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Sample records for reagentless real-time identification

  1. A novel reagentless glutamate microband biosensor for real-time cell toxicity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, G.; Pemberton, R.M. [Centre for Research in Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY (United Kingdom); Fielden, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Hart, J.P., E-mail: john.hart@uwe.ac.uk [Centre for Research in Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-24

    A reagentless glutamate biosensor was applied to the determination of glutamate released from liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) in response to toxic challenge from various concentrations of paracetamol. A screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) containing the electrocatalyst Meldola's Blue (MB-SPCE) served as the electron mediator for the oxidation of NADH. A mixture of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) and the biopolymer chitosan (CHIT) were drop-coated onto the surface of the transducer (MB-SPCE) in a simple one step fabrication process. The reagentless biosensor was used with amperometry in stirred solution at an applied potential of +0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). All experiments were carried out at the following conditions: pH 7, temperature 37 °C, atmosphere 5% CO{sub 2}. The linear range of the device was found to be 25–125 μM in phosphate buffer (75 mM, containing 0.05 M NaCl) and 25–150 μM in cell culture medium. The limits of detection (LOD) were found to be 1.2 μM and 4.2 μM based on three times signal to noise, using PBS and culture medium respectively. The sensitivity was calculated to be 106 nA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and 210 nA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in PBS and cell medium respectively. The response time was ∼60 s in an agitated solution. HepG2 cells were exposed to various concentrations of paracetamol (1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM) in order to investigate the drug-induced release of glutamate into the culture medium in real time. Two toxicity studies were investigated using different methods of exposure and analysis. The first method consisted of a single measurement of the glutamate concentration, using the method of standard addition, after 24 h incubation. The concentrations of glutamate were found to be 52 μM, 93 μM and 177 μM, released on exposure to 1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM paracetamol respectively. The second method involved the

  2. A novel reagentless glutamate microband biosensor for real-time cell toxicity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.; Pemberton, R.M.; Fielden, P.R.; Hart, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A reagentless glutamate biosensor was applied to the determination of glutamate released from liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) in response to toxic challenge from various concentrations of paracetamol. A screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) containing the electrocatalyst Meldola's Blue (MB-SPCE) served as the electron mediator for the oxidation of NADH. A mixture of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD"+) and the biopolymer chitosan (CHIT) were drop-coated onto the surface of the transducer (MB-SPCE) in a simple one step fabrication process. The reagentless biosensor was used with amperometry in stirred solution at an applied potential of +0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). All experiments were carried out at the following conditions: pH 7, temperature 37 °C, atmosphere 5% CO_2. The linear range of the device was found to be 25–125 μM in phosphate buffer (75 mM, containing 0.05 M NaCl) and 25–150 μM in cell culture medium. The limits of detection (LOD) were found to be 1.2 μM and 4.2 μM based on three times signal to noise, using PBS and culture medium respectively. The sensitivity was calculated to be 106 nA μM"−"1 cm"−"2 and 210 nA μM"−"1 cm"−"2 in PBS and cell medium respectively. The response time was ∼60 s in an agitated solution. HepG2 cells were exposed to various concentrations of paracetamol (1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM) in order to investigate the drug-induced release of glutamate into the culture medium in real time. Two toxicity studies were investigated using different methods of exposure and analysis. The first method consisted of a single measurement of the glutamate concentration, using the method of standard addition, after 24 h incubation. The concentrations of glutamate were found to be 52 μM, 93 μM and 177 μM, released on exposure to 1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM paracetamol respectively. The second method involved the continuous monitoring of glutamate

  3. Real-Time Parameter Identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have implemented in the control room a technique for estimating in real time the aerodynamic parameters that describe the stability and control...

  4. A reagentless real-time method for the multiparameter analysis of nanoparticles as a potential 'trigger' device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Bob; Knowles, John; Warren, Jeremy

    2008-10-01

    We describe the continuing development of a laser-based, light scattering detector system capable of detecting and analysing liquid-borne nanoparticles. Using a finely focussed and specially configured laser beam to illuminate a suspension of nanoparticles in a small (250ul) sample and videoing the Brownian motion of each and every particle in the detection zone should allow individual but simultaneous detection and measurement of particle size, scattered light intensity, electrophoretic mobility and, where applicable, shape asymmetry. This real-time, multi-parameter analysis capability offers the prospect of reagentlessly differentiating between different particle types within a complex sample of potentially high and variable background. Employing relatively low powered (50-100mW) laser diode modules and low resolution CCD arrays, each component could be run off battery power, allowing distributed/remote or personal deployment. Voltages needed for electrophoresis measurement s would be similarly low (e.g. 20V, low current) and 30second videos (exported at mobile/cell phone download speeds) analysed remotely. The potential of such low-cost technology as a field-deployable grid of remote, battery powered and reagentless, multi-parameter sensors for use as trigger devices is discussed.

  5. Using Real-time PCR for Identification of Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was identification of Paenibacillus larvae that causes American foulbrood disease (AFB in colony of bees (Apis mellifera. Bacterial isolates originated from honey samples, because presence of P. larvae in honey is treated as early diagnostic of AFB. Intense proteolytic activity and no catalase activity are typical for Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria P. larvae. We diluted honey (1:2, heated at 80 °C for 10 min and inoculated on semiselective medium MYPGP agar with nalidixic acid. Plates were cultivated at 37 °C for 48 – 72 h under the aerobic conditions. Selected colonies were transferred on MYT agar and cultivated 24 h. We analysed 30 honey samples and found 27 bacterial isolates. All isolates were Gram positive and mainly rod-shaped. No catalase activity was documented for 6 from 27 isolates. Identification was finished by real-time PCR to detect the 16S rRNA gene of Paenibacillus larvae with real-time cycler Rotor-Gene 6000. As DNA template we used genomic DNA isolated with commercial kit and DNA lysate obtaining by boiled cells. We used 2 strains of P. larvae from CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms as positive control. The reliable method of detection P. larvae has important rule for beekeeping.

  6. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mitchell Aide

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON, a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net. Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica.

  7. Human fecal source identification with real-time quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterborne diseases represent a significant public health risk worldwide, and can originate from contact with water contaminated with human fecal material. We describe a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method that targets a Bacteroides dori human-associated genetic marker for...

  8. Loss pattern identification in near-real-time accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentesi, F.

    1983-01-01

    To maximize the benefits from an advanced safeguards technique such as near-real-time accounting, sophisticated methods of analysing sequential material accounting data are necessary. The methods must be capable of controlling the overall false-alarm rate while assuring good power of detection against all possible diversion scenarios. A method drawn from the field of pattern recognition and related to the alarm-sequence chart appears to be promising. Power curves based on Monte Carlo calculations illustrate the improvements over more conventional methods. (author)

  9. A rapid and direct real time PCR-based method for identification of Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, D.; Hernández, Marta; Esteve, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the validation of a rapid, real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan((R)) technology for the unequivocal identification of Salmonella spp. to be used directly on an agar-grown colony. A real-time PCR system targeting at the Salmonella spp. invA gene was optimized and validated ...

  10. DIRADTM - a system for real time detection and identification of radioactive objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, L.; Reboli, A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present the DIRAD system (DIRAD stands for Detection and Identification of Radionuclides), an automatic system for real time identification of a radioactive anomaly and its interpretation in terms of risk level. It can be adapted to different contexts: pedestrian control, parcel or luggage control, road traffic control, and so on. In case of risk detection, an alert is transmitted in real time to a supervision station along with the whole set of spectral data

  11. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Fecal Source Identification in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers in the Tillamook Basin play a vital role in supporting a thriving dairy and cheese-making industry, as well as providing a safe water resource for local human and wildlife populations. Historical concentrations of fecal bacteria in these waters are at times too high to allow for safe use leading to economic loss, endangerment of local wildlife, and poor conditions for recreational use. In this study, we employ host-associated qPCR methods for human (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2), ruminant (Rum2Bac), cattle (CowM2 and CowM3), canine (DG3 and DG37), and avian (GFD) fecal pollution combined with high-resolution geographic information system (GIS) land use data and general indicator bacteria measurements to elucidatewater quality spatial and temporal trends. Water samples (n=584) were collected over a 1-year period at 29 sites along the Trask, Kilchis, and Tillamook rivers and tributaries (Tillamook Basin, OR). A total of 16.6% of samples (n=97) yielded E. coli levels considered impaired based on Oregon Department of Environmental Quality bacteria criteria (406 MPN/100mL). Hostassociated genetic indicators were detected at frequencies of 39.2% (HF183/BacR287), 16.3% (HumM2), 74.6% (Rum2Bac), 13.0% (CowM2), 26.7% (CowM3), 19.8% (DG3), 3.2% (DG37), and 53.4% (GFD) across all water samples (n=584). Seasonal trends in avian, cattle, and human fecal pollution sources were evident over the study area. On a sample site basis, quantitative fecal source identification and

  12. Animal DNA identification in food products and animal feed by real time polymerase chain reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Мар’янівна Іщенко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Approbation of diagnostic tests for species identification of beef, pork and chicken by real time polymerase chain reaction method was done. Meat food, including heat treated and animal feed, was used for research. The fact of inconsistencies was revealed for product composition of some meat products that is marked by manufacturer 

  13. Multiplex real-time PCR for identification of canine parvovirus antigenic types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Chandra, Mudit; Dwivedi, P N; Narang, Deepti

    2016-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important disease causing gastroenteritis and/or haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs. There are four antigenic types of CPV reported worldwide viz. CPV 2, CPV 2a, CPV 2b and CPV 2c. The diagnosis of CPV with the identification of the antigen type responsible remains problematic. In the present study, identification as well as antigenic typing of CPV was done using a de novo multiplex real time PCR to combat the problem of antigenic type identification. From the study it could be concluded that the here developed multiplex real time PCR assay could be used for rapid detection of CPV as well as typing of its three antigenic types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CONTROLLED CONDENSATION IN K-NN AND ITS APPLICATION FOR REAL TIME COLOR IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Villar Patiño

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available k-NN algorithms are frequently used in statistical classification. They are accurate and distribution free. Despite these advantages, k-NN algorithms imply a high computational cost. To find efficient ways to implement them is an important challenge in pattern recognition. In this article, an improved version of the k-NN Controlled Condensation algorithm is introduced. Its potential for instantaneous color identification in real time is also analyzed. This algorithm is based on the representation of data in terms of a reduced set of informative prototypes. It includes two parameters to control the balance between speed and precision. This gives us the opportunity to achieve a convenient percentage of condensation without incurring in an important loss of accuracy. We test our proposal in an instantaneous color identification exercise in video images. We achieve the real time identification by using k-NN Controlled Condensation executed through multi-threading programming methods. The results are encouraging.

  15. Nonlinear modeling and identification of a DC motor for bidirectional operation with real time experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Tolgay; Eker, Ilyas

    2004-01-01

    Modeling and identification of mechanical systems constitute an essential stage in practical control design and applications. Controllers commanding systems that operate at varying conditions or require high precision operation raise the need for a nonlinear approach in modeling and identification. Most mechanical systems used in industry are composed of masses moving under the action of position and velocity dependent forces. These forces exhibit nonlinear behavior in certain regions of operation. For a multi-mass rotational system, the nonlinearities, like Coulomb friction and dead zone, significantly influence the system operation when the rotation changes direction. The paper presents nonlinear modeling and identification of a DC motor rotating in two directions together with real time experiments. Linear and nonlinear models for the system are obtained for identification purposes, and the major nonlinearities in the system, such as Coulomb friction and dead zone, are investigated and integrated in the nonlinear model. The Hammerstein nonlinear system approach is used for identification of the nonlinear system model. Online identification of the linear and nonlinear system models is performed using the recursive least squares method. Results of the real time experiments are graphically and numerically presented, and the advantages of the nonlinear identification approach are revealed

  16. Detection panel for identification of twelve hemorrhagic viruses using real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfr, M; Neubauerová, V; Pajer, P; Kubíčková, P; Růžek, D

    2014-09-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are caused by viruses from four viral families and develop diseases with high fatality rates. However, no commercial diagnostic assay for these pathogens is available. We developed real-time RT-PCR assays for viruses Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Guanarito, Machupo, Junin, Sabiá, Seoul, Puumala, Hantaan, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Rift Valley fever virus. The assays were optimized for identical reaction conditions and can be performed using several types of real-time PCR instruments, both capillary and plate, including a portable Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device (R.A.P.I.D.) (Idaho Technology, Inc.). In combination with primers and probes from previously published studies, we present a simple system for rapid identification of hemorrhagic filoviruses, arenaviruses and bunyaviruses with sufficient sensitivity for first contact laboratory and diagnosis under field conditions.

  17. Load power device and system for real-time execution of hierarchical load identification algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Madane, Mayura Arun; Zambare, Prachi Suresh

    2017-11-14

    A load power device includes a power input; at least one power output for at least one load; and a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output. A processor is structured to provide real-time execution of: (a) a plurality of load identification algorithms, and (b) event detection and operating mode detection for the at least one load.

  18. Real-time radionuclide identification in γ-emitter mixtures based on spiking neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, C.; Bichler, O.; Lourenço, V.; Thiam, C.; Thévenin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Portal radiation monitors dedicated to the prevention of illegal traffic of nuclear materials at international borders need to deliver as fast as possible a radionuclide identification of a potential radiological threat. Spectrometry techniques applied to identify the radionuclides contributing to γ-emitter mixtures are usually performed using off-line spectrum analysis. As an alternative to these usual methods, a real-time processing based on an artificial neural network and Bayes’ rule is proposed for fast radionuclide identification. The validation of this real-time approach was carried out using γ-emitter spectra ( 241 Am, 133 Ba, 207 Bi, 60 Co, 137 Cs) obtained with a high-efficiency well-type NaI(Tl). The first tests showed that the proposed algorithm enables a fast identification of each γ-emitting radionuclide using the information given by the whole spectrum. Based on an iterative process, the on-line analysis only needs low-statistics spectra without energy calibration to identify the nature of a radiological threat. - Highlights: • A fast radionuclide identification algorithm applicable in spectroscopic portal monitors is presented. • The proposed algorithm combines a Bayesian sequential approach and a spiking neural network. • The algorithm was validated using the mixture of γ-emitter spectra provided by a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. • The radionuclide identification process is implemented using the whole γ-spectrum without energy calibration.

  19. Floor Covering and Surface Identification for Assistive Mobile Robotic Real-Time Room Localization Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gillham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assistive robotic applications require systems capable of interaction in the human world, a workspace which is highly dynamic and not always predictable. Mobile assistive devices face the additional and complex problem of when and if intervention should occur; therefore before any trajectory assistance is given, the robotic device must know where it is in real-time, without unnecessary disruption or delay to the user requirements. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel robust method for determining room identification from floor features in a real-time computational frame for autonomous and assistive robotics in the human environment. We utilize two inexpensive sensors: an optical mouse sensor for straightforward and rapid, texture or pattern sampling, and a four color photodiode light sensor for fast color determination. We show how data relating floor texture and color obtained from typical dynamic human environments, using these two sensors, compares favorably with data obtained from a standard webcam. We show that suitable data can be extracted from these two sensors at a rate 16 times faster than a standard webcam, and that these data are in a form which can be rapidly processed using readily available classification techniques, suitable for real-time system application. We achieved a 95% correct classification accuracy identifying 133 rooms’ flooring from 35 classes, suitable for fast coarse global room localization application, boundary crossing detection, and additionally some degree of surface type identification.

  20. On-orbit real-time robust cooperative target identification in complex background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhuoman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative target identification is the prerequisite for the relative position and orientation measurement between the space robot arm and the to-be-arrested object. We propose an on-orbit real-time robust algorithm for cooperative target identification in complex background using the features of circle and lines. It first extracts only the interested edges in the target image using an adaptive threshold and refines them to about single-pixel-width with improved non-maximum suppression. Adapting a novel tracking approach, edge segments changing smoothly in tangential directions are obtained. With a small amount of calculation, large numbers of invalid edges are removed. From the few remained edges, valid circular arcs are extracted and reassembled to obtain circles according to a reliable criterion. Finally, the target is identified if there are certain numbers of straight lines whose relative positions with the circle match the known target pattern. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm accurately identifies the cooperative target within the range of 0.3–1.5 m under complex background at the speed of 8 frames per second, regardless of lighting condition and target attitude. The proposed algorithm is very suitable for real-time visual measurement of space robot arm because of its robustness and small memory requirement.

  1. Real-time skin feature identification in a time-sequential video stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Iztok

    2005-04-01

    Skin color can be an important feature when tracking skin-colored objects. Particularly this is the case for computer-vision-based human-computer interfaces (HCI). Humans have a highly developed feeling of space and, therefore, it is reasonable to support this within intelligent HCI, where the importance of augmented reality can be foreseen. Joining human-like interaction techniques within multimodal HCI could, or will, gain a feature for modern mobile telecommunication devices. On the other hand, real-time processing plays an important role in achieving more natural and physically intuitive ways of human-machine interaction. The main scope of this work is the development of a stereoscopic computer-vision hardware-accelerated framework for real-time skin feature identification in the sense of a single-pass image segmentation process. The hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage is presented with the purpose of color and spatial filtering, where the skin color model within the hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space is given with a polyhedron of threshold values representing the basis of the filter model. An adaptive filter management unit is suggested to achieve better segmentation results. This enables the adoption of filter parameters to the current scene conditions in an adaptive way. Implementation of the suggested hardware structure is given at the level of filed programmable system level integrated circuit (FPSLIC) devices using an embedded microcontroller as their main feature. A stereoscopic clue is achieved using a time-sequential video stream, but this shows no difference for real-time processing requirements in terms of hardware complexity. The experimental results for the hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage are given by efficiency estimation of the presented hardware structure using a simple motion-detection algorithm based on a binary function.

  2. Rapid qualitative urinary tract infection pathogen identification by SeptiFast real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz E Lehmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent in outpatients. Fast pathogen identification is mandatory for shortening the time of discomfort and preventing serious complications. Urine culture needs up to 48 hours until pathogen identification. Consequently, the initial antibiotic regimen is empirical.To evaluate the feasibility of qualitative urine pathogen identification by a commercially available real-time PCR blood pathogen test (SeptiFast® and to compare the results with dipslide and microbiological culture.Pilot study with prospectively collected urine samples.University hospital.82 prospectively collected urine samples from 81 patients with suspected UTI were included. Dipslide urine culture was followed by microbiological pathogen identification in dipslide positive samples. In parallel, qualitative DNA based pathogen identification (SeptiFast® was performed in all samples.61 samples were SeptiFast® positive, whereas 67 samples were dipslide culture positive. The inter-methodological concordance of positive and negative findings in the gram+, gram- and fungi sector was 371/410 (90%, 477/492 (97% and 238/246 (97%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the SeptiFast® test for the detection of an infection was 0.82 and 0.60, respectively. SeptiFast® pathogen identifications were available at least 43 hours prior to culture results.The SeptiFast® platform identified bacterial DNA in urine specimens considerably faster compared to conventional culture. For UTI diagnosis sensitivity and specificity is limited by its present qualitative setup which does not allow pathogen quantification. Future quantitative assays may hold promise for PCR based UTI pathogen identification as a supplementation of conventional culture methods.

  3. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-01-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities

  4. Big Data-Driven Based Real-Time Traffic Flow State Identification and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban informatization, the era of big data is coming. To satisfy the demand of traffic congestion early warning, this paper studies the method of real-time traffic flow state identification and prediction based on big data-driven theory. Traffic big data holds several characteristics, such as temporal correlation, spatial correlation, historical correlation, and multistate. Traffic flow state quantification, the basis of traffic flow state identification, is achieved by a SAGA-FCM (simulated annealing genetic algorithm based fuzzy c-means based traffic clustering model. Considering simple calculation and predictive accuracy, a bilevel optimization model for regional traffic flow correlation analysis is established to predict traffic flow parameters based on temporal-spatial-historical correlation. A two-stage model for correction coefficients optimization is put forward to simplify the bilevel optimization model. The first stage model is built to calculate the number of temporal-spatial-historical correlation variables. The second stage model is present to calculate basic model formulation of regional traffic flow correlation. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling and computing methods.

  5. Development of real-time PCR assay for genetic identification of the mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Kwan; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Min-Hee; Jo, Hyun-Su; Choi, Dong-Ho; Kang, Pil-Won; Lee, Yang-Han; Cho, Nam-Soo; Park, Ki-Won; Chae, Ho Zoon

    2015-10-01

    The mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra is one of the commercially important fishes in the market today. However, B. pulchra identification methods have not been well developed. The current study reports a novel real-time PCR method based on TaqMan technology developed for the genetic identification of B. pulchra. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) nucleotide sequences of 29 B. pulchra, 157 skates and rays reported in GenBank DNA database were comparatively analyzed and the COI sequences specific to B. pulchra was identified. Based on this information, a system of specific primers and Minor Groove Binding (MGB) TaqMan probe were designed. The assay successfully discriminated in 29 specimens of B. pulchra and 27 commercial samples with unknown species identity. For B. pulchra DNA, an average Threshold Cycle (Ct) value of 19.1±0.1 was obtained. Among 27 commercial samples, two samples showed average Ct values 19.1±0.0 and 26.7±0.1, respectively and were confirmed to be B. pulchra based on sequencing. The other samples tested showed undetectable or extremely weak signals for the target fragment, which was also consistent with the sequencing results. These results reveal that the method developed is a rapid and efficient tool to identify B. pulchra and might prevent fraud or mislabeling during the distribution of B. pulchra products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of four squid species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Feng, Junli; Liu, Shasha; Zhang, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaona; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Squids are distributed worldwide, including many species of commercial importance, and they are often made into varieties of flavor foods. The rapid identification methods for squid species especially their processed products, however, have not been well developed. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) systems based on specific primers and TaqMan probes have been established for rapid and accurate identification of four common squid species (Ommastrephes bartramii, Dosidicus gigas, Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus) in Chinese domestic market. After analyzing mitochondrial genes reported in GenBank, the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene was selected for O. bartramii detection, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for D. gigas and T. Pacificus detection, ATPase subunit 6 (ATPase 6) gene for I. Argentinus detection, and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rDNA) gene for designing Ommastrephidae-specific primers and probe. As a result, all the TaqMan systems are of good performance, and efficiency of each reaction was calculated by making standard curves. This method could detect target species either in single or mixed squid specimen, and it was applied to identify 12 squid processed products successfully. Thus, it would play an important role in fulfilling labeling regulations and squid fishery control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-time identification of vehicle motion-modes using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifu; Zhang, Nong; Du, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    A four-wheel ground vehicle has three body-dominated motion-modes, that is, bounce, roll, and pitch motion-modes. Real-time identification of these motion-modes can make vehicle suspensions, in particular, active suspensions, target on the dominant motion-mode and apply appropriate control strategies to improve its performance with less power consumption. Recently, a motion-mode energy method (MEM) was developed to identify the vehicle body motion-modes. However, this method requires the measurement of full vehicle states and road inputs, which are not always available in practice. This paper proposes an alternative approach to identify vehicle primary motion-modes with acceptable accuracy by employing neural networks (NNs). The effectiveness of the trained NNs is verified on a 10-DOF full-car model under various types of excitation inputs. The results confirm that the proposed method is effective in determining vehicle primary motion-modes with comparable accuracy to the MEM method. Experimental data is further used to validate the proposed method.

