WorldWideScience

Sample records for real projective spaces

  1. Real hypersurfaces of a complex projective space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaehler manifolds of con- stant holomorphic sectional curvature c) is a very interesting and active area of research. The ambient space ¯M(c), specially in the case c = 0 imposes quite significant restrictions on the geometry of its real hypersurfaces.

  2. Bundles over Quantum RealWeighted Projective Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Brzeziński

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The algebraic approach to bundles in non-commutative geometry and the definition of quantum real weighted projective spaces are reviewed. Principal U(1-bundles over quantum real weighted projective spaces are constructed. As the spaces in question fall into two separate classes, the negative or odd class that generalises quantum real projective planes and the positive or even class that generalises the quantum disc, so do the constructed principal bundles. In the negative case the principal bundle is proven to be non-trivial and associated projective modules are described. In the positive case the principal bundles turn out to be trivial, and so all the associated modules are free. It is also shown that the circle (coactions on the quantum Seifert manifold that define quantum real weighted projective spaces are almost free.

  3. Instanton tunneling for de Sitter space with real projective spatial sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Yen Chin [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: ongyenchin@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-04-01

    The physics of tunneling from one spacetime to another is often understood in terms of instantons. For some instantons, it was recently shown in the literature that there are two complementary ''interpretations'' for their analytic continuations. Dubbed ''something-to-something'' and ''nothing-to-something'' interpretations, respectively, the former involves situation in which the initial and final hypersurfaces are connected by a Euclidean manifold, whereas the initial and final hypersurfaces in the latter case are not connected in such a way. We consider a de Sitter space with real projective space RP{sup 3} spatial sections, as was originally understood by de Sitter himself. This original version of de Sitter space has several advantages over the usual de Sitter space with S{sup 3} spatial sections. In particular, the interpretation of the de Sitter entropy as entanglement entropy is much more natural. We discuss the subtleties involved in the tunneling of such a de Sitter space.

  4. Compactness of the automorphism group of a topological parallelism on real projective 3-space: The disconnected case

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer, Löwen

    2017-01-01

    We prove that the automorphism group of a topological parallelism on real projective 3-space is compact. In a preceding article it was proved that at least the connected component of the identity is compact. The present proof does not depend on that earlier result.

  5. Real space process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Baeten, J.C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The real time process algebra of Baeten and Bergstra [Formal Aspects of Computing, 3, 142-188 (1991)] is extended to real space by requiring the presence of spatial coordinates for each atomic action, in addition to the required temporal attribute. It is found that asynchronous communication

  6. Comparing long-term projections of the space debris environment to real world data - Looking back to 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jonas; Stoll, Enrico

    2016-10-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment are commonly used to assess the trends within different scenarios for the assumed future development of spacefaring. General scenarios investigated include business-as-usual cases in which spaceflight is performed as today and mitigation scenarios, assuming the implementation of Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines at different advances or the effectiveness of more drastic measures, such as active debris removal. One problem that always goes along with the projection of a system's behaviour in the future is that affecting parameters, such as the launch rate, are unpredictable. It is common to look backwards and re-model the past in other fields of research. This is a rather difficult task for spaceflight as it is still quite young, and furthermore mostly influenced by drastic politic changes, as the break-down of the Soviet Union in the end of the 1980s. Furthermore, one major driver of the evolution of the number of on-orbit objects turn out to be collisions between objects. As of today, these collisions are, fortunately, very rare and therefore, a real-world-data modelling approach is difficult. Nevertheless, since the end of the cold war more than 20 years of a comparably stable evolution of spaceflight activities have passed. For this study, this period is used in a comparison between the real evolution of the space debris environment and that one projected using the Institute of Space System's in-house tool for long-term assessment LUCA (Long-Term Utility for Collision Analysis). Four different scenarios are investigated in this comparison; all of them have the common starting point of using an initial population for 1st May 1989. The first scenario, which serves as reference, is simply taken from MASTER-2009. All launch and mission related objects from the Two Line Elements (TLE) catalogue and other available sources are included. All events such as explosion and collision events have been re-modelled as

  7. The AMERE project: Enabling real-time detection of radiation effects in individual cells in deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Meesen, Geert; Szpirer, Cedric; Scohy, Sophie; Cherukuri, Chaitanya; Evrard, Olivier; Hutsebaut, Xavier; Beghuin, Didier

    2012-12-01

    A major concern for long-term deep space missions is the detrimental impact of cosmic radiation on human health. Especially the presence of high-energy particles of high atomic mass (HZE) represents a serious threat. To contribute to a fundamental understanding of space radiation effects and to help improving risk assessment for humans on the Moon, the ESA Lunar Lander mission model payload includes a package dedicated to cell-based radiobiology experiments in the form of an Autonomous Microscope for Examination of Radiation Effects (AMERE). The purpose of this setup is to enable real-time visualization of DNA damage repair in living cells after traversal of HZE particles on the Moon. To assess the feasibility of this challenging experiment, we have analysed the biological and technological demands. In this article, we discuss the experimental concept, the biological considerations and describe the implications for system design.

  8. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  9. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  10. TRI-Worthy Projects for the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, V. E.; Strangman, G. E.; Donoviel, D.

    2018-02-01

    Preparations for exploration will require exposure to the actual deep space environment. The new TRI for Space Health proposes innovative projects using real space radiation to make medically-relevant measurements affecting human physiology.

  11. The homogeneous geometries of real hyperbolic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillón López, Marco; Gadea, Pedro Martínez; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We describe the holonomy algebras of all canonical connections of homogeneous structures on real hyperbolic spaces in all dimensions. The structural results obtained then lead to a determination of the types, in the sense of Tricerri and Vanhecke, of the corresponding homogeneous tensors. We use...... our analysis to show that the moduli space of homogeneous structures on real hyperbolic space has two connected components....

  12. Real space renormalization tecniques for disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anda, E.V.

    1984-01-01

    Real space renormalization techniques are applied to study different disordered systems, with an emphasis on the understanding of the electronic properties of amorphous matter, mainly semiconductors. (Authors) [pt

  13. Project Management in Real Time: A Service-Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a service-learning assignment for a project management course. It is designed to facilitate hands-on student learning of both the technical and the interpersonal aspects of project management, and it involves student engagement with real customers and real stakeholders in the creation of real events with real outcomes. As…

  14. Real Property Project Tracking System (RPPTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Real Property Project Tracking System (RPPTS), formerly known as the Lease/Project Tracking (LEASE) database, contains information about lease and land projects...

  15. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  16. Cuspidal discrete series for projective hyperbolic spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We have in [1] proposed a definition of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces G/H, involving the notion of a Radon transform and a related Abel transform. For the real non-Riemannian hyperbolic spaces, we showed that there exists an infinite number of cuspidal discrete series......, and at most finitely many non-cuspidal discrete series, including in particular the spherical discrete series. For the projective spaces, the spherical discrete series are the only non-cuspidal discrete series. Below, we extend these results to the other hyperbolic spaces, and we also study the question...

  17. Systems engineering real estate development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Elena; Titarenko, Boris; Stepanov, Vitaliy

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, real estate development has accumulated a wealth of experience in implementing major projects, which requires comprehension and systematization. The scientific instrument of system engineering is studied in the article and is substantively interpreted with reference to real estate development projects. The most perspective approaches and models are substantiated, allowing strategically to plan the life cycle of the project as a whole, and also to solve the engineering butt problems of the project. The relevance of further scientific studies of regularities and specifics of the life cycle of real estate development projects conducted at the Moscow State University of Economics and Management at the ISTA department is shown.

  18. Real space renormalization techniques for disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anda, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    Real Space renormalization techniques are applied to study different disordered systems, with an emphasis on the under-standing of the electronic properties of amorphous matter, mainly semiconductors. (author) [pt

  19. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle. Acknowledgements. This work was initiated during the author's visit to the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge,. UK as a visiting fellow to participate in the programme Moduli Spaces (MOS) during. June 2011. She would like to thank the Institute for hospitality and excellent working environment. References.

  20. Bose-Einstein condensation in real space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, J.J.; Llano, M. de; Solis, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We show how Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) occurs not only in momentum space but also in coordinate (or real) space. Analogies between the isotherms of a van der Waals classical gas of extended (or finite-diameter) identical atoms and the point (or zero-diameter) particles of an ideal BE gas allow concluding that, in contrast with the classical case, the volume per particle vanishes in the pure BE condensate phase precisely because the boson diameters are zero. Thus a BE condensate forms in real space without exhibiting a liquid branch as does the classical gas. (Author)

  1. Real Space Approach to CMB deboosting

    CERN Document Server

    Yoho, Amanda; Starkman, Glenn D.; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of our Galaxy's motion through the Cosmic Microwave Background rest frame, which aberrates and Doppler shifts incoming photons measured by current CMB experiments, has been shown to produce mode-mixing in the multipole space temperature coefficients. However, multipole space determinations are subject to many difficulties, and a real-space analysis can provide a straightforward alternative. In this work we describe a numerical method for removing Lorentz- boost effects from real-space temperature maps. We show that to deboost a map so that one can accurately extract the temperature power spectrum requires calculating the boost kernel at a finer pixelization than one might naively expect. In idealized cases that allow for easy comparison to analytic results, we have confirmed that there is indeed mode mixing among the spherical harmonic coefficients of the temperature. We find that using a boost kernel calculated at Nside=8192 leads to a 1% bias in the binned boosted power spectrum at l~2000, while ...

  2. Tourism in Real and Virtual Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Dehghan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During these two decades, according to the expansion of communication, there is a deep transformation in individuals’ conception of space. As space plays an important role in tourism, either real or virtual, this transformation happens in the field too. The present study attempts to show how tourism in the contemporary virtualized world, or as some authors name: the dual globalized situation, occurs.

  3. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  4. Asynchronous communication in real space process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Bergstra, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A version of classical real space process algebra is given in which messages travel with constant speed through a three-dimensional medium. It follows that communication is asynchronous and has a broadcasting character. A state operator is used to describe asynchronous message transfer and a

  5. Asynchronous communication in real space process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Baeten, J.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    A version of classical real space process algebra is given in which messages travel with constant speed through a three-dimensional medium. It follows that communication is asynchronous and has a broadcasting character. A state operator is used to describe asynchronous message transfer and a

  6. Spaces an introduction to real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lindstrøm, Tom L

    2017-01-01

    Spaces is a modern introduction to real analysis at the advanced undergraduate level. It is forward-looking in the sense that it first and foremost aims to provide students with the concepts and techniques they need in order to follow more advanced courses in mathematical analysis and neighboring fields. The only prerequisites are a solid understanding of calculus and linear algebra. Two introductory chapters will help students with the transition from computation-based calculus to theory-based analysis. The main topics covered are metric spaces, spaces of continuous functions, normed spaces, differentiation in normed spaces, measure and integration theory, and Fourier series. Although some of the topics are more advanced than what is usually found in books of this level, care is taken to present the material in a way that is suitable for the intended audience: concepts are carefully introduced and motivated, and proofs are presented in full detail. Applications to differential equations and Fourier analysis ...

  7. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  8. The real meaning of complex Minkowski-space world-lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, T M [University of Oxford, Mathematical Institute, 24-29 St Giles, Oxford, OX1 3LB (United Kingdom); Newman, E T, E-mail: newman@pitt.ed [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2010-04-07

    In connection with the study of shear-free null geodesics in Minkowski space, we investigate the real geometric effects in real Minkowski space that are induced by and associated with complex world-lines in complex Minkowski space. It was already known, in a formal manner, that complex analytic curves in complex Minkowski space induce shear-free null geodesic congruences. Here we look at the direct geometric connections of the complex line and the real structures. Among other items, we show, in particular, how a complex world-line projects into the real Minkowski space in the form of a real shear-free null geodesic congruence.

  9. The real meaning of complex Minkowski-space world-lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, T M; Newman, E T

    2010-01-01

    In connection with the study of shear-free null geodesics in Minkowski space, we investigate the real geometric effects in real Minkowski space that are induced by and associated with complex world-lines in complex Minkowski space. It was already known, in a formal manner, that complex analytic curves in complex Minkowski space induce shear-free null geodesic congruences. Here we look at the direct geometric connections of the complex line and the real structures. Among other items, we show, in particular, how a complex world-line projects into the real Minkowski space in the form of a real shear-free null geodesic congruence.

  10. Asynchronous communication in real space process algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Baeten, JCM Jos; Bergstra, JA Jan

    1990-01-01

    A version of classical real space process algebra is given in which messages travel with constant speed through a three-dimensional medium. It follows that communication is asynchronous and has a broadcasting character. A state operator is used to describe asynchronous message transfer and a priority mechanism allows to express the broadcasting mechanism. As an application, a protocol is specified in which the receiver moves with respect to the sender.

  11. Real time animation of space plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.F.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images

  12. Polynomials and identities on real Banach spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr Pavel; Kraus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 385, č. 2 (2012), s. 1015-1026 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/0345 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Polynomials on Banach spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.050, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X11006743

  13. Real Options Analysis of Mining Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Zdravlje

    2011-01-01

    When long life assets are being evaluated based on constant predictions of future variables and the assumptions of zero management flexibility, is value being missed? In project evaluation today, the most common evaluation methods that calculate a net present value are discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis, decision tree analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. A fourth method, which is beginning to gain ground in terms of its use in the mining industry, is real option analysis (ROA). ROA utilizes ...

  14. Success and fail factors in sustainable real estate renovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability remains an important issue for the construction industry. Yet, sustainable real estate developments are still considered as highly ambitious projects. To find out how and why sustainable renovation projects actually became sustainable we systematically evaluated 21 leading Dutch real

  15. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to extend current ground-based Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool to more effectively...

  16. Real-space mapping of electronic orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löffler, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.loeffler@tuwien.ac.at [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, L8S 4M1 Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); University Service Centre for Transmission Electron Microscopy, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E057B, 1040 Wien (Austria); Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E138, 1040 Wien (Austria); Bugnet, Matthieu; Gauquelin, Nicolas [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, L8S 4M1 Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Lazar, Sorin [FEI Electron Optics, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands); Assmann, Elias; Held, Karsten [Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E138, 1040 Wien (Austria); Botton, Gianluigi A. [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, L8S 4M1 Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Schattschneider, Peter [University Service Centre for Transmission Electron Microscopy, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E057B, 1040 Wien (Austria); Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E138, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Electronic orbitals in Rutile are mapped using STEM-EELS. • Inelastic scattering simulations are performed for the experimental conditions. • The experiments and the simulations are found to be in excellent agreement. - Abstract: Electronic states are responsible for most material properties, including chemical bonds, electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as optical and magnetic properties. Experimentally, however, they remain mostly elusive. Here, we report the real-space mapping of selected transitions between p and d states on the Ångström scale in bulk rutile (TiO{sub 2}) using electron energy-loss spectrometry (EELS), revealing information on individual bonds between atoms. On the one hand, this enables the experimental verification of theoretical predictions about electronic states. On the other hand, it paves the way for directly investigating electronic states under conditions that are at the limit of the current capabilities of numerical simulations such as, e.g., the electronic states at defects, interfaces, and quantum dots.

  17. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    This issue is dedicated to Karl-Heinz Rieder on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It contains contributions written by his former students and colleagues from all over the world. Experimental techniques based on free electrons, such as photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy and low energy electron diffraction (LEED), were foundational to surface science. While the first revealed the band structures of materials, the second provided nanometer scale imagery and the latter elucidated the atomic scale periodicity of surfaces. All required an (ultra-)high vacuum, and LEED illustrated impressively that adsorbates, such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen or oxygen, can markedly and periodically restructure surfaces from their bulk termination, even at pressures ten orders of magnitude or more below atmospheric. Yet these techniques were not generally able to reveal atomic scale surface defects, nor could they faithfully show adsorption of light atoms such as hydrogen. Although a complete atom, helium can also be regarded as a wave with a de Broglie wavelength that allows the study of surface atomic periodicities at a delicateness and sensitivity exceeding that of electrons-based techniques. In combination, these and other techniques generated insight into the periodicity of surfaces and their vibrational properties, yet were limited to simple and periodic surface setups. All that changed with the advent of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) roughly 30 years ago, allowing real space access to surface defects and individual adsorbates. Applied at low temperatures, not only can STM establish a height profile of surfaces, but can also perform spectroscopy and serve as an actuator capable of rearranging individual species at atomic scale resolution. The direct and intuitive manner in which STM provided access as a spectator and as an actor to the atomic scale was foundational to today's surface science and to the development of the concepts of nanoscience in general. The

  18. Equivalences of real submanifolds in complex space.

    OpenAIRE

    ZAITSEV, DMITRI

    2001-01-01

    PUBLISHED We show that for any real-analytic submanifold M in CN there is a proper real-analytic subvariety V contained in M such that for any p ? M \\ V , any real-analytic submanifold M? in CN, and any p? ? M?, the germs of the submanifolds M and M? at p and p? respectively are formally equivalent if and only if they are biholomorphically equivalent. More general results for k-equivalences are also stated and proved.

  19. Life sciences space biology project planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, G.; Newkirk, K.; Miller, L.; Lewis, G.; Michaud, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Life Sciences Space Biology (LSSB) research will explore the effect of microgravity on humans, including the physiological, clinical, and sociological implications of space flight and the readaptations upon return to earth. Physiological anomalies from past U.S. space flights will be used in planning the LSSB project.The planning effort integrates science and engineering. Other goals of the LSSB project include the provision of macroscopic view of the earth's biosphere, and the development of spinoff technology for application on earth.

  20. Banach spaces with projectional skeletons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 2 (2009), s. 758-776 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : projection * projectional skeleton * norming set Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2009

  1. Real variables with basic metric space topology

    CERN Document Server

    Ash, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Designed for a first course in real variables, this text presents the fundamentals for more advanced mathematical work, particularly in the areas of complex variables, measure theory, differential equations, functional analysis, and probability. Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics, it is also appropriate for students of engineering, physics, and economics who seek an understanding of real analysis.The author encourages an intuitive approach to problem solving and offers concrete examples, diagrams, and geometric or physical interpretations of results. Deta

  2. Valuing of research project in energy field with real options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Blasio, N.; Marzo, G.; Turatto, R.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an application of real options theory for valuing a research project in the field of stranded gas valorisation. After a presentation of the theory, the analysis addresses the use of real options evaluation for generating alternative pathways in order to add new value to the R D projects. It also shows how real option approach may be important for selecting among competitive projects, but also for providing a system for valorisation of decision-maker flexibility [it

  3. Live from Space Station Learning Technologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Live From Space Station (LFSS) project under the Learning Technologies Project FY 2001 of the MSFC Education Programs Department. AZ Technology, Inc. (AZTek) has developed and implemented science education software tools to support tasks under the LTP program. Initial audience consisted of 26 TreK in the Classroom schools and thousands of museum visitors to the International Space Station: The Earth Tour exhibit sponsored by Discovery Place museum.

  4. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  5. Real-variable theory of Musielak-Orlicz Hardy spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Dachun; Ky, Luong Dang

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to give a detailed and complete survey of recent progress related to the real-variable theory of Musielak–Orlicz Hardy-type function spaces, and to lay the foundations for further applications. The real-variable theory of function spaces has always been at the core of harmonic analysis. Recently, motivated by certain questions in analysis, some more general Musielak–Orlicz Hardy-type function spaces were introduced. These spaces are defined via growth functions which may vary in both the spatial variable and the growth variable. By selecting special growth functions, the resulting spaces may have subtler and finer structures, which are necessary in order to solve various endpoint or sharp problems. This book is written for graduate students and researchers interested in function spaces and, in particular, Hardy-type spaces.

  6. Activities of NICT space weather project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  7. Uranium mill tailings remedial action project real estate management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This plan summarizes the real estate requirements of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Action (UMTRA) Project, identifies the roles and responsibilities of project participants involved in real estate activities, and describes the approaches used for completing these requirements. This document is intended to serve as a practical guide for all project participants. It is intended to be consistent with all formal agreements, but if a conflict is identified, the formal agreements will take precedence

  8. Uranium mill tailings remedial action project real estate management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This plan summarizes the real estate requirements of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Action (UMTRA) Project, identifies the roles and responsibilities of project participants involved in real estate activities, and describes the approaches used for completing these requirements. This document is intended to serve as a practical guide for all project participants. It is intended to be consistent with all formal agreements, but if a conflict is identified, the formal agreements will take precedence.

  9. Projective loop quantum gravity. I. State space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over one big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Kijowski to describe quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces. Beside the physical motivations for this approach, it could help designing a quantum state space holding the states we need. In a latter work by Okolów, the description of a theory of Abelian connections within this framework was developed, an important insight being to use building blocks labeled by combinations of edges and surfaces. The present work generalizes this construction to an arbitrary gauge group G (in particular, G is neither assumed to be Abelian nor compact). This involves refining the definition of the label set, as well as deriving explicit formulas to relate the Hilbert spaces attached to different labels. If the gauge group happens to be compact, we also have at our disposal the well-established Ashtekar-Lewandowski Hilbert space, which is defined as an inductive limit using building blocks labeled by edges only. We then show that the quantum state space presented here can be thought as a natural extension of the space of density matrices over this Hilbert space. In addition, it is manifest from the classical counterparts of both formalisms that the projective approach allows for a more balanced treatment of the holonomy and flux variables, so it might pave the way for the development of more satisfactory coherent states.

  10. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

  11. Comparative study of standard space and real space analysis of quantitative MR brain data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Benjamin S; He, Jiabao; Blamire, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    To compare the robustness of region of interest (ROI) analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain data in real space with analysis in standard space and to test the hypothesis that standard space image analysis introduces more partial volume effect errors compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Twenty healthy adults with no history or evidence of neurological diseases were recruited; high-resolution T(1)-weighted, quantitative T(1), and B(0) field-map measurements were collected. Algorithms were implemented to perform analysis in real and standard space and used to apply a simple standard ROI template to quantitative T(1) datasets. Regional relaxation values and histograms for both gray and white matter tissues classes were then extracted and compared. Regional mean T(1) values for both gray and white matter were significantly lower using real space compared to standard space analysis. Additionally, regional T(1) histograms were more compact in real space, with smaller right-sided tails indicating lower partial volume errors compared to standard space analysis. Standard space analysis of quantitative MRI brain data introduces more partial volume effect errors biasing the analysis of quantitative data compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  13. Design methodology and projects for space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S.; Kleespies, H.; Wood, K.; Crawford, R.

    1993-01-01

    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design course of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, consisting of a design methodology course and a capstone design course. The philosophical basis of this sequence is briefly summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper concludes with a description of the projects completed during the 1991-92 academic year and the ongoing projects for the Fall 1992 semester.

  14. NASA rocket launches student project into space

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    A project that began in 2002 will culminate at sunrise on Tuesday, March 15, when a team of Virginia Tech engineering students watch a payload section they designed lift off aboard a sounding rocket from a launch pad at NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility and travel 59 miles into space.

  15. Interactive Space(s) -- the CTSG: bridging the real and virtual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eliëns, A.P.W.; Mao, W.; Vermeersch, L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, ideas will be presented how to realize games or playful activities in interactive space(s), having a real (spatial) component as well as a representation in virtual 2D or 3D space, by means of web pages and/or online games. Apart from general design criteria, the paper discusses a

  16. Real options and volume uncertainty by field development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekern, S.; Stensland, G.

    1993-12-01

    The report concerns a study on the use of option methodology in field development projects. The report shows how the value of flexibility in the different decision processes is to be found by means of real option methodology. Particular attention is laid on the uncertainty concerning the volume of reserves and production capacity. The results from the study were based on the research project dubbed ''Use of real options in field development projects''. The project is partially connected to another project dubbed ''Decisive behaviour and alternative action under uncertainty in the petroleum sector''. Main topics cover as follow: Example with volume uncertainty; real options and volume uncertainty; gradual disclosure of uncertainty in the production; value of flexible production equipment. 33 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs

  17. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  18. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  19. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects

  20. The NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Bennett, William R.; Lvovich, Vadim F.; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project is to develop advanced, game changing technologies that will provide future NASA space exploration missions with safe, reliable, light weight and compact power generation and energy storage systems. The development effort is focused on maturing the technologies from a technology readiness level of approximately 23 to approximately 56 as defined in the NASA Procedural Requirement 7123.1B. Currently, the project is working on two critical technology areas: High specific energy batteries, and regenerative fuel cell systems with passive fluid management. Examples of target applications for these technologies are: extending the duration of extravehicular activities (EVA) with high specific energy and energy density batteries; providing reliable, long-life power for rovers with passive fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems that enable reduced system complexity. Recent results from the high energy battery and regenerative fuel cell technology development efforts will be presented. The technical approach, the key performance parameters and the technical results achieved to date in each of these new elements will be included. The Advanced Space Power Systems Project is part of the Game Changing Development Program under NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  1. Pascal’s Theorem in Real Projective Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2017-01-01

    In this article we check, with the Mizar system [2], Pascal’s theorem in the real projective plane (in projective geometry Pascal’s theorem is also known as the Hexagrammum Mysticum Theorem)1. Pappus’ theorem is a special case of a degenerate conic of two lines.

  2. Pascal’s Theorem in Real Projective Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we check, with the Mizar system [2], Pascal’s theorem in the real projective plane (in projective geometry Pascal’s theorem is also known as the Hexagrammum Mysticum Theorem1. Pappus’ theorem is a special case of a degenerate conic of two lines.

  3. Real-space renormalization group approach to driven diffusive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanney, T [SUPA and School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Stinchcombe, R B [Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-24

    We introduce a real-space renormalization group procedure for driven diffusive systems which predicts both steady state and dynamic properties. We apply the method to the boundary driven asymmetric simple exclusion process and recover exact results for the steady state phase diagram, as well as the crossovers in the relaxation dynamics for each phase.

  4. Real-space renormalization group approach to driven diffusive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanney, T; Stinchcombe, R B

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a real-space renormalization group procedure for driven diffusive systems which predicts both steady state and dynamic properties. We apply the method to the boundary driven asymmetric simple exclusion process and recover exact results for the steady state phase diagram, as well as the crossovers in the relaxation dynamics for each phase

  5. Renormalization group in statistical physics - momentum and real spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    Two variants of the renormalization group approach in statistical physics are considered, the renormalization group in the momentum and the renormalization group in the real spaces. Common properties of these methods and their differences are cleared up. A simple model for investigating the crossover between different universality classes is suggested. 27 refs

  6. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    OpenAIRE

    Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identific...

  7. Project Mercury: NASA's first manned space programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, John

    Project Mercury will offer a developmental resume of the first American manned spaceflight programme and its associated infrastructure, including accounts of space launch vehicles. The book highlights the differences in Redstone/Atlas technology, drawing similar comparisons between ballistic capsules and alternative types of spacecraft. The book also covers astronaut selection and training, as well as tracking systems, flight control, basic principles of spaceflight and detailed accounts of individual flights.

  8. Projection x-space magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Patrick W; Konkle, Justin J; Zheng, Bo; Saritas, Emine U; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-05-01

    Projection magnetic particle imaging (MPI) can improve imaging speed by over 100-fold over traditional 3-D MPI. In this work, we derive the 2-D x-space signal equation, 2-D image equation, and introduce the concept of signal fading and resolution loss for a projection MPI imager. We then describe the design and construction of an x-space projection MPI scanner with a field gradient of 2.35 T/m across a 10 cm magnet free bore. The system has an expected resolution of 3.5 × 8.0 mm using Resovist tracer, and an experimental resolution of 3.8 × 8.4 mm resolution. The system images 2.5 cm × 5.0 cm partial field-of views (FOVs) at 10 frames/s, and acquires a full field-of-view of 10 cm × 5.0 cm in 4 s. We conclude by imaging a resolution phantom, a complex "Cal" phantom, mice injected with Resovist tracer, and experimentally confirm the theoretically predicted x-space spatial resolution.

  9. The Real Options Attached to an Investment Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Cristian DINICĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The real options capture the importance of the managerial team’s role in creating value through investment projects. The investments in real assets have a set of options that managers can exercise during the period of the project to increase the value of the assets or to limit the eventual losses. This options have their own value.The traditional methods for investment project evaluatioan, based on discounted cash flows, have some major disadvantages: they assume the irreversibility of a decision, do not take into account the interactions between decisions in several periods and treat the investment as pasive. The evaluation using real options undertake this disadvantage. The paper shows the main types of real options, together with their elements and captures the impact of these options on the value of the investment. The main two models used to evaluate real options, the binomial model and Black-Scholes model, are explained and used to compute the value of real options attached to an investment project.

  10. Girls InSpace project: A new space physics outreach initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe Pacini, A.; Tegbaru, D.; Max, A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    We present here the concept and state-of-art of the new space physics youth education and outreach initiative called "Girls InSpace project". The project goal is to spread quality scientific information to underrepresented groups, motivate girls in STEM and promote gender equality in the Space Physics area. Initially, the "Girls InSpace project" will be available in two languages (Portuguese and English) aiming to reach out to the youth of Brazil, United States, Nigeria, South Africa, Ethiopia and Angola. Eventually, the material will be translated to French and Spanish, focusing on French-speaking countries in Africa and Latin America. The project spans a collection of four books about a group of young girls and their adventures (always related to the sky and simultaneously introducing earth and space science concepts). Ancillary content such as a webpage, mobile applications and lesson plans are also in development. The books were written by a Space Physicist PhD woman, illustrated by a Brazilian young artist and commented by senior female scientists, creating positive role models for the next generation of girls in STEM. The story lines were drawn around the selected topics of astronomy and space physics, introducing scientific information to the target readers (girls from 8-13 years old) and enhancing their curiosity and critical thinking. The books instill the readers to explore the available extra web-content (with images, videos, interviews with scientists, real space data, coding and deeper scientific information) and game apps (with Virtual Reality components and real space images). Moreover, for teachers K-12, a collection of lesson plans will be made available, aiming to facilitate scientific content discussed in the books and inside classroom environments. Gender bias in STEM reported earlier this year in Nature and based on a study of the American Geophysical Union's member database showed a competitive disadvantage for women in the Earth and Space

  11. Flexibility and Project Value: Interactions and Multiple Real Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čulík, Miroslav

    2010-06-01

    This paper is focused on a project valuation with embedded portfolio of real options including their interactions. Valuation is based on the criterion of Net Present Value on the simulation basis. Portfolio includes selected types of European-type real options: option to expand, contract, abandon and temporarily shut down and restart a project. Due to the fact, that in reality most of the managerial flexibility takes the form of portfolio of real options, selected types of options are valued not only individually, but also in combination. The paper is structured as follows: first, diffusion models for forecasting of output prices and variable costs are derived. Second, project value is estimated on the assumption, that no real options are present. Next, project value is calculated with the presence of selected European-type options; these options and their impact on project value are valued first in isolation and consequently in different combinations. Moreover, intrinsic value evolution of given real options with respect to the time of exercising is analysed. In the end, results are presented graphically; selected statistics and risk measures (Value at Risk, Expected Shortfall) of the NPV's distributions are calculated and commented.

  12. Project LAUNCH: Bringing Space into Math and Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauerbach, M.; Henry, D. P.; Schmidt, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Project LAUNCH is a K-12 teacher professional development program, which has been created in collaboration between the Whitaker Center for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education at Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU), and the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI). Utilizing Space as the overarching theme it is designed to improve mathematics and science teaching, using inquiry based, hands-on teaching practices, which are aligned with Florida s Sunshine State Standards. Many students are excited about space exploration and it provides a great venue to get them involved in science and mathematics. The scope of Project LAUNCH however goes beyond just providing competency in the subject area, as pedagogy is also an intricate part of the project. Participants were introduced to the Conceptual Change Model (CCM) [1] as a framework to model good teaching practices. As the CCM closely follows what scientists call the scientific process, this teaching method is also useful to actively engage institute participants ,as well as their students, in real science. Project LAUNCH specifically targets teachers in low performing, high socioeconomic schools, where the need for skilled teachers is most critical.

  13. The ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, A.; Hilgers, A.; Daly, E.

    Following the completion in 2001 of two parallel studies to consider the feasibility of a European Space Weather Programme ESA embarked upon a space weather pilot study with the goal of prototyping European space weather services and assessing the overall market for such within Europe This pilot project centred on a number of targeted service development activities supported by a common infrastructure and making use of only existing space weather assets Each service activity included clear participation from at least one identified service user who was requested to provide initial requirements and regular feedback during the operational phase of the service These service activities are now reaching the end of their 2-year development and testing phase and are now accessible each with an element of the service in the public domain see http www esa-spaceweathet net swenet An additional crucial element of the study was the inclusion of a comprehensive and independent analysis of the benefits both economic and strategic of embarking on a programme which would include the deployment of an infrastructure with space-based elements The results of this study will be reported together with their implication for future coordinated European activities in this field

  14. Near real-time geomagnetic data for space weather applications in the European sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, M. G.; Hansen, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO) is responsible for making and maintaining long time-series of geomagnetic measurements in Norway. TGO is currently operating 3 geomagnetic observatories and 11 variometer stations from southern Norway to Svalbard . Data from these 14 locations are acquired, processed and made available for the user community in near real-time. TGO is participating in several European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA) space weather related projects where both near real-time data and derived products are provided. In addition the petroleum industry is benefiting from our real-time data services for directional drilling. Near real-time data from TGO is freely available for non-commercial purposes. TGO is exchanging data in near real-time with several institutions, enabling the presentation of near real-time geomagnetic data from more than 40 different locations in Fennoscandia and Greenland. The open exchange of non real-time geomagnetic data has been successfully going on for many years through services such as the world data center in Kyoto, SuperMAG, IMAGE and SPIDR. TGO's vision is to take this one step further and make the exchange of near real-time geomagnetic data equally available for the whole community. This presentation contains an overview of TGO, our activities and future aims. We will show how our near real-time data are presented. Our contribution to the space weather forecasting and nowcasting effort in the EU and ESA will be presented with emphasis on our real-time auroral activity index and brand new auroral activity monitor and electrojet tracker.

  15. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Toylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.

  16. Space Sciences Education and Outreach Project of Moscow State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasotkin, S.

    2006-11-01

    sergekras@mail.ru The space sciences education and outreach project was initiated at Moscow State University in order to incorporate modern space research into the curriculum popularize the basics of space physics, and enhance public interest in space exploration. On 20 January 2005 the first Russian University Satellite “Universitetskiy-Tatyana” was launched into circular polar orbit (inclination 83 deg., altitude 940-980 km). The onboard scientific complex “Tatyana“, as well as the mission control and information receiving centre, was designed and developed at Moscow State University. The scientific programme of the mission includes measurements of space radiation in different energy channels and Earth UV luminosity and lightning. The current education programme consists of basic multimedia lectures “Life of the Earth in the Solar Atmosphere” and computerized practice exercises “Space Practice” (based on the quasi-real-time data obtained from “Universitetskiy-Tatyana” satellite and other Internet resources). A multimedia lectures LIFE OF EARTH IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE containing the basic information and demonstrations of heliophysics (including Sun structure and solar activity, heliosphere and geophysics, solar-terrestrial connections and solar influence on the Earth’s life) was created for upper high-school and junior university students. For the upper-university students there a dozen special computerized hands-on exercises were created based on the experimental quasi-real-time data obtained from our satellites. Students specializing in space physics from a few Russian universities are involved in scientific work. Educational materials focus on upper high school, middle university and special level for space physics students. Moscow State University is now extending its space science education programme by creating multimedia lectures on remote sensing, space factors and materials study, satellite design and development, etc. The space

  17. Thermal expansion of an amorphous alloy. Reciprocal-space versus real-space distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the relation between the change in the position of the first X-ray diffraction maximum in reciprocal space and the first maximum of the distribution function in real space for the Ge 50 Al 40 Cr 10 amorphous alloy. It is also shown that the first diffraction maximum of the interference function carries the most significant information about the interatomic distances in real space while the subsequent peaks of the interference function are responsible for the shoulders of the main peak of the real-space distribution function. The results are used to support validity of the method previously used to monitor thermal expansion of the glassy alloys using an X-ray diffraction profile

  18. Superconformal compactifications in weighted projective space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss some aspects of string vacua constructed from orbifolded nonminimal Landau-Ginzburg theories which correspond to Calabi-Yau manifolds in weighted projective space. In contrast to previous expectations, we find that these theories allow for the construction of numerous stable (2, 0) Calabi-Yau vacua (most of which are not simply deformations of an underlying (2, 2) theory) thus indicating that this phenomenologically promising sector of the space of classical vacua is quite robust. We briefly discuss methods for extracting the phenomenology of these models and show, for example, that the full renormalizable superpotential of our SU(5) theories is not corrected by world sheet instantons and is thus given exactly by its tree-level value. (orig.)

  19. VLBI2010 in NASA's Space Geodesy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chopo

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 20 11 NASA approved the proposal for the Space Geodesy Project (SGP). A major element is developing at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory a prototype of the next generation of integrated stations with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS instruments as well as a system for monitoring the vector ties. VLBI2010 is a key component of the integrated station. The objectives ofSGP, the role of VLBI20 lOin the context of SGP, near term plans and possible future scenarios will be discussed.

  20. Vector bundles on complex projective spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Okonek, Christian; Spindler, Heinz

    1980-01-01

    This expository treatment is based on a survey given by one of the authors at the Séminaire Bourbaki in November 1978 and on a subsequent course held at the University of Göttingen. It is intended to serve as an introduction to the topical question of classification of holomorphic vector bundles on complex projective spaces, and can easily be read by students with a basic knowledge of analytic or algebraic geometry. Short supplementary sections describe more advanced topics, further results, and unsolved problems.

  1. On Rationality of Moduli Spaces of Vector Bundles on Real ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let be a real form of a Hirzebruch surface. Let M H ( r , c 1 , c 2 ) be the moduli space of vector bundles on . Under some numerical conditions on r , c 1 and c 2 , we identify those M H ( r , c 1 , c 2 ) that are rational. Author Affiliations. Indranil Biswas1 Ronnie Sebastian2. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of ...

  2. Real space renormalization group for spectra and density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecko, C.; Roman, E.

    1984-09-01

    We discuss the implementation of the Real Space Renormalization Group Decimation Technique for 1-d tight-binding models with long range interactions with or without disorder and for the 2-d regular square lattice. The procedure follows the ideas developed by Southern et al. Some new explicit formulae are included. The purpose of this study is to calculate spectra and densities of states following the procedure developed in our previous work. (author)

  3. On the projective curvature tensor of generalized Sasakian-space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    space-forms under some conditions regarding projective curvature tensor. All the results obtained in this paper are in the form of necessary and sufficient conditions. Keywords: Generalized Sasakian-space-forms; projectively flat; ...

  4. The pairing theory of polarons in real- and impulse spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Abboudy, S.; Baratov, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    A consistent pairing theory of carriers in real- and impulse spaces is developed. The pairing of different free (F), delocalized (D) and self-trapped (S) carriers in real-space, leading to the formation of various bipolaronic states are considered within the continuum model and adiabatic approximation taking into account the combined effect of the short- and long-range components of electron-lattice interaction with and without electron correlation. The formation possibility of D- and S-bipolarons as a function of ε ∞ /ε 0 are shown. The pairing scenarios of carriers in k-space leading to the formation of different bipolarons (including also Cooper pairs dynamic bipolarons) are considered within the generalized BCS-like model taking into account the combined phonon and polaron-bag mediated processes. It is shown that the pure BCS pairing picture is the particular case of the general BCS-like one. The possible relevance of the obtained results to high-T c superconductors is discussed in details in the framework of a novel two-stage Fermi-Bose-liquid scenarios of superconductivity which is caused by single particle and pair condensation of an attracting bipolarons. (author). 51 refs, 6 figs

  5. Real analysis measure theory, integration, and Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2005-01-01

    Real Analysis is the third volume in the Princeton Lectures in Analysis, a series of four textbooks that aim to present, in an integrated manner, the core areas of analysis. Here the focus is on the development of measure and integration theory, differentiation and integration, Hilbert spaces, and Hausdorff measure and fractals. This book reflects the objective of the series as a whole: to make plain the organic unity that exists between the various parts of the subject, and to illustrate the wide applicability of ideas of analysis to other fields of mathematics and science. After

  6. Modeling solvation effects in real-space and real-time within density functional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alain [Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy); Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Calle 30 # 502, 11300 La Habana (Cuba); Corni, Stefano; Pittalis, Stefano; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea [Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2015-10-14

    The Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT) to simulate the electronic and optical properties of molecules and nanoparticles immersed in a dielectric environment, typically liquid solvents. In this contribution, we develop a methodology to account for solvation effects in real-space (and real-time) (TD)DFT calculations. The boundary elements method is used to calculate the solvent reaction potential in terms of the apparent charges that spread over the van der Waals solute surface. In a real-space representation, this potential may exhibit a Coulomb singularity at grid points that are close to the cavity surface. We propose a simple approach to regularize such singularity by using a set of spherical Gaussian functions to distribute the apparent charges. We have implemented the proposed method in the OCTOPUS code and present results for the solvation free energies and solvatochromic shifts for a representative set of organic molecules in water.

  7. Real-space imaging of fractional quantum Hall liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Junichiro; Muraki, Koji; Yusa, Go

    2013-01-01

    Electrons in semiconductors usually behave like a gas--as independent particles. However, when confined to two dimensions under a perpendicular magnetic field at low temperatures, they condense into an incompressible quantum liquid. This phenomenon, known as the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect, is a quantum-mechanical manifestation of the macroscopic behaviour of correlated electrons that arises when the Landau-level filling factor is a rational fraction. However, the diverse microscopic interactions responsible for its emergence have been hidden by its universality and macroscopic nature. Here, we report real-space imaging of FQH liquids, achieved with polarization-sensitive scanning optical microscopy using trions (charged excitons) as a local probe for electron spin polarization. When the FQH ground state is spin-polarized, the triplet/singlet intensity map exhibits a spatial pattern that mirrors the intrinsic disorder potential, which is interpreted as a mapping of compressible and incompressible electron liquids. In contrast, when FQH ground states with different spin polarization coexist, domain structures with spontaneous quasi-long-range order emerge, which can be reproduced remarkably well from the disorder patterns using a two-dimensional random-field Ising model. Our results constitute the first reported real-space observation of quantum liquids in a class of broken symmetry state known as the quantum Hall ferromagnet.

  8. Scientific projection paper for space radiobiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinograd, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    A nationale for the radiobiological research requirements for space is rooted in a national commitment to the exploration of space, mandated in the form of the National Space Act. This research is almost entirely centered on man; more specifically, on the effects of the space radiation environment on man and his protection from them. The research needs discussed in this presentation include the space radiation environment; dosimetry; radiation biology-high LET particles (dose/response); and operational countermeasures

  9. UNH Project SMART 2017: Space Science for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Goelzer, S.; Levergood, R.; Lugaz, N.; Moebius, E.

    2017-12-01

    Every summer for the past 26 years the University of New Hampshire (UNH) has run a month-long, residential outreach program for high school students considering careers in mathematics, science, or engineering. Space science is one of the modules. Students work directly with UNH faculty performing original work with real spacecraft data and hardware and present the results of that effort at the end of the program. This year the student research projects used data from the Messenger, STEREO, and Triana missions. In addition, the students build and fly a high-altitude balloon payload with instruments of their own construction. Students learn circuit design and construction, microcontroller programming, and core atmospheric and space science along with fundamental concepts in space physics and engineering. Our payload design has evolved significantly since the first flight of a simple rectangular box and now involves a stable descent vehicle that does not require a parachute. Our flight hardware includes an on-board flight control computer, in-flight autonomous control and data acquisition of multiple student-built instruments, and real-time camera images sent to ground. This year we developed, built and flew a successful line cutter based on GPS location information that prevents our payload from falling into the ocean while also separating the payload from the balloon remains for a cleaner descent. We will describe that new line cutter design and implementation along with the shielded Geiger counters that we flew as part of our cosmic ray air shower experiment. This is a program that can be used as a model for other schools to follow and that high schools can initiate. More information can be found at .

  10. Using NASA Data in the Classroom: Promoting STEM Learning in Formal Education using Real Space Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, B.; Hemenway, M. K.; Mendez, B.; Odenwald, S.

    2013-04-01

    Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provides formal educators the opportunity to teach their students real-world applications of the STEM subjects. Combining real space science data with lessons aimed at meeting state and national education standards provides a memorable educational experience that students can build upon throughout their academic careers. Many of our colleagues have adopted the use of real data in their education and public outreach (EPO) programs. There are challenges in creating resources using real data for classroom use that include, but are not limited to, accessibility to computers/Internet and proper instruction. Understanding and sharing these difficulties and best practices with the larger EPO community is critical to the development of future resources. In this session, we highlight three examples of how NASA data is being utilized in the classroom: the Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET) that utilizes real Hubble Space Telescope data; the computer image-analysis resources utilized by the NASA WISE infrared mission; and the space science derived math applications from SpaceMath@NASA featuring the Chandra and Kepler space telescopes. Challenges and successes are highlighted for these projects. We also facilitate small-group discussions that focus on additional benefits and challenges of using real data in the formal education environment. The report-outs from those discussions are given here.

  11. Real space multiple scattering description of alloy phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.E.A.; Sluiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the advanced methodology which has been recently developed to study phase stability properties of substitutional alloys, including order-disorder phenomena and structural transformations. The approach is based on the real space version of the Generalized Perturbation Method first introduced by Ducastelle and Gautier, within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple scattering formulation of the Coherent Potential Approximation. Temperature effects are taken into account with a generalized meanfield approach, namely the Cluster Variation Method. The viability and the predictive power of such a scheme will be illustrated by a few examples, among them: the ground state properties of alloys, in particular the ordering tendencies for a series of equiatomic bcc-based alloys, the computation of alloy phase diagrams with the case of fcc and bcc-based Ni-Al alloys, the calculation of antiphase boundary energies and interfacial energies, and the stability of artificial ordered superlattices

  12. Oscillatory bistability of real-space transfer in semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do˙ttling, R.; Scho˙ll, E.

