightnesses in the PEEM images, it was found that the molecules diffusing to the fresh gold surface rather stand-up at 240 °C. The observed changes in the molecular orientations at nanometer domains are discussed on the basis of the strengths of the molecule-molecule and molecule-surface interactions.

  6. Real-Time Observation of Ultrafast Intraband Relaxation and Exciton Multiplication in PbS Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala’a O.

    2014-03-19

    We examine ultrafast intraconduction band relaxation and multiple-exciton generation (MEG) in PbS quantum dots (QDs) using transient absorption spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. The intraconduction band relaxation can be directly and excellently resolved spectrally and temporally by applying broadband pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and detect the wavelengths around the exciton absorption peak, which is located in the near-infrared region. The time-resolved data unambiguously demonstrate that the intraband relaxation time progressively increases as the pump-photon energy increases. Moreover, the relaxation time becomes much shorter as the size of the QDs decreases, indicating the crucial role of spatial confinement in the intraband relaxation process. Additionally, our results reveal the systematic scaling of the intraband relaxation time with both excess energy above the effective energy band gap and QD size. We also assess MEG in different sizes of the QDs. Under the condition of high-energy photon excitation, which is well above the MEG energy threshold, ultrafast bleach recovery due to the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple electron-hole pairs provides conclusive experimental evidence for the presence of MEG. For instance, we achieved quantum efficiencies of 159, 129 and 106% per single-absorbed photon at pump photoexcition of three times the band gap for QDs with band gaps of 880 nm (1.41 eV), 1000 nm (1.24 eV) and 1210 nm (1.0 eV), respectively. These findings demonstrate clearly that the efficiency of transferring excess photon energy to carrier multiplication is significantly increased in smaller QDs compared with larger ones. Finally, we discuss the Auger recombination dynamics of the multiple electron-hole pairs as a function of QD size.

  7. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  8. Characterization of NOx emission in the suburbs of Tokyo based on simultaneous and real-time observations of atmospheric Ox and NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NO, NO2), and volatile organic compounds, VOCs, are important as precursors of photochemical oxidants (tropospheric ozone, O3). To predict and control photochemical oxidants, NOx emission should be captured precisely. In addition, the ratio of NO2/NOx in the exhaust gas is also important as the initial balance between NO and NO2 in the atmosphere. Monitoring the NO2/NOx ratio in the exhaust gases is essential. Especially, the influence of the NOx emission on the real atmosphere should be explored. However, conversion reactions among NO, NO2 and O3 are typically in the time scale of minutes. The NO2/NOx ratio can change rapidly just after emission. Real-time observations of these compounds in the second time scale are essential. In view of photochemical oxidant, near emission sources of NO, ozone concentration can be easily perturbed by reaction with locally emitted NO. As an index of oxidant, the sum of O3 and NO2 (Ox = O3 + NO2) is useful. In this study, a simultaneous and real-time analyzer of atmospheric Ox and NOx has been developed utilizing the dual NO2 detectors based on laser-induced fluorescence technique (LIF), and characterization of NOx emission was explored through the observations of Ox and NOx in the suburbs of Tokyo. The dual LIF detectors consisted of one laser head, two LIF cells, and one common vacuum pump. As the Ox monitor, the excess NO was added to the sample and O3 was converted to NO2, and then the sum of O3 and NO2 in the sample was quantified at the 1st LIF cell. As the NOx monitor, the excess O3 was added to the sample and NO was converted to NO2, and then the sum of NO and NO2 in the sample was quantified at the 2nd LIF cell. Both the ';Ox' and ';NOx' channels in the dual LIF analyzer were simultaneously monitoring Ox and NOx in the sample air, respectively. The temporal resolution of observed data was 1 s. Typical conversion efficiencies of O3 and NO to NO2 were more than 0.98. The lower detection limits were 0

  9. Real time implementation of adaptive sliding mode observer based speed sensor less vector control of induction motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negadi Karim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor less induction motor drives are widely used in industry for their reliability and flexibility. However, rotor flux and speed sensors are required for vector control of induction motor. These sensors are sources of trouble, mainly in hostile environments, and their application reduces the drive robustness. The cost of the sensors is not also negligible. All the reasons lead to development of different sensor less methods for rotor flux and mechanical speed estimation in electrical drives. The paper deals with the speed estimators for applications in sensor less induction motor drive with vector control, which are based on application of model adaptive, based sliding mode observer methods. This paper presents the development and DSP implementation of the speed estimators for applications in sensor less drives with induction motor.

  10. Tsunami simulation method initiated from waveforms observed by ocean bottom pressure sensors for real-time tsunami forecast; Applied for 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2017-04-01

    After tsunami disaster due to the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake, improvement of the tsunami forecast has been an urgent issue in Japan. National Institute of Disaster Prevention is installing a cable network system of earthquake and tsunami observation (S-NET) at the ocean bottom along the Japan and Kurile trench. This cable system includes 125 pressure sensors (tsunami meters) which are separated by 30 km. Along the Nankai trough, JAMSTEC already installed and operated the cable network system of seismometers and pressure sensors (DONET and DONET2). Those systems are the most dense observation network systems on top of source areas of great underthrust earthquakes in the world. Real-time tsunami forecast has depended on estimation of earthquake parameters, such as epicenter, depth, and magnitude of earthquakes. Recently, tsunami forecast method has been developed using the estimation of tsunami source from tsunami waveforms observed at the ocean bottom pressure sensors. However, when we have many pressure sensors separated by 30km on top of the source area, we do not need to estimate the tsunami source or earthquake source to compute tsunami. Instead, we can initiate a tsunami simulation from those dense tsunami observed data. Observed tsunami height differences with a time interval at the ocean bottom pressure sensors separated by 30 km were used to estimate tsunami height distribution at a particular time. In our new method, tsunami numerical simulation was initiated from those estimated tsunami height distribution. In this paper, the above method is improved and applied for the tsunami generated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake. Tsunami source model of the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake estimated using observed tsunami waveforms, coseimic deformation observed by GPS and ocean bottom sensors by Gusman et al. (2012) is used in this study. The ocean surface deformation is computed from the source model and used as an initial condition of tsunami

  11. Assessing the interactivity and prescriptiveness of faculty professional development workshops: The Real-Time Professional Development Observation Tool (R-PDOT)

    CERN Document Server

    Olmstead, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Professional development workshops are one of the primary mechanisms used to help faculty improve their teaching, and draw in many STEM instructors every year. Although workshops serve a critical role in changing instructional practices within our community, we rarely assess workshops through careful consideration of how they engage faculty. Initial evidence suggests that workshop leaders often overlook central tenets of education research that are well-established in classroom contexts, such as the role of interactivity in enabling student learning. As such, there is a need to develop more robust, evidence-based models of how best to support faculty learning in professional development contexts, and to activity support workshop leaders in relating their design decisions to familiar ideas form other educational contexts. In response to these needs, we have developed an observation tool, the Real-Time Professional Development Observation Tool (R-PDOT), to document the form and focus of faculty's engagement dur...

  12. Radiation damping in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, A C; Takakura, F I

    2001-11-01

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a charge interacting with its own radiation, which originates the radiation damping. The real-time equation of motion for the charge and the associated Langevin equation is found in classical limit. The equation of motion for the charge allows one to obtain the frequency-dependent coefficient of friction. In the lowest order we find that although the coefficient of static friction vanishes, there is dynamical dissipation represented by a non-Markovian dissipative kernel.

  13. The VLT Real Time Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  14. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  15. Observing real-time molecular event dynamics of apoptosis in living cancer cells using nuclear-targeted plasmonically enhanced Raman nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bin; Austin, Lauren A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2014-05-27

    Apoptosis is a biological process that plays important roles in embryogenesis, aging, and various diseases. During the process of apoptosis, cells undergo a series of morphological and molecular events such as blebbing, cell shrinkage, proteolysis, and nuclear DNA fragmentation. Investigating these events on a molecular level is crucial for gaining a more complete understanding of the intricate mechanism of apoptosis; however, the simultaneous direct observation of morphological and molecular events in real-time on a single living cell scale still remains a challenge. Herein, we directly monitored morphological and molecular events during cellular apoptosis in real-time after the treatment of an apoptosis-inducing agent, by utilizing our previously described plasmonically enhanced Rayleigh/Raman spectroscopic technique. Spectroscopic analysis of the DNA/protein composition around the cell nucleus revealed the occurrence and dynamics of three apoptotic molecular events: protein denaturation, proteolysis, and DNA fragmentation. The molecular event dynamics were used to create a temporal profile of apoptotic events in single cells. It is found that the sequence of events occurring in the apoptotic process induced by hydrogen peroxide addition is protein denaturation through disulfide bond breakage as well as DNA fragmentation, followed in time by protein unraveling with hydrophobic amino acid exposure, and finally protein degradation. These results demonstrate the potential of using this time-dependent plasmonically enhanced vibrational imaging technique to study the detailed mechanism of other apoptosis molecular pathways induced by different agents (e.g., anticancer drugs). A note is given in the conclusion discussing the expected large difference between the SERS spectrum of biological molecules in solution and that observed in live cells which are enhanced by the plasmonic field of the aggregated nanoparticles.

  16. Real-time flutter analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1984-01-01

    The important algorithm issues necessary to achieve a real time flutter monitoring system; namely, the guidelines for choosing appropriate model forms, reduction of the parameter convergence transient, handling multiple modes, the effect of over parameterization, and estimate accuracy predictions, both online and for experiment design are addressed. An approach for efficiently computing continuous-time flutter parameter Cramer-Rao estimate error bounds were developed. This enables a convincing comparison of theoretical and simulation results, as well as offline studies in preparation for a flight test. Theoretical predictions, simulation and flight test results from the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Test (DAST) Program are compared.

  17. Local Observability of Systems on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Bartosiewicz

    2013-01-01

    unified way using the language of real analytic geometry, ideals of germs of analytic functions, and their real radicals. It is shown that some properties related to observability are preserved under various discretizations of continuous-time systems.

  18. Application of real-time GPS to earthquake early warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard M. Allen; Alon Ziv

    2011-01-01

      Real-time GPS can provide static-offset observations during an earthquake Real-time GPS provides a robust constrain on magnitude for warnings GPS networks should be used as a companion to seismic...

  19. Researches on the Nankai trough mega thrust earthquake seismogenic zones using real time observing systems for advanced early warning systems and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    We recognized the importance of real time monitoring on Earthquakes and Tsunamis Based on lessons learned from 2004 Sumatra Earthquake/Tsunamis and 2011 East Japan Earthquake. We deployed DONET1 and are developing DONET2 as real time monitoring systems which are dense ocean floor networks around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone Southwestern Japan. Total observatories of DONE1 and DONET2 are 51 observatories equipped with multi kinds of sensors such as the accelerometer, broadband seismometer, pressure gauge, difference pressure gauge, hydrophone and thermometer in each observatory. These systems are indispensable for not only early warning of Earthquakes/ Tsunamis, but also researches on broadband crustal activities around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone for predictions. DONET1 detected offshore tsunamis 15 minutes earlier than onshore stations at the 2011 East Japan earthquake/tsunami. Furthermore, DONET1/DONET2 will be expected to monitor slow events such as low frequency tremors and slow earthquakes for the prediction researches. Finally, the integration of observations and simulation researches will contribute to estimate of seismic stage changes from the inter-seismic to pre seismic stage. I will introduce applications of DONET1/DONET2 data and advanced simulation researches.

  20. Real-Time Detection and Rapid Multiwavelength Follow-up Observations of a Highly Subluminous Type II-P Supernova from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Green, Yoav; Yaron, Ofer; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Xu, Dong; Sternberg, Assaf; Quimby, Robert M; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Ofek, Eran O; Walters, Richard; Nugent, Peter E; Poznanski, Dovi; Bloom, Joshua S; Cenko, S Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong; Silverman, J; Walker, Emma S; Sullivan, Mark; Maguire, K; Howell, D Andrew; Mazzali, Paolo A; Frail, Dale A; Bersier, David; James, Phil A; Akerlof, C W; Yuan, Fang; Fox, Derek B; Law, Nicholas; Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is an optical wide-field variability survey carried out using a camera with a 7.8 square degree field of view mounted on the 48-in Oschin Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory. One of the key goals of this survey is to conduct high-cadence monitoring of the sky in order to detect optical transient sources shortly after they occur. Here, we describe the real-time capabilities of the PTF and our related rapid multiwavelength follow-up programs, extending from the radio to the gamma-ray bands. We present as a case study observations of the optical transient PTF10vdl (SN 2010id), revealed to be a very young core-collapse (Type II-P) supernova having a remarkably low luminosity. Our results demonstrate that the PTF now provides for optical transients the real-time discovery and rapid-response follow-up capabilities previously reserved only for high-energy transients like gamma-ray bursts.

  1. Correlating MODIS aerosol optical thickness data with ground-based PM 2.5 observations across Texas for use in a real-time air quality prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Smith, Solar; Faruqui, Shazia J.

    Investigations have been conducted at the Center for Space Research (CSR) into approaches to correlate MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values with ground-based, PM 2.5 observations made at continuous air monitoring station locations operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). These correlations are needed to more fully utilize real-time MODIS AOT analyses generated at CSR in operational air quality forecasts issued by TCEQ using a trajectory-based forecast model developed by NASA. Initial analyses of two data sets collected during 3 months in 2003 and all of 2004 showed linear correlations in the 0.4-0.5 range in the data collected over Texas. Stronger correlations (exceeding 0.9) were obtained by averaging these same data over longer timescales but this approach is considered unsuitable for use in issuing air quality forecasts. Peculiarities in the MODIS AOT analyses, referred to as hot spots, were recognized while attempting to improve these correlations. It is demonstrated that hot spots are possible when pixels that contain surface water are not detected and removed from the AOT retrieval algorithms. An approach to reduce the frequency of hot spots in AOT analyses over Texas is demonstrated by tuning thresholds used to detect inland water surfaces and remove pixels that contain them from the analysis. Finally, the potential impact of hot spots on MODIS AOT-PM 2.5 correlations is examined through the analysis of a third data set that contained sufficient levels of aerosols to mask inland water surfaces from the AOT algorithms. In this case, significantly stronger correlations, that exceed the 0.9 value considered suitable for use in a real-time air quality prediction system, were observed between the MODIS AOT observations and ground-based PM 2.5 measurements.

  2. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2009-01-01

    To steer model-based conformance testing of real-time systems towards certain test purposes or test coverage, many testing methods need (to be enhanced with) the assumption of full observability of the System Under Test (SUT), which means that the tester can observe precisely what state...... precision sensors that we use to measure the SUT. This paper studies the problem of testing timed systems that are only partially observable. We model the SUT using Timed Game Automata (TGA) which has internal actions, uncontrollable outputs and timing uncertainty of outputs. We define the partial...... observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...

  3. Real-time streamflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Gebert, Warren A.

    1996-01-01

    Would you like to know streamflow conditions before you go fishing in Wisconsin or in more distant locations? Real-time streamflow data throughout Wisconsin and the United States are available on the Internet from the U.S. Geological Survey. You can see if the stream you are interested in fishing is high due to recent rain or low because of an extended dry spell. Flow conditions at more than 100 stream-gaging stations located throughout Wisconsin can be viewed by accessing the Wisconsin District Home Page at: http://wwwdwimdn.er.usgs.gov

  4. Estimating daily time series of streamflow using hydrological model calibrated based on satellite observations of river water surface width: Toward real world applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenchao; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Bastola, Satish; Yu, Jingshan

    2015-05-01

    Lacking observation data for calibration constrains applications of hydrological models to estimate daily time series of streamflow. Recent improvements in remote sensing enable detection of river water-surface width from satellite observations, making possible the tracking of streamflow from space. In this study, a method calibrating hydrological models using river width derived from remote sensing is demonstrated through application to the ungauged Irrawaddy Basin in Myanmar. Generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) is selected as a tool for automatic calibration and uncertainty analysis. Of 50,000 randomly generated parameter sets, 997 are identified as behavioral, based on comparing model simulation with satellite observations. The uncertainty band of streamflow simulation can span most of 10-year average monthly observed streamflow for moderate and high flow conditions. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency is 95.7% for the simulated streamflow at the 50% quantile. These results indicate that application to the target basin is generally successful. Beyond evaluating the method in a basin lacking streamflow data, difficulties and possible solutions for applications in the real world are addressed to promote future use of the proposed method in more ungauged basins. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-time optical diagnosis of the rat brain exposed to a laser-induced shock wave: observation of spreading depolarization, vasoconstriction and hypoxemia-oligemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Sato

    Full Text Available Despite many efforts, the pathophysiology and mechanism of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI have not yet been elucidated, partially due to the difficulty of real-time diagnosis and extremely complex factors determining the outcome. In this study, we topically applied a laser-induced shock wave (LISW to the rat brain through the skull, for which real-time measurements of optical diffuse reflectance and electroencephalogram (EEG were performed. Even under conditions showing no clear changes in systemic physiological parameters, the brain showed a drastic light scattering change accompanied by EEG suppression, which indicated the occurrence of spreading depression, long-lasting hypoxemia and signal change indicating mitochondrial energy impairment. Under the standard LISW conditions examined, hemorrhage and contusion were not apparent in the cortex. To investigate events associated with spreading depression, measurement of direct current (DC potential, light scattering imaging and stereomicroscopic observation of blood vessels were also conducted for the brain. After LISW application, we observed a distinct negative shift in the DC potential, which temporally coincided with the transit of a light scattering wave, showing the occurrence of spreading depolarization and concomitant change in light scattering. Blood vessels in the brain surface initially showed vasodilatation for 3-4 min, which was followed by long-lasting vasoconstriction, corresponding to hypoxemia. Computer simulation based on the inverse Monte Carlo method showed that hemoglobin oxygen saturation declined to as low as ∼35% in the long-term hypoxemic phase. Overall, we found that topical application of a shock wave to the brain caused spreading depolarization/depression and prolonged severe hypoxemia-oligemia, which might lead to pathological conditions in the brain. Although further study is needed, our findings suggest that spreading depolarization/depression is one of

  6. Real time analysis under EDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  7. Real-time flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C.; Tsay, T.-K.; Chien, C.-H.; Wu, I.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

  8. Real-Time Observation of Laser Heated Metals with High Brightness Monochromatic X-Ray Techniques at Present and Their Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daido, H.; Shobu, T.; Yamada, T.; Yamashita, S.; Sugihara, K.; Nishimura, A.; Muramatsu, T.

    We present the x-ray techniques for characterizing laser heated metals for welding and cutting techniques. At present, with an undulator (70 keV) as well as bending magnet (30 keV) sources at SPring-8 as a probe source, CW 300 W Ytterbium fiber laser irradiates an Aluminum slab as a sample. Simultaneously the x-ray beam probes the sample for real time observation of a molten pool. We observe the convection indicated by the motion of tungsten based particles as a tracer in the molten pool. During the cooling phase, the molten metal is solidified with residual stresses which are affected by the heating and convection processes. In this experiment the time and space resolution are ˜milli-second and several tens of μm, respectively. On the other hand, microscopic short transient phenomena also play a significant role for the quality of a solidified material. For this purpose, we need high energy short pulse x-ray sources. We try to discuss on the capability and limitation of present x-ray sources and the prospect of an ultra high brightness x-ray source as a complementary source for full characterization of the laser heated and cooling processes of metals.

  9. Real-time current, wave, temperature, salinity, and meteorological data from Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) buoys, 11/30/2003 - 12/7/2003 (NODC Accession 0001259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) collected real-time data with buoy-mounted instruments (e.g., accelerometers and Acoustic Doppler Current...

  10. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  11. REAL TIME DATA PROCESSING FRAMEWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Sakaria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On a business level, everyone wants to get hold of the business value and other organizational advantages that big data has to offer. Analytics has arisen as the primitive path to business value from big data. Hadoop is not just a storage platform for big data; it’s also a computational and processing platform for business analytics. Hadoop is, however, unsuccessful in fulfilling business requirements when it comes to live data streaming. The initial architecture of Apache Hadoop did not solve the problem of live stream data mining. In summary, the traditional approach of big data being co-relational to Hadoop is false; focus needs to be given on business value as well. Data Warehousing, Hadoop and stream processing complement each other very well. In this paper, we have tried reviewing a few frameworks and products which use real time data streaming by providing modifications to Hadoop.

  12. Real-time observation of the swelling and hydrolysis of a single crystalline cellulose fiber catalyzed by cellulase 7B from Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingpeng; Quirk, Amanda; Lipkowski, Jacek; Dutcher, John R; Hill, Christopher; Mark, Adam; Clarke, Anthony J

    2012-06-26

    The biodegradation of cellulose involves the enzymatic action of cellulases (endoglucanases), cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases), and β-glucosidases that act synergistically. The rate and efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose in vitro decline markedly with time, limiting the large-scale, cost-effective production of cellulosic biofuels. Several factors have been suggested to contribute to this phenomenon, but there is considerable disagreement regarding the relative importance of each. These earlier investigations were hampered by the inability to observe the disruption of crystalline cellulose and its subsequent hydrolysis directly. Here, we show the application of high-resolution atomic force microscopy to observe the swelling of a single crystalline cellulose fiber and its-hydrolysis in real time directly as catalyzed by a single cellulase, the industrially important cellulase 7B from Trichoderma reesei. Volume changes, the root-mean-square roughness, and rates of hydrolysis of the surfaces of single fibers were determined directly from the images acquired over time. Hydrolysis dominated the early stage of the experiment, and swelling dominated the later stage. The high-resolution images revealed that the combined action of initial hydrolysis followed by swelling exposed individual microfibrils and bundles of microfibrils, resulting in the loosening of the fiber structure and the exposure of microfibrils at the fiber surface. Both the hydrolysis and swelling were catalyzed by the native cellulase; under the same conditions, its isolated carbohydrate-binding module did not cause changes to crystalline cellulose. We anticipate that the application of our AFM-based analysis on other cellulolytic enzymes, alone and in combination, will provide significant insight into the process of cellulose biodegradation and greatly facilitate its application for the efficient and economical production of cellulosic ethanol.

  13. In-situ and real-time growth observation of high-quality protein crystals under quasi-microgravity on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akira; Ohtsuka, Jun; Kashiwagi, Tatsuki; Numoto, Nobutaka; Hirota, Noriyuki; Ode, Takahiro; Okada, Hidehiko; Nagata, Koji; Kiyohara, Motosuke; Suzuki, Ei-Ichiro; Kita, Akiko; Wada, Hitoshi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-02-26

    Precise protein structure determination provides significant information on life science research, although high-quality crystals are not easily obtained. We developed a system for producing high-quality protein crystals with high throughput. Using this system, gravity-controlled crystallization are made possible by a magnetic microgravity environment. In addition, in-situ and real-time observation and time-lapse imaging of crystal growth are feasible for over 200 solution samples independently. In this paper, we also report results of crystallization experiments for two protein samples. Crystals grown in the system exhibited magnetic orientation and showed higher and more homogeneous quality compared with the control crystals. The structural analysis reveals that making use of the magnetic microgravity during the crystallization process helps us to build a well-refined protein structure model, which has no significant structural differences with a control structure. Therefore, the system contributes to improvement in efficiency of structural analysis for "difficult" proteins, such as membrane proteins and supermolecular complexes.