  8. Species identification of Cannabis sativa using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher E; Premasuthan, Amritha; Satkoski Trask, Jessica; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2013-03-01

    Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabis sativa. Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids. Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays. DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C. sativa materials, but they require several nanograms of template DNA. Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C. sativa chloroplast, we have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay that is capable of identifying picogram amounts of chloroplast DNA for species determination of suspected C. sativa material. This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. sativa. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for the identification of the potato cyst and tobacco cyst nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    TaqMan primer-probe sets were developed for the detection and identification of potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis using two-tube, multiplex real-time PCR. One tube contained a primer-probe set specific for G. pallida (pale cyst nematode) multiplexed with another prim...

  10. Real-time PCR for Leishmania species identification: Evaluation and comparison with classical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Rayana Carla Silva; da Costa Oliveira, Cintia Nascimento; de Albuquerque, Suênia da Cunha Gonçalves; Mendonça Trajano Silva, Lays Adrianne; Pessoa-E-Silva, Rômulo; Alves da Cruz, Heidi Lacerda; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; de Paiva Cavalcanti, Milena

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic disease caused by various Leishmania species. Several studies have shown that real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used for Leishmania spp. identification by analyzing the melting temperature (Tm). Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of qPCR for differentiating eight closely related Leishmania species that cause the same clinical form of the disease and to compare the results with classical techniques. qPCR assays for standardizing the Tm using reference strains were performed. After the CL diagnosis on blood samples of domestic animals, positive samples were analyzed by their Tm and qPCR products were purified and sequenced. Ten human samples previously characterized by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) were also analyzed by Tm. A Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay, a reference test, was also standardized, by using the reference strains. Through standardization of Tm for Leishmania spp., two Tm ranges were created for analysis: 1 (Tm = 78-79.99 °C) included Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, Leishmania (V.) panamensis, Leishmania (V.) lainsoni, Leishmania (V.) guyanensis and Leishmania (V.) shawi; and 2 (Tm = 80-82.2 °C) included Leishmania (V.) naiffi, Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Leishmania (L.) mexicana. A total of 223 positive blood samples were analyzed, with 58 included in range 1 and 165 in range 2. L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis and L. (V.) guyanensis were identified by sequencing, while L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.) mexicana and L. (V.) panamensis were identified by RFLP analysis. Ten human samples previously characterized by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) were also analyzed by qPCR Tm analysis; five were classified in range 1 and five in range 2. A concordance of 80% was calculated between qPCR and the gold-standard (MLEE) with no significant difference between the methods (p = 0.6499); a similar result was observed for sequencing

  11. Rule Based Expert System for Monitoring Real Time Drug Supply in Hospital Using Radio Frequency Identification Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driandanu, Galih; Surarso, Bayu; Suryono

    2018-02-01

    A radio frequency identification (RFID) has obtained increasing attention with the emergence of various applications. This study aims to examine the implementation of rule based expert system supported by RFID technology into a monitoring information system of drug supply in a hospital. This research facilitates in monitoring the real time drug supply by using data sample from the hospital pharmacy. This system able to identify and count the number of drug and provide warning and report in real time. the conclusion is the rule based expert system and RFID technology can facilitate the performance in monitoring the drug supply quickly and precisely.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes Identification in Food of Animal Origin Used with Real Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow the contamination of food with Listeria monocytogenes by using Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 20 samples of food of animal origin with incubation were detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in 9 samples (swabs. Eleven samples were negative. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Listeria monocytogenes in food of animal origin without incubation. This could prevent infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and also could benefit food manufacturing companies by extending their product’s shelf-life as well as saving the cost of warehousing their food products while awaiting pathogen testing results. The rapid real-time PCR-based method performed very well compared to the conventional method. It is a fast, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future.

  13. Identification of Histoplasma capsulatum from culture extracts by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martagon-Villamil, Jose; Shrestha, Nabin; Sholtis, Mary; Isada, Carlos M; Hall, Gerri S; Bryne, Terry; Lodge, Barbara A; Reller, L Barth; Procop, Gary W

    2003-03-01

    We designed and tested a real-time LightCycler PCR assay for Histoplasma capsulatum that correctly identified the 34 H. capsulatum isolates in a battery of 107 fungal isolates tested and also detected H. capsulatum in clinical specimens from three patients that were culture positive for this organism.

  14. Real-time identification of the resistive-wall-mode in DIII-D with Kalman filter ELM discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgell, D.H.; Fransson, C.M.; Humphreys, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Garofalo, A.M.; Kim, J.S.; La Haye, R.J.; Okabayashi, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Strait, E.J.; Turnbull, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The resistive-wall-mode (RWM) is a major performance-limiting instability in present-day tokamaks. Active control and stabilization of the mode will almost certainly be essential for the success of advanced tokamaks and for the economic viability of tokamak fusion reactors. High performance tokamak plasmas often experience edge-localized-modes (ELMs) which can interfere with RWM identification and control. If the RWM control scheme reacts to an ELM the RWM may be driven unstable instead of controlled. An algorithm for real-time identification of the RWM with discrimination of ELMs in the DIII-D tokamak has been developed using a combination of matched filter and Kalman filter methods. The algorithm has been implemented in DIII-D's real-time plasma control system (PCS) and is available to drive active mode control schemes

  15. Rapid identification of ST131 Escherichia coli by a novel multiplex real-time allelic discrimination assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Fankhauser, Carolina; Baud, Damien; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Schrenzel, Jacques; Harbarth, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 is increasingly described in severe hospital infections. We developed a rapid real-time allelic discrimination assay for the rapid identification of E. coli ST131 isolates. This rapid assay represents an affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies before completing characterization of potentially highly virulent isolates of E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The use of newly developed real-time PCR for the rapid identification of bacteria in culture-negative osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Bauer, Thomas W; Sakai, Hiroshige; Togawa, Daisuke; Lieberman, Isador H; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Procop, Gary W

    2006-12-01

    We report a case of a culture-negative osteomyelitis in which our newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could differentiate Staphylococcus aureus from Staphylococcus epidermidis. This is the first report that described the application of this novel assay to an orthopedics clinical sample. This assay may be useful for other clinical culture-negative cases in a combination with a broad-spectrum assay as a rapid microorganism identification method.

  17. Field-based species identification in eukaryotes using real-time nanopore sequencing.

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopulos, Alexander; Devey, Dion; Helmstetter, Andrew; Parker, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing and informatics have revolutionised biology over the past four decades, but technological limitations have left many applications unexplored. Recently, portable, real-time, nanopore sequencing (RTnS) has become available. This offers opportunities to rapidly collect and analyse genomic data anywhere. However, the generation of datasets from large, complex genomes has been constrained to laboratories. The portability and long DNA sequences of RTnS offer great potenti...

  18. Real-Time Transportation Mode Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Enhanced with Mode Availability Layers: A Case Study in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ji Byon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, departments of transportation (DOTs have dispatched probe vehicles with dedicated vehicles and drivers for monitoring traffic conditions. Emerging assisted GPS (AGPS and accelerometer-equipped smartphones offer new sources of raw data that arise from voluntarily-traveling smartphone users provided that their modes of transportation can correctly be identified. By introducing additional raster map layers that indicate the availability of each mode, it is possible to enhance the accuracy of mode detection results. Even in its simplest form, an artificial neural network (ANN excels at pattern recognition with a relatively short processing timeframe once it is properly trained, which is suitable for real-time mode identification purposes. Dubai is one of the major cities in the Middle East and offers unique environments, such as a high density of extremely high-rise buildings that may introduce multi-path errors with GPS signals. This paper develops real-time mode identification ANNs enhanced with proposed mode availability geographic information system (GIS layers, firstly for a universal mode detection and, secondly for an auto mode detection for the particular intelligent transportation system (ITS application of traffic monitoring, and compares the results with existing approaches. It is found that ANN-based real-time mode identification, enhanced by mode availability GIS layers, significantly outperforms the existing methods.

  19. Loss-pattern identification in near-real-time accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentesi, F.; Hafer, J.F.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    To maximize the benefits from an advanced safeguards technique such as near-real-time accounting (NRTA), sophisticated methods of analyzing sequential materials accounting data are necessary. The methods must be capable of controlling the overall false-alarm rate while assuring good power of detection against all possible diversion scenarios. A method drawn from the field of pattern recognition and related to the alarm-sequence chart appears to be promising. Power curves based on Monte Carlo calculations illustrate the improvements over more conventional methods. 3 figures, 2 tables

  20. On-site identification of meat species in processed foods by a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Shunsuke; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Nagai, Hidenori

    2017-09-01

    Correct labeling of foods is critical for consumers who wish to avoid a specific meat species for religious or cultural reasons. Therefore, gene-based point-of-care food analysis by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is expected to contribute to the quality control in the food industry. In this study, we perform rapid identification of meat species by our portable rapid real-time PCR system, following a very simple DNA extraction method. Applying these techniques, we correctly identified beef, pork, chicken, rabbit, horse, and mutton in processed foods in 20min. Our system was sensitive enough to detect the interfusion of about 0.1% chicken egg-derived DNA in a processed food sample. Our rapid real-time PCR system is expected to contribute to the quality control in food industries because it can be applied for the identification of meat species, and future applications can expand its functionality to the detection of genetically modified organisms or mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on OpenCV Gaussian mixture model algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore

    2013-05-01

    The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.

  2. Identification of genes for normalization of real-time RT-PCR data in breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Maria B; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Pallisgaard, Niels

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a valuable molecular technique in basic and translational biomedical research, and is emerging as an equally valuable clinical tool. Correlation of inter-sample values requires data normalization, which can be accomplished by various...... means, the most common of which is normalization to internal, stably expressed, reference genes. Recently, such traditionally utilized reference genes as GAPDH and B2M have been found to be regulated in various circumstances in different tissues, emphasizing the need to identify genes independent...... of factors influencing the tissue, and that are stably expressed within the experimental milieu. In this study, we identified genes for normalization of RT-qPCR data for invasive breast cancer (IBC), with special emphasis on estrogen receptor positive (ER+) IBC, but also examined their applicability to ER...

  3. Development of the Real Time Situation Identification Model for Adaptive Service Support in Vehicular Communication Networks Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Kurmis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses analyses and assesses the key proposals how to deal with the situation identification for the heterogeneous service support in vehicular cooperation environment. This is one of the most important topics of the pervasive computing. Without the solution it is impossible to adequately respond to the user's needs and to provide needed services in the right place at the right moment and in the right way. In this work we present our developed real time situation identification model for adaptive service support in vehicular communication networks domain. Our solution is different from the others as it uses additional virtual context information source - information from other vehicles which for our knowledge is not addressed in the past. The simulation results show the promising context exchange rate between vehicles. The other vehicles provided additional context source in our developed model helps to increase situations identification level.

  4. Real Time Predictive Flutter Analysis and Continuous Parameter Identification of Accelerating Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farhat, Charles

    1998-01-01

    ... Parameter Identification of Accelerating Aircraft. Flutter clearance, which is part of any new aircraft or fighter weapon system development, is a lengthy and tedious process from both computational and flight testing viewpoint...

  5. Species Identification of Fox-, Mink-, Dog-, and Rabbit-Derived Ingredients by Multiplex PCR and Real-Time PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingqing; Xiang, Shengnan; Wang, Wenjun; Zhao, Jinyan; Xia, Jinhua; Zhen, Yueran; Liu, Bang

    2018-05-01

    Various detection methods have been developed to date for identification of animal species. New techniques based on PCR approach have raised the hope of developing better identification methods, which can overcome the limitations of the existing methods. PCR-based methods used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as nuclear DNA sequences. In this study, by targeting nuclear DNA, multiplex PCR and real-time PCR methods were developed to assist with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The multiplex PCR was found to simultaneously and effectively distinguish four species (fox, dog, mink, and rabbit) ingredients by the different sizes of electrophoretic bands: 480, 317, 220, and 209 bp. Real-time fluorescent PCR's amplification profiles and standard curves showed good quantitative measurement responses and linearity, as indicated by good repeatability and coefficient of determination R 2  > 0.99. The quantitative results of quaternary DNA mixtures including mink, fox, dog, and rabbit DNA are in line with our expectations: R.D. (relative deviation) varied between 1.98 and 12.23% and R.S.D. (relative standard deviation) varied between 3.06 and 11.51%, both of which are well within the acceptance criterion of ≤ 25%. Combining the two methods is suitable for the rapid identification and accurate quantification of fox-, dog-, mink-, and rabbit-derived ingredients in the animal products.

  6. Rapid and Accurate Identification by Real-Time PCR of Biotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates from the Family Gymnodiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty F. Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples.

  7. Rapid and accurate identification by real-time PCR of biotoxin-producing dinoflagellates from the family gymnodiniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsty F; de Salas, Miguel; Adamson, Janet; Rhodes, Lesley L

    2014-03-07

    The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples.

  8. Identification of circulating miRNA biomarkers based on global quantitative real-time PCR profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Kang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs (18-25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of miRNAs in the blood circulation. Deregulation of miRNAs in serum or plasma has been associated with many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular diseases, suggesting the possible use of miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers. However, the detection of the small amount of miRNAs found in serum or plasma requires a method with high sensitivity and accuracy. Therefore, the current study describes polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods for measuring circulating miRNAs. Briefly, the procedure involves four major steps: (1 sample collection and preparation; (2 global miRNAs profiling using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR; (3 data normalization and analysis; and (4 selection and validation of miRNA biomarkers. In conclusion, qRT-PCR is a promising method for profiling of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers.

  9. Identification of Reference Genes for Normalizing Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Urechis unicinctus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yajiao; Zhou, Di; Wei, Maokai; Xie, Yueyang; Gao, Beibei; Qin, Zhenkui; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2018-06-01

    The reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has become one of the most important techniques of studying gene expression. A set of valid reference genes are essential for the accurate normalization of data. In this study, five candidate genes were analyzed with geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and ΔCt methods to identify the genes stably expressed in echiuran Urechis unicinctus, an important commercial marine benthic worm, under abiotic (sulfide stress) and normal (adult tissues, embryos and larvae at different development stages) conditions. The comprehensive results indicated that the expression of TBP was the most stable at sulfide stress and in developmental process, while the expression of EF- 1- α was the most stable at sulfide stress and in various tissues. TBP and EF- 1- α were recommended as a suitable reference gene combination to accurately normalize the expression of target genes at sulfide stress; and EF- 1- α, TBP and TUB were considered as a potential reference gene combination for normalizing the expression of target genes in different tissues. No suitable gene combination was obtained among these five candidate genes for normalizing the expression of target genes for developmental process of U. unicinctus. Our results provided a valuable support for quantifying gene expression using RT-qPCR in U. unicinctus.

  10. Real-time ligation chain reaction for DNA quantification and identification on the FO-SPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Karel; Spasic, Dragana; Delport, Filip; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2015-05-15

    Different assays have been developed in the past years to meet point-of-care diagnostic tests requirements for fast and sensitive quantification and identification of targets. In this paper, we developed the ligation chain reaction (LCR) assay on the Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance (FO-SPR) platform, which enabled simultaneous quantification and cycle-to-cycle identification of DNA during amplification. The newly developed assay incorporated FO-SPR DNA melting assay, previously developed by our group. This required establishment of several assay parameters, including buffer ionic strength and thermal ramping speed as these parameters both influence the ligation enzyme performance and the hybridization yield of the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the FO-SPR sensor. Quantification and identification of DNA targets was achieved over a wide concentration range with a calibration curve spanning 7 orders of magnitude and LOD of 13.75 fM. Moreover, the FO-SPR LCR assay could discriminate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) without any post reaction analysis, featuring thus all the essential requirements of POC tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-time identification of residential appliance events based on power monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Zhu, Zhicheng; Wei, Zhiqiang; Yin, Bo; Wang, Xiuwei

    2018-03-01

    Energy monitoring for specific home appliances has been regarded as the pre-requisite for reducing residential energy consumption. To enhance the accuracy of identifying operation status of household appliances and to keep pace with the development of smart power grid, this paper puts forward the integration of electric current and power data on the basis of existing algorithm. If average power difference of several adjacent cycles varies from the baseline and goes beyond the pre-assigned threshold value, the event will be flagged. Based on MATLAB platform and domestic appliances simulations, the results of tested data and verified algorithm indicate that the power method has accomplished desired results of appliance identification.

  12. Rapid testing and identification of actuator using dSPACE real-time emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Daocheng; Wang, Zhongwei; Zeng, Qinghua

    2011-10-01

    To solve the problem of model identification of actuator in control system design of aerocraft, testing system based on dSPACE emulator is established, sending testing signal and receiving feedback voltage are realized using dSPACE interactive cards, communication between signal generating equipment and feedback voltage acquisition equipment is synchronized. This paper introduces the hardware architecture and key technologies of the simulation system. Constructing, downloading and calculating of the testing model is finished using dSPACE emulator, D/A transfer of testing signal is realized using DS2103 card, DS2002 card transfer the feedback voltage to digital value. Filtering module is added to the signal acquisition, for reduction of noise interference in the A/D channel. Precision of time and voltage is improved by setting acquisition period 1ms. The data gathered is recorded and displayed with Controldesk tools. The response of four actuators under different frequency are tested, frequency-domain analysis is done using least square method, the model of actuator is identified, simulation data fits well with real response of the actuator. The testing system created with dSPACE emulator satisfies the rapid testing and identification of actuator.

  13. [Development and application of real-time PCR for identification and detection of horse meat in animal-origin products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jiahui; Shen, Qing; Han, Chunhui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fengqin; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Tao

    2013-11-01

    To develop a real-time PCR method for identification and detection of domestic horse meat (Equus caballus) in animal-origin products. The primer and TaqMan-probe was designed and synthesized according to the EU reference laboratory and 87 bp fragments was amplified for horse ingredients. The specificity and sensitivity was tested by artificially spiked horse meat into other domestic meat, such as cattle, sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit. 122 samples of cattle and sheep products were random collected in Beijing market and the detection of horse meat was carried out. The real-time PCR in this study has high specificity and sensitivity for horse meat. No cross-reaction was observed between the horse and sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit meat. There was little cross reaction between horse and cattle when the CT value reach 33. 81. The method can detect 0.1% of horse meat mixed with other domestic animal-origin products. No horse meat ingredients were detected in 122 samples in this survey. There was no horse meat mixed into cattle and sheep products in Beijing marked.

  14. A real-time polymerase chain reaction method for the identification of four commercially important salmon and trout species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junli; Wu, Zhigang; Xie, Xiao; Dai, Zhiyuan; Liu, Shasha

    2017-01-01

    A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for rapid and accurate identification of four commercially important salmon and trout species (Oncorhynchus keta, Oncorhynchus nerka, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Salmo salar) commonly used for production process of fish in China. The assays targeting the mitochondrial control region (CR) and 16S rRNA gene were able to simultaneously discriminate four target species and the family Salmonidae from processed as well as fresh fish. The qPCR efficiency of each reaction was calculated according to the standard curve, and the method was validated by amplification DNA extracted from single or artificial mixtures prepared with the reference salmon and trout species. Testing of 11 commercial salmon and trout products by the established qPCR assay demonstrated that it was really a useful and academic technique to identify four commercially important salmon and trout species.

  15. Radar studies of arctic ice and development of a real-time Arctic ice type identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Schell, J. A.; Permenter, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop a real-time Arctic ice type identification system. Data obtained by NASA Mission 126, conducted at Pt. Barrow, Alaska (Site 93) in April 1970 was analyzed in detail to more clearly define the major mechanisms at work affecting the radar energy illuminating a terrain cell of sea ice. General techniques for reduction of the scatterometer data to a form suitable for application of ice type decision criteria were investigated, and the electronic circuit requirements for implementation of these techniques were determined. Also, consideration of circuit requirements are extended to include the electronics necessary for analog programming of ice type decision algorithms. After completing the basic circuit designs a laboratory model was constructed and a preliminary evaluation performed. Several system modifications for improved performance are suggested. (Modified author abstract)

  16. REAL TIME PCR IDENTIFICATION FOR TARGET ADJUNCTIVE ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY OF SEVERE CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS. PART II - MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic use in chronic periodontitis may result in improvement in periodontal status, although many questions regarding the indications for this therapy remain unanswered. The polymicrobial etiology of the periodontal infection hinders the choice of the proper antibiotic agent. Furthermore the indiscriminate use of antibiotics could lead to high levels of resistance and to various adverse reactions. In the recent years a various molecular diagnostics protocols were proposed in order to facilitate the decision for adjunctive antibiotic administration. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare the microbiological effectiveness of adjunctive antibiotic administration with the mechanical periodontal therapy. METHODS: 30 patients with severe chronic periodontitis were enrolled in this study and were divided in 3 groups: Control group – with mechanical debridement only. Test group 1 – with combined adjunctive antibiotic administration using Amoxicillin+ Metronidazole. Test group 2 – with target antibiotic administration according to the resuts from the Real Time PCR identification. RESULTS: The prevalence of all the isolated microorganisms (exept. E.nodatum and C.gingivalis in Test Group 2 demonstrates statistically significant reduction compared with the other treatment approaches. Almost complete elimination was registered for the consensus pathogens from the red and orange complexes (above 99% and 100% for P.intemedia. CONCLUSION: The adjunct antibiotic treatment targeted with Real-Time PCR identification demonstrates almost complete elimination of the putative periodontal pathogens in the deep periodontal pockets in patients with severe chronic periodontitis. This result suggests slower recolonisation of these habitats thus limiting the risk for progression of the periodontal destruction.