    1992-01-01

    Charge transport parallel to the layers of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure is studied theoretically. The heating of electrons by the applied electric field leads to real-space transfer of electrons from the GaAs into the adjacent AlxGa1-xAs layer. For sufficiently large dc bias, spontaneous periodic 100-GHz current oscillations, and bistability and hysteretic switching transitions between oscillatory and stationary states are predicted. We present a detailed investigation of complex bifurcation scenarios as a function of the bias voltage U0 and the load resistance RL. For large RL subcritical Hopf bifurcations and global bifurcations of limit cycles are displayed.

  13. Nonclassicality indicator for the real phase-space distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Parvin; Khademi, Siamak; Nasiri, Sadollah

    2010-01-01

    Benedict et al. and Kenfack et al. advocated nonclassicality indicators based on the measurement of negativity of the Wigner distribution functions. These indicators have some applications in quantum mechanics and quantum optics. In this paper we define a nonclassicality indicator in terms of the interference in phase space, which is applicable to some real distribution functions including those of Wigner. As a special case one may reproduce the previous results using our indicator for the Wigner distribution functions. This indicator is examined for cases of the Schroedinger cat state and the thermal states and the results are compared with those obtained by previous methods. It seems that the physical behavior of nonclassicality indicators originates in the uncertainty principle. This is shown by an onto correspondence between these indicators and the uncertainty principle.

  14. Space life sciences: Programs and projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    NASA space life science activities are outlined. Brief, general descriptions are given of research in the areas of biomedical research, space biology, closed loop life support systems, exobiology, and biospherics.

  15. Moduli spaces of convex projective structures on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, V. V.; Goncharov, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce explicit parametrisations of the moduli space of convex projective structures on surfaces, and show that the latter moduli space is identified with the higher Teichmüller space for defined in [V.V. Fock, A.B. Goncharov, Moduli spaces of local systems and higher Teichmüller theory, math.......AG/0311149]. We investigate the cluster structure of this moduli space, and define its quantum version....

  16. Real options methodology in public-private partnership projects valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PPP offers numerous benefits to both public and private partners in delivery of infrastructure projects. However this partnership also involves great risks which have to be adequately managed and mitigated. Private partners are especially sensitive to revenue risk, since they are mostly interested in the financial viability of the project. Thus they often expect public partners to provide some kind of risk-sharing mechanism in the form of Minimum Revenue Guarantees or abandonment options. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the real option of abandoning the project increases its value. Therefore the binominal option pricing model and risk-neutral probability approach have been implemented to price the European and American abandonment options for the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT toll road investment. The obtained results suggest that the project value with the American abandonment option is greater than with the European abandonment option, hence implying that American options offer greater flexibility and are more valuable for private partners. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179066 and III 42006

  17. In-Space Propulsion (346620) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technologies include, but are not limited to, electric and advanced chemical propulsion, propellantless propulsion such as aerocapture and solar sails, sample return...

  18. Projective invariants in a conformal finsler space - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.K.; Singh, M.P.

    1989-12-01

    The projective invariants in a conformal Finsler space have been studied in regard to certain tensor and scalar which are invariant under projective transformation in a Finsler space. They have been the subject of further investigation by the present authors. (author). 8 refs

  19. AMPS sciences objectives and philosophy. [Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas-in-Space project on Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will open a new era in the exploration of earth's near-space environment, where the weight and power capabilities of Spacelab and the ability to use man in real time add important new features. The Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas-in-Space project (AMPS) is conceived of as a facility where flexible core instruments can be flown repeatedly to perform different observations and experiments. The twin thrusts of remote sensing of the atmosphere below 120 km and active experiments on the space plasma are the major themes. They have broader implications in increasing our understanding of plasma physics and of energy conversion processes elsewhere in the universe.

  20. String cohomology groups of complex projective spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Iver; Bökstedt, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Let X be a space and write LX for its free loop space equipped with the action of the circle group T given by dilation. The equivariant cohomology H*(LXhT;Z/p) is a module over H*(BT;Z/p). We give a computation of this module when X=CPr for any positive integer r and any prime number p. The compu......Let X be a space and write LX for its free loop space equipped with the action of the circle group T given by dilation. The equivariant cohomology H*(LXhT;Z/p) is a module over H*(BT;Z/p). We give a computation of this module when X=CPr for any positive integer r and any prime number p...

  1. Real-space imaging of interfacial water with submolecular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Peking University Team

    2014-03-01

    Water/solid interfaces are vital to our daily lives and also a central theme across an incredibly wide range of scientific disciplines. Resolving the internal structure, i.e. the O-H directionality, of water molecules adsorbed on solid surfaces has been one of the key issues of water science yet remains challenging. Using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM), we report the submolecular-resolution imaging of individual water monomers and tetramers on NaCl(001) films supported by a Au(111) substrate at 5 K. The frontier molecular orbitals of adsorbed water were directly visualized, which allowed discriminating the orientation of the monomers and the H-bond directionality of the tetramers in real space. Comparison with ab initio density functional theory calculations reveals that the ability to access the orbital structures of water stems from the electronic decoupling effect provided by the NaCl films and the precisely tunable tip-water coupling. Supported by National Basic Research Programs of China and National Science Foundation of China.

  2. Aurorasaurus Database of Real-Time, Soft-Sensor Sourced Aurora Data for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, B.; MacDonald, E.; Heavner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is an innovative citizen science project focused on two fundamental objectives i.e., collecting real-time, ground-based signals of auroral visibility from citizen scientists (soft-sensors) and incorporating this new type of data into scientific investigations pertaining to aurora. The project has been live since the Fall of 2014, and as of Summer 2017, the database compiled approximately 12,000 observations (5295 direct reports and 6413 verified tweets). In this presentation, we will focus on demonstrating the utility of this robust science quality data for space weather research needs. These data scale with the size of the event and are well-suited to capture the largest, rarest events. Emerging state-of-the-art computational methods based on statistical inference such as machine learning frameworks and data-model integration methods can offer new insights that could potentially lead to better real-time assessment and space weather prediction when citizen science data are combined with traditional sources.

  3. Creating the Public Connection: Interactive Experiences with Real-Time Earth and Space Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Patricia H.; Ledley, Tamara S.; Sumners, Carolyn; Wyatt, Ryan

    1995-01-01

    The Houston Museum of Natural Sciences is less than two miles from Rice University, a major hub on the Internet. This project links these two institutions so that NASA real-time data and imagery can flow via Rice to the Museum where it reaches the public in the form of planetarium programs, computer based interactive kiosks, and space and Earth science problem solving simulation. Through this program at least 200,000 visitors annually (including every 4th and 7th grader in the Houston Independent School District) will have direct exposure to the Earth and space research being conducted by NASA and available over the Internet. Each information conduit established between Rice University and the Houston Museum of Natural Science will become a model for public information dissemination that can be replicated nationally in museums, planetariums, Challenger Centers, and schools.

  4. Space technology and robotics in school projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villias, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Space-related educational activities is a very inspiring and attractive way to involve students into science courses, present them the variety of STEM careers that they can follow, while giving them at the same time the opportunity to develop various practical and communication skills necessary for their future professional development. As part of a large scale extracurricular course in Space Science, Space Technology and Robotics that has been introduced in our school, our students, divided in smaller groups of 3-4 students in each, try to understand the challenges that current and future space exploration is facing. Following a mixture of an inquiry-based learning methodology and hands-on practical activities related with constructions and experiments, students get a glimpse of the pre-mentioned fields. Our main goal is to gain practical knowledge and inspiration from the exciting field of Space, to attain an adequate level of team spirit and effective cooperation, while developing technical and research data-mining skills. We use the following two approaches: 1. Constructive (Technical) approach Designing and constructing various customized robotic machines, that will simulate the future space exploration vehicles and satellites needed to study the atmosphere, surface and subsurface of planets, moons or other planetary bodies of our solar system that have shown some promising indications for the existence of life, taking seriously into account their special characteristics and known existing conditions (like Mars, Titan, Europa & Enceladus). The STEM tools we use are the following: - LEGO Mindstorms: to construct rovers for surface exploration. - Hydrobots: an MIT's SeaPerch program for the construction of submarine semi-autonomous robots. - CanSats: Arduino-based microsatellites able to receive, record & transmit data. - Space balloons: appropriate for high altitude atmospheric measurements & photography. 2. Scientific approach Conducting interesting physics

  5. Six-dimensional real and reciprocal space small-angle X-ray scattering tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Florian; Bech, Martin; Zaslansky, Paul; Jud, Christoph; Liebi, Marianne; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-11-19

    When used in combination with raster scanning, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has proven to be a valuable imaging technique of the nanoscale, for example of bone, teeth and brain matter. Although two-dimensional projection imaging has been used to characterize various materials successfully, its three-dimensional extension, SAXS computed tomography, poses substantial challenges, which have yet to be overcome. Previous work using SAXS computed tomography was unable to preserve oriented SAXS signals during reconstruction. Here we present a solution to this problem and obtain a complete SAXS computed tomography, which preserves oriented scattering information. By introducing virtual tomography axes, we take advantage of the two-dimensional SAXS information recorded on an area detector and use it to reconstruct the full three-dimensional scattering distribution in reciprocal space for each voxel of the three-dimensional object in real space. The presented method could be of interest for a combined six-dimensional real and reciprocal space characterization of mesoscopic materials with hierarchically structured features with length scales ranging from a few nanometres to a few millimetres--for example, biomaterials such as bone or teeth, or functional materials such as fuel-cell or battery components.

  6. The scientific data acquisition system of the GAMMA-400 space project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, S. G.; Serdin, O. V.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Topchiev, N. P.

    2016-02-01

    The description of scientific data acquisition system (SDAS) designed by SRISA for the GAMMA-400 space project is presented. We consider the problem of different level electronics unification: the set of reliable fault-tolerant integrated circuits fabricated on Silicon-on-Insulator 0.25 mkm CMOS technology and the high-speed interfaces and reliable modules used in the space instruments. The characteristics of reliable fault-tolerant very large scale integration (VLSI) technology designed by SRISA for the developing of computation systems for space applications are considered. The scalable net structure of SDAS based on Serial RapidIO interface including real-time operating system BAGET is described too.

  7. Study on the mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Song, Yong-Seon, E-mail: yizheng@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: ysong@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-01

    The mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space introduces the anisotropic property to the measured density power spectrum in redshift space, known as the redshift space distortion effect. The mapping formula is intrinsically non-linear, which is complicated by the higher order polynomials due to indefinite cross correlations between the density and velocity fields, and the Finger-of-God effect due to the randomness of the peculiar velocity field. Whilst the full higher order polynomials remain unknown, the other systematics can be controlled consistently within the same order truncation in the expansion of the mapping formula, as shown in this paper. The systematic due to the unknown non-linear density and velocity fields is removed by separately measuring all terms in the expansion directly using simulations. The uncertainty caused by the velocity randomness is controlled by splitting the FoG term into two pieces, 1) the ''one-point' FoG term being independent of the separation vector between two different points, and 2) the ''correlated' FoG term appearing as an indefinite polynomials which is expanded in the same order as all other perturbative polynomials. Using 100 realizations of simulations, we find that the Gaussian FoG function with only one scale-independent free parameter works quite well, and that our new mapping formulation accurately reproduces the observed 2-dimensional density power spectrum in redshift space at the smallest scales by far, up to k ∼ 0.2 Mpc{sup -1}, considering the resolution of future experiments.

  8. Study on the mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yi; Song, Yong-Seon

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space introduces the anisotropic property to the measured density power spectrum in redshift space, known as the redshift space distortion effect. The mapping formula is intrinsically non-linear, which is complicated by the higher order polynomials due to indefinite cross correlations between the density and velocity fields, and the Finger-of-God effect due to the randomness of the peculiar velocity field. Whilst the full higher order polynomials remain unknown, the other systematics can be controlled consistently within the same order truncation in the expansion of the mapping formula, as shown in this paper. The systematic due to the unknown non-linear density and velocity fields is removed by separately measuring all terms in the expansion directly using simulations. The uncertainty caused by the velocity randomness is controlled by splitting the FoG term into two pieces, 1) the ''one-point' FoG term being independent of the separation vector between two different points, and 2) the ''correlated' FoG term appearing as an indefinite polynomials which is expanded in the same order as all other perturbative polynomials. Using 100 realizations of simulations, we find that the Gaussian FoG function with only one scale-independent free parameter works quite well, and that our new mapping formulation accurately reproduces the observed 2-dimensional density power spectrum in redshift space at the smallest scales by far, up to k ∼ 0.2 Mpc -1 , considering the resolution of future experiments.

  9. The RMI Space Weather and Navigation Systems (SWANS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnant, Rene; Lejeune, Sandrine; Wautelet, Gilles; Spits, Justine; Stegen, Koen; Stankov, Stan

    The SWANS (Space Weather and Navigation Systems) research and development project (http://swans.meteo.be) is an initiative of the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) under the auspices of the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The RMI SWANS objectives are: research on space weather and its effects on GNSS applications; permanent mon-itoring of the local/regional geomagnetic and ionospheric activity; and development/operation of relevant nowcast, forecast, and alert services to help professional GNSS/GALILEO users in mitigating space weather effects. Several SWANS developments have already been implemented and available for use. The K-LOGIC (Local Operational Geomagnetic Index K Calculation) system is a nowcast system based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, data screening, and calculating the local geomagnetic K index. Simultaneously, the planetary Kp index is estimated from solar wind measurements, thus adding to the service reliability and providing forecast capabilities as well. A novel hybrid empirical model, based on these ground-and space-based observations, has been implemented for nowcasting and forecasting the geomagnetic index, issuing also alerts whenever storm-level activity is indicated. A very important feature of the nowcast/forecast system is the strict control on the data input and processing, allowing for an immediate assessment of the output quality. The purpose of the LIEDR (Local Ionospheric Electron Density Reconstruction) system is to acquire and process data from simultaneous ground-based GNSS TEC and digital ionosonde measurements, and subsequently to deduce the vertical electron density distribution. A key module is the real-time estimation of the ionospheric slab thickness, offering additional infor-mation on the local ionospheric dynamics. The RTK (Real Time Kinematic) status mapping provides a quick look at the small-scale ionospheric effects on the RTK

  10. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  11. Applying MDA to SDR for Space to Model Real-time Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA space communications systems have the challenge of designing SDRs with highly-constrained Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) resources. A study is being conducted to assess the effectiveness of applying the MDA Platform-Independent Model (PIM) and one or more Platform-Specific Models (PSM) specifically to address NASA space domain real-time issues. This paper will summarize our experiences with applying MDA to SDR for Space to model real-time issues. Real-time issues to be examined, measured, and analyzed are: meeting waveform timing requirements and efficiently applying Real-time Operating System (RTOS) scheduling algorithms, applying safety control measures, and SWaP verification. Real-time waveform algorithms benchmarked with the worst case environment conditions under the heaviest workload will drive the SDR for Space real-time PSM design.

  12. Delusional Cities: beyond the projected identity of urban space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Puşcaşu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Narratives intermediate the perception of place along with image, which is according to Burgin an integrated part of the “cultural promotion” and “city marketing” process (1996. In this manner, social and cultural meanings of place are re-modelled with relation to significant events or icons and, therefore, a more enchanting and attractive portrait of the city is promoted to be explored and experienced. Cities introduce a representation based on an idealised projection of their reality while exposing “key attractions”. As such, their projected image may have a greater influence than the reality in shaping the views of visitors, investors or even residents. The advertised portrait of the city has the power to reshape its appearance, as it is usually perceived, into a misleading one. Such chimera physiognomies of cities are often, if not in every case, presented in a captivating manner. This paper relies on the remarkable quality of narratives to go beyond the fabricated image of the city and to engage with the real identity of place while profiling the visual and experiential layout of the city. The investigation focus is primarily placed upon the mode in which historical and spatial humanities theoretical knowledge along with narratives of place can enrich the morphological study. The interaction between architecture, people, and narrative codes in the city spaces and on the way spatial layout relates to them is therefore explored. Particular emphasis is laid towards the manner in which spoken narratives of place can provide us with perceptual tools to shape the complexity of the urban phenomena and its cultural meaning. In doing so, we can start overlaying memories that are situated “beyond the city” and as such are brought to light and merged with maps of “lived experiences”.

  13. Rich families and projectional skeletons in Asplund WCG spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cúth, M.; Fabian, Marián

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 448, č. 2 (2017), s. 1618-1632 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Asplund space * weakly compactly generated space * weakly Lindelöf determined space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X16307715

  14. Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces: OECD/CELE Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ahlefeld, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    CELE's International Pilot Project on Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces aims to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximise the use of and investment in learning environments. This article provides an update on the pilot project, which is currently being implemented in Brazil, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal and the United…

  15. Strategic Project Management at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Jerome P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Project Management at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) from a strategic perspective. It develops the historical context of the agency and center's strategic planning process and illustrates how now is the time for KSC to become a center which has excellence in project management. The author describes project management activities at the center and details observations on those efforts. Finally the author describes the Strategic Project Management Process Model as a conceptual model which could assist KSC in defining an appropriate project management process system at the center.

  16. Green Applications for Space Power Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel (Principal Investigator)

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit raising/lowering and attitude control. However, Hydrazine is toxic and therefore requires special ground handling procedures to ensure launch crew safety. The Swedish Company ECAPS has developed a technology based upon the propellant Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) that offers higher performance, higher density and reduced ground handling support than Hydrazine. This blended propellant is called LMP-103S. Currently, the United States Air Force (USAF) is pursuing a technology based on Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN, otherwise known as AF-M315E) with industry partners Aerojet and Moog. Based on the advantages offered by these propellants, MSFC should explore powering APU's with these propellants. Due to the availability of space hardware, the principal investigator has found a collection of USAF hardware, that will act as a surrogate, which operates on a Hydrazine derivative. The F-16 fighter jet uses H-70 or 30% diluted Hydrazine for an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) which supplies power to the plane. The PI has acquired two EPU's from planes slated for destruction at the Davis Monthan AFB. This CIF will include a partnership with 2 other NASA Centers who are individually seeking seed funds from their respective organizations: Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). KSC is preparing for future flights from their launch pads that will utilize green propellants and desire a low-cost testbed in which to test and calibrate new leak detection sensors. DFRC has access to F-16's which can be used by MSFC & KSC to perform a ground test that demonstrates emergency power supplied to the jet. Neither of the green propellant alternatives have been considered nor evaluated for an APU application. Work has already been accomplished to characterize and obtain the properties of these 2 propellants

  17. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  18. Projections in duals to Asplund spaces made without Simons' lemma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cúth, M.; Fabian, Marián

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 1 (2015), s. 301-308 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Asplund space * projectional resolution of identity * projectional skeleton Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.700, year: 2015 http://www.ams.org/journals/proc/2015-143-01/S0002-9939-2014-12300-8/

  19. Advanced Hard Real-Time Operating System, The Maruti Project. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    REAL - TIME OPERATING SYSTEM , THE MARUTI PROJECT Part 1 of 2 Ashok K. Agrawala Satish K. Tripathi Department of Computer Science University of Maryland...Hard Real - Time Operating System , The Maruti Project DASG-60-92-C-0055 5b. Program Element # 62301E 6. Author(s) 5c. Project # DRPB Ashok K. Agrawala...SdSA94), a real - time operating system developed at the I3nversity of Maryland, and conducted extensive experiments under various task

  20. The Curriculum Improvement Project in Business Careers Programs: Business Manager, Officer Administrator, Real Estate Agent, Real Estate Broker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College of the Mainland, Texas City, TX.

    In 1987, the College of the Mainland undertook a project to update curricula in real estate, business management, and office technology. The project entailed a survey of the labor market to clarify personnel needs in selected fields; the use of the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process, which involved expert workers in the creation of task…

  1. Prototype real-time baseband signal combiner. [deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a prototype real-time baseband signal combiner, used to enhance the received Voyager 2 spacecraft signals during the Jupiter flyby, is described. Hardware delay paths, operating programs, and firmware are discussed.

  2. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikawa Akimasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE, Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers – so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet, Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux, Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system, and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes. In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  3. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Fujimoto, Akiko; Ikeda, Akihiro; Uozumi, Teiji; Abe, Shuji

    2017-10-01

    For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE), Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project) around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers - so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet), Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux), Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system), and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes). In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  4. A Real-World Project for a Desktop Publishing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, James D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a project in a desktop publishing course in which students work with nonprofit and campus organizations to design brochures that fulfill important needs. Discusses specific tools students use. Describes the brochure project, project criteria, clients, text and graphics for the project, how to evaluate the project, and guidelines for…

  5. Towards the development of a 3D digital city model as a real extension of public urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno

    ; it only serves as a tool in the analogue world. The model is a passive picture for contemplation.   Another way of looking at a digital 3D model is to see it not as a virtual model of reality but as a real model that must fulfil real functions and to design it as a space of transition between the local...... new approaches to communication and participation. Who controls the Electronic Neighbourhood? Just as in the analogue world, control of central places in the digital world is power.   Finally, based on the experience gained in relation to the project, the paper will outline some guidelines for better...

  6. International Space Station Medical Projects - Full Services to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, R. A.; Primeaux, L. L.; Wood, S. J.; Vessay, W. B.; Platts, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    The International Space Station Medical Projects (ISSMP) Element provides planning, integration, and implementation services for HRP research studies for both spaceflight and flight analog research. Through the implementation of these two efforts, ISSMP offers an innovative way of guiding research decisions to meet the unique challenges of understanding the human risks to space exploration. Flight services provided by ISSMP include leading informed consent briefings, developing and validating in-flight crew procedures, providing ISS crew and ground-controller training, real-time experiment monitoring, on-orbit experiment and hardware operations and facilitating data transfer to investigators. For analog studies at the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), the ISSMP team provides subject recruitment and screening, science requirements integration, data collection schedules, data sharing agreements, mission scenarios and facilities to support investigators. The ISSMP also serves as the HRP interface to external analog providers including the :envihab bed rest facility (Cologne, Germany), NEK isolation chamber (Moscow, Russia) and the Antarctica research stations. Investigators working in either spaceflight or analog environments requires a coordinated effort between NASA and the investigators. The interdisciplinary nature of both flight and analog research requires investigators to be aware of concurrent research studies and take into account potential confounding factors that may impact their research objectives. Investigators must define clear research requirements, participate in Investigator Working Group meetings, obtain human use approvals, and provide study-specific training, sample and data collection and procedures all while adhering to schedule deadlines. These science requirements define the technical, functional and performance operations to meet the research objectives. The ISSMP maintains an expert team of professionals with the knowledge and

  7. NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Michael P.; Saunders, Mark P.; Pye, David B.; Voss, Linda D.; Moreland, Robert J.; Symons, Kathleen E.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    This handbook is a companion to NPR 7120.5E, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements and supports the implementation of the requirements by which NASA formulates and implements space flight programs and projects. Its focus is on what the program or project manager needs to know to accomplish the mission, but it also contains guidance that enhances the understanding of the high-level procedural requirements. (See Appendix C for NPR 7120.5E requirements with rationale.) As such, it starts with the same basic concepts but provides context, rationale, guidance, and a greater depth of detail for the fundamental principles of program and project management. This handbook also explores some of the nuances and implications of applying the procedural requirements, for example, how the Agency Baseline Commitment agreement evolves over time as a program or project moves through its life cycle.

  8. Real-time estimation of free spaces in regulated on-street parking spaces using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaña Suarez, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we will develop a methodology for estimating the percentage of free parking spaces available in the area of the city where a user is interested through a real-time query in a mobile app. The smartphone screen will provide a colour-coded map of the requested area that indicates the saturation state of the parking spaces. (Author)

  9. Keeping it real: revisiting a real-space approach to running ensembles of cosmological N-body simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orban, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In setting up initial conditions for ensembles of cosmological N-body simulations there are, fundamentally, two choices: either maximizing the correspondence of the initial density field to the assumed fourier-space clustering or, instead, matching to real-space statistics and allowing the DC mode (i.e. overdensity) to vary from box to box as it would in the real universe. As a stringent test of both approaches, I perform ensembles of simulations using power law and a ''powerlaw times a bump'' model inspired by baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), exploiting the self-similarity of these initial conditions to quantify the accuracy of the matter-matter two-point correlation results. The real-space method, which was originally proposed by Pen 1997 [1] and implemented by Sirko 2005 [2], performed well in producing the expected self-similar behavior and corroborated the non-linear evolution of the BAO feature observed in conventional simulations, even in the strongly-clustered regime (σ 8 ∼>1). In revisiting the real-space method championed by [2], it was also noticed that this earlier study overlooked an important integral constraint correction to the correlation function in results from the conventional approach that can be important in ΛCDM simulations with L box ∼ −1 Gpc and on scales r∼>L box /10. Rectifying this issue shows that the fourier space and real space methods are about equally accurate and efficient for modeling the evolution and growth of the correlation function, contrary to previous claims. An appendix provides a useful independent-of-epoch analytic formula for estimating the importance of the integral constraint bias on correlation function measurements in ΛCDM simulations

  10. Real-Time Inhibitor Recession Measurements in Two Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, B. B.; Ewing, M. E.; Bolton, D. E.; Albrechtsen, K. U.; Earnest, T. E.; Noble, T. C.; Longaker, M.

    2003-01-01

    Real-time internal motor insulation char line recession measurements have been evaluated for two full-scale static tests of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). These char line recession measurements were recorded on the forward facing propellant grain inhibitors to better understand the thermal performance of these inhibitors. The RSRM propellant grain inhibitors are designed to erode away during motor operation, thus making it difficult to use post-fire observations to determine inhibitor thermal performance. Therefore, this new internal motor instrumentation is invaluable in establishing an accurate understanding of inhibitor recession versus motor operation time. The data for the first test was presented at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (AIAA 2001-3280) in July 2001. Since that time, a second full scale static test has delivered additional real-time data on inhibitor thermal performance. The evaluation of this data is presented in this paper. The second static test, in contrast to the first test, used a slightly different arrangement of instrumentation in the inhibitors. This instrumentation has yielded a better understanding of the inhibitor time dependent inboard tip recession. Graphs of inhibitor recession profiles with time are presented. Inhibitor thermal ablation models have been created from theoretical principals. The model predictions compare favorably with data from both tests. This verified modeling effort is important to support new inhibitor designs for a five segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor. The internal instrumentation project on RSRM static tests is providing unique opportunities for other real-time internal motor measurements that could not otherwise be directly quantified.

  11. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effects that solar particle events can have on operational electronic systems is a significant concern for all missions, but especially for those beyond Low...

  12. A state-space model for residential real estate valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.

    2010-01-01

    All property in the Netherlands has to be appraised yearly. Yearly valuation has only been made possible with the help of models. The number of real estate appraisers is simply too small to value the more than 7 million residential properties. This paper describes the statistical model that is used

  13. Management of Service Projects in Support of Space Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.

    2009-01-01

    Goal:To provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration . [HRP-47051] Specific Objectives: 1) Develop capabilities, necessary countermeasures, and technologies in support of human space exploration, focusing on mitigating the highest risks to human health and performance. 2) Define and improve human spaceflight medical, environmental, and human factors standards. 3) Develop technologies that serve to reduce medical and environmental risks, to reduce human systems resource requirements (mass, volume, power, data, etc.) and to ensure effective human-system integration across exploration systems. 4) Ensure maintenance of Agency core competencies necessary to enable risk reduction in the following areas: A. Space medicine B. Physiological and behavioral effects of long duration spaceflight on the human body C. Space environmental effects, including radiation, on human health and performance D. Space "human factors" [HRP-47051]. Service projects can form integral parts of research-based project-focused programs to provide specialized functions. Traditional/classic project management methodologies and agile approaches are not mutually exclusive paradigms. Agile strategies can be combined with traditional methods and applied in the management of service projects functioning in changing environments. Creative collaborations afford a mechanism for mitigation of constrained resource limitations.

  14. Projective limits of state spaces II. Quantum formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    In this series of papers, we investigate the projective framework initiated by Kijowski (1977) and Okołów (2009, 2014, 2013), which describes the states of a quantum theory as projective families of density matrices. A short reading guide to the series can be found in Lanéry (2016). After discussing the formalism at the classical level in a first paper (Lanéry, 2017), the present second paper is devoted to the quantum theory. In particular, we inspect in detail how such quantum projective state spaces relate to inductive limit Hilbert spaces and to infinite tensor product constructions (Lanéry, 2016, subsection 3.1) [1]. Regarding the quantization of classical projective structures into quantum ones, we extend the results by Okołów (2013), that were set up in the context of linear configuration spaces, to configuration spaces given by simply-connected Lie groups, and to holomorphic quantization of complex phase spaces (Lanéry, 2016, subsection 2.2) [1].

  15. 2009 ESMD Space Grant Faculty Project Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria; Ghanashyam, Joshi; Guo, Jiang; Conrad, James; Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Cross, William

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program is the medium by which we will maintain a presence in low Earth orbit, return to the moon for further exploration and develop procedures for Mars exploration. The foundation for its presence and success is built by the many individuals that have given of their time, talent and even lives to help propel the mission and objectives of NASA. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Faculty Fellows Program is a direct contributor to the success of directorate and Constellation Program objectives. It is through programs such as the ESMD Space Grant program that students are inspired and challenged to achieve the technological heights that will propel us to meet the goals and objectives of ESMD and the Constellation Program. It is through ESMD Space Grant programs that future NASA scientists, engineers, and mathematicians begin to dream of taking America to newer heights of space exploration. The ESMD Space Grant program is to be commended for taking the initiative to develop and implement programs that help solidify the mission of NASA. With the concerted efforts of the Kennedy Space Center educational staff, the 2009 ESMD Space Grant Summer Faculty Fellows Program allowed faculty to become more involved with NASA personnel relating to exploration topics for the senior design projects. The 2009 Project was specifically directed towards NASA's Strategic Educational Outcome 1. In-situ placement of Faculty Fellows at the NASA field Centers was essential; this allowed personal interactions with NASA scientists and engineers. In particular, this was critical to better understanding the NASA problems and begin developing a senior design effort to solve the problems. The Faculty Fellows are pleased that the ESMD Space Grant program is taking interest in developing the Senior Design courses at the university level. These courses are needed to help develop the NASA engineers and scientists of the very near future. It has been a pleasure to be

  16. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone.

  17. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  18. Some Double Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Real Numbers of Paranormed Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Sarma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study different properties of convergent, null, and bounded double sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers like completeness, solidness, sequence algebra, symmetricity, convergence-free, and so forth. We prove some inclusion results too.

  19. Seeing real-space dynamics of liquid water through inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Takuya; Wu, Bin; Chen, Wei-Ren; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q R; Egami, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    Water is ubiquitous on earth, but we know little about the real-space motion of molecules in liquid water. We demonstrate that high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurement over a wide range of momentum and energy transfer makes it possible to probe real-space, real-time dynamics of water molecules through the so-called Van Hove function. Water molecules are found to be strongly correlated in space and time with coupling between the first and second nearest-neighbor molecules. The local dynamic correlation of molecules observed here is crucial to a fundamental understanding of the origin of the physical properties of water, including viscosity. The results also suggest that the quantum-mechanical nature of hydrogen bonds could influence its dynamics. The approach used here offers a powerful experimental method for investigating real-space dynamics of liquids.

  20. Advanced Hard Real-Time Operating System, the Maruti Project. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real - Time Operating System , The Maruti Project DASG-60-92-C-0055 5b. Program Element # 62301E 6. Author(s...The maruti hard real - time " operating system . A CM SIGOPS, Operating Systems Review. 23:90-106, July 1989. 254 !1 110) C. L. Liu and J. Layland...February 14, 1995 Abstract The Maruti Real - Time Operating System was developed for applications that must meet hard real-time constraints. In order

  1. Using Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing via Aurorasaurus as a Near Real Time Data Source for Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E.; Heavner, M.; Hall, M.; Tapia, A.; Lalone, N.; Clayon, J.; Case, N.

    2014-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is on the cutting edge of space science, citizen science, and computer science simultaneously with the broad goals to develop a real-time citizen science network, educate the general public about the northern lights, and revolutionize real-time space weather nowcasting of the aurora for the public. We are currently in the first solar maximum with social media, which enables the technological roots to connect users, citizen scientists, and professionals around a shared global, rare interest. We will introduce the project which has been in a prototype mode since 2012 and recently relaunched with a new mobile and web presence and active campaigns. We will showcase the interdisciplinary advancements which include a more educated public, disaster warning system applications, and improved real-time ground truth data including photographs and observations of the Northern Lights. We will preview new data which validates the proof of concept for significant improvements in real-time space weather nowcasting. Our aim is to provide better real-time notifications of the visibility of the Northern Lights to the interested public via the combination of noisy crowd-sourced ground truth with noisy satellite-based predictions. The latter data are available now but are often delivered with significant jargon and uncertainty, thus reliable, timely interpretation of such forecasts by the public are problematic. The former data show real-time characteristic significant rises (in tweets for instance) that correlate with other non-real-time indices of auroral activity (like the Kp index). We will discuss the source of 'noise' in each data source. Using citizen science as a platform to provide a basis for deeper understanding is one goal; secondly we want to improve understanding of and appreciation for the dynamics and beauty of the Northern Lights by the public and scientists alike.

  2. Sorting Real Numbers in $O(n\\sqrt{\\log n})$ Time and Linear Space

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    We present an $O(n\\sqrt{\\log n})$ time and linear space algorithm for sorting real numbers. This breaks the long time illusion that real numbers have to be sorted by comparison sorting and take $\\Omega (n\\log n)$ time to be sorted.

  3. HAL/S programmer's guide. [for space shuttle project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The structure and symbology of the HAL/S programming language are described; this language is to be used among the flight software for the space shuttle project. The data declaration, input/output statements, and replace statements are also discussed.

  4. Projected space-time and varying speed of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.; Bellucci, S.; Benedetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper starting from El Naschie's Cantorian space-time and our model of projected Universe, we consider its properties in connection with varying speed of light. A possible way-out of the related problem is provided by the Fantappie group approach

  5. Space Geodesy Project Information and Configuration Management Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    This plan defines the Space Geodesy Project (SGP) policies, procedures, and requirements for Information and Configuration Management (CM). This procedure describes a process that is intended to ensure that all proposed and approved technical and programmatic baselines and changes to the SGP hardware, software, support systems, and equipment are documented.

  6. Real Option--A New Approach in the Evaluation of Telecom Investment Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a new method into the evaluating system of telecom investment projects, I.e. Real Option. This may overcome the defects resulted from employing Net Present Value (NPV), which is now used in the evaluation of telecom projects. A theoretical analysis of Real Option is provided, followed by an example of telecom investment project to illustrate the differences between the two methods.

  7. A real CDIO mechanical engineering project in 4th semester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Aage Birkkjær

    In the past 6 years at the mechanical engineering study at the Engineering College of Aarhus we have been practicing project work on 4th Semester in the design of energy technology systems. In my presentation, I will give a description of the project, and the thoughts behind; pedagogic......-6 students, and will partly support the general theory being taught in the courses, but will also provide students with skills in teamwork, project work and system building. The pedagogical considerations behind the development of the project are quite simply that students learn best through active work...

  8. NASA Space Radiation Risk Project: Overview and Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Chappell, Lori J.; George, Kerry A.; Hada, Megumi; Hu, Shaowen; Kidane, Yared H.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Kovyrshina, Tatiana; Norman, Ryan B.; Nounu, Hatem N.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Risk project is responsible for integrating new experimental and computational results into models to predict risk of cancer and acute radiation syndrome (ARS) for use in mission planning and systems design, as well as current space operations. The project has several parallel efforts focused on proving NASA's radiation risk projection capability in both the near and long term. This presentation will give an overview, with select results from these efforts including the following topics: verification, validation, and streamlining the transition of models to use in decision making; relative biological effectiveness and dose rate effect estimation using a combination of stochastic track structure simulations, DNA damage model calculations and experimental data; ARS model improvements; pathway analysis from gene expression data sets; solar particle event probabilistic exposure calculation including correlated uncertainties for use in design optimization.

  9. Space Projects: Improvements Needed in Selecting Future Projects for Private Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and NASA jointly selected seven projects for commercialization to reduce NASA's fiscal year 1990 budget request and to help achieve the goal of increasing private sector involvement in space. However, the efforts to privately finance these seven projects did not increase the commercial sector's involvement in space to the extent desired. The General Accounting Office (GAO) determined that the projects selected were not a fair test of the potential of increasing commercial investment in space at an acceptable cost to the government, primarily because the projects were not properly screened. That is, neither their suitability for commercialization nor the economic consequences of seeking private financing for them were adequately evaluated before selection. Evaluations and market tests done after selection showed that most of the projects were not viable candidates for private financing. GAO concluded that projects should not be removed from NASA's budget for commercial development until after careful screening has been done to determine whether adequate commercial demand exists, development risks are commercially acceptable and private financing is found or judged to be highly likely, and the cost effectiveness of such a decision is acceptable. Premature removal of projects from NASA's budget ultimately can cause project delays and increased costs when unsuccessful commercialization candidates must be returned to the budget. NASA also needs to ensure appropriate comparisons of government and private financing options for future commercialization projects.

  10. Framing the Real: Lefèbvre and NeoRealist Cinematic Space as Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Brancaleone, David

    2014-01-01

    In 1945 Roberto Rossellini's Neo-realist Rome, Open City set in motion an approach to cinema and its representation of real life – and by extension real spaces – that was to have international significance in film theory and practice. However, the re-use of the real spaces of the city, and elsewhere, as film sets in Neo-realist film offered (and offers) more than an influential aesthetic and set of cinematic theories. Through Neo-realism, it can be argued that we gain access to a cinematic re...

  11. On rationality of moduli spaces of vector bundles on real Hirzebruch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Moduli spaces of semistable vector bundles on a smooth projective variety are studied from various points of view. One of the questions that is often addressed is the birational type of the moduli space, more precisely, the question of rationality. It is known that the moduli space of semistable vector bundles of ...

  12. On deformation of foliations with a center in the projective space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOVASATI HOSSEIN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a foliation in the projective space of dimension two with a first integral of the type , where F and G are two polynomials on an affine coordinate, = and g.c.d.(p, q = 1. Let z be a nondegenerate critical point of , which is a center singularity of , and be a deformation of in the space of foliations of degree deg( such that its unique deformed singularity near z persists in being a center. We will prove that the foliation has a first integral of the same type of . Using the arguments of the proof of this result we will give a lower bound for the maximum number of limit cycles of real polynomial differential equations of a fixed degree in the real plane.

  13. Overview of some projects of SNPS for global space communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Ghitaykin, V.; Ionkin, V.; Dubinin, A.; Pyshko, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation we focused on three variants of prospective concepts of SNPS. They are intended to solve tasks of global space communication (GSC) as nearest future tasks in space. Modern concepts of the application of power technology in space believe in using an onboard source of energy for maintenance of self-transportation of the vehicle into geostationary orbit (GSO). There are three more prospective systems as follows: gas cooled nuclear reactor with hybrid thermal engine and machine power converter; nuclear reactor cooled by liquid metal and with a thermoelectric power generating system; nuclear reactor with Li cooling and a thermionic and thermoelectric power generator on board. The choice of a concept must fit strong requirements such as: space nuclear power unit is aimed to be used in a powerful mission; space power unit must be able to maintain the dual - mode regime of vehicle operation (self - transportation and long life in geosynchronous orbit [GEO]); nuclear rector of unit must be safety and it must be designed in such a way that it will ensure minimum size of the complete system; the elements of the considered technology can be used for the creation of NPPI and with other sources of heat (for example, radioisotope); the degree of technical and technological readiness of units of the thermal and power circuit of installation is estimated to be high and is defined by a number of technological developments in air, space and nuclear branches; nuclear reactor and heat transfer equipment should work in a normal mode, which can be very reliably confirmed for other high-temperature nuclear systems. Considering these concepts we practically consider one of possible strategy of developing of complex system of nuclear power engineering. It is the strategy of step-by-step development of space engineering with real application of them in commercial, scientific and other powerful missions in the nearest and deep space. As starting point of this activity is

  14. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem...... and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how students incorporate networked and digital technologies into their group work and into the study places...... they create for themselves. We describe how in one of the programmes ‘nomadic’ groups of students used different technologies and spaces for ‘placemaking’. We then show how their experience and approach to collaborative work differs to that of the more static or ‘artisan’ groups of students in the other...

  15. Rael Artel Gallery: Non-Profit Project Space : short tale of an experimental project's space tactics / Kiwa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiwa, pseud., 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Aastatel 2004-2008 Pärnus ja aastatel 2006-2008 Tartus tegutsenud Rael Artel Galeriist, mille looja ja moderaator oli Rael Artel. Galerii tegevus lõppes kunstialbumi "Hotell Pärnu : Rael Arel Gallery : Non Profit Project Space 2004-2008 / kontseptsioon ja toimetamine: Rael Artel" ilmumisega 2009. aastal

  16. The Application of the Real Options Method for the Evaluation of High-Rise Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Aleksandr; Rostova, Olga; Dubgorn, Alissa

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of evaluation of high-rise construction projects in a rapidly changing environment. The authors proposed an algorithm for constructing and embedding real options in high-rise construction projects, which makes it possible to increase the flexibility of managing multi-stage projects that have the ability to adapt to changing conditions of implementation.

  17. Using Real Datasets for Interdisciplinary Business/Economics Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajni; Straight, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    The workplace's global and dynamic nature allows and requires improved approaches for providing business and economics education. In this article, the authors explore ways of enhancing students' understanding of course material by using nontraditional, real-world datasets of particular interest to them. Teaching at a historically Black university,…

  18. Real-Life Research: Project Runway Makeover Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paige; Nesi, Olga M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-life research is incredibly varied. We research cars. We research lawn problems. We research child behavior problems, health issues, possible vacation destinations, and prices to stretch our budgets. No two scenarios are ever alike, and no two health issues should be assumed to be the same. That is reality, and that is a picture of what the…

  19. Considerations in development of expert systems for real-time space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, S.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years, demand on space systems has increased tremendously and this trend will continue for the near future. Enhanced capabilities of space systems, however, can only be met with increased complexity and sophistication of onboard and ground systems. Artificial Intelligence and expert system techniques have great potential in space applications. Expert systems could facilitate autonomous decision making, improve in-orbit fault diagnosis and repair, enhance performance and reduce reliance on ground support. However, real-time expert systems, unlike conventional off-line consultative systems, have to satisfy certain special stringent requirements before they could be used for onboard space applications. Challenging and interesting new environments are faced while developing expert system space applications. This paper discusses the special characteristics, requirements and typical life cycle issues for onboard expert systems. Further, it also describes considerations in design, development, and implementation which are particularly important to real-time expert systems for space applications.

  20. A real space calculation of absolutely unstable modes for two-plasmon decay in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Growth rates for absolute modes of two-plasmon decay are obtained by solving for eigenmodes of the coupled mode equations for obliquely scattered Langmuir waves in real space. This analysis establishes a connection both to previous analysis in Fourier transform space and to other parametric instabilities, the analysis of which is commonly done in real space. The essential feature of the instability which admits absolute modes in an inhomogeneous plasma is the strong spatial dependence of the coupling coefficients. Landau damping limits the perpendicular wavenumbers of the most unstable modes and raises the instability thresholds for background plasma temperatures above 1 keV. (author)

  1. A brief comparison between grid based real space algorithms and spectrum algorithms for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-01-01

    Quantum mechanical ab initio calculation constitutes the biggest portion of the computer time in material science and chemical science simulations. As a computer center like NERSC, to better serve these communities, it will be very useful to have a prediction for the future trends of ab initio calculations in these areas. Such prediction can help us to decide what future computer architecture can be most useful for these communities, and what should be emphasized on in future supercomputer procurement. As the size of the computer and the size of the simulated physical systems increase, there is a renewed interest in using the real space grid method in electronic structure calculations. This is fueled by two factors. First, it is generally assumed that the real space grid method is more suitable for parallel computation for its limited communication requirement, compared with spectrum method where a global FFT is required. Second, as the size N of the calculated system increases together with the computer power, O(N) scaling approaches become more favorable than the traditional direct O(N 3 ) scaling methods. These O(N) methods are usually based on localized orbital in real space, which can be described more naturally by the real space basis. In this report, the author compares the real space methods versus the traditional plane wave (PW) spectrum methods, for their technical pros and cons, and the possible of future trends. For the real space method, the author focuses on the regular grid finite different (FD) method and the finite element (FE) method. These are the methods used mostly in material science simulation. As for chemical science, the predominant methods are still Gaussian basis method, and sometime the atomic orbital basis method. These two basis sets are localized in real space, and there is no indication that their roles in quantum chemical simulation will change anytime soon. The author focuses on the density functional theory (DFT), which is the

  2. Research on Control Method Based on Real-Time Operational Reliability Evaluation for Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A control method based on real-time operational reliability evaluation for space manipulator is presented for improving the success rate of a manipulator during the execution of a task. In this paper, a method for quantitative analysis of operational reliability is given when manipulator is executing a specified task; then a control model which could control the quantitative operational reliability is built. First, the control process is described by using a state space equation. Second, process parameters are estimated in real time using Bayesian method. Third, the expression of the system's real-time operational reliability is deduced based on the state space equation and process parameters which are estimated using Bayesian method. Finally, a control variable regulation strategy which considers the cost of control is given based on the Theory of Statistical Process Control. It is shown via simulations that this method effectively improves the operational reliability of space manipulator control system.