  14. AirNow Information Management System - Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Processor for Real-Time Air Quality Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderman, M.; Dye, T. S.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Pasch, A. N.; Miller, D. S.; Chan, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Built upon the success of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program (www.AirNow.gov), the AirNow-International (AirNow-I) system contains an enhanced suite of software programs that process and quality control real-time air quality and environmental data and distribute customized maps, files, and data feeds. The goals of the AirNow-I program are similar to those of the successful U.S. program and include fostering the exchange of environmental data; making advances in air quality knowledge and applications; and building a community of people, organizations, and decision makers in environmental management. In 2010, Shanghai became the first city in China to run this state-of-the-art air quality data management and notification system. AirNow-I consists of a suite of modules (software programs and schedulers) centered on a database. One such module is the Information Management System (IMS), which can automatically produce maps and other data products through the use of GIS software to provide the most current air quality information to the public. Developed with Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability in mind, IMS is based on non-proprietary standards, with preference to formal international standards. The system depends on data and information providers accepting and implementing a set of interoperability arrangements, including technical specifications for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared data, metadata, and products. In particular, the specifications include standards for service-oriented architecture and web-based interfaces, such as a web mapping service (WMS), web coverage service (WCS), web feature service (WFS), sensor web services, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. IMS is flexible, open, redundant, and modular. It also allows the merging of data grids to create complex grids that show comprehensive air quality conditions. For example, the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

  15. Clinical virology in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesters, Hubert G M

    2002-12-01

    The ability to detect nucleic acids has had and still has a major impact on diagnostics in clinical virology. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques, whether signal or target amplification based systems, are currently used routinely in most if not all virology laboratories. Technological improvements, from automated sample isolation to real time amplification technology, have given the ability to develop and introduce systems for most viruses of clinical interest, and to obtain clinical relevant information needed for optimal antiviral treatment options. Both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) can currently be used together with real time detection to generate results in a short turn-around time and to determine whether variants relevant for antiviral resistance are present. These new technologies enable the introduction of an individual patient disease management concept. Within our clinical setting, we have introduced this e.g. for quantitative detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in T-dell depleted allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. This enabled us to develop models for pre-emptive anti B-cell immunotherapy for EBV reactivation, thereby effectively reducing not the incidence of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease but the virus related mortality. Furthermore, additional clinically relevant viruses can now easily be detected simultaneously. It also becomes more feasible to introduce molecular testing for those viruses that can easily be detected using classical virological methods, like culture techniques or antigen detection. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance of the additional positive samples detected. It should however be made clear that a complete exchange of technologies is unlikely to occur, and that some complementary technologies should stay operational enabling the discovery of new viruses. The implementation of these molecular diagnostic technologies furthermore

  16. Real-Time Upper-Ocean Temperature Observations from Aircraft during Operational Hurricane Reconnaissance Missions: AXBT Demonstration Project Year One Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    theMOOS system video monitor for visual inspection in real time by the equipment operator. b. Data path After transmission of AXBT data from the...mission, OHC was calculated on board the aircraft using the method of Leipper and Volgenau (1972): OHC(x, y)5 rcp ð0 z 26 [Ti(x, y, z)2 26]dz , whereTi

  17. A Table-Driven Control Method to Meet Continuous, Near-Real-Time Observation Requirements for the Solar X-Ray Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Shawn; Brown, Terry; Freestone, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    The design of the Solar X-Ray Imager (SXI) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) presents an unusual scenario for controlling the observing sequences. The SXI is an operational instrument, designed not primarily for scientific research, but for providing "operational" data used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to forecast the near-term space weather. To this end, a sequence of images selected to cover the full dynamic range of the sun will be executed routinely. As the dynamics of the sun have differing temporal cadences, the frequency of various images will differ. These images must be routinely received at the forecast center in near real-time, 24-hours a day, with a minimum of interruptions. While these requirements clearly lead to a 'routine patrol' of images, the parameters for each do not form a static set. The dynamics of the sun will change with the I 1-year solar cycle. The performance of the imaging will vary with on-orbit conditions and time. And while the SXI is not intended as a research instrument, forecasting techniques may change with time, which in turn will further alter the imaging sequences. An additional complication is the highly restricted commanding window, and a very slow commanding rate. To fulfill these requirements, the SXI was designed to utilize a table-driven approach. Sequences are defined using structured loops, with nested repetitions and delays. These sequences reference combinations of imaging parameters which in turn reference tables of parameters than can be loaded by ground commands. Multiple sequences can be built and stored in preparation for execution when determined appropriate by the NOAA forecasters. The result is an approach that can be used to provide a flexible, yet autonomous SXI capable of meeting both arbitrary forecasting requirements, and operating within the commanding constraints.

  18. A Table-Driven Control Method to Meet Continuous, Near-Real-Time Observation Requirements for the Solar X-Ray Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Shawn; Brown, Terry; Freestone, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    The design of the Solar X-Ray Imager (SXI) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) presents an unusual scenario for controlling the observing sequences. The SXI is an operational instrument, designed not primarily for scientific research, but for providing "operational" data used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to forecast the near-term space weather. To this end, a sequence of images selected to cover the full dynamic range of the sun will be executed routinely. As the dynamics of the sun have differing temporal cadences, the frequency of various images will differ. These images must be routinely received at the forecast center in near real-time, 24-hours a day, with a minimum of interruptions. While these requirements clearly lead to a 'routine patrol' of images, the parameters for each do not form a static set. The dynamics of the sun will change with the I 1-year solar cycle. The performance of the imaging will vary with on-orbit conditions and time. And while the SXI is not intended as a research instrument, forecasting techniques may change with time, which in turn will further alter the imaging sequences. An additional complication is the highly restricted commanding window, and a very slow commanding rate. To fulfill these requirements, the SXI was designed to utilize a table-driven approach. Sequences are defined using structured loops, with nested repetitions and delays. These sequences reference combinations of imaging parameters which in turn reference tables of parameters than can be loaded by ground commands. Multiple sequences can be built and stored in preparation for execution when determined appropriate by the NOAA forecasters. The result is an approach that can be used to provide a flexible, yet autonomous SXI capable of meeting both arbitrary forecasting requirements, and operating within the commanding constraints.

  19. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  20. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  1. Students Collecting Real time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  2. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  3. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian;

    2009-01-01

    subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking......We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...

  4. Real-time graphics rendering engine

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Hujun

    2011-01-01

    ""Real-Time Graphics Rendering Engine"" reveals the software architecture of the modern real-time 3D graphics rendering engine and the relevant technologies based on the authors' experience developing this high-performance, real-time system. The relevant knowledge about real-time graphics rendering such as the rendering pipeline, the visual appearance and shading and lighting models are also introduced. This book is intended to offer well-founded guidance for researchers and developers who are interested in building their own rendering engines. Hujun Bao is a professor at the State Key Lab of

  5. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  6. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  7. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  8. Real-Time and Near Real-Time Data for Space Weather Applications and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H. J.; Balch, C. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Matsuo, T.; Onsager, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather can be defined as conditions in the vicinity of Earth and in the interplanetary environment that are caused primarily by solar processes and influenced by conditions on Earth and its atmosphere. Examples of space weather are the conditions that result from geomagnetic storms, solar particle events, and bursts of intense solar flare radiation. These conditions can have impacts on modern-day technologies such as GPS or electric power grids and on human activities such as astronauts living on the International Space Station or explorers traveling to the moon or Mars. While the ultimate space weather goal is accurate prediction of future space weather conditions, for many applications and services, we rely on real-time and near-real time observations and model results for the specification of current conditions. In this presentation, we will describe the space weather system and the need for real-time and near-real time data that drive the system, characterize conditions in the space environment, and are used by models for assimilation and validation. Currently available data will be assessed and a vision for future needs will be given. The challenges for establishing real-time data requirements, as well as acquiring, processing, and disseminating the data will be described, including national and international collaborations. In addition to describing how the data are used for official government products, we will also give examples of how these data are used by both the public and private sector for new applications that serve the public.

  9. Real Time Pricing and the Real Live Firm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moezzi, Mithra; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, Osman; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-05-26

    Energy economists have long argued the benefits of real time pricing (RTP) of electricity. Their basis for modeling customers response to short-term fluctuations in electricity prices are based on theories of rational firm behavior, where management strives to minimize operating costs and optimize profit, and labor, capital and energy are potential substitutes in the firm's production function. How well do private firms and public sector institutions operating conditions, knowledge structures, decision-making practices, and external relationships comport with these assumptions and how might this impact price response? We discuss these issues on the basis of interviews with 29 large (over 2 MW) industrial, commercial, and institutional customers in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation service territory that have faced day-ahead electricity market prices since 1998. We look at stories interviewees told about why and how they respond to RTP, why some customers report that they can't, and why even if they can, they don't. Some firms respond as theorized, and we describe their load curtailment strategies. About half of our interviewees reported that they were unable to either shift or forego electricity consumption even when prices are high ($0.50/kWh). Reasons customers gave for why they weren't price-responsive include implicit value placed on reliability, pricing structures, lack of flexibility in adjusting production inputs, just-in-time practices, perceived barriers to onsite generation, and insufficient time. We draw these observations into a framework that could help refine economic theory of dynamic pricing by providing real-world descriptions of how firms behave and why.

  10. Real-time detection of gravitational microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, M R; Axelrod, T S; Becker, A; Bennett, D P; Cook, K H; Freeman, K C; Griest, K; Guern, J A; Lehner, M; Marshall, S L; Peterson, B A; Quinn, P J; Reiss, D; Rodgers, A W; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W; Welch, D

    1995-01-01

    Real-time detection of microlensing has moved from proof of concept in 1994 to a steady stream of events this year. Global dissemination of these events by the MACHO and OGLE collaborations has made possible intensive photometric and spectroscopic followup from widely dispersed sites confirming the microlensing hypothesis. Improved photometry and increased temporal resolution from followup observations greatly increases the possibility of detecting deviations from the standard point-source, point-lens, inertial motion microlensing model. These deviations are crucial in understanding individual lensing systems by breaking the degeneracy between lens mass, position and velocity. We report here on GMAN (Global Microlensing Alert Network), the coordinated followup of MACHO alerts.

  11. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  12. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Quinton

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  13. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    Real-time acquisition, reconstruction and interactively changing the slice position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been possible for years. However, the current clinical use of interactive real-time MRI is limited due to an inherent low spatial and temporal resolution. This PhD proje...

  14. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to veri...

  15. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, Ferdy; Jansen, Pierre G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  16. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, Ferdy; Jansen, Pierre G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally the pros and cons regarding the At-Home Anywhere project are discussed.

  17. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  18. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    Real-time acquisition, reconstruction and interactively changing the slice position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been possible for years. However, the current clinical use of interactive real-time MRI is limited due to an inherent low spatial and temporal resolution. This PhD proje...

  19. Real-Time Observation of Antimicrobial Polycation Effects on Escherichia coli: Adapting the Carpet Model for Membrane Disruption to Quaternary Copolyoxetanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Zolotarskaya, Olga Y; Nair, Sithara S; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Ohman, Dennis E; Wynne, Kenneth J; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2016-03-29

    Real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for analyzing effects of the antimicrobial polycation copolyoxetane P[(C12)-(ME2Ox)-50/50], C12-50 on the membrane of a model bacterium, Escherichia coli (ATCC# 35218). AFM imaging showed cell membrane changes with increasing C12-50 concentration and time including nanopore formation and bulges associated with outer bacterial membrane disruption. A macroscale bactericidal concentration study for C12-50 showed a 4 log kill at 15 μg/mL with conditions paralleling imaging (1 h, 1x PBS, physiological pH, 25 °C). The dramatic changes from the control image to 1 h after introducing 15 μg/mL C12-50 are therefore reasonably attributed to cell death. At the highest concentration (60 μg/mL) further cell membrane disruption results in leakage of cytoplasm driven by detergent-like action. The sequence of processes for initial membrane disruption by the synthetic polycation C12-50 follows the carpet model posited for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, the nanoscale details are distinctly different as C12-50 is a synthetic, water-soluble copolycation that is best modeled as a random coil. In a complementary AFM study, chemical force microscopy shows that incubating cells with C12-50 decreased the hydrophobicity across the entire cell surface at an early stage. This finding provides additional evidence indicating that C12-50 polycations initially bind with the cell membrane in a carpet-like fashion. Taken together, real time AFM imaging elucidates the mechanism of antimicrobial action for copolyoxetane C12-50 at the single cell level. In future work this approach will provide important insights into structure-property relationships and improved antimicrobial effectiveness for synthetic amphiphilic polycations.

  20. Real-time PCR in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas; Gärtner, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    A central method in a standard biochemical laboratory is represented by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), therefore many attempts have been performed so far to implement this technique in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. PCR is an ideal candidate for miniaturization because of a reduction of assay time and decreased costs for expensive bio-chemicals. In case of the "classical" PCR, detection is done by identification of DNA fragments electrophoretically separated in agarose gels. This method is meanwhile frequently replaced by the so-called Real-Time-PCR because here the exponential increase of amplificates can be observed directly by measurement of DNA interacting fluorescent dyes. Two main methods for on-chip PCRs are available: traditional "batch" PCR in chambers on a chip using thermal cycling, requiring about 30 minutes for a typical PCR protocol and continuous-flow PCR, where the liquid is guided over stationary temperature zones. In the latter case, the PCR protocol can be as fast as 5 minutes. In the presented work, a proof of concept is demonstrated for a real-time-detection of PCR products in microfluidic systems.

  1. Real-time forecasts of dengue epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of transmission. In many areas with endemic dengue, disease transmission is seasonal but prone to high inter-annual variability with occasional severe epidemics. Predicting and preparing for periods of higher than average transmission is a significant public health challenge. Here we present a model of dengue transmission and a framework for optimizing model simulations with real-time observational data of dengue cases and environmental variables in order to generate ensemble-based forecasts of the timing and severity of disease outbreaks. The model-inference system is validated using synthetic data and dengue outbreak records. Retrospective forecasts are generated for a number of locations and the accuracy of these forecasts is quantified.

  2. Quantitative real-time imaging of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutathione plays many important roles in biological processes; however, the dynamic changes of glutathione concentrations in living cells remain largely unknown. Here, we report a reversible reaction-based fluorescent probe—designated as RealThiol (RT)—that can quantitatively monitor the real-time ...

  3. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly staffing servic

  4. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. de Groot (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly sta

  5. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly staffing

  6. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. de Groot (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly

  7. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  8. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravs, M

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  9. Real time detecting system for turning force

    CERN Document Server

    Yue Xiao Bin

    2001-01-01

    How to get the real-time value of forces dropped on the tool in the course of processing by piezoelectric sensors is introduced. First, the analog signals of the cutting force were achieved by these sensors, amplified and transferred into digital signals by A/D transferring card. Then real-time software reads the information, put it into its own coordinate, drew the curve of forces, displayed it on the screen by the real time and saved it for the technicians to analyze the situation of the tool. So the cutting parameter can be optimized to improve surface quality of the pieces

  10. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Kawchuk

    Full Text Available Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  11. Real Time Information Fusion in Military Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bhagiratharao

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of sensors on platforms like battle ships and aircraft, the information to be handled by the battlefield commanders has significantly increased in the recent time. From a deluge of information flowing from sensors, the battlefield commander is required to make situation assessment in real-time and take appropriate action. Recent studies by cognitive scientists have indicated that decision making by individuals as well as a team suffer from several biases. For these two reasons, the battlefield commanders need assistance of real-time information fusion systems to take objective assessment of highly dynamic battle situation in real-time information fusion systems to take objective assessment of a highly dynamic battle situation in real-time. The real-time information fusion systems at a single platform level as well as that applicable for geographically distributed platforms is discussed in detail in this paper. It was concluded that by carrying out these activities at the platform level as well as at 'global' level involving several platforms, the limitations in performance of any sensor due to propagation effects or due to enemy counter measures can be significantly minimised or totally eliminated. At the same time the functional effectiveness of each sensor onboard different platforms, becomes better than when it had to operate autonomously within the real-time information fusion facility. By carrying out global real-time information fusion activity in a theatre of war, all the platforms operating in the area will have the benefit of the best sensor in that area on each aspect of the capability. A few examples of real-time information fusion system are also discussed.

  12. Analysis of real-time vibration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

  13. Visualization in Real-Time Experiment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project will be to migrate some of the outputs from the WFF Mission Planning Lab (MPL) into a real-time visualization system.  The MPL is...

  14. Real Time Study and Related Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-qing

    2016-01-01

    This paper first, illustrates the advantages of applying real time study to linguistic researches. Second, this paper also compares linguistic variables with linguistic variant; nasality, stronger constraint and weaker constraint have been clearly de-fined as well.

  15. Real-Time Sensor-Actuator Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sastry, Shivakumar; S. S. Iyengar

    2005-01-01

    Emerging technologies offer new paradigms for computation, control, collaboration, and communication. To realize the full potential of these technologies in industry, defense, and homeland security applications, it is necessary to exploit the real-time distributed computing capabilities of sensor-actuator networks. To reliably design and develop such networks, it is necessary to develop deeper insight into the underlying model for real-time computation and the infrastructure at the node level...

  16. Scala for Real-Time Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Java served well as a general-purpose language. However, during its two decades of constant change it has gotten some weight and legacy in the language syntax and the libraries. Furthermore, Java's success for real-time systems is mediocre. Scala is a modern object-oriented and functional language...... with interesting new features. Although a new language, it executes on a Java virtual machine, reusing that technology. This paper explores Scala as language for future real-time systems....

  17. The LAA real-time benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, R.K.; Krischer, W.; Lone, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1989-04-01

    In the context of the LAA detector development program a subgroup Real Time Data Processing has tackled the problem of intelligent triggering. The main goal of this group is to show how fast digital devices, implemented as custom-made or commercial processors, can execute some basic algorithms, and how they can be embedded in the data flow between detector readout components and fully programmable commercial processors, which are expected to be the final data processing filter in real time.

  18. Real-Time Imaging of Quantum Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement - correlations between at least two systems that are stronger than classically explainable - is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, the creation of entanglement between two systems has become possible in laboratories, it has been out of the grasp of one of the most natural ways to investigate nature: direct visual observation. Here we show that modern imaging technology, namely a triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera, is fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the influence of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To demonstrate the non-classicality of the measurements quantitatively from the registered intensity we develop a novel method to statistically analyze the image and precisely quantify the number of photons within a certain region. In addition, we show the high flexibility of our experimental setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, even...

  19. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  20. Volatile Organic Compound emissions from soil: using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) for the real time observation of microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, P. R.; Behrendt, T.; Klapthor, A.; Meixner, F. X.; Williams, J.

    2014-08-01

    In this study we report on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitric oxide (NO) from two contrasting soils (equatorial rainforest and arid cotton field) analyzed in a laboratory based dynamic chamber system. The effect of soil moisture and soil temperature on VOC and NO emission was examined in laboratory incubation experiments by measuring as a pre-saturated soil dried out. Our results suggest that real time monitoring of VOC emissions from soil using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) instrument can be used to improve our understanding of the release mechanisms of trace gases (e.g. NO, N2O) that are involved in the nitrogen cycle. Moreover, we report on the release rate of various VOC species, many of which exhibit a temperature dependent response indicative of biological production, namely a temperature amplification factor (Q10) ∼ 2-3. Contrary to the conventional modeling of NO emissions from soils, that the release of NO from the overall community across the range of soil water content can be modeled as an optimum function, we suggest that VOC measurements indicate there exist multiple distinct contributing microbial guilds releasing NO. These microbial guilds could likely be individually identified with the observed VOC profiles. Using a cotton field soil sample from a Sache oasis (Taklimakan desert, Xinijang, P. R. China), we identify five VOC emission groups with varying degrees of NO co-emission. An equatorial rainforest soil (Suriname) was shown to emit a variety of VOC including acetaldehyde, acetone, DMS, formaldehyde, and isoprene that vary strongly and individually as a function of temperature and soil moisture content. PTR-TOF-MS with high time resolution, sensitivity, and molecular specificity is an ideal tool for the real time analysis of VOC and NO emitting processes in soil systems. These experiments can be used as a template for future experiments to more completely and specifically

  1. Deterministic Real-time Thread Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Heechul; Sha, Lui

    2011-01-01

    Race condition is a timing sensitive problem. A significant source of timing variation comes from nondeterministic hardware interactions such as cache misses. While data race detectors and model checkers can check races, the enormous state space of complex software makes it difficult to identify all of the races and those residual implementation errors still remain a big challenge. In this paper, we propose deterministic real-time scheduling methods to address scheduling nondeterminism in uniprocessor systems. The main idea is to use timing insensitive deterministic events, e.g, an instruction counter, in conjunction with a real-time clock to schedule threads. By introducing the concept of Worst Case Executable Instructions (WCEI), we guarantee both determinism and real-time performance.

  2. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  3. A New Scheduling Algorithms For Real Time Tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Yaashuwanth, C

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to develop the two different ways in which round robin architecture is modified and made suitable to be implemented in real time and embedded systems. The scheduling algorithm plays a significant role in the design of real time embedded systems. Simple round robin architecture is not efficient to be implemented in embedded systems because of higher context switch rate, larger waiting time and larger response time. Missing of deadlines will degrade the system performance in soft real time systems. The main objective of this paper is to develop the scheduling algorithm which removes the drawbacks in simple round robin architecture. A comparison with round robin architecture to the proposed architectures has been made. It is observed that the proposed architectures solves the problems encountered in round robin architecture in soft real time by decreasing the number of context switches waiting time and response time thereby increasing the system throughput.

  4. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  5. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  6. Visualization of Real-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansifer, Ryan; Engrand, Peter

    1996-01-01

    In this project we explored various approaches to presenting real-time data from the numerous systems monitored on the space shuttle to computer users. We examined the approach that several projects at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used to accomplish this. We undertook to build a prototype system to demonstrate that the Internet and the Java programming language could be used to present the real-time data conveniently. Several Java programs were developed that presented real-time data in different forms including one form that emulated the display screens of the PC GOAL system which is familiar to many at KSC. Also, we developed several communications programs to supply the data continuously. Furthermore, a framework was created using the World Wide Web (WWW) to organize the collection and presentation of the real-time data. We believe our demonstration project shows the great flexibility of the approach. We had no particular use of the data in mind, instead we wanted the most general and the least complex framework possible. People who wish to view data need only know how to use a WWW browser and the address (the URL). People wanting to build WWW documents containing real-time data need only know the values of a few parameters, they do not need to program in Java or any other language. These are stunning advantages over more monolithic systems.

  7. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  8. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  9. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  10. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    -time rendering of arbitrary dynamic environments and for interactive preview of feature animations. Through DRM we simulate two diffuse reflections of light, but can also, in combination with traditional real-time methods for specular reflections, simulate more complex light paths. DRM is a GPU-based method...

  11. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  12. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  13. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    seeks to implement and assess existing reconstruction algorithms using multi-processors of modern graphics cards and many-core computer processors and to cover some of the potential clinical applications which might benefit from using an interactive real-time MRI system. First an off......-line, but interactive, slice alignment tool was used to support the notion that 3D blood flow quantification in the heart possesses the ability to obtain curves and volumes which are not statistical different from standard 2D flow. Secondly, the feasibility of an interactive real-time MRI system was exploited...... with regard to optimal sampling strategy for detecting motion in four different anatomies on two different MRI scanner brands. A fully implemented interactive real-time MRI system was exploited in a group of healthy fetuses and proved its eligibility as an alternative diagnostic tool for fetal imaging...

  14. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  15. Durham adaptive optics real-time controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, Alastair; Geng, Deli; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy

    2010-11-10

    The Durham adaptive optics (AO) real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic AO control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful central-processing-unit-based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including field programmable gate arrays and graphical processing units), based primarily around commercial off-the-shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8 m class telescope AO systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance, including latency and jitter, which is less than 10 μs for small AO systems.

  16. Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Chrien, Thomas D. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A real-time display of tissue ischemia which comprises three CCD video cameras, each with a narrow bandwidth filter at the correct wavelength is discussed. The cameras simultaneously view an area of tissue suspected of having ischemic areas through beamsplitters. The output from each camera is adjusted to give the correct signal intensity for combining with, the others into an image for display. If necessary a digital signal processor (DSP) can implement algorithms for image enhancement prior to display. Current DSP engines are fast enough to give real-time display. Measurement at three, wavelengths, combined into a real-time Red-Green-Blue (RGB) video display with a digital signal processing (DSP) board to implement image algorithms, provides direct visualization of ischemic areas.

  17. Satellite clock corrections estimation to accomplish real time ppp: experiments for brazilian real time network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João; Aquino, Marcio; Melo, Weyller

    2014-05-01

    The real time PPP method requires the availability of real time precise orbits and satellites clocks corrections. Currently, it is possible to apply the solutions of clocks and orbits available by BKG within the context of IGS Pilot project or by using the operational predicted IGU ephemeris. The accuracy of the satellite position available in the IGU is enough for several applications requiring good quality. However, the satellites clocks corrections do not provide enough accuracy (3 ns ~ 0.9 m) to accomplish real time PPP with the same level of accuracy. Therefore, for real time PPP application it is necessary to further research and develop appropriated methodologies for estimating the satellite clock corrections in real time with better accuracy. Currently, it is possible to apply the real time solutions of clocks and orbits available by Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) within the context of IGS Pilot project. The BKG corrections are disseminated by a new proposed format of the RTCM 3.x and can be applied in the broadcasted orbits and clocks. Some investigations have been proposed for the estimation of the satellite clock corrections using GNSS code and phase observable at the double difference level between satellites and epochs (MERVAT, DOUSA, 2007). Another possibility consists of applying a Kalman Filter in the PPP network mode (HAUSCHILD, 2010) and it is also possible the integration of both methods, using network PPP and observables at double difference level in specific time intervals (ZHANG; LI; GUO, 2010). For this work the methodology adopted consists in the estimation of the satellite clock corrections based on the data adjustment in the PPP mode, but for a network of GNSS stations. The clock solution can be solved by using two types of observables: code smoothed by carrier phase or undifferenced code together with carrier phase. In the former, we estimate receiver clock error; satellite clock correction and troposphere, considering

  18. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  19. SignalR real time application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2013-01-01

    This step-by-step guide gives you practical advice, tips, and tricks that will have you writing real-time apps quickly and easily.If you are a .NET developer who wants to be at the cutting edge of development, then this book is for you. Real-time application development is made simple in this guide, so as long as you have basic knowledge of .NET, a copy of Visual Studio, and NuGet installed, you are ready to go.