  17. A TaqMan real-time PCR-based assay for the identification of Fasciola spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, Samer; Soriguer, Ramón C; Abu-Madi, Marawan; El Behairy, Ahmed; Jowers, Michael J; Baños, Pablo Díez; Píriz, Ana; Fickel, Joerns; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-06-30

    Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is one of the key technologies of the post-genome era, with clear advantages compared to normal end-point PCR. In this paper, we report the first qPCR-based assay for the identification of Fasciola spp. Based on sequences of the second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-2) of the ribosomal rRNA gene, we used a set of genus-specific primers for Fasciola ITS-2 amplification, and we designed species-specific internal TaqMan probes to identify F. hepatica and F. gigantica, as well as the hybrid 'intermediate'Fasciola. These primers and probes were used for the highly specific, sensitive, and simple identification of Fasciola species collected from different animal host from China, Spain, Niger and Egypt. The novel qPCR-based technique for the identification of Fasciola spp. may provide a useful tool for the epidemiological investigation of Fasciola infection, including their intermediate snail hosts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-Time Gas Identification by Analyzing the Transient Response of Capillary-Attached Conductive Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Bahraminejad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ability of the Capillary-attached conductive gas sensor (CGS in real-time gas identification was investigated. The structure of the prototype fabricated CGS is presented. Portions were selected from the beginning of the CGS transient response including the first 11 samples to the first 100 samples. Different feature extraction and classification methods were applied on the selected portions. Validation of methods was evaluated to study the ability of an early portion of the CGS transient response in target gas (TG identification. Experimental results proved that applying extracted features from an early part of the CGS transient response along with a classifier can distinguish short-chain alcohols from each other perfectly. Decreasing time of exposition in the interaction between target gas and sensing element improved the reliability of the sensor. Classification rate was also improved and time of identification was decreased. Moreover, the results indicated the optimum interval of the early transient response of the CGS for selecting portions to achieve the best classification rates.

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a tool for real-time, in vitro and in vivo identification of carious teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beddows David CS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS can be used to measure trace element concentrations in solids, liquids and gases, with spatial resolution and absolute quantifaction being feasible, down to parts-per-million concentration levels. Some applications of LIBS do not necessarily require exact, quantitative measurements. These include applications in dentistry, which are of a more "identify-and-sort" nature – e.g. identification of teeth affected by caries. Methods A one-fibre light delivery / collection assembly for LIBS analysis was used, which in principle lends itself for routine in vitro / in vivo applications in a dental practice. A number of evaluation algorithms for LIBS data can be used to assess the similarity of a spectrum, measured at specific sample locations, with a training set of reference spectra. Here, the description has been restricted to one pattern recognition algorithm, namely the so-called Mahalanobis Distance method. Results The plasma created when the laser pulse ablates the sample (in vitro / in vivo, was spectrally analysed. We demonstrated that, using the Mahalanobis Distance pattern recognition algorithm, we could unambiguously determine the identity of an "unknown" tooth sample in real time. Based on single spectra obtained from the sample, the transition from caries-affected to healthy tooth material could be distinguished, with high spatial resolution. Conclusions The combination of LIBS and pattern recognition algorithms provides a potentially useful tool for dentists for fast material identification problems, such as for example the precise control of the laser drilling / cleaning process.

  20. Direct Analysis in Real-time Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Identification of Traditional Chinese Medicines with Coumarins as Primary Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Tao, Hongxun; Liao, Liping; Li, Ye; Zhang, Zijia

    2017-05-01

    The increasing popularity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) necessitates rapid and reliable methods for controlling their quality. Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) represents a novel approach to analysing TCMs. To develop a quick and reliable method of identifying TCMs with coumarins as primary characteristics. DART-MS coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry was employed to rapidly identify TCMs with coumarins as primary characteristics and to explore the ionisation mechanisms of simple coumarins, furocoumarins and pyranocoumarins in detail. With minimal sample pretreatment, mass spectra of Fraxini Cortex, Angelicae Pubescentis Radix, Peucedani Radix and Psoraleae Fructus samples were obtained within seconds. The operating parameters of the DART ion source (e.g. grid electrode voltage and ionisation gas temperature) were carefully investigated to obtain high-quality mass spectra. The mass spectra of samples and DART-MS/MS spectra of marker compounds were used to identify sample materials. Successful authentication was achieved by analysing the same materials of different origins. Some simple coumarins, furocoumarins and pyranocoumarins can be directly detected by DART-MS as marker compounds. Our results demonstrated that DART-MS can provide a rapid and reliable method for the identification of TCMs containing different configurations of coumarins; the method may also be applicable to other plants. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Detection and identification of Toxocara canis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage of infected mice using a novel real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, E; Roelfsema, J H; Brandes, S; Kortbeek, T

    2013-04-15

    Toxocarosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by Toxocara spp. of dogs and cats. In humans, diagnosis relies mainly on detection of parasite-specific antibodies. Although serological assays in current use have defined sensitivity and specificity, the problem of cross-reactivity still remains, particularly in areas of endemic polyparasitism. Microscopic detection of the parasite in tissue biopsies is not recommended for diagnosis because larvae can be difficult to locate, and finding the parasite eggs in faeces is not applicable since the larvae do not develop to the adult stage in the human host. In this study we describe a novel real-time PCR ('Nemo-PCR') that, in combination with DNA sequencing, allows the detection and identification of Toxocara canis and other nematodes in the Superfamily Ascaridoidea. Results indicate that this approach can detect Toxocara spp. DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of experimentally-infected mice. For diagnostic purposes further studies are necessary to evaluate this assay including testing human BAL fluid. The availability of such a direct assay would improve diagnosis of toxocarosis particularly for patients with pulmonary signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Standardisation and evaluation of a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR assay for the rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroze Ahmed Ganaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae can play a significant role in decreasing morbidity and mortality of infection. The accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease is hampered by the difficulties in growing the isolates from clinical specimens and also by misidentification. Molecular methods have gained popularity as they offer improvement in the detection of causative pathogens with speed and ease. The present study aims at validating and standardising the use of 4 oligonucleotide primer-probe sets (pneumolysin [ply], autolysin [lytA], pneumococcal surface adhesion A [psaA] and Spn9802 [DNA fragment] in a single-reaction mixture for the detection and discrimination of S. pneumoniae. Here, we validate a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR assay with a panel consisting of 43 S. pneumoniae and 29 non-pneumococcal isolates, 20 culture positive, 26 culture negative and 30 spiked serum samples. A standard curve was obtained using S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strain and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene was used as an endogenous internal control. The experiment showed high sensitivity with lower limit of detection equivalent to 4 genome copies/µl. The efficiency of the reaction was 100% for ply, lytA, Spn9802 and 97% for psaA. The test showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% with culture isolates and serum specimens. This study demonstrates that qmPCR analysis of sera using 4 oligonucleotide primers appears to be an appropriate method for the genotypic identification of S. pneumoniae infection.

  3. Detection and identification of Rift Valley fever virus in mosquito vectors by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaengo, D; Lorenzo, G; Iglesias, J; Warigia, M; Sang, R; Bishop, R P; Brun, A

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostic methods allowing for rapid identification of pathogens are crucial for controlling and preventing dissemination after disease outbreaks as well as for use in surveillance programs. For arboviruses, detection of the presence of virus in their arthropod hosts is important for monitoring of viral activity and quantitative information is useful for modeling of transmission dynamics. In this study, molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in mosquito samples from the 2006 to 2007 East African outbreaks was performed using quantitative real-time PCR assay (qRT-PCR). Specific RVFV sequence-based primer/fluorogenic (TaqMan) probe sets were derived from the L and S RNA segments of the virus. Both primer-probe L and S segment-based combinations detected genomic RVFV sequences, with generally comparable levels of sensitivity. Viral loads from three mosquito species, Aedes mcintoshi, Aedes ochraceus and Mansonia uniformis were estimated and significant differences of between 5- and 1000-fold were detected between Ae. mcintoshi and M. uniformis using both the L and S primer-probe-based assays. The genetic relationships of the viral sequences in mosquito samples were established by partial M segment sequencing and assigned to the two previously described viral lineages defined by analysis of livestock isolates obtained during the 2006-2007 outbreak, confirming that similar viruses were present in both the vector and mammalian host. The data confirms the utility of qRT-PCR for identification and initial quantification of virus in mosquito samples during RVFV outbreaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  5. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for identification of wild poliovirus 1 & 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepa K; Nalavade, Uma P; Deshpande, Jagadish M

    2015-10-01

    The poliovirus serotype identification and intratypic differentiation by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay is suitable for serotype mixtures but not for intratypic mixtures of wild and vaccine poliovirus strains. This study was undertaken to develop wild poliovirus 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) specific rRT-PCR assays for use. Specific primers and probes for rRT-PCR were designed based on VP1 sequences of WPV1 and WPV3 isolated in India since 2000. The specificity of the rRT-PCR assays was evaluated using WPV1 and WPV3 of different genetic lineages, non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) and mixtures of wild/wild and wild/Sabin vaccine strains. The sensitivity of the assays was determined by testing serial 10-fold dilutions of wild poliovirus 1 and 3 stock suspensions of known titre. No cross-reactivity with Sabin strains, intertypic wild poliovirus isolates or 27 types of NPEVs across all the four Enterovirus species was found for both the wild poliovirus 1 and 3 rRT-PCR assays. All WPV1 and WPV3 strains isolated since 2000 were successfully amplified. The rRT-PCR assays detected 10 4.40 CCID 50 /ml of WPV1 and 10 4.00 CCID 50 /ml of WPV3, respectively either as single isolate or mixture with Sabin vaccine strains or intertypic wild poliovirus. rRT-PCR assays for WPV1 and WPV3 have been validated to detect all the genetic variations of the WPV1 and WPV3 isolated in India for the last decade. When used in combination with the current rRT-PCR assay testing was complete for confirmation of the presence of wild poliovirus in intratypic mixtures.

  6. Rapid real-time PCR assay for culture and tissue identification of Geomyces destructans: the etiologic agent of bat geomycosis (white nose syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sudha; Rudd, Robert J; Davis, April; Victor, Tanya R; Li, Xiaojiang; Appler, Kim A; Rajkumar, Sunanda S; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2011-10-01

    Geomyces destructans is the etiologic agent of bat geomycosis, commonly referred to as white nose syndrome (WNS). This infection has caused severe morbidity and mortality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and has also spread to other bat species with significant decline in the populations. Currently, G. destructans infection is identified by culture, ITS-PCR, and histopathology. We hypothesized that a real-time PCR assay would considerably improve detection of G. destructans in bats. The 100 bp sequence of the Alpha-L-Rhamnosidase gene was validated as a target for real-time PCR. The assay sensitivity was determined from serial dilution of DNA extracted from G. destructans conidia (5 × 10(-1)-5 × 10(7)), and the specificity was tested using DNA from 30 closely and distantly related fungi and 5 common bacterial pathogens. The real-time PCR assay was highly sensitive with detection limit of two G. destructans conidia per reaction at 40 PCR cycles. The assay was also highly specific as none of the other fungal or bacterial DNA cross-reacted in the real-time PCR assay. One hundred and forty-seven bat tissue samples, suspected of infection with G. destructans, were used to compare the real-time PCR assay to other methods employed for the detection of G. destructans. Real-time PCR was highly sensitive with 80 of 147 (55%) samples testing positive for G. destructans DNA. In comparison, histopathology examination revealed 64/147 (44%) positive samples. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR yielded positive amplicon for G. destructans from 37 tissue samples (25%). The least sensitive assay was the fungal culture with only 17 tissue samples (12%) yielding G. destructans in culture. The data suggested that the real-time PCR assay is highly promising for rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of G. destructans. Further trials and inter-laboratory comparisons of this novel assay are recommended to improve the diagnosis of bat geomycosis.

  7. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal sourceidentification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data q...

  8. Identification and genotyping of molluscum contagiosum virus from genital swab samples by real-time PCR and Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trama, Jason P; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli

    2007-12-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is important as lesions can be confused with those caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and varicella-zoster virus. To develop a rapid method for identifying patients infected with MCV via swab sampling. Two dual-labeled probe real-time PCR assays, one homologous to the p43K gene and one to the MC080R gene, were designed. The p43K PCR was designed to be used in conjunction with Pyrosequencing for confirmation of PCR products and discrimination between MCV1 and MCV2. Both PCR assays were optimized with respect to reaction components, thermocycling parameters, and primer and probe concentrations. The specificities of both PCR assays were confirmed by non-amplification of 38 known human pathogens. Sensitivity assays demonstrated detection of as few as 10 copies per reaction. Testing 703 swabs, concordance between the two real-time PCR assays was 99.9%. Under the developed conditions, Pyrosequencing of the p43K PCR product was capable of providing enough nucleotide sequence to definitively differentiate MCV1 and MCV2. These real-time PCR assays can be used for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of MCV and, when combined with Pyrosequencing, can further discriminate between MCV1 and MCV2.

  9. A quick method for species identification of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) using real-time PCR: an onboard application for use during sampling surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shun; Minegishi, Yuki; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Aoyama, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2004-01-01

    To compensate for the limited number of morphological characteristics of fish eggs and larvae, we established a convenient and robust method of species identification for eggs of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that can be performed onboard research ships at sea. A total of about 1.2 kbp of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences from all species of Anguilla and 3 other anguilliform species were compared to design specific primer pairs and a probe for A. japonica. This real-time PCR amplification was conducted for a total of 44 specimens including A. japonica, A. marmorata, A. bicolor pacifica, and 6 other anguilliform species. Immediate PCR amplification was only observed in A. japonica. We then tested this method under onboard conditions and obtained the same result as had been produced in the laboratory. These results suggest that real-time PCR can be a powerful tool for detecting Japanese eel eggs and newly hatched larvae immediately after onboard sampling during research cruises and will allow targeted sampling efforts to occur rapidly in response to any positive onboard identification of the eggs and larvae of this species.

  10. Identification by real-time PCR with SYBR Green of Leishmania spp. and Serratia marcescens in canine 'sterile' cutaneous nodular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornegliani, Luisa; Corona, Antonio; Vercelli, Antonella; Roccabianca, Paola

    2015-06-01

    Noninfectious, non-neoplastic, nodular to diffuse, so-called 'sterile' granulomatous/pyogranulomatous skin lesions (SGPSLs) are infrequently identified in dogs and may represent a diagnostic challenge. Their correct identification is based on history, histopathology and absence of intralesional foreign bodies and micro-organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp., Mycobacterium spp., Serratia marcescens and Nocardia spp. by real-time PCR in canine nodular skin lesions histologically diagnosed as putatively sterile. Formalin-fixed skin biopsies were collected from 40 dogs. All samples were associated with an SGPSL diagnosis characterized by multifocal, nodular to diffuse, periadnexal and perifollicular pyogranulomas/granulomas. Neither micro-organisms nor foreign bodies were detected with haematoxylin and eosin staining, under polarized light. Further analyses included periodic acid Schiff, Ziehl-Neelsen, Fite Faraco, Giemsa and Gram histochemical stains; anti-Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and Leishmania spp. immunohistochemistry; and real-time PCR analysis for Leishmania spp., Mycobacterium spp., S. marcescens and Nocardia spp. Special stains and BCG/immunohistochemistry were negative in all samples. Real-time PCR was positive for Leishmania spp. in four of 40 biopsies and for S. marcescens in two of 40 samples. Real-time PCR for Mycobacterium spp. and Nocardia spp. was negative. No correlation between real-time PCR positivity and a specific histological pattern was identified. Leishmania spp. have been previously identified as possible agents of certain SGPSLs, while the involvement of S. marcescens has not been investigated previously. According to our findings, Serratia spp. should be included in the list of agents possibly associated with a subgroup of granulomatous/pyogranulomatous skin lesions in dogs. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Identification of real-time diagnostic measures of visual distraction with an automatic eye-tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Harry; Smith, Matthew R H; Witt, Gerald J

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify eye glance measures that are diagnostic of visual distraction. Visual distraction degrades performance, but real-time diagnostic measures have not been identified. In a driving simulator, 14 participants responded to a lead vehicle braking at -2 or -2.7 m/s2 periodically while reading a varying number of words (6-15 words every 13 s) on peripheral displays (with diagonal eccentricities of 24 degrees, 43 degrees, and 75 degrees). As the number of words and display eccentricity increased, total glance duration and reaction time increased and driving performance suffered. Correlation coefficients between several glance measures and reaction time or performance variables were reliably high, indicating that these glance measures are diagnostic of visual distraction. It is predicted that for every 25% increase in total glance duration, reaction time is increased by 0.39 s and standard deviation of lane position is increased by 0.06 m. Potential applications of this research include assessing visual distraction in real time, delivering advisories to distracted drivers to reorient their attention to driving, and using distraction information to adapt forward collision and lane departure warning systems to enhance system effectiveness.

  12. Real-time PCR assays for detection of Brucella spp. and the identification of genotype ST27 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingzhong; McFee, Wayne E; Goldstein, Tracey; Tiller, Rebekah V; Schwacke, Lori

    2014-05-01

    Rapid detection of Brucella spp. in marine mammals is challenging. Microbiologic culture is used for definitive diagnosis of brucellosis, but is time consuming, has low sensitivity and can be hazardous to laboratory personnel. Serological methods can aid in diagnosis, but may not differentiate prior exposure versus current active infection and may cross-react with unrelated Gram-negative bacteria. This study reports a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp. and application to screen clinical samples from bottlenose dolphins stranded along the coast of South Carolina, USA. The assay was found to be 100% sensitive for the Brucella strains tested, and the limit of detection was 0.27fg of genomic DNA from Brucella ceti B1/94 per PCR volume. No amplification was detected for the non-Brucella pathogens tested. Brucella DNA was detected in 31% (55/178) of clinical samples tested. These studies indicate that the real-time PCR assay is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of Brucella spp. in bottlenose dolphins. We also developed a second real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of Brucella ST27, a genotype that is associated with human zoonotic infection. Positive results were obtained for Brucella strains which had been identified as ST27 by multilocus sequence typing. No amplification was found for other Brucella strains included in this study. ST27 was identified in 33% (18/54) of Brucella spp. DNA-positive clinical samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a real-time PCR assay for identification of Brucella genotype ST27 in marine mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a qualitative real-time PCR method to detect 19 targets for identification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Pengfei; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaofu; Wei, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    As the amount of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) grows recent years, the diversity of target sequences for molecular detection techniques are eagerly needed. Considered as the gold standard for GMO analysis, the real-time PCR technology was optimized to produce a high-throughput GMO screening method. With this method we can detect 19 transgenic targets. The specificity of the assays was demonstrated to be 100 % by the specific amplification of DNA derived from reference material from 20 genetically modified crops and 4 non modified crops. Furthermore, most assays showed a very sensitive detection, reaching the limit of ten copies. The 19 assays are the most frequently used genetic elements present in GM crops and theoretically enable the screening of the known GMO described in Chinese markets. Easy to use, fast and cost efficient, this method approach fits the purpose of GMO testing laboratories.

  14. Implementation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Real-Time PCR in quick identification of bovine herpesvirus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations were performed on 65 samples of nasal smeas taken from calves and young cows with clinical symptoms of respiratory infection to determine the presence of the bovine herpes virus 1 using parallel implementation of molecular and standard methods of virological diagnostics. The appearance of a cytopathogenic effect (CPE was not established in inoculated cell lines 24h, 48h and 72h following inoculation, or after two successive passages of the examined material sample through these cell lines. The application of polymerize chain reaction (PCR using a primer for glucoprotein B and thymidine - kinasis, established the presence of bovine herpes virus 1 nucleic acid in one sample of a bovine nasal smear, while the presence of this virus was established in three samples in an examination of the nasal smear samples using the Real-Time PCR method.

  15. Culture-independent identification and quantification of Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) by real-time quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chong; Robles, Francisco; Ramirez, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Gallibacterium is a genus within the family Pasteurellaceae characterized by a high level of phenotypic and genetic diversity. No diagnostic method has yet been described, which allows species-specific identification of Gallibacterium anatis. The aim of this study was to develop a real...... published conventional PCR method and culture-based identification, respectively. The detection rates were 97%, 78% and 34% for the current qPCR, the conventional PCR and the culture-based identification method, respectively. The qPCR assay was able to detect the gene gyrB in serial dilutions of 10......-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method allowing species-specific identification and quantification of G. anatis. A G. anatis specific DNA sequence was identified in the gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) and used to design a TaqMan probe and corresponding primers. The specificity of the assay was tested on 52 bacterial...

  16. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation.

  17. Identification of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Present in Artisanal Raw Cow Milk Cheese Using Real-time PCR and Classic Plate Count Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, Milena A

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this paper was to detect Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus using real-time quantitative PCR assay in 7-day ripening cheese produced from unpasteurised milk. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were designed to identify and enumerate the chosen species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in ripened cheese. The results of molecular quantification and classic bacterial enumeration showed a high level of similarity proving that DNA extraction was carried out in a proper way and that genomic DNA solutions were free of PCR inhibitors. These methods revealed the presence of L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus. The real-time PCR enabled quantification with a detection of 101-103 CFU/g of product. qPCR-standard curves were linear over seven log units down to 101 copies per reaction; efficiencies ranged from 77.9% to 93.6%. Cheese samples were analysed with plate count method and qPCR in parallel. Compared with the classic plate count method, the newly developed qPCR method provided faster and species specific identification of two dairy LAB and yielded comparable quantitative results.

  18. Real Time Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip G.

    1985-12-01

    The call for abolishing photo reconnaissance in favor of real time is once more being heard. Ten years ago the same cries were being heard with the introduction of the Charge Coupled Device (CCD). The real time system problems that existed then and stopped real time proliferation have not been solved. The lack of an organized program by either DoD or industry has hampered any efforts to solve the problems, and as such, very little has happened in real time in the last ten years. Real time is not a replacement for photo, just as photo is not a replacement for infra-red or radar. Operational real time sensors can be designed only after their role has been defined and improvements made to the weak links in the system. Plodding ahead on a real time reconnaissance suite without benefit of evaluation of utility will allow this same paper to be used ten years from now.

  19. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Sakalar, Erg?n; Erg?n, Seyma ?z?irak; Akar, Emine

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN? Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks...

  20. Quantitative real-time PCR technique for the identification of E. coli residual DNA in streptokinase recombinant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelahi, Mansoureh; Kia, Vahid; Kaghazian, Hooman; Paryan, Mahdi

    2017-11-26

    Recombinant streptokinase is a biopharmaceutical which is usually produced in E. coli. Residual DNA as a contamination and risk factor may remain in the product. It is necessary to control the production procedure to exclude any possible contamination. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCR-based method to determine the amount of E. coli DNA in recombinant streptokinase. A specific primers and a probe was designed to detect all strains of E. coli. To determine the specificity, in addition to using NCBI BLASTn, 28 samples including human, bacterial, and viral genomes were used. The results confirmed that the assay detects no genomic DNA but E. coli's and the specificity was determined to be 100%. To determine the sensitivity and limit of detection of the assay, a 10-fold serial dilution (10 1 to 10 7 copies/µL) was tested in triplicate. The sensitivity of the test was determined to be 101 copies/µL or 35 fg/µL. Inter-assay and intra-assay were determined to be 0.86 and 1.69%, respectively. Based on the results, this assay can be used as an accurate method to evaluate the contamination of recombinant streptokinase in E. coli.