  3. The use of particle accelerators for space projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtanen, Ari

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of CMOS technology radiation effects in components became an important issue in satellite and space mission projects. At the end of the cold war, the market of radiation hard (RadHard) components crashed and during the 90's their fabrication practically stopped. The use of 'commercial-off-the-shelf' (COTS) components became more common but required increased evaluation activities at radiation test sites. Component manufacturers and space project engineers were directed towards these test sites, in particular, towards particle accelerators. Many accelerator laboratories developed special beam lines and constructed dedicated test areas for component evaluations. The space environment was simulated at these test sites and components were tested to levels often exceeding mission requirements. In general, space projects environments were predicted in respects to particle mass and energy distributions with the expected fluxes and fluences. In order to validate this information in tests, concepts like stopping power, linear energy transfer, ion penetration ranges etc. have to be understood. The knowledge from the component structure also defines the way of irradiation. For example, the higher ion energies resulting in much deeper ion penetration ranges allow successful reverse side irradiation of thinned Integrated Circuits (ICs). So overall increased demands for radiation testing attracted the European Space Agency (ESA) to the JYFL-accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland. A contract was signed between ESA and JYFL for the development of a 'High Penetrating Heavy Ion Test Site'. Following one year development, this test site was commissioned in May 2005. This paper addresses the various issues around the JYFL laboratory with its accelerator and radiation effects facility as the focal point in service of component evaluations for the space community

  4. Real-Time Structural Overload Control via Control Allocation Optimization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This control methodology utilizes real-time vehicle structural load and shape measurements to actively respond to and protect against vehicle damage due to...

  5. Project Manager Street Smarts A Real World Guide to PMP Skills

    CERN Document Server

    Zaval, Linda Kretz

    2011-01-01

    The perfect workbook for project managers and PMP exam candidates seeking practical experience New project managers and students pursuing the Project Management Professional certification are looking for practical experience to solidify their skills. The step-by-step tasks presented in this book offer them an opportunity to practice the common tasks project managers face in the real world. The authors, both expert project management trainers and consultants, explore each phase of project management: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, and closing the project, with in-depth

  6. A symmetrical treatment of bradyons and luxons by means of a non-real space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majernik, V.

    1983-01-01

    From the point of view of symmetry, it is interesting to note that there exist two kinds of physical particles - bradyons and luxons. In this connection the question arises whether it is not possible to treat luxons and bradyons in a symmetric way. The characteristic property of luxons is the fact that they move with the velocity of light. On the other hand, the characteristic property of bradyons is their ability to be localized. The bradyon-luxon symmetry would require such physical conditions in which luxons would behave as bradyons and bradyons as luxons. The author speculates that there exists a non-real space in addition to our real space in which bradyons would move with the velocity of light and luxons would be localized. This non-real, three-dimensional space (s-space), together with our three-dimensional real space (r-space), forms a suitable framework for the postulated bradyon-luxon symmetry. Within this framework he attempts to find the fundamental equations for bosons and fermions both in the s- and r-space, and to suggest a new hierarchy among the particles as well as a simple scheme of the fundamental physical interactions. (Auth.)

  7. Innovative Near Real-Time Data Dissemination Tools Developed by the Space Weather Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, R.; Maddox, M. M.; Berrios, D.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Space weather affects virtually all of NASA's endeavors, from robotic missions to human exploration. Knowledge and prediction of space weather conditions are therefore essential to NASA operations. The diverse nature of currently available space environment measurements and modeling products compels the need for a single access point to such information. The Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) System provides this single point access along with the capability to collect and catalog a vast range of sources including both observational and model data. NASA Goddard Space Weather Research Center heavily utilizes the iSWA System daily for research, space weather model validation, and forecasting for NASA missions. iSWA provides the capabilities to view and analyze near real-time space weather data from any where in the world. This presentation will describe the technology behind the iSWA system and describe how to use the system for space weather research, forecasting, training, education, and sharing.

  8. R.E.A.L. Kids Talk about Real Sex. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Carla Baade

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a project in which 10 alternative high school students, one teacher, and one aide researched, wrote, interviewed, taped, and edited a 64-minute news format video on a variety of sexuality issues: anatomy, physiology, sexually transmitted diseases, birth control, pregnancy options…

  9. Learning based upon projects of architectural conservation: from university to real life

    OpenAIRE

    Mileto, Camilla; Vegas López-Manzanares, Fernando; Cristini, Valentina; Diodato, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Mileto, C.; Vegas López-Manzanares, F.; Cristini, V.; Diodato, M. (2011). Learning based upon projects of architectural conservation: from university to real life. IATED. 1-8. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/50072 Senia 1 8

  10. Real-space formulation of the electrostatic potential and total energy of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pask, J E; Sterne, P A

    2004-01-01

    We develop expressions for the electrostatic potential and total energy of crystalline solids which are amenable to direct evaluation in real space. Unlike conventional reciprocal space formulations, no Fourier transforms or reciprocal lattice summations are required, and the formulation is well suited for large-scale, parallel computations. The need for reciprocal space expressions is eliminated by replacing long-range potentials by equivalent localized charge distributions and incorporating long-range interactions into boundary conditions on the unit cell. In so doing, a simplification of the conventional reciprocal space formalism is obtained. The equivalence of the real- and reciprocal space formalisms is demonstrated by direct comparison in self-consistent density-functional calculations

  11. Projective limits of state spaces IV. Fractal label sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over one big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Kijowski (1977) to represent quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces (see Lanéry (2016) [1] for a concise introduction to this formalism). One can thus bypass the need to select a vacuum state for the theory, and still be provided with an explicit and constructive description of the quantum state space, at least as long as the label set indexing the projective structure is countable. Because uncountable label sets are much less practical in this context, we develop in the present article a general procedure to trim an originally uncountable label set down to countable cardinality. In particular, we investigate how to perform this tightening of the label set in a way that preserves both the physical content of the algebra of observables and its symmetries. This work is notably motivated by applications to the holonomy-flux algebra underlying Loop Quantum Gravity. Building on earlier work by Okołów (2013), a projective state space was introduced for this algebra in Lanéry and Thiemann (2016). However, the non-trivial structure of the holonomy-flux algebra prevents the construction of satisfactory semi-classical states (Lanéry and Thiemann, 2017). Implementing the general procedure just mentioned in the case of a one-dimensional version of this algebra, we show how a discrete subalgebra can be extracted without destroying universality nor diffeomorphism invariance. On this subalgebra, quantum states can then be constructed which are more regular than was possible on the original algebra. In particular, this allows the design of semi-classical states whose semi-classicality is enforced step by step, starting from collective, macroscopic degrees of freedom and going down progressively toward smaller and smaller scales.

  12. Water from Space: Real World Opportunities and Far Away Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, N.; Garcia, L. E.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.

    2015-12-01

    A Global Initiative on Remote Sensing for Water Resources Management (Water RS) was launched in October 2013, financed by the World Bank's Water Partnership Program (WPP[1]) of the Global Water Program. It aims, among other things, to put together and disseminate, in collaboration with the Bank's operational staff as well as external partners, a clear picture of the potential role of Earth Observations (EO) in solution approaches to address particular water-related issues.The initiative focuses on the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the EO products to be used by decision makers in water related management and planning contexts. To make informed decisions, the client needs to know about the potential and the limitations of practical application of remote sensing technology and products, through informed recommendations and the development of practical, result-oriented tools. Thus, the objective of the Water RS initiative is to address this issue by taking a two-phase approach focusing respectively on: (i) identifying demand and priorities of the users while raising awareness on the potential and limitation of RS tools and (ii) bridging the gap between science and development of operational projects.While the first phase has come to completion, the second phase is being designed to tackle some of the reasons why there have been rather limited applications in the developing world (World Bank clients), such as: incentive issues, implementation capacity, costs and financing, and the overall issue of "How to do it?. An overview of the initiative and the lessons learned to date will be presented, setting the stage for muti-partner discussions. [1] The Water Partnership Program (WPP) is a longstanding alliance between the World Bank and the governments of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Austria.

  13. N-body quantum scattering theory in two Hilbert spaces. VII. Real-energy limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, C.; Gibson, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    A study is made of the real-energy limits of approximate solutions of the Chandler--Gibson equations, as well as the real-energy limits of the approximate equations themselves. It is proved that (1) the approximate time-independent transition operator T π (z) and an auxiliary operator M π (z), when restricted to finite energy intervals, are trace class operators and have limits in trace norm for almost all values of the real energy; (2) the basic dynamical equation that determines the operator M π (z), when restricted to the space of trace class operators, has a real-energy limit in trace norm for almost all values of the real energy; (3) the real-energy limit of M π (z) is a solution of the real-energy limit equation; (4) the diagonal (on-shell) elements of the kernels of the real-energy limit of T π (z) and of all solutions of the real-energy limit equation exactly equal the on-shell transition operator, implying that the real-energy limit equation uniquely determines the physical transition amplitude; and (5) a sequence of approximate on-shell transition operators converges strongly to the exact on-shell transition operator. These mathematically rigorous results are believed to be the most general of their type for nonrelativistic N-body quantum scattering theories

  14. Programmering af applikationer med dSPACE real-time værktøjer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    real-time direkte på et virkeligt system. Reguleringen af systemet sker vha. et DSP- og I/O-kort. En model af systemet opbygges vha. Matlab/Simulink fra firmaet The Mathworks. Modellen oversættes til C-kode vha. Real-Time Workshop fra firmaet The Mathworks. For at gøre C-koden hardwarespecifik bruges...... software fra hardwareleverandøren - dSPACE. Firmaet dSPACE har desuden levereret software til at monitorere real-time værdier i systemet, og software til at ændre på parametre i modellen i real-time.I brugervejledningens Appendix F findes et eksempel, der gennemgår hele forløbet med opstart af programmer...

  15. Supporting Multiple Programs and Projects at NASA's Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Camiren L.

    2014-01-01

    With the conclusion of the shuttle program in 2011, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had found itself at a crossroads for finding transportation of United States astronauts and experiments to space. The agency would eventually hand off the taxiing of American astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) that orbits in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) about 210 miles above the earth under the requirements of the Commercial Crew Program (CCP). By privatizing the round trip journey from Earth to the ISS, the space agency has been given the additional time to focus funding and resources to projects that operate beyond LEO; however, adding even more stress to the agency, the premature cancellation of the program that would succeed the Shuttle Program - The Constellation Program (CxP) -it would inevitably delay the goal to travel beyond LEO for a number of years. Enter the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Currently, the SLS is under development at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, while the Orion Capsule, built by government contractor Lockheed Martin Corporation, has been assembled and is currently under testing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. In its current vision, SLS will take Orion and its crew to an asteroid that had been captured in an earlier mission in lunar orbit. Additionally, this vehicle and its configuration is NASA's transportation to Mars. Engineers at the Kennedy Space Center are currently working to test the ground systems that will facilitate the launch of Orion and the SLS within its Ground Services Development and Operations (GSDO) Program. Firing Room 1 in the Launch Control Center (LCC) has been refurbished and outfitted to support the SLS Program. In addition, the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the underlying control system for monitoring and launching manned launch vehicles. As NASA finds itself at a junction, so does all of its

  16. Costing the EPR Project Using the Real Options Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epaulard, Anne; Gallon, Stephane

    2001-01-01

    Real options theory makes it possible to cost investments which offer flexibility but whose returns are uncertain, such as the construction in 2000 of an EPR prototype; this prototype will enable the European pressurised-water reactor (EPR) to be used to renew EDF's nuclear power stations in 2020 (flexibility) but its economic worth will then depend on the cost of the competing gas-fired power plants (uncertain return). Options theory shows that investing in EPR technology in 2000 provides sufficient flexibility in 2020 to be considered cost-effective, even though use of EPRs is unlikely by that date. The investment made in 2000 to develop EPR technology therefore actually plays the part of an option or, in other words, insurance (against the risk of high gas prices)

  17. Real-space mapping of topological invariants using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D.; García-Martínez, N. A.; Lado, J. L.; Fernández-Rossier, J.

    2018-03-01

    Topological invariants allow one to characterize Hamiltonians, predicting the existence of topologically protected in-gap modes. Those invariants can be computed by tracing the evolution of the occupied wave functions under twisted boundary conditions. However, those procedures do not allow one to calculate a topological invariant by evaluating the system locally, and thus require information about the wave functions in the whole system. Here we show that artificial neural networks can be trained to identify the topological order by evaluating a local projection of the density matrix. We demonstrate this for two different models, a one-dimensional topological superconductor and a two-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall state, both with spatially modulated parameters. Our neural network correctly identifies the different topological domains in real space, predicting the location of in-gap states. By combining a neural network with a calculation of the electronic states that uses the kernel polynomial method, we show that the local evaluation of the invariant can be carried out by evaluating a local quantity, in particular for systems without translational symmetry consisting of tens of thousands of atoms. Our results show that supervised learning is an efficient methodology to characterize the local topology of a system.

  18. Development of a global toroidal gyrokinetic Vlasov code with new real space field solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrejan, Kevin; Imadera, Kenji; Li, Ji-Quan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces a new full-f toroidal gyrokinetic (GK) Vlasov simulation code that uses a real space field solver. This solver enables us to compute the gyro-averaging operators in real space to allow proper treatment of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects without requiring any particular hypothesis and in any magnetic field configuration (X-point, D-shaped etc). The code was well verified through benchmark tests such as toroidal Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) instability and collisionless damping of zonal flow. (author)

  19. REAL OPTIONS IN PROJECT FINANCE: AN OIL INDUSTRY APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    RAFAEL MACHADO MENDES

    2012-01-01

    As estruturas do tipo Project Finance, cada vez mais, vêm sendo utilizadas para o financiamento de projetos de investimento, principalmente, quando se trata de obras infraestruturais. Para tanto, uma grande estruturação jurídica é utilizada de forma a garantir uma adequada alocação de riscos às partes interessadas do projeto. Esta gestão riscos do projeto é de fundamental importância para garantir a viabilidade financeira e sucesso de um financiamento estruturado, como o Projec...

  20. Real World Projects with Companies Supporting Competence Development in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaken, Thomas; Kiel, Bert; Kliewe, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    The department of business administration of Münster University of Applied Sciences (MUAS) in Germany has a long tradition in realising practice-oriented research projects in cooperation with industry. The objective of these cooperative projects is to offer students real-life experiences and to make the theoretical know-how of university lectures…

  1. Group Creativity Development by Solving Real-life Project in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Du, Xiangyun

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, problem and project based learning (PBL) has been employed by a growing number of educational institutions to foster creative engineers. Among the diverse pedagogical practices of PBL, there has been an emergence of real-life project for students. Based on literature of creativity...... along with the learning activities etc., which are necessary for group creativity development in engineering students....

  2. Flying through code/space: the real virtuality of air travel

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Dodge; Rob Kitchin

    2004-01-01

    Commercial air travel is a key global industry facilitating the complex daily movements of planes, people, goods, and services across the world. In this paper we analyse contemporary air travel through the conceptualisation of a culture of real virtuality.We contend that air travel now consists of passage through 'code/space'. Such code/space includes travel websites, check-in, security check- points, flight decks, air-traffic control, immigration, and customs checkpoints, which t...

  3. Development of a prototype real-time automated filter for operational deep space navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, W. C.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    Operational deep space navigation has been in the past, and is currently, performed using systems whose architecture requires constant human supervision and intervention. A prototype for a system which allows relatively automated processing of radio metric data received in near real-time from NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) without any redesign of the existing operational data flow has been developed. This system can allow for more rapid response as well as much reduced staffing to support mission navigation operations.

  4. Quantum theory in real Hilbert space: How the complex Hilbert space structure emerges from Poincaré symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Valter; Oppio, Marco

    As earlier conjectured by several authors and much later established by Solèr (relying on partial results by Piron, Maeda-Maeda and other authors), from the lattice theory point of view, Quantum Mechanics may be formulated in real, complex or quaternionic Hilbert spaces only. Stückelberg provided some physical, but not mathematically rigorous, reasons for ruling out the real Hilbert space formulation, assuming that any formulation should encompass a statement of Heisenberg principle. Focusing on this issue from another — in our opinion, deeper — viewpoint, we argue that there is a general fundamental reason why elementary quantum systems are not described in real Hilbert spaces. It is their basic symmetry group. In the first part of the paper, we consider an elementary relativistic system within Wigner’s approach defined as a locally-faithful irreducible strongly-continuous unitary representation of the Poincaré group in a real Hilbert space. We prove that, if the squared-mass operator is non-negative, the system admits a natural, Poincaré invariant and unique up to sign, complex structure which commutes with the whole algebra of observables generated by the representation itself. This complex structure leads to a physically equivalent reformulation of the theory in a complex Hilbert space. Within this complex formulation, differently from what happens in the real one, all selfadjoint operators represent observables in accordance with Solèr’s thesis, and the standard quantum version of Noether theorem may be formulated. In the second part of this work, we focus on the physical hypotheses adopted to define a quantum elementary relativistic system relaxing them on the one hand, and making our model physically more general on the other hand. We use a physically more accurate notion of irreducibility regarding the algebra of observables only, we describe the symmetries in terms of automorphisms of the restricted lattice of elementary propositions of the

  5. MAGDAS Project for Space Weather Research and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Kiyohumi

    2009-01-01

    The Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University, is currently deploying a new ground-based magnetometer network of MAGnetic Data Acqusition System (MAGDAS), in cooperation with about 30 organizations in the world, in order to understand the complex Sun-Earth system for space weather research and application. SERC will conducts MAGDAS observation at 50 stations in the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) region, and FM-CW radar observation along the 210 deg. magnetic meridian (MM) during the IHY/ILWS/CAWSES periods. This project is actively providing the following space weather monitoring:(1) Global 3-dimensional current system to know electromagnetic coupling of the region 1 and 2 field-aligned currents, auroral electrojet current, Sq current, and equatorial electrojet current. (2) Plasma mass density along the 210 deg. MM to understand plasma environment change during space storms. (3) Ionospheric electric field intensity with 10-sec sampling at L = 1.26 to understand how the external electric field penetrates into the equatorial ionosphere.

  6. NASA's In-Space Manufacturing Project: A Roadmap for a Multimaterial Fabrication Laboratory in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie; Werkheiser, Niki; Ledbetter, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Human space exploration to date has been limited to low Earth orbit and the moon. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique opportunity for NASA to partner with private industry for development and demonstration of the technologies needed to support exploration initiatives. One challenge that is critical to sustainable and safer exploration is the ability to manufacture and recycle materials in space. This paper provides an overview of NASA's in-space manufacturing (ISM) project, its past and current activities (2014-2017), and how technologies under development will ultimately culminate in a multimaterial fabrication laboratory ("ISM FabLab") to be deployed on the International Space Station in the early 2020s. ISM is a critical capability for the long endurance missions NASA seeks to undertake in the coming decades. An unanticipated failure that can be adapted for in low earth orbit, through a resupply launch or a return to earth, may instead result in a loss of mission while in transit to Mars. To have a suite of functional ISM capabilities that are compatible with NASA's exploration timeline, ISM must be equipped with the resources necessary to develop these technologies and deploy them for testing prior to the scheduled de-orbit of ISS in 2024. The presentation provides a broad overview of ISM projects activities culminating with the Fabrication Laboratory for ISS. In 2017, the in-space manufacturing project issued a broad agency announcement for this capability. Requirements of the Fabrication Laboratory as stated in the solicitation will be discussed. The FabLab will move NASA and private industry significantly closer to changing historical paradigms for human spaceflight where all materials used in space are launched from earth. While the current ISM FabLab will be tested on ISS, future systems are eventually intended for use in a deep space habitat or transit vehicle. The work of commercial companies funded under NASA's Small Business

  7. Information Theoretic Characterization of Physical Theories with Projective State Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaopo, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Probabilistic theories are a natural framework to investigate the foundations of quantum theory and possible alternative or deeper theories. In a generic probabilistic theory, states of a physical system are represented as vectors of outcomes probabilities and state spaces are convex cones. In this picture the physics of a given theory is related to the geometric shape of the cone of states. In quantum theory, for instance, the shape of the cone of states corresponds to a projective space over complex numbers. In this paper we investigate geometric constraints on the state space of a generic theory imposed by the following information theoretic requirements: every non completely mixed state of a system is perfectly distinguishable from some other state in a single shot measurement; information capacity of physical systems is conserved under making mixtures of states. These assumptions guarantee that a generic physical system satisfies a natural principle asserting that the more a state of the system is mixed the less information can be stored in the system using that state as logical value. We show that all theories satisfying the above assumptions are such that the shape of their cones of states is that of a projective space over a generic field of numbers. Remarkably, these theories constitute generalizations of quantum theory where superposition principle holds with coefficients pertaining to a generic field of numbers in place of complex numbers. If the field of numbers is trivial and contains only one element we obtain classical theory. This result tells that superposition principle is quite common among probabilistic theories while its absence gives evidence of either classical theory or an implausible theory.

  8. Projective embeddings of homogeneous spaces with small boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, Ivan V

    2009-01-01

    We study open equivariant projective embeddings of homogeneous spaces such that the complement of the open orbit has codimension at least 2. We establish a criterion for the existence of such an embedding, prove that the set of isomorphism classes of such embeddings is finite, and give a construction of the embeddings in terms of Geometric Invariant Theory. A generalization of Cox's construction and the theory of bunched rings enable us to describe in combinatorial terms the basic geometric properties of embeddings with small boundary

  9. Expected asteroseismic performances with the space project PLATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goupil Mariejo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of star space project will observe about fifty percents of the sky with the main purpose of detecting, confirming and characterizing transiting exoplanets of (superEarth sizes in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. Determining masses, radii and ages of exoplanets require the knowledge the masses, radii and ages of the host stars. We give a brief presentation of the main features of the mission. We then discuss some expected seismic performances of PLATO for characterizing bright solar-like stars, focusing on the challenging determination of accurate/precise stellar ages.

  10. Your Project Management Coach Best Practices for Managing Projects in the Real World

    CERN Document Server

    Biafore, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    A pragmatic approach to project management Many projects fail to deliver on time or on budget, or even to deliver a workable product that satisfies the customer. While good project management goes a long way towards ensuring success, managers often fail to follow the plans they implement. This unique guide helps you understand and successfully handle project management, once and for all. Covering practical ways to solve problems you'll typically face when managing actual projects, this pragmatic book takes you through a full project management lifecycle. You'll find ample tips, tricks, and bes

  11. Use of personal, real time in-cabin dosimetry on space shuttle flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Madonna, R.G.; Quam, W.; Warren, J.; Dockter, M.

    1984-01-01

    The use of real time dosimeters onboard the Space Shuttle is described. Data taken during STS-8 with a small gamma ray counter (HRM-III) and a neutron/proton dosimeter (the Pocket Rem Meter [PRM]) are presented. The data agree with NASA predictions for gamma ray background and neutron-proton dosage received for the STS-8 mission. 1 figure, 1 table

  12. Hiding and Searching Strategies of Adult Humans in a Virtual and a Real-Space Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Katherine J.; Legge, Eric L. G.; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2009-01-01

    Adults searched for or cached three objects in nine hiding locations in a virtual room or a real-space room. In both rooms, the locations selected by participants differed systematically between searching and hiding. Specifically, participants moved farther from origin and dispersed their choices more when hiding objects than when searching for…

  13. Genetic algorithms for adaptive real-time control in space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzijp, J.; Choudry, A.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic Algorithms that are used for learning as one way to control the combinational explosion associated with the generation of new rules are discussed. The Genetic Algorithm approach tends to work best when it can be applied to a domain independent knowledge representation. Applications to real time control in space systems are discussed.

  14. The Unification of Space Qualified Integrated Circuits by Example of International Space Project GAMMA-400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, S. G.; Serdin, O. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.

    The problem of electronic component unification at the different levels (circuits, interfaces, hardware and software) used in space industry is considered. The task of computer systems for space purposes developing is discussed by example of scientific data acquisition system for space project GAMMA-400. The basic characteristics of high reliable and fault tolerant chips developed by SRISA RAS for space applicable computational systems are given. To reduce power consumption and enhance data reliability, embedded system interconnect made hierarchical: upper level is Serial RapidIO 1x or 4x with rate transfer 1.25 Gbaud; next level - SpaceWire with rate transfer up to 400 Mbaud and lower level - MIL-STD-1553B and RS232/RS485. The Ethernet 10/100 is technology interface and provided connection with the previously released modules too. Systems interconnection allows creating different redundancy systems. Designers can develop heterogeneous systems that employ the peer-to-peer networking performance of Serial RapidIO using multiprocessor clusters interconnected by SpaceWire.

  15. Real-Time Probabilistic Structural Health Management Using Machine Learning and GPU Computing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project seeks to deliver an ultra-efficient, high-fidelity structural health management (SHM) framework using machine learning and graphics processing...

  16. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  17. Real-time 3-D space numerical shake prediction for earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyun; Jin, Xing; Huang, Yandan; Wei, Yongxiang

    2017-12-01

    In earthquake early warning systems, real-time shake prediction through wave propagation simulation is a promising approach. Compared with traditional methods, it does not suffer from the inaccurate estimation of source parameters. For computation efficiency, wave direction is assumed to propagate on the 2-D surface of the earth in these methods. In fact, since the seismic wave propagates in the 3-D sphere of the earth, the 2-D space modeling of wave direction results in inaccurate wave estimation. In this paper, we propose a 3-D space numerical shake prediction method, which simulates the wave propagation in 3-D space using radiative transfer theory, and incorporate data assimilation technique to estimate the distribution of wave energy. 2011 Tohoku earthquake is studied as an example to show the validity of the proposed model. 2-D space model and 3-D space model are compared in this article, and the prediction results show that numerical shake prediction based on 3-D space model can estimate the real-time ground motion precisely, and overprediction is alleviated when using 3-D space model.

  18. Real-space visualization of remnant Mott gap and magnon excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Jia, C J; Moritz, B; Devereaux, T P

    2014-04-18

    We demonstrate the ability to visualize real-space dynamics of charge gap and magnon excitations in the Mott phase of the single-band Hubbard model and the remnants of these excitations with hole or electron doping. At short times, the character of magnetic and charge excitations is maintained even for large doping away from the Mott and antiferromagnetic phases. Doping influences both the real-space patterns and long timescales of these excitations with a clear carrier asymmetry attributable to particle-hole symmetry breaking in the underlying model. Further, a rapidly oscillating charge-density-wave-like pattern weakens, but persists as a visible demonstration of a subleading instability at half-filling which remains upon doping. The results offer an approach to analyzing the behavior of systems where momentum space is either inaccessible or poorly defined.

  19. REAL OPTIONS ANALYSIS – ASSESSMENT METHOD OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN GREEN ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAFTEI DANIEL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the importance of real options as a evaluation method of investment in green energy. Article consider several theoretical and practical approaches, the analysis based on real options by many authors who have theorized and used this method. Each approach provides a operationalisation through a steps series of specific evaluation. This paper highlights the different views: academics, financiers, managers and facilitates the access to an accurate evaluation decisions of projects.

  20. Real Hypersurfaces of Nonflat Complex Projective Planes Whose Jacobi Structure Operator Satisfies a Generalized Commutative Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Theofanidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Real hypersurfaces satisfying the condition ϕl=lϕ(l=R(·,ξξ have been studied by many authors under at least one more condition, since the class of these hypersurfaces is quite tough to be classified. The aim of the present paper is the classification of real hypersurfaces in complex projective plane CP2 satisfying a generalization of ϕl=lϕ under an additional restriction on a specific function.

  1. Report of space experiment project, 'Rad Gene', performed in the International Space Station Kibo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Nagamatsu, Aiko

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the project in the title adopted by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) (in 2000) aiming to elucidate the biological effect of space environment, and contains 3 major parts of the process of the experiment, and of findings by analysis after flight and in radioadaptive response. The process for the experiment includes training of the experimenter crew (Dr. S. Magnus) in JAXA, preparation of samples (frozen cells with normal and mutated p53 genes derived from human lymphoblast TK6) and their transfer to the Space Shuttle Endeavour STS-126 launched on Nov. 15, 2008 (Japanese time) for cell culturing in Feb., 2009. Analyses after flight back to the Kennedy Space Center on Mar. 29, 2009, done on the ground in Japan thereafter include the physical evaluation, confirmation of DNA damage, and phenotypic expression with DNA- and protein-arrays (genes induced for expression of p53-related phenotypes in those cells which were stored frozen in the space, thawed on the ground and then cultured, genes induced for expressing the phenotypes and p53-related proteins expressed in cells cultured in space). Physically, total absorbed dose and dose equivalent are found to be respectively 43.5 mGy and 71.2 mSv (0.5 mSv/day). Interestingly, the biologically estimated dose by DNA-double strand breaks detected by γH2AX staining, 94.5 mSv (0.7 mSv/day), in living, frozen cells in space, is close to the above physical dose. Expression experiments of p53-related phenotypes have revealed that expression of 750 or more genes in 41,000 genes in the array is changed: enhanced or suppressed by space radiation, micro-gravity and/or their mixed effects in space environment. In 642 protein antibodies in the array, 2 proteins are found enhanced and 8, suppressed whereas heat-shock protein is unchanged. Radioadaptive response is the acquisition of radio-resistance to acute exposure by previous irradiation of small dose (window width 20-100 mSv) in normal p53

  2. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management for Finance: Application of Real Options Method for Disaster Risk Sensitive Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSDHIANTO SETIAWAN

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of real options analysis for a project that is in the process of construction and was affected by a natural disaster. The use of the analytical method has become a way of thinking in making decisions that should be taught to business school students. The case in this paper is based on an MBA thesis at the University of Gadjah Mada that was intended as a showcase for application of real options to address real business problems. It shows one of the strategies in mainstreaming disaster risk management in the business school that also answers the needs of businesses in the disaster-prone country.

  3. Design and implementation of real-time wireless projection system based on ARM embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhaohua; Tang, Hao; Huang, Junhua

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the shortage of existing real-time screen sharing system, a real-time wireless projection system is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed system, a weight-based frame deletion strategy combined sampling time period and data variation is proposed. By implementing the system on the hardware platform, the results show that the system can achieve good results. The weight-based strategy can improve the service quality, reduce the delay and optimize the real-time customer service system [1].

  4. International intercomparison on the neutron flux density spectrum just before the REAL-80 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.

    1981-06-01

    This work briefly presents the results of the international intercomparison on the neutron flux density spectrum just before the REAL-80 intercomparison project. Some of the results of this intercomparison with a smaller number of laboratories will be also reflected in the REAL-80 project, therefore, it has some significant issues. This work is performed within the IAEA programme on standardization of reactor radiation measurements, one of the important objectives of which is the assistance of laboratories in Member States to implement or intercompare the multiple foil activation techniques for different neutron field measurements

  5. 10 Steps to Building an Architecture for Space Surveillance Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorko, E.; Barnhart, E.; Gans, H.

    Space surveillance is an increasingly complex task, requiring the coordination of a multitude of organizations and systems, while dealing with competing capabilities, proprietary processes, differing standards, and compliance issues. In order to fully understand space surveillance operations, analysts and engineers need to analyze and break down their operations and systems using what are essentially enterprise architecture processes and techniques. These techniques can be daunting to the first- time architect. This paper provides a summary of simplified steps to analyze a space surveillance system at the enterprise level in order to determine capabilities, services, and systems. These steps form the core of an initial Model-Based Architecting process. For new systems, a well defined, or well architected, space surveillance enterprise leads to an easier transition from model-based architecture to model-based design and provides a greater likelihood that requirements are fulfilled the first time. Both new and existing systems benefit from being easier to manage, and can be sustained more easily using portfolio management techniques, based around capabilities documented in the model repository. The resulting enterprise model helps an architect avoid 1) costly, faulty portfolio decisions; 2) wasteful technology refresh efforts; 3) upgrade and transition nightmares; and 4) non-compliance with DoDAF directives. The Model-Based Architecting steps are based on a process that Harris Corporation has developed from practical experience architecting space surveillance systems and ground systems. Examples are drawn from current work on documenting space situational awareness enterprises. The process is centered on DoDAF 2 and its corresponding meta-model so that terminology is standardized and communicable across any disciplines that know DoDAF architecting, including acquisition, engineering and sustainment disciplines. Each step provides a guideline for the type of data to

  6. A real-space stochastic density matrix approach for density functional electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Thomas L

    2015-12-21

    The recent development of real-space grid methods has led to more efficient, accurate, and adaptable approaches for large-scale electrostatics and density functional electronic structure modeling. With the incorporation of multiscale techniques, linear-scaling real-space solvers are possible for density functional problems if localized orbitals are used to represent the Kohn-Sham energy functional. These methods still suffer from high computational and storage overheads, however, due to extensive matrix operations related to the underlying wave function grid representation. In this paper, an alternative stochastic method is outlined that aims to solve directly for the one-electron density matrix in real space. In order to illustrate aspects of the method, model calculations are performed for simple one-dimensional problems that display some features of the more general problem, such as spatial nodes in the density matrix. This orbital-free approach may prove helpful considering a future involving increasingly parallel computing architectures. Its primary advantage is the near-locality of the random walks, allowing for simultaneous updates of the density matrix in different regions of space partitioned across the processors. In addition, it allows for testing and enforcement of the particle number and idempotency constraints through stabilization of a Feynman-Kac functional integral as opposed to the extensive matrix operations in traditional approaches.

  7. MODELS OF AND APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT OF REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakova Elena Aleksandrovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that globalization and the system-wide crisis jointly produce a strong impact onto real estate (RE development projects. As a result, intensive alterations in RE project development patterns have converted into a new trend of the present-day investment and construction industry. Therefore, alterations in the area of real estate management cause numerous problems. By virtue of this article, the authors make an attempt to provide their answer to the question whether it is possible to achieve such a sophisticated level of project management in the real estate development industry, so that project-related decisions encompassed supplementary potential opportunities in terms of social, economic and public development. Towards this end, the new concept of real estate development is proposed and the system of priorities has been developed. This concept is believed to enable all players of the construction market to make higher quality decisions at early stages of RE development projects. Besides, a lot of attention is driven to the term "potential of a construction facility", that is regarded as a set of yet unimplemented opportunities for improvements of the construction facility performance as a commercial and social vehicle.

  8. Developing Near Real-time Data-assimilative Models and Tools for the Space Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IDA4D and AMIE data assimilation methods are currently of limited use for real-time space weather applications because either they don't run in real-time (IDA4D)...

  9. Numerical simulation of a cabin ventilation subsystem in a space station oriented real-time system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezheng QIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An environment control and life support system (ECLSS is an important system in a space station. The ECLSS is a typical complex system, and the real-time simulation technology can help to accelerate its research process by using distributed hardware in a loop simulation system. An implicit fixed time step numerical integration method is recommended for a real-time simulation system with time-varying parameters. However, its computational efficiency is too low to satisfy the real-time data interaction, especially for the complex ECLSS system running on a PC cluster. The instability problem of an explicit method strongly limits its application in the ECLSS real-time simulation although it has a high computational efficiency. This paper proposes an improved numerical simulation method to overcome the instability problem based on the explicit Euler method. A temperature and humidity control subsystem (THCS is firstly established, and its numerical stability is analyzed by using the eigenvalue estimation theory. Furthermore, an adaptive operator is proposed to avoid the potential instability problem. The stability and accuracy of the proposed method are investigated carefully. Simulation results show that this proposed method can provide a good way for some complex time-variant systems to run their real-time simulation on a PC cluster. Keywords: Numerical integration method, Real-time simulation, Stability, THCS, Time-variant system

  10. Kac's question, planar isospectral pairs and involutions in projective space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thas, Koen

    2006-01-01

    In a paper published in Am. Math. Mon. (1966 73 1-23), Kac asked his famous question 'Can one hear the shape of a drum?'. Gordon et al answered this question negatively by constructing planar isospectral pairs in their paper published in Invent. Math. (1992 110 1-22). Only a finite number of pairs have been constructed till now. Further in J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. (2005 38 L477-83), Giraud showed that most of the known examples can be generated from solutions of a certain equation which involves certain involutions of an n-dimensional projective space over some finite field. He then generated all possible solutions when n = 2. In this letter we handle all dimensions, and show that no other examples arise. (letter to the editor)

  11. First-principles real-space tight-binding LMTO calculation of electronic structures for atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.L.; Dy, K.S.; Wu, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    A real-space scheme has been developed for a first-principles calculation of electronic structures and total energies of atomic clusters. The scheme is based on the combination of the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TBLMTO) method and the method of real-space Green close-quote s function. With this approach, the local electronic density of states can be conveniently determined from the real-space Green close-quote s function. Furthermore, the full electron density of a cluster can be directly calculated in real space. The scheme has been shown to be very efficient due to the incorporation of the method of real-space Green close-quote s function and Delley close-quote s method of evaluating multicenter integrals. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Real-space grid implementation of the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Bruno; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2005-01-01

    A grid-based real-space implementation of the projector augmented wave sPAWd method of Blöchl fPhys. Rev. B 50, 17953 s1994dg for density functional theory sDFTd calculations is presented. The use of uniform three-dimensional s3Dd real-space grids for representing wave functions, densities...... valence wave functions that can be represented on relatively coarse grids. We demonstrate the accuracy of the method by calculating the atomization energies of 20 small molecules, and the bulk modulus and lattice constants of bulk aluminum. We show that the approach in terms of computational efficiency...... is comparable to standard plane-wave methods, but the memory requirements are higher....

  13. Space Science in Project SMART: A UNH High School Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Goelzer, S.; Lessard, M.; Levergood, R.; Lugaz, N.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Torbert, R. B.; Zhang, J.; Bloser, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    Every summer for the past 25 years the University of New Hampshire (UNH) has run a month-long, residential outreach program for high school students considering careers in mathematics, science, or engineering. Space science is one of the modules. Students work directly with UNH faculty performing original work with real spacecraft data and hardware and present the results of that effort at the end of the program. Recent research topics have included interplanetary waves and turbulence as recorded by the ACE and Voyager spacecraft, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves seen by the RBSP spacecraft, interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME) acceleration and interstellar pickup ions as seen by the STEREO spacecraft, and prototyping CubeSat hardware. Student research efforts can provide useful results for future research efforts by the faculty while the students gain unique exposure to space physics and a science career. In addition, the students complete a team project. Since 2006, that project has been the construction and flight of a high-altitude balloon payload and instruments. The students typically build the instruments they fly. In the process, students learn circuit design and construction, microcontroller programming, and core atmospheric and space science. Our payload design has evolved significantly since the first flight of a simple rectangular box and now involves a stable descent vehicle that does not require a parachute, an on-board flight control computer, in-flight autonomous control and data acquisition of multiple student-built instruments, and real-time camera images sent to ground. This is a program that can be used as a model for other schools to follow and that high schools can initiate. More information can be found at .

  14. Electric space heating scheduling for real-time explicit power control in active distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bernstein, Andrey; Chamorro, Lorenzo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for abstracting the flexibility of a building space heating system and using it within a composable framework for real-time explicit power control of microgrids and, more in general, active distribution networks. In particular, the proposed approach...... is developed within the context of a previously defined microgrid control framework, called COMMELEC, conceived for the explicit and real-time control of these specific networks. The designed control algorithm is totally independent from the need of a building model and allows exploiting the intrinsic thermal...... inertia for real-time control. The paper first discusses the general approach, then it proves its validity via dedicated simulations performed on specific case study composed by the CIGRE LV microgrid benchmark proposed by the Cigré TF C6.04.02....

  15. project SENSE : multimodal simulation with full-body real-time verbal and nonverbal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miri, Hossein; Kolkmeier, Jan; Taylor, Paul Jonathon; Poppe, Ronald; Heylen, Dirk; Poppe, Ronald; Meyer, John-Jules; Veltkamp, Remco; Dastani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal simulation system, project-SENSE, that combines virtual reality and full-body motion capture technologies with real-time verbal and nonverbal communication. We introduce the technical setup and employed hardware and software of a first prototype. We discuss the

  16. Building Real World Domain-Specific Social Network Websites as a Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kwok-Bun; De Silva, Dilhar; Kim, Dan; Aktepe, Mirac; Nagle, Stewart; Boerger, Chris; Jain, Anubha; Verma, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of using Content Management Software (CMS), specifically Joomla, to build a real world domain-specific social network site (SNS) as a capstone project for graduate information systems and computer science students. As Web 2.0 technologies become increasingly important in driving business application development,…

  17. Adapting to Change in a Master Level Real-World-Projects Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappert, Charles C.; Stix, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Our mission of capstone computing courses for the past ten years has been to offer students experience with the development of real-world information technology projects. This experience has included both the hard and soft skills required for the work they could expect as industrial practitioners. Hard skills entail extending one's knowledge…

  18. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plantsor algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stress-tolerant strains. Site-directed and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of Photosystem II D1 protein were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. Metabolite profiling by quantitative HPLC methods revealed the organisms and the stress conditions capable to accumulate the highest pigment levels. In order to develop a project for a rationale metabolic engineering of algal secondary metabolites overproduction, we are performing expression analyses on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway under physiological and mimicked space conditions. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton-M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence biosensor, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device

  19. Reconstruction of real-space linear matter power spectrum from multipoles of BOSS DR12 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the power spectrum (PS) multipoles using the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) sample are analyzed [1]. The based model for the analysis is the so-called TNS quasi-linear model and the analysis provides the multipoles up to the hexadecapole [2]. Thus, one might be able to recover the real-space linear matter PS by using the combinations of multipoles to investigate the cosmology [3]. We provide the analytic form of the ratio of quadrupole (hexadecapole) to monopole moments of the quasi-linear PS including the Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect to recover the real-space PS in the linear regime. One expects that observed values of the ratios of multipoles should be consistent with those of the linear theory at large scales. Thus, we compare the ratios of multipoles of the linear theory, including the FoG effect with the measured values. From these, we recover the linear matter power spectra in real-space. These recovered power spectra are consistent with the linear matter power spectra.

  20. Real-time graphics for the Space Station Freedom cupola, developed in the Systems Engineering Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red, Michael T.; Hess, Philip W.

    1989-01-01

    Among the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center's responsibilities for Space Station Freedom is the cupola. Attached to the resource node, the cupola is a windowed structure that will serve as the space station's secondary control center. From the cupola, operations involving the mobile service center and orbital maneuvering vehicle will be conducted. The Systems Engineering Simulator (SES), located in building 16, activated a real-time man-in-the-loop cupola simulator in November 1987. The SES cupola is an engineering tool with the flexibility to evolve in both hardware and software as the final cupola design matures. Two workstations are simulated with closed-circuit television monitors, rotational and translational hand controllers, programmable display pushbuttons, and graphics display with trackball and keyboard. The displays and controls of the SES cupola are driven by a Silicon Graphics Integrated Raster Imaging System (IRIS) 4D/70 GT computer. Through the use of an interactive display builder program, SES, cupola display pages consisting of two dimensional and three dimensional graphics are constructed. These display pages interact with the SES via the IRIS real-time graphics interface. The focus is on the real-time graphics interface applications software developed on the IRIS.

  1. Modified projective synchronization with complex scaling factors of uncertain real chaos and complex chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fang-Fang; Liu Shu-Tang; Yu Wei-Yong

    2013-01-01

    To increase the variety and security of communication, we present the definitions of modified projective synchronization with complex scaling factors (CMPS) of real chaotic systems and complex chaotic systems, where complex scaling factors establish a link between real chaos and complex chaos. Considering all situations of unknown parameters and pseudo-gradient condition, we design adaptive CMPS schemes based on the speed-gradient method for the real drive chaotic system and complex response chaotic system and for the complex drive chaotic system and the real response chaotic system, respectively. The convergence factors and dynamical control strength are added to regulate the convergence speed and increase robustness. Numerical simulations verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented schemes. (general)

  2. Succesful Experience of the Project "ASTROTOP" in Israel: Space-astonomy Science education in form of independent reserch projects of pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, Lev

    We present more then 10 year experience of educational project in Space/Astrophysics/Environment field, realized on the base of National Science- Educational Center "Blossoms of Science" of the Jordan Valley College. Our approach is based on the natural curiosity of children as driver of their self-development from the first minutes of their life and even in adult state. This approach shift center of the weight in educational process from direct lectures, sermons, explanation from teacher to children on own attempts of children to investigate problem, what is interesting for them, by themselves (individually or in group). Our approach includes four levels of the projects: "nano-projects" for children garden and basic school (up to 10-12 years), "micro-projects" for intermediate school (12-16 years), "mini-projects" for high school (16-18 years), and "macro-projects" for the best graduates high schools and students of colleges (17-22 years). These levels and projects are interconnected one with another and sometimes participants, started on the micro-projects level in intermediate school, continue their activity up to macro-projects of the graduate's diploma level. For each level we organize courses for preparation of the teachers and instructors, interested in the using of our receipts, and published books and brochures for them. The content of our activity for different levels: a) Level of kinder gardens/basic schools- special software with interactive movie -nano-projects; b) Level of intermediate school: "Days of Science" in tens schools of Israel- first contact with astronomy; c) Summer astronomy camps (4-5 of one week camps on 200-300 pupils from all country) with introduce to astronomy and with preparation of micro-projects on themes - first successful experience of research in real science fields (hundreds projects); d) ASTROTOP - one year program of preparation of short projects, with solution on the quality level of chosen astrophysical problem - mini-projects

  3. Real-Time Projection-Based Augmented Reality System for Dynamic Objects in the Performing Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the case study of applying projection-based augmented reality, especially for dynamic objects in live performing shows, such as plays, dancing, or musicals. Our study aims to project imagery correctly inside the silhouettes of flexible objects, in other words, live actors or the surface of actor’s costumes; the silhouette transforms its own shape frequently. To realize this work, we implemented a special projection system based on the real-time masking technique, that is to say real-time projection-based augmented reality system for dynamic objects in performing arts. We installed the sets on a stage for live performance, and rehearsed particular scenes of a musical. In live performance, using projection-based augmented reality technology enhances technical and theatrical aspects which were not possible with existing video projection techniques. The projected images on the surfaces of actor’s costume could not only express the particular scene of a performance more effectively, but also lead the audience to an extraordinary visual experience.