  20. Real-time Shakemap implementation in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Papi Isaba, Maria; Horn, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes. They are automatically generated within a few minutes after occurrence of an earthquake. We tested and included the USGS ShakeMap 4.0 (experimental code) based on python in the Antelope real-time system with local modified GMPE and Site Effects based on the conditions in Austria. The ShakeMaps are provided in terms of Intensity, PGA, PGV and PSA. Future presentation of ShakeMap contour lines and Ground Motion Parameter with interactive maps and data exchange over Web-Services are shown.

  1. Real Time Implementation Of Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Manchanda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes face recognition method using PCA for real time implementation. Nowadays security is gaining importance as it is becoming necessary for people to keep passwords in their mind and carry cards. Such implementations however, are becoming less secure and practical, also is becoming more problematic thus leading to an increasing interest in techniques related to biometrics systems. Face recognition system is amongst important subjects in biometrics systems. This system is very useful for security in particular and has been widely used and developed in many countries. This study aims to achieve face recognition successfully by detecting human face in real time, based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA algorithm.

  2. Real-time elastography of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, D; De Zordo, T; Quentin, M; Ladurner, M; Bektic, J; Horniger, W; Jaschke, W; Aigner, F

    2014-01-01

    Palpation of organs is one of the oldest clinical examination techniques, for instance, if you think of the palpation of the breast or the digital rectal examination of the prostate, where hard palpable regions are suspicious for cancer. This is the basic principle of real-time elastography, an ultrasound technique, which is able to visualise tissue elasticity. Since prostate cancer features an increased stiffness due to the higher cell and vessel density than the normal surrounding tissue, real-time elastography has been used for several years for prostate cancer detection. This review introduces the different techniques of ultrasound elastography and furthermore summarises its limitations and potentials.

  3. Real-Time Elastography of the Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Junker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palpation of organs is one of the oldest clinical examination techniques, for instance, if you think of the palpation of the breast or the digital rectal examination of the prostate, where hard palpable regions are suspicious for cancer. This is the basic principle of real-time elastography, an ultrasound technique, which is able to visualise tissue elasticity. Since prostate cancer features an increased stiffness due to the higher cell and vessel density than the normal surrounding tissue, real-time elastography has been used for several years for prostate cancer detection. This review introduces the different techniques of ultrasound elastography and furthermore summarises its limitations and potentials.

  4. Prediction of optical communication link availability: real-time observation of cloud patterns using a ground-based thermal infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Clément; Cros, Sylvain; Saint-Antonin, Laurent; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    The growing demand for high-speed broadband communications with low orbital or geostationary satellites is a major challenge. Using an optical link at 1.55 μm is an advantageous solution which potentially can increase the satellite throughput by a factor 10. Nevertheless, cloud cover is an obstacle for this optical frequency. Such communication requires an innovative management system to optimize the optical link availability between a satellite and several Optical Ground Stations (OGS). The Saint-Exupery Technological Research Institute (France) leads the project ALBS (French acronym for BroadBand Satellite Access). This initiative involving small and medium enterprises, industrial groups and research institutions specialized in aeronautics and space industries, is currently developing various solutions to increase the telecommunication satellite bandwidth. This paper presents the development of a preliminary prediction system preventing the cloud blockage of an optical link between a satellite and a given OGS. An infrared thermal camera continuously observes (night and day) the sky vault. Cloud patterns are observed and classified several times a minute. The impact of the detected clouds on the optical beam (obstruction or not) is determined by the retrieval of the cloud optical depth at the wavelength of communication. This retrieval is based on realistic cloud-modelling on libRadtran. Then, using subsequent images, cloud speed and trajectory are estimated. Cloud blockage over an OGS can then be forecast up to 30 minutes ahead. With this information, the preparation of the new link between the satellite and another OGS under a clear sky can be prepared before the link breaks due to cloud blockage.

  5. INTELLIGENT TIME SLICE FOR ROUND ROBIN IN REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaashuwanth C. and Dr.R.Ramesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to develop a new scheduling algorithm for scheduling tasks in real time operating systems. Scheduling algorithms play a significant role in the design of real time embedded systems. Simple round robin architecture cannot be implemented in real time operating systems because of high context switch rate, large waiting time and larger response time. Missing deadlines will degrade the system performance in real time embedded systems. The proposed algorithm modifies all the drawbacks of simple round robin architecture, the proposed architecture calculates the time slice for tasks and exclusively allocates the time slice for every individual tasks. A comparison with round robin architecture to the proposed architecture has been made. It is observed that the proposed architecture solves the problems encountered in simple round robin architecture in real time operating systems by decreasing the number of context switches waiting time and response time thereby increasing the system throughput.

  6. Real Time Route for Dynamic Road Congestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Riad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing service delivery and travel time during rush hours downtown is strategic target for several organizations, especially the emergency organizations. This paper presents an On-line and Real-time Dynamic Route System (ORDRS which benefits from the advantages and integration between information system and communications technology. It utilizes Global Positioning System (GPS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS, and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM; for producing the real time routes for vehicles. GPS-Tracker is the main input device for ORDRS. It is fixated in a vehicle, sends vehicle's movement data (Geo-info to the control center wirelessly through either Short Message Service (SMS or General Packet Radio Service (GPRS. Geo-info includes time, date, longitude, latitude, speed, and etc., these data is classified over time during weekdays into interval time slices, each slice is 30 minutes. Speeds are treated by GIS tools to determine historical and real time speeds for each street segment in the road network which is being used for calculating time impedance (cost matrix for each street segment dynamically. ORDRS uses a cost matrix of the current time slice for determining the best route to each vehicle in duty attached. Several algorithms was used to calculate the shortest route, a comparison between Dijekstra and Yen algorithms was studied.

  7. True Time API Link (real time arrival info)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This link will take you to the site where you can create an account to access Port Authority's real time arrival information. To request access to Port Authority's...

  8. Implementing a real-time data stream for time-series stellar photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogosavljevic, M.; Ioannou, Z.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new automated photometric pipeline optimized for time-series photometry that includes a real-time data streaming service. An observer using this resource can automatically stream photometric data over the Internet. Other observers can then monitor the data stream in real time and make an informed decision whether to perform complementary observations of a transient event in progress. Our pipeline uses a modular design so that it can be easily implemented or customized as a real-time robotic telescope pipeline on any observatory. The pipeline is controlled through the user friendly SAOImage DS9 package.

  9. Advances in Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Samarjit

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Farber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects.

  10. The Power of Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

  11. Real-time dynamics of proton decay

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, D

    2005-01-01

    Substituting Skyrmion for nucleon, one can potentially see -- in real time -- how the monopole is catalysing the proton (or neutron) decay, and even obtain a plausible estimate for catalysis cross-section. Here we discuss the key aspects of a practical implementation of such approach and demonstrate how one can overcome the main technical problems: Gauss constraint violation and reflections at the boundaries.

  12. Studying Complex Interactions in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The study of human behavior must take into account the social context, and real-time, networked experiments with multiple participants is one increasingly popular way to achieve this. In this paper a framework based on Python and XMPP is presented that aims to make it easy to develop such behavio...

  13. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  14. Real-time Texture Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Laurentiu Lacrama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates an improved solution for the real-time error detection of texture errors that occurs in the production process in textile industry. The research is focused on the mono-color products with 3D texture model (Jacquard fabrics. This is a more difficult task than, for example, 2D multicolor textures.

  15. Real-time analysis of telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Simon A.; Laffey, Thomas J.; Schmidt, James L.; Read, Jackson Y.; Dunham, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper descibes a knowledge-based system for performing real-time monitoring and analysis of telemetry data from the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In order to handle asynchronous inputs and perform in real time the system consists of three or more separate processes, which run concurrently and communicate via a message passing scheme. The data management process gathers, compresses, and scales the incoming telemetry data befoe sending it to the other tasks. The inferencing process uses the incoming data to perform a real-time analysis of the state and health of the Space Telescope. The I/O process receives telemetry monitors from the data management process, updates its graphical displays in real time, and acts as the interface to the console operator. The three processes may run on the same or different computers. This system is currently under development and is being used to monitor testcases produced by the Bass Telemetry System in the Hardware/Software Integration Facility at Lockheed Missile and Space Co. in Sunnyvale, California.

  16. Real time model for public transportation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Celiński

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article outlines managing a public transportation fleet in the dynamic aspect. There are currently many technical possibilities of identifying demand in the transportation network. It is also possible to indicate legitimate basis of estimating and steering demand. The article describes a general public transportation fleet management concept based on balancing demand and supply. Material and methods: The presented method utilizes a matrix description of demand for transportation based on telemetric and telecommunication data. Emphasis was placed mainly on a general concept and not the manner in which data was collected by other researchers.  Results: The above model gave results in the form of a system for managing a fleet in real-time. The objective of the system is also to optimally utilize means of transportation at the disposal of service providers. Conclusions: The presented concept enables a new perspective on managing public transportation fleets. In case of implementation, the project would facilitate, among others, designing dynamic timetables, updated based on observed demand, and even designing dynamic points of access to public transportation lines. Further research should encompass so-called rerouting based on dynamic measurements of the characteristics of the transportation system.

  17. Real-time Detection of Locked Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, S.; Granetz, R. S.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2007-11-01

    Disruptions are one of the largest problems facing tokamaks. In a large-scale experiment such as ITER, disruptions would cause crippling damage and severe setbacks in experimentation. One method for disruption mitigation involves the use of a gas jet which has been tested on both normally running plasmas and vertical displacement events (VDEs) on Alcator C-Mod. In both cases, the jet was successful in mitigating disruption effects. The gas jet has not yet been tested on other types of disruptions. Locked-mode major disruptions are easily created in C-Mod and could be used to test the effectiveness of the gas jet as a mitigation method if the jet could be fired early enough. It has been empirically observed that the electron cyclotron emissions (ECE) signal displays a flattening of the normally-present sawteeth before the current quench occurs in certain locked-mode major disruptions. A procedure is being written which will detect the ECE flattening by reading changes in the standard deviation of the signal. This procedure will be programmed into the digital plasma control system (DPCS) for real-time testing.

  18. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  19. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  20. Real time process algebra with time-dependent conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    We extend the main real time version of ACP presented in [6] with conditionals in which the condition depends on time. This extension facilitates flexible dependence of proccess behaviour on initialization time. We show that the conditions concerned generalize the conditions introduced earlier in a

  1. Real time process algebra with time-dependent conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We extend the main real time version of ACP presented in [6] with conditionals in which the condition depends on time. This extension facilitates flexible dependence of proccess behaviour on initialization time. We show that the conditions concerned generalize the conditions introduced earlier in a

  2. Real time process algebra with time-dependent conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We extend the main real time version of ACP presented in [6] with conditionals in which the condition depends on time. This extension facilitates flexible dependence of proccess behaviour on initialization time. We show that the conditions concerned generalize the conditions introduced earlier

  3. Object detection in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, Ulrich; Graefe, Volker

    1991-03-01

    An algorithm working on monocular gray-scale image sequences for object detection combined with a road tracker is presented. This algorithm appropriate for the real-time demands of an autonomous car driving with speeds over 40 km/h may be used for triggering obstacle avoidance maneuvers such as coming to a safe stop automatically in front of an obstacle or following another car. Moving and static objects have been detected in real-world experiments on various types of roads even under unfavorable weather conditions. . Morgenthaler and

  4. Robust synthesis for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Traonouez, Louis-Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Specification theories for real-time systems allow reasoning about interfaces and their implementation models, using a set of operators that includes satisfaction, refinement, logical and parallel composition. To make such theories applicable throughout the entire design process from an abstract ...... strategies in timed games. Finally, we consider the parametric robustness problem and propose a counter-example refinement heuristic for computing safe perturbation values....

  5. Real-Time Ocean Data in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura; Gibson, Deidre; Ward, Angela

    2008-01-01

    To apply students' savvy internet skills in the science classroom--as well as capture their interest in science and investigation, and provide opportunities for authentic research--introduce them to real-time data from ocean-observing systems. Students can use data from these ocean-observing systems to discover the winds and waves from storms or…

  6. How Can Online Observation Support the Assessment and Feedback, on Classroom Performance, to Trainee Teachers at a Distance and in Real Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Martin; Harding, Alan; Liddon, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the key findings of a project commissioned in 2005 by the UK Department for Education and Skills to consider the use of synchronous digital video for observation, feedback and assessment of teaching practice in post-compulsory education and training. A protocol for the remote observation of teaching is presented that was…

  7. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  8. "Fast" Is Not "Real-Time": Designing Effective Real-Time AI Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Cindy A.; Cromarty, Andrew S.

    1985-04-01

    Realistic practical problem domains (such as robotics, process control, and certain kinds of signal processing) stand to benefit greatly from the application of artificial intelligence techniques. These problem domains are of special interest because they are typified by complex dynamic environments in which the ability to select and initiate a proper response to environmental events in real time is a strict prerequisite to effective environmental interaction. Artificial intelligence systems developed to date have been sheltered from this real-time requirement, however, largely by virtue of their use of simplified problem domains or problem representations. The plethora of colloquial and (in general) mutually inconsistent interpretations of the term "real-time" employed by workers in each of these domains further exacerbates the difficul-ties in effectively applying state-of-the-art problem solving tech-niques to time-critical problems. Indeed, the intellectual waters are by now sufficiently muddied that the pursuit of a rigorous treatment of intelligent real-time performance mandates the redevelopment of proper problem perspective on what "real-time" means, starting from first principles. We present a simple but nonetheless formal definition of real-time performance. We then undertake an analysis of both conventional techniques and AI technology with respect to their ability to meet substantive real-time performance criteria. This analysis provides a basis for specification of problem-independent design requirements for systems that would claim real-time performance. Finally, we discuss the application of these design principles to a pragmatic problem in real-time signal understanding.

  9. CUDA-based real time surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youquan; De, Suvranu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a general software platform that enables real time surgery simulation on the newly available compute unified device architecture (CUDA)from NVIDIA. CUDA-enabled GPUs harness the power of 128 processors which allow data parallel computations. Compared to the previous GPGPU, it is significantly more flexible with a C language interface. We report implementation of both collision detection and consequent deformation computation algorithms. Our test results indicate that the CUDA enables a twenty times speedup for collision detection and about fifteen times speedup for deformation computation on an Intel Core 2 Quad 2.66 GHz machine with GeForce 8800 GTX.

  10. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input....../output conformance serves as the notion of implementation correctness, essentially timed trace inclusion taking environment assumptions into account. Test cases can be generated offline and later executed, or they can be generated and executed online. For both approaches this chapter discusses how to specify test...... objectives, derive test sequences, apply these to the system under test, and assign a verdict....

  11. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  12. Real-Time Watercolor for Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Luft; Oliver Deussen

    2006-01-01

    We present algorithms that allow for real-time rendering of 3D-scenes with a watercolor painting appearance. Our approach provides an appropriate simplification of the visual complexity, imitates characteristic natural effects of watercolor, and provides two essential painting techniques: the wet-on-wet and the wet-on-dry painting. We concentrate on efficient algorithms based on image space processing rather than on an exact simulation. This allows for the real-time rendering of 3D-scenes. During an animation a high frame-to-frame coherence can be achieved due to a stable segmentation scheme. Finally, we seamlessly integrate a smooth illumination into the watercolor renderings using information from the 3D-scene.

  13. Monte Carlo study of real time dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei; Bedaque, Paulo F; Vartak, Sohan; Warrington, Neill C

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo studies involving real time dynamics are severely restricted by the sign problem that emerges from highly oscillatory phase of the path integral. In this letter, we present a new method to compute real time quantities on the lattice using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism via Monte Carlo simulations. The key idea is to deform the path integration domain to a complex manifold where the phase oscillations are mild and the sign problem is manageable. We use the previously introduced "contraction algorithm" to create a Markov chain on this alternative manifold. We substantiate our approach by analyzing the quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillator. Our results are in agreement with the exact ones obtained by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The method we introduce is generic and in principle applicable to quantum field theory albeit very slow. We discuss some possible improvements that should speed up the algorithm.

  14. Real time PCR. Application in dengue studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Prada-Arismendy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PCR (polymerase chain reaction is a routinely used tool in every diagnostic and research laboratory. This technique has been used in detection of mutations and pathogens, forensic investigation, and even is the base tool for human genome sequencing. A modification of PCR technique, real time PCR, allows the quantification of nucleic acids with higher sensibility, specificity and reproducibility. This article is intended to clarify the foundations of real-time PCR, using an application model for virology. In the actual work, it was quantified the viral load of dengue virus serotype 2 produced from infected murine macrophages; the obtained results in this work established that murine strain BALB/c presents a greater susceptibility to dengue virus infection, which establishes BALB/c murine strain as a best model of study for investigation of dengue virus infection physiopathology.

  15. Collecting data in real time with postcards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The success of information technology (IT) in transforming healthcare is often limited by the lack of clear understanding of the context at which the technology is used. Various methods have been proposed to understand healthcare context better in designing and implementing Health Information...... Systems. These methods often involve cross-sectional, retrospective data collection. This paper describes the postcard method for prospective real-time data collection, both in paper format and electronic format. This paper then describes the results obtained using postcard techniques in Denmark...... and Australia. The benefits of this technique are illustrated. There are limitations in using postcard techniques and this paper provides a detail discussion about these limitations. Postcard techniques provide unique advantages in understanding real time healthcare context and it is an important technique...

  16. ROBUST MEMORY MANAGEMENT USING REAL TIME CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karthikeyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory fragmentation is the development of a large number of separate free areas. Memory management in embedded systems demand effective implementation schemes to avoid fragmentation problem. Existing dynamic memory allocation methods fail to suit real time system requirements. Execution times need to be deterministic and this motivates the need for allocation and deallocation to be done in constant time with the help of API’s. In µC/OS-II, memory allocation is semi-dynamic and a buddy allocator dynamic memory allocation algorithm is commonly used. Programmer must statically allocate a memory and partition the region using µC/OS-II Kernel API. Tasks can only request pre-partitioned fixed-size memory space from µC/OS-II. Memory allocation times are influenced by the ratio of memory allocation to the stack size of the task. In this research work memory management in LPC 1768 environment using RTOS µC/OS-II is proposed. Effective sharing of memory blocks among tasks co exists with partition. The captured results shows that the memory allocation and deallocation suits real time. The implication of the work is that, the necessity to reserve a static set of locations ahead of time is eliminated so that memory can be allocated at compile or design time.

  17. Real-time optical information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    1994-01-01

    Real-Time Optical Information Processing covers the most recent developments in optical information processing, pattern recognition, neural computing, and materials for devices in optical computing. Intended for researchers and graduate students in signal and information processing with some elementary background in optics, the book provides both theoretical and practical information on the latest in information processing in all its aspects. Leading researchers in the field describe the significant signal processing algorithms architectures in optics as well as basic hardware concepts,

  18. Real-Time Neutron Radiography at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Lin-feng; HAN; Song-bai; WANG; Hong-li; WU; Mei-mei; WEI; Guo-hai; WANG; Yu

    2012-01-01

    <正>A real-time detector system for neutron radiography based on CMOS camera has been designed for the thermal neutron imaging facility under construction at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). This system is equipped with a new scientific CMOS camera with 5.5 million pixels and speed up to 100 fps at full frame. The readout noise is less than 2.4 electron per pixel. It is capable of providing

  19. Real-time RGBD SLAM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryński, BłaŻej; Strupczewski, Adam

    2015-09-01

    A real-time tracking and mapping SLAM system is presented. The developed system uses input from an RGBD sensor and tracks the camera pose from frame to frame. The tracking is based on matched feature points and is performed with respect to selected keyframes. The system is robust and scalable, as an arbitrary number of keyframes can be chosen for visualization and tracking depending on the desired accuracy and speed. The presented system is also a good platform for further research.

  20. Boundary Correct Real-Time Soft Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bjarke; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Larsen, Bent Dalgaard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method to determine correct shadow boundaries from an area light source using umbra and penumbra volumes. The light source is approximated by a circular disk as this gives a fast way to extrude the volumes. The method also gives a crude estimate of the visibility of the are...... for implementation on most programmable hardware. Though some crude approximations are used in the visibility function, the method can be used to produce soft shadows with correct boundaries in real time....

  1. Cost-effectiveness of blood culture and a multiplex real-time PCR in hematological patients with suspected sepsis: an observational propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Nicasio; Sambri, Vittorio; Corti, Consuelo; Ghidoli, Nadia; Tolomelli, Giulia; Paolucci, Michela; Clerici, Daniela; Carletti, Silvia; Greco, Raffaella; Tassara, Michela; Pizzorno, Beatrice; Zaniolo, Orietta; Povero, Massimiliano; Pradelli, Lorenzo; Burioni, Roberto; Stanzani, Marta; Landini, Maria Paola; Ciceri, Fabio; Clementi, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the costs and clinical outcomes of episodes of suspected sepsis in hematological patients. A propensity score-matched study was planned, comparing a retrospective cohort managed with standard assays and a prospective cohort managed with the addition of a molecular assay. Diagnostic procedures and therapy were considered as costs variables. The primary clinical endpoint was sepsis-related mortality, whereas the length of each suspected sepsis episode was investigated as a secondary endpoint. A total of 137 and 138 episodes in the prospective and the retrospective cohorts were studied, respectively; 101 pairs of highly matched episodes were analyzed, evidencing a trend of higher mortality in the retrospective cohort. No difference in length of suspected sepsis episode was observed. Significant savings were observed in the prospective cohort, especially due to reduced costs in antifungal therapy. The apparently more expensive molecular assay favored a more rational use of economic resources without influencing, and probably improving, the clinical outcome.

  2. Hardware impacts to software development strategies - The history of the development of the Mars Observer Payload Data Subsystem embedded real-time software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Ways in which parallel hardware development and high level requirements changes have influenced Mars Observer Payload Data Subsystem (PDS) flight software development are discussed. Particular attention is given to ways in which the evolving hardware product and changing requirements have led to repeated modification to software requirements, design, code, and test tools and a delay in the closure of corresponding phases of the software development life cycle. Design and implementation problems which were encountered during the PDS software development effort are described.

  3. The IGS Real-Time Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissy, Mark; Agrotis, Loukis; Weber, Georg; Fisher, Steven

    2013-04-01

    The IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) is being rolled out in 2013 following the successful completion of the IGS Real-Time Pilot Project. The RTS has recently completed beta testing and is now operating at the level of initial operating capability. The service will reach full operating capability by the end of 2013. RTS products include GNSS data streams and GNSS orbit and clock correction streams. These products are available in real-time in accordance with the IGS open-data policy using RTCM standard formats and the NTRIP transportation protocol. The RTS is key to IGS's support of the GGOS Natural Hazards theme. Of particular importance in this context is the high degree of redundancy that is build into the RTS in order to reliably support public-good scientific applications commonly associated with natural hazards; for example, precise-point positioning applications requiring high accuracy and low latency related to earthquakes and tsunamis . This presentation will illustrate the data gathering through product generation to user distribution design of the RTS, highlighting built-in robustness at various stages. The presentation will also present an assessment of the performance of the service to date.

  4. Real-time Interactive Tree Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Ed; Yu, Yue; Huang, Jingwei; Lin, Winnie; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2017-01-30

    We present a novel method for posing and animating botanical tree models interactively in real time. Unlike other state of the art methods which tend to produce trees that are overly flexible, bending and deforming as if they were underwater plants, our approach allows for arbitrarily high stiffness while still maintaining real-time frame rates without spurious artifacts, even on quite large trees with over ten thousand branches. This is accomplished by using an articulated rigid body model with as-stiff-as-desired rotational springs in conjunction with our newly proposed simulation technique, which is motivated both by position based dynamics and the typical O(N) algorithms for articulated rigid bodies. The efficiency of our algorithm allows us to pose and animate trees with millions of branches or alternatively simulate a small forest comprised of many highly detailed trees. Even using only a single CPU core, we can simulate ten thousand branches in real time while still maintaining quite crisp user interactivity. This has allowed us to incorporate our framework into a commodity game engine to run interactively even on a low-budget tablet. We show that our method is amenable to the incorporation of a large variety of desirable effects such as wind, leaves, fictitious forces, collisions, fracture, etc.