  1. Identification of Dobrava, Hantaan, Seoul, and Puumala viruses by one-step real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitichou, Mohamed; Saleh, Sharron S; McElroy, Anita K; Schmaljohn, C; Ibrahim, M Sofi

    2005-03-01

    We developed four assays for specifically identifying Dobrava (DOB), Hantaan (HTN), Puumala (PUU), and Seoul (SEO) viruses. The assays are based on the real-time one-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the small segment used as the target sequence. The detection limits of DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 25, 25, 25, and 12.5 plaque-forming units, respectively. The assays were evaluated in blinded experiments, each with 100 samples that contained Andes, Black Creek Canal, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever and Sin Nombre viruses in addition to DOB, HTN, PUU and SEO viruses. The sensitivity levels of the DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 98%, 96%, 92% and 94%, respectively. The specificity of DOB, HTN and SEO assays was 100% and the specificity of the PUU assay was 98%. Because of the high levels of sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, we believe that these assays can be useful for diagnosing and differentiating these four Old-World hantaviruses.

  2. Identification of reference genes for expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR in drought-stressed soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stolf-Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to validate, by quantitative PCR in real time (RT-qPCR, genes to be used as reference in studies of gene expression in soybean in drought-stressed trials. Four genes commonly used in soybean were evaluated: Gmβ-actin, GmGAPDH, GmLectin and GmRNAr18S. Total RNA was extracted from six samples: three from roots in a hydroponic system with different drought intensities (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 minutes of water stress, and three from leaves of plants grown in sand with different soil moistures (15, 5 and 2.5% gravimetric humidity. The raw cycle threshold (Ct data were analyzed, and the efficiency of each primer was calculated for an overall analysis of the Ct range among the different samples. The GeNorm application was used to evaluate the best reference gene, according to its stability. The GmGAPDH was the least stable gene, with the highest mean values of expression stability (M, and the most stable genes, with the lowest M values, were the Gmβ-actin and GmRNAr18S, when both root and leaves samples were tested. These genes can be used in RT-qPCR as reference gene for expression analysis.

  3. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Zhai

    Full Text Available To accurately evaluate gene expression levels and obtain more accurate quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to reliable reference gene(s is required. Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive fruit pest native to East Asia, and recently invaded Europe and North America, the stability of its reference genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (RPL18, RPS3, AK, EF-1β, TBP, NADH, HSP22, GAPDH, Actin, α-Tubulin, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different biotic (developmental stage, tissue and population, and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature conditions. The three statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder were used to normalize analysis of the ten candidate reference genes identified α-Tubulin, TBP and AK as the most stable candidates, while HSP22 and Actin showed the lowest expression stability. We used three most stable genes (α-Tubulin, TBP and AK and one unstably expressed gene to analyze the expression of P-glycoprotein in abamectin-resistant and sensitive strains, and the results were similar to reference genes α-Tubulin, TBP and AK, which show good stability, while the result of HSP22 has a certain bias. The three validated reference genes can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qRT-PCR technology in D.suzukii.

  4. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Assays in Aortic Tissue of Syrian Hamsters with Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Martínez, Carmen; Fernández, M Carmen; Soto-Navarrete, María Teresa; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Fernández, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation in humans, and appears frequently associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta. This association is likely the result of a common aetiology. Currently, a Syrian hamster strain with a relatively high (∼40%) incidence of BAV constitutes the only spontaneous animal model of BAV disease. The characterization of molecular alterations in the aorta of hamsters with BAV may serve to identify pathophysiological mechanisms and molecular markers of disease in humans. In this report, we evaluate the expression of ten candidate reference genes in aortic tissue of hamsters in order to identify housekeeping genes for normalization using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) assays. A total of 51 adult (180-240 days old) and 56 old (300-440 days old) animals were used. They belonged to a control strain of hamsters with normal, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV; n = 30), or to the affected strain of hamsters with TAV (n = 45) or BAV (n = 32). The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by RT-qPCR using three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable reference genes for the three algorithms employed were Cdkn1β, G3pdh and Polr2a. We propose the use of Cdkn1β, or both Cdkn1β and G3pdh as reference genes for mRNA expression analyses in Syrian hamster aorta.

  5. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Assays in Aortic Tissue of Syrian Hamsters with Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rueda-Martínez

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation in humans, and appears frequently associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta. This association is likely the result of a common aetiology. Currently, a Syrian hamster strain with a relatively high (∼40% incidence of BAV constitutes the only spontaneous animal model of BAV disease. The characterization of molecular alterations in the aorta of hamsters with BAV may serve to identify pathophysiological mechanisms and molecular markers of disease in humans. In this report, we evaluate the expression of ten candidate reference genes in aortic tissue of hamsters in order to identify housekeeping genes for normalization using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR assays. A total of 51 adult (180-240 days old and 56 old (300-440 days old animals were used. They belonged to a control strain of hamsters with normal, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV; n = 30, or to the affected strain of hamsters with TAV (n = 45 or BAV (n = 32. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by RT-qPCR using three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable reference genes for the three algorithms employed were Cdkn1β, G3pdh and Polr2a. We propose the use of Cdkn1β, or both Cdkn1β and G3pdh as reference genes for mRNA expression analyses in Syrian hamster aorta.

  6. Lagrangian Visualization and Real-Time Identification of the Vortex Shedding Time in the Wake of a Circular Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, Matthew P.

    The flow around a circular cylinder, a canonical bluff body, has been extensively studied in the literature to determine the mechanisms that cause the formation of vortices in the cylinder wake. Understanding of these mechanisms has led to myriad attempts to control the vortices either to mitigate the oscillating forces they cause, or to augment them in order to enhance mixing in the near-wake. While these flow control techniques have been effective at low Reynolds numbers, they generally lose effectiveness or require excessive power at Reynolds numbers commonly experienced in practical applications. For this reason, new methods for identifying the locations of vortices and their shedding time could increase the effectiveness of the control techniques. In the current work, two-dimensional, two-component velocity data was collected in the wake of a circular cylinder using a planar digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measurement system at Reynolds numbers of 9,000 and 19,000. This experimental data, as well as two-dimensional simulation data at a Reynolds number of 150, and three-dimensional simulation data at a Reynolds number of 400, is used to calculate the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. The locations of Lagrangian saddles, identified as non-parallel intersections of positive and negative time FTLE ridges, are shown to indicate the timing of von Karman vortex shedding in the wake of a circular cylinder. The Lagrangian saddle found upstream of a forming and subsequently shedding vortex is shown to clearly accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex begins to shed. This provides a novel, objective method to determine the timing of vortex shedding. The saddles are impossible to track in real-time, however, since future flow field data is needed for the computation of the FTLE fields. In order to detect the Lagrangian saddle acceleration without direct access to the FTLE, the saddle dynamics are connected to measurable surface quantities

  7. HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R; Falardeau, J; Avis, T J; Tambong, J T

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay targeting the trpB gene for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. Four primer pairs and a fluorescent probe were designed and evaluated for specificity in identifying S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens. The specificity of the HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay was evaluated using 46 bacterial strains, 23 Streptomyces strains and 23 non-Streptomyces bacterial species. Specific and strong fluorescence signals were detected from all nine strains of S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. No fluorescence signal was detected from 14 strains of other Streptomyces species and all non-Streptomyces strains. The identification was corroborated by the melting curve analysis that was performed immediately after the amplification step. Eight of the nine S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains exhibited a unique melting peak, at Tm of 69·1°C while one strain, Warba-6, had a melt peak at Tm of 65·4°C. This difference in Tm peaks could be attributed to a guanine to cytosine mutation in strain Warba-6 at the region spanning the donor HybProbe. The reported HybProbes assay provides a more specific tool for accurate identification of S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains. This study reports a novel assay based on HybProbes chemistry for rapid and accurate identification of the potato common scab pathogens. Since the HybProbes chemistry requires two probes for positive identification, the assay is considered to be more specific than conventional PCR or TaqMan real-time PCR. The developed assay would be a useful tool with great potential in early diagnosis and detection of common scab pathogens of potatoes in infected plants or for surveillance of potatoes grown in soil environment. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection, identification and quantification of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in potato plants with zebra chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Abad, Jorge A; French-Monar, Ronald D; Rascoe, John; Wen, Aimin; Gudmestad, Neil C; Secor, Gary A; Lee, Ing-Ming; Duan, Yongping; Levy, Laurene

    2009-07-01

    The new Liberibacter species, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) recently associated with potato/tomato psyllid-transmitted diseases in tomato and capsicum in New Zealand, was found to be consistently associated with a newly emerging potato zebra chip (ZC) disease in Texas and other southwestern states in the USA. A species-specific primer LsoF was developed for both quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR (cPCR) to detect and quantify Lso in infected samples. In multiplex qPCR, a plant cytochrome oxidase (COX)-based probe-primer set was used as a positive internal control for host plants, which could be used to reliably access the DNA extraction quality and to normalize qPCR data for accurate quantification of the bacterial populations in environment samples. Neither the qPCR nor the cPCR using the primer and/or probe sets with LsoF reacted with other Liberibacter species infecting citrus or other potato pathogens. The low detection limit of the multiplex qPCR was about 20 copies of the target 16S rDNA templates per reaction for field samples. Lso was readily detected and quantified in various tissues of ZC-affected potato plants collected from fields in Texas. A thorough but uneven colonization of Lso was revealed in various tissues of potato plants. The highest Lso populations were about 3x10(8) genomes/g tissue in the root, which were 3-order higher than those in the above-ground tissues of potato plants. The Lso bacterial populations were normally distributed across the ZC-affected potato plants collected from fields in Texas, with 60% of ZC-affected potato plants harboring an average Lso population from 10(5) to 10(6) genomes/g tissue, 4% of plants hosting above 10(7) Lso genomes/g tissue, and 8% of plants holding below 10(3) Lso genomes/g tissue. The rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable multiplex qPCR showed its potential to become a powerful tool for early detection and quantification of the new Liberibacter species associated

  9. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  10. A centrifugal direct recombinase polymerase amplification (direct-RPA) microdevice for multiplex and real-time identification of food poisoning bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Goro; Jung, Jae Hwan; Park, Byung Hyun; Oh, Seung Jun; Seo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-06-21

    In this study, we developed a centrifugal direct recombinase polymerase amplification (direct-RPA) microdevice for multiplex and real-time identification of food poisoning bacteria contaminated milk samples. The microdevice was designed to contain identical triplicate functional units and each unit has four reaction chambers, thereby making it possible to perform twelve direct-RPA reactions simultaneously. The integrated microdevice consisted of two layers: RPA reagents were injected in the top layer, while spiked milk samples with food poisoning bacteria were loaded into sample reservoirs in the bottom layer. For multiplex bacterial detection, the target gene-specific primers and probes were dried in each reaction chamber. The introduced samples and reagents could be equally aliquoted and dispensed into each reaction chamber by centrifugal force, and then the multiplex direct-RPA reaction was executed. The target genes of bacteria spiked in milk could be amplified at 39 °C without a DNA extraction step by using the direct-RPA cocktails, which were a combination of a direct PCR buffer and RPA enzymes. As the target gene amplification proceeded, the increased fluorescence signals coming from the reaction chambers were recorded in real-time at an interval of 2 min. The entire process, including the sample distribution, the direct-RPA reaction, and the real-time analysis, was accomplished with a custom-made portable genetic analyzer and a miniaturized optical detector. Monoplex, duplex, and triplex food poisoning bacteria (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) detection was successfully performed with a detection sensitivity of 4 cells per 3.2 μL of milk samples within 30 min. By implementing the direct-PRA on the miniaturized centrifugal microsystem, the on-site food poisoning bacteria analysis would be feasible with high speed, sensitivity, and multiplicity.

  11. Flight Testing and Real-Time System Identification Analysis of a UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter with an Instrumented External Sling Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen H.

    1998-01-01

    Helicopter external air transportation plays an important role in today's world. For both military and civilian helicopters, external sling load operations offer an efficient and expedient method of handling heavy, oversized cargo. With the ability to reach areas otherwise inaccessible by ground transportation, helicopter external load operations are conducted in industries such as logging, construction, and fire fighting, as well as in support of military tactical transport missions. Historically, helicopter and load combinations have been qualified through flight testing, requiring considerable time and cost. With advancements in simulation and flight test techniques there is potential to substantially reduce costs and increase the safety of helicopter sling load certification. Validated simulation tools make possible accurate prediction of operational flight characteristics before initial flight tests. Real time analysis of test data improves the safety and efficiency of the testing programs. To advance these concepts, the U.S. Army and NASA, in cooperation with the Israeli Air Force and Technion, under a Memorandum of Agreement, seek to develop and validate a numerical model of the UH-60 with sling load and demonstrate a method of near real time flight test analysis. This thesis presents results from flight tests of a U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopter with various external loads. Tests were conducted as the U.S. first phase of this MOA task. The primary load was a container express box (CONEX) which contained a compact instrumentation package. The flights covered the airspeed range from hover to 70 knots. Primary maneuvers were pitch and roll frequency sweeps, steps, and doublets. Results of the test determined the effect of the suspended load on both the aircraft's handling qualities and its control system's stability margins. Included were calculations of the stability characteristics of the load's pendular motion. Utilizing CIFER(R) software, a method for near-real

  12. Development and validation of real-time PCR tests for the identification of four Spodoptera species: Spodoptera eridania, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Van der Straten, M J

    2014-08-01

    The genus Spodoptera comprises 31 species, 4 of which are listed as quarantine pests for the European Union: Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval), and Spodoptera litura (F.). In international trade, the earlier life stages (eggs and larvae) are being intercepted at point of inspection most frequently, challenging the possibilities of morphological identification. To realize a rapid and reliable identification for all stages, we developed and validated four simplex real-time polymerase chain reaction identification tests based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using dual-labeled hydrolysis probes. Method validation on dilutions of extracted DNA of the target organisms showed that low levels of template (up to 0.2-100 pg) can reliably be identified. No cross-reactivity was observed with 14 nontarget Spodoptera and 5 non-Spodoptera species in the specific Spodoptera tests. The tests showed to be repeatable, reproducible (both 100%), and robust. The new Spodoptera tests have proven to be suitable tools for routine identification of all life stages of S. eridania, S. frugiperda, S. littoralis, and S. litura.

  13. Field comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacterial culture for identification of bovine mastitis bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, M T; Wellenberg, G J; Sampimon, O C; Holopainen, J; Rothkamp, A; Salmikivi, L; van Haeringen, W A; Lam, T J G M; Pyörälä, S

    2010-12-01

    Fast and reliable identification of the microorganisms causing mastitis is important for management of the disease and for targeting antimicrobial treatment. Methods based on PCR are being used increasingly in mastitis diagnostics. Comprehensive field comparisons of PCR and traditional milk bacteriology have not been available. The results of a PCR kit capable of detecting 11 important etiological agents of mastitis directly from milk in 4h were compared with those of conventional bacterial culture (48h). In total, 1,000 quarter milk samples were taken from cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis, or from clinically healthy quarters with low somatic cell count (SCC). Bacterial culture identified udder pathogens in 600/780 (77%) of the clinical samples, whereas PCR identified bacteria in 691/780 (89%) of the clinical samples. The PCR analysis detected major pathogens in a large number of clinical samples that were negative for the species in culture. These included 53 samples positive for Staphylococcus aureus by PCR, but negative by culture. A total of 137 samples from clinical mastitis, 5 samples from subclinical mastitis, and 1 sample from a healthy quarter were positive for 3 or more bacterial species in PCR, whereas culture identified 3 or more species in 60 samples from clinical mastitis. Culture identified a species not targeted by the PCR test in 44 samples from clinical mastitis and in 9 samples from subclinical mastitis. Low SCC samples provided a small number of positive results both in culture (4/93; 4.3%) and by PCR (7/93; 7.5%). In conclusion, the PCR kit provided several benefits over conventional culture, including speed, automated interpretation of results, and increased sensitivity. This kit holds much promise as a tool to complement traditional methods in identification of pathogens. In conventional mastitis bacteriology, a sample with 3 or more species is considered contaminated, and resampling of the cow is recommended. Further study is

  14. Identification of three novel OA1 gene mutations identified in three families misdiagnosed with congenital nystagmus and carrier status determination by real-time quantitative PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked ocular albinism type 1 (OA1 is caused by mutations in OA1 gene, which encodes a membrane glycoprotein localised to melanosomes. OA1 mainly affects pigment production in the eye, resulting in optic changes associated with albinism including hypopigmentation of the retina, nystagmus, strabismus, foveal hypoplasia, abnormal crossing of the optic fibers and reduced visual acuity. Affected Caucasian males usually appear to have normal skin and hair pigment. Results We identified three previously undescribed mutations consisting of two intragenic deletions (one encompassing exon 6, the other encompassing exons 7–8, and a point mutation (310delG in exon 2. We report the development of a new method for diagnosis of heterozygous deletions in OA1 gene based on measurement of gene copy number using real-time quantitative PCR from genomic DNA. Conclusion The identification of OA1 mutations in families earlier reported as families with hereditary nystagmus indicate that ocular albinism type 1 is probably underdiagnosed. Our method of real-time quantitative PCR of OA1 exons with DMD exon as external standard performed on the LightCycler™ allows quick and accurate carrier-status assessment for at-risk females.

  15. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalar, Ergün; Ergün, Seyma Özçirak; Akar, Emine

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 82.5℃ and 78℃ for horse and porcine, respectively. The assay used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.0001% level of horse meat and 0.001% level of porcine meat in the experimental admixtures. These findings indicate that EvaGreen based duplex real-time PCR is a potentially sensitive, reliable, rapid and accurate assay for the detection of meat species adulterated with porcine and horse meats.

  16. Detection, quantitation and identification of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, K.A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Paul, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative detection of pathogenic human enteroviruses from surface waters in the Florida Keys using Taqman (R) one-step Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the Model 7700 ABI Prism (R) Sequence Detection System. Viruses were directly extracted from unconcentrated grab samples of seawater, from seawater concentrated by vortex flow filtration using a 100kD filter and from sponge tissue. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, purified and concentrated using spin-column chromatography. A 192-196 base pair portion of the 5??? untranscribed region was amplified from these extracts. Enterovirus concentrations were estimated using real-time RT-PCR technology. Nine of 15 sample sites or 60% were positive for the presence of pathogenic human enteroviruses. Considering only near-shore sites, 69% were positive with viral concentrations ranging from 9.3viruses/ml to 83viruses/g of sponge tissue (uncorrected for extraction efficiency). Certain amplicons were selected for cloning and sequencing for identification. Three strains of waterborne enteroviruses were identified as Coxsackievirus A9, Coxsackievirus A16, and Poliovirus Sabin type 1. Time and cost efficiency of this one-step real-time RT-PCR methodology makes this an ideal technique to detect, quantitate and identify pathogenic enteroviruses in recreational waters. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Identification of endogenous control genes for normalisation of real-time quantitative PCR data in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A H

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene expression analysis has many applications in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic care. Relative quantification is the most widely adopted approach whereby quantification of gene expression is normalised relative to an endogenously expressed control (EC) gene. Central to the reliable determination of gene expression is the choice of control gene. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a panel of candidate EC genes from which to identify the most stably expressed gene(s) to normalise RQ-PCR data derived from primary colorectal cancer tissue. RESULTS: The expression of thirteen candidate EC genes: B2M, HPRT, GAPDH, ACTB, PPIA, HCRT, SLC25A23, DTX3, APOC4, RTDR1, KRTAP12-3, CHRNB4 and MRPL19 were analysed in a cohort of 64 colorectal tumours and tumour associated normal specimens. CXCL12, FABP1, MUC2 and PDCD4 genes were chosen as target genes against which a comparison of the effect of each EC gene on gene expression could be determined. Data analysis using descriptive statistics, geNorm, NormFinder and qBasePlus indicated significant difference in variances between candidate EC genes. We determined that two genes were required for optimal normalisation and identified B2M and PPIA as the most stably expressed and reliable EC genes. CONCLUSION: This study identified that the combination of two EC genes (B2M and PPIA) more accurately normalised RQ-PCR data in colorectal tissue. Although these control genes might not be optimal for use in other cancer studies, the approach described herein could serve as a template for the identification of valid ECs in other cancer types.