  4. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plants- or algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stresstolerant strains. Photosystem II D1 protein sitedirected and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [1] were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. For this purpose some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls were included in the study [2]. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton- M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence detector, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for several different algae strains (Fig.1). Twelve different C. reinhardti strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space

  5. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Miller, S.; Minow, J. I.; Wolk, S.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth's radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (real-time data provided by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center. This presentation will discuss radiation mitigation against proton damage, including models and real-time data sources used to protect the ACIS detector

  6. Real non-abelian mixed hodge structures for quasi-projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, J P

    2016-01-01

    The author defines and constructs mixed Hodge structures on real schematic homotopy types of complex quasi-projective varieties, giving mixed Hodge structures on their homotopy groups and pro-algebraic fundamental groups. The author also shows that these split on tensoring with the ring \\mathbb{R}[x] equipped with the Hodge filtration given by powers of (x-i), giving new results even for simply connected varieties. The mixed Hodge structures can thus be recovered from the Gysin spectral sequence of cohomology groups of local systems, together with the monodromy action at the Archimedean place. As the basepoint varies, these structures all become real variations of mixed Hodge structure.

  7. The impact of delaying an investment decision on R&D projects in real option game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shuhua; Li, Yue; Gao, Fanglu

    2016-01-01

    In a research and development (R&D) investment, the cost and the project value of such an investment are usually uncertain, which thus increases its complexity. Correspondingly, the NPV (Net Present Value) rule fails to evaluate the value of this project exactly, because this method does not take into account the market uncertainty, irreversibility of investment and ability of delay entry. In this paper, we employ the real option theory to evaluate the project value of a R&D investment. Since the cost of a R&D investment is very high and the flow of the information is crowded, an investor cannot make an immediate decision every time. So, the proposed real option model is an exchange option. At the same time, combining the real option and the game theory, we can find the Nash equilibrium which is the optimal strategy. Moreover, we also study how the delayed time influences the price of the project investment and how the different delayed times effect the choice of the optimal strategies.

  8. Crowdfunding, an alternative source of financing construction and real estate projects. Guideline for Developers on how to use this tool in medium size projects.

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Mercado, David

    2017-01-01

    Real estate crowdfunding comprises the process of investing in a real estate projects using online platforms, specialized websites that can reach a large number of potential investors, changing in just few years the traditional approach of the real estate industry. This phenomenon has become a trend among small and medium project developers, which nowadays have this additional source of financing. However, many people still unfamiliar about this new business model. Therefore, it is relevant t...

  9. A decision model for E and P petroleum projects using real options and preference theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Gabriel A.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Analise Geoconomica (LAGE); Suslick, Saul B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo; Nepomuceno Filho, Francisco [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The results from Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) are limited as a tool for decision-making in the petroleum industry because they do not properly take into account three important features of the modern investments: uncertainty, irreversibility, timing and corporation's risk-aversion. Recent developments in real options and preference theories have allowed decision-makers to employ these two approaches separately in the process of valuation and decision-making of risky projects. This paper presents a model for valuation and decision-making integrating discounted cash flow, real options and reference theory. This model seems to be suitable to answer to the following questions: what is the current value of an oil project? what is the optimal working interest in this project venture?; what is criteria to select projects considering investment irreversibility, uncertainty and timing to implement decisions? This model is applied to valuation and decision-making of a project to produce oil from a deep-water reservoir and its results are compared to those of the traditional approach. NPV model suggest that, as the project value is above its investment cost, the corporation should invest immediately and take 100% working interest in the project. Contrarily, the integrated model suggest the corporation should invest as long as project current value is as large as 1.85 times investment cost and should take only 44.38% working interest, whereas partners fund and acquire the remaining 55,62% of the project. In general, results indicate that NPV tend to pay more attention on return and does not account properly for risk. Then, as the uncertainty or volatile of strategic variables increases, the two models give more divergent results. (author)

  10. Astrium suborbital spaceplane project: Demand analysis of suborbital space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Thierry; Moreau, Antoine

    2013-12-01

    ASTRIUM is preparing the development of a safe and passenger friendly Suborbital Spaceplane, taking off and landing from a standard runway, powered by turbofans and using a rocket engine of proven design to reach 100 km altitude. This vehicle will be able to carry paying passengers to the edge of space and return them safely to their starting point. As a very new potentially adjacent B2C market, Astrium had decided at the beginning of this project to first conduct a full market analysis with the support of a worldwide survey based Research Company (IPSOS) in order to assess reality and credibility of this market. Two campaigns have been done, the first one in 2007 and the second one in 2010 after the international financial crisis. Last one has been also the opportunity to optimize quality of models by focusing in Asia region. This article describes the methodology used for this survey and unveils some results in term of size of this market and typology of the customers.

  11. Overview of some projects of SNPS for global space communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Ghitajkin, V.; Ionkin, V.; Dubinin, A.; Pyshko, A.

    2000-01-01

    Modem concepts of the application of power technology in space believe in using an onboard source of energy for maintenance of self-transportation of the vehicle into working geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This can result in reduction of the cost of all installation and the number of rocket starts. There we present several conceptual projects of nuclear power installations. Power units developed with, IPPE's participation are intended for long term supply of electricity to the vehicle in GEO and to maintain self-transportation of capabilities. Considered units include a tiny, fast neutron nuclear reactor, radiation shield, control system, cooling system (radiator) and power conversion system. Additionally, they must also include a rocket engine to maintain the dual-mode regime. This may be an electric-stationary ion jet (with Xe as working body) and a thermal engine such as hybrid or NRE. There are three more prospective systems as follows: (a) gas cooled nuclear reactor with hybrid thermal engine and machine power converter; (b) nuclear reactor cooled by liquid metal and with a thermoelectric power generating system; (c) nuclear reactor with Li cooling and a thermionic and thermoelectric power generator on board. All considered schemes have two thermal circuits and use thermal pipes in the radiator. Two final concepts are based on a Xe electric jet; these differ from first concept by having a lower working body mass but a longer transportation period from basic orbit into GEO. (authors)

  12. In-Space Manufacturing Project (prior to FY15: Additive Manufacturing Technology Development)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project is responsible for developing the manufacturing capabilities that will provide on-demand, sustainable operations during NASA...

  13. Moduli of mathematical instanton vector bundles with odd c2 on projective space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, Aleksandr S

    2012-01-01

    We study the moduli space I n of mathematical instanton vector bundles of rank 2 with second Chern class n≥1 on the projective space P 3 , and prove the irreducibility of I n for arbitrary odd n≥1.

  14. Designing and Using Projects with Real World Application in a MBA Managerial Accounting Class: The Case of The Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houke, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the purpose of designing and using projects with real world application in a M.B.A. managerial accounting class. Included is a discussion of how and why the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Project has been used in classes to link theory with practice by providing real world application of the BSC framework. M.B.A. students represent a…

  15. Life sciences payloads analyses and technical program planning studies. [project planning of space missions of space shuttles in aerospace medicine and space biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Contractural requirements, project planning, equipment specifications, and technical data for space shuttle biological experiment payloads are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) urine collection and processing on the space shuttle, (2) space processing of biochemical and biomedical materials, (3) mission simulations, and (4) biomedical equipment.

  16. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  17. Super Global Projects and Environmentally Friendly Technologies Used in Space Exploration: Realities and Prospects of the Space Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The 60th anniversary of the Space Age is an important intermediate finishing point on the way of a man and the whole humanity to space. Along with the outstanding achievements, there are a number of challenges and contradictions in space exploration due to the aggravation of the global crisis on Earth, low efficiency and the backlog of space research in the transition to a new technology based reality and clean technologies. Both the international astronautics and the space exploration area nowadays face difficulties in choosing a new paradigm and a development strategy that is becoming even more complicated due to the current unstable and turbulent situation on Earth. The article reveals the optimistic scenario of further space exploration, as well as the methodological and practical aspects of new projects and technologies. The periodization of the Space Age history has been conducted. It has been also proposed a new classification of the “space” phenomenon due to concretizing the concept of “global” in the form of a three-scale structure encompassing the following levels: 1 planetary global; 2 super global; 3 universally global. The notion of “super global space exploration project” has been introduced. The concept of further space exploration is proposed, which includes four interrelated super global projects:1 Earth Protection System from Asteroid and Comet Threat; 2 Moon Exploration; 3 Mars Exploration; 4 Cosmic Humanity. Since the humanity is embarking on the practical implementation of these super global projects, it is urgent to make a transition towards a new technology based order, as well as up-to-date technologies. A couple of ecological projects and space exploration technologies of the 20th and 21st centuries have been exemplified and analyzed. It has been also worked out the list of new environmentally friendly space technologies and projects. The research makes an emphasis upon a great potential of clean and green

  18. A real-time MTFC algorithm of space remote-sensing camera based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liting; Huang, Gang; Lin, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    A real-time MTFC algorithm of space remote-sensing camera based on FPGA was designed. The algorithm can provide real-time image processing to enhance image clarity when the remote-sensing camera running on-orbit. The image restoration algorithm adopted modular design. The MTF measurement calculation module on-orbit had the function of calculating the edge extension function, line extension function, ESF difference operation, normalization MTF and MTFC parameters. The MTFC image filtering and noise suppression had the function of filtering algorithm and effectively suppressing the noise. The algorithm used System Generator to design the image processing algorithms to simplify the design structure of system and the process redesign. The image gray gradient dot sharpness edge contrast and median-high frequency were enhanced. The image SNR after recovery reduced less than 1 dB compared to the original image. The image restoration system can be widely used in various fields.

  19. Screen Space Ambient Occlusion Based Multiple Importance Sampling for Real-Time Rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerari, Abd El Mouméne; Babahenini, Mohamed Chaouki

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new approximation technique for accelerating the Global Illumination algorithm for real-time rendering. The proposed approach is based on the Screen-Space Ambient Occlusion (SSAO) method, which approximates the global illumination for large, fully dynamic scenes at interactive frame rates. Current algorithms that are based on the SSAO method suffer from difficulties due to the large number of samples that are required. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the SSAO technique by integrating it with a Multiple Importance Sampling technique that combines a stratified sampling method with an importance sampling method, with the objective of reducing the number of samples. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our technique can produce high-quality images in real time and is significantly faster than traditional techniques.

  20. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Troyer, Matthias; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model. (paper)

  1. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model.

  2. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  3. Coalescence measurements for evolving foams monitored by real-time projection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagotin, A; Helfen, L; Baumbach, T

    2009-01-01

    Real-time radiographic projection imaging together with novel spatio-temporal image analysis is presented to be a powerful technique for the quantitative analysis of coalescence processes accompanying the generation and temporal evolution of foams and emulsions. Coalescence events can be identified as discontinuities in a spatio-temporal image representing a sequence of projection images. Detection, identification of intensity and localization of the discontinuities exploit a violation criterion of the Fourier shift theorem and are based on recursive spatio-temporal image partitioning. The proposed method is suited for automated measurements of discontinuity rates (i.e., discontinuity intensity per unit time), so that large series of radiographs can be analyzed without user intervention. The application potential is demonstrated by the quantification of coalescence during the formation and decay of metal foams monitored by real-time x-ray radiography

  4. The Robobo Project: Bringing Educational Robotics Closer to Real-World Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellas, Francisco; Naya, Martin; Varela, Gervasio

    2017-01-01

    The Robobo Project is a STEM-based project that aims to bring educational robotics, in primary and high school, closer to real-world applications. It is based on the use of a smartphone-based robotic platform called Robobo, a very flexible programming environment, and a set of lessons to integrate...... them. The smartphone provides high-level hardware capabilities in terms of sensors, communications and processing capabilities that allow to create more practical and realistic lessons that exploit human-robot interaction, with a small investment. In this paper, we present the main elements...

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DIFFICULTY OF EVACUATION FROM UNDERGROUND SPACES UNDER INUNDATED SITUATIONS USING REAL SCALE MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yasuyuki; Ishigaki, Taisuke; Toda, Keiichi; Nakagawa, Hajime

    Many urbanized cities in Japan are located in alluvial plains, and the vulnerability of urbanized areas to flood disaster is highlighted by flood attacks due to heavy rain fall or typhoons. Underground spaces located in the urbanized area are flood-prone areas, and the intrusion of flood watar into underground space inflicted severe damages on urban functions and infrastructures. In a similar way, low-lying areas like "bowl-shaped" depression and underpasses under highway and railroad bridges are also prone to floods. The underpasses are common sites of accidents of submerged vehicles, and severe damage including human damage occasionally occurs under flooding conditions. To reduce the damage due to inundation in underground space, needless to say, early evacuation is one of the most important countermeasures. This paper shows some experimental results of evacuation tests from underground spaces under inundated situations. The difficulities of the evacuation from underground space has been investigated by using real scale models (door, staircase and vehicle), and the limit for safety evacuation is discussed. From the results, it is found that water depth of 0.3 - 0.4m would be a critical situation for the evacuation from underground space through staircases and door and that 0.7 - 0.8m deep on the ground would be also a critical situation for safety evacuation though the doors of the vehicle. These criteria have some possibility to vary according to different inundated situations, and they are also influenced by the individual variation like the difference of physical strength. This means that these criteria requires cautious stance to use although they show a sort of an index of the limitation for saftty evacuation from underground space.

  6. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-Ray Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Miller, J. Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz. Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ( soft , 100 500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth s magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (real-time data provided by NOAA s Space Weather Prediction Center. This presentation describes the radiation mitigation strategies to minimize the proton damage in the ACIS CCD detectors and the importance of real-time data

  7. Nature's Way of Making Audacious Space Projects Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2011-01-01

    Building a starship within the next 100 years is an audacious goal. To be successful, we need sustained funding that may be difficult to maintain in the face of economic challenges that are poised to arise during these next 100 years. Our species' civilization has only recently reached the classification as (approximately) Type-I on the Kardashev scale; that is, we have spread out from one small locality to become a global species mastering the energy and resources of an entire planet. In the process we discovered the profound truth that the two-dimensional surface of our world is not flat, but has positive curvature and is closed so that its area and resources are finite. It should come as no surprise to a Type I civilization when its planet's resources dWindle; how could they not? Yet we have gone year by year, government by government, making little investment for the time when civilization becomes violent in the unwelcome contractions that must follow, when we are forced too late into the inevitable choice: to remain and diminish on an unhappy world; or to expand into the only dimension remaining perpendicularly outward from the surface into space. Then some day we may become a Type-II civilization, mastering the resources of an entire solar system. Our species cannot continue as we have on this planet for another 100 years. Doubtless it falls on us today, the very time we intended to start building a starship, to make the late choice. We wished this century to be filled with enlightenment and adventure; it could be an age of desperation and war. What a time to begin an audacious project in space! How will we maintain consistent funding for the next 100 years? Fortunately, saving a civilization, mastering a solar system, and doing other great things like building starships amount to mostly the same set of tasks. Recognizing what we must be about during the next 100 years will make it possible to do them all.

  8. Periodically driven random quantum spin chains: real-space renormalization for Floquet localized phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2017-07-01

    When random quantum spin chains are submitted to some periodic Floquet driving, the eigenstates of the time-evolution operator over one period can be localized in real space. For the case of periodic quenches between two Hamiltonians (or periodic kicks), where the time-evolution operator over one period reduces to the product of two simple transfer matrices, we propose a block-self-dual renormalization procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of the Floquet dynamics. We also discuss the corresponding strong disorder renormalization procedure, that generalizes the RSRG-X procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of time-independent Hamiltonians.

  9. A three-dimensional radiation image display on a real space image created via photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Ozawa, S.; Tanifuji, Y.; Torii, T.

    2018-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc., went into meltdown after the occurrence of a large tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. The radiation distribution measurements inside the FDNPS buildings are indispensable to execute decommissioning tasks in the reactor buildings. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction method for radioactive substances using a compact Compton camera. Moreover, we succeeded in visually recognizing the position of radioactive substances in real space by the integration of 3D radiation images and the 3D photo-model created using photogrammetry.

  10. Imaging in real and reciprocal space at the Diamond beamline I13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, C.; Wagner, U. H.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Bodey, A.; Parson, A.; García-Fernández, M.; Pešić, Z.; De Fanis, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Diamond Imaging and Coherence beamline I13 consists of two independent branchlines for imaging in real and reciprocal space. Different microscopies are available providing a range of spatial resolution from 5µm to potentially 5nm. The beamline operates in the energy range of 6-35keV covering different scientific areas such as biomedicine, materials science and geophysics. Several original devices have been developed at the beamline, such as the EXCALIBUR photon counting detector and the combined robot arms for coherent X-ray diffraction

  11. Real-space decoupling transformation for quantum many-body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenbly, G; Vidal, G

    2014-06-06

    We propose a real-space renormalization group method to explicitly decouple into independent components a many-body system that, as in the phenomenon of spin-charge separation, exhibits separation of degrees of freedom at low energies. Our approach produces a branching holographic description of such systems that opens the path to the efficient simulation of the most entangled phases of quantum matter, such as those whose ground state violates a boundary law for entanglement entropy. As in the coarse-graining transformation of Vidal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220405 (2007).

  12. Definition of a near real-time microbiological monitor for application in space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.; Zahorchak, Robert J.; Arendale, William F.; Woodward, Samuel S.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The concepts and methodologies for microbiological monitoring in space are examined, focusing on the determination of the requirements of a near real-time microbiological monitor. Results are presented from the technical evaluation of five microbiological monitor concepts, including cultural methods, single cell detection, biomolecular detection, specific product detection, and general molecular composition. Within these concepts, twenty-eight specific methodolgies were assessed and the five candidate methodologies with the highest engineering and feasibility scores were selected for further evaluations. The candidate methodologies are laser light scattering, primary fluorescence, secondary fluorescence, volatile product detection, and electronic particle detection. The advantages and disadvantages of these five candidate methodologies are discussed.

  13. Unfolding and effective bandstructure calculations as discrete real- and reciprocal-space operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boykin, Timothy B., E-mail: boykin@ece.uah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ajoy, Arvind [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, alloy electronic structure calculations based on supercell Brillouin zone unfolding have become popular. There are a number of formulations of the method which on the surface might appear different. Here we show that a discrete real-space description, based on discrete Fourier transforms, is fully general. Furthermore, such an approach can more easily show the effects of alloy scattering. We present such a method for treating the random alloy problem. This treatment features straightforward mathematics and a transparent physical interpretation of the calculated effective (i.e., approximate) energy bands.

  14. Imaging in real and reciprocal space at the Diamond beamline I13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, C., E-mail: Christoph.rau@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, School of Materials Grosvenor St., Manchester, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Northwestern University School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3008 (United States); Wagner, U. H.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Bodey, A.; Parson, A.; García-Fernández, M.; Pešić, Z. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); De Fanis, A. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); European XFEL GmbH, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The Diamond Imaging and Coherence beamline I13 consists of two independent branchlines for imaging in real and reciprocal space. Different microscopies are available providing a range of spatial resolution from 5µm to potentially 5nm. The beamline operates in the energy range of 6-35keV covering different scientific areas such as biomedicine, materials science and geophysics. Several original devices have been developed at the beamline, such as the EXCALIBUR photon counting detector and the combined robot arms for coherent X-ray diffraction.

  15. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of a nonequilibrium Green's function method for self-consistent calculations of electron transport and forces in nanostructured materials. The electronic structure is described at the level of density functional theory using the projector augmented wave method...... over k points and real space makes the code highly efficient and applicable to systems containing several hundreds of atoms. The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport....

  16. Lattice dynamics calculations based on density-functional perturbation theory in real space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Honghui; Carbogno, Christian; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    A real-space formalism for density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT) is derived and applied for the computation of harmonic vibrational properties in molecules and solids. The practical implementation using numeric atom-centered orbitals as basis functions is demonstrated exemplarily for the all-electron Fritz Haber Institute ab initio molecular simulations (FHI-aims) package. The convergence of the calculations with respect to numerical parameters is carefully investigated and a systematic comparison with finite-difference approaches is performed both for finite (molecules) and extended (periodic) systems. Finally, the scaling tests and scalability tests on massively parallel computer systems demonstrate the computational efficiency.

  17. Networks In Real Space: Characteristics and Analysis for Biology and Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modes, Carl; Magnasco, Marcelo; Katifori, Eleni

    Functional networks embedded in physical space play a crucial role in countless biological and physical systems, from the efficient dissemination of oxygen, blood sugars, and hormonal signals in vascular systems to the complex relaying of informational signals in the brain to the distribution of stress and strain in architecture or static sand piles. Unlike their more-studied abstract cousins, such as the hyperlinked internet, social networks, or economic and financial connections, these networks are both constrained by and intimately connected to the physicality of their real, embedding space. We report on the results of new computational and analytic approaches tailored to these physical networks with particular implications and insights for mammalian organ vasculature.

  18. Real-space quasilinear theory of drift waves in a sheared magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    A real-space quasilinear theory is developed for the collisional and the collisionless drift waves in a plasma with a sheared magnetic field of slab geometry. The equation obtained describes the interaction between many localized modes around different rational surfaces through the density modulation of the energy source region of each mode. The wave amplitudes approach to the stationary values through a relaxation oscillation process. When the width x sub(s) of the energy source region becomes comparable to the spacing Δx of the two adjacent rational surfaces, diffusion coefficient due to the wave is enhanced over the classical value, while the nonlocal heat transport due to the wave propagation is shown to be negligible compared to that associated with the diffusion process. (auth.)

  19. Real-time validation of receiver state information in optical space-time block code systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamia, John; Kurzweg, Timothy

    2014-06-15

    Free space optical interconnect (FSOI) systems are a promising solution to interconnect bottlenecks in high-speed systems. To overcome some sources of diminished FSOI performance caused by close proximity of multiple optical channels, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems implementing encoding schemes such as space-time block coding (STBC) have been developed. These schemes utilize information pertaining to the optical channel to reconstruct transmitted data. The STBC system is dependent on accurate channel state information (CSI) for optimal system performance. As a result of dynamic changes in optical channels, a system in operation will need to have updated CSI. Therefore, validation of the CSI during operation is a necessary tool to ensure FSOI systems operate efficiently. In this Letter, we demonstrate a method of validating CSI, in real time, through the use of moving averages of the maximum likelihood decoder data, and its capacity to predict the bit error rate (BER) of the system.

  20. On projective invariants based on non-linear connections in a Finsler space I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.C.

    1986-05-01

    The projective transformations based on linear connections in a Finsler space have been studied by Berwald, Misra, Szabo, Matsumoto, Fukai and Yamada, Rastogi and others. In almost all these papers the emphasis has been on studying Finsler spaces of scalar curvature, Finsler spaces of constant curvature and Finsler spaces of zero curvature with the help of projective curvature tensors of Weyl and Douglas. In 1981, the author studied projective transformation in a Finsler space based on non-linear connections and obtained certain projective invariants. The aim of the present paper is to study Finsler spaces of scalar curvature, constant curvature and zero curvature with the help of non-linear connections and projective invariants obtained from non-linear connections. (author)

  1. Maximum-entropy data restoration using both real- and Fourier-space analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Martin, D.C.; Thomas, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    An extension of the maximum-entropy (ME) data-restoration method is presented that is sensitive to periodic correlations in data. The method takes advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio for periodic information in Fourier space, thus enhancing statistically significant frequencies in a manner which avoids the user bias inherent in conventional Fourier filtering. This procedure incorporates concepts underlying new approaches in quantum mechanics that consider entropies in both position and momentum spaces, although the emphasis here is on data restoration rather than quantum physics. After a fast Fourier transform of the image, the phases are saved and the array of Fourier moduli are restored using the maximum-entropy criterion. A first-order continuation method is introduced that speeds convergence of the ME computation. The restored moduli together with the original phases are then Fourier inverted to yield a new image; traditional real-space ME restoration is applied to this new image completing one stage in the restoration process. In test cases improvement can be obtained from two to four stages of iteration. It is shown that in traditional Fourier filtering spurious features can be induced by selection or elimination of Fourier components without regard to their statistical significance. With the present approach there is no such freedom for the user to exert personal bias, so that features present in the final image and power spectrum are those which have survived the tests of statistical significance in both real and Fourier space. However, it is still possible for periodicities to 'bleed' across sharp boundaries. An 'uncertainty' relation is derived describing the inverse relationship between the resolution of these boundaries and the level of noise that can be eliminated. (orig./BHO)

  2. Metric and topology on a non-standard real line and non-standard space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir Shah, K.

    1981-04-01

    We study metric and topological properties of extended real line R* and compare it with the non-standard model of real line *R. We show that some properties, like triangular inequality, cannot be carried over R* from R. This confirms F. Wattenberg's result for measure theory on Dedekind completion of *R. Based on conclusions from these results we propose a non-standard model of space-time. This space-time is without undefined objects like singularities. (author)

  3. Stennis Space Center Salinity Drifter Project. A Collaborative Project with Hancock High School, Kiln, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcic, Maria; Turowski, Mark; Hall, Callie

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: importance of salinity of coastal waters, habitat switching algorithm, habitat switching module, salinity estimates from Landsat for Sabine Calcasieu Basin, percent of time inundated in 2006, salinity data, prototyping the system, system as packaged for field tests, salinity probe and casing, opening for water flow, cellular antenna used to transmit data, preparing to launch, system is launched in the Pearl River at Stennis Space Center, data are transmitted to Twitter by cell phone modem every 15 minutes, Google spreadsheet I used to import the data from the Twitter feed and to compute salinity (from conductivity) and display charts of salinity and temperature, results are uploaded to NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office Webpage.

  4. Real-time geomagnetic monitoring for space weather-related applications: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.

    2017-07-01

    An examination is made of opportunities and challenges for enhancing global, real-time geomagnetic monitoring that would be beneficial for a variety of operational projects. This enhancement in geomagnetic monitoring can be attained by expanding the geographic distribution of magnetometer stations, improving the quality of magnetometer data, increasing acquisition sampling rates, increasing the promptness of data transmission, and facilitating access to and use of the data. Progress will benefit from new partnerships to leverage existing capacities and harness multisector, cross-disciplinary, and international interests.

  5. The projection operator in a Hilbert space and its directional derivative. Consequences for the theory of projected dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Isac

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper we present a representation theorem for the directional derivative of the metric projection operator in an arbitrary Hilbert space. As a consequence of the representation theorem, we present in the second part the development of the theory of projected dynamical systems in infinite dimensional Hilbert space. We show that this development is possible if we use the viable solutions of differential inclusions. We use also pseudomonotone operators.

  6. Rapid testing and identification of actuator using dSPACE real-time emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Daocheng; Wang, Zhongwei; Zeng, Qinghua

    2011-10-01

    To solve the problem of model identification of actuator in control system design of aerocraft, testing system based on dSPACE emulator is established, sending testing signal and receiving feedback voltage are realized using dSPACE interactive cards, communication between signal generating equipment and feedback voltage acquisition equipment is synchronized. This paper introduces the hardware architecture and key technologies of the simulation system. Constructing, downloading and calculating of the testing model is finished using dSPACE emulator, D/A transfer of testing signal is realized using DS2103 card, DS2002 card transfer the feedback voltage to digital value. Filtering module is added to the signal acquisition, for reduction of noise interference in the A/D channel. Precision of time and voltage is improved by setting acquisition period 1ms. The data gathered is recorded and displayed with Controldesk tools. The response of four actuators under different frequency are tested, frequency-domain analysis is done using least square method, the model of actuator is identified, simulation data fits well with real response of the actuator. The testing system created with dSPACE emulator satisfies the rapid testing and identification of actuator.

  7. Real space in situ bond energies: toward a consistent energetic definition of bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Crespo, Daniel; Costales, Aurora; Francisco, Evelio; Martin Pendas, Angel

    2018-04-14

    A rigorous definition of intrinsic bond strength based on the partitioning of a molecule into real space fragments is presented. Using the domains provided by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) together with the interacting quantum atoms (IQA) energetic decomposition, we show how an in situ bond strength, matching all the requirements of an intrinsic bond energy, can be defined between each pair of fragments. Total atomization or fragmentation energies are shown to be equal to the sum of these in situ bond energies (ISBEs) if the energies of the fragments are measured with respect to their in-the-molecule state. These energies usually lie above the ground state of the isolated fragments by quantities identified with the standard fragment relaxation or deformation energies, which are also provided by the protocol. Deformation energies bridge dissociation energies with ISBEs, and can be dissected using well-known tools of real space theories of chemical bonding. Similarly, ISBEs can be partitioned into ionic and covalent contributions, and this feature adds to the chemical appeal of the procedure. All the energetic quantities examined are observable and amenable, in principle, to experimental determination. Several systems, exemplifying the role of each energetic term herein presented are used to show the power of the approach. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Real-Time Inhibitor Recession Measurements in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Bruce B.; Ewing, Mark E.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Real-time char line recession measurements were made on propellant inhibitors of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The RSRM FSM-8 static test motor propellant inhibitors (composed of a rubber insulation material) were successfully instrumented with eroding potentiometers and thermocouples. The data was used to establish inhibitor recession versus time relationships. Normally, pre-fire and post-fire insulation thickness measurements establish the thermal performance of an ablating insulation material. However, post-fire inhibitor decomposition and recession measurements are complicated by the fact that most of the inhibitor is back during motor operation. It is therefore a difficult task to evaluate the thermal protection offered by the inhibitor material. Real-time measurements would help this task. The instrumentation program for this static test motor marks the first time that real-time inhibitors. This report presents that data for the center and aft field joint forward facing inhibitors. The data was primarily used to measure char line recession of the forward face of the inhibitors which provides inhibitor thickness reduction versus time data. The data was also used to estimate the inhibitor height versus time relationship during motor operation.

  9. Hands on CERN an education project on the Internet using real high energy particle collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, E K

    1999-01-01

    An educational project primarily aimed at teachers and 15 to 18 year- old students describing the essential features of a modern high energy physics experiment has been created. The whole education package is available on the Internet. It gives a detailed description of the physics processes involved and the Standard Model of Microcosm. Real particle collisions produced with the facilities at the European particle physics laboratory (CERN) are displayed using the platform-independent programming language Java, enabling interaction with the user. The project has been used by several groups of teachers and students, and has increased their knowledge of, and interest in, particle physics. This project complements the traditional physics education and introduces students to contemporary fundamental physics. (7 refs).

  10. STM Studies of Spin-­Orbit Coupled Phases in Real-­ and Momentum-­Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhavan, Vidya [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2016-10-17

    The recently discovered class of spin-orbit coupled materials with interesting topological character are fascinating both from fundamental as well as application point of view. Two striking examples are 3D topological insulators (TIs) and topological crystalline insulators (TCIs). These materials host linearly dispersing (Dirac like) surface states with an odd number of Dirac nodes and are predicted to carry a quantized half-integer value of the axion field. The non-trivial topological properties of TIs and TCIs arise from strong spin-orbit coupling leading to an inverted band structure; which also leads to the chiral spin texture in momentum space. In this project we used low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) to study materials with topological phases in real- and momentum-space. We studied both single crystals and thin films of topological materials which are susceptible to being tuned by doping, strain or gating, allowing us to explore their physical properties in the most interesting regimes and set the stage for future technological applications. .

  11. Response to the Comment by G. Emch on projective group representations in quaternionic Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the differing definitions of complex and quaternionic projective group representations employed by us and by Emch. The definition of Emch (termed here a strong projective representation) is too restrictive to accommodate quaternionic Hilbert space embeddings of complex projective representations. Our definition (termed here a weak projective representation) encompasses such embeddings, and leads to a detailed theory of quaternionic, as well as complex, projective group representations. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Teleducation : Linking Continents Across Time and Space Through Live, Real-Time Interactive Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Szuba, T.; Swap, R.; Annegarn, H.; Marjanovic, B.; Vieira, F.; Brito, R.

    2005-12-01

    International education is a natural extension of global economies, global environmental concerns, and global science. While faculty and student exchanges between geographic areas permit for educational experiences and cultural exchanges for the privileged few, distance learning offers opportunities for educational exchanges under any circumstance where time, expense, or location otherwise inhibit offering or taking a particular course of study. However, there are severe pedagogical limitations to traditional Web-based courses that suffer from a lack of personalized, spontaneous exchange between instructor and student. The technology to establish a real time, interactive teleducation program exists, but to our knowledge is relatively untested in a science classroom situation, especially internationally over great distances. In a project to evaluate this type of linkage, we offered a real-time, interactive class at three separate universities, which communicated instantaneously across an ocean at a distance of greater than 8,000 miles and seven time zones. The course, 'Seminar on the Ecology of African Savannas', consisted of a series of 11 lectures originating in either Mozambique (University of Eduardo Mondlane), South Africa (University of the Witwatersrand) or the United States (University of Virginia). We combined ISDN, internet and satellite linkages to facilitate the lectures and real time discussions between instructors and approximately 200 university students in the three countries. Although numerous technical, logistical, and pedagogical issues - both expected and unexpected - arose throughout the pilot year, the project can be viewed as overwhelmingly successful and certainly serves as proof-of-concept for future initiatives, both internationally and locally. This review of our experience will help to prepare other students, faculty, and institutions interested in establishing or developing international education initiatives

  13. Better library and learning space projects, trends, ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Les

    2014-01-01

    What are the most important things a 21st-century library should do with its space? This title includes chapters that address this critical question, capturing the insights and practical ideas of international librarians, educators and designers to offer you a 'creative resource bank' that helps to transform your library and learning spaces.

  14. WE-G-BRF-04: Robust Real-Time Volumetric Imaging Based On One Single Projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y; Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Zhou, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time volumetric imaging is highly desirable to provide instantaneous image guidance for lung radiation therapy. This study proposes a scheme to achieve this goal using one single projection by utilizing sparse learning and a principal component analysis (PCA) based lung motion model. Methods: A patient-specific PCA-based lung motion model is first constructed by analyzing deformable vector fields (DVFs) between a reference image and 4DCT images at each phase. At the training stage, we “learn” the relationship between the DVFs and the projection using sparse learning. Specifically, we first partition the projections into patches, and then apply sparse learning to automatically identify patches that best correlate with the principal components of the DVFs. Once the relationship is established, at the application stage, we first employ a patchbased intensity correction method to overcome the problem of different intensity scale between the calculated projection in the training stage and the measured projection in the application stage. The corrected projection image is then fed to the trained model to derive a DVF, which is applied to the reference image, yielding a volumetric image corresponding to the projection. We have validated our method through a NCAT phantom simulation case and one experiment case. Results: Sparse learning can automatically select those patches containing motion information, such as those around diaphragm. For the simulation case, over 98% of the lung region pass the generalized gamma test (10HU/1mm), indicating combined accuracy in both intensity and spatial domain. For the experimental case, the average tumor localization errors projected to the imager are 0.68 mm and 0.4 mm on the axial and tangential direction, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method is capable of accurately generating a volumetric image using one single projection. It will potentially offer real-time volumetric image guidance to facilitate lung

  15. WE-G-BRF-04: Robust Real-Time Volumetric Imaging Based On One Single Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Real-time volumetric imaging is highly desirable to provide instantaneous image guidance for lung radiation therapy. This study proposes a scheme to achieve this goal using one single projection by utilizing sparse learning and a principal component analysis (PCA) based lung motion model. Methods: A patient-specific PCA-based lung motion model is first constructed by analyzing deformable vector fields (DVFs) between a reference image and 4DCT images at each phase. At the training stage, we “learn” the relationship between the DVFs and the projection using sparse learning. Specifically, we first partition the projections into patches, and then apply sparse learning to automatically identify patches that best correlate with the principal components of the DVFs. Once the relationship is established, at the application stage, we first employ a patchbased intensity correction method to overcome the problem of different intensity scale between the calculated projection in the training stage and the measured projection in the application stage. The corrected projection image is then fed to the trained model to derive a DVF, which is applied to the reference image, yielding a volumetric image corresponding to the projection. We have validated our method through a NCAT phantom simulation case and one experiment case. Results: Sparse learning can automatically select those patches containing motion information, such as those around diaphragm. For the simulation case, over 98% of the lung region pass the generalized gamma test (10HU/1mm), indicating combined accuracy in both intensity and spatial domain. For the experimental case, the average tumor localization errors projected to the imager are 0.68 mm and 0.4 mm on the axial and tangential direction, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method is capable of accurately generating a volumetric image using one single projection. It will potentially offer real-time volumetric image guidance to facilitate lung

  16. Operational Space-Assisted Irrigation Advisory Services: Overview Of And Lessons Learned From The Project DEMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osann Jochum, M. A.; Demeter Partners

    2006-08-01

    The project DEMETER (DEMonstration of Earth observation TEchnologies in Routine irrigation advisory services) was dedicated to assessing and demonstrating improvements introduced by Earth observation (EO) and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in farm and Irrigation Advisory Service (IAS) day-to-day operations. The DEMETER concept of near-real-time delivery of EO-based irrigation scheduling information to IAS and farmers has proven to be valid. The operationality of the space segment was demonstrated for Landsat 5-TM in the Barrax pilot zone during the 2004 and 2005 irrigation campaigns. Extra-fast image delivery and quality controlled operational processing make the EO-based crop coefficient maps available at the same speed and quality as ground-based data (point samples), while significantly extending the spatial coverage and reducing service cost. Leading-edge online analysis and visualization tools provide easy, intuitive access to the information and personalized service to users. First feedback of users at IAS and farmer level is encouraging. The paper gives an overview of the project and its main achievements.

  17. Stone Soup Projects: Using real-time resources and creative partnering to meet multiple needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, S.; Searle, R.; Zala, K.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada oversees the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada undersea cabled observatories. Its Centre for Enterprise and Engagement communicates the scientific discoveries and technological innovations happening at the two systems. Not surprisingly, funders in ocean science are interested in seeing evidence of increased recruitment of Highly Qualified Personnel into marine science and industry. This demand creates a series of opportunities for inspiring students, ranging from graduate school down to middle school, to pursue studies in chemistry, biology, physics, geology, engineering, and beyond. As the Engagement section is a small operation, we partner with others to produce educational assets incorporating real-time data from VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories that enable frontline educators to create exciting ocean science experiences for students and the public. In one project, the lab component of an entire undergraduate course lets students conduct their own investigations into marine oxygen levels by using VENUS data. In another, Fine Arts graduate and undergraduate students are using high-tech tools to create a series of webisodes that map the principles of Ocean Literacy onto the science themes of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada. In a third project, we hosted a website for a collaborative expedition to small coastal towns that focused on the marine science happening in the Salish Sea, British Columbia. Our projects and challenges for engaging students and the public with ocean science using real-time and other data offer strategies for outreach and education sections of similar organizations.

  18. The CI-ROB project: real time monitoring for a robotic prostate curietherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liem, X.; Lartigau, E.; Coelen, V.; Merzouki, R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a project which is still at the proto-typing stage and for which hardware and software are still being developed, and which aims at developing a full line for a robotic curietherapy. It comprises an articulated robotic arm with six degree of freedom, and is based on an auto-regulated loop with real time monitoring and control. An echographic probe acquires the prostate images in real time. An adaptive detection defines the prostate contour. This is performed in a virtual environment which comprises the prostate phantom, the robot and the intervention table. The target is defined in the virtual environment (image coordinates) and coordinates are transmitted to the robot controller which defines the robot movements by using the inverse geometric model. Short communication

  19. Peripersonal Space: An Index of Multisensory Body–Environment Interactions in Real, Virtual, and Mixed Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Serino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human–environment interactions normally occur in the physical milieu and thus by medium of the body and within the space immediately adjacent to and surrounding the body, the peripersonal space (PPS. However, human interactions increasingly occur with or within virtual environments, and hence novel approaches and metrics must be developed to index human–environment interactions in virtual reality (VR. Here, we present a multisensory task that measures the spatial extent of human PPS in real, virtual, and augmented realities. We validated it in a mixed reality (MR ecosystem in which real environment and virtual objects are blended together in order to administer and control visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in ecologically valid conditions. Within this mixed-reality environment, participants are asked to respond as fast as possible to tactile stimuli on their body, while task-irrelevant visual or audiovisual stimuli approach their body. Results demonstrate that, in analogy with observations derived from monkey electrophysiology and in real environmental surroundings, tactile detection is enhanced when visual or auditory stimuli are close to the body, and not when far from it. We then calculate the location where this multisensory facilitation occurs as a proxy of the boundary of PPS. We observe that mapping of PPS via audiovisual, as opposed to visual alone, looming stimuli results in sigmoidal fits—allowing for the bifurcation between near and far space—with greater goodness of fit. In sum, our approach is able to capture the boundaries of PPS on a spatial continuum, at the individual-subject level, and within a fully controlled and previously laboratory-validated setup, while maintaining the richness and ecological validity of real-life events. The task can therefore be applied to study the properties of PPS in humans and to index the features governing human–environment interactions in virtual or MR. We propose PPS as an

  20. Projective unitary-antiunitary representations of the Shubnikov space groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broek, P.M. van den.

    1979-01-01

    Some mathematical aspects of the symmetry of a physical system in quantum mechanics are examined with special emphasis on the symmetry groups of charged particles in crystalline solids, the Shuknikov space groups. (Auth.)

  1. A real option-based model for promoting sustainable energy projects under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyounkyu; Park, Taeil; Kim, Byungil; Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2013-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) provides a way of assisting sustainable development in developing countries for developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Despite its intended benefits, the primary CDM market decreased from US$5.8 billion in 2006 to US$1.5 billion in 2010. One of the primary reasons for the reduction of market size is that developed countries as investors have a high level of risks caused by the volatility of the market price for certified emission reductions (CERs). Another issue to be resolved is that developing countries as host countries cannot claim any right to the CERs produced on their own land. This paper presents a real option-based model for both parties (developed and developing countries) to have their fair share of profits and risks by controlling the uncertainty associated with the future value of CERs. A case study illustrated that the proposed model can effectively attract investors to CDM projects leading to mitigation of climate change. - Highlights: ► This study focused on the risks associated with the uncertainty of future CER value in CDM projects. ► A real option-based model was developed for both parties in CDM to have fair share of profit and risk. ► Key variables and boundary conditions were identified for application of real option to CDM. ► The model allowed both parties to own options, which have an identical value. ► Hydropower plant projects in Indonesia were used to illustrate the implementation of the model

  2. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  3. The Social and Economic Impacts of Space Weather (US Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Webb, D. F.; Oughton, E. J.; Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.; Basoli, D.; Griot, O.

    2017-12-01

    The National Space Weather Action Plan calls for new research into the social and economic impacts of space weather and for the development of quantitative estimates of potential costs. In response to this call, NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and Abt Associates are working together to identify, describe, and quantify the impact of space weather to U.S. interests. This study covers impacts resulting from both moderate and severe space weather events across four technological sectors: Electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users. It captures the full range of potential impacts, identified from an extensive literature review and from additional conversations with more than 50 sector stakeholders of diverse expertise from engineering to operations to end users. We organize and discuss our findings in terms of five broad but interrelated impact categories including Defensive Investments, Mitigating Actions, Asset Damages, Service Interruptions, and Health Effects. We also present simple, tractable estimates of the potential costs where we focused on quantifying a subset of all identified impacts that are apt to be largest and are also most plausible during moderate and more severe space weather scenarios. We hope that our systematic exploration of the social and economic impacts provides a foundation for the future work that is critical for designing technologies, developing procedures, and implementing policies that can effectively reduce our known and evolving vulnerabilities to this natural hazard.

  4. Android arcade game app a real world project : case study approach

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Apress, the leading Android books publisher, continues to provide you with very hands-on, practical books for teaching and showing app developers how to build and design apps, including game apps, that can be built and deployed in the various Android app stores out there. Android Arcade Game App:  A Real World Project - Case Study Approach is no different in that it walks you through creating an arcade style Prison Break game app-top to bottom-for an Android smartphone or tablet.  This book teaches you the unique characteristics and challenges of creating an Arcade style game And it provides y

  5. Real-space renormalization group; application to site percolation in square lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.; Schwachheim, G.

    1978-05-01

    The real-space renormalization group proposed by Reynolds, Klein and Stanley 1977 to treat the site percolation is analysed and extended . The best among 3 possible definitions of 'percolating' configurations and among 5 possible methods to weight these configurations, are established for percolation in square lattices. The use of n xn square clusters leads, for n = 2 (RKS), n = 3 and n = 4, to √ sub (p) approximately equal to 1.635, √ sub(p) approximately equal to 1.533 and √ sub(p) approximately equal to 1.498, and also to P sub(c) approximately equal to 0.382, P sub(c) approximately equal to 0.388 and P sub(c) approximately equal to 0.398, exhibiting in this way the correct (but slow) tendency towards the best up to date values [pt

  6. Revealing the correlation between real-space structure and chiral magnetic order at the atomic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Nadine; Dupé, Melanie; Hung, Tzu-Chao; Lemmens, Alexander K.; Wegner, Daniel; Dupé, Bertrand; Khajetoorians, Alexander A.

    2018-03-01

    We image simultaneously the geometric, the electronic, and the magnetic structures of a buckled iron bilayer film that exhibits chiral magnetic order. We achieve this by combining spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and magnetic exchange force microscopy (SPEX) to independently characterize the geometric as well as the electronic and magnetic structures of nonflat surfaces. This new SPEX imaging technique reveals the geometric height corrugation of the reconstruction lines resulting from strong strain relaxation in the bilayer, enabling the decomposition of the real-space from the electronic structure at the atomic level and the correlation with the resultant spin-spiral ground state. By additionally utilizing adatom manipulation, we reveal the chiral magnetic ground state of portions of the unit cell that were not previously imaged with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy alone. Using density functional theory, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the reconstructed bilayer and identify the favorable stoichiometry regime in agreement with our experimental result.