  5. Nonadiabatic dynamics in intense continuous wave laser fields and real-time observation of the associated wavepacket bifurcation in terms of spectrogram of induced photon emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2016-11-01

    We propose a theoretical principle to directly monitor the bifurcation of quantum wavepackets passing through nonadiabatic regions of a molecule that is placed in intense continuous wave (CW) laser fields. This idea makes use of the phenomenon of laser-driven photon emission from molecules that can undergo nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and covalent potential energy surfaces like Li+ F- and LiF. The resultant photon emission spectra are of anomalous yet characteristic frequency and intensity, if pumped to an energy level in which the nonadiabatic region is accessible and placed in a CW laser field. The proposed method is designed to take the time-frequency spectrogram with an appropriate time-window from this photon emission to detect the time evolution of the frequency and intensity, which depends on the dynamics and location of the relevant nuclear wavepackets. This method is specifically designed for the study of dynamics in intense CW laser fields and is rather limited in scope than other techniques for femtosecond chemical dynamics in vacuum. The following characteristic features of dynamics can be mapped onto the spectrogram: (1) the period of driven vibrational motion (temporally confined vibrational states in otherwise dissociative channels, the period and other states of which dramatically vary depending on the CW driving lasers applied), (2) the existence of multiple nuclear wavepackets running individually on the field-dressed potential energy surfaces, (3) the time scale of coherent interaction between the nuclear wavepackets running on ionic and covalent electronic states after their branching (the so-called coherence time in the terminology of the theory of nonadiabatic interaction), and so on.

  6. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  7. Real-time observation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorber layer formation from nanoparticle precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Roland; Walker, Bryce C; Schmidt, Sebastian S; Zander, Ole; Weber, Alfons; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Humberto; Just, Justus; Klaus, Manuela; Agrawal, Rakesh; Unold, Thomas

    2013-11-07

    The selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanocrystals is a promising route for the fabrication of low-cost thin film solar cells. However, the reaction pathway of this process is not completely understood. Here, the evolution of phase formation, grain size, and elemental distributions is investigated during the selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle precursor thin films by synchrotron-based in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis as well as by ex situ electron microscopy. The precursor films are heated in a closed volume inside a vacuum chamber in the presence of selenium vapor while diffraction and fluorescence signals are recorded. The presented results reveal that during the selenization the cations diffuse to the surface to form large grains on top of the nanoparticle layer and the selenization of the film takes place through two simultaneous reactions: (1) a direct and fast formation of large grained selenides, starting with copper selenide which is subsequently transformed into Cu2ZnSnSe4; and (2) a slower selenization of the remaining nanoparticles. As a consequence of the initial formation of copper selenides at the surface, the subsequent formation of CZTSe starts under Cu-rich conditions despite an overall Cu-poor composition of the film. The implications of this process path for the film quality are discussed. Additionally, the proposed growth model provides an explanation for the previously observed accumulation of carbon from the nanoparticle precursor beneath the large grained layer.

  8. Time generated by intrinsic observers

    CERN Document Server

    Svozil, Karl

    2009-01-01

    We shortly review the construction of knowledge by intrinsic observers. Intrinsic observers are embedded in a system and are inseparable parts thereof. The intrinsic viewpoint has to be contrasted with an extrinsic, "God's eye" viewpoint, from which the system can be observed externally without in any way changing it. This epistemological distinction has concrete, formalizable consequences. One consequence is the emergence of "complementarity" for intrinsic observers, even if the underlying system is totally deterministic (computable). Another consequence is the appearence of time and inertial frames for intrinsic observers. The necessary operational techniques are developed in the context of Cellular Automata. We finish with a somewhat speculative question. Given space-time frames generated by clocks which use sound waves for synchronization; why could supersonic travel not cause time paradoxes?

  9. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  10. Real Observers and the Holographic Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Dance, M C

    2004-01-01

    The holographic principle asserts that the observable number of degrees of freedom inside a volume is proportional not to the volume, but to the surface area bounding the volume. There is currently a need to explain the principle in terms of a more fundamental microscopic theory. This paper suggests a potential explanation. This paper suggests that in general, for an observer to observe the r coordinate of an event, the process of making that observation must generate at least as much entropy as the information that the observation gains. Following on from that, this paper sets out a simple argument that leads to the result that observers on the surface of a sphere can observe an amount of information about the enclosed system that is no more than an amount that is proportional to the surface area of the sphere.

  11. IGS Real-time Resources Supporting Multi-GNSS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Georg; Mervart, Leos; Stöcker, Dirk; Neumaier, Peter; Söhne, Wolfgang; Stürze, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) recently started with a real-time service disseminating orbit and clock corrections over the Internet. It is mainly based on observations collected from the IGS real-time tracking network processed by a number for Analysis Centers. To support the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX), a growing number of involved stations also observe Galileo, QZSS and BeiDou in addition to GPS and GLONASS. The intention is to enable and further develop the real-time estimation of satellite orbits and clocks from all systems as well as using all of them in applications like real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP). Recently a new RTCM-3 standard has been recommended to transport streams carrying observations from (modernized) GPS, GLONASS and Galileo satellites. A stream format supporting QZSS and BeiDou has been drafted. A new RINEX-3 standard is under development which allows archiving all observation types from all the new systems for post processing purposes. This presentation focuses on IGS resources for real-time conversion of observations in proprietary raw formats to the new open RTCM-3 stream and RINEX-3 file standards. So-called High Precision Multiple Signal Message (HP MSM) streams are produced and disseminated via Ntrip broadcaster under the umbrella of IGS. A high-rate RINEX-3 archive saves 1 Hz observation files as converted from MSM streams. RINEX-3 file editing, concatenation and quality check is enabled with the BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) software developed under GNU GPL supporting GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS and SBAS.

  12. A Real-Time Simulation Platform for Power System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the real-time digital simulation platform that can be used for power system operation, analysis, and power system modeling. This particular platform gives grid operators, planners and researchers the opportunity to observe how a power system behaves and can be used...

  13. Real-Time Tropospheric Delay Estimation using IGS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürze, Andrea; Liu, Sha; Söhne, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) routinely provides zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) parameter for the assimilation in numerical weather models since more than 10 years. Up to now the results flowing into the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) or E-GVAP (EUMETNET EIG GNSS water vapour programme) analysis are based on batch processing of GPS+GLONASS observations in differential network mode. For the recently started COST Action ES1206 about "Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate" (GNSS4SWEC), however, rapid updates in the analysis of the atmospheric state for nowcasting applications require changing the processing strategy towards real-time. In the RTCM SC104 (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104) a format combining the advantages of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) is under development. The so-called State Space Representation approach is defining corrections, which will be transferred in real-time to the user e.g. via NTRIP (Network Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol). Meanwhile messages for precise orbits, satellite clocks and code biases compatible to the basic PPP mode using IGS products are defined. Consequently, the IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) was launched in 2013 in order to extend the well-known precise orbit and clock products by a real-time component. Further messages e.g. with respect to ionosphere or phase biases are foreseen. Depending on the level of refinement, so different accuracies up to the RTK level shall be reachable. In co-operation of BKG and the Technical University of Darmstadt the real-time software GEMon (GREF EUREF Monitoring) is under development. GEMon is able to process GPS and GLONASS observation and RTS product data streams in PPP mode. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art troposphere models, for example based on numerical weather prediction data, are implemented. Hence, it

  14. Real-time applications of neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Feedback as real-time constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous oral interaction and asynchronous text-based interaction mediated by digital media....

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON REAL TIME DATA WAREHOUSING (RTDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Bogdan DINU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The RTDW concept originated in the early 2000s. By that time, computing power had increased to a level that was allowing extraction of data collections for reporting purposes. Such collections were used almost in real time and at speeds nearly comparable to what an operation system was capable to deliver. The main idea will be to eliminate some of the components of the classic extraction process which is basically the most costly factor less time - consuming. We anticipate that the following factors will be decisive: elimination of batch-type processes [1], data compression techniques, data capture techniques, ability to keep in cache a large volume of data, parallel processing, and data mining algorithms that can adapt to such applications.

  17. A Flexible Real-Time Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WICKSTROM,GREGORY L.

    2000-08-17

    Assuring hard real-time characteristics of I/O associated with embedded software is often a difficult task. Input-Output related statements are often intermixed with the computational code, resulting in I/O timing that is dependent on the execution path and computational load. One way to mitigate this problem is through the use of interrupts. However, the non-determinism that is introduced by interrupt driven I/O may be so difficult to analyze that it is prohibited in some high consequence systems. This paper describes a balanced hardware/software solution to obtain consistent interrupt-free I/O timing, and results in software that is much more amenable to analysis.

  18. Real-time image and video processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2006-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the guidelines and strategies for transitioning an image or video processing algorithm from a research environment into a real-time constrained environment. Such guidelines and strategies are scattered in the literature of various disciplines including image processing, computer engineering, and software engineering, and thus have not previously appeared in one place. By bringing these strategies into one place, the book is intended to serve the greater community of researchers, practicing engineers, industrial professionals, who are interested in taking an im

  19. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  20. Real-time inclinometer using accelerometer MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Hanto, D; Hermanto, B; Puranto, P; Handoko, L T

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary design of inclinometer for real-time monitoring system of soil displacement is proposed. The system is developed using accelerometer sensor with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device. The main apparatus consists of a single MEMS sensor attached to a solid pipe and stucked pependicularly far away below the soil surface. The system utilizes small fractions of electrical signals from MEMS sensor induced by the pipe inclination due to soil displacements below the surface. It is argued that the system is accurate enough to detect soil displacements responsible for landslides, and then realizes a simple and low cost landslide early warning system.

  1. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  2. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  3. Development of automated system for real-time LIBS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazalan, Elham; Ali, Jalil; Tufail, Kashif; Haider, Zuhaib

    2017-03-01

    Recent developments in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrumentation allow the acquisition of several spectra in a second. The dataset from a typical LIBS experiment can consist of a few thousands of spectra. To extract the useful information from that dataset is painstaking effort and time consuming process. Most of the currently available softwares for spectral data analysis are expensive and used for offline data analysis. LabVIEW software compatible with spectrometer (in this case Ocean Optics Maya pro spectrometer), can be used to for data acquisition and real time analysis. In the present work, a LabVIEW based automated system for real-time LIBS analysis integrated with spectrometer device is developed. This system is capable of performing real time analysis based on as-acquired LIBS spectra. Here, we have demonstrated the LIBS data acquisition and real time calculations of plasma temperature and electron density. Data plots and variations in spectral intensity in response to laser energy were observed on LabVIEW monitor interface. Routine laboratory samples of brass and calcine bone were utilized in this experiment. Developed program has shown impressive performance in real time data acquisition and analysis.

  4. Real-time Social Internet Data to Guide Forecasting Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valle, Sara Y. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Our goal is to improve decision support by monitoring and forecasting events using social media, mathematical models, and quantifying model uncertainty. Our approach is real-time, data-driven forecasts with quantified uncertainty: Not just for weather anymore. Information flow from human observations of events through an Internet system and classification algorithms is used to produce quantitatively uncertain forecast. In summary, we want to develop new tools to extract useful information from Internet data streams, develop new approaches to assimilate real-time information into predictive models, validate approaches by forecasting events, and our ultimate goal is to develop an event forecasting system using mathematical approaches and heterogeneous data streams.

  5. Real Time PCR: Principles and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safie Amini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been used as the new golden standard for detecting a wide variety of templates across a range of scientific specialties and also as an essential tool in research laboratories. PCR has completely revolutionized the detection of RNA and DNA viruses(1. Real Time vs. Traditional PCRReal time chemistry allows the detection of PCR amplification during the early phase of the reaction. Measuring the kinetic of the reaction in the early phase of PCR provides a distinct advantage over traditional PCR detection. Traditional methods use agarose gel electrophoresis for detection of PCR amplification at the final phase or end point. End point detection is really time consuming; it takes several hours to have the result. On the other hand, results are based on size discrimination. Also, the result of end point is variable from sample to sample. While gels may not resolve this variability in yield, real time PCR is sensitive enough to detect this change.Some problems with end point detection are: poor precision, low sensitivity, short dynamic range (<2 log, low resolution, non-automated procedure, size-based discrimination only, and post PCR processing (carry-over contamination and results are not expressed as numbers(2.Detection of PCR Products in Real-timeReal-time PCR and RT-PCR allow accurate quantification of starting amounts of DNA, cDNA, and RNA targets. Fluorescence is measured during each cycle, which greatly increases the dynamic range of the reaction since the amount offluorescence is proportional to the amount of PCR product. PCR products can be detected using either fluorescent dyes that bind to double-stranded DNA or fluorescently labeled sequence-specific probes(3.SYBR Green ISYBR® Green I binds all double-stranded DNA molecules, emitting a fluorescent signal of a defined wavelength on binding. The excitation and emission maxima of SYBR Green I are at 494 nm and 521 nm, respectively, and are compatible for

  6. Real Time Eye Template Detection and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Mehta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in the field of facial expression recognition especially in the last two decades. An example of such a system is the improvement of driver carefulness and accident reduction. The driver’s face is tracked while he is driving and he is warned if there seems to be an alerting fact that can result in an accident such as sleepy eyes, or looking out of the road. Furthermore, with a facial feature tracker, it becomes possible to play a synthesized avatar so that it imitates the expressions of the performer. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI systems may also be enriched by a facial feature tracker. For a user who is incapable of using her hands, a facial expression controller may be a solution to send limited commands to a computer. Eye blinking is one of the prominent areas to solve many real world problems. The process of blink detection consists of two phases. These are eye tracking followed by detection of blink. The work that has been carried out for eye tracking only is not suitable for eye blink detection. Therefore some approaches had been proposed for eye tracking along with eyes blink detection. In this thesis, real time implementation is done to count number of eye blinks in an image sequence. At last after analyzing all these approaches some of the parameters we obtained on which better performance of eye blink detection algorithm depend. This project focuses on automatic eye blink detection in real time. The aim of this thesis is to count the number of eye blinks in a video. This project will be performed on a video database of the facial expressions.

  7. Real time lobster posture estimation for behavior research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sheng; Alfredsen, Jo Arve

    2017-02-01

    In animal behavior research, the main task of observing the behavior of an animal is usually done manually. The measurement of the trajectory of an animal and its real-time posture description is often omitted due to the lack of automatic computer vision tools. Even though there are many publications for pose estimation, few are efficient enough to apply in real-time or can be used without the machine learning algorithm to train a classifier from mass samples. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for the real-time lobster posture estimation to overcome those difficulties. In our proposed algorithm, we use the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for lobster segmentation. Then the posture estimation is based on the distance transform and skeleton calculated from the segmentation. We tested the algorithm on a serials lobster videos in different size and lighting conditions. The results show that our proposed algorithm is efficient and robust under various conditions.

  8. Real-Time Statistical Modeling of Blood Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoom, Mwaffaq; Alshraideh, Hussam; Almasaeid, Hisham M; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes is considered a chronic disease that incurs various types of cost to the world. One major challenge in the control of Diabetes is the real time determination of the proper insulin dose. In this paper, we develop a prototype for real time blood sugar control, integrated with the cloud. Our system controls blood sugar by observing the blood sugar level and accordingly determining the appropriate insulin dose based on patient's historical data, all in real time and automatically. To determine the appropriate insulin dose, we propose two statistical models for modeling blood sugar profiles, namely ARIMA and Markov-based model. Our experiment used to evaluate the performance of the two models shows that the ARIMA model outperforms the Markov-based model in terms of prediction accuracy.

  9. Real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Choi, S.S. [EPRIsolutions, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    EPRI has produced a real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system. This system is called SMART ChemWorks and is based on the EPRI ChemWorks codes. System models, chemistry parameter relationships and diagnostic approaches from these codes are integrated with real time data collection, an intelligence engine and Internet technologies to allow for automated analysis of system chemistry. Significant data management capabilities are also included which allow the user to evaluate data and create automated reporting. Additional features have been added to the system in recent years including tracking and evaluation of primary chemistry as well as the calculation and tracking of primary to secondary leakage in PWRs. This system performs virtual sensing, identifies normal and upset conditions, and evaluates the consistency of on-line monitor and grab sample readings. The system also makes use of virtual fingerprinting to identify the cause of any chemistry upsets. This technology employs plant-specific data and models to determine the chemical state of the steam cycle. (authors)

  10. Video Surveillance for Real Time Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Raajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe an integrated solution for video surveillance in a fortified environment. The focus of this study is on identification of real time objects on different environments. The system is composed of robust object detection module, which normally detects the presence of abandoned objects, concealed objects hidden inside the human clothing, objects in dark environment and performs image segmentation with the intention of facilitating human operator’s task of retrieving the cause of a buzzer. The abandoned objects are detected by image segmentation based on temporal rank order filtering. Image fusion technique which fuses a color visual image and a corresponding IR image for concealed objects in guarded environment and in some cases like dark environment heat signature can be used for detecting real time objects etc. In the clips of interest, the key frame is the one depicting a person leaving a dangerous object and is determined on the basis of a feature indicating the movement around the dangerous region.

  11. Integrated real-time roof monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bao-tang; GUO Hua; KING Andrew

    2009-01-01

    CSIRO has recently developed a real-time roof monitoring system for under-ground coal mines and successfully tried the system in gate roads at Ulan Mine. The sys-tem integrated displacement monitoring, stress monitoring and seismic monitoring in one package. It included GEL multianchor extensometers, vibrating wire uniaxial stress meters, ESG seismic monitoring system with microseismic sensors and high-frequency AE sen-sors. The monitoring system automated and the data can be automatically collected by a central computer located in an underground nonhazardous area. The data are then trans-ferred to the surface via an optical fiber cable. The real-time data were accessed at any location with an Internet connection. The trials of the system in two tailgates at Ulan Mine demonstrate that the system is effective for monitoring the behavior and stability of read-ways during Iongwall mining. The continuous roof displacement/stress data show clear precursors of roof falls. The seismic data (event count and locations) provide insights into the roof failure process during roof fall.

  12. An efficient real time superresolution ASIC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Dikpal; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2008-04-01

    Superresolution of images is an important step in many applications like target recognition where the input images are often grainy and of low quality due to bandwidth constraints. In this paper, we present a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware, and capable of 30 fps of superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Consecutive frames from the video sequence are grouped and the registered values between them are used to fill the pixels in the higher resolution image. The registration between consecutive frames is evaluated using the algorithm proposed by Schaum et al. The pixels are filled by averaging a fixed number of frames associated with the smallest error distances. The number of frames (the number of nearest neighbors) is a user defined parameter whereas the weights in the averaging process are decided by inverting the corresponding smallest error distances. Wiener filter is used to post process the image. Different input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as the hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The algorithm performs with real time speed with very impressive superresolution results.

  13. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  14. Real Time Structured Light and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob

    Structured light scanning is a versatile method for 3D shape acquisition. While much faster than most competing measurement techniques, most high-end structured light scans still take in the order of seconds to complete. Low-cost sensors such as Microsoft Kinect and time of flight cameras have made...... 3D sensor ubiquitous and have resulted in a vast amount of new applications and methods. However, such low-cost sensors are generally limited in their accuracy and precision, making them unsuitable for e.g. accurate tracking and pose estimation. With recent improvements in projector technology......]. A high performance flexible open source software toolkit is presented [Contribution C], which makes real time scanning possible on commodity hardware. Further, an approach is presented to correct for motion artifacts in dynamic scenes [Contribution E]. An application for such systems is presented...

  15. Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2009-01-01

    Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.

  16. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, K C

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  17. Operational and real-time Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ioana SANDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component of a company’s IT framework is a business intelligence (BI system. BI enables business users to report on, analyze and optimize business operations to reduce costs and increase revenues. Organizations use BI for strategic and tactical decision making where the decision-making cycle may span a time period of several weeks (e.g., campaign management or months (e.g., improving customer satisfaction.Competitive pressures coming from a very dynamic business environment are forcing companies to react faster to changing business conditions and customer requirements. As a result, there is now a need to use BI to help drive and optimize business operations on a daily basis, and, in some cases, even for intraday decision making. This type of BI is usually called operational business intelligence and real-time business intelligence.

  18. Wi-Fi real time location systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Benjamin A.

    This thesis objective was to determine the viability of utilizing an untrained Wi-Fi. real time location system as a GPS alternative for indoor environments. Background. research showed that GPS is rarely able to penetrate buildings to provide reliable. location data. The benefit of having location information in a facility and how they might. be used for disaster or emergency relief personnel and their resources motivated this. research. A building was selected with a well-deployed Wi-Fi infrastructure and its. untrained location feature was used to determine the distance between the specified. test points and the system identified location. It was found that the average distance. from the test point throughout the facility was 14.3 feet 80% of the time. This fell within. the defined viable range and supported that an untrained Wi-Fi RTLS system could be a. viable solution for GPS's lack of availability indoors.

  19. Towards real time speckle controlled retinal photocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Stockmann, Leoni; Effe, Lisa; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Photocoagulation is a laser treatment widely used for the therapy of several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the ocular transmission, light scattering and the retinal absorption makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure and hence a uniform damage throughout the therapy. A real-time monitoring and control of the induced damage is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633nm HeNe laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. It is obvious that a control system needs to determine whether the desired damage is achieved to shut down the system in a fraction of the exposure time. Here we use a fast and simple adaption of the generalized difference algorithm to analyze the speckle movements. This algorithm runs on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage. For different spot sizes (50-200 μm) and different exposure times (50-500 ms) the algorithm shows the ability to discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes. Furthermore in-vivo experiments in rabbits show the ability of the system to determine tissue changes in living tissue during coagulation.

  20. Design of Time Synchronization Method for Real-Time EPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsuo QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Real-time performance problems are mainly obstacles on Ethernet used in industrial control. In this paper, a RT-EPON concept can be proposed, and the frame structure, the protocol of RT-EPON MAC, and time slot allocation mechanism have been designed. In a test system, the designed Mac protocol and time synchronization method have been tested, it is shown that the RT-EPON system is stable and reliable, and the BER (Bit Error Rate is below 10-10 on the physical layer of fiber link.

  1. Global VTEC-modelling in near real-time based on space geodetic techniques, adapted B-spline expansions and Kalman-filtering including observations of the Sun's radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börger, Klaus; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Erdogan, Eren; Seitz, Florian; Brandert, Sylvia; Görres, Barbara; Kersten, Wilhelm; Bothmer, Volker; Hinrichs, Johannes; Venzmer, Malte; Mrotzek, Niclas

    2016-04-01

    Today, the observations of space geodetic techniques are usually available with a rather low latency which applies to space missions observing the solar terrestrial environment, too. Therefore, we can use all these measurements in near real-time to compute and to provide ionosphere information, e.g. the vertical total electron content (VTEC). GSSAC and BGIC support a project aiming at a service for providing ionosphere information. This project is called OPTIMAP, meaning "Operational Tool for Ionosphere Mapping and Prediction"; the scientific work is mainly done by the German Geodetic Research Institute of the Technical University Munich (DGFI-TUM) and the Institute for Astrophysics of the University of Goettingen (IAG). The OPTIMAP strategy for providing ionosphere target quantities of high quality, such as VTEC or the electron density, includes mathematical approaches and tools allowing for the model adaptation to the real observational scenario as a significant improvement w.r.t. the traditional well-established methods. For example, OPTIMAP combines different observation types such as GNSS (GPS, GLONASS), Satellite Altimetry (Jason-2), DORIS as well as radio-occultation measurements (FORMOSAT#3/COSMIC). All these observations run into a Kalman-filter to compute global ionosphere maps, i.e. VTEC, for the current instant of time and as a forecast for a couple of subsequent days. Mathematically, the global VTEC is set up as a series expansion in terms of two-dimensional basis functions defined as tensor products of trigonometric B-splines for longitude and polynomial B-splines for latitude. Compared to the classical spherical harmonics, B-splines have a localizing character and, therefore, can handle an inhomogeneous data distribution properly. Finally, B-splines enable a so-called multi-resolution-representation (MRR) enabling the combination of global and regional modelling approaches. In addition to the geodetic measurements, Sun observations are pre

  2. Self-Timed Scheduling Analysis for Real-Time Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco J. G. Bekooij

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the scheduling analysis of hard real-time streaming applications. These applications are mapped onto a heterogeneous multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC, where we must jointly meet the timing requirements of several jobs. Each job is independently activated and processes streams at its own rate. The dynamic starting and stopping of jobs necessitates the usage of self-timed schedules (STSs. By modeling job implementations using multirate data flow (MRDF graph semantics, real-time analysis can be performed. Traditionally, temporal analysis of STSs for MRDF graphs only aims at evaluating the average throughput. It does not cope well with latency, and it does not take into account the temporal behavior during the initial transient phase. In this paper, we establish an important property of STSs: the initiation times of actors in an STS are bounded by the initiation times of the same actors in any static periodic schedule of the same job; based on this property, we show how to guarantee strictly periodic behavior of a task within a self-timed implementation; then, we provide useful bounds on maximum latency for jobs with periodic, sporadic, and bursty sources, as well as a technique to check latency requirements. We present two case studies that exemplify the application of these techniques: a simplified channel equalizer and a wireless LAN receiver.