  18. Real-time shadows

    CERN Document Server

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  19. Exploring the effects of driving experience on hazard awareness and risk perception via real-time hazard identification, hazard classification, and rating tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Oron-Gilad, Tal

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of driving experience on hazard awareness and risk perception skills. These topics have previously been investigated separately, yet a novel approach is suggested where hazard awareness and risk perception are examined concurrently. Young, newly qualified drivers, experienced drivers, and a group of commercial drivers, namely, taxi drivers performed three consecutive tasks: (1) observed 10 short movies of real-world driving situations and were asked to press a button each time they identified a hazardous situation; (2) observed one of three possible sub-sets of 8 movies (out of the 10 they have seen earlier) for the second time, and were asked to categorize them into an arbitrary number of clusters according to the similarity in their hazardous situation; and (3) observed the same sub-set for a third time and following each movie were asked to rate its level of hazardousness. The first task is considered a real-time identification task while the other two are performed using hindsight. During it participants' eye movements were recorded. Results showed that taxi drivers were more sensitive to hidden hazards than the other driver groups and that young-novices were the least sensitive. Young-novice drivers also relied heavily on materialized hazards in their categorization structure. In addition, it emerged that risk perception was derived from two major components: the likelihood of a crash and the severity of its outcome. Yet, the outcome was rarely considered under time pressure (i.e., in real-time hazard identification tasks). Using hindsight, when drivers were provided with the opportunity to rate the movies' hazardousness more freely (rating task) they considered both components. Otherwise, in the categorization task, they usually chose the severity of the crash outcome as their dominant criterion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  1. Evaluation of a novel real-time PCR test based on the ssrA gene for the identification of group B streptococci in vaginal swabs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wernecke, Martina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, early-onset group B streptococci (GBS) disease remains a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Strategies to identify women who are at risk of transmitting GBS to their infant and the administration of intrapartum antibiotics have greatly reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease. However, there is a requirement for a rapid diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out in a labour ward setting especially for women whose GBS colonisation status is unknown at the time of delivery. We report the design and evaluation of a real-time PCR test (RiboSEQ GBS test) for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. METHODS: The qualitative real-time PCR RiboSEQ GBS test was designed based on the bacterial ssrA gene and incorporates a competitive internal standard control. The analytical sensitivity of the test was established using crude lysate extracted from serial dilutions of overnight GBS culture using the IDI Lysis kit. Specificity studies were performed using DNA prepared from a panel of GBS strains, related streptococci and other species found in the genital tract environment. The RiboSEQ GBS test was evaluated on 159 vaginal swabs from pregnant women and compared with the GeneOhm StrepB Assay and culture for the identification of GBS. RESULTS: The RiboSEQ GBS test is specific and has an analytical sensitivity of 1-10 cell equivalents. The RiboSEQ GBS test was 96.4% sensitive and 95.8% specific compared to "gold standard" culture for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. In this study, the RiboSEQ GBS test performed slightly better than the commercial BD GeneOhm StrepB Assay which gave a sensitivity of 94.6% and a specificity of 89.6% compared to culture. CONCLUSION: The RiboSEQ GBS test is a valuable method for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of GBS in pregnant women. This study also validates the ssrA gene as a suitable and

  2. Real-time monitoring for detection of retained surgical sponges and team motion in the surgical operation room using radio-frequency-identification (RFID) technology: a preclinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Michael; Zywitza, Dorit; Jell, Thomas; Schneider, Armin; Gillen, Sonja; Friess, Helmut; Feussner, Hubertus

    2012-06-15

    Technical progress in the surgical operating room (OR) increases constantly, facilitating the development of intelligent OR systems functioning as "safety backup" in the background of surgery. Precondition is comprehensive data retrieval to identify imminent risky situations and inaugurate adequate security mechanisms. Radio-frequency-identification (RFID) technology may have the potential to meet these demands. We set up a pilot study investigating feasibility and appliance reliability of a stationary RFID system for real-time surgical sponge monitoring (passive tagged sponges, position monitoring: mayo-stand/abdominal situs/waste bucket) and OR team tracking (active transponders, position monitoring: right/left side of OR table). In vitro: 20/20 sponges (100%) were detected on the mayo-stand and within the OR-phantom, however, real-time detection accuracy declined to 7/20 (33%) when the tags were moved simultaneously. All retained sponges were detected correctly. In vivo (animal): 7-10/10 sterilized sponges (70%-100%) were detected correctly within the abdominal cavity. OR-team: detection accuracy within the OR (surveillance antenna) and on both sides of the OR table (sector antenna) was 100%. Mean detection time for position change (left to right side and contrariwise) was 30-60 s. No transponder failure was noted. This is the first combined RFID system that has been developed for stationary use in the surgical OR. Preclinical evaluation revealed a reliable sponge tracking and correct detection of retained textiles (passive RFID) but also demonstrated feasibility of comprehensive data acquisition of team motion (active RFID). However, detection accuracy needs to be further improved before implementation into the surgical OR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification, quantitation and differentiation of avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Mattia; Lupini, Caterina; Munoz Pogoreltseva, Olga Svetlana; Listorti, Valeria; Mondin, Alessandra; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, special attention has been paid to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) diagnosis, due to its numerous advantages over classical PCR. A new multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) with molecular beacon probe assay, designed to target the SH gene, was developed. The test was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, and compared with conventional RT nested-PCR based on the G gene. All of the AMPV subtype A and B strains tested were amplified and specifically detected while no amplification occurred with other non-target bird respiratory pathogens. The detection limit of the assay was 10(-0.41) median infectious dose/ml and 10(1.15) median infectious dose/ml when the AMPV-B strain IT/Ty/B/Vr240/87 and the AMPV-A strain IT/Ty/A/259-01/03 were used, respectively, as templates. In all cases, the amplification efficiency was approximately 2 and the error values were 0.9375) between crossing point values and virus quantities, making the assay herein designed reliable for quantification. When the newly developed qRT-PCR was compared with a conventional RT nested-PCR, it showed greater sensitivity with RNA extracted from both positive controls and from experimentally infected birds. This assay can be effectively used for the detection, identification, differentiation and quantitation of AMPV subtype A or subtype B to assist in disease diagnosis and to carry out rapid surveillance with high levels of sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Real-Time Identification of Smoldering and Flaming Combustion Phases in Forest Using a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Multi-Sensor System and Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaofei; Cheng, Hong; Zhao, Yandong; Yu, Wenhua; Huang, Huan; Zheng, Xiaoliang

    2016-08-04

    Diverse sensing techniques have been developed and combined with machine learning method for forest fire detection, but none of them referred to identifying smoldering and flaming combustion phases. This study attempts to real-time identify different combustion phases using a developed wireless sensor network (WSN)-based multi-sensor system and artificial neural network (ANN). Sensors (CO, CO₂, smoke, air temperature and relative humidity) were integrated into one node of WSN. An experiment was conducted using burning materials from residual of forest to test responses of each node under no, smoldering-dominated and flaming-dominated combustion conditions. The results showed that the five sensors have reasonable responses to artificial forest fire. To reduce cost of the nodes, smoke, CO₂ and temperature sensors were chiefly selected through correlation analysis. For achieving higher identification rate, an ANN model was built and trained with inputs of four sensor groups: smoke; smoke and CO₂; smoke and temperature; smoke, CO₂ and temperature. The model test results showed that multi-sensor input yielded higher predicting accuracy (≥82.5%) than single-sensor input (50.9%-92.5%). Based on these, it is possible to reduce the cost with a relatively high fire identification rate and potential application of the system can be tested in future under real forest condition.

  5. Development and validation of a multiplex real-time PCR method to simultaneously detect 47 targets for the identification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottenet, Geoffrey; Blancpain, Carine; Sonnard, Véronique; Chuah, Poh Fong

    2013-08-01

    Considering the increase of the total cultivated land area dedicated to genetically modified organisms (GMO), the consumers' perception toward GMO and the need to comply with various local GMO legislations, efficient and accurate analytical methods are needed for their detection and identification. Considered as the gold standard for GMO analysis, the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTi-PCR) technology was optimised to produce a high-throughput GMO screening method. Based on simultaneous 24 multiplex RTi-PCR running on a ready-to-use 384-well plate, this new procedure allows the detection and identification of 47 targets on seven samples in duplicate. To comply with GMO analytical quality requirements, a negative and a positive control were analysed in parallel. In addition, an internal positive control was also included in each reaction well for the detection of potential PCR inhibition. Tested on non-GM materials, on different GM events and on proficiency test samples, the method offered high specificity and sensitivity with an absolute limit of detection between 1 and 16 copies depending on the target. Easy to use, fast and cost efficient, this multiplex approach fits the purpose of GMO testing laboratories.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay for the detection and identification of the four subgroups of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionie, O; Toquin, D; Sellal, E; Bouley, S; Zwingelstein, F; Allée, C; Bougeard, S; Lemière, S; Eterradossi, N

    2007-02-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is an important pathogen causing respiratory diseases and egg drops in several avian species. Four AMPV subgroups have been identified. The laboratory diagnosis of AMPV infections relies on serological methods, on labour-intensive virus isolation procedures, and on recently developed subgroup specific reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) protocols. In the present study, both the specificity and sensitivity of a commercial real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) for the detection and identification of the four AMPV subgroups were evaluated. Fifteen non-AMPV avian viruses belonging to 7 genera and 32 AMPV belonging to the 4 subgroups were tested. No non-AMPV virus was detected, whereas all AMPV viruses were identified in agreement with their previous molecular and antigenic subgroup assignment. The sensitivity and quantitating ability of the RRT-PCR assay were determined using serial dilutions of RNA derived either from AMPV virus stocks or from runoff transcripts. In all cases, linear dose/responses were observed. The detection limits of the different subgroups ranged from 500 to 5000 RNA copies and from 0.03 to 3.16TCID50/ml. The results were reproducible under laboratory conditions, thus showing that quantitative RRT-PCR is a new and powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection, identification and quantitation of AMPVs.

  7. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  8. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis: a novel approach to rapid identification of analytical markers for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shanshan; Wang, Lu; Chen, Teng; Wang, Yuefei; Mo, Huanbiao; Qu, Haibin

    2012-07-06

    The paper presents a novel strategy to identify analytical markers of traditional Chinese medicine preparation (TCMP) rapidly via direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). A commonly used TCMP, Danshen injection, was employed as a model. The optimal analysis conditions were achieved by measuring the contribution of various experimental parameters to the mass spectra. Salvianolic acids and saccharides were simultaneously determined within a single 1-min DART-MS run. Furthermore, spectra of Danshen injections supplied by five manufacturers were processed with principal component analysis (PCA). Obvious clustering was observed in the PCA score plot, and candidate markers were recognized from the contribution plots of PCA. The suitability of potential markers was then confirmed by contrasting with the results of traditional analysis methods. Using this strategy, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid A were rapidly identified as the markers of Danshen injections. The combination of DART-MS with PCA provides a reliable approach to the identification of analytical markers for quality control of TCMP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A multiplex, internally controlled real-time PCR assay for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile and identification of hypervirulent strain 027/ST-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, A M; Nielsen, J B; Lester, A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile and simultaneously identifying C. difficile ribotype 027/ST-1 by targeting the toxin genes tcdA, tcdB and cdtA in one reaction and in a separate reaction identifying the Δ...... to confirm the correct identification of the Δ117 deletion in tcdC and C. difficile ribotype 027/ST-1, respectively. The PCR assay displayed a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 99.0%, 97.4%, 87.4% and 99.8%, respectively, compared to toxigenic culture on 665 samples evaluable both by PCR and culture....... Sequencing of tcdC, ribotyping and MLST of cultured isolates validated the genotyping assay and confirmed the ability of the assay to correctly identify C. difficile ribotype 027/ST-1 in our current epidemiological setting. We describe the use of a combination of two separate PCR assays for sensitive...

  10. Molecular detection and species-specific identification of medically important Aspergillus species by real-time PCR in experimental invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas J; Wissel, Mark C; Grantham, Kevin J; Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Kasai, Miki; Francesconi, Andrea; Cotton, Margaret P; Hughes, Johanna E; Greene, Lora; Bacher, John D; Manna, Pradip; Salomoni, Martin; Kleiboeker, Steven B; Reddy, Sushruth K

    2011-12-01

    Diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains a major challenge to clinical microbiology laboratories. We developed rapid and sensitive quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for genus- and species-specific identification of Aspergillus infections by use of TaqMan technology. In order to validate these assays and understand their potential diagnostic utility, we then performed a blinded study of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from well-characterized models of IPA with the four medically important species. A set of real-time qPCR primers and probes was developed by utilizing unique ITS1 regions for genus- and species-specific detection of the four most common medically important Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus). Pan-Aspergillus and species-specific qPCRs with BAL fluid were more sensitive than culture for detection of IPA caused by A. fumigatus in untreated (P < 0.0007) and treated (P ≤ 0.008) animals, respectively. For infections caused by A. terreus and A. niger, culture and PCR amplification from BAL fluid yielded similar sensitivities for untreated and treated animals. Pan-Aspergillus PCR was more sensitive than culture for detection of A. flavus in treated animals (P = 0.002). BAL fluid pan-Aspergillus and species-specific PCRs were comparable in sensitivity to BAL fluid galactomannan (GM) assay. The copy numbers from the qPCR assays correlated with quantitative cultures to determine the pulmonary residual fungal burdens in lung tissue. Pan-Aspergillus and species-specific qPCR assays may improve the rapid and accurate identification of IPA in immunocompromised patients.

  11. Route around real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, Francois

    1996-01-01

    The greater and greater autonomy and complexity asked to the control and command systems lead to work on introducing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence or concurrent object programming in industrial applications. However, while the critical feature of these systems impose to control the dynamics of the proposed solutions, their complexity often imposes a high adaptability to a partially modelled environment. The studies presented start from low level control and command systems to more complex applications at higher levels, such as 'supervision systems'. Techniques such as temporal reasoning and uncertainty management are proposed for the first studies, while the second are tackled with programming techniques based on the real time object paradigm. The outcomes of this itinerary crystallize on the ACCORD project which targets to manage - on the whole life cycle of a real time application - these two problematics, sometimes antagonistic: control of the dynamics and adaptivity. (author) [fr

  12. Real time falling leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Balsa, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount...

  13. Real Time Strategy Language

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Roy; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2014-01-01

    Real Time Strategy (RTS) games provide complex domain to test the latest artificial intelligence (AI) research. In much of the literature, AI systems have been limited to playing one game. Although, this specialization has resulted in stronger AI gaming systems it does not address the key concerns of AI researcher. AI researchers seek the development of AI agents that can autonomously interpret learn, and apply new knowledge. To achieve human level performance, current AI systems rely on game...

  14. Real Time Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; ANDERSON, Dustin James; DOGLIONI, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The LHC provides experiments with an unprecedented amount of data. Experimental collaborations need to meet storage and computing requirements for the analysis of this data: this is often a limiting factor in the physics program that would be achievable if the whole dataset could be analysed. In this talk, I will describe the strategies adopted by the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS collaborations to overcome these limitations and make the most of LHC data: data parking, data scouting, and real-time analysis.

  15. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.

    2015-01-01

    A specification theory combines notions of specifications and implementations with a satisfaction relation, a refinement relation, and a set of operators supporting stepwise design. We develop a specification framework for real-time systems using Timed I/O Automata as the specification formalism......, with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar...

  16. Real Time Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ruchika Mehra Vijayan, E.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to illustrate real time analysis of large scale data. For practical implementation we are performing sentiment analysis on live Twitter feeds for each individual tweet. To analyze sentiments we will train our data model on sentiWordNet, a polarity assigned wordNet sample by Princeton University. Our main objective will be to efficiency analyze large scale data on the fly using distributed computation. Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop eco system is used as distributed computation platform with Java as development language

  17. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  18. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.E.; Struve, K.W.; Colella, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an invention which uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements

  19. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantification of target gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR for tall fescue under four abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41 was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  1. Evaluation of hand hygiene compliance and associated factors with a radio-frequency-identification-based real-time continuous automated monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, J-C; Reynier, P; Boudjema, S; Soto Aladro, A; Giorgi, R; Brouqui, P

    2017-04-01

    Hand hygiene is a major means for preventing healthcare-associated infections. One critical point in understanding poor compliance is the lack of relevant markers used to monitor practices systematically. This study analysed hand hygiene compliance and associated factors with a radio-frequency-identification-based real-time continuous automated monitoring system in an infectious disease ward with 17 single bedrooms. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were tracked while performing routine care over 171 days. A multi-level multi-variate logistics model was used for data analysis. The main outcome measures were hand disinfection before entering the bedroom (outside use) and before entering the patient care zone, defined as the zone surrounding the patient's bed (inside/bedside use). Variables analysed included HCWs' characteristics and behaviour, patients, room layouts, path chains and duration of HCWs' paths. In total, 4629 paths with initial hand hygiene opportunities when entering the patient care zone were selected, of which 763 (16.5%), 285 (6.1%) and 3581 (77.4%) were associated with outside use, inside/bedside use and no use, respectively. Hand hygiene is caregiver-dependent. The shorter the duration of the HCW's path, the worse the bedside hand hygiene. Bedside hand hygiene is improved when one or two extra HCWs are present in the room. Hand hygiene compliance at the bedside, as analysed using the continuous monitoring system, depended upon the HCW's occupation and personal behaviour, number of HCWs, time spent in the room and (potentially) dispenser location. Meal tray distribution was a possible factor in the case of failure to disinfect hands. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical utility of an optimised multiplex real-time PCR assay for the identification of pathogens causing sepsis in Vietnamese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat Trung, Ngo; Van Tong, Hoang; Lien, Tran Thi; Van Son, Trinh; Thanh Huyen, Tran Thi; Quyen, Dao Thanh; Hoan, Phan Quoc; Meyer, Christian G; Song, Le Huu

    2018-02-01

    For the identification of bacterial pathogens, blood culture is still the gold standard diagnostic method. However, several disadvantages apply to blood cultures, such as time and rather large volumes of blood sample required. We have previously established an optimised multiplex real-time PCR method in order to diagnose bloodstream infections. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of this optimised multiplex RT-PCR in blood samples collected from 110 septicaemia patients enrolled at the 108 Military Central Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. Positive results were obtained by blood culture, the Light Cylcler-based SeptiFast ® assay and our multiplex RT-PCR in 35 (32%), 31 (28%), and 31 (28%) samples, respectively. Combined use of the three methods confirmed 50 (45.5%) positive cases of bloodstream infection, a rate significantly higher compared to the exclusive use of one of the three methods (P=0.052, 0.012 and 0.012, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) of our assay were higher compared to that of the SeptiFast ® assay (77.4%, 86.1% and 0.8 vs. 67.7%, 82.3% and 0.73, respectively). Combined use of blood culture and multiplex RT-PCR assay showed a superior diagnostic performance, as the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC reached 83.3%, 100%, and 0.95, respectively. The concordance between blood culture and the multiplex RT-PCR assay was highest for Klebsiella pneumonia (100%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (77.8%), Escherichia coli (66.7%), Staphylococcus spp. (50%) and Salmonella spp. (50%). In addition, the use of the newly established multiplex RT-PCR assay increased the spectrum of identifiable agents (Acintobacter baumannii, 1/32; Proteus mirabilis, 1/32). The combination of culture and the multiplex RT-PCR assay provided an excellent diagnostic accomplishment and significantly supported the identification of causative pathogens in clinical samples obtained from septic patients. Copyright © 2017 The

  3. Real time spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, A.; O'Prey, D.G.; Tait, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of a composite pulse-height spectrum into its unresolved component parts, which belong to a set of measured library spectra. The method allows real-time estimation giving running estimates during acquisition of the spectrum, minimises computation space, especially for a number of parallel calculations, estimates in advance the rms errors, and produces a significance measure for the hypothesis that the composite contains only the library spectra. Least squares curve-fitting, and other methods, can be compared, with the formalism developed, allowing analytical comparison of the effect of detector energy resolution and detection efficiency. A rational basis for the choice between the various methods of spectrum analysis follows from the theory, minimising rms estimation errors. The method described is applicable for very low numbers of counts and poor resolution. (orig.)

  4. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  5. Real time urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz Varona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, given the technological revolution of the society of information, the administrative management of the cities faces a new problem not as related to the projection of the urban space as to the capacity of controlling and measuring the process of direct and centralized production of the cities by part of some non-homogeneous social multitudes, in a hyper-accelerated time towards instantaneity. Against libertarian apologies of the new “participative urbanisms”, the article puts forward a discourse that shows the lost associated to the new problem of temporal instantaneity. In this regard we claim new process of mediation that allow administrations and urbanist monitoring the production of the city. To that end, a previous and necessary step will be the redefinition of the role of a new real time urbanist.

  6. Real-time PCR for type-specific identification of herpes simplex in clinical samples: evaluation of type-specific results in the context of CNS diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Sylvain; Robert, Daniel; Estrade, Christine; Grimbuehler, Valérie; Péter, Olivier; Meylan, Pascal R; Sahli, Roland

    2008-02-01

    HSV-1 and HSV-2 cause CNS infections of dissimilar clinico-pathological characteristics with prognostic and therapeutic implications. To validate a type-specific real-time PCR that uses MGB/LNA Taqman probes and to review the virologico-clinical data of 25 eligible patients with non-neonatal CNS infections. This real-time PCR was evaluated against conventional PCR (26 CSF and 20 quality controls), and LightCycler assay (51 mucocutaneous, 8 CSF and 32 quality controls) and culture/immunofluorescence (75 mucocutaneous) to assess typing with independent methods. Taqman real-time PCR detected 240 HSV genomes per ml CSF, a level appropriate for the management of patients, and provided unambiguous typing for the 104 positive (62 HSV-1 and 42 HSV-2) out the 160 independent clinical samples tested. HSV type diagnosed by Taqman real-time PCR predicted final diagnosis (meningitis versus encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, p<0.001) in 24/25 patients at time of presentation, in contrast to clinical evaluation. Our real-time PCR, as a sensitive and specific means for type-specific HSV diagnosis, provided rapid prognostic information for patient management.

  7. Identification and validation of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR reference genes for gene expression analysis in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Esteban; Vasconcelos, Tarcísio Sales; Ramiro, Daniel Alves; De Martin, Valentina de Fátima; Carrer, Helaine

    2014-07-22

    Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is currently the preferred choice of the timber trade for fabrication of woody products due to its extraordinary qualities and is widely grown around the world. Gene expression studies are essential to explore wood formation of vascular plants, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique employed for quantifying gene expression levels. One or more appropriate reference genes are crucial to accurately compare mRNA transcripts through different tissues/organs and experimental conditions. Despite being the focus of some genetic studies, a lack of molecular information has hindered genetic exploration of teak. To date, qRT-PCR reference genes have not been identified and validated for teak. Identification and cloning of nine commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes from teak, including ribosomal protein 60s (rp60s), clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit family (Cac), actin (Act), histone 3 (His3), sand family (Sand), β-Tubulin (Β-Tub), ubiquitin (Ubq), elongation factor 1-α (Ef-1α), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Expression profiles of these genes were evaluated by qRT-PCR in six tissue and organ samples (leaf, flower, seedling, root, stem and branch secondary xylem) of teak. Appropriate gene cloning and sequencing, primer specificity and amplification efficiency was verified for each gene. Their stability as reference genes was validated by NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm and Delta Ct programs. Results obtained from all programs showed that TgUbq and TgEf-1α are the most stable genes to use as qRT-PCR reference genes and TgAct is the most unstable gene in teak. The relative expression of the teak cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (TgCAD) gene in lignified tissues at different ages was assessed by qRT-PCR, using TgUbq and TgEf-1α as internal controls. These analyses exposed a consistent expression pattern with both reference genes. This study proposes a first broad

  8. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  9. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  10. Comparison of DNA Microarray, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and Real-Time PCR with DNA Sequencing for Identification of Fusarium spp. Obtained from Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marcela; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Sakai, Kanae; Muraosa, Yasunori; Lyra, Luzia; Busso-Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli; Mikami, Yuzuru; Gonoi, Tohoru; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Trabasso, Plínio

    2017-08-01

    The performance of three molecular biology techniques, i.e., DNA microarray, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and real-time PCR were compared with DNA sequencing for properly identification of 20 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from blood stream as etiologic agent of invasive infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR identified 16 (80%) out of 20 samples as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and four (20%) as Fusarium spp. The agreement among the techniques was 100%. LAMP exhibited 100% specificity, while DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR showed 100% sensitivity. The three techniques had 100% agreement with DNA sequencing. Sixteen isolates were identified as FSSC by sequencing, being five Fusarium keratoplasticum, nine Fusarium petroliphilum and two Fusarium solani. On the other hand, sequencing identified four isolates as Fusarium non-solani species complex (FNSSC), being three isolates as Fusarium napiforme and one isolate as Fusarium oxysporum. Finally, LAMP proved to be faster and more accessible than DNA microarray and real-time PCR, since it does not require a thermocycler. Therefore, LAMP signalizes as emerging and promising methodology to be used in routine identification of Fusarium spp. among cases of invasive fungal infections.