  7. Hot electron and real space transfer in double-quantum-well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Eiichi; Sawaki, Nobuhiko; Akasaki, Isamu; Kano, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Masafumi.

    1991-01-01

    The hot electron phenomena and real space transfer (RST) effect are studied in GaAs/AlGaAs double-quantum-well (DQW) structures, in which we have two kind of quantum wells with different widths. The drift velocity and the electron temperature at liquid helium temperature are investigated as a function of the external electric field applied parallel to the heterointerface. By increasing the field, the electron temperature rises and reaches a plateau in the intermediate region, followed by further rise in the high-field region. The appearance of the plateau is attributed to the RST effect between the two quantum wells. The threshold field for the appearance of the plateau is determined by the difference energy between the quantized levels in two wells. The energy loss rate as a function of the electron temperature indicates that the RST is assisted by LO phonon scattering. (author)

  8. Reliability modeling of a hard real-time system using the path-space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hagbae

    2000-01-01

    A hard real-time system, such as a fly-by-wire system, fails catastrophically (e.g. losing stability) if its control inputs are not updated by its digital controller computer within a certain timing constraint called the hard deadline. To assess and validate those systems' reliabilities by using a semi-Markov model that explicitly contains the deadline information, we propose a path-space approach deriving the upper and lower bounds of the probability of system failure. These bounds are derived by using only simple parameters, and they are especially suitable for highly reliable systems which should recover quickly. Analytical bounds are derived for both exponential and Wobble failure distributions encountered commonly, which have proven effective through numerical examples, while considering three repair strategies: repair-as-good-as-new, repair-as-good-as-old, and repair-better-than-old

  9. A massively-parallel electronic-structure calculations based on real-space density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Jun-Ichi; Takahashi, Daisuke; Oshiyama, Atsushi; Boku, Taisuke; Shiraishi, Kenji; Okada, Susumu; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Based on the real-space finite-difference method, we have developed a first-principles density functional program that efficiently performs large-scale calculations on massively-parallel computers. In addition to efficient parallel implementation, we also implemented several computational improvements, substantially reducing the computational costs of O(N 3 ) operations such as the Gram-Schmidt procedure and subspace diagonalization. Using the program on a massively-parallel computer cluster with a theoretical peak performance of several TFLOPS, we perform electronic-structure calculations for a system consisting of over 10,000 Si atoms, and obtain a self-consistent electronic-structure in a few hundred hours. We analyze in detail the costs of the program in terms of computation and of inter-node communications to clarify the efficiency, the applicability, and the possibility for further improvements.

  10. A real-space renormalization approach to the Kubo-Greenwood formula in mirror Fibonacci systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Vicenta; Wang Chumin

    2006-01-01

    An exact real-space renormalization method is developed to address the electronic transport in mirror Fibonacci chains at a macroscopic scale by means of the Kubo-Greenwood formula. The results show that the mirror symmetry induces a large number of transparent states in the dc conductivity spectra, contrary to the simple Fibonacci case. A length scaling analysis over ten orders of magnitude reveals the existence of critically localized states and their ac conduction spectra show a highly oscillating behaviour. For multidimensional quasiperiodic systems, a novel renormalization plus convolution method is proposed. This combined renormalization + convolution method has shown an extremely elevated computing efficiency, being able to calculate electrical conductance of a three-dimensional non-crystalline solid with 10 30 atoms. Finally, the dc and ac conductances of mirror Fibonacci nanowires are also investigated, where a quantized dc-conductance variation with the Fermi energy is found, as observed in gold nanowires

  11. Complementary views on electron spectra: From fluctuation diagnostics to real-space correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, O.; Merino, J.; Schäfer, T.; Sangiovanni, G.; Rohringer, G.; Toschi, A.

    2018-03-01

    We study the relation between the microscopic properties of a many-body system and the electron spectra, experimentally accessible by photoemission. In a recent paper [O. Gunnarsson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 236402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.236402], we introduced the "fluctuation diagnostics" approach to extract the dominant wave-vector-dependent bosonic fluctuations from the electronic self-energy. Here, we first reformulate the theory in terms of fermionic modes to render its connection with resonance valence bond (RVB) fluctuations more transparent. Second, by using a large-U expansion, where U is the Coulomb interaction, we relate the fluctuations to real-space correlations. Therefore, it becomes possible to study how electron spectra are related to charge, spin, superconductivity, and RVB-like real-space correlations, broadening the analysis of an earlier work [J. Merino and O. Gunnarsson, Phys. Rev. B 89, 245130 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.245130]. This formalism is applied to the pseudogap physics of the two-dimensional Hubbard model, studied in the dynamical cluster approximation. We perform calculations for embedded clusters with up to 32 sites, having three inequivalent K points at the Fermi surface. We find that as U is increased, correlation functions gradually attain values consistent with an RVB state. This first happens for correlation functions involving the antinodal point and gradually spreads to the nodal point along the Fermi surface. Simultaneously, a pseudogap opens up along the Fermi surface. We relate this to a crossover from a Kondo-type state to an RVB-like localized cluster state and to the presence of RVB and spin fluctuations. These changes are caused by a strong momentum dependence in the cluster bath couplings along the Fermi surface. We also show, from a more algorithmic perspective, how the time-consuming calculations in fluctuation diagnostics can be drastically simplified.

  12. Innovative Approaches for the Dissemination of Near Real-time Geostationary Satellite Data for Terrestrial and Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, G.; McGrath, K.; Meyer, P. J.; Berndt, E.

    2017-12-01

    A GOES-R series receiving station has been installed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support GOES-16 transition-to-operations projects of NASA's Earth science program and provide a community portal for GOES-16 data access. This receiving station is comprised of a 6.5-meter dish; motor-driven positioners; Quorum feed and demodulator; and three Linux workstations for ingest, processing, display, and subsequent product generation. The Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP) is used to process GOES Rebroadcast data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) into Level 1b and Level 2 files. GeoTIFFs of the imagery from several of these instruments are ingested into an Esri Arc Enterprise Web Map Service (WMS) server with tiled imagery displayable through a web browser interface or by connecting directly to the WMS with a Geographic Information System software package. These data also drive a basic web interface where users can manually zoom to and animate regions of interest or acquire similar results using a published Application Program Interface. While not as interactive as a WMS-driven interface, this system is much more expeditious with generating and distributing requested imagery. The legacy web capability enacted for the predecessor GOES Imager currently supports approximately 500,000 unique visitors each month. Dissemination capabilities have been refined to support a significantly larger number of anticipated users. The receiving station also supports NASA's Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition Center's (SPoRT) project activities to dissemination near real-time ABI RGB products to National Weather Service National Centers, including the Satellite Analysis Branch, National Hurricane Center, Ocean Prediction Center, and Weather Prediction Center, where they

  13. A real-time stack radioactivity monitoring system and dose projection program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.; Michael, P.A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Bernstein, H.J. [Bernstein & Sons, Bellport, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, a commercial Low- and High-Range Air Effluent Monitor has become operational at the 60 Mw (t) High Flux Beam Reactor. Its output data is combined with that from ground-level and elevated meteorological sensors to provide a real-time projection of the down-wind dose rates from noble gases and radioiodines released from the HFBR`s 100 m stack. The output of the monitor, and the meteorological sensors and the dose projections can be viewed at emergency response terminals located in the Reactor Control Room, its Technical Support Center and at the laboratory`s separately located Meteorological Station and Monitoring and Assessment Center.

  14. Construction of spaces of kinematic quantum states for field theories via projective techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okołów, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We present a method of constructing a space of quantum states for a field theory: given phase space of a theory, we define a family of physical systems each possessing a finite number of degrees of freedom, next we define a space of quantum states for each finite system, finally using projective techniques we organize all these spaces into a space of quantum states which corresponds to the original phase space. This construction is kinematic in this sense that it bases merely on the structure of the phase space of a theory and does not take into account possible constraints on the space. The construction is a generalization of a construction by Kijowski—the latter one is limited to theories of linear phase spaces, while the former one is free of this limitation. The method presented in this paper enables to construct a space of quantum states for the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. (paper)

  15. Exploiting Auto-Collimation for Real-Time Onboard Monitoring of Space Optical Camera Geometric Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wang, H.; Liu, D.; Miu, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Precise geometric parameters are essential to ensure the positioning accuracy for space optical cameras. However, state-of-the-art onorbit calibration method inevitably suffers from long update cycle and poor timeliness performance. To this end, in this paper we exploit the optical auto-collimation principle and propose a real-time onboard calibration scheme for monitoring key geometric parameters. Specifically, in the proposed scheme, auto-collimation devices are first designed by installing collimated light sources, area-array CCDs, and prisms inside the satellite payload system. Through utilizing those devices, the changes in the geometric parameters are elegantly converted into changes in the spot image positions. The variation of geometric parameters can be derived via extracting and processing the spot images. An experimental platform is then set up to verify the feasibility and analyze the precision index of the proposed scheme. The experiment results demonstrate that it is feasible to apply the optical auto-collimation principle for real-time onboard monitoring.

  16. RBSURFpred: Modeling protein accessible surface area in real and binary space using regularized and optimized regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Sumit; Toukir Ahmed, Md; Iqbal, Sumaiya; Tamjidul Hoque, Md; Sohel Rahman, M

    2018-03-14

    Accessible surface area (ASA) of a protein residue is an effective feature for protein structure prediction, binding region identification, fold recognition problems etc. Improving the prediction of ASA by the application of effective feature variables is a challenging but explorable task to consider, specially in the field of machine learning. Among the existing predictors of ASA, REGAd 3 p is a highly accurate ASA predictor which is based on regularized exact regression with polynomial kernel of degree 3. In this work, we present a new predictor RBSURFpred, which extends REGAd 3 p on several dimensions by incorporating 58 physicochemical, evolutionary and structural properties into 9-tuple peptides via Chou's general PseAAC, which allowed us to obtain higher accuracies in predicting both real-valued and binary ASA. We have compared RBSURFpred for both real and binary space predictions with state-of-the-art predictors, such as REGAd 3 p and SPIDER2. We also have carried out a rigorous analysis of the performance of RBSURFpred in terms of different amino acids and their properties, and also with biologically relevant case-studies. The performance of RBSURFpred establishes itself as a useful tool for the community. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Projecting Homes: Domestic Spaces in Three Filipino Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito R. Quiling Jr.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The house is a fundamental space for a character’s consciousness, and this structure is a familiar image in Filipino f ilms. This particular space as a setting in which the narrative and the characters are able to move in, is essential. This paper analyzes the influence of domestic spaces and the characteristics of home, which correspond to the characters’ consciousness and the narrative. These are presented in the selected films: Oro, Plata, Mata (1982 by Peque Gallaga, “Hellow, Soldier,” the second episode in Lino Brocka’s Tatlo, Dalawa, Isa (1975, and Kisapmata (1981 by Mike De Leon. The method for assessment consists of three parts: (1 the background in which the films are set, (2 the influence of the house using Gaston Bachelard’s notion of the house in The Poetics of Space (1994 as a framework, (3 and the behavior of the characters as portrayed in the films. The significance of domestic spaces to a character’s experience is illustrated in the selected texts.

  18. Neutron μstiX. Micrometer structure investigation with real space and reciprocal space crossover using neutron imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlbauer, Martin Johann

    2013-07-19

    This work is concerned with the investigation of inhomogeneities in materials with length scales of the order of micrometers by means of neutrons. In real space this is done by neutron imaging methods measuring the transmitted signal while for Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) the signal of the scattered neutrons is assigned to a spatial frequency distribution in reciprocal space. The part about neutron imaging is focused on time-resolved neutron radiography on an injection nozzle similar to the ones used for modern diesel truck engines. The associated experiments have been carried out at the neutron imaging facility ANTARES at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen in Garching near Munich. Especially the demands on the detector system were high. Therefore different detection methods and detector configurations have been tested. On the one hand the detector should allow for a time resolution high enough to record the injection process lasting about 900 μs. On the other hand it needed to offer a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve the test oil inside the spray hole of a maximum diameter of less than 200 μm. An advanced aim of this work is the visualization of cavitation phenomena which may occur during the injection process inside of the spray hole. In order to operate the injector at conditions as close to reality as possible a high pressure pump supplying the injector with test oil at a pressure of 1600 bar was needed in addition to the specially developed control electronics, the recuperation tank and the exhaust gas equipment for the escaping atomized spray. A second part of the work describes USANS experiments based on the idea of Dr. Roland Gaehler and carried out at the instrument D11 at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. For this purpose a specific multi-beam geometry was applied, where a multi-slit aperture replaced the standard source aperture and the sample aperture was

  19. Neutron μstiX. Micrometer structure investigation with real space and reciprocal space crossover using neutron imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, Martin Johann

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the investigation of inhomogeneities in materials with length scales of the order of micrometers by means of neutrons. In real space this is done by neutron imaging methods measuring the transmitted signal while for Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) the signal of the scattered neutrons is assigned to a spatial frequency distribution in reciprocal space. The part about neutron imaging is focused on time-resolved neutron radiography on an injection nozzle similar to the ones used for modern diesel truck engines. The associated experiments have been carried out at the neutron imaging facility ANTARES at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen in Garching near Munich. Especially the demands on the detector system were high. Therefore different detection methods and detector configurations have been tested. On the one hand the detector should allow for a time resolution high enough to record the injection process lasting about 900 μs. On the other hand it needed to offer a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve the test oil inside the spray hole of a maximum diameter of less than 200 μm. An advanced aim of this work is the visualization of cavitation phenomena which may occur during the injection process inside of the spray hole. In order to operate the injector at conditions as close to reality as possible a high pressure pump supplying the injector with test oil at a pressure of 1600 bar was needed in addition to the specially developed control electronics, the recuperation tank and the exhaust gas equipment for the escaping atomized spray. A second part of the work describes USANS experiments based on the idea of Dr. Roland Gaehler and carried out at the instrument D11 at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. For this purpose a specific multi-beam geometry was applied, where a multi-slit aperture replaced the standard source aperture and the sample aperture was

  20. Real-space imaging of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order with a single-spin magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, I.; Akhtar, W.; Garcia, V.; Martínez, L. J.; Chouaieb, S.; Garcia, K.; Carrétéro, C.; Barthélémy, A.; Appel, P.; Maletinsky, P.; Kim, J.-V.; Chauleau, J. Y.; Jaouen, N.; Viret, M.; Bibes, M.; Fusil, S.; Jacques, V.

    2017-09-01

    Although ferromagnets have many applications, their large magnetization and the resulting energy cost for switching magnetic moments bring into question their suitability for reliable low-power spintronic devices. Non-collinear antiferromagnetic systems do not suffer from this problem, and often have extra functionalities: non-collinear spin order may break space-inversion symmetry and thus allow electric-field control of magnetism, or may produce emergent spin-orbit effects that enable efficient spin-charge interconversion. To harness these traits for next-generation spintronics, the nanoscale control and imaging capabilities that are now routine for ferromagnets must be developed for antiferromagnetic systems. Here, using a non-invasive, scanning single-spin magnetometer based on a nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond, we demonstrate real-space visualization of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order in a magnetic thin film at room temperature. We image the spin cycloid of a multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) thin film and extract a period of about 70 nanometres, consistent with values determined by macroscopic diffraction. In addition, we take advantage of the magnetoelectric coupling present in BiFeO3 to manipulate the cycloid propagation direction by an electric field. Besides highlighting the potential of nitrogen-vacancy magnetometry for imaging complex antiferromagnetic orders at the nanoscale, these results demonstrate how BiFeO3 can be used in the design of reconfigurable nanoscale spin textures.

  1. Photo Z: A Real Research Project for Undergraduate Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Travis A.; Puckett, A. W.; Hinnah, K. D.

    2009-01-01

    Research-Based Science Education (RBSE) is a method of instruction that models the processes of scientific inquiry and exploration used by scientists to discover new knowledge. It is "research-based" in the sense that students work together on a real astronomical research project. In other words, in order to learn science, students are given the opportunity to actually do science. We present "Photo Z," a new RBSE project wherein students search for distant galaxies using data from the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey (NDWFS). Students download FITS data files from the NDWFS cutout server. They then complete photometry of galaxies in three bands (Bw, V and I) using Polaris, a custom-made plugin written for ImageJ. The photometric color of each galaxy allows an estimate of its redshift as well as its star-formation history. Many student projects are possible. An example is to search for galaxies clustered around high-redshift quasars. An advantage of this project is that the datasets are readily available online. This project is part of an NSF CCLI grant to develop and test RBSE curricula in an undergraduate course setting. The goals of RBSE are fourfold: (1) To teach that science is a process, not just a body of knowledge; (2) To improve retention of science content by using it in a research project; (3) to improve attitudes towards STEM careers, particularly among first-year students; and (4) to develop task-driven skills, such as critical thinking and teamwork skills, that are useful in any career path. These curricula are currently being developed and tested at the University of Alaska Anchorage, Indiana University Bloomington, and Pima Community College.

  2. When the library is located in prime real estate: a case study on the loss of space from the Duke University Medical Center Library and Archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    The Duke University Medical Center Library and Archives is located in the heart of the Duke Medicine campus, surrounded by Duke Hospital, ambulatory clinics, and numerous research facilities. Its location is considered prime real estate, given its adjacency to patient care, research, and educational activities. In 2005, the Duke University Library Space Planning Committee had recommended creating a learning center in the library that would support a variety of educational activities. However, the health system needed to convert the library's top floor into office space to make way for expansion of the hospital and cancer center. The library had only five months to plan the storage and consolidation of its journal and book collections, while working with the facilities design office and architect on the replacement of key user spaces on the top floor. Library staff worked together to develop plans for storing, weeding, and consolidating the collections and provided input into renovation plans for users spaces on its mezzanine level. The library lost 15,238 square feet (29%) of its net assignable square footage and a total of 16,897 (30%) gross square feet. This included 50% of the total space allotted to collections and over 15% of user spaces. The top-floor space now houses offices for Duke Medicine oncology faculty and staff. By storing a large portion of its collection off-site, the library was able to remove more stacks on the remaining stack level and convert them to user spaces, a long-term goal for the library. Additional space on the mezzanine level had to be converted to replace lost study and conference room spaces. While this project did not match the recommended space plans for the library, it underscored the need for the library to think creatively about the future of its facility and to work toward a more cohesive master plan.

  3. Real Options in Capital Budgeting. Pricing the Option to Delay and the Option to Abandon a Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vintila

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional discounted cash-flows method for assessing projects assumes that investment decision is an irreversible one, which is not correct. Managers can and must reconsider their initial decision as the new information arises during the project life. This is managerial flexibility and it creates strategic value for a project, only if management takes advantage of the opportunities associated with an analyzed project. Real options represent a new approach in capital budgeting, using the theory of pricing financial options for investments in real assets. In this paper, we emphasize the characteristics and valuation methodologies of real options. The objective in the last section is pricing the option to delay and the option to abandon a project in construction materials field.

  4. Virtual environment navigation with look-around mode to explore new real spaces by people who are blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Gedalevitz, Hadas; Battersby, Steven; Brown, David; Evett, Lindsay; Merritt, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    This paper examines the ability of people who are blind to construct a mental map and perform orientation tasks in real space by using Nintendo Wii technologies to explore virtual environments. The participant explores new spaces through haptic and auditory feedback triggered by pointing or walking in the virtual environments and later constructs a mental map, which can be used to navigate in real space. The study included 10 participants who were congenitally or adventitiously blind, divided into experimental and control groups. The research was implemented by using virtual environments exploration and orientation tasks in real spaces, using both qualitative and quantitative methods in its methodology. The results show that the mode of exploration afforded to the experimental group is radically new in orientation and mobility training; as a result 60% of the experimental participants constructed mental maps that were based on map model, compared with only 30% of the control group participants. Using technology that enabled them to explore and to collect spatial information in a way that does not exist in real space influenced the ability of the experimental group to construct a mental map based on the map model. Implications for rehabilitation The virtual cane system for the first time enables people who are blind to explore and collect spatial information via the look-around mode in addition to the walk-around mode. People who are blind prefer to use look-around mode to explore new spaces, as opposed to the walking mode. Although the look-around mode requires users to establish a complex collecting and processing procedure for the spatial data, people who are blind using this mode are able to construct a mental map as a map model. For people who are blind (as for the sighted) construction of a mental map based on map model offers more flexibility in choosing a walking path in a real space, accounting for changes that occur in the space.

  5. [Earth and Space Sciences Project Services for NASA HPCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkey, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    This grant supported the effort to characterize the problem domain of the Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project, to engage the Beowulf Cluster Computing Community as well as the High Performance Computing Research Community so that we can predict the applicability of said technologies to the scientific community represented by the CT project and formulate long term strategies to provide the computational resources necessary to attain the anticipated scientific objectives of the CT project. Specifically, the goal of the evaluation effort is to use the information gathered over the course of the Round-3 investigations to quantify the trends in scientific expectations, the algorithmic requirements and capabilities of high-performance computers to satisfy this anticipated need.

  6. Geometry of Moishezon and 1-convex spaces II: Projectivity of Moishezon spaces and its non-compact version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitaramayya, M.

    1993-11-01

    After a brief review of the geometry of Moishezon spaces, their relation with l-convex spaces and a reasonable and up to date understanding of the obstructions for projectivity of Moishezon objects both in singular and non-singular case is given. The geometry of l-convex manifolds and with l-dimensional exceptional set is studied and some problems and conjectures are stated. The tools of cohomology vanishing theorems important for the subject are briefly sketched. Compactifications of C 3 and Stein spaces are finally outlined. given. 111 refs, 2 figs

  7. Real-space grids and the Octopus code as tools for the development of new simulation approaches for electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Xavier; Strubbe, David; De Giovannini, Umberto; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Varas, Alejandro; Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole; Verstraete, Matthieu J.; Stella, Lorenzo; Nogueira, Fernando; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Castro, Alberto; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Rubio, Angel

    Real-space grids are a powerful alternative for the simulation of electronic systems. One of the main advantages of the approach is the flexibility and simplicity of working directly in real space where the different fields are discretized on a grid, combined with competitive numerical performance and great potential for parallelization. These properties constitute a great advantage at the time of implementing and testing new physical models. Based on our experience with the Octopus code, in this article we discuss how the real-space approach has allowed for the recent development of new ideas for the simulation of electronic systems. Among these applications are approaches to calculate response properties, modeling of photoemission, optimal control of quantum systems, simulation of plasmonic systems, and the exact solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for low-dimensionality systems.

  8. Real-space local polynomial basis for solid-state electronic-structure calculations: A finite-element approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pask, J.E.; Klein, B.M.; Fong, C.Y.; Sterne, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present an approach to solid-state electronic-structure calculations based on the finite-element method. In this method, the basis functions are strictly local, piecewise polynomials. Because the basis is composed of polynomials, the method is completely general and its convergence can be controlled systematically. Because the basis functions are strictly local in real space, the method allows for variable resolution in real space; produces sparse, structured matrices, enabling the effective use of iterative solution methods; and is well suited to parallel implementation. The method thus combines the significant advantages of both real-space-grid and basis-oriented approaches and so promises to be particularly well suited for large, accurate ab initio calculations. We develop the theory of our approach in detail, discuss advantages and disadvantages, and report initial results, including electronic band structures and details of the convergence of the method. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  9. Challenge for real-time and real-space resolved spectroscopy of surface chemical reactions. Aiming at trace of irreversible and inhomogeneous reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    A novel experimental technique, time-resolved wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray imaging spectroscopy, is proposed in order to achieve real-time and real-space resolved spectroscopy for the observation of irreversible and inhomogeneous surface chemical reactions. By combining the wavelength-dispersed soft X rays, in which the X-ray wavelength (photon energy) changes as a function of position on the sample, with the photoelectron emission microscope, the soft X-ray absorption spectra are separately obtained at different positions on the sample without scanning the X-ray monochromator. Therefore, the real-time resolved measurement of site-selective soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy is realized in one event without repeating the chemical reaction. It is expected that the spatial distribution of different chemical species is traced during the surface chemical reaction, which is essential to understand the reaction mechanism. (author)

  10. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space and Earth Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Shutts, Stacy (Principal Investigator); Bacon, John; Ewert, Michael; Paul, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biodigesters harness and utilize byproducts, and are a valuable technology for waste conversion and advanced exploration closed loops targets (6.1.a-E), including that of human waste. On Mars and at JSC, this could lead to growing food and to more sustainable uses of waste. It is critical to understand biogas generation rates, odor management of the effluent, and nutrient viability. Improved efficiency and reliance on this renewable energy source can become feasible for deep space missions.

  11. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  12. Classification of the spaces Cp*(X) within the Borel-Wadge hierarchy for a projective space X

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Martin; Vejnar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 183, March (2015), s. 11-17 ISSN 0166-8641 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : function spaces * pointwise convergence * projective determinacy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.493, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864114004854

  13. Statistical analysis of real-time, enviromental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Enviromental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Exploring Marine Ecosystems with Elementary School Portuguese Children: Inquiry-Based Project Activities Focused on "Real-Life" Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…

  15. Fall 2015 NASA Internship, and Space Radiation Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This fall, I was fortunate enough to have been able to participate in an internship at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. I was placed into the Human Health & Performance Directorate, where I was specifically tasked to work with Dr. Zarana Patel, researching the impacts of cosmic level radiation on human cells. Using different laboratory techniques, we were able to examine the cells to see if any damage had been done due to radiation exposure, and if so, how much damage was done. Cell culture samples were exposed at different doses, and fixed at different time points so that we could accumulate a large pool of quantifiable data. After examining quantifiable results relative to the impacts of space radiation on the human body at the cellular and chromosomal level, researchers can defer to different areas of the space program that have to do with astronaut safety, and research and development (extravehicular mobility unit construction, vehicle design and construction, etc.). This experience has been very eye-opening, and I was able to learn quite a bit. I learned some new laboratory techniques, and I did my best to try and learn new ways to balance such a hectic work and school schedule. I also learned some very intimate thing about working at NASA; I learned that far more people want to watch you succeed, rather than watch you fail, and I also learned that this is a place that is alive with innovators and explorers - people who have a sole purpose of exploring space for the betterment of humanity, and not for any other reason. It's truly inspiring. All of these experiences during my internship have impacted me in a really profound way, so much that my educational and career goals are completely different than when I started. I started out as a biotechnology major, and I discovered recently toward the end of the internship, that I don't want to work in a lab, nor was I as enthralled by biological life sciences as a believed myself to be. Taking that all into

  16. Space Object and Light Attribute Rendering (SOLAR) Projection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-08

    depicting the proposed SOLAR projection system. The installation process is shown in Fig. 3. SOLAR system comprises of a dome that houses Digitairum’s...imaging process. A fiberglass dome system was erected to make the SOLAR system a self contained facility. Calibration process was carried out to register...Separate software solutions were implemented to model the light transport processes involved in the imaging process. A fiberglass dome system was erected to

  17. The effect of redshift-space distortions on projected 2-pt clustering measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Nock, Kelly; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.

    2010-01-01

    Although redshift-space distortions only affect inferred distances and not angles, they still distort the projected angular clustering of galaxy samples selected using redshift dependent quantities. From an Eulerian view-point, this effect is caused by the apparent movement of galaxies into or out of the sample. From a Lagrangian view-point, we find that projecting the redshift-space overdensity field over a finite radial distance does not remove all the anisotropic distortions. We investigat...

  18. Investment opportunity in China's overseas oil project: An empirical analysis based on real option approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Hui-Ling; Chen, Hao; Wang, Kai; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    China's overseas oil investments uphold national energy security. Located in the complex international economic and political environment, the benefits of overseas oil projects are affected by various uncertainties. Oil companies call for a set of evaluation method dealing with these uncertainties, especially when encountering low-oil-price conditions. It is much more crucial to answer when to optimally invest rather than whether to invest. This paper analyzes the investment opportunity of an oil project in the development and production phase considering uncertainty, irreversibility and management flexibility. The decision-making process combines Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method and the trinomial tree model of Real Option Approach (ROA). For practical purposes, tools of hurdle price, cumulative probability and decision tree are adopted. In addition, results of the case project show the economic feasibility at present and optimal start-up timing at the end of 2016. Besides, the lower cost parameters generally make it easier to meet the opportunity. The scenario analysis suggests the higher risk contributes to an earlier start-up. Furthermore, the issues of method applicability, investment signals and decision-lag effects are discussed. - Highlights: • Volatility is combined with fluctuations in oil price, exchange rate and political situation. • Hurdle price is adopted as a critical price to measure investment opportunity. • Scenario analysis suggests the higher risk contribute to earlier investment timing.

  19. Projective limits of state spaces III. Toy-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this series of papers, we investigate the projective framework initiated by Kijowski (1977) and Okołów (2009, 2014, 2013) [1,2], which describes the states of a quantum theory as projective families of density matrices. A short reading guide to the series can be found in Lanéry (2016). A strategy to implement the dynamics in this formalism was presented in our first paper Lanéry and Thiemann (2017) (see also Lanéry, 2016, section 4), which we now test in two simple toy-models. The first one is a very basic linear model, meant as an illustration of the general procedure, and we will only discuss it at the classical level. In the second one, we reformulate the Schrödinger equation, treated as a classical field theory, within this projective framework, and proceed to its (non-relativistic) second quantization. We are then able to reproduce the physical content of the usual Fock quantization.

  20. An application of computer aided requirements analysis to a real time deep space system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farny, A. M.; Morris, R. V.; Hartsough, C.; Callender, E. D.; Teichroew, D.; Chikofsky, E.

    1981-01-01

    The entire procedure of incorporating the requirements and goals of a space flight project into integrated, time ordered sequences of spacecraft commands, is called the uplink process. The Uplink Process Control Task (UPCT) was created to examine the uplink process and determine ways to improve it. The Problem Statement Language/Problem Statement Analyzer (PSL/PSA) designed to assist the designer/analyst/engineer in the preparation of specifications of an information system is used as a supporting tool to aid in the analysis. Attention is given to a definition of the uplink process, the definition of PSL/PSA, the construction of a PSA database, the value of analysis to the study of the uplink process, and the PSL/PSA lessons learned.

  1. Visual Odometry for Autonomous Deep-Space Navigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shane; Pedrotty, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D) is a critical need for manned spaceflight, especially in deep space where communication delays essentially leave crews on their own for critical operations like docking. Previously developed AR&D sensors have been large, heavy, power-hungry, and may still require further development (e.g. Flash LiDAR). Other approaches to vision-based navigation are not computationally efficient enough to operate quickly on slower, flight-like computers. The key technical challenge for visual odometry is to adapt it from the current terrestrial applications it was designed for to function in the harsh lighting conditions of space. This effort leveraged Draper Laboratory’s considerable prior development and expertise, benefitting both parties. The algorithm Draper has created is unique from other pose estimation efforts as it has a comparatively small computational footprint (suitable for use onboard a spacecraft, unlike alternatives) and potentially offers accuracy and precision needed for docking. This presents a solution to the AR&D problem that only requires a camera, which is much smaller, lighter, and requires far less power than competing AR&D sensors. We have demonstrated the algorithm’s performance and ability to process ‘flight-like’ imagery formats with a ‘flight-like’ trajectory, positioning ourselves to easily process flight data from the upcoming ‘ISS Selfie’ activity and then compare the algorithm’s quantified performance to the simulated imagery. This will bring visual odometry beyond TRL 5, proving its readiness to be demonstrated as part of an integrated system.Once beyond TRL 5, visual odometry will be poised to be demonstrated as part of a system in an in-space demo where relative pose is critical, like Orion AR&D, ISS robotic operations, asteroid proximity operations, and more.

  2. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, F.; Chassay, R.

    1976-12-01

    The experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of nine scientific experiments conducted during the first Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight are summarized. The nine individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic, feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams, characterization of rocket vibration environment by measurement of mixing of two liquids, uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, direct observation of solidification as a function of gravity levels, casting thoria dispersion-strengthened interfaces, contained polycrystalline solidification, and preparation of a special alloy for manufacturing of magnetic hard superconductor under zero-g environment

  3. Insurance and indemnification implications of future space projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA options regarding insurance and indemnification policies as they relate to NASA customers and contractors are described. The foundation for the discussion is the way in which NASA is planning to return the Space Shuttle fleet to safe flight as well as current U.S. policy concerning future uses of the Shuttle fleet. Issues discussed include: the nature of the Shuttle manifest; the policy regarding property damage or destruction; insurance against liability to third parties; the reduction of the scope of the risk to be insured; NASA as the insurer; a sharing arrangement between the user and NASA; and contractors and subcontractors involved in Shuttle operations.

  4. Space Processing Applications rocket project SPAR III. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presents the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarizes the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies

  5. PCB-Caulk Replacement Project Johnson Space Center Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William M.; Stanch, Penney M.; Molenda, William

    2011-01-01

    Wet method reduced exposure by minimizing overall respirable particulate release. Dry method didn't introduce delays for primer/caulk application. Removed caulks came in many forms, from dry powdery to tarry sticky. Varying textures were not sampled or packaged differently. During the course of the project, EPA modified recommended practices to include full containment for exterior caulk removal. Changes are ongoing. Initial recommendations were directed to school buildings. EPA is researching risks due to caulk. Exposure guidance lacking except for 2 of 209 PCB congeners. Work was safely completed on schedule and under budget.

  6. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces:Nomads and Artisans

    OpenAIRE

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how st...

  7. AEP Ohio gridSMART Demonstration Project Real-Time Pricing Demonstration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek; Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.

    2014-02-01

    This report contributes initial findings from an analysis of significant aspects of the gridSMART® Real-Time Pricing (RTP) – Double Auction demonstration project. Over the course of four years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) worked with American Electric Power (AEP), Ohio and Battelle Memorial Institute to design, build, and operate an innovative system to engage residential consumers and their end-use resources in a participatory approach to electric system operations, an incentive-based approach that has the promise of providing greater efficiency under normal operating conditions and greater flexibility to react under situations of system stress. The material contained in this report supplements the findings documented by AEP Ohio in the main body of the gridSMART report. It delves into three main areas: impacts on system operations, impacts on households, and observations about the sensitivity of load to price changes.

  8. Space-time least-squares Petrov-Galerkin projection in nonlinear model reduction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Youngsoo [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Extreme-scale Data Science and Analytics Dept.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Extreme-scale Data Science and Analytics Dept.

    2017-09-01

    Our work proposes a space-time least-squares Petrov-Galerkin (ST-LSPG) projection method for model reduction of nonlinear dynamical systems. In contrast to typical nonlinear model-reduction methods that first apply Petrov-Galerkin projection in the spatial dimension and subsequently apply time integration to numerically resolve the resulting low-dimensional dynamical system, the proposed method applies projection in space and time simultaneously. To accomplish this, the method first introduces a low-dimensional space-time trial subspace, which can be obtained by computing tensor decompositions of state-snapshot data. The method then computes discrete-optimal approximations in this space-time trial subspace by minimizing the residual arising after time discretization over all space and time in a weighted ℓ2-norm. This norm can be de ned to enable complexity reduction (i.e., hyper-reduction) in time, which leads to space-time collocation and space-time GNAT variants of the ST-LSPG method. Advantages of the approach relative to typical spatial-projection-based nonlinear model reduction methods such as Galerkin projection and least-squares Petrov-Galerkin projection include: (1) a reduction of both the spatial and temporal dimensions of the dynamical system, (2) the removal of spurious temporal modes (e.g., unstable growth) from the state space, and (3) error bounds that exhibit slower growth in time. Numerical examples performed on model problems in fluid dynamics demonstrate the ability of the method to generate orders-of-magnitude computational savings relative to spatial-projection-based reduced-order models without sacrificing accuracy.

  9. Construction strategies and lifetime uncertainties for nuclear projects: A real option analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Shashi, E-mail: s.jain@cwi.nl [TU Delft, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft (Netherlands); Nuclear Research Group, Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research Group, Petten (Netherlands); Oosterlee, Cornelis W., E-mail: c.w.oosterlee@cwi.nl [CWI – Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); TU Delft, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Real options can be used to value flexibility of modular reactors. • Value of NPPs increases with implementation of long term cost reductions. • Levels of uncertainties affect the choice between projects. -- Abstract: Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs (according to IAEA, ‘small’ are reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfront expenditure, and easy integration with small sized grids. Large reactors on the other hand have been an attractive option due to economy of scale. In this paper we focus on the advantages of flexibility due to modular construction of SMRs. Using real option analysis (ROA) we help a utility determine the value of sequential modular SMRs. Numerical results under different considerations, like possibility of rare events, learning, uncertain lifetimes are reported for a single large unit and modular SMRs.

  10. Construction strategies and lifetime uncertainties for nuclear projects: A real option analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shashi; Roelofs, Ferry; Oosterlee, Cornelis W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Real options can be used to value flexibility of modular reactors. • Value of NPPs increases with implementation of long term cost reductions. • Levels of uncertainties affect the choice between projects. -- Abstract: Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs (according to IAEA, ‘small’ are reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfront expenditure, and easy integration with small sized grids. Large reactors on the other hand have been an attractive option due to economy of scale. In this paper we focus on the advantages of flexibility due to modular construction of SMRs. Using real option analysis (ROA) we help a utility determine the value of sequential modular SMRs. Numerical results under different considerations, like possibility of rare events, learning, uncertain lifetimes are reported for a single large unit and modular SMRs

  11. Real-space description of semiconducting band gaps in substitutional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magri, R.; Zunger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of ''band-gap engineering'' in substitutional lattices is to identify atomic configurations that would give rise to a desired value of the band gap. Yet, current theoretical approaches to the problems, based largely on compilations of band structures for various latice configurations, have not yielded simple rules relating structural motifs to band gaps. We show that the band gap of substitutional AlAs/GaAs lattices can be usefully expanded in terms of a hierarchy of contributions from real-space ''atomic figures'' (pairs, triplets, quadruplets) detemined from first-principles band-structure calculations. Pair figures (up to fourth neighbors) and three-body figures are dominant. In analogy with similar cluster expansions of the total energy, this permits a systematic search among all lattice configurations for those having ''special'' band gaps. This approach enables the design of substitutional systems with certain band-gap properties by assembling atomic figures. As an illustration, we predict that the [0 bar 12]-oriented (AlAs) 1 /(GaAs) 4 /(AlAs) 1 /(GaAs) 2 superlattice has the largest band gap among all Al 0.25 Ga 0.75 As lattices with a maximum of ten cations per unit cell

  12. An atomic model of brome mosaic virus using direct electron detection and real-space optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Hryc, Corey F.; Bammes, Benjamin; Afonine, Pavel V.; Jakana, Joanita; Chen, Dong-Hua; Liu, Xiangan; Baker, Matthew L.; Kao, Cheng; Ludtke, Steven J.; Schmid, Michael F.; Adams, Paul D.; Chiu, Wah

    2014-09-01

    Advances in electron cryo-microscopy have enabled structure determination of macromolecules at near-atomic resolution. However, structure determination, even using de novo methods, remains susceptible to model bias and overfitting. Here we describe a complete workflow for data acquisition, image processing, all-atom modelling and validation of brome mosaic virus, an RNA virus. Data were collected with a direct electron detector in integrating mode and an exposure beyond the traditional radiation damage limit. The final density map has a resolution of 3.8 Å as assessed by two independent data sets and maps. We used the map to derive an all-atom model with a newly implemented real-space optimization protocol. The validity of the model was verified by its match with the density map and a previous model from X-ray crystallography, as well as the internal consistency of models from independent maps. This study demonstrates a practical approach to obtain a rigorously validated atomic resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure.

  13. Scalable real space pseudopotential density functional codes for materials in the exascale regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lena, Charles; Chelikowsky, James; Schofield, Grady; Biller, Ariel; Kronik, Leeor; Saad, Yousef; Deslippe, Jack

    Real-space pseudopotential density functional theory has proven to be an efficient method for computing the properties of matter in many different states and geometries, including liquids, wires, slabs, and clusters with and without spin polarization. Fully self-consistent solutions using this approach have been routinely obtained for systems with thousands of atoms. Yet, there are many systems of notable larger sizes where quantum mechanical accuracy is desired, but scalability proves to be a hindrance. Such systems include large biological molecules, complex nanostructures, or mismatched interfaces. We will present an overview of our new massively parallel algorithms, which offer improved scalability in preparation for exascale supercomputing. We will illustrate these algorithms by considering the electronic structure of a Si nanocrystal exceeding 104 atoms. Support provided by the SciDAC program, Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences. Grant Numbers DE-SC0008877 (Austin) and DE-FG02-12ER4 (Berkeley).

  14. Observation of dynamic atom-atom correlation in liquid helium in real space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmowski, W; Diallo, S O; Lokshin, K; Ehlers, G; Ferré, G; Boronat, J; Egami, T

    2017-05-04

    Liquid 4 He becomes superfluid and flows without resistance below temperature 2.17 K. Superfluidity has been a subject of intense studies and notable advances were made in elucidating the phenomenon by experiment and theory. Nevertheless, details of the microscopic state, including dynamic atom-atom correlations in the superfluid state, are not fully understood. Here using a technique of neutron dynamic pair-density function (DPDF) analysis we show that 4 He atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensate have environment significantly different from uncondensed atoms, with the interatomic distance larger than the average by about 10%, whereas the average structure changes little through the superfluid transition. DPDF peak not seen in the snap-shot pair-density function is found at 2.3 Å, and is interpreted in terms of atomic tunnelling. The real space picture of dynamic atom-atom correlations presented here reveal characteristics of atomic dynamics not recognized so far, compelling yet another look at the phenomenon.

  15. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman–Goldstone diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2014-01-01

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman–Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mE h after 10 6 Monte Carlo steps

  16. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman–Goldstone diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Center for Superfunctional Materials, Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyojadong, Namgu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-14

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman–Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mE{sub h} after 10{sup 6} Monte Carlo steps.

  17. Real-space observation of nanojet-induced modes in a chain of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Wang, Po-Kai

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional real-space observation of photonic nanojet-induced modes in a chain of microspheres with different diameters is reported. The optical transmission properties of a chain of microspheres are studied by using high resolution finite-difference time-domain calculation. The photonic nanojet-induced modes in different chains of microspheres are measured by using a scanning optical microscope system with an optical-fiber probe. We observe the photonic nanojet-induced modes from optical microscope images for chains of 3 μm, 5 μm, and 8 μm microspheres deposited on a patterned silicon substrate. The incident beam can be periodically reproduced in chains of dielectric microspheres giving rise to lossless periodically optical focusing with period of two diameters. Detailed theoretical and experimental data on the transmission, scattering loss, and field-of-view are presented. This waveguide technique can be used in biomedical microscopy, ultra-precise laser process, microfluidics, and nanophotonic circuits.

  18. Real-space Mapping of Surface Trap States in CIGSe Nanocrystals using 4D Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Bose, Riya

    2016-05-26

    Surface trap states in semiconductor copper indium gallium selenide nanocrystals (NCs) which serve as undesirable channels for non-radiative carrier recombination, remain a great challenge impeding the development of solar and optoelectronics devices based on these NCs. In order to design efficient passivation techniques to minimize these trap states, a precise knowledge about the charge carrier dynamics on the NCs surface is essential. However, selective mapping of surface traps requires capabilities beyond the reach of conventional laser spectroscopy and static electron microscopy; it can only be accessed by using a one-of-a-kind, second-generation four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscope (4D S-UEM) with sub-picosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolutions. Here, we precisely map the surface charge carrier dynamics of copper indium gallium selenide NCs before and after surface passivation in real space and time using S-UEM. The time-resolved snapshots clearly demonstrate that the density of the trap states is significantly reduced after zinc sulfide (ZnS) shelling. Furthermore, removal of trap states and elongation of carrier lifetime are confirmed by the increased photocurrent of the self-biased photodetector fabricated using the shelled NCs.

  19. Real-space Mapping of Surface Trap States in CIGSe Nanocrystals using 4D Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Bose, Riya; Bera, Ashok; Parida, Manas R.; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Shaheen, Basamat; Alarousu, Erkki; Sun, Jingya; Wu, Tao; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    Surface trap states in semiconductor copper indium gallium selenide nanocrystals (NCs) which serve as undesirable channels for non-radiative carrier recombination, remain a great challenge impeding the development of solar and optoelectronics devices based on these NCs. In order to design efficient passivation techniques to minimize these trap states, a precise knowledge about the charge carrier dynamics on the NCs surface is essential. However, selective mapping of surface traps requires capabilities beyond the reach of conventional laser spectroscopy and static electron microscopy; it can only be accessed by using a one-of-a-kind, second-generation four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscope (4D S-UEM) with sub-picosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolutions. Here, we precisely map the surface charge carrier dynamics of copper indium gallium selenide NCs before and after surface passivation in real space and time using S-UEM. The time-resolved snapshots clearly demonstrate that the density of the trap states is significantly reduced after zinc sulfide (ZnS) shelling. Furthermore, removal of trap states and elongation of carrier lifetime are confirmed by the increased photocurrent of the self-biased photodetector fabricated using the shelled NCs.