  3. RTMOD: Real-Time MODel evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziani, G; Galmarini, S. [Joint Research centre, Ispra (Italy); Mikkelsen, T. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept. (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 - 1999 RTMOD project is a system based on an automated statistical evaluation for the inter-comparison of real-time forecasts produced by long-range atmospheric dispersion models for national nuclear emergency predictions of cross-boundary consequences. The background of RTMOD was the 1994 ETEX project that involved about 50 models run in several Institutes around the world to simulate two real tracer releases involving a large part of the European territory. In the preliminary phase of ETEX, three dry runs (i.e. simulations in real-time of fictitious releases) were carried out. At that time, the World Wide Web was not available to all the exercise participants, and plume predictions were therefore submitted to JRC-Ispra by fax and regular mail for subsequent processing. The rapid development of the World Wide Web in the second half of the nineties, together with the experience gained during the ETEX exercises suggested the development of this project. RTMOD featured a web-based user-friendly interface for data submission and an interactive program module for displaying, intercomparison and analysis of the forecasts. RTMOD has focussed on model intercomparison of concentration predictions at the nodes of a regular grid with 0.5 degrees of resolution both in latitude and in longitude, the domain grid extending from 5W to 40E and 40N to 65N. Hypothetical releases were notified around the world to the 28 model forecasters via the web on a one-day warning in advance. They then accessed the RTMOD web page for detailed information on the actual release, and as soon as possible they then uploaded their predictions to the RTMOD server and could soon after start their inter-comparison analysis with other modelers. When additional forecast data arrived, already existing statistical results would be recalculated to include the influence by all available predictions. The new web-based RTMOD concept has proven useful as a practical decision-making tool for realtime

  4. Real-Time IRI driven by GIRO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Ivan; Huang, Xueqin; Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter; Vesnin, Artem

    Real-time extensions of the empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model are based on assimilative techniques that preserve the IRI formalism which is optimized for the description of climatological ionospheric features. The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) team has developed critical parts of an IRI Real Time Assimilative Model (IRTAM) for the global ionospheric plasma distribution using measured data available in real time from ~50 ionosondes of the GIRO network, The current assimilation results present global assimilative maps of foF2 and hmF2 that reproduce available data at the sensor sites and smoothly return to the climatological specifications when and where the data are missing, and are free from artificial sharp gradients and short-lived artifacts when viewed in time progression. Animated real-time maps of foF2 and hmF2 are published with a few minutes latency at http://giro.uml.edu/IRTAM/. Our real-time IRI modeling uses morphing, a technique that transforms the climatological ionospheric specifications to match the observations by iteratively computing corrections to the original coefficients of the diurnal/spatial expansions, used in IRI to map the key ionospheric characteristics, while keeping the IRI expansion basis formalism intact. Computation of the updated coefficient set for a given point in time includes analysis of the latest 24-hour history of observations, which allows the morphing technique to sense evolving ionospheric dynamics even with a sparse sensor network. A Non-linear Error Compensation Technique for Associative Restoration (NECTAR), one of the features in our morphing approach, has been in operation at the Lowell GIRO Data Center since 2013. The cornerstone of NECTAR is a recurrent neural network optimizer that is responsible for smoothing the transitions between the grid cells where observations are available. NECTAR has proved suitable for real-time operations that require the assimilation code to be

  5. Robust Real-Time Tracking for Visual Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kampel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a real-time multi-camera surveillance system that can be applied to a range of application domains. This integrated system is designed to observe crowded scenes and has mechanisms to improve tracking of objects that are in close proximity. The four component modules described in this paper are (i motion detection using a layered background model, (ii object tracking based on local appearance, (iii hierarchical object recognition, and (iv fused multisensor object tracking using multiple features and geometric constraints. This integrated approach to complex scene tracking is validated against a number of representative real-world scenarios to show that robust, real-time analysis can be performed.

  6. An Efficient Secure Real-Time Concurrency Control Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yingyuan; LIU Yunsheng; CHEN Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Secure real-time databases must simultaneously satisfy two requirements in guaranteeing data security and minimizing the missing deadlines ratio of transactions. However, these two requirements can conflict with each other and achieve one requirement is to sacrifice the other. This paper presents a secure real-time concurrency control protocol based on optimistic method. The concurrency control protocol incorporates security constraints in a real-time optimistic concurrency control protocol and makes a suitable tradeoff between security and real-time requirements by introducing secure influence factor and real-time influence factor. The experimental results show the concurrency control protocol achieves data security without degrading real-time performance significantly.

  7. Real-time, face recognition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  8. Near real-time stereo vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  9. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, George E. (Ames, IA); Struve, Walter S. (Ames, IA); Homer, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  10. Real-time color holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desse, Jean-Michel; Albe, Felix; Tribillon, Jean-Louis

    2002-09-01

    A new optical technique based on real-time color holographic interferometry has been developed for analyzing unsteady aerodynamic wakes in fluid mechanics or for measuring displacements and deformations in solid mechanics. The technique's feasibility is demonstrated here. It uses three coherent wavelengths produced simultaneously by a cw laser (mixed argon and krypton). Holograms are recorded on single-layer panchromatic silver halide (Slavich PFG 03C) plates. Results show the optical setup can be adjusted to obtain a uniform background color. The interference fringe pattern visualized is large and colored and exhibits a single central white fringe, which makes the zero order of the interferogram easy to identify. An application in a subsonic wind tunnel is presented, in which the unsteady wake past a cylinder is recorded at high rate.

  11. Advanced real-time manipulation of video streams

    CERN Document Server

    Herling, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.

  12. Magnetic circular dichroism in real-time time-dependent density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K -M; Bertsch, G F

    2010-01-01

    We apply the adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory to magnetic ci the real-space, real-time computational method. The standard formulas for the MCD response and its A and B terms are derived from the observables in the time-dependent wave function. We find the real time method is well suited for calculating the overall spectrum, particularly at higher excitation energies where individual excited states are numerous and overlapping. The MCD sum rules are derived and interpreted in the real-time formalism; we find that they are very useful for normalization purposes and assessing the accuracy of the theory. The method is applied to MCD spectrum of C-60 using the adiabatic energy functional from the local density approximation. The theory correctly predicts the signs of the A and B terms for the lowest allowed excitations. However, the magnitudes of the terms only show qualitative agreement with experiment.

  13. Intelligent, Real-Time Problem Solving. Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-30

    approach, and to develop a heuristic algorithm for design-to-time real-time scheduling. E .velopes. During Phase III we extended our work on the real...the anytime algorithm approach, and presents a heuristic algorithm for design-to-time real-time scheduling. The methodology is known as design-to

  14. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  15. Implementation of a Real Time Passenger Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, K; Kuri, Joy; Dagale, Haresh; Sudhakar, G; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are gaining recognition in developing countries like India. This paper describes the various components of our prototype implementation of a Real-time Passenger Information System (RTPIS) for a public transport system like a fleet of buses. Vehicle-mounted units, bus station units and a server located at the transport company premises comprise the system. The vehicle unit reports the current position of the vehicle to a central server periodically via General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). An Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) algorithm running on the server predicts the arrival times of buses at their stops based on real-time observations of the buses' current Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. This information is displayed and announced to passengers at stops using station units, which periodically fetch the required ETA from the server via GPRS. Novel features of our prototype include: (a) a route creator utility which automatically creates new routes from scra...

  16. Business Hypervisors for Real-time Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perneel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available System virtualization is one of the hottest trends in information technology today. It is not just another nice to use technology but has become fundamental across the business world. It is successfully used with many business application classes where cloud computing is the most visual one. Recently, it started to be used for soft Real-Time (RT applications such as IP telephony, media servers, audio and video streaming servers, automotive and communication systems in general. Running these applications on a traditional system (Hardware + Operating System guarantee their Quality of Service (QoS; virtualizing them means inserting a new layer between the hardware and the (virtual Operating System (OS, and thus adding extra overhead. Although these applications’ areas do not always demand hard time guarantees, they require the underlying virtualization layer supports low latency and provide adequate computational resources for completion within a reasonable or predictable timeframe. These aspects are intimately intertwined with the logic of the hypervisor scheduler. In this paper, a series of tests are conducted on three hypervisors (VMware ESXi, Hyper-V server and Xen to provide a benchmark of the latencies added to the applications running on top of them. These tests are conducted for different scenarios (use cases to take into consideration all the parameters and configurations of the hypervisors’ schedulers. Finally, this benchmark can be used as a reference for choosing the best hypervisor-application combination.

  17. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  18. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan

    2005-01-01

    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  19. Capability of a Mobile Monitoring System to Provide Real-Time Data Broadcasting and Near Real-Time Source Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, M.; Olaguer, J.; Wijesinghe, A.; Colvin, J.; Neish, B.; Williams, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to understand the emissions and health effects of industrial facilities. Many areas have no or limited sustained monitoring capabilities, making it difficult to quantify the major pollution sources affecting human health, especially in fence line communities. Developments in real-time monitoring and micro-scale modeling offer unique ways to tackle these complex issues. This presentation will demonstrate the capability of coupling real-time observations with micro-scale modeling to provide real-time information and near real-time source attribution. The Houston Advanced Research Center constructed the Mobile Acquisition of Real-time Concentrations (MARC) laboratory. MARC consists of a Ford E-350 passenger van outfitted with a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and meteorological equipment. This allows for the fast measurement of various VOCs important to air quality. The data recorded from the van is uploaded to an off-site database and the information is broadcast to a website in real-time. This provides for off-site monitoring of MARC's observations, which allows off-site personnel to provide immediate input to the MARC operators on how to best achieve project objectives. The information stored in the database can also be used to provide near real-time source attribution. An inverse model has been used to ascertain the amount, location, and timing of emissions based on MARC measurements in the vicinity of industrial sites. The inverse model is based on a 3D micro-scale Eulerian forward and adjoint air quality model known as the HARC model. The HARC model uses output from the Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC) wind model and requires a 3D digital model of the monitored facility based on lidar or industrial permit data. MARC is one of the instrument platforms deployed during the 2014 Benzene and other Toxics Exposure Study (BEE-TEX) in Houston, TX. The main goal of the study is to quantify and explain the

  20. Runtime verification of embedded real-time systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbacher, Thomas; Függer, Matthias; Brauer, Jörg

    We present a runtime verification framework that allows on-line monitoring of past-time Metric Temporal Logic (ptMTL) specifications in a discrete time setting. We design observer algorithms for the time-bounded modalities of ptMTL, which take advantage of the highly parallel nature of hardware designs. The algorithms can be translated into efficient hardware blocks, which are designed for reconfigurability, thus, facilitate applications of the framework in both a prototyping and a post-deployment phase of embedded real-time systems. We provide formal correctness proofs for all presented observer algorithms and analyze their time and space complexity. For example, for the most general operator considered, the time-bounded Since operator, we obtain a time complexity that is doubly logarithmic both in the point in time the operator is executed and the operator's time bounds. This result is promising with respect to a self-contained, non-interfering monitoring approach that evaluates real-time specifications in parallel to the system-under-test. We implement our framework on a Field Programmable Gate Array platform and use extensive simulation and logic synthesis runs to assess the benefits of the approach in terms of resource usage and operating frequency.

  1. Execution of a High Level Real-Time Language

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Berzins, Valdis

    1988-01-01

    Prototype System Description Language (PSDL) is a high level real-time language with special features for hard real-time system specification and design. It can be used to firm up requirements through execution of its software prototypes The language is designed based on a real-time model merging data and control flow and its implementation is beyond conventional compiler technology because of the need to meet real-time constraints. In this paper we describe and illustrate our research result...

  2. A Real-Time Linux for Multicore Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Multicore Platforms, 25th Euromicro Conference on Real-TimeSystems. 09-JUL-13, . : , Jeremy Erickson, James Anderson. Reducing Tardiness Under Global...Baruah. "Improved tardiness bounds for Global EDF," Proceedings of the EuroMicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, Brussels, Belgium, IEEE Computer...missed. In a soft real-time application, some deadline tardiness is permissible. In the definition of "soft real-time" that we have focused on

  3. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  4. Real-Time Attitude Independent Three Axis Magnetometer Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassidis, John L.; Lai, Kok-Lam; Harman, Richard R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper new real-time approaches for three-axis magnetometer sensor calibration are derived. These approaches rely on a conversion of the magnetometer-body and geomagnetic-reference vectors into an attitude independent observation by using scalar checking. The goal of the full calibration problem involves the determination of the magnetometer bias vector, scale factors and non-orthogonality corrections. Although the actual solution to this full calibration problem involves the minimization of a quartic loss function, the problem can be converted into a quadratic loss function by a centering approximation. This leads to a simple batch linear least squares solution. In this paper we develop alternative real-time algorithms based on both the extended Kalman filter and Unscented filter. With these real-time algorithms, a full magnetometer calibration can now be performed on-orbit during typical spacecraft mission-mode operations. Simulation results indicate that both algorithms provide accurate integer resolution in real time, but the Unscented filter is more robust to large initial condition errors than the extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are also tested using actual data from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE).

  5. Real-Time Continuous Response Spectra Exceedance Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Frank; Harvey, Danny; Lindquist, Kent; Franke, Mathias

    2017-04-01

    A novel approach is presented for near real-time earthquake alarms for critical structures at distributed locations using real-time estimation of response spectra obtained from near free-field motions. Influential studies dating back to the 1980s identified spectral response acceleration as a key ground motion characteristic that correlates well with observed damage in structures. Thus, monitoring and reporting on exceedance of spectra-based thresholds are useful tools for assessing the potential for damage to facilities or multi-structure campuses based on input ground motions only. With as little as one strong-motion station per site, this scalable approach can provide rapid alarms on the damage status of remote towns, critical infrastructure (e.g., hospitals, schools) and points of interests (e.g., bridges) for a very large number of locations enabling better rapid decision making during critical and difficult immediate post-earthquake response actions. Real-time calculation of PSA exceedance and alarm dissemination are enabled with Bighorn, a module included in the Antelope software package that combines real-time spectral monitoring and alarm capabilities with a robust built-in web display server. Examples of response spectra from several M 5 events recorded by the ANZA seismic network in southern California will be presented.

  6. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike

    2014-01-01

    for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  7. Real balance effects, timing, and equilibrium determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenberg, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    By assuming that money balances at the beginning instead of at the end of the period provide transaction services, standard results on nominal and real determinacy in monetary models are overturned. The key is that predetermined real money balances can be a state variable. Whereas the determination

  8. Determination of Uncalibrated Phase Delays for Real-Time PPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, Fabian; Weber, Robert; Huber, Katrin; Lesjak, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Today PPP is a well-known technique of GNSS based positioning used for a wide range of post-processing applications. Using observations of a single GNSS receiver and applying precise orbit and clock information derived from global GNSS networks highly precise positions can be obtained. The atmospheric delays are usually mitigated by linear combination (ionosphere) and parameter estimation (troposphere). Within the last years also the demand for real-time PPP increased. In 2012, the IGS real-time working group started a pilot project to broadcast real-time precise orbits and clock correction streams. Nevertheless, real-time PPP is in its starting phase and currently only few applications make use of the technique although SSR-Messages are already implemented in RTCM3.1. The problems of still limited accuracy compared to Network-RTK as well as long convergence times might be solved by almost instantaneous integer ambiguity resolution at zero-difference level which is a major topic of current scientific investigations. Therefore a national consortium has carried out over the past 2 years the research project PPP-Serve (funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency - FFG), which aimed at the development of appropriate algorithms for real-time PPP with special emphasis on the ambiguity resolution of zero-difference observations. We have established a module which calculates based on GPS-reference station data-streams of a dense network (obtained from IGS via BKG) so-called wide-lane and narrow-lane satellite specific calibration phase delays. While the wide-lane phase delays are almost stable over longer periods, the estimation of narrow-lane phase delays has to be re-established every 24 hours. These phase-delays are submitted via a real-time module to the rover where they are used for point positioning via a PPP-model. This presentation deals with the process and obstacles of calculating the wide-lane and narrow-lane phase-delays (based on SD -observations between

  9. The Colliderscope: a real-time show

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-six LED lights distributed over the facade of the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Blegdamsvej (Denmark) reproduce the actual signals coming from the Transition Radiation Detector (TRT) in ATLAS. Thanks to the Colliderscope, when a collision occurs below the ground in Geneva, people passing by in Blegdamsvej will be aware of it almost in real-time.   Niels Bohr Institute facade lit up to reflect the latest data from ATLAS-TRT . The pattern, intensity and duration of the Colliderscope’s flashes of light depend on the physical parameters of particles crossing the ATLAS TRT detector. “At the Colliderscope very little happens randomly”, explains Troels Petersen, a physicist at NBI and one of the people who conceived it. “Particularly interesting events, such as electrons, are shown by a bright light that remains on the facade for several seconds”. The Niels Bohr Institute has participated in the development of the TRT detector, and this is why t...

  10. Real-time flexible preventive maintenance scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E B; Cronk, J W; White, R N

    1993-01-01

    There are still obstacles to overcome as we enter the programming phase of this project. We envision an automated system, similar to an expert system, that performs the interval/history analysis and makes the changes. Initially a field will need to be added to the inventory to denote whether a device belongs to one of the previously described groups that are exempt from interval changes. An intermediate step will be the formatting of a periodic report showing equipment that meets the change criteria as described in the two rules. For now, the actual changes would be reviewed and made by our management and technical staff. This report would be retained as documentation of the basis for each change, for our own benefit and to meet JCAHO requirements. We are still discussing whether the repair count should include all repairs (user error, abuse, unpredictable failure, etc.) or just those that are "significant and preventable" and could have been averted by PM. This is perhaps a question whose answer might vary from hospital to hospital, depending upon size and patient mix. With more emphasis being placed on process outcomes, on quality of work, and on getting the most benefit for our efforts, we believe our flexible, real-time PM scheduling program is a major step in the right direction. It is outcome-driven and it focuses resources where they are needed the most.

  11. Recommendations for Real-Time Speech MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P.; Miquel, Marc E.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. PMID:26174802

  12. Real-time DIRCM system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Mikael

    2004-12-01

    Directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM) play an increasingly important role in electronic warfare to counteract threats posed by infrared seekers. The usefulness and performance of such countermeasures depend, for example, on atmospheric conditions (attenuation and turbulence) and platform vibrations, causing pointing and tracking errors for the laser beam and reducing the power transferred to the seeker aperture. These problems make it interesting to simulate the performance of a DIRCM system in order to understand how easy or difficult it is to counteract an approaching threat and evaluate limiting factors in various situations. This paper describes a DIRCM model that has been developed, including atmospheric effects such as attenuation and turbulence as well as closed loop tracking algorithms, where the retro reflex of the laser is used for the pointing control of the beam. The DIRCM model is part of a large simulation framework (EWSim), which also incorporates several descriptions of different seekers (e.g. reticle, rosette, centroid, nutating cross) and models of robot dynamics. Effects of a jamming laser on a specific threat can be readily verified by simulations within this framework. The duel between missile and countermeasure is simulated in near real-time and visualized graphically in 3D. A typical simulation with a reticle seeker jammed by a modulated laser is included in the paper.

  13. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  14. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  15. Real-time control of the robotic lunar observatory telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.M.; Becker, K.J.; Kieffer, H.H.; Dodd, D.N.

    1999-01-01

    The US Geological Survey operates an automated observatory dedicated to the radiometry of the Moon with the objective of developing a multispectral, spatially resolved photometric model of the Moon to be used in the calibration of Earth-orbiting spacecraft. Interference filters are used with two imaging instruments to observe the Moon in 32 passbands from 350-2500 nm. Three computers control the telescope mount and instruments with a fourth computer acting as a master system to control all observation activities. Real-time control software has been written to operate the instrumentation and to automate the observing process. The observing software algorithms use information including the positions of objects in the sky, the phase of the Moon, and the times of evening and morning twilight to decide how to observe program objects. The observatory has been operating in a routine mode since late 1995 and is expected to continue through at least 2002 without significant modifications.

  16. Games and Scenarios for Real-Time System Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuhao

    This thesis presents research on the validation of real-time embedded software systems in the context of model-based development. The thesis proposes scenario-based and game-theoretic approaches to system analysis, verification, synthesis and testing to address the challenges that arise from...... the system characteristics of environment uncertainties, complex process interactions, quantitative timing constraints, partial observability and combinations thereof. We make timed extensions to live sequence chart (LSC) such that the inter-process behaviors and scenario-based requirements of concurrent...

  17. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownstein John S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. Results We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p Conclusion Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  18. Tunneling Time in Ultrafast Science is Real and Probabilistic

    CERN Document Server

    Landsman, Alexandra; Maurer, Jochen; Boge, Robert; Ludwig, André; Heuser, Sebastian; Cirelli, Claudio; Gallmann, Lukas; Keller, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    We compare the main competing theories of tunneling time against experimental measurements using the attoclock in strong laser field ionization of helium atoms. Refined attoclock measurements reveal a real and not instantaneous tunneling delay time over a large intensity regime, using two different experimental apparatus. Only two of the theoretical predictions are compatible within our experimental error: the Larmor time, and the probability distribution of tunneling times constructed using a Feynman Path Integral (FPI) formulation. The latter better matches the observed qualitative change in tunneling time over a wide intensity range, and predicts a broad tunneling time distribution with a long tail. The implication of such a probability distribution of tunneling times, as opposed to a distinct tunneling time, challenges how valence electron dynamics are currently reconstructed in attosecond science. It means that one must account for a significant uncertainty as to when the hole dynamics begin to evolve.

  19. Real-Time Gender Classification by Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Fares Al Mashagba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of human beings based on their biometric body parts, such as face, fingerprint, gait, iris, and voice, plays an important role in electronic applications and has become a popular area of research in image processing. It is also one of the most successful applications of computer–human interaction and understanding. Out of all the abovementioned body parts,the face is one of most popular traits because of its unique features.In fact, individuals can process a face in a variety of ways to classify it by its identity, along with a number of other characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and age. Specifically, recognizing human gender is important because people respond differently according to gender. In this paper, we present a robust method that uses global geometry-based features to classify gender and identify age and human beings from video sequences. The features are extracted based on face detection using skin color segmentation and the computed geometric features of the face ellipse region. These geometric features are then used to form the face vector trajectories, which are inputted to a time delay neural network and are trained using the Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS function. Results show that using the suggested method with our own dataset under an unconstrained condition achieves a 100% classification rate in the training set for all application, as well as 91.2% for gender classification, 88% for age identification, and 83% for human identification in the testing set. In addition, the proposed method establishes the real-time system to be used in three applications with a simple computation for feature extraction.

  20. Resource-Parameterized Timing Analysis of Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Legay, Axel; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are subject to platform-given resource constraints upon such resources as CPU, memory, and bus, in executing their functionalities. This causes the behavior of a verified application to deviate from its intended timing behavior when the application is integrated...... on a specic platform. For the same reason, a configuration of platforms cannot be independent from applications in most cases. This paper proposes a new analysis framework of real-time systems where an application and a platform can be analyzed in a fully independent way such that not only the application...... be parameterized by various resource congurations. For analysis of application and platform models, we use two model checking techniques: symbolic and statistical model checking techniques of Uppaal. Our framework is demonstrated by a case study where a turn indicator system is analyzed with respect to various...

  1. ControlShell - A real-time software framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Ullman, Marc A.; Chen, Vincent W.