  11. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. Results With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 102 CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 102 CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 103 CFU/m2 for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.93 respectively. Conclusion The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new

  12. Identification and evaluation of new reference genes in Gossypium hirsutum for accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Ferreira Marcio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normalizing through reference genes, or housekeeping genes, can make more accurate and reliable results from reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Recent studies have shown that no single housekeeping gene is universal for all experiments. Thus, suitable reference genes should be the first step of any qPCR analysis. Only a few studies on the identification of housekeeping gene have been carried on plants. Therefore qPCR studies on important crops such as cotton has been hampered by the lack of suitable reference genes. Results By the use of two distinct algorithms, implemented by geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed the gene expression of nine candidate reference genes in cotton: GhACT4, GhEF1α5, GhFBX6, GhPP2A1, GhMZA, GhPTB, GhGAPC2, GhβTUB3 and GhUBQ14. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in 23 experimental samples consisting of six distinct plant organs, eight stages of flower development, four stages of fruit development and in flower verticils. The expression of GhPP2A1 and GhUBQ14 genes were the most stable across all samples and also when distinct plants organs are examined. GhACT4 and GhUBQ14 present more stable expression during flower development, GhACT4 and GhFBX6 in the floral verticils and GhMZA and GhPTB during fruit development. Our analysis provided the most suitable combination of reference genes for each experimental set tested as internal control for reliable qPCR data normalization. In addition, to illustrate the use of cotton reference genes we checked the expression of two cotton MADS-box genes in distinct plant and floral organs and also during flower development. Conclusion We have tested the expression stabilities of nine candidate genes in a set of 23 tissue samples from cotton plants divided into five different experimental sets. As a result of this evaluation, we recommend the use of GhUBQ14 and GhPP2A1 housekeeping genes as superior references

  13. Identification and evaluation of new reference genes in Gossypium hirsutum for accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Sinara; Nardeli, Sarah M; Brilhante, Osmundo; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2010-03-21

    Normalizing through reference genes, or housekeeping genes, can make more accurate and reliable results from reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Recent studies have shown that no single housekeeping gene is universal for all experiments. Thus, suitable reference genes should be the first step of any qPCR analysis. Only a few studies on the identification of housekeeping gene have been carried on plants. Therefore qPCR studies on important crops such as cotton has been hampered by the lack of suitable reference genes. By the use of two distinct algorithms, implemented by geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed the gene expression of nine candidate reference genes in cotton: GhACT4, GhEF1alpha5, GhFBX6, GhPP2A1, GhMZA, GhPTB, GhGAPC2, GhbetaTUB3 and GhUBQ14. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in 23 experimental samples consisting of six distinct plant organs, eight stages of flower development, four stages of fruit development and in flower verticils. The expression of GhPP2A1 and GhUBQ14 genes were the most stable across all samples and also when distinct plants organs are examined. GhACT4 and GhUBQ14 present more stable expression during flower development, GhACT4 and GhFBX6 in the floral verticils and GhMZA and GhPTB during fruit development. Our analysis provided the most suitable combination of reference genes for each experimental set tested as internal control for reliable qPCR data normalization. In addition, to illustrate the use of cotton reference genes we checked the expression of two cotton MADS-box genes in distinct plant and floral organs and also during flower development. We have tested the expression stabilities of nine candidate genes in a set of 23 tissue samples from cotton plants divided into five different experimental sets. As a result of this evaluation, we recommend the use of GhUBQ14 and GhPP2A1 housekeeping genes as superior references for normalization of gene expression measures in

  14. Molecular identification of peste des petits ruminants virus in wild goat and domestic small ruminants by real-time -PCR technique in Erbil-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Candlan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2010 outbreak was occurred in wild goat in Barzan, Sherwin mizzen and Mergasur in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. There were over 2700 deaths (both young and adult during the period of July 2010 to October 2011. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV was suspected. This was confirmed by Real Time PCR technique using TaqMan®probes for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants. The results of Real-Time PCR for the 9 sample taken from 9 Wild goat there are 6 sample positive and 3 sample negative and 76 sample from domestic ruminants (sheep and goat 63 samples was negative for PPR. This result confirms the diagnosis domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the ‘Nigeria/75/1’ strain of PPRV.

  15. Identification and quantification of genetically modified Moonshade carnation lines using conventional and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Junwei; Bai, Lan; Pan, Aihu; Tang, Xueming

    2013-07-01

    Genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Moonshade was approved for planting and commercialization in several countries from 2004. Developing methods for analyzing Moonshade is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism labeling regulations. In this study, the 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, conventional and TaqMan real-time PCR assays were established. The relative limit of detection for the conventional PCR assay was 0.05 % for Moonshade using 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to approximately 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome, and the limits of detection and quantification of the TaqMan real-time PCR assay were estimated to be 51 and 254 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. These results are useful for identifying and quantifying Moonshade and its derivatives.

  16. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a commercial real-time PCR analysis for 11 mastitis pathogens from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from all 4,258 Danish dairy herds in November 2009 to January 2010 were compared with somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacteria count (TBC) estimates in BTM. For Streptococcus agalactiae......, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis, a low real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value (corresponding to high bacterial DNA quantity) was correlated with higher SCC and higher TBC. For Staphylococcus aureus, low Ct values were correlated only with higher SCC. For the environmental mastitis...... pathogens Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, low Ct values had a correlation with higher TBC. Staphylococcus spp. were found in the BTM from all herds, Strep. uberis in 95%, Staph. aureus in 91%, and Strep. dysgalactiae in 86%, whereas E. coli, Klebsiella, and Strep. agalactiae were...

  17. Novel 3′-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Sakkhachornphop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3′-end processing (3′P of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3′P using 3′P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3′P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN, and specific primers and probe. In this novel assay, we designed the HIV-1 LTR substrate based on a sequence with a homology to HIV-1 LTR labeled at its 3′ end with biotin on the sense strand. Two nucleotides at the 3′ end were subsequently removed by IN activity. Only two nucleotides labeled biotin were captured on an avidin-coated tube; therefore, inhibiting the binding of primers and probe results in late signals in the real-time PCR. This novel assay has successfully detected both the 3′P activity of HIV-1 IN and the anti-IN activity by Raltegravir and sodium azide agent. This real-time PCR assay has been shown to be effective and inexpensive for a high-throughput screening of novel IN inhibitors.

  18. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    0196 or 413 545-0720 PI E-mail Address: krithi@nirvan.cs.umass.edu, stankovic(ocs.umass.edu Grant or Contract Title: Dependable Real - Time Systems Grant...Dependable Real - Time Systems " Grant or Contract Number: N00014-85-k-0398 L " Reporting Period: 1 Oct 87 - 30 Sep 91 , 2. Summary of Accomplishments ’ 2.1 Our...in developing a sound approach to scheduling tasks in complex real - time systems , (2) developed a real-time operating system kernel, a preliminary

  19. Real-time feedback for improving compliance to hand sanitization among healthcare workers in an open layout ICU using radiofrequency identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Kedar; Waghmare, Abijeet; Ekstrand, Maria; Raj, Tony; Selvam, Sumithra; Sreerama, Sai Madhukar; Sampath, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to increase hand sanitizer usage among healthcare workers by developing and implementing a low-cost intervention using RFID and wireless mesh networks to provide real-time alarms for increasing hand hygiene compliance during opportune moments in an open layout Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A wireless, RFID based system was developed and implemented in the ICU. The ICU beds were divded into an intervention arm (n = 10) and a control arm (n = 14). Passive RFID tags were issued to the doctors, nurses and support staff of the ICU. Long range RFID readers were positioned strategically. Sensors were placed beneath the hand sanitizers to record sanitizer usage. The system would alert the HCWs by flashing a light if an opportune moment for hand sanitization was detected. A significant increase in hand sanitizer use was noted in the intervention arm. Usage was highest during the early part of the workday and decreased as the day progressed. Hand wash events per person hour was highest among the ancilliary staff followed by the doctors and nurses. Real-time feedback has potential to increase hand hygiene compliance among HCWs. The system demonstrates the possibility of automating compliance monitoring in an ICU with an open layout.

  20. Use of Tissue Culture Techniques for Producing Virus-Free Plant in Garlic and Their Identification through Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatıra Taşkın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed for comparison of meristem culture technique with shoot tip culture technique for obtaining virus-free plant, comparison of micropropagation success of two different nutrient media, and determination of effectiveness of real-time PCR assay for the detection of viruses. Two different garlic species (Allium sativum and Allium tuncelianum and two different nutrient media were used in this experiment. Results showed that Medium 2 was more successful compared to Medium 1 for both A. tuncelianum and A. sativum (Kastamonu garlic clone. In vitro plants obtained via meristem and shoot tip cultures were tested for determination of onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV through real-time PCR assay. In garlic plants propagated via meristem culture, we could not detect any virus. OYDV and LYSV viruses were detected in plants obtained via shoot tip culture. OYDV virus was observed in amount of 80% and 73% of tested plants for A. tuncelianum and A. sativum, respectively. LYSV virus was found in amount of 67% of tested plants of A. tuncelianum and in amount of 87% of tested plants of A. sativum in this study.

  1. Real-time Identification and Control of Satellite Signal Impairments Solution and Application of the Stratonovich Equation Part 1. Theoretical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    As satellite communications systems become both more complex and reliant with respect to their operating environment, it has become imperative to be able to identify, during real-time operation, the onset of one or more impairments to the quality of overall communications system integrity. One of the most important aspects to monitor of a satellite link operating within the Earth's atmosphere is the signal fading due to the occurrence of rain and/or phase scintillations. This, of course, must be done in the presence of the associated measurement uncertainty or potentially faulty measurement equipment such as in the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) experiment. In the present work, an approach originally suggested in 1991, and apparently still considered iconoclastic, will be significantly developed and applied to the satellite communications link on which the deleterious composite signal fade is the result of one or many component fade mechanisms. Through the measurement (with the attendant uncertainty or 'error' in the measurement) of such a composite fading satellite signal, it is desired to extract the level of each of the individual fading mechanisms so they can be appropriately mitigated before they impact the overall performance of the communications network. Rather than employing simple-minded deterministic filtering to the real-time fading, the present approach is built around all the models and/or descriptions used to describe the individual fade components, including their dynamic evolution. The latter is usually given by a first-order Langevin equation. This circumstance allows the description of the associated temporal transition probability densities of each of the component processes. By using this description, along with the real-time measurements of the composite fade (along with the measurement errors), one can obtain statistical estimates of the levels of each of the component fading mechanisms as well as their predicted values

  2. Designing a time-effective TaqMan probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol for the identification of Yersinia enterocolitica in raw pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alicja Stachelska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design a time-effective method comprising a short pre-enrichment step in a non-selective broth in combination with the TaqMan probe applied in the real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect Yersinia enterocolitica strains in raw pork meat. The method enabled to detect 1 colony forming unit per 25 mg of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork meat. The specificity and reliability of the method was not diminished by the company of microflora naturally present in meat. The method was found successful to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains in pork meat. It is advised to be used for assessing the microbial risk and for controlling the microbial quality of meat and meat products.

  3. Identification of pyrG Used as an Endogenous Reference Gene in Qualitative and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Detection of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shi; Shan, Luying; Zhuang, Yongliang; Shang, Ying

    2018-03-01

    As a well-known edible fungus rich in nutrients, Pleurotus ostreatus has been used as an alternative to expensive wild edible fungi. Specifically, the fact that using P. ostreatus instead of other expensive wild edible fungi has damaged the rights and interests of consumers. Among the existing methods for detection of food adulteration, the amplification of endogenous reference gene is the most accurate method. However, an ideal endogenous reference gene for P. ostreatus has yet to be developed. In this study, a DNA extraction method for P. ostreatus was optimized, and pyrG was selected as a species-specific gene through sequence alignment. This gene was subsequently subjected to qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays with 3 different P. ostreatus varieties and 7 other species. A low detection limit of 5 pg/μL was obtained by TaqMan quantitative PCR, and no pyrG amplification product was observed in the 7 other species. No allelic variation was detected in P. ostreatus varieties. These experiments confirmed that pyrG was an ideal endogenous reference gene for the qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR detection of P. ostreatus. This method was also suitable for the examination of processed P. ostreatus samples and determination of adulteration in wild mushrooms. The pyrG gene was chosen as an ideal endogenous reference gene for the qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR detection of P. ostreatus, and the detection limit was 5 pg/μL for the quantification. This method is used not only for raw materials but also for processed P. ostreatus products and other processed mushroom foods. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Clinical utility of an optimised multiplex real-time PCR assay for the identification of pathogens causing sepsis in Vietnamese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Tat Trung

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: The combination of culture and the multiplex RT-PCR assay provided an excellent diagnostic accomplishment and significantly supported the identification of causative pathogens in clinical samples obtained from septic patients.

  5. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay Using TaqMan Probes for the Identification of Trypanosoma cruzi DTUs in Biological and Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, Carolina I.; Duffy, Tomas; Lucero, Raúl H.; Bisio, Margarita; Péneau, Julie; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Calabuig, Eva; Gimenez, María J.; Valencia Ayala, Edward; Kjos, Sonia A.; Santalla, José; Mahaney, Susan M.; Cayo, Nelly M.; Nagel, Claudia; Barcán, Laura; Málaga Machaca, Edith S.; Acosta Viana, Karla Y.; Brutus, Laurent; Ocampo, Susana B.; Aznar, Christine; Cuba Cuba, Cesar A.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Ramsey, Janine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela; VandeBerg, John L.; Yadon, Zaida E.; Osuna, Antonio; Schijman, Alejandro G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi has been classified into six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs), designated as TcI–TcVI. In order to effectively use this standardized nomenclature, a reproducible genotyping strategy is imperative. Several typing schemes have been developed with variable levels of complexity, selectivity and analytical sensitivity. Most of them can be only applied to cultured stocks. In this context, we aimed to develop a multiplex Real-Time PCR method to identify the six T. cruzi DTUs using TaqMan probes (MTq-PCR). Methods/Principal Findings The MTq-PCR has been evaluated in 39 cultured stocks and 307 biological samples from vectors, reservoirs and patients from different geographical regions and transmission cycles in comparison with a multi-locus conventional PCR algorithm. The MTq-PCR was inclusive for laboratory stocks and natural isolates and sensitive for direct typing of different biological samples from vectors, reservoirs and patients with acute, congenital infection or Chagas reactivation. The first round SL-IR MTq-PCR detected 1 fg DNA/reaction tube of TcI, TcII and TcIII and 1 pg DNA/reaction tube of TcIV, TcV and TcVI reference strains. The MTq-PCR was able to characterize DTUs in 83% of triatomine and 96% of reservoir samples that had been typed by conventional PCR methods. Regarding clinical samples, 100% of those derived from acute infected patients, 62.5% from congenitally infected children and 50% from patients with clinical reactivation could be genotyped. Sensitivity for direct typing of blood samples from chronic Chagas disease patients (32.8% from asymptomatic and 22.2% from symptomatic patients) and mixed infections was lower than that of the conventional PCR algorithm. Conclusions/Significance Typing is resolved after a single or a second round of Real-Time PCR, depending on the DTU. This format reduces carryover contamination and is amenable to quantification, automation and kit production. PMID:25993316

  6. Identification and real time control of current profile in Tore-supra: algorithms and simulation; Identification et controle en temps reel du profil de courant dans Tore Supra: algorithmes et simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houy, P

    1999-10-15

    The aim of this work is to propose a real-time control of the current profile in order to achieve reproducible operating modes with improved energetic confinement in tokamaks. The determination of the profile is based on measurements given by interferometry and polarimetry diagnostics. Different ways to evaluate and improve the accuracy of these measurements are exposed. The position and the shape of a plasma are controlled by the poloidal system that forces them to cope with standard values. Gas or neutral ions or ice pellet or extra power injection are technical means used to control other plasma parameters. These controls are performed by servo-controlled loops. The poloidal system of Tore-supra is presented. The main obstacle to a reliable determination of the current profile is the fact that slightly different Faraday angles lead to very different profiles. The direct identification method that is exposed in this work, gives the profile that minimizes the square of the margin between measured and computed values. The different algorithms proposed to control current profiles on Tore-supra have been validated by using a plasma simulation. The code Cronos that solves the resistive diffusion equation of current has been used. (A.C.)

  7. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae lytA, plyA and psaA genes in pleural fluid by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Juan Carlos; Ríos, Esther; Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar; Ramos, Belén; Marín, Mercedes; Cercenado, Emilia

    2017-08-14

    The aim was to evaluate the utility of a multiplex real-time PCR to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae lytA, plyA and psaA genes in pleural fluid (PF). A collection of 81 PF samples was used. Sixty were considered positive for S. pneumoniae according to previous results (54 by an in-house lytA gene PCR and eight by universal rRNA PCR). The sensitivity for detection of the lytA, plyA and psaA genes by multiplex PCR was 100% (60/60), 98.3% (59/60) and 91.7% (55/60), respectively. The detection of all three genes was negative in 21 samples formerly confirmed as negative for S. pneumoniae (100% specificity) by the other procedures (9 by in-house lytA PCR and 12 by rRNA PCR). The use of this multiplex PCR may be a useful option to identify S. pneumoniae directly in PF samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and validation of biomarkers of IgV(H) mutation status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using microfluidics quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Lynne V; Barron, Lynn L; Anderson, Keith; Newman, Rachel J; Wierda, William G; O'brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Luthra, Madan; Talwalkar, Sameer; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Jones, Dan; Keating, Michael J; Coombes, Kevin R

    2007-09-01

    To develop a model incorporating relevant prognostic biomarkers for untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, we re-analyzed the raw data from four published gene expression profiling studies. We selected 88 candidate biomarkers linked to immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IgV(H)) mutation status and produced a reliable and reproducible microfluidics quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array. We applied this array to a training set of 29 purified samples from previously untreated patients. In an unsupervised analysis, the samples clustered into two groups. Using a cutoff point of 2% homology to the germline IgV(H) sequence, one group contained all 14 IgV(H)-unmutated samples; the other contained all 15 mutated samples. We confirmed the differential expression of 37 of the candidate biomarkers using two-sample t-tests. Next, we constructed 16 different models to predict IgV(H) mutation status and evaluated their performance on an independent test set of 20 new samples. Nine models correctly classified 11 of 11 IgV(H)-mutated cases and eight of nine IgV(H)-unmutated cases, with some models using three to seven genes. Thus, we can classify cases with 95% accuracy based on the expression of as few as three genes.

  9. Identification of Eusynstyelamide B as a Potent Cell Cycle Inhibitor Following the Generation and Screening of an Ascidian-Derived Extract Library Using a Real Time Cell Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Liberio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians are marine invertebrates that have been a source of numerous cytotoxic compounds. Of the first six marine-derived drugs that made anticancer clinical trials, three originated from ascidian specimens. In order to identify new anti-neoplastic compounds, an ascidian extract library (143 samples was generated and screened in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells using a real-time cell analyzer (RTCA. This resulted in 143 time-dependent cell response profiles (TCRP, which are read-outs of changes to the growth rate, morphology, and adhesive characteristics of the cell culture. Twenty-one extracts affected the TCRP of MDA-MB-231 cells and were further investigated regarding toxicity and specificity, as well as their effects on cell morphology and cell cycle. The results of these studies were used to prioritize extracts for bioassay-guided fractionation, which led to the isolation of the previously identified marine natural product, eusynstyelamide B (1. This bis-indole alkaloid was shown to display an IC50 of 5 µM in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 1 caused a strong cell cycle arrest in G2/M and induced apoptosis after 72 h treatment, making this molecule an attractive candidate for further mechanism of action studies.

  10. Monitoring the response of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis to treatment with pentamidine isethionate by quantitative real-time PCR, and identification of Leishmania parasites not responding to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, D R A; Kent, A D; Hu, R V; Lai A Fat, E J; Schoone, G J; Adams, E R; Rood, E J; Alba, S; Sabajo, L O A; Lai A Fat, R F; de Vries, H J C; Schallig, H D F H

    2016-08-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is believed to be the principal cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname. This disease is treated with pentamidine isethionate (PI), but treatment failure has increasingly been reported. To evaluate PI for its clinical efficacy, to compare parasite load, and to assess the possibility of treatment failure due to other infecting Leishmania species. Parasite load of patients with CL was determined in skin biopsies using real-time quantitative PCR before treatment and 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. Clinical responses were evaluated at week 12 and compared with parasite load. In parallel, molecular species differentiation was performed. L. (V.) guyanensis was the main infecting species in 129 of 143 patients (about 90%). PI treatment led to a significant decrease (P Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and L. (V.) guyanensis (1/92, 1/92 and 22/92 evaluable cases, respectively). There was substantial agreement beyond chance between the parasite load at week 6 and the clinical outcome at week 12, as indicated by the κ value of 0.61. L. (V.) guyanensis is the main infecting species of CL in Suriname, followed by L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis. Furthermore, patient response to PI can be better anticipated based on the parasite load 6 weeks after the treatment rather than on parasite load before treatment. © 2015 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists, North American Clinical Dermatologic Society and St Johns Dermatological Society.

  11. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement.

  12. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Winton, James R.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  13. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  14. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  15. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  16. Development and first evaluation of a novel multiplex real-time PCR on whole blood samples for rapid pathogen identification in critically ill patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Groep, Kirsten; Bos, Martine P; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Rubenjan, Anna; Gazenbeek, Christel; Melchers, Willem J G; van der Poll, Tom; Juffermans, Nicole P; Ong, David S Y; Bonten, Marc J M; Cremer, Olaf L

    2018-04-26

    Molecular tests may enable early adjustment of antimicrobial therapy and be complementary to blood culture (BC) which has imperfect sensitivity in critically ill patients. We evaluated a novel multiplex real-time PCR assay to diagnose bloodstream pathogens directly in whole blood samples (BSI-PCR). BSI-PCR included 11 species- and four genus-specific PCRs, a molecular Gram-stain PCR, and two antibiotic resistance markers. We collected 5 mL blood from critically ill patients simultaneously with clinically indicated BC. Microbial DNA was isolated using the Polaris method followed by automated DNA extraction. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using BC as reference. BSI-PCR was evaluated in 347 BC-positive samples (representing up to 50 instances of each pathogen covered by the test) and 200 BC-negative samples. Bacterial species-specific PCR sensitivities ranged from 65 to 100%. Sensitivity was 26% for the Gram-positive PCR, 32% for the Gram-negative PCR, and ranged 0 to 7% for yeast PCRs. Yeast detection was improved to 40% in a smaller set-up. There was no overall association between BSI-PCR sensitivity and time-to-positivity of BC (which was highly variable), yet Ct-values were lower for true-positive versus false-positive PCR results. False-positive results were observed in 84 (4%) of the 2200 species-specific PCRs in 200 culture-negative samples, and ranged from 0 to 6% for generic PCRs. Sensitivity of BSI-PCR was promising for individual bacterial pathogens, but still insufficient for yeasts and generic PCRs. Further development of BSI-PCR will focus on improving sensitivity by increasing input volumes and on subsequent implementation as a bedside test.