  20. Real-Space x-ray tomographic reconstruction of randomly oriented objects with sparse data frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyer, Kartik; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Elser, Veit; Gruner, Sol M

    2014-02-10

    Schemes for X-ray imaging single protein molecules using new x-ray sources, like x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), require processing many frames of data that are obtained by taking temporally short snapshots of identical molecules, each with a random and unknown orientation. Due to the small size of the molecules and short exposure times, average signal levels of much less than 1 photon/pixel/frame are expected, much too low to be processed using standard methods. One approach to process the data is to use statistical methods developed in the EMC algorithm (Loh & Elser, Phys. Rev. E, 2009) which processes the data set as a whole. In this paper we apply this method to a real-space tomographic reconstruction using sparse frames of data (below 10(-2) photons/pixel/frame) obtained by performing x-ray transmission measurements of a low-contrast, randomly-oriented object. This extends the work by Philipp et al. (Optics Express, 2012) to three dimensions and is one step closer to the single molecule reconstruction problem.

  1. Real-space observation of nanojet-induced modes in a chain of microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang, E-mail: cyliu@mail.tku.edu.tw; Wang, Po-Kai

    2014-04-01

    The three-dimensional real-space observation of photonic nanojet-induced modes in a chain of microspheres with different diameters is reported. The optical transmission properties of a chain of microspheres are studied by using high resolution finite-difference time-domain calculation. The photonic nanojet-induced modes in different chains of microspheres are measured by using a scanning optical microscope system with an optical-fiber probe. We observe the photonic nanojet-induced modes from optical microscope images for chains of 3 μm, 5 μm, and 8 μm microspheres deposited on a patterned silicon substrate. The incident beam can be periodically reproduced in chains of dielectric microspheres giving rise to lossless periodically optical focusing with period of two diameters. Detailed theoretical and experimental data on the transmission, scattering loss, and field-of-view are presented. This waveguide technique can be used in biomedical microscopy, ultra-precise laser process, microfluidics, and nanophotonic circuits.

  2. Art & Space: the webbing projects of Eva Petrič

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrič, E.; Schlacht, I. L.; Foing, B.

    2015-10-01

    Art is considered a form of communication often related to the perception of personal emotion of the artist. Space is the most extreme environment that a human could approach, this environment affects the human body and the individual's personal perception with metamorphosis created by factors such as, isolation, radiation and difference of gravity. This alteration of the perception could be viewed as a potentiality from artists to acquire and communicate new emotions. To investigate the capacity of an artist to come faster and closer to emotions and to communicate their feeling, a mission simulation has been performed in the ExoLab module [1] from ILEWG [A] on the 29th of April 2015.

  3. A distributed agent architecture for real-time knowledge-based systems: Real-time expert systems project, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    We propose a distributed agent architecture (DAA) that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and artificial intelligence. DAA consists of distributed agents that are classified into two categories: reactive and cognitive. Reactive agents can be implemented directly in Ada to meet hard real-time requirements and be deployed on on-board embedded processors. A traditional real-time computing methodology under consideration is the rate monotonic theory that can guarantee schedulability based on analytical methods. AI techniques under consideration for reactive agents are approximate or anytime reasoning that can be implemented using Bayesian belief networks as in Guardian. Cognitive agents are traditional expert systems that can be implemented in ART-Ada to meet soft real-time requirements. During the initial design of cognitive agents, it is critical to consider the migration path that would allow initial deployment on ground-based workstations with eventual deployment on on-board processors. ART-Ada technology enables this migration while Lisp-based technologies make it difficult if not impossible. In addition to reactive and cognitive agents, a meta-level agent would be needed to coordinate multiple agents and to provide meta-level control.

  4. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo version of the genetic algorithm Differential Evolution: easy Bayesian computing for real parameter spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple genetic algorithm for numerical optimization in real parameter spaces. In a statistical context one would not just want the optimum but also its uncertainty. The uncertainty distribution can be obtained by a Bayesian analysis (after specifying prior and

  5. National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) JSC Summer Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Forrest Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This project optimized the calorie content in a breakfast meal replacement bar for the Advanced Food Technology group. Use of multivariable optimization yielded the highest weight savings possible while simultaneously matching NASA Human Standards nutritional guidelines. The scope of this research included the study of shelf-life indicators such as water activity, moisture content, and texture analysis. Key metrics indicate higher protein content, higher caloric density, and greater mass savings as a result of the reformulation process. The optimization performed for this study demonstrated wide application to other food bars in the Advanced Food Technology portfolio. Recommendations for future work include shelf life studies on bar hardening and overall acceptability data over increased time frames and temperature fluctuation scenarios.

  6. All ASD complex and real 4-dimensional Einstein spaces with Λ≠0 admitting a nonnull Killing vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudecki, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Anti-self-dual (ASD) 4-dimensional complex Einstein spaces with nonzero cosmological constant Λ equipped with a nonnull Killing vector are considered. It is shown that any conformally nonflat metric of such spaces can be always brought to a special form and the Einstein field equations can be reduced to the Boyer-Finley-Plebański equation (Toda field equation). Some alternative forms of the metric are discussed. All possible real slices (neutral, Euclidean and Lorentzian) of ASD complex Einstein spaces with Λ≠0 admitting a nonnull Killing vector are found.

  7. NCU-SWIP Space Weather Instrumentation Payload - Intelligent Sensors On Efficient Real-Time Distributed LUTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Tse-Liang; Dmitriev, Alexei; Chu, Yen-Hsyang; Jiang, Shyh-Biau; Chen, Li-Wu

    The NCU-SWIP - Space Weather Instrumentation Payload is developed for simultaneous in-situ and remote measurement of space weather parameters for cross verifications. The measurements include in-situ electron density, electron temperature, magnetic field, the deceleration of satellite due to neutral wind, and remotely the linear cumulative intensities of oxygen ion air-glows at 135.6nm and 630.0nm along the flight path in forward, nader, and backward directions for tomographic reconstruction of the electron density distribution underneath. This instrument package is suitable for micro satellite constellation to establish nominal space weather profiles and, thus, to detect abnormal variations as the signs of ionospheric disturbances induced by severe atmospheric weather, or earth quake - mantle movement through their Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Mechanism. NCU-SWIP is constructed with intelligent sensor modules connected by common bus with their functionalities managed by an efficient distributed real-time system LUTOS. The same hierarchy can be applied to the level of satellite constellation. For example SWIP's in a constellation in coordination with the GNSS Occultation Experiment TriG planned for the Formosa-7 constellation, data can be cross correlated for verification and refinement for real-time, stable and reliable measurements. A SWIP will be contributed to the construction of a MAI Micro Satellite for verification. The SWIP consists of two separate modules: the SWIP main control module and the SWIP-PMTomo sensor module. They are respectively a 1.5kg W120xL120xH100 (in mm) box with forward facing 120mmPhi circular disk probe on a boom top edged at 470mm height and a 7.2kg W126xL590x372H (in mm) slab containing 3 legs looking downwards along the flight path, while consuming the maximum electricity of 10W and 12W. The sensors are 1) ETPEDP measuring 16bits floating potentials for electron temperature range of 1000K to 3000K and 24bits electron

  8. Issues in visual support to real-time space system simulation solved in the Systems Engineering Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Vincent K.

    1989-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Simulator has addressed the major issues in providing visual data to its real-time man-in-the-loop simulations. Out-the-window views and CCTV views are provided by three scene systems to give the astronauts their real-world views. To expand the window coverage for the Space Station Freedom workstation a rotating optics system is used to provide the widest field of view possible. To provide video signals to as many viewpoints as possible, windows and CCTVs, with a limited amount of hardware, a video distribution system has been developed to time-share the video channels among viewpoints at the selection of the simulation users. These solutions have provided the visual simulation facility for real-time man-in-the-loop simulations for the NASA space program.

  9. Rt-Space: A Real-Time Stochastically-Provisioned Adaptive Container Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Real-Time Systems (ECRTS) Conference Location: Toulouse, France Paper Title: Multiprocessor Real-Time Locking Protocols for Replicated Resources...Conference Location: Lille, France Paper Title: A Contention-Sensitive Fine-Grained Locking Protocol for Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems Publication...On the Soft Real-Time Optimality of Global EDF on Multiprocessors: From Identical to Uniform Heterogeneous Publication Type: Conference Paper or

  10. Opportunities of real innovation projects for the acquisition of professional competences in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haba, M. J.; Taguas, E. V.; del Campillo, M. C.; Guerrero, J. E.; Pérez-Marín, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    The internationalization of the curricula and the development of skills for the labor market are core objectives of the Bologna Process. In this work, the structure and the organization of a Master Course "Innovation and New Technologies in Agrifood Engineering", in the University of Cordoba is presented. The theorist contents are focused on: 1) the opportunities (public and private) for the creation of Technology-Based Innovative Enterprises (TBIE) by emphasizing cooperation between stakeholders to enhance the skills of students; 2) the role of the University for supporting them and for collaborating in the "Open Innovation" among companies in different European countries. In the practical topics, the students must use that information for preparing a real innovation project of agrifood products which is tutored by the teachers and is presented and evaluated by a member of CTA (Corporación Tecnológica de Andalucía), an institution of sponsoring of innovation and technological projects. The evaluation of the students about its utility and the organization aspects corresponding to the course 2010-2011 was 4.2 in scale from 0 to 5. In this context, teachers have noted that innovation processes have improved the employability of students as they have been prepared to face the market challenges and opportunities.

  11. Large Energy Development Projects: Lessons Learned from Space and Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2005-01-01

    The challenge to global energy future lies in meeting the needs and aspirations of the ten to twelve billion earthlings that will be on this planet by 2050. At least an eight-fold increase in annual production will be required by the middle of this century. The energy sources that can be considered developed and 'in the box' for consideration as sources for major increases in supply over the next half century are fossil fuels, nuclear fission, and, to a lesser degree, various forms of direct and stored solar energy and conservation. None of these near-term sources of energy will provide an eight-fold or more increase in energy supply for various technical, environmental and political reasons.Only a few potential energy sources that fall 'out of the box' appear worthy of additional consideration as possible contributors to energy demand in 2050 and beyond. These particular candidates are deuterium-tritium fusion, space solar energy, and lunar helium-3 fusion. The primary advantage that lunar helium-3 fusion will have over other 'out of the box' energy sources in the pre-2050 timeframe is a clear path into the private capital markets. The development and demonstration of new energy sources will require several development paths, each of Apollo-like complexity and each with sub-paths of parallel development for critical functions and components

  12. EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution functions in real space from molecular wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (functional group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant wave functions which are read in from an aimpac-like wave function description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal wave functions a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated wave functions. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer

  13. Dynamical electron diffraction simulation for non-orthogonal crystal system by a revised real space method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, C L; Liu, Q B; Cai, C Y; Huang, J; Zhou, G W; Wang, Y G

    2015-01-01

    In the transmission electron microscopy, a revised real space (RRS) method has been confirmed to be a more accurate dynamical electron diffraction simulation method for low-energy electron diffraction than the conventional multislice method (CMS). However, the RRS method can be only used to calculate the dynamical electron diffraction of orthogonal crystal system. In this work, the expression of the RRS method for non-orthogonal crystal system is derived. By taking Na2 Ti3 O7 and Si as examples, the correctness of the derived RRS formula for non-orthogonal crystal system is confirmed by testing the coincidence of numerical results of both sides of Schrödinger equation; moreover, the difference between the RRS method and the CMS for non-orthogonal crystal system is compared at the accelerating voltage range from 40 to 10 kV. Our results show that the CMS method is almost the same as the RRS method for the accelerating voltage above 40 kV. However, when the accelerating voltage is further lowered to 20 kV or below, the CMS method introduces significant errors, not only for the higher-order Laue zone diffractions, but also for zero-order Laue zone. These indicate that the RRS method for non-orthogonal crystal system is necessary to be used for more accurate dynamical simulation when the accelerating voltage is low. Furthermore, the reason for the increase of differences between those diffraction patterns calculated by the RRS method and the CMS method with the decrease of the accelerating voltage is discussed. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. QERx- A Faster than Real-Time Emulator for Space Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B.; Pidgeon, A.; Robinson, P.

    2012-08-01

    Developing software for space systems is challenging. Especially because, in order to be sure it can cope with the harshness of the environment and the imperative requirements and constrains imposed by the platform were it will run, it needs to be tested exhaustively. Software Validation Facilities (SVF) are known to the industry and developers, and provide the means to run the On-Board Software (OBSW) in a realistic environment, allowing the development team to debug and test the software.But the challenge is to be able to keep up with the performance of the new processors (LEON2 and LEON3), which need to be emulated within the SVF. Such processor emulators are also used in Operational Simulators, used to support mission preparation and train mission operators. These simulators mimic the satellite and its behaviour, as realistically as possible. For test/operational efficiency reasons and because they will need to interact with external systems, both these uses cases require the processor emulators to provide real-time, or faster, performance.It is known to the industry that the performance of previously available emulators is not enough to cope with the performance of the new processors available in the market. SciSys approached this problem with dynamic translation technology trying to keep costs down by avoiding a hardware solution and keeping the integration flexibility of full software emulation.SciSys presented “QERx: A High Performance Emulator for Software Validation and Simulations” [1], in a previous DASIA event. Since then that idea has evolved and QERx has been successfully validated. SciSys is now presenting QERx as a product that can be tailored to fit different emulation needs. This paper will present QERx latest developments and current status.

  15. Environmental project and public space rehabilitation: the great project for the historic center of Naples Unesco World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Losasso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Historic Centre of Naples, World Heritage Site Enhancement” project has as its goal the rehabilitation of the oldest part of the historic center of Naples, one of the largest and most representative of Europe. The research reference field is placed on the level of strategic approach to the project and process management downstream of EU funding in large cities, with particular multidisciplinary relevance and urban issues of a complex nature. The scientific products of study, training and research were collected in Guidelines for the rehabilitation of public spaces and for sustainable performance of interventions on roads, walkways, squares and urban facilities.

  16. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.

    2011-12-01

    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, http://emso-eu.org). But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  17. Quantization vial real polarization of the moduli space of flat connections and Chern-Simons gauge theory in genus one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitsman, J.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1991-01-01

    We study the quantization of the moduli space of flat connections on a surface of genus one, using the real polarization of this space. The quantum wave functions in this formalism are exponential functions supported along the integral fibres of the polarization. The space of wave functions obtained in this way is isomorphic to a space of theta functions. We use our construction to cunstruct part of what may be a topological field theory in genus one, and to compute the associated invariants of some three manifolds. These computations agree with those of Witten, but the invariants are expressed as sums of quantities computed at a discrete set of connections with curvature concentrated on a link in the three manifold. A similar prescription is used to produce knot invariants. (orig.)

  18. Aerogel Use as a Skin Protective Liner In Space Suits and Prosthetic Limbs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications for use in space suits and orthopedics. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material, and our initial findings demonstrated that these materrials would be excellent candidates for liner applications for prosthetics and space suits. The project is currently on hold until additional funding is obtained for application testing at the VH Hospitals in Tampa

  19. Real-Time Mapping Spectroscopy on the Ground, in the Air, and in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Allwood, A.; Chien, S.; Green, R. O.; Wettergreen, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Real-time data interpretation can benefit both remote in situ exploration and remote sensing. Basic analyses at the sensor can monitor instrument performance and reveal invisible science phenomena in real time. This promotes situational awareness for remote robotic explorers or campaign decision makers, enabling adaptive data collection, reduced downlink requirements, and coordinated multi-instrument observations. Fast analysis is ideal for mapping spectrometers providing unambiguous, quantitative geophysical measurements. This presentation surveys recent computational advances in real-time spectroscopic analysis for Earth science and planetary exploration. Spectral analysis at the sensor enables new operations concepts that significantly improve science yield. Applications include real-time detection of fugitive greenhouse emissions by airborne monitoring, real-time cloud screening and mineralogical mapping by orbital spectrometers, and adaptive measurement by the PIXL instrument on the Mars 2020 rover. Copyright 2016 California Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved. We acknowledge support of the US Government, NASA, the Earth Science Division and Terrestrial Ecology program.

  20. Study of real space wave functions with electron energy loss spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löffler, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, new methods to study the real space wave functions of electrons in a solid using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) are presented. To this end, the theory of both elastic and inelastic electron scattering is treated in a density-matrix formalism. In the process, the central quantities of inelastic electron scattering - the mixed dynamic form factor (MDFF) and the double differential scattering cross section (DDSCS) - are introduced. In addition to the formal theory, several approximations and simplifications, as well as their respective validities, are discussed. Furthermore, a method for diagonalizing the mixed dynamic form factor is described, which allows calculating high resolution energy filtered TEM images with unprecedented accuracy. Subsequently, several applications of the aforementioned theory to real-world examples are presented. On the one hand, the example of Silicon serves to demonstrate how the radial wave functions in the bulk can be measured; the agreement with the theoretical predictions proves to be very good. On the other hand, the determination of the wave functions' azimuthal dependence is derived. It turns out that the symmetry of the system under investigation is crucial to the success of this endeavor. With the new techniques presented here, it will be possible to measure electronic properties with atomic resolution, which can be of great importance, particularly in material science. (author) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden neue Methoden vorgestellt, mit deren Hilfe Elektronenwellenfunktionen in Festkörpern mittels Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie (TEM) und Elektronenenergieverlustspektrometrie (EELS) direkt im Realraum vermessen werden können. Zu diesem Zweck wird sowohl die Theorie der elastischen Elektronenbeugung als auch die der inelastischen Elektronenstreuung im Dichtematrixformalismus dargestellt. Dabei werden die zentralen Größen der inelastischen

  1. Real-space and real-time dynamics of CRISPR-Cas9 visualized by high-speed atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mikihiro; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Kodera, Noriyuki; Hirano, Seiichi; Ando, Toshio; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Nureki, Osamu

    2017-11-10

    The CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 binds to a guide RNA and cleaves double-stranded DNA with a sequence complementary to the RNA guide. The Cas9-RNA system has been harnessed for numerous applications, such as genome editing. Here we use high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to visualize the real-space and real-time dynamics of CRISPR-Cas9 in action. HS-AFM movies indicate that, whereas apo-Cas9 adopts unexpected flexible conformations, Cas9-RNA forms a stable bilobed structure and interrogates target sites on the DNA by three-dimensional diffusion. These movies also provide real-time visualization of the Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage process. Notably, the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain fluctuates upon DNA binding, and subsequently adopts an active conformation, where the HNH active site is docked at the cleavage site in the target DNA. Collectively, our HS-AFM data extend our understanding of the action mechanism of CRISPR-Cas9.

  2. EGNOS Monitoring Prepared in Space Research Centre P.A.S. for SPMS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Anna; Jaworski, Leszek; Tomasik, Lukasz

    2017-12-01

    The European Geostationary Overlay Service (EGNOS) augments Global Positioning System (GPS) by providing correction data and integrity information for improving positioning over Europe. EGNOS Service Performance Monitoring Support (SPMS) project has assumed establishment, maintenance and implementation of an EGNOS performance monitoring network. The paper presents preliminary results of analyses prepared in Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences (Warsaw), as one of partners in SPMS project.

  3. The Development of a Teaching Strategy for Implementing a Real-World Business Project into Database Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Abbassi, Behrooz; King, Ronnie; Wiseman, Eddie

    2007-01-01

    Collaborations between business and academia provide valuable opportunities for students to connect classroom learning with practical work experience. To effectively reach a significant number of students, one approach is to meld a real-world business project and classroom assignment into a realistic business scenario that can be addressed by…

  4. Application of real space Kerker method in simulating gate-all-around nanowire transistors with realistic discrete dopants*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chang-Sheng; Ma Lei; Guo Jie-Rong

    2017-01-01

    We adopt a self-consistent real space Kerker method to prevent the divergence from charge sloshing in the simulating transistors with realistic discrete dopants in the source and drain regions. The method achieves efficient convergence by avoiding unrealistic long range charge sloshing but keeping effects from short range charge sloshing. Numerical results show that discrete dopants in the source and drain regions could have a bigger influence on the electrical variability than the usual continuous doping without considering charge sloshing. Few discrete dopants and the narrow geometry create a situation with short range Coulomb screening and oscillations of charge density in real space. The dopants induced quasi-localized defect modes in the source region experience short range oscillations in order to reach the drain end of the device. The charging of the defect modes and the oscillations of the charge density are identified by the simulation of the electron density. (paper)

  5. Real-time maneuver optimization of space-based robots in a dynamic environment: Theory and on-orbit experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamitoff, Gregory E.; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Katz, Jacob G.; Ulrich, Steve; Morrell, Benjamin J.; Gibbens, Peter W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a real-time path-planning optimization approach to controlling the motion of space-based robots. The algorithm is capable of planning three dimensional trajectories for a robot to navigate within complex surroundings that include numerous static and dynamic obstacles, path constraints and performance limitations. The methodology employs a unique transformation that enables rapid generation of feasible solutions for complex geometries, making it suitable for application to real-time operations and dynamic environments. This strategy was implemented on the Synchronized Position Hold Engage Reorient Experimental Satellite (SPHERES) test-bed on the International Space Station (ISS), and experimental testing was conducted onboard the ISS during Expedition 17 by the first author. Lessons learned from the on-orbit tests were used to further refine the algorithm for future implementations.

  6. Reduced aliasing artifacts using shaking projection k-space sampling trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-Chun; Du, Jiang; Yang, Wen-Chao; Duan, Chai-Jie; Wang, Hao-Yu; Gao, Song; Bao, Shang-Lian

    2014-03-01

    Radial imaging techniques, such as projection-reconstruction (PR), are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for dynamic imaging, angiography, and short-T2 imaging. They are less sensitive to flow and motion artifacts, and support fast imaging with short echo times. However, aliasing and streaking artifacts are two main sources which degrade radial imaging quality. For a given fixed number of k-space projections, data distributions along radial and angular directions will influence the level of aliasing and streaking artifacts. Conventional radial k-space sampling trajectory introduces an aliasing artifact at the first principal ring of point spread function (PSF). In this paper, a shaking projection (SP) k-space sampling trajectory was proposed to reduce aliasing artifacts in MR images. SP sampling trajectory shifts the projection alternately along the k-space center, which separates k-space data in the azimuthal direction. Simulations based on conventional and SP sampling trajectories were compared with the same number projections. A significant reduction of aliasing artifacts was observed using the SP sampling trajectory. These two trajectories were also compared with different sampling frequencies. A SP trajectory has the same aliasing character when using half sampling frequency (or half data) for reconstruction. SNR comparisons with different white noise levels show that these two trajectories have the same SNR character. In conclusion, the SP trajectory can reduce the aliasing artifact without decreasing SNR and also provide a way for undersampling reconstruction. Furthermore, this method can be applied to three-dimensional (3D) hybrid or spherical radial k-space sampling for a more efficient reduction of aliasing artifacts.

  7. Reduced aliasing artifacts using shaking projection k-space sampling trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yan-Chun; Yang Wen-Chao; Wang Hao-Yu; Gao Song; Bao Shang-Lian; Du Jiang; Duan Chai-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Radial imaging techniques, such as projection-reconstruction (PR), are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for dynamic imaging, angiography, and short-T2 imaging. They are less sensitive to flow and motion artifacts, and support fast imaging with short echo times. However, aliasing and streaking artifacts are two main sources which degrade radial imaging quality. For a given fixed number of k-space projections, data distributions along radial and angular directions will influence the level of aliasing and streaking artifacts. Conventional radial k-space sampling trajectory introduces an aliasing artifact at the first principal ring of point spread function (PSF). In this paper, a shaking projection (SP) k-space sampling trajectory was proposed to reduce aliasing artifacts in MR images. SP sampling trajectory shifts the projection alternately along the k-space center, which separates k-space data in the azimuthal direction. Simulations based on conventional and SP sampling trajectories were compared with the same number projections. A significant reduction of aliasing artifacts was observed using the SP sampling trajectory. These two trajectories were also compared with different sampling frequencies. A SP trajectory has the same aliasing character when using half sampling frequency (or half data) for reconstruction. SNR comparisons with different white noise levels show that these two trajectories have the same SNR character. In conclusion, the SP trajectory can reduce the aliasing artifact without decreasing SNR and also provide a way for undersampling reconstruction. Furthermore, this method can be applied to three-dimensional (3D) hybrid or spherical radial k-space sampling for a more efficient reduction of aliasing artifacts

  8. Real-space post-processing correction of thermal drift and piezoelectric actuator nonlinearities in scanning tunneling microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yothers, Mitchell P.; Browder, Aaron E.; Bumm, Lloyd A.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a real-space method to correct distortion due to thermal drift and piezoelectric actuator nonlinearities on scanning tunneling microscope images using Matlab. The method uses the known structures typically present in high-resolution atomic and molecularly resolved images as an internal standard. Each image feature (atom or molecule) is first identified in the image. The locations of each feature's nearest neighbors are used to measure the local distortion at that location. The local distortion map across the image is simultaneously fit to our distortion model, which includes thermal drift in addition to piezoelectric actuator hysteresis and creep. The image coordinates of the features and image pixels are corrected using an inverse transform from the distortion model. We call this technique the thermal-drift, hysteresis, and creep transform. Performing the correction in real space allows defects, domain boundaries, and step edges to be excluded with a spatial mask. Additional real-space image analyses are now possible with these corrected images. Using graphite(0001) as a model system, we show lattice fitting to the corrected image, averaged unit cell images, and symmetry-averaged unit cell images. Statistical analysis of the distribution of the image features around their best-fit lattice sites measures the aggregate noise in the image, which can be expressed as feature confidence ellipsoids.

  9. Real-space post-processing correction of thermal drift and piezoelectric actuator nonlinearities in scanning tunneling microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yothers, Mitchell P; Browder, Aaron E; Bumm, Lloyd A

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a real-space method to correct distortion due to thermal drift and piezoelectric actuator nonlinearities on scanning tunneling microscope images using Matlab. The method uses the known structures typically present in high-resolution atomic and molecularly resolved images as an internal standard. Each image feature (atom or molecule) is first identified in the image. The locations of each feature's nearest neighbors are used to measure the local distortion at that location. The local distortion map across the image is simultaneously fit to our distortion model, which includes thermal drift in addition to piezoelectric actuator hysteresis and creep. The image coordinates of the features and image pixels are corrected using an inverse transform from the distortion model. We call this technique the thermal-drift, hysteresis, and creep transform. Performing the correction in real space allows defects, domain boundaries, and step edges to be excluded with a spatial mask. Additional real-space image analyses are now possible with these corrected images. Using graphite(0001) as a model system, we show lattice fitting to the corrected image, averaged unit cell images, and symmetry-averaged unit cell images. Statistical analysis of the distribution of the image features around their best-fit lattice sites measures the aggregate noise in the image, which can be expressed as feature confidence ellipsoids.

  10. A real option-based model to valuate CDM projects under uncertain energy policies for emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taeil; Kim, Changyoon; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A real option-based model for the valuation of CDM projects is proposed. • This study investigates the impact of energy policies on the value of CDM projects. • Level of target emission and its schedule should be carefully designed. • Government subsidy facilitates the implementation of CDM projects. • Period for free emission allowance prevents promoting CDM projects. - Abstract: Emission trading has been considered a primary policy tool for emission reduction. Governments establish national targets for emission reduction and assign emission reduction goals to private entities to accomplish the targets. To attain the goal, private entities should perform offset projects that can produce emission credits or buy emission credits from the market. However, it is not easy for private entities to decide to implement the projects because energy policies associated with emission trading keep changing; thus, the future benefits of the offset projects are quite uncertain. This study presents a real option-based model to investigate how uncertain energy policies affect the financial viability of an offset project. A case study showed that the establishment of a target emission was attractive to the government because it could make the CDM project financially viable with a small amount of government subsidy. In addition, the level of the government subsidy could determine the investment timing for the CDM project. In this context, governments should be cautious in designing energy policies, because even the same energy policies could have different impacts on private entities. Overall, this study is expected to assist private entities in establishing proper investment strategies for CDM projects under uncertain energy policies

  11. Organizational and technological genesis as a tool for strategic planning of large-scale real estate development projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual planning and implementation of large-scale real estate development projects is one of the most difficult tasks in the organization of construction. In the Russian practice, a large experience of development, complex reorganization and redevelopment of large development areas is accumulated. The methodological basis for solving similar problems is the organizational and technological genesis, which considers the development of the project during the full life cycle. An analysis of this experience allows us to talk about the formation of new and effective approaches and methods within the organizational and technological genesis. Among them, the most significant and universal approaches should be highlighted: The concept of real estate development, which explains the reasons and objective needs for project transformations during its life cycle, as well as to increase the adaptive capabilities of design decisions and the project's suitability for the most likely future changes; Development project of joint action, which is based on the balance of interests of project participants; Master planning of the life cycle stages of the project and subprojects, based on the rethinking of the theory and methods of the construction organization, and allowing rationally localized construction sites and related subprojects, while retaining the remaining development and development area beyond of the negative effect of construction for comfortable living and work.

  12. Compact composition operators on real Banach spaces of complex-valued bounded Lipschitz functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Alimohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We characterize compact composition operators on real Banachspaces of complex-valued bounded Lipschitz functions on metricspaces, not necessarily compact, with Lipschitz involutions anddetermine their spectra.

  13. A systematic approach to the application of Automation, Robotics, and Machine Intelligence Systems /ARAMIS/ to future space projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    The potential applications of Automation, Robotics, and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS) to space projects are investigated, through a systematic method. In this method selected space projects are broken down into space project tasks, and 69 of these tasks are selected for study. Candidate ARAMIS options are defined for each task. The relative merits of these options are evaluated according to seven indices of performance. Logical sequences of ARAMIS development are also defined. Based on this data, promising applications of ARAMIS are

  14. RFI Mitigation and Testing Employed at GGAO for NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, L. M.; Rajagopalan, Ganesh; Turner, Charles; Stevenson, Thomas; Bulcha, Berhanu

    2017-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation at Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) has been addressed in three different ways by NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP); masks, blockers, and filters. All of these techniques will be employed at the GGAO, to mitigate the RFI consequences to the Very Long Baseline Interferometer.

  15. Space Versus Time: Unimodular Versus Non-Unimodular Projective Ring Geometries?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saniga, M.; Pracna, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2010), s. 719-735 ISSN 2159-063X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : projective ring lines * smallest ring of ternions * Germas: of space-time Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://journalofcosmology.com/Multiverse4.html

  16. Real-Time Novel Holographic Monitoring of Airborne Trace Contaminants Onboard Space Vessels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New challenges and mission requirements constantly emerge, establishing the need for versatile equipment and instruments to perform the new/expanded tasks....

  17. When the virtual influences reality. The conservation project of the Toledo Gate in Ciudad Real (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro Vidal, A.; Ramírez González, I.; Clemente San Román, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Toledo Gate of Ciudad Real, Spain, constructed between the late 13th and early 14th centuries, is the last remaining portion of a once complete medieval city wall. It represents the long history of the city and constitutes its main heritage symbol, dividing the historic city centre from the later 19th and 20th century expansions. In October 2012, the Town Hall and the Montemadrid Foundation started the conservation works to preserve this important monument. The preliminary phase of this project included an in-depth series of scientific studies which were carried out by a multidisciplinary team focusing on archival research, historic investigations, archaeological excavations as well as material composition analysis and main treatment application tests. As a result of these studies a series of virtual 3D models were created to inform, discuss and study the monument. A first digital model permitted visualization of the gate in the 19th century and how the main entrance to the city was integrated as a fundamental part of the city walls. This virtual reconstruction also became an important part of the campaign to raise awareness among the citizens towards a monument that had remained in the shadows for the last century, isolated in a roundabout after the systematic demolition of the city walls in the late 19th century. Over the last three years and as a result of these archaeological and historic investigations and subsequent virtual models, surprisingly new and interesting data were brought to light thus permitting the establishment and corroboration of a new and updated hypothesis of the Toledo Gate that goes beyond the previous ideas. As a result of these studies a new architectural typology with construction techniques of has been suggested. This paper describes how the results of this continuous and interdisciplinary documentation process have benefitted from a computer graphic reconstruction of the gate. It highlights how virtual reconstruction can be a

  18. Systematic approach to the application of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (aramis) to future space projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D B.S.

    1983-01-01

    The potential applications of automation, robotics and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space projects are investigated, through a systematic method. In this method selected space projects are broken down into space project tasks, and 69 of these tasks are selected for study. Candidate ARAMIS options are defined for each task. The relative merits of these options are evaluated according to seven indices of performance. Logical sequences of ARAMIS development are also defined. Based on this data, promising applications of ARAMIS are identified for space project tasks. General conclusions and recommendations for further study are also presented. 6 references.

  19. Planning and managing future space facility projects. [management by objectives and group dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, J. E.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Tanner, T. A.; Helmreich, R. L.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    To learn how ground-based personnel of a space project plan and organize their work and how such planning and organizing relate to work outcomes, longitudinal study of the management and execution of the Space Lab Mission Development Test 3 (SMD 3) was performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A view of the problems likely to arise in organizations and some methods of coping with these problems are presented as well as the conclusions and recommendations that pertain strictly to SMD 3 management. Emphasis is placed on the broader context of future space facility projects and additional problems that may be anticipated. A model of management that may be used to facilitate problem solving and communication - management by objectives (MBO) is presented. Some problems of communication and emotion management that MBO does not address directly are considered. Models for promoting mature, constructive and satisfying emotional relationships among group members are discussed.

  20. The electronic Space Weather upper atmosphere (eSWua project at INGV: advancements and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The eSWua project is based on measurements performed by all the instruments installed by the upper atmosphere physics group of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy and on all the related studies. The aim is the realization of a hardware-software system to standardize historical and real-time observations for different instruments.

    An interactive Web site, supported by a well organized database, can be a powerful tool for the scientific and technological community in the field of telecommunications and space weather. The most common and useful database type for our purposes is the relational one, in which data are organized in tables for petabytes data archiving and the complete flexibility in data retrieving.

    The project started in June 2005 and will last till August 2007. In the first phase the major effort has been focused on the design of hardware and database architecture. The first two databases related to the DPS4 digisonde and GISTM measurements are complete concerning populating, tests and output procedures. Details on the structure and Web tools concerning these two databases are presented, as well as the general description of the project and technical features.

  1. The electronic Space Weather upper atmosphere (eSWua project at INGV: advancements and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The eSWua project is based on measurements performed by all the instruments installed by the upper atmosphere physics group of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy and on all the related studies. The aim is the realization of a hardware-software system to standardize historical and real-time observations for different instruments. An interactive Web site, supported by a well organized database, can be a powerful tool for the scientific and technological community in the field of telecommunications and space weather. The most common and useful database type for our purposes is the relational one, in which data are organized in tables for petabytes data archiving and the complete flexibility in data retrieving. The project started in June 2005 and will last till August 2007. In the first phase the major effort has been focused on the design of hardware and database architecture. The first two databases related to the DPS4 digisonde and GISTM measurements are complete concerning populating, tests and output procedures. Details on the structure and Web tools concerning these two databases are presented, as well as the general description of the project and technical features.

  2. Motivating and Facilitating Advancements in Space Weather Real-Time Data Availability: Factors, Data, and Access Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Elkington, S. R.; Baltzer, T.; Sanchez, F.

    2017-12-01

    Society's growing reliance on complex and highly interconnected technological systems makes us increasingly vulnerable to the effects of space weather events - maybe more than for any other natural hazard. An extreme solar storm today could conceivably impact hundreds of the more than 1400 operating Earth satellites. Such an extreme storm could cause collapse of the electrical grid on continental scales. The effects on navigation, communication, and remote sensing of our home planet could be devastating to our social functioning. Thus, it is imperative that the scientific community address the question of just how severe events might become. At least as importantly, it is crucial that policy makers and public safety officials be informed by the facts on what might happen during extreme conditions. This requires essentially real-time alerts, warnings, and also forecasts of severe space weather events, which in turn demands measurements, models, and associated data products to be available via the most effective data discovery and access methods possible. Similarly, advancement in the fundamental scientific understanding of space weather processes is also vital, requiring that researchers have convenient and effective access to a wide variety of data sets and models from multiple sources. The space weather research community, as with many scientific communities, must access data from dispersed and often uncoordinated data repositories to acquire the data necessary for the analysis and modeling efforts that advance our understanding of solar influences and space physics on the Earth's environment. The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), as a leading institution in both producing data products and advancing the state of scientific understanding of space weather processes, is well positioned to address many of these issues. In this presentation, we will outline the motivating factors for effective space weather data access, summarize the various data

  3. New opportunities offered by Cubesats for space research in Latin America: The SUCHAI project case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M. A.; Zagal, J. C.; Falcon, C.; Stepanova, M.; Valdivia, J. A.; Martinez-Ledesma, M.; Diaz-Peña, J.; Jaramillo, F. R.; Romanova, N.; Pacheco, E.; Milla, M.; Orchard, M.; Silva, J.; Mena, F. P.

    2016-11-01

    During the last decade, a very small-standardized satellite, the Cubesat, emerged as a low-cost fast-development tool for space and technology research. Although its genesis is related to education, the change in paradigm presented by this satellite platform has motivated several countries, institutions, and companies to invest in a variety of technologies, aimed at improving Cubesat capabilities, while lowering costs of space missions. Following that trend, Latin American institutions, mostly universities, has started to develop Cubesat missions. This article describes some of the Latin American projects in this area. In particular, we discuss the achievements and scientific grounds upon which the first Cubesat projects in Chile were based and the implications that those projects have had on pursuing satellite-based research in the country and in collaboration with other countries of the region.

  4. INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN PUBLIC SPACE PARTICIPATIVE PROJECTS: METHODS AND RESULTS IN PRACTICE AND TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brandão

    2015-06-01

    • In the development of design practice and studio teaching methods We shall see in this paper how interdisciplinary approaches correspond to new and complex urban transformations, focusing on the importance of actors’ interaction processes, combining professional and non-professional knowledge and theory-practice relations. Therefore, we aim at a deepening in public space area of knowledge under the growing complexity of urban life. We see it as a base for further development of collaborative projects and their implications on community empowerment and urban governance at local level. Motivations of this line of work are persistent in several ongoing research projects, aiming to: - Understand public space as a cohesion factor both in urban life and urban form - Manage processes and strategies as elements of urban transformation, - Stimulate the understanding of actors’ roles in urban design practices. - Favoring the questioning of emerging aspects of urban space production… The paper presents and analyses processes, methods and results from civic participation projects developed in the neighbourhood of Barò de Viver (Barcelona and in the District of Marvila (Lisbon. In the first case, a long process initiated in 2004 and partially completed in 2011, neighbours developed the projects "Memory Wall" and Ciutat d'Asuncion Promenade as part of identity construction in public space, in collaboration  with a team of facilitators from CrPolis group. In the second case, different participatory processes dated from 2001 and 2003 have resulted in the implementation of a specific identity urban brand and communication system with an ongoing project of "maps" construction according to the neighbours perception and representation systems. We may conclude that processes of urban governance require more active participation of citizens in projects regarding the improvement of quality of life. At the same time, the implementation of these processes requires a clear

  5. Application of the modified Tobin's q to an uncertain energy-saving project with the real options concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tyrone T.; Huang, Shio-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This paper is to develop a modified Tobin's q evaluation method which successfully combines the evaluation criteria of the traditional Tobin's q and the real options. This study provides flexible thinking for decision making criteria. That is, it clearly provides decision-makers with a reference in choosing enter or exit strategies, such as quantitative indicators references. The proposed model introduces two variables stochastic process in continuous time and explores the impact of the occurrence of unexpected events on the project value, so that, it can more authentically response to the project value. The studied issue deals with the firms that have not established energy-saving equipment yet. It attempts to figure out the optimal timing to adopt an energy-saving investment project when it is beneficial and the optimal timing to terminate it when the continuous operation of that business is unprofitable. The future discounted benefit-cost ratio, Q, follows the geometric Brownian motion with the Poisson jump process and the replacement of investment equipment. Except for the evaluation of energy-saving equipment investment project, the proposed model can be applied to other related project evaluation issues, such as energy-saving, CO 2 emission reduction, or general investment projects. - Research highlights: → Develops an approach which combines the traditional Tobin's q and the real options. → Applies to general energy-saving project or other investment projects. → Can more authentically response to the project value with strategic entry and exit. → Provides flexible thinking for decision making criteria via modified Tobin's q model. → Reduces the model complexity and increases the flexibility in practice application.

  6. A prolongation-projection algorithm for computing the finite real variety of an ideal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe provide a real algebraic symbolic-numeric algorithm for computing the real variety $V_R(I)$ of an ideal $I$, assuming it is finite while $V_C(I)$ may not be. Our approach uses sets of linear functionals on $R[X]$, vanishing on a given set of polynomials generating $I$ and their

  7. A prolongation-projection algorithm for computing the finite real variety of an ideal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe provide a real algebraic symbolic-numeric algorithm for computing the real variety $V_R(I)$ of an ideal $I$, assuming it is finite while $V_C(I)$ may not be. Our approach uses sets of linear functionals on $R[X]$, vanishing on a given set of polynomials generating $I$ and their

  8. Real Options as a Strategic Management Framework: A Case Study of the Operationally Responsive Space Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    of the project, and the Weighted Average Cost of Capital ( WACC ). WACC is defined as the after-tax marginal cost of capital (Copeland & Antikarov...Initial Investment t = Life Expectancy of Project (Start =1, to Finish=N) E(FCF) = Expected Free-Cash Flow WACC = Weighted Average Cost of

  9. Technical needs and research opportunities provided by projected aeronautical and space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1992-01-01

    The overall goal of the present task is to identify the enabling and supporting technologies for projected aeronautical and space systems. A detailed examination was made of the technical needs in the structures, dynamics and materials areas required for the realization of these systems. Also, the level of integration required with other disciplines was identified. The aeronautical systems considered cover the broad spectrum of rotorcraft; subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aircraft; extremely high-altitude aircraft; and transatmospheric vehicles. The space systems considered include space transportation systems; spacecrafts for near-earth observation; spacecrafts for planetary and solar exploration; and large space systems. A monograph is being compiled which summarizes the results of this study. The different chapters of the monograph are being written by leading experts from governmental laboratories, industry and universities.

  10. Space Weather opportunities from the Swarm mission including near real time applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Floberghagen, Rune; Luehr, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sophisticated space weather monitoring aims at nowcasting and predicting solar-terrestrial interactions because their effects on the ionosphere and upper atmosphere may seriously impact advanced technology. Operating alert infrastructures rely heavily on ground-based measurements and satellite...... these products in timely manner will add significant value in monitoring present space weather and helping to predict the evolution of several magnetic and ionospheric events. Swarm will be a demonstrator mission for the valuable application of LEO satellite observations for space weather monitoring tools....

  11. Study of plasma meniscus and beam halo in negative ion sources using three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle in cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S., E-mail: nishioka@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [School of Natural and Living Sciences Education, Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Fukano, A. [Toshiba, 33 Isogo-chou, Isogo-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 235-001 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result.

  12. Study of plasma meniscus and beam halo in negative ion sources using three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle in cell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Fukano, A.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result

  13. Real-space and reciprocal-space Berry phases in the Hall effect of Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C; Freimuth, F; Bauer, A; Ritz, R; Schnarr, C; Duvinage, C; Adams, T; Blügel, S; Rosch, A; Mokrousov, Y; Pfleiderer, C

    2014-05-09

    We report an experimental and computational study of the Hall effect in Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Si, as complemented by measurements in Mn(1-x)Co(x)Si, when helimagnetic order is suppressed under substitutional doping. For small x the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the topological Hall effect (THE) change sign. Under larger doping the AHE remains small and consistent with the magnetization, while the THE grows by over a factor of 10. Both the sign and the magnitude of the AHE and the THE are in excellent agreement with calculations based on density functional theory. Our study provides the long-sought material-specific microscopic justification that, while the AHE is due to the reciprocal-space Berry curvature, the THE originates in real-space Berry phases.

  14. Sexual health promotion on social networking sites: a process evaluation of The FaceSpace Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong; Gold, Judy; Pedrana, Alisa; Chang, Shanton; Howard, Steve; Ilic, Olivia; Hellard, Margaret; Stoove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This article reports findings from an evaluation of reach and engagement of The FaceSpace Project, a novel sexual health promotion project delivered through social networking sites that targeted young people aged 16-29 years. Multiple methods were used to evaluate project reach and engagement. The evaluation focussed on quantitative data (online usage statistics, online surveys), complemented by available qualitative data (project team meeting notes). The project reached 900 fans who were mostly between 18 and 34 years of age. The most successful ways of increasing audience reach were via Facebook advertisements and tagging photos of young people attending a music festival on the project Facebook page. Peaks in Facebook page interactions (comments and "likes") coincided with recruitment peaks and when videos were posted. However, video views varied greatly between postings. Feedback from the project team for increasing engagement in future social networking site interventions included having one centralized Facebook page and using episodic videos. This evaluation is among the first to assess the use of social networking sites for sexual health promotion and provides information to inform the implementation and evaluation of future projects using new media. Social networking sites offer great potential to reach and engage young people for sexual health promotion. However, further work is required to improve implementation and promote audience reach and engagement as well as to determine effectiveness of social networking sites in changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Algorithms for polynomial spectral factorization and bounded-real balanced state space representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapisarda, P.; Trentelman, H.L.; Minh, H.B.

    We illustrate an algorithm that starting from the image representation of a strictly bounded-real system computes a minimal balanced state variable, from which a minimal balanced state realization is readily obtained. The algorithm stems from an iterative procedure to compute a storage function,

  16. Real-time simulation of the Space Station mobile service center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Segun

    1988-01-01

    A method for building a generic N-joint simulation program is presented. It is shown that the multibody program can be operated in real time using a careful connection-array numbering scheme and a preprocessor. An example of a rigid manipulator on the Shuttle Orbiter was used to demonstrate the implementation technique.