    1991-01-01

    ControlShell is designed to enable modular design and impplementation of real-time software. It is an object-oriented tool-set for real-time software system programming. It provides a series of execution and data interchange mechansims that form a framework for building real-time applications. These mechanisms allow a component-based approach to real-time software generation and mangement. By defining a set of interface specifications for intermodule interaction, ControlShell provides a common platform that is the basis for real-time code development and exchange.

  2. Creating Real-Time Embodied Autonomous Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ A challenging research area for computer graphics and virtual environments (VE) is training interpersonal interactions. In such a system, at least one person is the VE participant, while several more virtual human agents (represented by human-like, embodied models) are engaged in activities in the same virtual space. The participants, whether live or virtual, should interact as if all were real. This means that the virtual agents must have several characteristics afforded to real people, including the following:

  3. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  4. Variational optical flow computation in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Andrés; Weickert, Joachim; Feddern, Christian; Kohlberger, Timo; Schnörr, Christoph

    2005-05-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of bidirectional multigrid methods for variational optical flow computations. Although these numerical schemes are among the fastest methods for solving equation systems, they are rarely applied in the field of computer vision. We demonstrate how to employ those numerical methods for the treatment of variational optical flow formulations and show that the efficiency of this approach even allows for real-time performance on standard PCs. As a representative for variational optic flow methods, we consider the recently introduced combined local-global method. It can be considered as a noise-robust generalization of the Horn and Schunck technique. We present a decoupled, as well as a coupled, version of the classical Gauss-Seidel solver, and we develop several multgrid implementations based on a discretization coarse grid approximation. In contrast, with standard bidirectional multigrid algorithms, we take advantage of intergrid transfer operators that allow for nondyadic grid hierarchies. As a consequence, no restrictions concerning the image size or the number of traversed levels have to be imposed. In the experimental section, we juxtapose the developed multigrid schemes and demonstrate their superior performance when compared to unidirectional multgrid methods and nonhierachical solvers. For the well-known 316 x 252 Yosemite sequence, we succeeded in computing the complete set of dense flow fields in three quarters of a second on a 3.06-GHz Pentium4 PC. This corresponds to a frame rate of 18 flow fields per second which outperforms the widely-used Gauss-Seidel method by almost three orders of magnitude.

  5. 75 FR 68418 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management Information... System Management Information Program that provides, in all States, the capability to monitor, in real... traveler information. The purposes of the Real-Time System Management Information Program are to:...

  6. Real-time control for long ohmic alternate current discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Gomes, Rui B.

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • 40 Alternate plasma current (AC) semi-cycles without loss of ionization, more than 1 s of operation. • AC discharges automatic control: feedback loops, time-windows control strategy, goal oriented time-windows and exception handling. • Energy deposition and Carbon radiation evolution during the AC discharges. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak has a long tradition on alternate plasma current (AC) discharges, but the old control system was limiting and lacked full system integration. In order to improve the AC discharges performance the ISTTOK fast control system was updated. This control system developed on site based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard now integrates the information gathered by all the tokamak real-time diagnostics to produce an accurate observation of the plasma parameters. The real-time actuators were also integrated, allowing a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control environment with several synchronization strategies available. The control system software was developed in C++ on top of a Linux system with the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) Framework to synchronize the real-time code execution under a 100μs control cycle. In addition, to simplify the discharge programming, a visual Human–Machine Interface (HMI) was also developed using the BaseLib2 libraries included in the MARTe Framework. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the optimizations that extended the AC current discharges duration to more than 1 s, corresponding to 40 semi-cycles without apparent degradation of the plasma parameters. This upgrade allows ISTTOK to be used as a low-cost material testing facility with long time exposures to nuclear fusion relevant plasmas, comparable (in duration) with medium size tokamaks.

  7. Real-Time Calibration of the Murchison Widefield Array

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, D A; Wayth, R B; Sault, R J; Lonsdale, C J; Cappallo, R J; Morales, M F; Ord, S M

    2008-01-01

    The interferometric technique known as peeling addresses many of the challenges faced when observing with low-frequency radio arrays, and is a promising tool for the associated calibration systems. We investigate a real-time peeling implementation for next-generation radio interferometers such as the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). The MWA is being built in Australia and will observe the radio sky between 80 and 300 MHz. The data rate produced by the correlator is just over 19 GB/s (a few Peta-Bytes/day). It is impractical to store data generated at this rate, and software is currently being developed to calibrate and form images in real time. The software will run on-site on a high-throughput real-time computing cluster at several tera-flops, and a complete cycle of calibration and imaging will be completed every 8 seconds. Various properties of the implementation are investigated using simulated data. The algorithm is seen to work in the presence of strong galactic emission and with realistic ionospheric c...

  8. Large holographic displays for real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtner, A.; Häussler, R.; Leister, N.

    2008-02-01

    Holography is generally accepted as the ultimate approach to display three-dimensional scenes or objects. Principally, the reconstruction of an object from a perfect hologram would appear indistinguishable from viewing the corresponding real-world object. Up to now two main obstacles have prevented large-screen Computer-Generated Holograms (CGH) from achieving a satisfactory laboratory prototype not to mention a marketable one. The reason is a small cell pitch CGH resulting in a huge number of hologram cells and a very high computational load for encoding the CGH. These seemingly inevitable technological hurdles for a long time have not been cleared limiting the use of holography to special applications, such as optical filtering, interference, beam forming, digital holography for capturing the 3-D shape of objects, and others. SeeReal Technologies has developed a new approach for real-time capable CGH using the socalled Tracked Viewing Windows technology to overcome these problems. The paper will show that today's state of the art reconfigurable Spatial Light Modulators (SLM), especially today's feasible LCD panels are suited for reconstructing large 3-D scenes which can be observed from large viewing angles. For this to achieve the original holographic concept of containing information from the entire scene in each part of the CGH has been abandoned. This substantially reduces the hologram resolution and thus the computational load by several orders of magnitude making thus real-time computation possible. A monochrome real-time prototype measuring 20 inches has been built and demonstrated at last year's SID conference and exhibition 2007 and at several other events.

  9. A coincidence detection system based on real-time software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Sindulfo; José Blanco, Juan; Medina, José; Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; García-Población, Oscar; García Tejedor, Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Conventional real-time coincidence systems use electronic circuitry to detect coincident pulses (hardware coincidence). In this work, a new concept of coincidence system based on real-time software (software coincidence) is presented. This system is based on the recurrent supervision of the analogue-to-digital converters status, which is described in detail. A prototype has been designed and built using a low-cost development platform. It has been applied to two different experimental sets for cosmic ray muon detection. Experimental muon measurements recorded simultaneously using conventional hardware coincidence and our software coincidence system have been compared, yielding identical results. These measurements have also been validated using simultaneous neutron monitor observations. This new software coincidence system provides remarkable advantages such as higher simplicity of interconnection and adjusting. Thus, our system replaces, at least, three Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIMs) required by conventional coincidence systems, reducing its cost by a factor of 40 and eliminating pulse delay adjustments.

  10. Real-Time Prognostics of a Rotary Valve Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Valves are used in many domains and often have system-critical functions. As such, it is important to monitor the health of valves and their actuators and predict remaining useful life. In this work, we develop a model-based prognostics approach for a rotary valve actuator. Due to limited observability of the component with multiple failure modes, a lumped damage approach is proposed for estimation and prediction of damage progression. In order to support the goal of real-time prognostics, an approach to prediction is developed that does not require online simulation to compute remaining life, rather, a function mapping the damage state to remaining useful life is found offline so that predictions can be made quickly online with a single function evaluation. Simulation results demonstrate the overall methodology, validating the lumped damage approach and demonstrating real-time prognostics.

  11. Real-time evolvable pulse shaper for radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchares, Juan, E-mail: julandan@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garnica, Oscar, E-mail: ogarnica@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Risco-Martín, José L., E-mail: jlrisco@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ignacio Hidalgo, J., E-mail: hidalgo@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Regadío, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.regadio@insa.es [Área de Tecnologías Electrónicas, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    In the last two decades, recursive algorithms for real-time digital pulse shaping in pulse height measurements have been developed and published in number of articles and textbooks. All these algorithms try to synthesize in real time optimum or near optimum shapes in the presence of noise. Even though some of these shapers can be considered effective designs, some side effects like aging cannot be ignored. We may observe that after sensors degradation, the signal obtained is not valid. In this regard, we present in this paper a novel technique that, based on evolvable hardware concepts, is able to evolve the degenerated shaper into a new design with better performance than the original one under the new sensor features.

  12. Real-Time Detection of Optical Transients with RAPTOR

    CERN Document Server

    Borozdin, K N; Galassi, M; McGowan, K; Starr, D; Vestrand, W T; White, R; Wozniak, P R; Wren, J; Borozdin, Konstantin; Brumby, Steven; Galassi, Mark; Gowan, Katherine Mc; Starr, Dan; White, Robert; Wozniak, Przemyslaw; Wren, James

    2002-01-01

    Fast variability of optical objects is an interesting though poorly explored subject in modern astronomy. Real-time data processing and identification of transient celestial events in the images is very important for such study as it allows rapid follow-up with more sensitive instruments. We discuss an approach which we have developed for the RAPTOR project, a pioneering closed-loop system combining real-time transient detection with rapid follow-up. RAPTOR's data processing pipeline is able to identify and localize an optical transient within seconds after the observation. The testing we performed so far have been confirming the effectiveness of our method for the optical transient detection. The software pipeline we have developed for RAPTOR can easily be applied to the data from other experiments.

  13. A Real-Time Simulation Platform for Power System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the real-time digital simulation platform that can be used for power system operation, analysis, and power system modeling. This particular platform gives grid operators, planners and researchers the opportunity to observe how a power system behaves and can be used...... in real time. Various phenomena commonly encountered when dealing with the two-area system is studied. Despite its small size, it mimics very closely the behavior of typical systems in actual operation. The electromagnetic transient type of simulation made in RSCAD enables the study of fast and detailed...... to demonstrate modeling, system disturbances of various types, and proper recovery actions, as well as to illustrate complex power system concepts. The Kundur power system consists of two fully symmetrical areas linked together by two 230kV lines is modeled by using RSCAD in order to carry out simulations...

  14. Real time UAV autonomy through offline calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghun

    . Once one or several targets are detected, UAVs near the target are manipulated to approach to the target. If the number of detected targets is more than one, UAVs are evenly grouped to track targets. After a specific period of time, UAVs hand off and continue their original tasks. Thirdly, Emergency algorithm is generated to avoid losses of UAVs when UAVs have system failures. If one UAV is out of fuel or control during the mission, the Emergency algorithm brings the malfunctioning UAV to the point of departure and let the rest UAVs to continue an aerial reconnaissance. An UAV which finishes its task the earliest will continue to search a region which the failed UAV is supposed to search. In addition, Emergency algorithm prevents UAVs colliding into each other by using emergency altitude. Overall, the framework developed here facilitates the solution of several mission planning problems. The robustness built into our discretization of space and time permits feedback corrections on real-time to vehicle trajectories. The library of off-line solutions proposed and developed here minimizes computational overhead during operations.

  15. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  16. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  17. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  18. Black Hole Formation in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissanke, Samaya

    2015-08-01

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in the formation, evolution and fate of stars. However, it remains unclear how massive stars, almost always in pairs, end their lives as extreme gravity objects (neutron stars and black holes) and what their eventual fate is. The physics driving these events in strong-field gravity are complex, rich but still remain elusive. Theoretical work in general relativity has long predicted that the formation of black holes through neutron star mergers emit vast amounts of gravitational radiation, through gravitational waves (GWs), and conventional electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Observing GWs and EM radiation from these elusive short-lived mergers remains one of the holy grails of modern astronomy and is only now possible with a suite of new time-domain telescopes and experiments. I will first review the most recent advances in this blossoming field of EM+GW astronomy, which combines three active disciplines: time-domain astronomy, computational astrophysics and general relativity. I will discuss the promises of this new convergence by illustrating the wealth of astrophysical information that a combined EM+GW measurement would immediately bring. I will then outline the main challenges that lie ahead for this new field in pinpointing the sky location of neutron star mergers using GW detectors and optical and radio wide-field synoptic surveys.

  19. Unified Modeling of Complex Real-Time Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hai, He; Chi-Lan, Cai

    2011-01-01

    Complex real-time control system is a software dense and algorithms dense system, which needs modern software engineering techniques to design. UML is an object-oriented industrial standard modeling language, used more and more in real-time domain. This paper first analyses the advantages and problems of using UML for real-time control systems design. Then, it proposes an extension of UML-RT to support time-continuous subsystems modeling. So we can unify modeling of complex real-time control systems on UML-RT platform, from requirement analysis, model design, simulation, until generation code.

  20. Real time observation of phase formations by XRD during Ga-rich or In-rich Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} growth by co-evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistor, Paul; Zahedi-Azad, Setareh; Hartnauer, Stefan; Waegele, Leonard A.; Jarzembowski, Enrico; Scheer, Roland [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Solar cells with Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} absorbers rely on the three-stage co-evaporation process with Cu-poor/Cu-rich/Cu-poor absorber deposition conditions for highest efficiency devices. During the three-stage process, the formation and evolution of different selenide phases with changing compositions throughout the process crucially determine the final absorber quality. In this contribution, we monitor the evolution of crystalline phases in real-time with an X-ray diffraction (XRD) line detector setup implemented into an evaporation setup. Using the common three-stage process, we prepare and compare samples covering the full alloying range from CuInSe{sub 2} to CuGaSe{sub 2}. The in situ XRD allows the detection of the crystalline phases present at all times of the process as well as an advanced analysis of the phase evolution through a closer look at peak shifts and the full width at half maximum. For samples with a Ga/(Ga + In) ratio (GGI) < 0.5, distinct phase transitions associated with the transition to the reported vacancy compounds Cu(In,Ga){sub 5}Se{sub 8} and Cu(In, Ga){sub 3}Se{sub 5} are observed. No such indication was found for samples with a GGI > 0.5. For Ga-rich Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} phases with a GGI of 0.55, the XRD analysis evidenced a Ga-rich phase segregation before the stoichiometric point was reached. The above findings are discussed in view of their implication on wide gap solar cell performances. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Wide Area Real Time Kinematic (WARTK): Usage of RTCM format, and real-time implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Moreno, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays GNSS1 enhancement techniques have reached a relevant impor- tance and are present in a wide variety of applications. During the last years the Research Group of Astronomy and Geomatics (gAGE) from the Tech- nical University of Catalonia (UPC) has developed and tested new satellite navigation techniques which allow the extension of local services based on the real-time carrier phase ambiguity resolution2 to wide area scale (i.e., base- lines between the rover and reference stations gr...

  2. Enhanced Utility Accrual Scheduling Algorithms for Adaptive Real Time System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idawaty Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study proposed two utility accrual real time scheduling algorithms named as Preemptive Utility Accrual Scheduling (PUAS and Non-preemptive Utility Accrual Scheduling (NUAS algorithms. These algorithms addressed the unnecessary abortion problem that was identified in the existing algorithm known as General Utility Scheduling (GUS. It is observed that GUS is inefficient for independent task model because it simply aborts any task that currently executing a resource with lower utility when a new task with higher utility requests the resource. The scheduling optimality criteria are based on maximizing accrued utility accumulated from execution of all tasks in the system. These criteria are named as Utility Accrual (UA. The UA scheduling algorithms are design for adaptive real time system environment where deadline misses are tolerable and do not have great consequences to the system. Approach: We eliminated the scheduling decision to abort a task in GUS and proposed to preempt a task instead of being aborted if the task is preemptive able. We compared the performances of these algorithms by using discrete event simulation. Results: The proposed PUAS algorithm achieved the highest accrued utility for the entire load range. This is followed by the NUAS and GUS algorithms. Conclusion: Simulation results revealed that the proposed algorithms were more efficient than the existing algorithm, producing with higher accrued utility ratio and less abortion ratio making it more suitable and efficient for real time application domain.

  3. A real-time transaction service for grid computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Feilong; Li Minglu; Joshua Huang Zhexue; Frank Tong; Cao Jian

    2005-01-01

    A real-time transaction service aims at ensuring the consistency of real-time and transactional Grid applications. This paper proposes an efficient real-time transaction service (RTTS). It provides abilities to discover qualified services, I.e., participants, to execute specified sub-transactions, coordinate real-time Grid transactions, calculate deadline and assign priority for scheduling concurrent transactions. The service discovery adopts the two-level registry mechanismto adapt to transient Grid services. The coordination algorithm invokes multiplefunctional alternative services for each sub-transaction so that it remarkablyimproves the successful ratio of real-time transactions. The experiment result shows that the RTTS can well coordinate real-time transactions for Grid service environment and shield users from the complex process.

  4. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the

  5. Assimilation of GIRO Data into a Real-Time IRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X.; Bilitza, D.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly accurate and detailed global 3-D specification of the Earth's space plasma environment is required to further understand its intricate organization and behavior. For a long time space physics and aeronomy research has been data starved due to the great variety of natural time scales involved in the plasma phenomenology. We have started developing a new approach to the global ionospheric specification called Real-Time Assimilative Mapping (RTAM). The IRI-RTAM will use data from the Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO) to smoothly transform International Reference Ionosphere's (IRI's) background empirical maps of the ionospheric characteristics to match the observations. Such empirical assimilative modeling will provide a high-resolution, global picture of the ionospheric response to various short-term events observed during periods of storm activity or the impact of gravity waves coupling the ionosphere to the lower atmosphere, including timelines of the vertical restructuring of the plasma distribution. It will also contribute to the challenging task of providing a rapid insight into the temporal and spatial space weather development using the real-time GIRO data streams. The new assimilation technique "updates" the IRI electron density distribution while preserving the overall integrity of IRI s typical ionospheric feature representations. The technique adjusts the coefficients of the spherical/diurnal expansions used by the CCIR and URSI-88 model to obtain the global sub-peak electron density distribution. The set of global corrected coefficients can be generated as frequently as every 15 min and easily disseminated using a single real-time RTAM server operated by GIRO.

  6. Sentiment analysis on students’ real-time feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Altrabsheh, Nabeela

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature identifies that students’ real-time feedback is important in the learning process. There are numerous studies that have collected students’ feedback in real time. However, they include several limitations of which the most important is analysing the feedback. In this thesis, we address these limitations by proposing a system that will automatically analyse students’ feedback in real time and present the analysis results to the lecturer. To create such a system, we propose ...

  7. RealTimeFrame – A Real Time Processing Framework for Medical Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging technology is highly important in today’s medical environments. It provides information upon which the accuracy of the diagnosis and consequently the wellbeing of the patient rely. Increasing the quality and significance of medical image data is therefore one the aims of scientific research and development. We introduce an integrated hardware and software framework for real time image processing in medical environments, which we call RealTimeFrame. Our project is designed to offer flexibility, easy expandability and high performance. We use standard personal computer hardware to run our multithreaded software. A frame grabber card is used to capture video signals from medical imaging systems. A modular, user-defined process chain performs arbitrary manipulations on the image data. The graphical user interface offers configuration options and displays the processed image in either window or full screen mode. Image source and processing routines are encapsulated in dynamic library modules for easy functionality extension without recompilation of the entire software framework. Documented template modules for sources and processing steps are part of the software’s source code.

  8. Quantitation of viral load using real-time amplification techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, H G

    2001-01-01

    Real-time PCR amplification techniques are currently used to determine the viral load in clinical samples for an increasing number of targets. Real-time PCR reduces the time necessary to generate results after amplification. In-house developed PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA

  9. Compilation and synthesis for real-time embedded controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Müller-Olm, Markus

    1999-01-01

    with translation of imperative programs, extended by hard real-time commands which allow one to specify upper bounds for the execution time of basic blocks. In the second approach, Duration Calculus, a metric-time temporal logic, is used as the source language. Duration Calculus allows one to specify real...

  10. Real Time Synchronization for Creativity in Distributed Innovation Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Dennis Kjaersgaard; Dolog, Peter; Pedersen, Esben Staunsbjerg

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings.......In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings....

  11. Real Time Synchronization for Creativity in Distributed Innovation Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Dennis Kjaersgaard; Dolog, Peter; Pedersen, Esben Staunsbjerg

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings.......In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings....

  12. Building Real-Time Collaborative Applications with a Federated Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ojanguren-Menendez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time collaboration is being offered by multiple libraries and APIs (Google Drive Real-time API, Microsoft Real-Time Communications API, TogetherJS, ShareJS, rapidly becoming a mainstream option for webservices developers. However, they are offered as centralised services running in a single server, regardless if they are free/open source or proprietary software. After re-engineering Apache Wave (former Google Wave, we can now provide the first decentralised and federated free/open source alternative. The new API allows to develop new real-time collaborative web applications in both JavaScript and Java environments.

  13. Ambiguity and Concepts in Real Time Online Internet Traffic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Awad Hamza Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet traffic classification gained significant attention in the last few years. Identifying the Internet applications in the real time is one of the most significant challenges in network traffic classification. Most of the proposed classification methods are limited to offline classification and cannot support online classification. This paper aims to highlight the ambiguity in the definition of online classification. Therefore, some of the previous online classification works are discussed and analyzed. This analysing is to check how far the real time online classification was achieved. The results indicate that most of the previous works consider a real Internet traffic but did not consider a real time online classification. In addition, the paper provides a real time classifier which was proposed and used in [1] [2] [3], to show how to perform a real time online classification.

  14. Towards a Real-time Transient Classification Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Peter E; Bloom, Josh; Starr, Dan; Butler, Nat; Nugent, Peter; Rischard, M.; Eads, D.; Poznanski, Dovi

    2008-02-22

    Temporal sampling does more than add another axis to the vector of observables. Instead, under the recognition that how objects change (and move) in time speaks directly to the physics underlying astronomical phenomena, next-generation wide-field synoptic surveys are poised to revolutionize our understanding of just about anything that goes bump in the night (which is just about everything at some level). Still, even the most ambitious surveys will require targeted spectroscopic follow-up to fill in the physical details of newly discovered transients. We are now building a new system intended to ingest and classify transient phenomena in near real-time from high-throughput imaging data streams. Described herein, the Transient Classification Project at Berkeley will be making use of classification techniques operating on"features" extracted from time series and contextual (static) information. We also highlight the need for a community adoption of a standard representation of astronomical time series data (i.e.,"VOTimeseries").

  15. Towards a Real-time Transient Classification Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, J S; Butler, N R; Nugent, P; Rischard, M; Eads, D; Poznanski, D

    2008-01-01

    Temporal sampling does more than add another axis to the vector of observables. Instead, under the recognition that how objects change (and move) in time speaks directly to the physics underlying astronomical phenomena, next-generation wide-field synoptic surveys are poised to revolutionize our understanding of just about anything that goes bump in the night (which is just about everything at some level). Still, even the most ambitious surveys will require targeted spectroscopic follow-up to fill in the physical details of newly discovered transients. We are now building a new system intended to ingest and classify transient phenomena in near real-time from high-throughput imaging data streams. Described herein, the Transient Classification Project at Berkeley will be making use of classification techniques operating on ``features'' extracted from time series and contextual (static) information. We also highlight the need for a community adoption of a standard representation of astronomical time series data (...

  16. Real Time Investments with Adequate Portfolio Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kvietkauskienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify investment decision makingschemes using the adequate portfolio model. This approach can be employed to project investment in stocks, using the opportunities offered by the markets and investor intelligence. It was decided to use adequate portfolio theory for investment decision making, simulation of financial markets, and optimisation of utility function. The main conclusion of article suggests investigating return on individual portfolio level. Real investment is a way to make sure of the soundness of applicable strategies.