  17. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD, an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  18. Identification of human intestinal parasites affecting an asymptomatic peri-urban Argentinian population using multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Rubén O; Jeun, Rebecca; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Pamela S; Vargas, Paola; Echazú, Adriana; Bryan, Patricia E; Nasser, Julio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-07-17

    In resource-limited countries, stool microscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths and/or intestinal protozoa). However, sensitivity and specificity is low. Improved diagnosis of intestinal parasites is especially important for accurate measurements of prevalence and intensity of infections in endemic areas. The study was carried out in Orán, Argentina. A total of 99 stool samples from a local surveillance campaign were analyzed by concentration microscopy and McMaster egg counting technique compared to the analysis by multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This study compared the performance of qPCR assay and stool microscopy for 8 common intestinal parasites that infect humans including the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and the protozoa Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica, and investigated the prevalence of polyparasitism in an endemic area. qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites as compared to stool microscopy except T. trichiura. Species-specific primers and probes were able to distinguish between A. duodenale (19.1%) and N. americanus (36.4%) infections. There were 48.6% of subjects co-infected with both hookworms, and a significant increase in hookworm DNA for A. duodenale versus N. americanus (119.6 fg/μL: 0.63 fg/μL, P parasites in an endemic area that has improved diagnostic accuracy compared to stool microscopy. This first time use of multi-parallel qPCR in Argentina has demonstrated the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in a peri-urban area. These results will contribute to more accurate epidemiological survey, refined treatment strategies on a public scale, and better health outcomes in endemic settings.

  19. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Li, Tao; Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  20. Identification of normalization factors for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Boguang; Fang, Shasha; Sun, Li; Liu, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in studies of gene expression. In most of these studies, housekeeping genes are used as internal references without validation. To identify appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai, we examined the transcription stability of six housekeeping genes in abalone tissues in the presence and absence of bacterial infection. For this purpose, abalone were infected with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum for 12 h and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the housekeeping genes in five tissues (digestive glands, foot muscle, gill, hemocyte, and mantle) were determined by qRT-PCR. The PCR data was subsequently analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results show that in the absence of bacterial infection, elongation factor-1-alpha and beta-actin were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues, and thus are suitable as cross-tissue type normalization factors. However, we did not identify any universal reference genes post infection because the most stable genes varied between tissue types. Furthermore, for most tissues, the optimal reference genes identified by both algorithms at 12 h and 48 h post-infection differed. These results indicate that bacterial infection induced significant changes in the expression of abalone housekeeping genes in a manner that is dependent on tissue type and duration of infection. As a result, different normalization factors must be used for different tissues at different infection points.

  1. Real-time PCR expression profiling of genes encoding potential virulence factors in Candida albicans biofilms: identification of model-dependent and -independent gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řičicová Markéta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans infections are often associated with biofilm formation. Previous work demonstrated that the expression of HWP1 (hyphal wall protein and of genes belonging to the ALS (agglutinin-like sequence, SAP (secreted aspartyl protease, PLB (phospholipase B and LIP (lipase gene families is associated with biofilm growth on mucosal surfaces. We investigated using real-time PCR whether genes encoding potential virulence factors are also highly expressed in biofilms associated with abiotic surfaces. For this, C. albicans biofilms were grown on silicone in microtiter plates (MTP or in the Centres for Disease Control (CDC reactor, on polyurethane in an in vivo subcutaneous catheter rat (SCR model, and on mucosal surfaces in the reconstituted human epithelium (RHE model. Results HWP1 and genes belonging to the ALS, SAP, PLB and LIP gene families were constitutively expressed in C. albicans biofilms. ALS1-5 were upregulated in all model systems, while ALS9 was mostly downregulated. ALS6 and HWP1 were overexpressed in all models except in the RHE and MTP, respectively. The expression levels of SAP1 were more pronounced in both in vitro models, while those of SAP2, SAP4 and SAP6 were higher in the in vivo model. Furthermore, SAP5 was highly upregulated in the in vivo and RHE models. For SAP9 and SAP10 similar gene expression levels were observed in all model systems. PLB genes were not considerably upregulated in biofilms, while LIP1-3, LIP5-7 and LIP9-10 were highly overexpressed in both in vitro models. Furthermore, an elevated lipase activity was detected in supernatans of biofilms grown in the MTP and RHE model. Conclusions Our findings show that HWP1 and most of the genes belonging to the ALS, SAP and LIP gene families are upregulated in C. albicans biofilms. Comparison of the fold expression between the various model systems revealed similar expression levels for some genes, while for others model-dependent expression

  2. Towards Real-Time Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente JULIÁN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time coordination with the more general approach of reaching real-time agreements in MAS. Concretely, this work proposes a real-time argumentation framework in an attempt to provide agents with the ability of engaging in argumentative dialogues and come with a solution for their underlying agreement process within a bounded period of time. The framework has been implemented and evaluated in the domain of a customer support application. Concretely, we consider a society of agents that act on behalf of a group of technicians that must solve problems in a Technology Management Centre (TMC within a bounded time. This centre controls every process implicated in the provision of technological and customer support services to private or public organisations by means of a call centre. The contract signed between the TCM and the customer establishes penalties if the specified time is exceeded.

  3. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  4. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  5. Real Time Conference 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetta, Adriano

    2017-06-01

    This is a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science containing papers from the invited, oral, and poster presentation of the 20th Real Time Conference (RT2016). The conference was held June 6-10, 2016, at Centro Congressi Padova “A. Luciani,” Padova, Italy, and was organized by Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The Real Time Conference is multidisciplinary and focuses on the latest developments in real-time techniques in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics, nuclear fusion, medical physics, space instrumentation, nuclear power instrumentation, general radiation instrumentation, and real-time security and safety. Taking place every second year, it is sponsored by the Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Sciences technical committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. RT2016 attracted more than 240 registrants, with a large proportion of young researchers and engineers. It had an attendance of 67 students from many countries.

  6. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2...

  7. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  8. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel ® Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  9. Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2012-07-11

    Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated.

  10. The Raptor Real-Time Processing Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, M.; Starr, D.; Wozniak, P.; Brozdin, K.

    The primary goal of Raptor is ambitious: to identify interesting optical transients from very wide field of view telescopes in real time, and then to quickly point the higher resolution Raptor ``fovea'' cameras and spectrometer to the location of the optical transient. The most interesting of Raptor's many applications is the real-time search for orphan optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts. The sequence of steps (data acquisition, basic calibration, source extraction, astrometry, relative photometry, the smarts of transient identification and elimination of false positives, telescope pointing feedback, etc.) is implemented with a ``component'' approach. All basic elements of the pipeline functionality have been written from scratch or adapted (as in the case of SExtractor for source extraction) to form a consistent modern API operating on memory resident images and source lists. The result is a pipeline which meets our real-time requirements and which can easily operate as a monolithic or distributed processing system. Finally, the Raptor architecture is entirely based on free software (sometimes referred to as ``open source'' software). In this paper we also discuss the interplay between various free software technologies in this type of astronomical problem.

  11. Quantitative (real-time) PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, S.E.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many nucleic acid-based probe and PCR assays have been developed for the detection tracking of specific microbes within the rumen ecosystem. Conventional PCR assays detect PCR products at the end stage of each PCR reaction, where exponential amplification is no longer being achieved. This approach can result in different end product (amplicon) quantities being generated. In contrast, using quantitative, or real-time PCR, quantification of the amplicon is performed not at the end of the reaction, but rather during exponential amplification, where theoretically each cycle will result in a doubling of product being created. For real-time PCR, the cycle at which fluorescence is deemed to be detectable above the background during the exponential phase is termed the cycle threshold (Ct). The Ct values obtained are then used for quantitation, which will be discussed later

  12. Real time psychrometric data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Eight Mine Weather Stations (MWS) installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to monitor the underground ventilation system are helping to simulate real-time ventilation scenarios. Seasonal weather extremes can result in variations of Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP) which can significantly effect the ventilation system. The eight MWS(s) (which previously collected and stored temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity data for subsequent NVP calculations) were upgraded to provide continuous real-time data to the site wide Central monitoring System. This data can now be utilized by the ventilation engineer to create realtime ventilation simulations and trends which assist in the prediction and mitigation of NVP and psychrometric related events

  13. Real-time holographic endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Paul; Albe, Felix; Dischli, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Some new experiments concerning holographic endoscopy are presented. The quantitative measurements of deformations of objects are obtained by the double-exposure and double- reference beam method, using either a cw-laser or a pulsed laser. Qualitative experiments using an argon laser with time-average holographic endoscopy are also presented. A video film on real-time endoscopic holographic interferometry was recorded with the help of a frequency-doubled YAG-laser working at 25 Hz for the first time.

  14. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  15. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes. With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  16. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. The real time rolling shutter

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel E.; Cleary, Anne; Connolly, Denis

    2015-01-01

    From an early age children are often told either, you are creative you should do art but stay away from science and maths. Or that you are mathematical you should do science but you're not that creative. Compounding this there also exist some traditional barriers of artistic rhetoric that say, "don't touch, don't think and don't be creative, we've already done that for you, you can just look...". The Real Time Rolling Shutter is part of a collaborative Art/Science partnership whose core tenet...

  18. Real time analysis under EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs

  19. Species level identification of coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. from buffalo using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and cydB real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizauro, Lucas J L; de Almeida, Camila C; Soltes, Glenn A; Slavic, Durda; Rossi-Junior, Oswaldo D; de Ávila, Fernando A; Zafalon, Luiz F; MacInnes, Janet I

    2017-05-01

    Incorrect identification of Staphylococcus spp. can have serious clinical and zoonotic repercussions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine if matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and/or cydB real- time quantitative PCR (qPCR) could be used to accurately identify coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) obtained from buffalo milk and milking environment samples. Seventy-five of 84 CoNS isolates could be identified to the species level (score value >1.99) using MALDI-TOF MS. However, as determined by cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase subunit II (cydB) qPCR and by 16S RNA and cydB gene sequencing, 10S. agnetis strains were wrongly identified as S. hyicus by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, 9 isolates identified by MALDI-TOF only to the genus level (score values between 1.70 and 1.99) could be identified to species by cydB qPCR. Our findings suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable method for rapid identification of S. chromogenes and S. epidermidis (species of interest both in human and veterinary medicine) and may be able to correctly identify other Staphylococcus spp. However, at present not all Staphylococcus spp. found in buffalo milk can be accurately identified by MALDI-TOF MS and for these organisms, the cydB qPCR developed in the current study may provide a reliable alternative method for rapid identification of CoNS species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel toggle-rate based energy-efficient scheme for heavy load real-time IM-DD OFDM-PON with ONU LLID identification in time-domain using amplitude decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youxiang; Zhang, Junjie

    2017-07-10

    A novel low complexity and energy-efficient scheme by controlling the toggle-rate of ONU with time-domain amplitude identification is proposed for a heavy load downlink in an intensity-modulation and direct-detection orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (IM-DD OFDM-PON). In a conventional OFDM-PON downlink, all ONUs have to perform demodulation for all the OFDM frames in a broadcast way no matter whether the frames are targeted to or not, which causes a huge energy waste. However, in our scheme, the optical network unit (ONU) logical link identifications (LLIDs) are inserted into each downlink OFDM frame in time-domain at the optical line terminal (OLT) side. At the ONU side, the LLID is obtained with a low complexity and high precision amplitude identification method. The ONU sets the toggle-rate of demodulation module to zero when the frames are not targeted to, which avoids unnecessary digital signal processing (DSP) energy consumption. Compared with the sleep-mode methods consisting of clock recovery and synchronization, toggle-rate shows its advantage in fast changing, which is more suitable for the heavy load scenarios. Moreover, for the first time to our knowledge, the characteristics of the proposed scheme are investigated in a real-time IM-DD OFDM system, which performs well at the received optical power as low as -21dBm. The experimental results show that 25.1% energy consumption can be saved in the receiver compared to the conventional configurations.

  1. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  2. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  3. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  4. Real time 3D photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; García-Botella, A.; Romo, J.; Serrano, Ana

    2017-09-01

    The photometry and radiometry measurement is a well-developed field. The necessity of measuring optical systems performance involves the use of several techniques like Gonio-photometry. The Gonio photometers are a precise measurement tool that is used in the lighting area like office, luminaire head car lighting, concentrator /collimator measurement and all the designed and fabricated optical systems that works with light. There is one disadvantage in this kind of measurements that obtain the intensity polar curves and the total flux of the optical system. In the industry, there are good Gonio photometers that are precise and reliable but they are very expensive and the measurement time is long. In industry the cost can be of minor importance but measuring time that is around 30 minutes is of major importance due to trained staff cost. We have designed a system to measure photometry in real time; it consists in a curved screen to get a huge measurement angle and a CCD. The system to be measured projects light onto the screen and the CCD records a video of the screen obtaining an image of the projected profile. A complex calibration permits to trace screen data (x,y,z) to intensity polar curve (I,αγ). This intensity is obtained in candels (cd) with an image + processing time below one second.

  5. A real time monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Horacio; Galdoz, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    A real time monitoring system is described. It was initially developed to be used as a man-machine interface between a basic principles simulator of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and the operators. This simulator is under construction at the Bariloche Atomic Center's Process Control Division. Due to great design flexibility, this system can also be used in real plants. The system is designed to be run on a PC XT or AT personal computer with high resolution graphics capabilities. Three interrelated programs compose the system: 1) Graphics Editor, to build static image to be used as a reference frame where to show dynamically updated data. 2) Data acquisition and storage module. It is a memory resident module to acquire and store data in background. Data can be acquired and stored without interference with the operating system, via serial port or through analog-to-digital converter attached to the personal computer. 3) Display module. It shows the acquired data according to commands received from configuration files prepared by the operator. (Author) [es

  6. Scalable Real-Time Negotiation Toolkit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lesser, Victor

    2004-01-01

    ... to implement an adaptive distributed sensor network. These activities involved the development of a distributed soft, real-time heuristic resource allocation protocol, the development of a domain-independent soft, real time agent architecture...

  7. Hard Real-Time Networking on Firewire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Orlic, Bojan; Visser, Peter; Broenink, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using standard, low-cost, widely used FireWire as a new generation fieldbus medium for real-time distributed control applications. A real-time software subsys- tem, RT-FireWire was designed that can, in combination with Linux-based real-time operating

  8. Modular specification of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inal, Recep

    1994-01-01

    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notation...

  9. Students Collecting Real time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  10. Real-time Intravascular Photoacoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wu (Min)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is the most frequent cause of acute cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac deaths. The identification of the vulnerable plaque, which is believed to be related to the structure and composition of the plaque, can greatly benefit the

  11. Real time biometric surveillance with gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Subasish; Swain, Anisha; Das, Manaswini; Mohanty, Subhadarshini

    2018-04-01

    Bio metric surveillance has become indispensable for every system in the recent years. The contribution of bio metric authentication, identification, and screening purposes are widely used in various domains for preventing unauthorized access. A large amount of data needs to be updated, segregated and safeguarded from malicious software and misuse. Bio metrics is the intrinsic characteristics of each individual. Recently fingerprints, iris, passwords, unique keys, and cards are commonly used for authentication purposes. These methods have various issues related to security and confidentiality. These systems are not yet automated to provide the safety and security. The gait recognition system is the alternative for overcoming the drawbacks of the recent bio metric based authentication systems. Gait recognition is newer as it hasn't been implemented in the real-world scenario so far. This is an un-intrusive system that requires no knowledge or co-operation of the subject. Gait is a unique behavioral characteristic of every human being which is hard to imitate. The walking style of an individual teamed with the orientation of joints in the skeletal structure and inclinations between them imparts the unique characteristic. A person can alter one's own external appearance but not skeletal structure. These are real-time, automatic systems that can even process low-resolution images and video frames. In this paper, we have proposed a gait recognition system and compared the performance with conventional bio metric identification systems.

  12. Real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis-associated meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir, Eyal; Grossman, Tamar; Ciobotaro, Pnina; Attali, Malka; Barkan, Daniel; Bardenstein, Rita; Zimhony, Oren

    2016-03-01

    Four immunocompromised patients, immigrants from Ethiopia, presented with diverse clinical manifestations of meningitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis dissemination as determined by identification of intestinal larvae. The cerebrospinal fluid of 3 patients was tested by a validated (for stool) real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and was found positive, establishing this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-time embedded face recognition for smart home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, F.; With, de P.H.N.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a near real-time face recognition system for embedding in consumer applications. The system is embedded in a networked home environment and enables personalized services by automatic identification of users. The aim of our research is to design and build a face recognition system that is

  14. Real-time traveler information market assessment white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    This report takes a multi-modal look at the lay of the land of the real-time traveler information : market in the United States. This includes identification and characterization of the gaps in the : domestic industry with respect to data cover...

  15. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  16. Real-time label-free quantitative fluorescence microscopy-based detection of ATP using a tunable fluorescent nano-aptasensor platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Sohn, Il-Yung; Son, Young-Min; Lee, Won-Il; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-12-14

    Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces, thereby providing cytotoxicity assessment. Compared with conventional fluorescence spectrometry methods, our highly efficient, universally applicable, and rational approach will facilitate broader implementation of imaging-based biosensing platforms for the quantitative evaluation of a range of target molecules.

  17. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  18. Archtecture of distributed real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Leung, Cheuk

    2013-01-01

    CRAFTERS (Constraint and Application Driven Framework for Tailoring Embedded Real-time System) project aims to address the problem of uncertainty and heterogeneity in a distributed system by providing seamless, portable connectivity and middleware. This thesis contributes to the project by investigating the techniques that can be used in a distributed real-time embedded system. The conclusion is that, there is a list of specifications to be meet in order to provide a transparent and real-time...

  19. Research Directions in Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes a survey of published research in real time systems . Material is presented that provides an overview of the topic, focusing on...communications protocols and scheduling techniques. It is noted that real - time systems deserve special attention separate from other areas because of...formal tools for design and analysis of real - time systems . The early work on applications as well as notable theoretical advances are summarized

  20. A Real-Time Systems Symposium Preprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Real - Time Systems Symposium Preprint Interim Tech...estimate of the occurence of the error. Unclassii ledSECUqITY CLASSIF’ICA T" NO MI*IA If’ inDI /’rrd erter for~~ble. ’Corrputnqg A REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM...ABSTRACT This technical report contains a preprint of a paper accepted for presentation at the REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM, Arlington,

  1. Essays in real-time forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Liebermann, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays in the field of real-time econometrics, and more particularlyforecasting.The issue of using data as available in real-time to forecasters, policymakers or financialmarkets is an important one which has only recently been taken on board in the empiricalliterature. Data available and used in real-time are preliminary and differ from ex-postrevised data, and given that data revisions may be quite substantial, the use of latestavailable instead of real-time can s...

  2. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  3. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  4. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  5. Real-time label-free quantitative fluorescence microscopy-based detection of ATP using a tunable fluorescent nano-aptasensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Sohn, Il-Yung; Son, Young-Min; Lee, Won-Il; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-11-01

    Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces, thereby providing cytotoxicity assessment. Compared with conventional fluorescence spectrometry methods, our highly efficient, universally applicable, and rational approach will facilitate broader implementation of imaging-based biosensing platforms for the quantitative evaluation of a range of target molecules.Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (r

  6. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Jansen, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  7. Towards exascale real-time RFI mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an extremely scalable real-time RFI mitigation method, based on the offline AOFlagger. All algorithms scale linearly in the number of samples. We describe how we implemented the flagger in the LOFAR real-time pipeline, on both CPUs and GPUs. Additionally,

  8. Real time refractive index measurement by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torroba, R.; Joenathan, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method to measure refractive index variations in real time is reported. A technique to introduce reference fringes in real time is discussed. Both the theoretical and experimental results are presented and an example with phase shifting is given. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  9. De toekomst van Real Time Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Berg, C.H. van den

    2013-01-01

    Al direct vanaf de start van de Nationale Politie is gewerkt aan het opzetten van tien real-time intelligence centra in Nederland. Van daaruit worden 24 uur per dag en zeven dagen in de week agenten op straat actief ondersteund met real-time informatie bij de melding waar ze op af gaan. In de visie

  10. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  11. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to verify...

  12. Real time programming environment for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  13. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Quinton

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  14. LabVIEW Real-Time

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Flockhart, Ronald Bruce; Seppey, P

    2003-01-01

    With LabVIEW Real-Time, you can choose from a variety of RT Series hardware. Add a real-time data acquisition component into a larger measurement and automation system or create a single stand-alone real-time solution with data acquisition, signal conditioning, motion control, RS-232, GPIB instrumentation, and Ethernet connectivity. With the various hardware options, you can create a system to meet your precise needs today, while the modularity of the system means you can add to the solution as your system requirements grow. If you are interested in Reliable and Deterministic systems for Measurement and Automation, you will profit from this seminar. Agenda: Real-Time Overview LabVIEW RT Hardware Platforms - Linux on PXI Programming with LabVIEW RT Real-Time Operating Systems concepts Timing Applications Data Transfer

  15. MARTe: A Multiplatform Real-Time Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, André C.; Sartori, Filippo; Piccolo, Fabio; Vitelli, Riccardo; De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Zabeo, Luca; Barbalace, Antonio; Fernandes, Horacio; Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Batista, Antonio J. N.

    2010-04-01

    Development of real-time applications is usually associated with nonportable code targeted at specific real-time operating systems. The boundary between hardware drivers, system services, and user code is commonly not well defined, making the development in the target host significantly difficult. The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a framework built over a multiplatform library that allows the execution of the same code in different operating systems. The framework provides the high-level interfaces with hardware, external configuration programs, and user interfaces, assuring at the same time hard real-time performances. End-users of the framework are required to define and implement algorithms inside a well-defined block of software, named Generic Application Module (GAM), that is executed by the real-time scheduler. Each GAM is reconfigurable with a set of predefined configuration meta-parameters and interchanges information using a set of data pipes that are provided as inputs and required as output. Using these connections, different GAMs can be chained either in series or parallel. GAMs can be developed and debugged in a non-real-time system and, only once the robustness of the code and correctness of the algorithm are verified, deployed to the real-time system. The software also supplies a large set of utilities that greatly ease the interaction and debugging of a running system. Among the most useful are a highly efficient real-time logger, HTTP introspection of real-time objects, and HTTP remote configuration. MARTe is currently being used to successfully drive the plasma vertical stabilization controller on the largest magnetic confinement fusion device in the world, with a control loop cycle of 50 ?s and a jitter under 1 ?s. In this particular project, MARTe is used with the Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI)/Linux operating system exploiting the new ?86 multicore processors technology.

  16. Research of real-time communication software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maotang; Guo, Jingbo; Liu, Yuzhong; Li, Jiahong

    2003-11-01

    Real-time communication has been playing an increasingly important role in our work, life and ocean monitor. With the rapid progress of computer and communication technique as well as the miniaturization of communication system, it is needed to develop the adaptable and reliable real-time communication software in the ocean monitor system. This paper involves the real-time communication software research based on the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system. The object-oriented design method is adopted, which can transmit and receive video data and audio data as well as engineering data by satellite channel. In the real-time communication software, some software modules are developed, which can realize the point-to-point satellite intercommunication in the ocean monitor system. There are three advantages for the real-time communication software. One is that the real-time communication software increases the reliability of the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system working. Second is that some optional parameters are intercalated, which greatly increases the flexibility of the system working. Third is that some hardware is substituted by the real-time communication software, which not only decrease the expense of the system and promotes the miniaturization of communication system, but also aggrandizes the agility of the system.