  17. Mars Atmospheric In Situ Resource Utilization Projects at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, A. C.; Hintze, P. E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Bayliss, J. A.; Karr, L. J.; Paley, M. S.; Marone, M. J.; Gibson, T. L.; Surma, J. M.; Mansell, J. M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars, which is approximately 95% carbon dioxide (CO2), is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support. Three recent projects led by NASA's Kennedy Space Center have been investigating the processing of CO2. The first project successfully demonstrated the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM), which freezes CO2 with cryocoolers and combines sublimated CO2 with hydrogen to make methane and water. The second project absorbs CO2 with Ionic Liquids and electrolyzes it with water to make methane and oxygen, but with limited success so far. A third project plans to recover up to 100% of the oxygen in spacecraft respiratory CO2. A combination of the Reverse Water Gas Shift reaction and the Boudouard reaction eventually fill the reactor up with carbon, stopping the process. A system to continuously remove and collect carbon is under construction.

  18. Mars Atmospheric In Situ Resource Utilization Projects at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Hintze, Paul; Meier, Anne; Bayliss, Jon; Karr, Laurel; Paley, Steve; Marone, Matt; Gibson, Tracy; Surma, Jan; Mansell, Matt; hide

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars, which is 96 percent carbon dioxide (CO2), is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support. Three recent projects led by NASAs Kennedy Space Center have been investigating the processing of CO2. The first project successfully demonstrated the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM), which freezes CO2 with cryocoolers and combines sublimated CO2 with hydrogen to make methane and water. The second project absorbs CO2 with Ionic Liquids and electrolyzes it with water to make methane and oxygen, but with limited success so far. A third project plans to recover up to 100 of the oxygen in spacecraft respiratory CO2. A combination of the Reverse Water Gas Shift reaction and the Boudouard reaction eventually fill the reactor up with carbon, stopping the process. A system to continuously remove and collect carbon has been tested with encouraging results.

  19. NASA GeneLab Project: Bridging Space Radiation Omics with Ground Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Afshin; Miller, Jack; Kidane, Yared H.; Berrios, Daniel; Gebre, Samrawit G.; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of risk factors for long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration: therefore it is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) is one of the major risk factors factor that will impact health of astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low dose, low dose rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E). The GeneLab project (genelab.nasa.gov) aims to provide a detailed library of Omics datasets associated with biological samples exposed to HZE. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) currently includes datasets from both spaceflight and ground-based studies, a majority of which involve exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to detailed information for ground-based studies, we are in the process of adding detailed, curated dosimetry information for spaceflight missions. GeneLab is the first comprehensive Omics database for space related research from which an investigator can generate hypotheses to direct future experiments utilizing both ground and space biological radiation data. In addition to previously acquired data, the GLDS is continually expanding as Omics related data are generated by the space life sciences community. Here we provide a brief summary of space radiation related data available at GeneLab.

  20. NASA GeneLab Project: Bridging Space Radiation Omics with Ground Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Afshin; Miller, Jack; Kidane, Yared; Berrios, Daniel; Gebre, Samrawit G; Costes, Sylvain V

    2018-04-13

    Accurate assessment of risks of long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration. It is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major health risk factor for astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently, there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low-dose, low-dose-rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E). The NASA GeneLab project ( https://genelab.nasa.gov/ ) aims to provide a detailed library of omics datasets associated with biological samples exposed to HZE. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) includes datasets from both spaceflight and ground-based studies, a majority of which involve exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to detailed information on radiation exposure for ground-based studies, GeneLab is adding detailed, curated dosimetry information for spaceflight experiments. GeneLab is the first comprehensive omics database for space-related research from which an investigator can generate hypotheses to direct future experiments, utilizing both ground and space biological radiation data. The GLDS is continually expanding as omics-related data are generated by the space life sciences community. Here we provide a brief summary of the space radiation-related data available at GeneLab.

  1. Leadership in Real Time : A Model of Attributes Needed by a Project Manager in ERP Implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunson, John; De Blasis, Jean-Paul; Neary, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics and organizational impacts of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Implementation Project requires highly professional Project Manager skills and attributes. Some may be learned or bought but the more important skills need to be part of the Project Manager's personal makeup. Coaching, mentoring and leadership skills (and beyond) help the Project Manager to take right decisions as even unknown-unknown situations arise during the implementation. This paper contributes to id...

  2. Preparing Hispanic Students for the Real World: Benefits of Problem-Based Service Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jean Jaymes; Simmons, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Student learning is enriched by problem-based service learning (PBSL) projects. For Hispanic students, the learning that takes place in PBSL projects may be even more significant, although the research published in academic journals about client-based projects for Hispanic students is limited. This article begins to advance an understanding of how…

  3. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  4. Project selection problem under uncertainty: An application of utility theory and chance constrained programming to a real case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosnavi Atashgah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting from a pool of interdependent projects under certainty, when faced with resource constraints, has been studied well in the literature of project selection problem. After briefly reviewing and discussing popular modeling approaches for dealing with uncertainty, this paper proposes an approach based on chance constrained programming and utility theory for a certain range of problems and under some practical assumptions. Expected Utility Programming, as the proposed modeling approach, will be compared with other well-known methods and its meaningfulness and usefulness will be illustrated via two numerical examples and one real case.

  5. Development of Basic Adaptive Model of the Real Property Item as a Support System for the Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politi Violetta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the method of the detailed description of the item, as a basic managed element of the real estate development project. A mathematical adaptive model of development, which can influence on right organizational-managerial decision-makings on the stage of pre-investment research, was proposed on the basis of consideration of the set of characteristics and diversified features of the item, as well as its ability to self-development. The result of the work can be used as the base model in the design of decision support system in the initiation of the development project.

  6. Real Language Meets Real Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  7. Projecting technology change to improve space technology planning and systems management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Steven Robert

    2011-04-01

    Projecting technology performance evolution has been improving over the years. Reliable quantitative forecasting methods have been developed that project the growth, diffusion, and performance of technology in time, including projecting technology substitutions, saturation levels, and performance improvements. These forecasts can be applied at the early stages of space technology planning to better predict available future technology performance, assure the successful selection of technology, and improve technology systems management strategy. Often what is published as a technology forecast is simply scenario planning, usually made by extrapolating current trends into the future, with perhaps some subjective insight added. Typically, the accuracy of such predictions falls rapidly with distance in time. Quantitative technology forecasting (QTF), on the other hand, includes the study of historic data to identify one of or a combination of several recognized universal technology diffusion or substitution patterns. In the same manner that quantitative models of physical phenomena provide excellent predictions of system behavior, so do QTF models provide reliable technological performance trajectories. In practice, a quantitative technology forecast is completed to ascertain with confidence when the projected performance of a technology or system of technologies will occur. Such projections provide reliable time-referenced information when considering cost and performance trade-offs in maintaining, replacing, or migrating a technology, component, or system. This paper introduces various quantitative technology forecasting techniques and illustrates their practical application in space technology and technology systems management.

  8. REIT Performance and Option of Financing Real Estate Project in Developing Countries - (A Case of M-REIT and NREIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaopin Olanrele Olusegun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of REITs have been largely measured using benchmark from the stock market indices (S&P500, Sharpe ratio, KLCI, etc or correlation studies. The real world of REIT shows that both economic and environmental factors exert influence on REIT performance on a simultaneous nature. Adopting quantitative method, where secondary data were statistically analysed. We proposed the use of multivariate regression where REIT performance (Y is the independent variable to be predicted by predictor variables of internal and external factors (X1–Xn. We equally proposed a possibility of REIT financing real estate project, against the existing regulations which prohibit such, using average return method of portfolio analysis on assumed numerical data. The study finds that economic factors jointly have a significant effect on REIT performance at P =0.044 while none of the factors has significant contribution individually. A benchmark REIT return of 5.3% is predicted. The study recommends a linear regression model analysis for REITs benchmark based on past performance for return measurement. REIT can only finance real estate project in the countries where there is acute shortage of fund and property stock. We suggest a modification of REIT laws to accommodate real estate financing by REITs.

  9. Strong disorder real-space renormalization for the many-body-localized phase of random Majorana models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2018-03-01

    For the many-body-localized phase of random Majorana models, a general strong disorder real-space renormalization procedure known as RSRG-X (Pekker et al 2014 Phys. Rev. X 4 011052) is described to produce the whole set of excited states, via the iterative construction of the local integrals of motion (LIOMs). The RG rules are then explicitly derived for arbitrary quadratic Hamiltonians (free-fermions models) and for the Kitaev chain with local interactions involving even numbers of consecutive Majorana fermions. The emphasis is put on the advantages of the Majorana language over the usual quantum spin language to formulate unified RSRG-X rules.

  10. Real-space mapping of a disordered two-dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K; Hirayama, Y; Wiebe, J; Wiesendanger, R; Inaoka, T; Morgenstern, M

    2011-01-01

    By using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, we study the influence of potential disorder on an adsorbate-induced two-dimensional electron system in the integer quantum Hall regime. The real-space imaged local density of states exhibits transition from localized drift states encircling the potential minima to another type of localized drift states encircling the potential maxima. While the former states show regular round shapes, the latter have irregular-shaped patterns. This difference is induced by different sources for the potential minima and maxima, i.e., substrate donors and an inhomogeneous distribution of the adsorbates, respectively.

  11. New real space correlated-basis-functions approach for the electron correlations of the semiconductor inversion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiguo; Wang Hongwei; Wu Xiang

    1989-12-01

    Based on the real space Correlated-Basis-Functions theory and the collective oscillation behaviour of the electron gas with effective Coulomb interaction, the many body wave function is obtained for the quasi-two-dimensional electron system in the semiconductor inversion layer. The pair-correlation function and the correlation energy of the system have been calculated by the integro-differential method in this paper. The comparison with the other previous theoretical results is also made. The new theoretical approach and its numerical results show that the pair-correlation functions are definitely positive and satisfy the normalization condition. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  12. CONTROLLING VIRTUAL CLOUDS AND MAKING IT RAIN PARTICLE SYSTEMS IN REAL SPACES USING SITUATED AUGMENTED SIMULATION AND PORTABLE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hedley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this paper reports on the design, rationale, development and implementation of a set of new geospatial interfaces that combine multi-touch interaction, portable virtual environments, 'geosimulation gaming', and mobile augmented reality. The result is a set of new ways for us to combine the capabilities of geospatial virtual environments, augmented realitiy and geosimulation. These new hybrid interfaces deliver new geospatial information experiences – new ways of connecting spatial data, simulations, and abstract concepts to real spaces. Their potential to enhance environmental perception and learning must be explored.

  13. Real-time microscopic 3D shape measurement based on optimized pulse-width-modulation binary fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian; Feng, Shijie; Tao, Tianyang; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in 3D measurement techniques, contributing to the realization of faster and more accurate 3D measurement. As a representative of these techniques, fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has become a commonly used method for real-time 3D measurement, such as real-time quality control and online inspection. To date, most related research has been concerned with macroscopic 3D measurement, but microscopic 3D measurement, especially real-time microscopic 3D measurement, is rarely reported. However, microscopic 3D measurement plays an important role in 3D metrology and is indispensable in some applications in measuring micro scale objects like the accurate metrology of MEMS components of the final devices to ensure their proper performance. In this paper, we proposed a method which effectively combines optimized binary structured patterns with a number-theoretical phase unwrapping algorithm to realize real-time microscopic 3D measurement. A slight defocusing of our optimized binary patterns can considerably alleviate the measurement error based on four-step phase-shifting FPP, providing the binary patterns with a comparable performance to ideal sinusoidal patterns. The static measurement accuracy can reach 8 μm, and the experimental results of a vibrating earphone diaphragm reveal that our system can successfully realize real-time 3D measurement of 120 frames per second (FPS) with a measurement range of 8~\\text{mm}× 6~\\text{mm} in lateral and 8 mm in depth.

  14. Progress update of NASA's free-piston Stirling space power converter technology project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; Winter, Jerry M.; Alger, Donald

    1992-01-01

    A progress update is presented of the NASA LeRC Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Project. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least five fold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss progress toward 1050 K Stirling Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing, and predictive methodologies. This paper will compare progress in significant areas of component development from the start of the program with the Space Power Development Engine (SPDE) to the present work on CTPC.

  15. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1979-12-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed hear are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues

  16. Global Dynamical Systems Involving Generalized -Projection Operators and Set-Valued Perturbation in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-zhi Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of generalized dynamical systems involving generalized f-projection operators is introduced and studied in Banach spaces. By using the fixed-point theorem due to Nadler, the equilibrium points set of this class of generalized global dynamical systems is proved to be nonempty and closed under some suitable conditions. Moreover, the solutions set of the systems with set-valued perturbation is showed to be continuous with respect to the initial value.

  17. The TERRA project, a space nuclear micro-reactor case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M.; Lobo, Paulo D. Castro, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: jamil@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: eduardo@ieav.cta.br [Divisao de Energia Nuclear. Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Placco, Guilherme M.; Barrios Junior, Ary G. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The TEcnologia de Reatores Rapidos Avancados project, also known as TERRA Project is been conducted by the Institute for Advanced Studies IEAv. The TERRA project has a general objective of understanding and developing the key technologies that will allow (Brazil) the use of nuclear technology to generate electricity in space. This electricity may power several space systems and/or a type of plasma based engine. Also, the type of reactor intended for space may be used for power generation in very inhospitable environment such as the ocean floor. Some of the mentioned technologies may include: Brayton cycles, Stirling engines, heat pipes and its coupled systems, nuclear fuel technology, new materials and several others. Once there is no mission into which apply this technology, at this moment, this research may be conducted in many forms and ways. The fact remains that when this technology becomes needed there will be no way that we (Brazilians) will be able to buy it from. This technology, in this sense, is highly strategic and will be the key to commercially explore deep space. Therefore, there is the need to face the development problems and solve them, to gain experience with our own rights and wrongs. This paper will give a brief overview of what has been done so far, on experimental facilities and hardware that could support space system development, including a Brayton cycle test facility, Tesla turbine testing, and Stirling engine development and modeling. Our great problem today is lack of human resources. To attend that problem we are starting a new graduate program that will allow overcoming that, given the proper time frame. (author)

  18. The TERRA project, a space nuclear micro-reactor case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M.; Lobo, Paulo D. Castro; Placco, Guilherme M.; Barrios Junior, Ary G.

    2011-01-01

    The TEcnologia de Reatores Rapidos Avancados project, also known as TERRA Project is been conducted by the Institute for Advanced Studies IEAv. The TERRA project has a general objective of understanding and developing the key technologies that will allow (Brazil) the use of nuclear technology to generate electricity in space. This electricity may power several space systems and/or a type of plasma based engine. Also, the type of reactor intended for space may be used for power generation in very inhospitable environment such as the ocean floor. Some of the mentioned technologies may include: Brayton cycles, Stirling engines, heat pipes and its coupled systems, nuclear fuel technology, new materials and several others. Once there is no mission into which apply this technology, at this moment, this research may be conducted in many forms and ways. The fact remains that when this technology becomes needed there will be no way that we (Brazilians) will be able to buy it from. This technology, in this sense, is highly strategic and will be the key to commercially explore deep space. Therefore, there is the need to face the development problems and solve them, to gain experience with our own rights and wrongs. This paper will give a brief overview of what has been done so far, on experimental facilities and hardware that could support space system development, including a Brayton cycle test facility, Tesla turbine testing, and Stirling engine development and modeling. Our great problem today is lack of human resources. To attend that problem we are starting a new graduate program that will allow overcoming that, given the proper time frame. (author)

  19. A Virtual Map to Support People Who Are Blind in Navigation through Real Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Schloerb, David W.; Kumar, Siddarth; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the spatial information needed by sighted people to construct cognitive maps of spaces is gathered through the visual channel. Unfortunately, people who are blind lack the ability to collect the required spatial information in advance. The use of virtual reality as a learning and rehabilitation tool for people with disabilities has been on…

  20. The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project, Products, and Mission Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Liou, Larry; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michelle M.; Kremic, Tibor

    2009-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project, funded by NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD), is continuing to invest in propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. This overview provides development status, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, advanced chemical thrusters, and systems analysis tools. Aerocapture investments improved: guidance, navigation, and control models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars, and Venus; and models for aerothermal effects. Investments in electric propulsion technologies focused on completing NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6 to 7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system. The project is also concluding its High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC) mid-term product specifically designed for a low-cost electric propulsion option. The primary chemical propulsion investment is on the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. The project is also delivering products to assist technology infusion and quantify mission applicability and benefits through mission analysis and tools. In-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for flagship destinations currently under evaluation, as well as having broad applicability to future Discovery and New Frontiers mission solicitations.

  1. Upper ankle joint space detection on low contrast intraoperative fluoroscopic C-arm projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarina; Schnetzke, Marc; Brehler, Michael; Swartman, Benedict; Vetter, Sven; Franke, Jochen; Grützner, Paul A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nolden, Marco

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative mobile C-arm fluoroscopy is widely used for interventional verification in trauma surgery, high flexibility combined with low cost being the main advantages of the method. However, the lack of global device-to- patient orientation is challenging, when comparing the acquired data to other intrapatient datasets. In upper ankle joint fracture reduction accompanied with an unstable syndesmosis, a comparison to the unfractured contralateral site is helpful for verification of the reduction result. To reduce dose and operation time, our approach aims at the comparison of single projections of the unfractured ankle with volumetric images of the reduced fracture. For precise assessment, a pre-alignment of both datasets is a crucial step. We propose a contour extraction pipeline to estimate the joint space location for a prealignment of fluoroscopic C-arm projections containing the upper ankle joint. A quadtree-based hierarchical variance comparison extracts potential feature points and a Hough transform is applied to identify bone shaft lines together with the tibiotalar joint space. By using this information we can define the coarse orientation of the projections independent from the ankle pose during acquisition in order to align those images to the volume of the fractured ankle. The proposed method was evaluated on thirteen cadaveric datasets consisting of 100 projections each with manually adjusted image planes by three trauma surgeons. The results show that the method can be used to detect the joint space orientation. The correlation between angle deviation and anatomical projection direction gives valuable input on the acquisition direction for future clinical experiments.

  2. Project for the Space Science in Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M.; Oberst, J.; Malinnikov, V.; Shingareva, K.; Grechishchev, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Konopikhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: Based on the proposal call of the Government of Russian Federation 40 of international scientists came to Russia for developing and support-ing research capabilities of national educational institutions. Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK) and invited scientist Prof. Dr. Jurgen Oberst were awarded a grant to establish a capable research facility concerned with Planetary Geodesy, Cartography and Space Exploration. Objectives: The goals of the project are to build laboratory infrastructure, and suitable capability for MIIGAiK to participate in the planning, execution and analyses of data from future Russian planetary mis-sions and also to integrate into the international science community. Other important tasks are to develop an attractive work place and job opportunities for planetary geodesy and cartography students. For this purposes new MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab) was organized. We involved professors, researchers, PhD students in to the projects of Moon and planets exploration at the new level of Russian Space Science development. Main results: MExLab team prepare data for upcom-ing Russian space missions, such as LUNA-GLOB and LUNA-RESOURSE. We established cooperation with Russian and international partners (IKI, ESA, DLR, and foreign Universities) and actively participated in international conferences and workshops. Future works: For the future science development we investigated the old Soviet Archives and received the access to the telemetry data of the Moon rovers Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2. That data will be used in education purposes and could be the perfect base for the analysis, development and support in new Russian and international missions and especially Moon exploration projects. MExLab is open to cooperate and make the consortiums for science projects for the Moon and planets exploration. Acknowledgement: Works are funded by the Rus-sian Government (Project name: "Geodesy, cartography and the

  3. NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project - Development of Space Station automation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John S.; Brown, Richard; Friedland, Peter; Wong, Carla M.; Bates, William

    1987-01-01

    A 1984 Congressional expansion of the 1958 National Aeronautics and Space Act mandated that NASA conduct programs, as part of the Space Station program, which will yield the U.S. material benefits, particularly in the areas of advanced automation and robotics systems. Demonstration programs are scheduled for automated systems such as the thermal control, expert system coordination of Station subsystems, and automation of multiple subsystems. The programs focus the R&D efforts and provide a gateway for transfer of technology to industry. The NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is responsible for directing, funding and evaluating the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project, which will include simulated interactions between novice personnel and astronauts and several automated, expert subsystems to explore the effectiveness of the man-machine interface being developed. Features and progress on the TEXSYS prototype thermal control system expert system are outlined.

  4. The Chrysalis Opens? Photometry from the η Carinae Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Project, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. C.; Davidson, Kris; Koppelman, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    During the past decade η Car has brightened markedly, possibly indicating a change of state. Here we summarize photometry gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of the HST Treasury Project on this object. Our data include Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) CCD acquisition images, Advanced Camera for Surveys HRC images in four filters, and synthetic photometry in flux-calibrated STIS spectra. The HST's spatial resolution allows us to examine the central star separate from the bright circumstellar ejecta. Its apparent brightness continued to increase briskly during 2002-2006, especially after the mid-2003 spectroscopic event. If this trend continues, the central star will soon become brighter than its ejecta, quite different from the state that existed only a few years ago. One precedent may be the rapid change observed in 1938-1953. We conjecture that the star's mass-loss rate has been decreasing throughout the past century. This research was conducted as part of the η Car Hubble Space Telescope Treasury project via grant GO-9973 from the Space Telescope Science Institute. HST is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Some of the data presented in this paper were obtained from the Multimission Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NAG5-7584 and by other grants and contracts.

  5. A Survey of Real-Time Operating Systems and Virtualization Solutions for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    x86, Xilinx, ARM, PIC, Freescale user, supervisor (PowerPC) ~5-10KB Use of hardware MPU on Cortex -M3 and ARM processors Priority based...unit (MPU) regions, but this requires the specific port of FreeRTOS 40 to run on processors that support an MPU such as the ARM Cortex -M3 (Real...paravirtualized version of FreeRTOS and supports Linux, RTEMS and µcos and is compatible with the ARM-9 and Cortex processors . X-Hyp is available under both

  6. Optimized image acquisition for breast tomosynthesis in projection and reconstruction space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Baker, Jay A.; Samei, Ehsan

    2009-01-01

    Breast tomosynthesis has been an exciting new development in the field of breast imaging. While the diagnostic improvement via tomosynthesis is notable, the full potential of tomosynthesis has not yet been realized. This may be attributed to the dependency of the diagnostic quality of tomosynthesis on multiple variables, each of which needs to be optimized. Those include dose, number of angular projections, and the total angular span of those projections. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of these acquisition parameters on the overall diagnostic image quality of breast tomosynthesis in both the projection and reconstruction space. Five mastectomy specimens were imaged using a prototype tomosynthesis system. 25 angular projections of each specimen were acquired at 6.2 times typical single-view clinical dose level. Images at lower dose levels were then simulated using a noise modification routine. Each projection image was supplemented with 84 simulated 3 mm 3D lesions embedded at the center of 84 nonoverlapping ROIs. The projection images were then reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm at different combinations of acquisition parameters to investigate which of the many possible combinations maximizes the performance. Performance was evaluated in terms of a Laguerre-Gauss channelized Hotelling observer model-based measure of lesion detectability. The analysis was also performed without reconstruction by combining the model results from projection images using Bayesian decision fusion algorithm. The effect of acquisition parameters on projection images and reconstructed slices were then compared to derive an optimization rule for tomosynthesis. The results indicated that projection images yield comparable but higher performance than reconstructed images. Both modes, however, offered similar trends: Performance improved with an increase in the total acquisition dose level and the angular span. Using a constant dose level and angular

  7. Parallelism at Cern: real-time and off-line applications in the GP-MIMD2 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calafiura, P.

    1997-01-01

    A wide range of general purpose high-energy physics applications, ranging from Monte Carlo simulation to data acquisition, from interactive data analysis to on-line filtering, have been ported, or developed, and run in parallel on IBM SP-2 and Meiko CS-2 CERN large multi-processor machines. The ESPRIT project GP-MIMD2 has been a catalyst for the interest in parallel computing at CERN. The project provided the 128 processor Meiko CS-2 system that is now succesfully integrated in the CERN computing environment. The CERN experiment NA48 was involved in the GP-MIMD2 project since the beginning. NA48 physicists run, as part of their day-to-day work, simulation and analysis programs parallelized using the message passing interface MPI. The CS-2 is also a vital component of the experiment data acquisition system and will be used to calibrate in real-time the 13000 channels liquid krypton calorimeter. (orig.)

  8. Project of Near-Real-Time Generation of ShakeMaps and a New Hazard Map in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan; Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Target-orientated prevention and effective crisis management can reduce or avoid damage and save lives in case of a strong earthquake. To achieve this goal, a project for automatic generated ShakeMaps (maps of ground motion and shaking intensity) and updating the Austrian hazard map was started at ZAMG (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik) in 2015. The first goal of the project is set for a near-real-time generation of ShakeMaps following strong earthquakes in Austria to provide rapid, accurate and official information to support the governmental crisis management. Using newly developed methods and software by SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) and GEM (Global Earthquake Model), which allows a transnational analysis at European level, a new generation of Austrian hazard maps will be ultimately calculated. More information and a status of our project will be given by this presentation.

  9. 3D Projection on Physical Objects: Design Insights from Five Real Life Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2011-01-01

    3D projection on physical objects is a particular kind of Augmented Reality that augments a physical object by projecting digital content directly onto it, rather than by using a mediating device, such as a mobile phone or a head- mounted display. In this paper, we present five cases in which we...

  10. Personal attitudes toward time: The relationship between temporal focus, space-time mappings and real life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Cao, Yu

    2017-06-01

    What influences how people implicitly associate "past" and "future" with "front" and "back?" Whereas previous research has shown that cultural attitudes toward time play a role in modulating space-time mappings in people's mental models (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache & Casasanto, 2014), we investigated real life experiences as potential additional influences on these implicit associations. Participants within the same single culture, who are engaged in different intermediate-term educational experiences (Study 1), long-term living experiences (Study 2), and short-term visiting experiences (Study 3), showed their distinct differences in temporal focus, thereby influencing their implicit spatializations of time. Results across samples suggest that personal attitudes toward time related to real life experiences may influence people's space-time mappings. The findings we report on shed further light on the high flexibility of human conceptualization system. While culture may exert an important influence on temporal focus, a person's conceptualization of time may be attributed to a culmination of factors. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE), a display building tool developed by Space Shuttle flight controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Mission Control Center, located at Johnson Space Center, is incrementally moving from a centralized architecture to a distributed architecture. Starting with STS-29, some host-driven console screens will be replaced with graphics terminals driven by workstations. These workstations will be supplied realtime data first by the Real Time Data System (RTDS), a system developed inhouse, and then months later (in parallel with RTDS) by interim and subsequently operational versions of the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) software package. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE) was built by Space Shuttle flight controllers to support the rapid development of multiple new displays to support Shuttle flights. RTIDE is a display building tool that allows non-programmers to define object-oriented, event-driven, mouseable displays. Particular emphasis was placed on upward compatibility between RTIDE versions, ability to acquire data from different data sources, realtime performance, ability to modularly upgrade RTIDE, machine portability, and a clean, powerful user interface. The operational and organizational factors that drove RTIDE to its present form, the actual design itself, simulation and flight performance, and lessons learned in the process are discussed.

  12. Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2007-06-01

    With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

  13. Next-to-leading resummation of cosmological perturbations via the Lagrangian picture: 2-loop correction in real and redshift spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tomohiro; Taruya, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahiko

    2011-01-01

    We present an improved prediction of Lagrangian resummation theory (LRT), the nonlinear perturbation theory (PT) via the Lagrangian picture originally proposed by Matsubara (2008). Based on the relations between the power spectrum in standard PT and that in LRT, we derive analytic expressions for the power spectrum in LRT up to 2-loop order in both real and redshift spaces. Comparing the improved prediction of LRT with N-body simulations in real space, we find that the 2-loop corrections can extend the valid range of wave numbers where we can predict the power spectrum within 1% accuracy by a factor of 1.0 (z = 0.5), 1.3 (1), 1.6 (2) and 1.8 (3) vied with 1-loop LRT results. On the other hand, in all redshift ranges, the higher-order corrections are shown to be less significant on the two-point correlation functions around the baryon acoustic peak, because the 1-loop LRT is already accurate enough to explain the nonlinearity on those scales in N-body simulations

  14. Optimal SSN Tasking to Enhance Real-time Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J., III; Hussein, I.; Gerber, J.; Sivilli, R.

    2016-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is currently constrained by an overwhelming number of resident space objects (RSOs) that need to be tracked and the amount of data these observations produce. The Joint Centralized Autonomous Tasking System (JCATS) is an autonomous, net-centric tool that approaches these SSA concerns from an agile, information-based stance. Finite set statistics and stochastic optimization are used to maintain an RSO catalog and develop sensor tasking schedules based on operator configured, state information-gain metrics to determine observation priorities. This improves the efficiency of sensors to target objects as awareness changes and new information is needed, not at predefined frequencies solely. A net-centric, service-oriented architecture (SOA) allows for JCATS integration into existing SSA systems. Testing has shown operationally-relevant performance improvements and scalability across multiple types of scenarios and against current sensor tasking tools.

  15. Definition of a near real time microbiological monitor for space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.; Zahorchak, Robert J.; Arendale, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Efforts to identify the ideal candidate to serve as the biological monitor on the space station Freedom are discussed. The literature review, the evaluation scheme, descriptions of candidate monitors, experimental studies, test beds, and culture techniques are discussed. Particular attention is given to descriptions of five candidate monitors or monitoring techniques: laser light scattering, primary fluorescence, secondary fluorescence, the volatile product detector, and the surface acoustic wave detector.

  16. Benchmarking flood models from space in near real-time: accommodating SRTM height measurement errors with low resolution flood imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; di Baldassarre, G.; Alsdorf, D.; Bates, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) measured the elevation of most of the Earth's surface with spatially continuous sampling and an absolute vertical accuracy greater than 9 m. The vertical error has been shown to change with topographic complexity, being less important over flat terrain. This allows water surface slopes to be measured and associated discharge volumes to be estimated for open channels in large basins, such as the Amazon. Building on these capabilities, this paper demonstrates that near real-time coarse resolution radar imagery of a recent flood event on a 98 km reach of the River Po (Northern Italy) combined with SRTM terrain height data leads to a water slope remarkably similar to that derived by combining the radar image with highly accurate airborne laser altimetry. Moreover, it is shown that this space-borne flood wave approximation compares well to a hydraulic model and thus allows the performance of the latter, calibrated on a previous event, to be assessed when applied to an event of different magnitude in near real-time. These results are not only of great importance to real-time flood management and flood forecasting but also support the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission that will routinely provide water levels and slopes with higher precision around the globe.

  17. A robust variant of block Jacobi-Davidson for extracting a large number of eigenpairs: Application to grid-based real-space density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Leiter, K.; Eisner, C.; Breuer, A.; Wang, X.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we investigate a block Jacobi-Davidson (J-D) variant suitable for sparse symmetric eigenproblems where a substantial number of extremal eigenvalues are desired (e.g., ground-state real-space quantum chemistry). Most J-D algorithm variations tend to slow down as the number of desired eigenpairs increases due to frequent orthogonalization against a growing list of solved eigenvectors. In our specification of block J-D, all of the steps of the algorithm are performed in clusters, including the linear solves, which allows us to greatly reduce computational effort with blocked matrix-vector multiplies. In addition, we move orthogonalization against locked eigenvectors and working eigenvectors outside of the inner loop but retain the single Ritz vector projection corresponding to the index of the correction vector. Furthermore, we minimize the computational effort by constraining the working subspace to the current vectors being updated and the latest set of corresponding correction vectors. Finally, we incorporate accuracy thresholds based on the precision required by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The net result is a significant reduction in the computational effort against most previous block J-D implementations, especially as the number of wanted eigenpairs grows. We compare our approach with another robust implementation of block J-D (JDQMR) and the state-of-the-art Chebyshev filter subspace (CheFSI) method for various real-space density functional theory systems. Versus CheFSI, for first-row elements, our method yields competitive timings for valence-only systems and 4-6× speedups for all-electron systems with up to 10× reduced matrix-vector multiplies. For all-electron calculations on larger elements (e.g., gold) where the wanted spectrum is quite narrow compared to the full spectrum, we observe 60× speedup with 200× fewer matrix-vector multiples vs. CheFSI.

  18. SPADA: a project to study the effectiveness of shielding materials in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, M.; Casolino, M.; Cerciello, V.

    2008-01-01

    The SPADA (SPAce Dosimetry for Astronauts) project is a part of an extensive teamwork that aims to optimize shielding solutions against space radiation. Shielding is indeed all irreplaceable tool to reduce, exposure of crews of future Moon and Mars missions. We concentrated our studies on two flexible materials, Kevlar (R) and Nextel (R), because of their ability to protect space infrastructure from micro meteoroids measured radiation hardness of these shielding materials and compared to polyethylene, generally acknowledged as the most effective space radiation shield with practical applications in spacecraft. Both flight test (on the International Space Station and on the Russian FOTON M3 rocket), with passive dosimeters and accelerator-based experiments have been performed. Accelerator tests using high-energy Fe ions have demonstrated that Kevlar is almost as effective as polyethylene in shielding heavy ions, while Nextel is a poor shield against, high-charge and -energy particles. Preliminary results from spaceflight, however, show that for the radiation environment ill low-Earth orbit. dominated by trapped protons, thin shields of Kevlar and Nextel provide limited reduction.

  19. The REAL-80 project related preliminary results. Argonne-Seibersdorf intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.

    1981-01-01

    In order to check the quality of the SAND-II cross section library (which is close to ENDF/B IV library with some minor differences) the L. Greenwood's input data with his measured 22 reaction rates as given in the REAL-80 were used and the SAND II code was run which is implemented in Seibersdorf Laboratory

  20. Protein Analysis Using Real-Time PCR Instrumentation: Incorporation in an Integrated, Inquiry-Based Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation for real-time PCR is used primarily for amplification and quantitation of nucleic acids. The capability to measure fluorescence while controlling temperature in multiple samples can also be applied to the analysis of proteins. Conformational stability and changes in stability due to ligand binding are easily assessed. Protein…

  1. Image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT: A sensitivity analysis of respiratory signal, binning method, reconstruction algorithm, and projection angular spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Kipritidis, John; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Keall, Paul J.; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory signal, binning method, and reconstruction algorithm are three major controllable factors affecting image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT), which is widely used in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Previous studies have investigated each of these factors individually, but no integrated sensitivity analysis has been performed. In addition, projection angular spacing is also a key factor in reconstruction, but how it affects image quality is not obvious. An investigation of the impacts of these four factors on image quality can help determine the most effective strategy in improving 4D-CBCT for IGRT. Methods: Fourteen 4D-CBCT patient projection datasets with various respiratory motion features were reconstructed with the following controllable factors: (i) respiratory signal (real-time position management, projection image intensity analysis, or fiducial marker tracking), (ii) binning method (phase, displacement, or equal-projection-density displacement binning), and (iii) reconstruction algorithm [Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK), McKinnon–Bates (MKB), or adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS)]. The image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio, and edge-response width in order to assess noise/streaking and blur. The SNR values were also analyzed with respect to the maximum, mean, and root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) projection angular spacing to investigate how projection angular spacing affects image quality. Results: The choice of respiratory signals was found to have no significant impact on image quality. Displacement-based binning was found to be less prone to motion artifacts compared to phase binning in more than half of the cases, but was shown to suffer from large interbin image quality variation and large projection angular gaps. Both MKB and ASD-POCS resulted in noticeably improved image quality almost 100% of the time relative to FDK. In addition, SNR

  2. Image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT: A sensitivity analysis of respiratory signal, binning method, reconstruction algorithm, and projection angular spacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kipritidis, John; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kuncic, Zdenka [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory signal, binning method, and reconstruction algorithm are three major controllable factors affecting image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT), which is widely used in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Previous studies have investigated each of these factors individually, but no integrated sensitivity analysis has been performed. In addition, projection angular spacing is also a key factor in reconstruction, but how it affects image quality is not obvious. An investigation of the impacts of these four factors on image quality can help determine the most effective strategy in improving 4D-CBCT for IGRT. Methods: Fourteen 4D-CBCT patient projection datasets with various respiratory motion features were reconstructed with the following controllable factors: (i) respiratory signal (real-time position management, projection image intensity analysis, or fiducial marker tracking), (ii) binning method (phase, displacement, or equal-projection-density displacement binning), and (iii) reconstruction algorithm [Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK), McKinnon–Bates (MKB), or adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS)]. The image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio, and edge-response width in order to assess noise/streaking and blur. The SNR values were also analyzed with respect to the maximum, mean, and root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) projection angular spacing to investigate how projection angular spacing affects image quality. Results: The choice of respiratory signals was found to have no significant impact on image quality. Displacement-based binning was found to be less prone to motion artifacts compared to phase binning in more than half of the cases, but was shown to suffer from large interbin image quality variation and large projection angular gaps. Both MKB and ASD-POCS resulted in noticeably improved image quality almost 100% of the time relative to FDK. In addition, SNR

  3. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  4. Feature Space Dimensionality Reduction for Real-Time Vision-Based Food Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Moussa CHETIMA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision solutions are becoming a standard for quality inspection in several manufacturing industries. In the processed-food industry where the appearance attributes of the product are essential to customer’s satisfaction, visual inspection can be reliably achieved with machine vision. But such systems often involve the extraction of a larger number of features than those actually needed to ensure proper quality control, making the process less efficient and difficult to tune. This work experiments with several feature selection techniques in order to reduce the number of attributes analyzed by a real-time vision-based food inspection system. Identifying and removing as much irrelevant and redundant information as possible reduces the dimensionality of the data and allows classification algorithms to operate faster. In some cases, accuracy on classification can even be improved. Filter-based and wrapper-based feature selectors are experimentally evaluated on different bakery products to identify the best performing approaches.

  5. Real-time Ultrasound Assessment of Astronaut Spinal Anatomy and Disorders on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen M; Harrison, Michael F; Sargsyan, Ashot E; Ebert, Douglas; Dulchavsky, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    Back pain is one of the most common conditions of astronauts during spaceflight and is hypothesized to be attributed to pathologic anatomic changes. Ultrasound (US) represents the only available imaging modality on the International Space Station, but a formal US protocol for imaging the structures of the spinal column does not exist. This investigation developed a method of acquiring diagnostic-quality images of the anterior lumbar and cervical regions of the spine during long-duration spaceflight. Comprehensive spinal US examinations were conducted on 7 long-duration spaceflight astronauts before flight, in flight, and after flight and compared to preflight and postflight magnetic resonance imaging data. In-flight scans were conducted after just-in-time training assisted by remote expert tele-US guidance. Novice users were able to obtain diagnostic-quality spinal images with a 92.5% success rate. Thirty-three anomalous or pathologic findings were identified during the preflight US analysis, and at least 14 new findings or progressions were identified during the postflight US analysis. Common findings included disk desiccation, osteophytes, and qualitative changes in the intervertebral disk height and angle. Ultrasound has proven efficacy as a portable and versatile diagnostic imaging modality under austere conditions. We demonstrated a potential role for US to evaluate spinal integrity and alterations in the extreme environment of space on the International Space Station. Further investigations should be performed to corroborate this imaging technique and to create a larger database related to in-flight spinal conditions during long-duration spaceflight. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. Synchronized Scheme of Continuous Space-Vector PWM with the Real-Time Control Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes in details the basic peculiarities of a new method of feedforward synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) of three-phase voltage source inverters for adjustable speed ac drives. It is applied to a continuous scheme of voltage space vector modulation. The method is based...... their position inside clock-intervals. In order to provide smooth shock-less pulse-ratio changing and quarter-wave symmetry of the voltage waveforms, special synchronising signals are formed on the boundaries of the 60 clock-intervals. The process of gradual transition from continuous to discontinuous...

  7. Valuing real estate externality-based option in development of transit system projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Capital-intensive transit projects rely on strong public support and availability of funds. While the general : public has become a strong advocate for transit systems, budget shortfalls and financial constraints are still : resulting in delays in pr...

  8. SpaceScience@Home: Authentic Research Projects that Use Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, B. J. H.

    2008-06-01

    In recent years, several space science research projects have enlisted the help of large numbers of non-professional volunteers, ``citizen scientists'', to aid in performing tasks that are critical to a project, but require more person-time (or computing time) than a small professional research team can practically perform themselves. Examples of such projects include SETI@home, which uses time from volunteers computers to process radio-telescope observation looking for signals originating from extra-terrestrial intelligences; Clickworkers, which asks volunteers to review images of the surface of Mars to identify craters; Spacewatch, which used volunteers to review astronomical telescopic images of the sky to identify streaks made by possible Near Earth Asteroids; and Stardust@home, which asks volunteers to review ``focus movies'' taken of the Stardust interstellar dust aerogel collector to search for possible impacts from interstellar dust particles. We shall describe these and other similar projects and discuss lessons learned from carrying out such projects, including the educational opportunities they create.

  9. Characterizing opto-electret based paper speakers by using a real-time projection Moiré metrology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ling; Hsu, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    Advancement of distributed piezo-electret sensors and actuators facilitates various smart systems development, which include paper speakers, opto-piezo/electret bio-chips, etc. The array-based loudspeaker system possess several advantages over conventional coil speakers, such as light-weightness, flexibility, low power consumption, directivity, etc. With the understanding that the performance of the large-area piezo-electret loudspeakers or even the microfluidic biochip transport behavior could be tailored by changing their dynamic behaviors, a full-field real-time high-resolution non-contact metrology system was developed. In this paper, influence of the resonance modes and the transient vibrations of an arraybased loudspeaker system on the acoustic effect were measured by using a real-time projection moiré metrology system and microphones. To make the paper speaker even more versatile, we combine the photosensitive material TiOPc into the original electret loudspeaker. The vibration of this newly developed opto-electret loudspeaker could be manipulated by illuminating different light-intensity patterns. Trying to facilitate the tailoring process of the opto-electret loudspeaker, projection moiré was adopted to measure its vibration. By recording the projected fringes which are modulated by the contours of the testing sample, the phase unwrapping algorithm can give us a continuous phase distribution which is proportional to the object height variations. With the aid of the projection moiré metrology system, the vibrations associated with each distinctive light pattern could be characterized. Therefore, we expect that the overall acoustic performance could be improved by finding the suitable illuminating patterns. In this manuscript, the system performance of the projection moiré and the optoelectret paper speakers were cross-examined and verified by the experimental results obtained.

  10. Using real options to determine optimal funding strategies for CO2 capture, transport and storage projects in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhause, Jeremy; Herold, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Several projects in the European Union (EU) are currently under development to implement the carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) technology on a large scale and may be subject to public funding under EU support initiatives. These CCS projects may develop any combination of three types of operating levels: pilot, demonstration and full-scale, representing progressing levels of electric power generation capability. Several projects have commenced at the demonstration level, with full-scale commercial levels planned for approximately 2020. Taking the perspective of a funding agency, we employ a real options framework for determining an optimal project selection and funding strategy for the development of full-scale CCS plants. Specifically, we formulate and solve a stochastic dynamic program (SDP) for obtaining optimal funding solutions in order to achieve at least one successfully operating full-scale CCS plant by a target year. The model demonstrates the improved risk reduction by employing such a multi-stage competition. We then extend the model to consider two sensitivities: (1) the flexibility to spend that budget among the time periods and (2) optimizing the budget, but specifying each time period's allocation a priori. State size and runtimes of the SDP model are provided. - Highlights: • Projects implementing three different CCS technology types are described. • We obtain projects’ transition probabilities and costs from expert interviews. • We use a multi-stage real options model to obtain optimal funding strategies. • Using this approach, actual decision-makers could reduce risks in CCS development

  11. Complex Modified Hybrid Projective Synchronization of Different Dimensional Fractional-Order Complex Chaos and Real Hyper-Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a type of modified hybrid projective synchronization with complex transformationmatrix (CMHPS for different dimensional fractional-order complex chaos and fractional-order real hyper-chaos. The transformationmatrix in this type of chaotic synchronization is a non-square matrix, and its elements are complex numbers. Based on the stability theory of fractional-order systems, by employing the feedback control technique, necessary and sufficient criteria on CMHPS are derived. Furthermore, CMHPS between fractional-order real hyper-chaotic Rössler system and other two different dimensional fractional-order complex Lorenz-like chaotic systems is provided as two examples to discuss reduced order and increased order synchronization, respectively.

  12. Analysis of Discrete L2 Projection on Polynomial Spaces with Random Evaluations

    KAUST Repository

    Migliorati, Giovanni

    2014-03-05

    We analyze the problem of approximating a multivariate function by discrete least-squares projection on a polynomial space starting from random, noise-free observations. An area of possible application of such technique is uncertainty quantification for computational models. We prove an optimal convergence estimate, up to a logarithmic factor, in the univariate case, when the observation points are sampled in a bounded domain from a probability density function bounded away from zero and bounded from above, provided the number of samples scales quadratically with the dimension of the polynomial space. Optimality is meant in the sense that the weighted L2 norm of the error committed by the random discrete projection is bounded with high probability from above by the best L∞ error achievable in the given polynomial space, up to logarithmic factors. Several numerical tests are presented in both the univariate and multivariate cases, confirming our theoretical estimates. The numerical tests also clarify how the convergence rate depends on the number of sampling points, on the polynomial degree, and on the smoothness of the target function. © 2014 SFoCM.

  13. Analysis of Discrete L2 Projection on Polynomial Spaces with Random Evaluations

    KAUST Repository

    Migliorati, Giovanni; Nobile, Fabio; von Schwerin, Erik; Tempone, Raul

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the problem of approximating a multivariate function by discrete least-squares projection on a polynomial space starting from random, noise-free observations. An area of possible application of such technique is uncertainty quantification for computational models. We prove an optimal convergence estimate, up to a logarithmic factor, in the univariate case, when the observation points are sampled in a bounded domain from a probability density function bounded away from zero and bounded from above, provided the number of samples scales quadratically with the dimension of the polynomial space. Optimality is meant in the sense that the weighted L2 norm of the error committed by the random discrete projection is bounded with high probability from above by the best L∞ error achievable in the given polynomial space, up to logarithmic factors. Several numerical tests are presented in both the univariate and multivariate cases, confirming our theoretical estimates. The numerical tests also clarify how the convergence rate depends on the number of sampling points, on the polynomial degree, and on the smoothness of the target function. © 2014 SFoCM.