  17. Real-time observation of bismuth silicon oxide crystal growth in silicon oxide-bismuth oxide system%氧化硅-氧化铋系统中硅酸铋晶体生长实时观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀峰; 徐驰; 江红涛; 韩元亨

    2015-01-01

    高温熔体的实时观测与分析对于晶体生长及其影响因素分析具有十分重要的意义 .利用高温热台及偏光显微镜 ,对铋硅系统熔融及冷却过程进行实时观测 .观察到高温下与石英砂接触的氧化铋粉体先熔融 ,说明异质颗粒接触点处是反应开始的地方 .之后熔体与石英(二氧化硅)晶体反应 ,冷却过程中在石英晶体表面周围及坩埚壁附近生长出硅酸铋晶体 ,这说明晶体易在颗粒接触处析出 .实验中氧化铋与二氧化硅摩尔比为4:3,此时石英晶体并没有全部熔融 .对比分析系统熔体在降温时晶体析出长大的过程 ,计算出硅酸铋晶体的生长平均速率为15 .38 μm/min .通过线能谱扫描分析 ,认为熔体温度和硅元素的富集程度对晶体生长速度有重要影响.%Real time observation and analysis of high temperature melt is great of significance for crystal growth and the analysis of its influencing factors .The paper using high tempera-ture thermal units and polarizing optical microscope observed the melt and cooling process of bismuth silicon systems in real time .In high temperature the bismuth oxide powder which in contact with quartz sand is first melting ,it shows that the heterogeneity particles at the con-tact point is the place to reaction start .Then bismuth oxide melt reacted with the quartz (sil-icon dioxide) crystal .In cooling process the surface of quartz crystal and the crucible wall grown bismuth silicate crystals .This means at the contact point of particle is easy to crystal grow .The molar ratio of bismuth oxide and silicon dioxide was 4:3 in the experiment ,not all of the quartz crystal melted at this moment .Comparative analysis of the system melt crystallization process of growing up in cooling process ,the average grow th rate of crystals of bismuth silicate is calculated 15 .38 μm/min .According to the energy spectrum analysis of scanning ,melt temperature and the enrichment of

  18. A Real-time Data Model Based on Temporal Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-fang; LIU Yun-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Real-time database systems contain not only transaction timing constraints, but also data timing constraints. This paper discusses the temporal characteristics of data in real-time databases and offers a definition of absolute and relative temporal consistency. In real-time database systems, it is often the case that the policies of transaction schedules only consider the deadline of real-time transactions, making it insufficient to ensure temporal correctness of transactions. A policy is given by considering both the deadlines of transactions and the "data deadline" to schedule real-time transactions. A real-time relational data model and a real-time relational algebra based on the characteristics of temporal data are also proposed. In this model, the temporal data has not only corresponding values, but also validity intervals corresponding to the data values. At the same time, this model is able to keep historical data values. When validity interval of a relation is[NOW,NOW], real-time relational algebra will transform to traditional relational algebra.

  19. NOAA Satellite Based Real Time Forest Fire Monitoring System for Russia and North Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpoma,Kazi A. / Kawano,Koichi / Kudoh,Jun-ichi; / カワノ,コウイチ / クドウ,ジュンイチ

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires cause severe damages to natural resources and human lives all over the world. Though a lot of forest fires occur in Russia and North Asia every year, there is no system available that monitors forest fire in real time processing. However the MODIS Land Rapid Response System provides near-real time fire observations globally, currently forest fire monitoring techniques are not efficient enough to optimally monitor this disaster. For a real-time forest fire monitor system an effici...

  20. Real time imaging of human progenitor neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Keenan

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitors are increasingly being employed in drug screens and emerging cell therapies targeted towards neurological disorders where neurogenesis is thought to play a key role including developmental disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. Key to the success of these applications is understanding the mechanisms by which neurons arise. Our understanding of development can provide some guidance but since little is known about the specifics of human neural development and the requirement that cultures be expanded in vitro prior to use, it is unclear whether neural progenitors obey the same developmental mechanisms that exist in vivo. In previous studies we have shown that progenitors derived from fetal cortex can be cultured for many weeks in vitro as undifferentiated neurospheres and then induced to undergo neurogenesis by removing mitogens and exposing them to supportive substrates. Here we use live time lapse imaging and immunocytochemical analysis to show that neural progenitors use developmental mechanisms to generate neurons. Cells with morphologies and marker profiles consistent with radial glia and recently described outer radial glia divide asymmetrically and symmetrically to generate multipolar intermediate progenitors, a portion of which express ASCL1. These multipolar intermediate progenitors subsequently divide symmetrically to produce CTIP2(+ neurons. This 3-cell neurogenic scheme echoes observations in rodents in vivo and in human fetal slice cultures in vitro, providing evidence that hNPCs represent a renewable and robust in vitro assay system to explore mechanisms of human neurogenesis without the continual need for fresh primary human fetal tissue. Knowledge provided by this and future explorations of human neural progenitor neurogenesis will help maximize the safety and efficacy of new stem cell therapies by providing an understanding of how to generate physiologically-relevant cell types that maintain their

  1. Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Vaucher, Alain C; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations requires to mediate between the inherently unpredictable execution times of the iterative algorithm employed and the necessity to provide data in fixed and short time intervals for real-time rendering. We introduce the concept of a mediator as a component able to deal with infrequent and unpredictable reference data to generate reliable feedback. In the context of real-time quantum chemistry, the mediator takes the form of a surrogate potential that has the same local shape as the first-principles potential and can be evaluated efficiently to deliver atomic forces as real-time feedback. The surrogate potential is updated continuously by electronic structure calculations and guarantees to provide a reliable response to the operator for any molecular structure. To demonstrate the application of iterative electronic structure methods in real-time reactivity exploration, we implement self-consistent semi-empirical methods as the data source and a...

  2. Robust real-time change detection in high jitter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonson, Katherine Mary; Ma, Tian J.

    2009-08-01

    A new method is introduced for real-time detection of transient change in scenes observed by staring sensors that are subject to platform jitter, pixel defects, variable focus, and other real-world challenges. The approach uses flexible statistical models for the scene background and its variability, which are continually updated to track gradual drift in the sensor's performance and the scene under observation. Two separate models represent temporal and spatial variations in pixel intensity. For the temporal model, each new frame is projected into a low-dimensional subspace designed to capture the behavior of the frame data over a recent observation window. Per-pixel temporal standard deviation estimates are based on projection residuals. The second approach employs a simple representation of jitter to generate pixelwise moment estimates from a single frame. These estimates rely on spatial characteristics of the scene, and are used gauge each pixel's susceptibility to jitter. The temporal model handles pixels that are naturally variable due to sensor noise or moving scene elements, along with jitter displacements comparable to those observed in the recent past. The spatial model captures jitter-induced changes that may not have been seen previously. Change is declared in pixels whose current values are inconsistent with both models.

  3. THE DLSTRIBOTED MCU MODEL FOR SYNCHRONOUS REAL-TIME TELETEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘均; 李人厚; 郑庆华

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at issues on multimedia communication in synchronous real-time teleteaching (SRT) systems over IP network, a 4-tuple structural mode of multimedia communication is proposed in the paper, and an SRT-oriented distributed MCU model is built according to the mode. Moreover, the mechanism of multicast communication across subnets is discussed. The distributed MCU model has been applied successfully in our interactive synchronous real-time telesteaching system RealClass and has shown good extendibility in operation.

  4. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  5. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  6. Academic Training: Real Time Process Control - Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 7, 8 and 9 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Real Time Process Control T. Riesco / CERN-TS What exactly is meant by Real-time? There are several definitions of real-time, most of them contradictory. Unfortunately the topic is controversial, and there does not seem to be 100% agreement over the terminology. Real-time applications are becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and can be found in diverse environments such as the automatic braking system on an automobile, a lottery ticket system, or robotic environmental samplers on a space station. These lectures will introduce concepts and theory like basic concepts timing constraints, task scheduling, periodic server mechanisms, hard and soft real-time.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  7. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  8. Estimating correlation for a real-time measure of connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, Akhil; Panday, Ashish; Joshi, Bharat; Ravindran, Arun; Zaveri, Hitten P

    2012-01-01

    There has recently been considerable interest in connectivity analysis of fMRI and scalp and intracranial EEG time-series. The computational requirements of the pair-wise correlation (PWC), the core time-series measure used to estimate connectivity, presents a challenge to the real-time estimation of the PWC between all pairs of multiple time-series. We describe a parallel algorithm for computing PWC in real-time for streaming data from multiple channels. The algorithm was implemented on the Intel Xeon™ and IBM Cell Broadband Engine™ platforms. We evaluated time to estimate correlation for signals recorded with different acquisition parameters as a comparison to real-time constraints. We demonstrate that the execution time of these efficient implementations meet real-time constraints in most instances.

  9. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management Information... additional comments relating to the costs and benefits of the Real-Time System Management Information Program... System Management Information Program on November 8, 2010, at 75 FR 68418. The final rule document...

  10. Real-Time PCR for Universal Phytoplasma Detection and Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the most efficient detection and precise quantification of phytoplasmas is by real-time PCR. Compared to nested PCR, this method is less sensitive to contamination and is less work intensive. Therefore, a universal real-time PCR method will be valuable in screening programs and in other...

  11. Real-Time Adaptation of Influence Strategies in Online Selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on r

  12. "Real-Time" Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Shawn D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an activity that integrates theory and application by examining the multiple communication events affecting a single organization in "real time" over the course of an academic term. The "real-time" case study (RTCS) avails students of the opportunity to examine organizational communication events as they are occurring in…

  13. RT-PLG: Real Time Process Log Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahya, Bernardo Nugroho; Khosiawan, Yohanes; Choi, Woosik;

    2016-01-01

    . This paper aims to develop a real time process log generator for the usage of streaming process mining tool. The real time process log generator (RT-PLG) is constructed in an independent tool. Afterward, the RT-PLG is utilized to generate a synthetic log for streaming process mining. The tool has been...... evaluated using an existing simulation model....

  14. Distributed, Embedded and Real-time Java Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wellings, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Research on real-time Java technology has been prolific over the past decade, leading to a large number of corresponding hardware and software solutions, and frameworks for distributed and embedded real-time Java systems.  This book is aimed primarily at researchers in real-time embedded systems, particularly those who wish to understand the current state of the art in using Java in this domain.  Much of the work in real-time distributed, embedded and real-time Java has focused on the Real-time Specification for Java (RTSJ) as the underlying base technology, and consequently many of the Chapters in this book address issues with, or solve problems using, this framework. Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service and communication systems supporting real-time Java applications; Includes coverage of multiprocessor embedded systems and parallel programming; Discusses state-of-the-art resource management for embedded systems, including Java’s real-time garbage collect...

  15. Real time ray tracing of skeletal implicit surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouiller, Olivier; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    Modeling and rendering in real time is usually done via rasterization of polygonal meshes. We present a method to model with skeletal implicit surfaces and an algorithm to ray trace these surfaces in real time in the GPU. Our skeletal representation of the surfaces allows to create smooth models...

  16. Operational and logical semantics for polling real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anders, P.R.; Dierks, Henning; Fehnker, Ansgar; Rischel, H.; Fehnker, Ansgar; Mader, Angelika H.; Vaandrager, Frits

    PLC-Automata are a class of real-time automata suitable to describe the behavior of polling real-time systems. PLC-Automata can be compiled to source code for PLCs, a hardware widely used in industry to control processes. Also, PLC-Automata have been equipped with a logical and operational

  17. NCEP Real-time Marine Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly surface marine data gathered by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The basic observational data are edited, using a "trimming" procedure...

  18. The Challenges Of Using Multicomputing In Real Time Visualapplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Anant Joshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Displaying visual data in a graphical distributed application is one of the main challenges and constraintsthat should be studied in real time applications. Many problems could be reported in using multicomputingfor real time visual applications. These problems are identified throughout this survey, and areclassified into two main categories. The first is computation and transfer time while the second is displayspeed. The real bottleneck in using grid or cloud computing in such applications is whether thecommunication time between nodes (inside the cloud increases to the point of degrading overallapplication performance. This survey paper describes the impact of time and communication speed onapplying visual systems on a grid or in cloud computing.

  19. A framework to model real-time databases

    CERN Document Server

    Idoudi, Nizar; Duvallet, Claude; Sadeg, Bruno; Bouaziz, Rafik; Gargouri, Faiez

    2010-01-01

    Real-time databases deal with time-constrained data and time-constrained transactions. The design of this kind of databases requires the introduction of new concepts to support both data structures and the dynamic behaviour of the database. In this paper, we give an overview about different aspects of real-time databases and we clarify requirements of their modelling. Then, we present a framework for real-time database design and describe its fundamental operations. A case study demonstrates the validity of the structural model and illustrates SQL queries and Java code generated from the classes of the model

  20. Recent achievements in real-time computational seismology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time computational seismology is currently possible to be achieved which needs highly connection between seismic database and high performance computing. We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) by using continuous BATS records and moment tensor inversion (CMT) technique. The real-time online earthquake simulation service is also ready to open for researchers and public earthquake science education (ROS). Combine RMT with ROS, the earthquake report based on computational seismology can provide within 5 minutes after an earthquake occurred (RMT obtains point source information < 120 sec; ROS completes a 3D simulation < 3 minutes). All of these computational results are posted on the internet in real-time now. For more information, welcome to visit real-time computational seismology earthquake report webpage (RCS).

  1. Self-Organization in Embedded Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkschulte, Uwe; Rettberg, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the emerging field of self-organizing, multicore, distributed and real-time embedded systems.  Self-organization of both hardware and software can be a key technique to handle the growing complexity of modern computing systems. Distributed systems running hundreds of tasks on dozens of processors, each equipped with multiple cores, requires self-organization principles to ensure efficient and reliable operation. This book addresses various, so-called Self-X features such as self-configuration, self-optimization, self-adaptation, self-healing and self-protection. Presents open components for embedded real-time adaptive and self-organizing applications; Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service, communications supporting organic real-time applications; Covers multi-/many-core embedded systems supporting real-time adaptive systems and power-aware, adaptive hardware and software systems; Includes case studies of open embedded real-time self-organizi...

  2. VLBI real-time analysis by Kalman Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, Maria; Soja, Benedikt; Nilson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Liu, Li; Lu, Ciuxian; Xu, Minghui; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Mora-Diaz, Julian; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is one of the primary space geodetic techniques. It provides the full set of Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and is unique for observing long term Universal Time (UT1) and precession/nutation. Currently the VLBI products are delivered with a delay of about two weeks from the moment of the observation. However, the need for near-real time estimates of the parameters is increasing, e.g. for satellite based navigation and positioning or for enabling precise tracking of interplanetary spacecraft. The goal is thus to reduce the time span between observation and the final result to less than one day. This can be archived by replacing the classical least squares method with an adaptive Kalman filter. We have developed a Kalman filter for VLBI data analysis. This method has the advantage that it is simultaneously possible to estimate stationary parameters, e.g. station positions, and to model the highly variable stochastic behavior of non-stationary parameters like clocks or atmospheric parameters. The filter is able to perform without any human interaction, making it a completely autonomous tool. In this work we describe the filter and discuss its application for EOP determination and prediction. We discuss the implementation of the stochastic models to statistically account for unpredictable changes in EOP. Furthermore, additional data like results from other techniques can be included to improve the performance. For example, atmospheric angular momentum calculated from numerical weather models can be introduced to supplement the short-term prediction of UT1 and polar motion. This Kalman filter will be extended and embedded in the newly developed Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) as a completely autonomous tool enabling the VLBI analysis in near real-time and providing all the parameters of interest with the highest possible accuracy.

  3. UML statechart based rigorous modeling of real-time system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Ming-zhi; YOU Jin-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Rigorous modeling could ensure correctness and could verify a reduced cost in embedded real-time system development for models. Software methods are needed for rigorous modeling of embedded real-time systems. PVS is a formal method with precise syntax and semantics defined. System modeled by PVS specification could be verified by tools. Combining the widely used UML with PVS, this paper provides a novel modeling and verification approach for embedded real-time systems. In this approach, we provide 1 ) a time-extended UML statechart for modeling dynamic behavior of an embedded real-time system; 2) an approach to capture timed automata based semantics from a timed statechart; and 3) an algorithm to generate a finite state model expressed in PVS specification for model checking. The benefits of our approach include flexibility and user friendliness in modeling, extendability in formalization and verification content, and better performance. Time constraints are modeled and verified and is a highlight of this paper.

  4. Time-Stretch Accelerated Processor for Real-time, In-service, Signal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonappan, Cejo K.; Buckley, Brandon W.; Adam, Jost

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate real-time, in-service, digital signal analysis of 10 Gbit/s data using a 1.2 Tbit/s burst-mode digital processor. The processor comprises a time-stretch front-end and a custom data acquisition and real-time signal processing back- end. Experimental demonstration of real-time, in...

  5. Long-term Acoustic Real-Time Sensor for Polar Areas (LARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    systems at AUTEC and SCORE. In addition LARA technology will be useful for real-time monitoring of deep-ocean seismic and volcanic activity (e.g... volcanic eruptions forecast for the near future, and the LARA moorings will allow us to observe the accuracy of these models in real-time. TRANSITIONS

  6. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  7. Games and Scenarios for Real-Time System Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuhao

    This thesis presents research on the validation of real-time embedded software systems in the context of model-based development. The thesis proposes scenario-based and game-theoretic approaches to system analysis, verification, synthesis and testing to address the challenges that arise from....... By linking our prototype translators with existing model checker Uppaal and game solver Uppaal-Tiga, we show that these methods contribute to the interaction correctness and timeliness of early system designs. The thesis also shows that testing a real-time reactive system can be viewed as playing a timed...... communicating real-time systems can be modeled and specified with LSC. By translating LSC to timed automata (TAs), we reduce scenario-based model consistency checking and property verification to CTL real-time model checking problems, and reduce scenario-based synthesis to a timed game solving problem...

  8. Time-dependent viscometry study of endoglucanase action on xyloglucan: A real-time approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spier, Vivian Cristina; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Ibrahim, Amid Tony; Scholze Baum, Jéssica C; Silveira, Joana Lea M; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2015-11-01

    Hydrolysis of xyloglucan from Tamarindus indica and Hymenaea courbaril seeds with endoglucanase (EGII), which randomly breaks the (1→4)-linked β-glycosidic bonds of the polymer chain, was monitored in real time using time-dependent viscometry analysis (TDV). For both samples there was a decrease in the intrinsic viscosity ([η]), viscosity average molar mass (Mv), radius de gyration (Rg) and persistence length (Lp) immediately after the addition of the enzyme. It was observed the formation of oligosaccharides and oligomers composed of ∼2 units, up to 140min. Galactose-containing side chains two positions away from the non-substituted glucose, modulated the action of EGII, and the complete hydrolysis of the XG oligomers occurred after 24h. The results demonstrate for the first time the real-time degradation of xyloglucan as well the macromolecular and oligosaccharide composition during the EGII hydrolysis process.

  9. Real-time simulation of hand motion for prosthesis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Dimitra; Chadwick, Edward K; van den Bogert, Antonie J; Murray, Wendy M

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with hand amputation suffer substantial loss of independence. Performance of sophisticated prostheses is limited by the ability to control them. To achieve natural and simultaneous control of all wrist and hand motions, we propose to use real-time biomechanical simulation to map between residual EMG and motions of the intact hand. Here we describe a musculoskeletal model of the hand using only extrinsic muscles to determine whether real-time performance is possible. Simulation is 1.3 times faster than real time, but the model is locally unstable. Methods are discussed to increase stability and make this approach suitable for prosthesis control.

  10. Scheduling Non-stationary Bursts of Real-time and Non-real-time Traffic in ATM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The problem of scheduling real-time and non-real-time traffic in an ATM switch multiplexor when bursts of either type of traffic occur is studied. The scheduling algorithms studied are: Queue Length Threshold (QLT) and Minimum Laxity Threshold (MLT). Analytic results based on Markov Chains are used. In addition the results are compared with an optimal (but impractical) scheduling determined via dynamic programming. Dynamic programming is used in this paper to show that MLT gives a near optimal performance trade-off between real-time and non-real-time traffic for constant arrival rates. The trade-off QLT allows is not close to optimal. For non-real-time bursts MLT still gives a close to optimal trade-off. For real-time bursts the trade-off MLT allows between real-time and non-real-time traffic is not as close to optimal, but even where the MLT trade-off is not near optimal, the QLT trade-off is much worse than the MLT trade-off.

  11. Real-Time Massive Model Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Sung-eui; Kasik, David

    2008-01-01

    Interactive display and visualization of large geometric and textured models is becoming a fundamental capability. There are numerous application areas, including games, movies, CAD, virtual prototyping, and scientific visualization. One of observations about geometric models used in interactive applications is that their model complexity continues to increase because of fundamental advances in 3D modeling, simulation, and data capture technologies. As computing power increases, users take advantage of the algorithmic advances and generate even more complex models and data sets. Therefore, the

  12. Real-Time Geospatial Data Viewer (RETIGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a web-based method that allows the users to upload their air monitoring data and explore the data on graphical interface. The method is optimized for mobile monitoring data sets, showing the data on a map, on a time series, and referenced to a hypothesized line and/or poi...

  13. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized mul

  14. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized mul

  15. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized

  16. Real-time chemiluminescence imaging using nano-lantern probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yoshiyuki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    Chemiluminescence imaging can be performed without excitation light sources at various spatial levels ranging from a single cell to the whole body. Thus far, chemiluminescence imaging has been primarily performed with long exposure times because of weak signals, resulting in low temporal resolution. Recently, the brightest-known chemiluminescent proteins--Nano-lantern and Nano-lantern-based functional indicators--have been developed. Nano-lantern probes break the limitation of temporal resolution and enable chemiluminescence imaging of living samples such as cells, plants, and small animals at video rates. This unit describes one protocol for observation of a freely moving unshaved mouse transplanted with Nano-lantern-expressing tumor cells, and another for compatible use of optogenetic tools and a Nano-lantern calcium indicator. Both protocols utilize the synchronization of illumination and camera acquisition sessions, thereby enabling real-time chemiluminescence imaging.

  17. TOWARD REAL TIME UAVS’ IMAGE MOSAICKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mehrdad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anyone knows that sudden catastrophes can instantly do great damage. Fast and accurate acquisition of catastrophe information is an essential task for minimize life and property damage. Compared with other ways of catastrophe data acquisition, UAV based platforms can optimize time, cost and accuracy of the data acquisition, as a result UAVs’ data has become the first choice in such condition. In this paper, a novel and fast strategy is proposed for registering and mosaicking of UAVs’ image data. Firstly, imprecise image positions are used to find adjoining frames. Then matching process is done by a novel matching method. With keeping Sift in mind, this fast matching method is introduced, which uses images exposure time geometry, SIFT point detector and rBRIEF descriptor vector in order to match points efficiency, and by efficiency we mean not only time efficiency but also elimination of mismatch points. This method uses each image sequence imprecise attitude in order to use Epipolar geometry to both restricting search space of matching and eliminating mismatch points. In consideration of reaching to images imprecise attitude and positions we calibrated the UAV’s sensors. After matching process, RANSAC is used to eliminate mismatched tie points. In order to obtain final mosaic, image histograms are equalized and a weighted average method is used to image composition in overlapping areas. The total RMSE over all matching points is 1.72 m.

  18. Toward Real Time Uavs' Image Mosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, S.; Satari, M.; Safdary, M.; Moallem, P.

    2016-06-01

    Anyone knows that sudden catastrophes can instantly do great damage. Fast and accurate acquisition of catastrophe information is an essential task for minimize life and property damage. Compared with other ways of catastrophe data acquisition, UAV based platforms can optimize time, cost and accuracy of the data acquisition, as a result UAVs' data has become the first choice in such condition. In this paper, a novel and fast strategy is proposed for registering and mosaicking of UAVs' image data. Firstly, imprecise image positions are used to find adjoining frames. Then matching process is done by a novel matching method. With keeping Sift in mind, this fast matching method is introduced, which uses images exposure time geometry, SIFT point detector and rBRIEF descriptor vector in order to match points efficiency, and by efficiency we mean not only time efficiency but also elimination of mismatch points. This method uses each image sequence imprecise attitude in order to use Epipolar geometry to both restricting search space of matching and eliminating mismatch points. In consideration of reaching to images imprecise attitude and positions we calibrated the UAV's sensors. After matching process, RANSAC is used to eliminate mismatched tie points. In order to obtain final mosaic, image histograms are equalized and a weighted average method is used to image composition in overlapping areas. The total RMSE over all matching points is 1.72 m.

  19. Analyzing Real-Time Systems: Theory and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, Thomas Seidelin

    The main topic of this dissertation is the development and use of methods for formal reasoning about the correctness of real-time systems, in particular methods and tools to handle new classes of problems. In real-time systems the correctness of the system does not only depend on the order in which...... actions take place, but also the timing of the actions. The formal reasoning presented here is based on (extensions of) the model of timed automata and tools supporting this model, mainly UPPAAL. Real-time systems are often part of safety critical systems e.g. control systems for planes, trains......, or factories, though also everyday electronics as audio/video equipment and (mobile) phones are considered real-time systems. Often these systems are concurrent systems with a number of components interacting, and reasoning about such systems is notoriously difficult. However, since most of the systems...

  20. Space Shuttle Main Engine real time stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, F. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high performance, liquid rocket engine with variable thrust. The engine control system continuously monitors the engine parameters and issues propellant valve control signals in accordance with the thrust and mixture ratio commands. A real time engine simulation lab was installed at MSFC to verify flight software and to perform engine dynamic analysis. A real time engine model was developed on the AD100 computer system. This model provides sufficient fidelity on the dynamics of major engine components and yet simplified enough to be executed in real time. The hardware-in-the-loop type simulation and analysis becomes necessary as NASA is continuously improving the SSME technology, some with significant changes in the dynamics of the engine. The many issues of interfaces between new components and the engine can be better understood and be resolved prior to the firing of the engine. In this paper, the SSME real time simulation Lab at the MSFC, the SSME real time model, SSME engine and control system stability analysis, both in real time and non-real time is presented.

  1. RTMOD: Real-Time MODel evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graziani, G.; Galmarini, S.; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    . At that time, the World Wide Web was not available to all the exercise participants, and plume predictions were therefore submitted to JRC-Ispra by fax andregular mail for subsequent processing. The rapid development of the World Wide Web in the second half of the nineties, together with the experience gained...... the RTMOD web page for detailed information on the actual release, and as soon as possible they then uploaded their predictions to the RTMOD server and could soon after start their inter-comparison analysis with other modellers. When additionalforecast data arrived, already existing statistical results...

  2. Migrating to a real-time distributed parallel simulator architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available DEVS. Ogata, et al. [7] tested the real-time performance of DIS and different versions of the RTI-NG HLA Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI). Their real-time vehicle model simulation within a 3D graphi- cal environment reached a frame rate ceiling... to mili- tary training simulation: A guide for discrete event sim- ulationists. In Proceedings of the 1998 Winter Simula- tion Conference, 1998. [7] Michihiko Ogata, Akira Higashide, Mike Cammarano, and Toshinao Takagi. Rti performance...

  3. Analysis and Synthesis of Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    Embedded computer systems are now everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded computers. An important class of embedded computer systems is that of hard real-time systems, which have to fulfill strict timing...... in important reductions of design costs. Analysis and Synthesis of Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems will be of interest to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and designers involved in the field of embedded systems....

  4. Multi-Threat Real-Time Separating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-threat real-time separating system for broadband anti-radiation missile seeker.It presents a method, with a dual-port memory as comparer, to perform PF and PW hardware real-time separation and to determine the time-of-arrival (TOA) by use of sequential difference histogram (SDIF). The method has been applied to practice, which has achieved good results.

  5. Real Time Collision Detection Using Depth Texturing Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji; ZHAI Zhengjun; CAI Xiaobin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel collision detection algorithm to real time detect the collisions of objects. We generate sphere textures of objects, and use programmable graphics hardware to mapping texture and check the depth of different objects to detect the collision. We have implemented the algorithm and compared it with CULLIDE. The result shows that our algorithm is more effective than CULLIDE and has fixed executive time to suit for real-time applications.

  6. Real-Time Connect 4 Game Using Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Sarhan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study presented a design that converted connect 4 game into a real-time game by incorporating time restraints. Approach: The design used Artificial Intelligence (AI in implementing the connect 4 game. The AI for this game was based on influence mapping. Results: A waterfall-based AI software was developed for a Connect 4 game. Conclusion: A real time connect 4 game was successfully designed and implanted with GUI using C++ programming language.

  7. Automated packaging employing real-time vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Chia-Hung

    2016-07-01

    Existing packaging systems rely on human operation to position a box in the packaging device perform do the packaging task. Current facilities are not capable of handling boxes with different sizes in a flexible way. In order to improve the above-mentioned problems, an eye-to-hand visual servo automated packaging approach is proposed in this paper. The system employs two cameras to observe the box and the gripper mounted on the robotic manipulator to precisely control the manipulator to complete the packaging task. The system first employs two-camera vision to determine the box pose. With appropriate task encoding, a closed-loop visual servoing controller is designed to drive a manipulator to accomplish packaging tasks. The proposed approach can be used to complete automated packaging tasks in the case of uncertain location and size of the box. The system has been successfully validated by experimenting with an industrial robotic manipulator for postal box packaging.

  8. Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from clinical specimens by cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraosa, Yasunori; Toyotome, Takahito; Yahiro, Maki; Watanabe, Akira; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    We developed new cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR assays for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum that were designed to detect the gene encoding N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase), which we previously identified as an H. capsulatum antigen reacting with sera from patients with histoplasmosis. Both assays specifically detected the DNAs of all H. capsulatum strains but not those of other fungi or human DNA. The limited of detection (LOD) of the real-time PCR assay was 10 DNA copies when using 10-fold serial dilutions of the standard plasmid DNA and 50 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA. The nested real-time PCR improved the LOD to 5 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA, which represents a 10-fold higher than that observed with the real-time PCR assay. To assess the ability of the two assays to diagnose histoplasmosis, we analyzed a small number of clinical specimens collected from five patients with histoplasmosis, such as sera (n = 4), formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue (n = 4), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (n = 1). Although clinical sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay was insufficiently sensitive (33%), the nested real-time PCR assay increased the clinical sensitivity (77%), suggesting it has a potential to be a useful method for detecting H. capsulatum DNA in clinical specimens.

  9. Real-Time Pulsars Pipeline Using Many-Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclocco, Alessio; Van Nieuwpoort, R.; Bal, H. E.

    2014-04-01

    Exascale radio astronomy presents challenges to both astronomers and computer scientists. One of these challenges is processing the enormous amount of data that will be produced by exascale instruments, like the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). Traditional approaches, based on storing data to process them off-line, are common nowadays, but are unfeasible in the exascale era due to the high bandwidths. We investigate the use of many-core accelerators as a way to achieve real-time performance without exceeding cost and power constraints. In our current research, we aim at accelerating the pulsar searching process, and produce a real-time and scalable software pipeline for the exascale era. Our pipeline consists of three main steps: dedispersion, folding and signal-to-noise ratio computation. It is open source and implemented using the Open Computing Language (OpenCL). To achieve our goals of real-time performance, scalability and portability, we applied three different techniques. First, we designed all steps of the pulsars pipeline to run on many-core accelerators, even the less computational intensive. This way, communication between host and accelerator is minimized, avoiding a common bottleneck of many-core accelerated computing. Second, we parallelized the pipeline with a fine-grained approach. Because of this parallelization strategy, it is not only possible to distribute the input beams to different computation nodes, but also to define which part of the search space is explored by any node. This completely avoids inter-node communication, and scalability of the pipeline can simply be achieved by adding more machines. Third, we use extensive auto-tuning for both the single processing kernels and the pipeline as a whole. By using auto-tuning, we do not simply find the best possible parameter configuration, thus obtaining high-performance, but also make the pipeline portable among different computing devices, and adaptable to different telescopes and observational

  10. Real Rainfall Time Series for Storm Sewer Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation method for the design of retention storages, overflows etc. in storm sewer systems. The method is based on computer simulation with real real rainfall time series as input and with a simple transfer model of the ARMA-type (Autoregressive moving average) applied...

  11. HAMLET: HPCN Technology for Real-Time, Embedded Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mager, J.W.L.J.; Dam, A. ten

    1995-01-01

    Building an application by using HPCN technology makes the solution scalable and therefore more flexible. The uptake of HPCN technology for real-time, embedded applications, however, is severely hampered by the lack of real application development support. Within the Esprit project HAMLET,

  12. HAMLET: HPCN Technology for Real-Time, Embedded Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mager, J.W.L.J.; Dam, A. ten

    1995-01-01

    Building an application by using HPCN technology makes the solution scalable and therefore more flexible. The uptake of HPCN technology for real-time, embedded applications, however, is severely hampered by the lack of real application development support. Within the Esprit project HAMLET, technolog

  13. Real-time vehicle emission monitoring along roadsides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelwagen, U.; Lange, R. de; Ligterink, N.E.; Klunder, G.A.; Bigazzi, A.; Duyzer, J.H.; Baalen, J. van; Katwijk, R.T. van; Kruithof, M.C.; Ratingen, S. van; Weststrate, J.H.; Wilmink, I.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the worldwide efforts to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses in general and those emitted by vehicles in particular, vehicle emission monitoring is important. It provides accurate knowledge of real-world emissions of vehicles as input for vehicle emission models. Real-time emission monitori

  14. Screening and reconstruction of real-time traffic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴玉龙; 马骥

    2003-01-01

    The quality of real-time traffic information is of the great importance, therefore the factors having effect on traffic characteristics are analyzed in general, and the necessities of real-time data processing are summarized. The identification and reconstruction of real-time traffic data are analyzed using Kalman filter equation and statistical approach. Four methods for ITS (Intelligent transportation system) detector data screening in traffic management systems are discussed in detail. Meanwhile traffic data examinations are discussed with solutions formulated through analysis, and recommendations are made for information collection and data management in future.

  15. Real-Time Obstacle Detection Approach using Stereoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Baha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new and simple approach to obstacle and free space detection in an indoor and outdoor environment in real-time using stereo vision as sensor. The real-time obstacle detection algorithm uses two dimensional disparity map to detect obstacles in the scene without constructing the ground plane. The proposed approach combines an accumulating and thresholding techniques to detect and cluster obstacle pixels into objects using a dense disparity map. The results from both analysis modules are combined to provide information of the free space. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method in real-time.

  16. Real-Time Mass Passenger Transport Network Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of Real-Time Mass Transport Vehicle Routing Problem (MTVRP) is to find a solution to route n vehicles in real time to pick up and deliver m passengers. This problem is described in the context of flexible large-scale mass transportation options that use new technologies for communication among passengers and vehicles. The solution of such a problem is relevant to future transportation options involving large scale real-time routing of shared-ride fleet transit vehicles. However, the g...

  17. The Durham adaptive optics real-time controller

    CERN Document Server

    Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy

    2010-01-01

    The Durham adaptive optics real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic adaptive optics control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful CPU based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including FPGAs and GPUs), based primarily around commercial off the shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8~m class telescope adaptive optics systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance including latency and jitter, which is less than 10~$\\mu$s for small adaptive optics systems.

  18. Real-time embedded systems design principles and engineering practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you

  19. New magnetic real time shape control for MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Pangione, L; Storrs, J

    2013-01-01

    The MAST (Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak) real time plasma position controller is based on an optical linear camera placed on the mid plane of the vessel. This solution has the advantage of being a direct observation of the D [alpha]emissions coming from the interaction between the boundary of the plasma and neutral gas, but, on the other hand, it restricts the control to the outer radius of the plasma only. A complete chain of tools has been set up to implement, test and simulate a new real time magnetic plasma shape controller based on the rtEFIT code. The complete working path consists of three elements: a linear static relationship between control parameters and current demands, a linear state space model needed to represent the plasma dynamic response in closed loop simulations, and the possibility to run simulations inside the Plasma Control System (PCS). The linear relationship has been calculated using the FIESTA code, which is developed using Matlab at CCFE. The linear state space model was generated ...

  20. Real-time animation of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintake, Tsumoru E-mail: shintake@spring8.or.jp

    2003-07-11

    New mathematical method has been developed to compute radiation field from a moving charge in free space. It is not based on the retarded potential or its derivation [R.Y. Tsien, Picture of dynamic electric fields, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1972]. It solves conformal mapping of electric field lines based on the following two facts: (1) once a wave is emitted from a particle, it propagates as a spherical wave. The wavelet (a part of the wave-front) runs with speed of the light, and does not change its direction, (2) the initial direction of the wavelet is determined by the Lorentz transformation between the electron-rest-frame to the laboratory frame, which gives the light aberration effect. 2D radiation simulator has been developed based on this method, which simulates synchrotron, undulator and dipole radiation in time domain [T. Shintake, Simulation of field lines generated by a moving charge, private note 1984 March 19 at KEK, not published].

  1. Kalman filtering with real-time applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    This new edition presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering. Over 100 exercises and problems with solutions help de...

  2. Real-time cosmography with redshift derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.; Martinelli, M.; Calabrese, E.; Ramos, M. P. L. P.

    2016-08-01

    The drift in the redshift of objects passively following the cosmological expansion has long been recognized as a key model-independent probe of cosmology. Here, we study the cosmological relevance of measurements of time or redshift derivatives of this drift, arguing that the combination of first and second redshift derivatives is a powerful test of the Λ CDM cosmological model. In particular, the latter can be obtained numerically from a set of measurements of the drift at different redshifts. We show that, in the low-redshift limit, a measurement of the derivative of the drift can provide a constraint on the jerk parameter, which is j =1 for flat Λ CDM , while generically j ≠1 for other models. We emphasize that such a measurement is well within the reach of the ELT-HIRES and SKA Phase 2 array surveys.

  3. Real-Time Scheduling via Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Glaubius, Robert; Gill, Christopher; Smart, William D

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems, such as mobile robots, must respond adaptively to dynamic operating conditions. Effective operation of these systems requires that sensing and actu- ation tasks are performed in a timely manner. Additionally, execution of mission specific tasks such as imaging a room must be bal- anced against the need to perform more gen- eral tasks such as obstacle avoidance. This problem has been addressed by maintaining relative utilization of shared resources among tasks near a user-specified target level. Pro- ducing optimal scheduling strategies requires complete prior knowledge of task behavior, which is unlikely to be available in practice. Instead, suitable scheduling strategies must be learned online through interaction with the system. We consider the sample com- plexity of reinforcement learning in this do- main, and demonstrate that while the prob- lem state space is countably infinite, we may leverage the problem's structure to guarantee efficient learning.

  4. Real Time Visualisation of Cleanroom Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Holger; Lochte, Kai

    2014-06-01

    In many high-tech industry sectors, e.g. space, product qualification, tests have to be performed under defined and controlled cleanliness- and climate conditions.The example of a comprehensive cleanroom monitoring system (CRMS) shows - starting from the underlying measurement task and the user requirements - how an automatically working measurement system, including not only a database function but also visualization of the current data, has been designed and implemented. Additionally to the presentation of the system concept and its software implementation, the aspects of data acquisition, -analysis and- archiving are responded to. Furthermore, it is shown how a widely automated fault indicating system will ensure the required system availability and reliability. This optimization of internal support to secure production processes is successfully introduced into the database-based CRMS system. At the same time the system ensures a simple and easy access to all relevant environmental data for the user with a minimum of maintenance- and system support costs.

  5. Real-time cosmography with redshift derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P; Calabrese, E; Ramos, M P L P

    2016-01-01

    The drift in the redshift of objects passively following the cosmological expansion has long been recognized as a key model-independent probe of cosmology. Here, we study the cosmological relevance of measurements of time or redshift derivatives of this drift, arguing that the combination of first and second redshift derivatives is a powerful test of the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. In particular, the latter can be obtained numerically from a set of measurements of the drift at different redshifts. We show that, in the low-redshift limit, a measurement of the derivative of the drift can provide a constraint on the jerk parameter, which is $j=1$ for flat $\\Lambda$CDM, while generically $j\

  6. Can Real-Time Data Also Be Climate Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, M.; Wentz, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    GMI, AMSR-2 and WindSat herald a new era of highly accurate and timely microwave data products. Traditionally, there has been a large divide between real-time and re-analysis data products. What if these completely separate processing systems could be merged? Through advanced modeling and physically based algorithms, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) has narrowed the gap between real-time and research-quality. Satellite microwave ocean products have proven useful for a wide array of timely Earth science applications. Through cloud SST capabilities have enormously benefited tropical cyclone forecasting and day to day fisheries management, to name a few. Oceanic wind vectors enhance operational safety of shipping and recreational boating. Atmospheric rivers are of import to many human endeavors, as are cloud cover and knowledge of precipitation events. Some activities benefit from both climate and real-time operational data used in conjunction. RSS has been consistently improving microwave Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) for several decades, while making near real-time data publicly available for semi-operational use. These data streams have often been produced in 2 stages: near real-time, followed by research quality final files. Over the years, we have seen this time delay shrink from months or weeks to mere hours. As well, we have seen the quality of near real-time data improve to the point where the distinction starts to blur. We continue to work towards better and faster RFI filtering, adaptive algorithms and improved real-time validation statistics for earlier detection of problems. Can it be possible to produce climate quality data in real-time, and what would the advantages be? We will try to answer these questions…

  7. Scheduling Algorithms Based on Weakly Hard Real-Time Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Gang (涂刚); YANG FuMin (阳富民); LU YanSheng (卢炎生)

    2003-01-01

    The problem of scheduling weakly hard real-time tasks is addressed in this paper.The paper first analyzes the characters ofμ-pattern and weakly hard real-time constraints, then,presents two scheduling algorithms, Meet Any Algorithm and Meet Row Algorithm, for weakly hard real-time systems. Different from traditional algorithms used to guarantee deadlines, Meet Any Algorithm and Meet Row Algorithm can guarantee both deadlines and constraints. Meet Any Algorithm and Meet Row Algorithm try to find out the probabilities of tasks breaking constraints and increase task's priority in advance, but not till the last moment. Simulation results show that these two algorithms are better than other scheduling algorithms dealing with constraints and can largely decrease worst-case computation time of real-time tasks.

  8. Designing Information Measures for Real-time Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Edward; Chen, Yang; Meng, Xiao-Li; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Since telescope time is limited, real-time lightcurve classification involves carefully selecting future time points at which sources must be observed in order to maximize the information that will be gained for classification. We propose a framework for constructing measures of information for testing/classification/model-selection and demonstrate their use in experimental design. Degroot (1962) developed a general framework for constructing Bayesian measures of the expected information that an experiment will provide for estimation, and our framework analogously constructs measures of information for hypothesis testing. Such test information measures are most useful for model selection and classification problems. Indeed, our framework suggests a probability based measure of test information, which in decision problems has more appealing properties than variance based measures. In the case of lightcurve classification, we adapt our designs to penalize long waits until the next observation time. Lastly, we consider ways to address other aspects of the problem, such as uncertainty estimation arising due to contamination from nearby contaminating sources or background diffuse emission. We acknowledge support from Smithsonian Competitive Grants Fund 40488100HH0043 and NSF grant DMS 1208791.

  9. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational

  10. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration.

  11. Real Time & Power Efficient Adaptive - Robust Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioan Gliga, Lavinius; Constantin Mihai, Cosmin; Lupu, Ciprian; Popescu, Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    A design procedure for a control system suited for dynamic variable processes is presented in this paper. The proposed adaptive - robust control strategy considers both adaptive control advantages and robust control benefits. It estimates the degradation of the system’s performances due to the dynamic variation in the process and it then utilizes it to determine when the system must be adapted with a redesign of the robust controller. A single integral criterion is used for the identification of the process, and for the design of the control algorithm, which is expressed in direct form, through a cost function defined in the space of the parameters of both the process and the controller. For the minimization of this nonlinear function, an adequate mathematical programming minimization method is used. The theoretical approach presented in this paper was validated for a closed loop control system, simulated in an application developed in C. Because of the reduced number of operations, this method is suitable for implementation on fast processes. Due to its effectiveness, it increases the idle time of the CPU, thereby saving electrical energy.

  12. Near real-time skin deformation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

    2013-02-01

    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  13. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  14. Real-time estimation of dynamic functional connectivity networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Ricardo Pio; Lorenz, Romy; Braga, Rodrigo M; Anagnostopoulos, Christoforos; Leech, Robert; Montana, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Two novel and exciting avenues of neuroscientific research involve the study of task-driven dynamic reconfigurations of functional connectivity networks and the study of functional connectivity in real-time. While the former is a well-established field within neuroscience and has received considerable attention in recent years, the latter remains in its infancy. To date, the vast majority of real-time fMRI studies have focused on a single brain region at a time. This is due in part to the many challenges faced when estimating dynamic functional connectivity networks in real-time. In this work, we propose a novel methodology with which to accurately track changes in time-varying functional connectivity networks in real-time. The proposed method is shown to perform competitively when compared to state-of-the-art offline algorithms using both synthetic as well as real-time fMRI data. The proposed method is applied to motor task data from the Human Connectome Project as well as to data obtained from a visuospatial attention task. We demonstrate that the algorithm is able to accurately estimate task-related changes in network structure in real-time. Hum Brain Mapp 38:202-220, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Alain C; Haag, Moritz P; Reiher, Markus

    2016-04-05

    Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations requires to mediate between the inherently unpredictable execution times of the iterative algorithm used and the necessity to provide data in fixed and short time intervals for real-time rendering. We introduce the concept of a mediator as a component able to deal with infrequent and unpredictable reference data to generate reliable feedback. In the context of real-time quantum chemistry, the mediator takes the form of a surrogate potential that has the same local shape as the first-principles potential and can be evaluated efficiently to deliver atomic forces as real-time feedback. The surrogate potential is updated continuously by electronic structure calculations and guarantees to provide a reliable response to the operator for any molecular structure. To demonstrate the application of iterative electronic structure methods in real-time reactivity exploration, we implement self-consistent semiempirical methods as the data source and apply the surrogate-potential mediator to deliver reliable real-time feedback.

  16. Infinite Time Cellular Automata: A Real Computation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Givors, Fabien; Ollinger, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    We define a new transfinite time model of computation, infinite time cellular automata. The model is shown to be as powerful than infinite time Turing machines, both on finite and infinite inputs; thus inheriting many of its properties. We then show how to simulate the canonical real computation model, BSS machines, with infinite time cellular automata in exactly \\omega steps.

  17. Basic technology development of a real-time graphic simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jae Wook; Hong, Soon Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hee Sub [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In this research, we developed the basic technology of a Real-time graphic simulator for remote monitoring in hostile environment, the Spent Fuel Disassembling facility. The use of a real-time graphic simulator is very useful for building virtual workcell and simulating the virtual devices to preview the behavior of real devices in order to reduce the error in design step of devices and to evaluate and optimize the work processes. And also, it can be used to provide the visualization of operation information from working devices to ensure the reliable monitoring in the teleoperation system. Thus, the development of basic technology related to these is needed. In this system, because the Spent Fuel Disassembling facility should be managed in remote environment due to its characteristics, the transmission of operational information through the network should be used. And for real-time monitoring, the real-time visualization of operational information from real system should be available. Therefore, we defined the efficient message protocol format for real-time transmission of operational information to visualize these in the 3D graphic simulator. 14 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  18. The First Real-Time Tsunami Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C.; Weinstein, S.; Ward, B.

    2014-12-01

    For the first time a U.S. tsunami warning center created and issued a tsunami forecast model animation while the tsunami was still crossing an ocean. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists had predicted they would have this ability (Becker et al., 2012) with their RIFT forecast model (Wang et al., 2009) by using rapidly-determined W-phase centroid-moment tensor earthquake focal mechanisms as tsunami sources in the RIFT model (Wang et al., 2012). PTWC then acquired its own YouTube channel in 2013 for its outreach efforts that showed animations of historic tsunamis (Becker et al., 2013), but could also be a platform for sharing future tsunami animations. The 8.2 Mw earthquake of 1 April 2014 prompted PTWC to issue official warnings for a dangerous tsunami in Chile, Peru and Ecuador. PTWC ended these warnings five hours later, then issued its new tsunami marine hazard product (i.e., no coastal evacuations) for the State of Hawaii. With the international warning canceled but with a domestic hazard still present PTWC generated a forecast model animation and uploaded it to its YouTube channel six hours before the arrival of the first waves in Hawaii. PTWC also gave copies of this animation to television reporters who in turn passed it on to their national broadcast networks. PTWC then created a version for NOAA's Science on a Sphere system so it could be shown on these exhibits as the tsunami was still crossing the Pacific Ocean. While it is difficult to determine how many people saw this animation since local, national, and international news networks showed it in their broadcasts, PTWC's YouTube channel provides some statistics. As of 1 August 2014 this animation has garnered more than 650,000 views. Previous animations, typically released during significant anniversaries, rarely get more than 10,000 views, and even then only when external websites share them. Clearly there is a high demand for a tsunami graphic that shows both the speed and the severity of a

  19. RadNet-Air Near Real Time Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet-Air is a national network of air monitoring stations that regularly collect air samples for near real time analysis of radioactivity. The data is transmitted...

  20. The Effects of Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Teleradiology System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safadi, Lilac

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the design of a real-time interactive multimedia teleradiology system and assesses how the system is used by referring physicians in point-of-care situations and supports or hinders aspects of physician-radiologist interaction. We developed a real-time multimedia teleradiology management system that automates the transfer of images and radiologists' reports and surveyed physicians to triangulate the findings and to verify the realism and results of the experiment. The web-based survey was delivered to 150 physicians from a range of specialties. The survey was completed by 72% of physicians. Data showed a correlation between rich interactivity, satisfaction, and effectiveness. The results of our experiments suggest that real-time multimedia teleradiology systems are valued by referring physicians and may have the potential for enhancing their practice and improving patient care and highlight the critical role of multimedia technologies to provide real-time multimode interactivity in current medical care.