  14. The realism project reconciling nuclear power and radiation policies with the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodore Rockwell

    2006-01-01

    Let's get real. It is crazy to fear that one's health and life are threatened by entities known to be harmless, whether those entities are goblins under the bed or trivial levels of radiation from non-existent radiological catastrophes. The nuclear community is in that paranoid state, and no advice from public relations experts can cure it. Some people claim that overstating risk is a prudent thing to do, but in practice it may do harm. Let us recall what we have said and done to create this situation. Then let us look at what the real world tells us about those risks. And then we will consider what might be done to return to reason. (author)

  15. Orbital tomography: Molecular band maps, momentum maps and the imaging of real space orbitals of adsorbed molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Hannes; Lüftner, Daniel; Ules, Thomas; Reinisch, Eva Maria; Koller, Georg, E-mail: georg.koller@uni-graz.at; Puschnig, Peter; Ramsey, Michael G., E-mail: michael.ramsey@uni-graz.at

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Orbital tomography within the plane wave final state approximation. • One electron orbital predictions versus angle resolved photoemission experiment. • Geometric and electronic structure of organic thin films elucidated by ARUPS. • Influence of molecular conformation and orientation on ARUPS. • Retrieval of sexiphenyl and pentacene orbitals in real space. - Abstract: The frontier orbitals of molecules are the prime determinants of their chemical, optical and electronic properties. Arguably, the most direct method of addressing the (filled) frontier orbitals is ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Although UPS is a mature technique from the early 1970s on, the angular distribution of the photoemitted electrons was thought to be too complex to be analysed quantitatively. Recently angle resolved UPS (ARUPS) work on conjugated molecules both, in ordered thick films and chemisorbed monolayers, has shown that the angular (momentum) distribution of the photocurrent from orbital emissions can be simply understood. The approach, based on the assumption of a plane wave final state is becoming known as orbital tomography. Here we will demonstrate, with selected examples of pentacene (5A) and sexiphenyl (6P), the potential of orbital tomography. First it will be shown how the full angular distribution of the photocurrent (momentum map) from a specific orbital is related to the real space orbital by a Fourier transform. Examples of the reconstruction of 5A orbitals will be given and the procedure for recovering the lost phase information will be outlined. We then move to examples of sexiphenyl where we interrogate the original band maps of thick sexiphenyl in the light of our understanding of orbital tomography that has developed since then. With comparison to theoretical simulations of the molecular band maps, the molecular conformation and orientation will be concluded. New results for the sexiphenyl monolayer on Al(1 1 0) will then be

  16. Real space mapping of ionic diffusion and electrochemical activity in energy storage and conversion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

  17. MONDO Project: real time ocean monitoring through Lagrangian drifters during offshore drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafra, Tatiana [Eni Oil do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fragoso, Mauricio da Rocha; Santos, Francisco Alves dos; Cruz, Leonardo M. Marques A.; Pellegrini, Julio A.C.; Cerrone, Bruna Nogueira [Prooceano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assireu, Arcilan Trevenzoli [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Monitoring the ocean conditions during offshore operations is essential for both operational and environmental aspects. Environmentally, not only to know better the environment where the activity is taking place, but also to be able to provide fast and accurate response in case of accidents. MONDO Project (Monitoring by Ocean Drifters) is a pioneer initiative from ENI Oil do Brasil and PROOCEANO that aimed to monitor currents as a part of a metoceanographic data monitoring project of drilling operations in Brazilian Waters, in Santos Basin throughout September to November 2007, 40 satellite tracked ocean drifters were deployed will be transmitting data up to November 2008. The results of this project can be used to study a wide range of subjects about ocean dynamics. Following the principles of social and environmental responsibility, MONDO Project aims to benefit the local ecosystem in increasing the scientific knowledge of the area to calibrate hydrodynamic models that will lead to more accurate modeling results and, as a consequence, to a better management of contingency plans. Based on these principles, the project will also provide unrestricted access to oceanographic data even after the end of operations. (author)

  18. Monte Carlo simulations for the space radiation superconducting shield project (SR2S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, M; Giraudo, M; Musenich, R; Calvelli, V; Ambroglini, F; Burger, W J; Battiston, R

    2016-02-01

    Astronauts on deep-space long-duration missions will be exposed for long time to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE). The exposure to space radiation could lead to both acute and late effects in the crew members and well defined countermeasures do not exist nowadays. The simplest solution given by optimized passive shielding is not able to reduce the dose deposited by GCRs below the actual dose limits, therefore other solutions, such as active shielding employing superconducting magnetic fields, are under study. In the framework of the EU FP7 SR2S Project - Space Radiation Superconducting Shield--a toroidal magnetic system based on MgB2 superconductors has been analyzed through detailed Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 interface GRAS. Spacecraft and magnets were modeled together with a simplified mechanical structure supporting the coils. Radiation transport through magnetic fields and materials was simulated for a deep-space mission scenario, considering for the first time the effect of secondary particles produced in the passage of space radiation through the active shielding and spacecraft structures. When modeling the structures supporting the active shielding systems and the habitat, the radiation protection efficiency of the magnetic field is severely decreasing compared to the one reported in previous studies, when only the magnetic field was modeled around the crew. This is due to the large production of secondary radiation taking place in the material surrounding the habitat. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-world educational experience through project-oriented graduate classes in collaboration with industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2007-04-01

    There is a need for a motivated and innovative work force for the U.S. aerospace industry. The education of such engineers and scientists typically revolves around a fundamental knowledge of basic important technologies, such as the mechanics relevant to orbit-design, structures, avionics, and many others. A few years ago, the University of Michigan developed a Masters of Engineering program that provides students with skills that are not taught as part of a typical engineering curriculum. This program is focused on open problem solving, space systems, and space policy, as well as other classes that further their understanding of the connections between technologies and the nontechnical aspects of managing a space mission. The value of such an education is substantially increased through a direct connection to industry. An innovative problem-oriented approach has been developed that enables direct connections between industry and classroom teaching. The class works as a system study group and addresses problems of interest to and defined by a company with a specific application. We discuss such an application, a near-space lidar wind measurement system to enhance weather predictions, as well as the approach taken to link educational rationales.

  20. Real-space multiple-scattering theory and the electronic structure of systems with full or reduced symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Gonis, A.; MacLaren, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We present a new real-space multiple-scattering-theory method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation and the calculation of the electronic structure of solid materials with full or reduced symmetry. The method is based on the concept of semi-infinite periodicity (SIP), rather than translational invariance, and on the property of removal invariance of the scattering matrix of systems with SIP. This latter property allows one to replace the usual Brillouin-zone integrals in reciprocal space by a self-consistency equation for the t matrix, which is sufficient for the determination of the Green function and related properties. Because it is developed entirely in direct space, the method provides a unified treatment of the electronic structure of bulk materials, surfaces, interfaces and grain boundaries (coherent or incoherent), impurities of interstitial or substitutional kinds, and can be easily extended to treat concentrated, substitutionally disordered alloys. One of its advantages over methods based on Bloch's theorem and reciprocal space is the great simplicity of setting up and running the associated computer codes even for complex structures, and structures with reduced or no symmetry that lie outside the realm of applicability of conventional methods. We present the results of model calculations for one-dimensional and three-dimensional model systems as well as for three-dimensional realistic materials. Where appropriate, these results are compared with those obtained through conventional techniques, and give an indication of the method's flexibility and reliability. Our applications of this method to this point are discussed, and our plans for future development are presented

  1. Project Based Learning experiences in the space engineering education at Technical University of Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jacobo; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; del Cura, Juan M.; Ezquerro, José M.; Lapuerta, Victoria; Cordero-Gracia, Marta

    2015-10-01

    This work describes the innovation activities performed in the field of space education since the academic year 2009/10 at the Technical University of Madrid (UPM), in collaboration with the Spanish User Support and Operations Center (E-USOC), the center assigned by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Spain to support the operations of scientific experiments on board the International Space Station. These activities have been integrated within the last year of the UPM Aerospace Engineering degree. A laboratory has been created, where students have to validate and integrate the subsystems of a microsatellite using demonstrator satellites. In parallel, the students participate in a Project Based Learning (PBL) training process in which they work in groups to develop the conceptual design of a space mission. One student in each group takes the role of project manager, another one is responsible for the mission design and the rest are each responsible for the design of one of the satellite subsystems. A ground station has also been set up with the help of students developing their final thesis, which will allow future students to perform training sessions and learn how to communicate with satellites, how to receive telemetry and how to process the data. Several surveys have been conducted along two academic years to evaluate the impact of these techniques in engineering learning. The surveys evaluate the acquisition of specific and generic competences, as well as the students' degree of satisfaction with respect to the use of these learning methodologies. The results of the surveys and the perception of the lecturers show that PBL encourages students' motivation and improves their results. They not only acquire better technical training, but also improve their transversal skills. It is also pointed out that this methodology requires more dedication from lecturers than traditional methods.

  2. Toeplitz Operators, Pseudo-Homogeneous Symbols, and Moment Maps on the Complex Projective Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Morales-Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following previous works for the unit ball due to Nikolai Vasilevski, we define quasi-radial pseudo-homogeneous symbols on the projective space and obtain the corresponding commutativity results for Toeplitz operators. A geometric interpretation of these symbols in terms of moment maps is developed. This leads us to the introduction of a new family of symbols, extended pseudo-homogeneous, that provide larger commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators. This family of symbols provides new commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators on the unit ball.

  3. Automation and robotics for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, D.; Criswell, D.; Heer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 52 submissions were received in the Automation and Robotics (A&R) area during Project Outreach. About half of the submissions (24) contained concepts that were judged to have high utility for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and were analyzed further by the robotics panel. These 24 submissions are analyzed here. Three types of robots were proposed in the high scoring submissions: structured task robots (STRs), teleoperated robots (TORs), and surface exploration robots. Several advanced TOR control interface technologies were proposed in the submissions. Many A&R concepts or potential standards were presented or alluded to by the submitters, but few specific technologies or systems were suggested.

  4. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work

  5. Superconducting states in strongly correlated systems with nonstandard quasiparticles and real space pairing: an unconventional Fermi-liquid limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Spałek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the concept of generalized (almost localized Fermi Liquid composed of nonstandard quasiparticles with spin-dependence effective masses and the effective field induced by electron correlations. This Fermi liquid is obtained within the so-called statistically-consistent Gutzwiller approximation (SGA proposed recently [cf. J. Jędrak et al., arXiv: 1008.0021] and describes electronic states of the correlated quantum liquid. Particular emphasis is put on real space pairing driven by the electronic correlations, the Fulde-Ferrell state of the heavy-fermion liquid, and the d-wave superconducting state of high temperature curate superconductors in the overdoped limit. The appropriate phase diagrams are discussed showing in particular the limits of stability of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS type of state.

  6. The structure and properties of vacancies in Si nano-crystals calculated by real space pseudopotential methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, S.P.; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and properties of vacancies in a 2 nm Si nano-crystal are studied using a real space density functional theory/pseudopotential method. It is observed that a vacancy's electronic properties and energy of formation are directly related to the local symmetry of the vacancy site. The formation energy for vacancies and Frenkel pair are calculated. It is found that both defects have lower energy in smaller crystals. In a 2 nm nano-crystal the energy to form a Frenkel pair is 1.7 eV and the energy to form a vacancy is no larger than 2.3 eV. The energy barrier for vacancy diffusion is examined via a nudged elastic band algorithm

  7. Simulated non-contact atomic force microscopy for GaAs surfaces based on real-space pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minjung; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2014-01-01

    We simulate non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a GaAs(1 1 0) surface using a real-space ab initio pseudopotential method. While most ab initio simulations include an explicit model for the AFM tip, our method does not introduce the tip modeling step. This approach results in a considerable reduction of computational work, and also provides complete AFM images, which can be directly compared to experiment. By analyzing tip-surface interaction forces in both our results and previous ab initio simulations, we find that our method provides very similar force profile to the pure Si tip results. We conclude that our method works well for systems in which the tip is not chemically active.

  8. Support Vector Machines with Manifold Learning and Probabilistic Space Projection for Tourist Expenditure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The significant economic contributions of the tourism industry in recent years impose an unprecedented force for data mining and machine learning methods to analyze tourism data. The intrinsic problems of raw data in tourism are largely related to the complexity, noise and nonlinearity in the data that may introduce many challenges for the existing data mining techniques such as rough sets and neural networks. In this paper, a novel method using SVM- based classification with two nonlinear feature projection techniques is proposed for tourism data analysis. The first feature projection method is based on ISOMAP (Isometric Feature Mapping, which is a class of manifold learning approaches for dimension reduction. By making use of ISOMAP, part of the noisy data can be identified and the classification accuracy of SVMs can be improved by appropriately discarding the noisy training data. The second feature projection method is a probabilistic space mapping technique for scale transformation. Experimental results on expenditure data of business travelers show that the proposed method can improve prediction performance both in terms of testing accuracy and statistical coincidence. In addition, both of the feature projection methods are helpful to reduce the training time of SVMs.

  9. Biosensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Radiation-Induced Biologic Effects in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R.; Balogh, Lajos; Majoros, Istvan; Keszler, Balazs; Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Norris, Theodore; delaiglesia, Felix; Beeson, Nicholas W. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This work seeks to develop cellular biosensors based on dendritic polymers. Nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter will be used as the basis of the biosensors. The structures will be designed to target into specific cells of an astronaut and be able to monitor health issues such as exposure to radiation. Multiple components can be assembled on the polymers including target directors, analytical devices (such as molecular probes), and reporting agents. The reporting will be accomplished through fluorescence signal monitoring, with the use of multispectral analysis for signal interpretation. These nanosensors could facilitate the success and increase the safety of extended space flight. The design and assembly of these devices has been pioneered at the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology in the University of Michigan. This period, synthesis of the test-bed biosensors continued. Studies were performed on the candidate fluorescent dyes to determine which might be suitable for the biosensor under development. Development continued on producing an artificial capillary bed as a tool for the use in the production of the fluorescence signal monitor. Work was also done on the in vitro multispectral analysis system, which uses the robotic microscope.

  10. Real-space quadrature: A convenient, efficient representation for multipole expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Multipoles are central to the theory and modeling of polarizable and nonpolarizable molecular electrostatics. This has made a representation in terms of point charges a highly sought after goal, since rotation of multipoles is a bottleneck in molecular dynamics implementations. All known point charge representations are orders of magnitude less efficient than spherical harmonics due to either using too many fixed charge locations or due to nonlinear fitting of fewer charge locations. We present the first complete solution to this problem—completely replacing spherical harmonic basis functions by a dramatically simpler set of weights associated to fixed, discrete points on a sphere. This representation is shown to be space optimal. It reduces the spherical harmonic decomposition of Poisson’s operator to pairwise summations over the point set. As a corollary, we also shows exact quadrature-based formulas for contraction over trace-free supersymmetric 3D tensors. Moreover, multiplication of spherical harmonic basis functions translates to a direct product in this representation

  11. Real space channelization for generic DBT system image quality evaluation with channelized Hotelling observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dimitar; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas; Vancoillie, Liesbeth; Young, Kenneth; Bosmans, Hilde

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a relatively new 3D mammography technique that promises better detection of low contrast masses than conventional 2D mammography. The parameter space for DBT is large however and finding an optimal balance between dose and image quality remains challenging. Given the large number of conditions and images required in optimization studies, the use of human observers (HO) is time consuming and certainly not feasible for the tuning of all degrees of freedom. Our goal was to develop a model observer (MO) that could predict human detectability for clinically relevant details embedded within a newly developed structured phantom for DBT applications. DBT series were acquired on GE SenoClaire 3D, Giotto Class, Fujifilm AMULET Innovality and Philips MicroDose systems at different dose levels, Siemens Inspiration DBT acquisitions were reconstructed with different algorithms, while a larger set of DBT series was acquired on Hologic Dimensions system for first reproducibility testing. A channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with Gabor channels was developed The parameters of the Gabor channels were tuned on all systems at standard scanning conditions and the candidate that produced the best fit for all systems was chosen. After tuning, the MO was applied to all systems and conditions. Linear regression lines between MO and HO scores were calculated, giving correlation coefficients between 0.87 and 0.99 for all tested conditions.

  12. Real-time three-dimensional surface measurement by color encoded light projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Li, Y. F.; Guan, Q.; Xiao, G.

    2006-01-01

    Existing noncontact methods for surface measurement suffer from the disadvantages of poor reliability, low scanning speed, or high cost. The authors present a method for real-time three-dimensional data acquisition by a color-coded vision sensor composed of common components. The authors use a digital projector controlled by computer to generate desired color light patterns. The unique indexing of the light codes is a key problem and is solved in this study so that surface perception can be performed with only local pattern analysis of the neighbor color codes in a single image. Experimental examples and performance analysis are provided

  13. Approximation of Quantities of Interest in Stochastic PDEs by the Random Discrete L^2 Projection on Polynomial Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Migliorati, G.; Nobile, F.; von Schwerin, E.; Tempone, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider the random discrete L^2 projection on polynomial spaces (hereafter RDP) for the approximation of scalar quantities of interest (QOIs) related to the solution of a partial differential equation model with random input

  14. Self-consistent DFT +U method for real-space time-dependent density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Rubio, Angel

    2017-12-01

    We implemented various DFT+U schemes, including the Agapito, Curtarolo, and Buongiorno Nardelli functional (ACBN0) self-consistent density-functional version of the DFT +U method [Phys. Rev. X 5, 011006 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.011006] within the massively parallel real-space time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) code octopus. We further extended the method to the case of the calculation of response functions with real-time TDDFT+U and to the description of noncollinear spin systems. The implementation is tested by investigating the ground-state and optical properties of various transition-metal oxides, bulk topological insulators, and molecules. Our results are found to be in good agreement with previously published results for both the electronic band structure and structural properties. The self-consistent calculated values of U and J are also in good agreement with the values commonly used in the literature. We found that the time-dependent extension of the self-consistent DFT+U method yields improved optical properties when compared to the empirical TDDFT+U scheme. This work thus opens a different theoretical framework to address the nonequilibrium properties of correlated systems.

  15. Mitigating Space Weather Impacts on the Power Grid in Real-Time: Applying 3-D EarthScope Magnetotelluric Data to Forecasting Reactive Power Loss in Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bonner, L. R., IV

    2017-12-01

    Current efforts to assess risk to the power grid from geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) that result in geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) seek to identify potential "hotspots," based on statistical models of GMD storm scenarios and power distribution grounding models that assume that the electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust and mantle varies only with depth. The NSF-supported EarthScope Magnetotelluric (MT) Program operated by Oregon State University has mapped 3-D ground electrical conductivity structure across more than half of the continental US. MT data, the naturally occurring time variations in the Earth's vector electric and magnetic fields at ground level, are used to determine the MT impedance tensor for each site (the ratio of horizontal vector electric and magnetic fields at ground level expressed as a complex-valued frequency domain quantity). The impedance provides information on the 3-D electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's crust and mantle. We demonstrate that use of 3-D ground conductivity information significantly improves the fidelity of GIC predictions over existing 1-D approaches. We project real-time magnetic field data streams from US Geological Survey magnetic observatories into a set of linear filters that employ the impedance data and that generate estimates of ground level electric fields at the locations of MT stations. The resulting ground electric fields are projected to and integrated along the path of power transmission lines. This serves as inputs to power flow models that represent the power transmission grid, yielding a time-varying set of quasi-real-time estimates of reactive power loss at the power transformers that are critical infrastructure for power distribution. We demonstrate that peak reactive power loss and hence peak risk for transformer damage from GICs does not necessarily occur during peak GMD storm times, but rather depends on the time-evolution of the polarization of the GMD's inducing fields

  16. Real-Space Multiple-Scattering Theory and Its Applications at Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbach, Markus [ORNL; Wang, Yang [Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center

    2017-11-01

    In recent decades, the ab initio methods based on density functional theory (DFT) (Hohenberg and Kohn 1964, Kohn and Sham 1965) have become a widely used tool in computational materials science, which allows theoretical prediction of physical properties of materials from the first principles and theoretical interpretation of new physical phenomena found in experiments. In the framework of DFT, the original problem that requires solving a quantum mechanical equation for a many-electron system is reduced to a one-electron problem that involves an electron moving in an effective field, while the effective field potential is made up of an electrostatic potential, also known as Hartree potential, arising from the electronic and ion charge distribution in space and an exchange–correlation potential, which is a function of the electron density and encapsulates the exchange and correlation effects of the many-electron system. Even though the exact functional form of the exchange-correlation potential is formally unknown, a local density approximation (LDA) or a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is usually applied so that the calculation of the exchange–correlation potential, as well as the exchange–correlation energy, becomes tractable while a required accuracy is retained. Based on DFT, ab initio electronic structure calculations for a material generally involve a self-consistent process that iterates between two computational tasks: (1) solving an one-electron Schrödinger equation, also known as Kohn–Sham equation, to obtain the electron density and, if needed, the magnetic moment density, and (2) solving the Poisson equation to obtain the electrostatic potential corresponding to the electron density and constructing the effective potential by adding the exchange–correlation potential to the electrostatic potential. This self-consistent process proceeds until a convergence criteria is reached.

  17. Separate visualization of endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space and bone by a single pulse sequence; 3D-inversion recovery imaging utilizing real reconstruction after intratympanic Gd-DTPA administration at 3 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Satake, Hiroko; Kawamura, Minako; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four hours after intratympanic administration of gadolinium contrast material (Gd), the Gd was distributed mainly in the perilymphatic space. Three-dimensional FLAIR can differentiate endolymphatic space from perilymphatic space, but not from surrounding bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether 3D inversion-recovery turbo spin echo (3D-IR TSE) with real reconstruction could separate the signals of perilymphatic space (positive value), endolymphatic space (negative value) and bone (near zero) by setting the inversion time between the null point of Gd-containing perilymph fluid and that of the endolymph fluid without Gd. Thirteen patients with clinically suspected endolymphatic hydrops underwent intratympanic Gd injection and were scanned at 3 T. A 3D FLAIR and 3D-IR TSE with real reconstruction were obtained. In all patients, low signal of endolymphatic space in the labyrinth on 3D FLAIR was observed in the anatomically appropriate position, and it showed negative signal on 3D-IR TSE. The low signal area of surrounding bone on 3D FLAIR showed near zero signal on 3D-IR TSE. Gd-containing perilymphatic space showed high signal on 3D-IR TSE. In conclusion, by optimizing the inversion time, endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space and surrounding bone can be separately visualized on a single image using a 3D-IR TSE with real reconstruction. (orig.)

  18. Kac's question, planar isospectral pairs and involutions in projective space: II. Classification of generalized projective isospectral data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thas, Koen

    2006-01-01

    In Am. Math. Monthly (73 1-23 (1966)), Kac asked his famous question 'Can one hear the shape of a drum?', which was eventually answered negatively in Gordon et al (1992 Invent. Math. 110 1-22) by construction of planar isospectral pairs. Giraud (2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 L477-83) observed that most of the known examples can be generated from solutions of a certain equation which involves a set of involutions of an n-dimensional projective space over some finite field. He then generated all possible solutions for n = 2, when the involutions fix the same number of points. In Thas (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 L385-8) we showed that no other examples arise for any other dimension, still assuming that the involutions fix the same number of points. In this paper we study the problem for involutions not necessarily fixing the same number of points, and solve the problem completely

  19. Monitoring Space Radiation Hazards with the Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercially Hosted (REACH) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J. E.; Guild, T. B.; Crain, W.; Crain, S.; Holker, D.; Quintana, S.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Kelly, M. A.; Barnes, R. J.; Sotirelis, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercial Hosting (REACH) project uses radiation dosimeters on a commercial satellite constellation in low Earth orbit to provide unprecedented spatial and time sampling of space weather radiation hazards. The spatial and time scales of natural space radiation environments coupled with constraints for the hosting accommodation drove the instrumentation requirements and the plan for the final orbital constellation. The project has delivered a total of thirty two radiation dosimeter instruments for launch with each instrument containing two dosimeters with different passive shielding and electronic thresholds to address proton-induced single-event effects, vehicle charging, and total ionizing dose. There are two REACH instruments currently operating with four more planned for launch by the time of the 2017 meeting. Our aim is to field a long-lived system of highly-capable radiation detectors to monitor the hazards of single-event effects, total ionizing dose, and spacecraft charging with maximized spatial coverage and with minimal time latency. We combined a robust detection technology with a commercial satellite hosting to produce a new demonstration for satellite situational awareness and for other engineering and science applications.

  20. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems - Observations From the Kennedy Space Center Breadboard Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.

  1. Energy-filtered real- and k-space secondary and energy-loss electron imaging with Dual Emission Electron spectro-Microscope: Cs/Mo(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzelakowski, Krzysztof P., E-mail: k.grzelakowski@opticon-nanotechnology.com

    2016-05-15

    Since its introduction the importance of complementary k{sub ||}-space (LEED) and real space (LEEM) information in the investigation of surface science phenomena has been widely demonstrated over the last five decades. In this paper we report the application of a novel kind of electron spectromicroscope Dual Emission Electron spectroMicroscope (DEEM) with two independent electron optical channels for reciprocal and real space quasi-simultaneous imaging in investigation of a Cs covered Mo(110) single crystal by using the 800 eV electron beam from an “in-lens” electron gun system developed for the sample illumination. With the DEEM spectromicroscope it is possible to observe dynamic, irreversible processes at surfaces in the energy-filtered real space and in the corresponding energy-filtered k{sub ǁ}-space quasi-simultaneously in two independent imaging columns. The novel concept of the high energy electron beam sample illumination in the cathode lens based microscopes allows chemically selective imaging and analysis under laboratory conditions. - Highlights: • A novel concept of the electron sample illumination with “in-lens” e- gun is realized. • Quasi-simultaneous energy selective observation of the real- and k-space in EELS mode. • Observation of the energy filtered Auger electron diffraction at Cs atoms on Mo(110). • Energy-loss, Auger and secondary electron momentum microscopy is realized.

  2. Status and Mission Applicability of NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Munk, Michelle M.; Dankanich, John; Pencil, Eric; Liou, Larry

    2009-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project develops propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. Since 2001, the ISPT project developed and delivered products to assist technology infusion and quantify mission applicability and benefits through mission analysis and tools. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for flagship destinations currently under evaluation, as well as having broad applicability to future Discovery and New Frontiers mission solicitations. This paper provides status of the technology development, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of advanced chemical thrusters, electric propulsion, aerocapture, and systems analysis tools. The current chemical propulsion investment is on the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Investments in electric propulsion technologies focused on completing NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system, and the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, which is a mid-term product specifically designed for a low-cost electric propulsion option. Aerocapture investments developed a family of thermal protections system materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus; and models for aerothermal effects. In 2009 ISPT started the development of propulsion technologies that would enable future sample return missions. The paper describes the ISPT project's future focus on propulsion for sample return missions. The future technology development areas for ISPT is: Planetary Ascent Vehicles (PAV), with a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) being the initial development focus; multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) needed

  3. Real time three-dimensional space video rate sensors for millimeter waves imaging based very inexpensive plasma LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S.; Rozban, Daniel; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop inexpensive but sensitive Millimeter Wave (MMW) detectors that can be used in focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to implement real time MMW imaging. Real time MMW imaging systems are required for many varied applications in many fields as homeland security, medicine, communications, military products and space technology. It is mainly because this radiation has high penetration and good navigability through dust storm, fog, heavy rain, dielectric materials, biological tissue, and diverse materials. Moreover, the atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low and the scattering is also low compared to NIR and VIS. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. In last few years we advanced in research and development of sensors using very inexpensive (30-50 cents) Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) plasma indicator lamps as MMW detectors. This paper presents three kinds of GDD sensor based lamp Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). Those three kinds of cameras are different in the number of detectors, scanning operation, and detection method. The 1st and 2nd generations are 8 × 8 pixel array and an 18 × 2 mono-rail scanner array respectively, both of them for direct detection and limited to fixed imaging. The last designed sensor is a multiplexing frame rate of 16x16 GDD FPA. It permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames/ sec and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. The principle of detection in this sensor is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system while each of the 16 GDD pixel lines is sampled simultaneously. Direct detection is also possible and can be done with a friendly user interface. This FPA sensor is built over 256 commercial GDD lamps with 3 mm diameter International Light, Inc., Peabody, MA model 527 Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. All three sensors are fully supported

  4. The NASA Space Place: A Plethora of Games, Projects, and Fun Facts for Celebrating Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, N. J.; Fisher, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    out activities to tie in with the IYA April topic, Galaxies and the Distant Universe. The infrared Spitzer Space Telescope, as well as the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) spacecraft are strongly represented on The Space Place web site, with interactive games, images, and crafts that explore the wonders of and latest discoveries about galaxies. In addition, in our mailings and other partner communications throughout the year, we will feature special activities and projects on spaceplace.nasa.gov, and suggest ways to use these resources in IYA-related events.

  5. Unruh effect in a real scalar field with the Higgs potential on a dynamically variable background space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Shingo [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand)

    2015-09-15

    It is predicted that an accelerating electron performs a Brownian motion in the inertial frame. This Brownian motion in the inertial frame has its roots in the interaction with the thermal excitation given by the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. If such a prediction is possible, correspondingly we propose a prediction in this study that the thermal radiation is emitted in the inertial frame from an electron heated due to the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. The point in our prediction is, although the Unruh effect is limited in the accelerating frame, as well as that the Brownian motion rooted in the Unruh effect appears in the inertial frame, the heat of the particle appears in the inertial frame. Based on such a prediction in this paper, we investigate phenomena in the neighborhood of an accelerating electron in the inertial frame. The model we consider is the four-dimensional Klein-Gordon real scalar field model with the Higgs potential term at the finite temperature identified with the Unruh temperature on the de Sitter space-time. We calculate the one-loop effective potential in the inertial frame with the corrections by the thermal radiation rooted in the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. In this calculation, we take into account that the background space-time is deformed due to the field theory's corrected one-loop effective potential. Based on such an analysis, we illustrate the restoration of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the dynamical variation of the background space-time, and we examine the accelerating particle's world-line and the amount of the energy corresponding to the change of the acceleration. (orig.)

  6. Unruh effect in a real scalar field with the Higgs potential on a dynamically variable background space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that an accelerating electron performs a Brownian motion in the inertial frame. This Brownian motion in the inertial frame has its roots in the interaction with the thermal excitation given by the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. If such a prediction is possible, correspondingly we propose a prediction in this study that the thermal radiation is emitted in the inertial frame from an electron heated due to the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. The point in our prediction is, although the Unruh effect is limited in the accelerating frame, as well as that the Brownian motion rooted in the Unruh effect appears in the inertial frame, the heat of the particle appears in the inertial frame. Based on such a prediction in this paper, we investigate phenomena in the neighborhood of an accelerating electron in the inertial frame. The model we consider is the four-dimensional Klein-Gordon real scalar field model with the Higgs potential term at the finite temperature identified with the Unruh temperature on the de Sitter space-time. We calculate the one-loop effective potential in the inertial frame with the corrections by the thermal radiation rooted in the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. In this calculation, we take into account that the background space-time is deformed due to the field theory's corrected one-loop effective potential. Based on such an analysis, we illustrate the restoration of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the dynamical variation of the background space-time, and we examine the accelerating particle's world-line and the amount of the energy corresponding to the change of the acceleration. (orig.)

  7. Science Students Creating Hybrid Spaces when Engaging in an Expo Investigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; de Beer, Josef

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the experiences of three 9th-grade South African students (13-14 years) in doing open science investigation projects for a science expo. A particular focus of this study was the manner in which these students merge the world of school science with their social world to create a hybrid space by appropriating knowledge and resources of the school and home. Within this hybrid space they experienced a deeper, more meaningful and authentic engagement in science practical work. This hybrid space redefined the landscape of the science learning experience for these students, as they could derive the twofold benefit of appropriating support when necessary and at the same time maintain their autonomy over the investigation. For South Africa and quite probably other countries; these findings serve as a guideline as to how opportunities can be created for students to do open science investigations, against prevailing school factors such as large classes, a lack of physical resources, the lack of time for practical work and the demands of syllabus coverage.

  8. General Services Administration. STAR-PBS' New Program for Tracking and Managing Real Property

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ron

    1999-01-01

    STAR is a real estate inventory management software application that maintains data on projects, leases, buildings, and space assignments that is, who is in what space-in an integrated database environment...

  9. Foundation stones for a real socio-environmental integration in projects' impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Dominguez-Gomez, J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA), have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it a parallel progress in addressing their main shortcomings: insufficient integration of environmental and social features into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their diagnosis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of schemes which impact on the environment, and in consequence, to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argue that, in a sociological context of growing complexity, four foundation-stones are required to underpin research methodologies (for both diagnosis and assessment) in the socio-environmental risks of development projects: a theoretical foundation in actor-network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized though not always carried through into practice; a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation.

  10. The evaluation of the real alpha value in Brazil and its projection until the year 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Clarice F.; Ghobril, Carlos N.; Sordi, Gian Maria; Sahyun, Adelia

    2017-01-01

    When a cost-benefit analysis is applied to the optimization of practices involving radiation protection, the alpha value is used to determine the amount of money required to be invested in a practice to minimize radiation doses to acceptable levels. The alpha value is often linked to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, so the monetary reference value of person-Sievert can often be different in each country. Evaluation of the alpha value in Brazil was performed in 1993 and 2000 making use of the procedure advised by ICRP to produce projections up to 2015 and subsequently in 2004 by using the procedure recommended by the IAEA. This paper, in response to the social and economic situation in Brazil, calculates the alpha value and compares it with the projections of the 1993 and 2000 papers and includes a dollar correction to take account of the differences in the purchasing power from that time. This procedure illustrates the significant gap of value in use and that the actual value should be two to three times higher. By GDP per capita, the authors could calculate the alpha value updated to various countries including the European Union and compare them with the official value currently in use. In conclusion, it is believed that all countries that adopt an alpha value should upgrade it to the present day. (authors)

  11. Mentoring Undergraduate Students through the Space Shuttle Hitchhiker GoldHELOX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. Ward; Barnes, Jonathan; Roming, Peter; Durfee, Dallin; Campbell, Branton; Turley, Steve; Eastman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1980s a team of four BYU undergraduate students designed a space-based telescope to image the sun in soft x-rays from 171-181 Angstroms to gain information on microflares and their relation to the corona-chromosphere transition region. The telescope used a near-normal incidence multi-layered mirror imaging onto film through a micro-channel plate. The system was capable of 1.0 sec time resolution and 2.5 arcsec spatial resolution. Aided by a NASA grant in 1991, a system was built and successfully tested in 1998 at Marshall Space Flight Center. Originally designed to be deployed from a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the bay of a space shuttle, the good results of this test elevated GoldHelox to greater-priority Hitchhiker status. Even so technical and procedural difficulties delayed a launch until after 2003. Unfortunately after the Columbia re-entry break-up in February 2003, the Hitchhiker program was cancelled and the GoldHelox project ended.Well over 200 undergraduate students worked on GoldHelox. Many of these have since earned advanced degrees in a variety of technical fields. Several have gone on to work in the space industry, becoming NASA scientists and engineers with one becoming a PI on the Swift satellite. The broad range of talent on the team has included students majoring in physics, astronomy, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, design engineering, business and even English majors who have written technical and public relations documents. We report on lessons learned and the pitfalls and successes of this unique mentoring experience.

  12. Development and comparison of projection and image space 3D nodule insertion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and compare two methods of inserting computerized virtual lesions into CT datasets. 24 physical (synthetic) nodules of three sizes and four morphologies were inserted into an anthropomorphic chest phantom (LUNGMAN, KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was scanned (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) with and without nodules present, and images were reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) at 0.6 mm slice thickness using a standard thoracic CT protocol at multiple dose settings. Virtual 3D CAD models based on the physical nodules were virtually inserted (accounting for the system MTF) into the nodule-free CT data using two techniques. These techniques include projection-based and image-based insertion. Nodule volumes were estimated using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.). Differences were tested using paired t-tests and R2 goodness of fit between the virtually and physically inserted nodules. Both insertion techniques resulted in nodule volumes very similar to the real nodules (values were all <0.97 for both insertion techniques. These data imply that these techniques can confidently be used as a means of inserting virtual nodules in CT datasets. These techniques can be instrumental in building hybrid CT datasets composed of patient images with virtually inserted nodules.

  13. Modification of medium-range order in silica glass by ball-milling: real- and reciprocal-space structural correlations for the first sharp diffraction peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Akira; Kohara, Shinji; Uchino, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out high-energy x-ray diffraction measurements on mechanically milled silica glass. It has been found that the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the structure factor S(Q) of silica glass appreciably decreases in intensity as a result of mechanical milling, whereas the observed features of the other peaks in S(Q) almost remain unchanged. The corresponding real-space correlation function of the milled samples shows a marked decrease in intensity at r∼5 A. This gives an experimental manifestation that the dominant real-space structural correlation pertaining to the FSDP occurs at r∼5 A

  14. Modification of medium-range order in silica glass by ball-milling: real- and reciprocal-space structural correlations for the first sharp diffraction peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Akira [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [SPring-8, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Uchino, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2007-11-14

    We have carried out high-energy x-ray diffraction measurements on mechanically milled silica glass. It has been found that the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the structure factor S(Q) of silica glass appreciably decreases in intensity as a result of mechanical milling, whereas the observed features of the other peaks in S(Q) almost remain unchanged. The corresponding real-space correlation function of the milled samples shows a marked decrease in intensity at r{approx}5 A. This gives an experimental manifestation that the dominant real-space structural correlation pertaining to the FSDP occurs at r{approx}5 A.

  15. A new EU-funded project for enhanced real-time imaging for radiotherapy

    CERN Multimedia

    KTT Life Sciences Unit

    2011-01-01

    ENTERVISION (European training network for digital imaging for radiotherapy) is a new Marie Curie Initial Training Network coordinated by CERN, which brings together multidisciplinary researchers to carry out R&D in physics techniques for application in the clinical environment.   ENTERVISION was established in response to a critical need to reinforce research in online 3D digital imaging and to train professionals in order to deliver some of the key elements for early detection and more precise treatment of tumours. The main goal of the project is to train researchers who will help contribute to technical developments in an exciting multidisciplinary field, where expertise from physics, medicine, electronics, informatics, radiobiology and engineering merges and catalyses the advancement of cancer treatment. With this aim in mind, ENTERVISION brings together ten academic institutes and research centres, as well as the two leading European companies in particle therapy, IBA and Siemens. &ldq...

  16. Medium Voltage Microgrid Test Setup and Procedures Implemented on a Real Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alberto Pacheco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents various concepts related to the application of a microgrid pilot project in a residential condominium at Fortaleza / CE – Brazil, such as battery energy system, renewable and distributed generation, islanding recloser and all different units using interface based on power electronics. This papers main objective is to create information about microgrid operation and the interaction between its main equipment, such as power converters, utility energy distribution system and control units responsible for algorithms and changes in microgrids operation mode. This information is important for understanding the need for a test setup construction. To perform the test procedures, a temporary setup in a controlled environment within the microgrid is proposed. During the test periods, intentional power outages are required to evaluate the operating mode switching on each unit. The test setup described in this paper aims to mitigate the tests effects on other residential units inside the condominium.

  17. Final Technical Report of project: "Contactless Real-Time Monitoring of Paper Mechanical Behavior During Papermaking"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel Lafond; Paul Ridgway; Ted Jackson; Rick Russo; Ken Telschow; Vance Deason; Yves Berthelot; David Griggs; Xinya Zhang; Gary Baum

    2005-08-30

    The early precursors of laser ultrasonics on paper were Prof. Y. Berthelot from the Georgia Institute of Technology/Mechanical Engineering department, and Prof. P. Brodeur from the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, both located in Atlanta, Georgia. The first Ph.D. thesis that shed quite some light on the topic, but also left some questions unanswered, was completed by Mont A. Johnson in 1996. Mont Johnson was Prof. Berthelot's student at Georgia Tech. In 1997 P. Brodeur proposed a project involving himself, Y. Berthelot, Dr. Ken Telschow and Mr. Vance Deason from INL, Honeywell-Measurex and Dr. Rick Russo from LBNL. The first time the proposal was not accepted and P. Brodeur decided to re-propose it without the involvement from LBNL. Rick Russo proposed a separate project on the same topic on his side. Both proposals were finally accepted and work started in the fall of 1997 on the two projects. Early on, the biggest challenge was to find an optical detection method which could detect laser-induced displacements of the web surface that are of the order of .1 micron in the ultrasonic range. This was to be done while the web was having an out-of-plane amplitude of motion in the mm range due to web flutter; while moving at 10 m/s to 30 m/s in the plane of the web, on the paper machine. Both teams grappled with the same problems and tried similar methods in some cases, but came up with two similar but different solutions one year later. The IPST, GT, INL team found that an interferometer made by Lasson Technologies Inc. using the photo-induced electro-motive force in Gallium Arsenide was able to detect ultrasonic waves up to 12-15 m/s. It also developed in house an interferometer using the Two-Wave Mixing effect in photorefractive crystals that showed good promises for on-line applications, and experimented with a scanning mirror to reduce motion-induced texture noise from the web and improve signal to noise ratio. On its side, LBNL had the idea to

  18. Human Exploration using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO): A space exploration strategy for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration strategy for human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the Moon that combines the best features of human and robotic spaceflight. This "Human Exploration using Real-time Robotic Operations" (HERRO) strategy refrains from placing humans on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars in the near-term. Rather, it focuses on sending piloted spacecraft and crews into orbit around Mars and other exploration targets of interest, and conducting astronaut exploration of the surfaces using telerobots and remotely-controlled systems. By eliminating the significant communications delay or "latency" with Earth due to the speed of light limit, teleoperation provides scientists real-time control of rovers and other sophisticated instruments. This in effect gives them a "virtual presence" on planetary surfaces, and thus expands the scientific return at these destinations. HERRO mitigates several of the major issues that have hindered the progress of human spaceflight beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by: (1) broadening the range of destinations for near-term human missions; (2) reducing cost and risk through less complexity and fewer man-rated elements; (3) offering benefits of human-equivalent in-situ cognition, decision-making and field-work on planetary bodies; (4) providing a simpler approach to returning samples from Mars and planetary surfaces; and (5) facilitating opportunities for international collaboration through contribution of diverse robotic systems. HERRO provides a firm justification for human spaceflight—one that expands the near-term capabilities of scientific exploration while providing the space transportation infrastructure needed for eventual human landings in the future.

  19. Large-Scale Urban Projects, Production of Space and Neo-liberal Hegemony: A Comparative Study of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet PENPECİOĞLU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of neo-liberalism, large-scale urban projects (LDPs have become a powerful mechanism of urban policy. Creating spaces of neo-liberal urbanization such as central business districts, tourism centers, gated residences and shopping malls, LDPs play a role not only in the reproduction of capital accumulation relations but also in the shift of urban political priorities towards the construction of neo-liberal hegemony. The construction of neo-liberal hegemony and the role played by LDPs in this process could not only be investigated by the analysis of capital accumulation. For such an investigation; the role of state and civil society actors in LDPs, their collaborative and conflictual relationships should be researched and their functions in hegemony should be revealed. In the case of Izmir’s two LDPs, namely the New City Center (NCC and Inciraltı Tourism Center (ITC projects, this study analyzes the relationship between the production of space and neo-liberal hegemony. In the NCC project, local governments, investors, local capital organizations and professional chambers collaborated and disseminated hegemonic discourse, which provided social support for the project. Through these relationships and discourses, the NCC project has become a hegemonic project for producing space and constructed neo-liberal hegemony over urban political priorities. In contrast to the NCC project, the ITC project saw no collaboration between state and organized civil society actors. The social opposition against the ITC project, initiated by professional chambers, has brought legal action against the ITC development plans in order to prevent their implementation. As a result, the ITC project did not acquire the consent of organized social groups and failed to become a hegemonic project for producing space.

  20. Real-time projections of cholera outbreaks through data assimilation and rainfall forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Damiano; Finger, Flavio; Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico

    2017-10-01

    Although treatment for cholera is well-known and cheap, outbreaks in epidemic regions still exact high death tolls mostly due to the unpreparedness of health care infrastructures to face unforeseen emergencies. In this context, mathematical models for the prediction of the evolution of an ongoing outbreak are of paramount importance. Here, we test a real-time forecasting framework that readily integrates new information as soon as available and periodically issues an updated forecast. The spread of cholera is modeled by a spatially-explicit scheme that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals hosted in different local communities connected through hydrologic and human mobility networks. The framework presents two major innovations for cholera modeling: the use of a data assimilation technique, specifically an ensemble Kalman filter, to update both state variables and parameters based on the observations, and the use of rainfall forecasts to force the model. The exercise of simulating the state of the system and the predictive capabilities of the novel tools, set at the initial phase of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak using only information that was available at that time, serves as a benchmark. Our results suggest that the assimilation procedure with the sequential update of the parameters outperforms calibration schemes based on Markov chain Monte Carlo. Moreover, in a forecasting mode the model usefully predicts the spatial incidence of cholera at least one month ahead. The performance decreases for longer time horizons yet allowing sufficient time to plan for deployment of medical supplies and staff, and to evaluate alternative strategies of emergency management.