  17. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  18. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs

  19. Real time detecting system for turning force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaobin, Yue [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Machinery Manufacturing Technology

    2001-07-01

    How to get the real-time value of forces dropped on the tool in the course of processing by piezoelectric sensors is introduced. First, the analog signals of the cutting force were achieved by these sensors, amplified and transferred into digital signals by A/D transferring card. Then real-time software reads the information, put it into its own coordinate, drew the curve of forces, displayed it on the screen by the real time and saved it for the technicians to analyze the situation of the tool. So the cutting parameter can be optimized to improve surface quality of the pieces.

  20. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  1. Coordinating Transit Transfers in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Transfers are a major source of travel time variability for transit passengers. Coordinating transfers between transit routes in real time can reduce passenger waiting times and travel time variability, but these benefits need to be contrasted with t...

  2. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  3. Scala for Real-Time Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Java served well as a general-purpose language. However, during its two decades of constant change it has gotten some weight and legacy in the language syntax and the libraries. Furthermore, Java's success for real-time systems is mediocre. Scala is a modern object-oriented and functional language...... with interesting new features. Although a new language, it executes on a Java virtual machine, reusing that technology. This paper explores Scala as language for future real-time systems....

  4. Real time monitoring of electron processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.; Kneeland, D.R.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    A real time radiation monitor (RTRM) has been developed for monitoring the dose rate (current density) of electron beam processors. The system provides continuous monitoring of processor output, electron beam uniformity, and an independent measure of operating voltage or electron energy. In view of the device's ability to replace labor-intensive dosimetry in verification of machine performance on a real-time basis, its application to providing archival performance data for in-line processing is discussed. (author)

  5. Comparative Evaluations of Four Specification Methods for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    December 1989 Comparative Evaluations of Four Specification Methods for Real - Time Systems David P. Wood William G. Wood Specification and Design Methods...Methods for Real - Time Systems Abstract: A number of methods have been proposed in the last decade for the specification of system and software requirements...and software specification for real - time systems . Our process for the identification of methods that meet the above criteria is described in greater

  6. Benefits of real-time gas management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolty, R.; Dolezalek, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In today's competitive gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation business environment, the requirements to do business are continually changing. These changes arise from government regulations such as the amendments to the Clean Air Act concerning the environment and FERC Order 636 concerning business practices. Other changes are due to advances in technology such as electronic flow measurement (EFM) and real-time communications capabilities within the gas industry. Gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation companies must be flexible in adapting to these changes to remain competitive. These dynamic requirements can be met with an open, real-time gas management computer information system. Such a system provides flexible services with a variety of software applications. Allocations, nominations management and gas dispatching are examples of applications that are provided on a real-time basis. By providing real-time services, the gas management system enables operations personnel to make timely adjustments within the current accounting period. Benefits realized from implementing a real-time gas management system include reduced unaccountable gas, reduced imbalance penalties, reduced regulatory violations, improved facility operations and better service to customers. These benefits give a company the competitive edge. This article discusses the applications provided, the benefits from implementing a real-time gas management system, and the definition of such a system

  7. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); Han, Soorim [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  8. Real-time PCR in virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Ian M; Arden, Katherine E; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-03-15

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of PCR product during real-time PCR. These are the DNA binding fluorophores, the 5' endonuclease, adjacent linear and hairpin oligoprobes and the self-fluorescing amplicons, which are described in detail. We also discuss factors that have restricted the development of multiplex real-time PCR as well as the role of real-time PCR in quantitating nucleic acids. Both amplification hardware and the fluorogenic detection chemistries have evolved rapidly as the understanding of real-time PCR has developed and this review aims to update the scientist on the current state of the art. We describe the background, advantages and limitations of real-time PCR and we review the literature as it applies to virus detection in the routine and research laboratory in order to focus on one of the many areas in which the application of real-time PCR has provided significant methodological benefits and improved patient outcomes. However, the technology discussed has been applied to other areas of microbiology as well as studies of gene expression and genetic disease.

  9. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  10. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    OpenAIRE

    Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identific...

  11. Enterocytozoon bieneusi Identification Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in HIV-Infected Humans from Kinshasa Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wumba, Roger; Jean, Menotti; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Madone, Mandina; Fabien, Kintoki; Josué, Zanga; Jean, Sala; Eric, Kendjo; AC, Guillo-Olczyk; Marc, Thellier

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and the genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in stool specimens from HIV patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Kinshasa hospitals between 2009 and 2012. Detection of microsporidia including E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis was performed in 242 HIV-infected patients. Typing was based on DNA polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA ITS region of E. bieneusi. PCRRFLP generated with two restriction enzymes (Nla III and Fnu 4HI) in PCR-amplified ITS products for classifying strains into different lineages. The diagnosis performance of the indirect immune-fluorescence-monoclonal antibody (IFI-AcM) was defined in comparison with real-time PCR as the gold standard. Results. Out of 242 HIV-infected patients, using the real-time PCR, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 7.9% (n = 19) among the 19 E. bieneusi, one was coinfected with E. intestinalis. In 19 E. bieneusi persons using PCR-RFLP method, 5 type I strains of E. bieneusi (26.3%) and 5 type IV strains of E. bieneusi (26.3%) were identified. The sensitivity of IFI-AcM was poor as estimated 42.1%. Conclusion. Despite different PCR methods, there is possible association between HIVinfection, geographic location (France, Cameroun, Democratic Republic of Congo), and the concurrence of type I and type IV strains. PMID:22811884

  12. Direct Quantitative Detection and Identification of Lactococcal Bacteriophages from Milk and Whey by Real-Time PCR: Application for the Detection of Lactococcal Bacteriophages in Goat's Raw Milk Whey in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Huong Ly-Chatain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Lactococcus bacteriophages in milk can partly or completely inhibit milk fermentation. To prevent the problems associated with the bacteriophages, the real-time PCR was developed in this study for direct detection from whey and milk of three main groups of Lactococcus bacteriophages, c2, 936, and P335. The optimization of DNA extraction protocol from complex matrices such as whey and milk was optimized allowed the amplification of PCR without any matrix and nontarget contaminant interference. The real-time PCR program was specific and with the detection limit of 102 PFU/mL. The curve slopes were −3.49, −3.69, and −3.45 with the amplification efficiency estimated at 94%, 94%, and 98% and the correlation coefficient (2 of 0.999, 0.999, and 0.998 for c2, 936 and P335 group, respectively. This method was then used to detect the bacteriophages in whey and goat's raw milk coming from three farms located in the Rhône-Alpes region (France.

  13. Testing of real-time-software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesland, G.; Ovenhausen, H.

    1975-05-01

    The situation in the area of testing real-time-software is unsatisfactory. During the first phase of the project PROMOTE (prozessorientiertes Modul- und Gesamttestsystem) an analysis of the momentary situation took place, results of which are summarized in the following study about some user interviews and an analysis of relevant literature. 22 users (industry, software-houses, hardware-manufacturers, and institutes) have been interviewed. Discussions were held about reliability of real-time software with special interest to error avoidance, testing, and debugging. Main aims of the analysis of the literature were elaboration of standard terms, comparison of existing test methods and -systems, and the definition of boundaries to related areas. During the further steps of this project some means and techniques will be worked out to systematically test real-time software. (orig.) [de

  14. Failure analysis of real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalashgar, A.; Stoelen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights essential aspects of real-time software systems that are strongly related to the failures and their course of propagation. The significant influence of means-oriented and goal-oriented system views in the description, understanding and analysing of those aspects is elaborated. The importance of performing failure analysis prior to reliability analysis of real-time systems is equally addressed. Problems of software reliability growth models taking the properties of such systems into account are discussed. Finally, the paper presents a preliminary study of a goal-oriented approach to model the static and dynamic characteristics of real-time systems, so that the corresponding analysis can be based on a more descriptive and informative picture of failures, their effects and the possibility of their occurrence. (author)

  15. Real Time Linux - The RTOS for Astronomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P. N.

    The BoF was attended by about 30 participants and a free CD of real time Linux-based upon RedHat 5.2-was available. There was a detailed presentation on the nature of real time Linux and the variants for hard real time: New Mexico Tech's RTL and DIAPM's RTAI. Comparison tables between standard Linux and real time Linux responses to time interval generation and interrupt response latency were presented (see elsewhere in these proceedings). The present recommendations are to use RTL for UP machines running the 2.0.x kernels and RTAI for SMP machines running the 2.2.x kernel. Support, both academically and commercially, is available. Some known limitations were presented and the solutions reported e.g., debugging and hardware support. The features of RTAI (scheduler, fifos, shared memory, semaphores, message queues and RPCs) were described. Typical performance statistics were presented: Pentium-based oneshot tasks running > 30kHz, 486-based oneshot tasks running at ~ 10 kHz, periodic timer tasks running in excess of 90 kHz with average zero jitter peaking to ~ 13 mus (UP) and ~ 30 mus (SMP). Some detail on kernel module programming, including coding examples, were presented showing a typical data acquisition system generating simulated (random) data writing to a shared memory buffer and a fifo buffer to communicate between real time Linux and user space. All coding examples were complete and tested under RTAI v0.6 and the 2.2.12 kernel. Finally, arguments were raised in support of real time Linux: it's open source, free under GPL, enables rapid prototyping, has good support and the ability to have a fully functioning workstation capable of co-existing hard real time performance. The counter weight-the negatives-of lack of platforms (x86 and PowerPC only at present), lack of board support, promiscuous root access and the danger of ignorance of real time programming issues were also discussed. See ftp://orion.tuc.noao.edu/pub/pnd/rtlbof.tgz for the StarOffice overheads

  16. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  17. Replacing OSE with Real Time capable Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Simon; Rutgersson, Olof

    2009-01-01

    For many years OSE has been a common used operating system, with real time extensions enhancements, in embed-ded systems. But in the last decades, Linux has grown and became a competitor to common operating systems and, in recent years, even as an operating system with real time extensions. With this in mind, ÅF was interested in replacing the quite expensive OSE with some distribution of the open source based Linux on a PowerPC MPC8360. Therefore, our purpose with thesis is to implement Linu...

  18. SignalR real time application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2013-01-01

    This step-by-step guide gives you practical advice, tips, and tricks that will have you writing real-time apps quickly and easily.If you are a .NET developer who wants to be at the cutting edge of development, then this book is for you. Real-time application development is made simple in this guide, so as long as you have basic knowledge of .NET, a copy of Visual Studio, and NuGet installed, you are ready to go.

  19. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  20. Real-time ISEE data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Baker, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time ISEE data system directed toward predicting geomagnetic substorms and storms is discussed. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution.

  1. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities

  2. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  3. Automated real-time software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  4. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-based monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  5. Real-Time Operating System/360

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  6. Advances in Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Samarjit

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Farber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects.

  7. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  8. Collecting data in real time with postcards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Systems. These methods often involve cross-sectional, retrospective data collection. This paper describes the postcard method for prospective real-time data collection, both in paper format and electronic format. This paper then describes the results obtained using postcard techniques in Denmark...

  9. Studying Complex Interactions in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The study of human behavior must take into account the social context, and real-time, networked experiments with multiple participants is one increasingly popular way to achieve this. In this paper a framework based on Python and XMPP is presented that aims to make it easy to develop...

  10. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  11. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    seeks to implement and assess existing reconstruction algorithms using multi-processors of modern graphics cards and many-core computer processors and to cover some of the potential clinical applications which might benefit from using an interactive real-time MRI system. First an off...

  12. Real-time PCR gene expression profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubista, Mikael; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Šindelka, Radek; Jonák, Jiří; Andrade, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 56-60 ISSN 1360-8606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500520601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : real - time PCR, * expression profiling * statistical analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  14. Model Checking Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2018-01-01

    This chapter surveys timed automata as a formalism for model checking real-time systems. We begin with introducing the model, as an extension of finite-state automata with real-valued variables for measuring time. We then present the main model-checking results in this framework, and give a hint...

  15. Real-time systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Phillip A

    2004-01-01

    "Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis, Third Edition is essential for students and practicing software engineers who want improved designs, faster computation, and ultimate cost savings. Chapters discuss hardware considerations and software requirements, software systems design, the software production process, performance estimation and optimization, and engineering considerations."--Jacket.

  16. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input...

  17. Temporal logics and real time expert systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert

  18. Ray Tracing for Real-time Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes efficient rendering algorithms based on ray tracing, and the application of these algorithms to real-time games. Compared to rasterizationbased approaches, rendering based on ray tracing allows elegant and correct simulation of important global effects, such as shadows,

  19. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-base monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  20. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  1. Composing Synchronisation and Real-Time Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    There have been a number of publications illustrating the successes of object-oriented techniques in creating highly reusable software systems. Several concurrent languages have been proposed for specifying reusable synchronization specifications. Recently, a number of real-time object-oriented

  2. Concepts of real time and semi-real time material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief consideration of the traditional material balance accounting on an MBA basis, this paper explores the basic concepts of real time and semi-real time material control, together with some of the major problems to be solved. Three types of short-term material control are discussed: storage, batch processing, and continuous processing. (DLC)

  3. Real-time ISEE data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Baker, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic substorms and storms would be of great scientific and commercial interest. A real-time ISEE data system directed toward this purpose is discussed in detail. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution. 6 figures, 1 table

  4. Real time animation of space plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.F.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images

  5. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  6. Real-time sonography in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S G

    1978-03-01

    Three hundred fifty real-time scans were performed on pregnant women for various indications. Placental localization was satisfactorily obtained in 173 of 174 studies. Estimates of fetal gestation from directly measured biparietal diameter were +/-2 weeks of actual gestation in 153 of 172 (88.9%) measurements. The presence or absence of fetal motion and cardiac activity established a diagnosis of fetal viability or fetal death in 32 patients after the first trimester. Accurate diagnosis was made in 52 of 57 patients with threatened abortions, and two of these errors occurred in scans performed before completion of the eighth postmenstrual week. Because of the ability to demonstrate fetal motion, real-time sonography should have many applications in obstetrics.

  7. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G.; Florez, J.; Borelli, R.; Fong, W.; Miko, J.; Trujillo, C.

    1989-01-01

    With the construction of several new large aperture telescopes and the development of large format array detectors in the near IR, the ability to obtain diffraction limited seeing via IR array speckle interferometry offers a powerful tool. We are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element 2D complex FFT, and to average the power spectrum all within the 25 msec coherence time for speckles at near IR wavelength. The processor is a compact unit controlled by a PC with real time display and data storage capability. It provides the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with off-line methods

  8. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos

    1989-02-01

    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  9. Real Time Structured Light and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob

    Structured light scanning is a versatile method for 3D shape acquisition. While much faster than most competing measurement techniques, most high-end structured light scans still take in the order of seconds to complete. Low-cost sensors such as Microsoft Kinect and time of flight cameras have made......, increased processing power, and methods presented in this thesis, it is possible to perform structured light scans in real time with 20 depth measurements per second. This offers new opportunities for studying dynamic scenes, quality control, human-computer interaction and more. This thesis discusses...... several aspects of real time structured light systems and presents contributions within calibration, scene coding and motion correction aspects. The problem of reliable and fast calibration of such systems is addressed with a novel calibration scheme utilising radial basis functions [Contribution B...

  10. Real time automatic discriminating of ultrasonic flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohd Hanif Md Saad; Marzuki Mustafa; Mohd Redzwan Rosli

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the real time automatic discriminating of flaws from two categories; i. cracks (planar defect) and ii. Non-cracks (volumetric defect such as cluster porosity and slag) using pulse-echo ultrasound. The raw ultrasonic flaws signal were collected from a computerized robotic plane scanning system over the whole of each reflector as the primary source of data. The signal is then filtered and the analysis in both time and frequency domain were executed to obtain the selected feature. The real time feature analysis techniques measured the number of peaks, maximum index, pulse duration, rise time and fall time. The obtained features could be used to distinguish between quantitatively classified flaws by using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. The proposed algorithm and complete system were implemented in a computer software developed using Microsoft Visual BASIC 6.0 (author)

  11. Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.

  12. Real-time interactive treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an interactive treatment planning platform that permits real-time manipulation of dose distributions including DVHs and other dose metrics. The hypothesis underlying the approach proposed here is that the process of evaluating potential dose distribution options and deciding on the best clinical trade-offs may be separated from the derivation of the actual delivery parameters used for the patient’s treatment. For this purpose a novel algorithm for deriving an Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) was developed. The ADE algorithm is computationally efficient so as to update dose distributions in effectively real-time while accurately incorporating the limits of what can be achieved in practice. The resulting system is a software environment for interactive real-time manipulation of dose that permits the clinician to rapidly develop a fully customized 3D dose distribution. Graphical navigation of dose distributions is achieved by a sophisticated method of identifying contributing fluence elements, modifying those elements and re-computing the entire dose distribution. 3D dose distributions are calculated in ∼2–20 ms. Including graphics processing overhead, clinicians may visually interact with the dose distribution (e.g. ‘drag’ a DVH) and display updates of the dose distribution at a rate of more than 20 times per second. Preliminary testing on various sites shows that interactive planning may be completed in ∼1–5 min, depending on the complexity of the case (number of targets and OARs). Final DVHs are derived through a separate plan optimization step using a conventional VMAT planning system and were shown to be achievable within 2% and 4% in high and low dose regions respectively. With real-time interactive planning trade-offs between Target(s) and OARs may be evaluated efficiently providing a better understanding of the dosimetric options available to each patient in static or adaptive RT. (paper)

  13. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  14. Probabilistic real-time contingency ranking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijuskovic, N.A.; Stojnic, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time contingency method based on a probabilistic index-expected energy not supplied. This way it is possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the electric power system equipment outages. This approach enables more comprehensive ranking of contingencies and it is possible to form reliability cost values that can form the basis for hourly spot price calculations. The electric power system of Serbia is used as an example for the method proposed. (author)

  15. Advanced real time radioscopy and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, Ch.; Nuding, W.; Grimm, R.; Wiacker, H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes three x-ray inspection systems. One radioscopic system is designed for the inspection of castings. The next integrates a radioscopic and a tomographic mode. The radioscopy has a high resolution camera and real time image processor. Radiation sources are a 450 kV industrial and a 200 kV microfocus tube. The third system is a tomographic system with 30 scintillation detectors for the inspection of nuclear waste containers. (author)

  16. Real time computer controlled weld skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A real time, adaptive control, automatic welding system was developed. This system utilizes the general case geometrical relationships between a weldment and a weld skate to precisely maintain constant weld speed and torch angle along a contoured workplace. The system is compatible with the gas tungsten arc weld process or can be adapted to other weld processes. Heli-arc cutting and machine tool routing operations are possible applications.

  17. Real-time controller for hydrostatic transmission

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M. Ing. (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) This dissertation describes the development of a modular real-time controller implemented on a personal computer for a hydrostatically driven vehicle. In such a vehicle the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced with a hydrostatic pump and two hydrostatic motors, making use of the secondary control principle. The infinitely variable transmission and wheel pair controller gives the vehicle superior traction and mobility over conventi...

  18. Telepositional portable real time radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu, Jeni; Matei, Corina; Popescu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    Technology development for complex portable networks is on going to meet the area dosimetry challenge, improving the basic design using new telepositional GPS satellite methods and GSM terrestrial civil radio transmission networks. The system and devices proposed overcome the limitations of fixed and portable dosimeters, providing wireless real time radiations data and geospatial information's means, using many portable dosimeter stations and a mobile dosimeter computerised central console. (authors)

  19. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide; Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  20. Boundary Correct Real-Time Soft Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bjarke; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Larsen, Bent Dalgaard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method to determine correct shadow boundaries from an area light source using umbra and penumbra volumes. The light source is approximated by a circular disk as this gives a fast way to extrude the volumes. The method also gives a crude estimate of the visibility of the are...... for implementation on most programmable hardware. Though some crude approximations are used in the visibility function, the method can be used to produce soft shadows with correct boundaries in real time....

  1. Real-time Astrometry Using Phase Congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A.; Polo, M.; Tang, Y.

    Phase congruency is a computer vision technique that proves to perform well for determining the tracks of optical objects (Flewelling, AMOS 2014). We report on a real-time implementation of this using an FPGA and CMOS Image Sensor, with on-sky data. The lightweight instrument can provide tracking update signals to the mount of the telescope, as well as determine abnormal objects in the scene.

  2. LHCb's Real-Time Alignment in Run2

    CERN Multimedia

    Batozskaya, Varvara

    2015-01-01

    Stable, precise spatial alignment and PID calibration are necessary to achieve optimal detector performances. During Run2, LHCb will have a new real-time detector alignment and calibration to reach equivalent performances in the online and offline reconstruction. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection by applying stronger constraints as well as hadronic particle identification at the trigger level. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger.

  3. Real-time multiple image manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenson, J.S.; Shalev, S.; Legris, J.; Goertzen, Y.

    1984-01-01

    There are many situations in which it is desired to manipulate two or more images under real-time operator control. The authors have investigated a number of such cases in order to determine their value and applicability in clinical medicine and laboratory research. Several examples are presented in detail. The DICOM-8 video image computer system was used due to its capability of storing two 512 x 512 x 8 bit images and operating on them, and/or an incoming video frame, with any of a number of real time operations including addition, subtraction, inversion, averaging, logical AND, NAND, OR, NOR, NOT, XOR and XNOR, as well as combinations of these. Some applications involve manipulations of or among the stored images. In others, a stored image is used as a mask or template for positioning or adjusting a second image to be grabbed via a video camera. The accuracy of radiotherapy treatment is verified by comparing port films with the original radiographic planning film, which is previously digitized and stored. Moving the port film on the light box while viewing the real-time subtraction image allows for adjustments of zoom, translation and rotation, together with contrast and edge enhancement

  4. Real time ultrasonography in obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyung Sik; Kim, Ho Kyun; Sung, Nak Kwan; Kim, Soon Yong

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a predominantly accurate, relatively simple unique diagnostic method of obstructive jaundice. The ultrasonographic findings of obstructive jaundice are dilated intra- and extrahepatic duct with intraluminal hyper reflective echo or mass in and/ or around the bile duct. The superiority of high resolution real time ultrasonography for the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice is bases on the easy detectability of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts by its multiple sectional images in a short time, the flexibility of probe and small crystal size. Author evaluated real time sonographic findings 46 obstructive jaundice patients confirmed by surgery or radiographical examinations. The results were: 1. Diameter of extrahepatic duct in obstructive jaundice were varied from normal to 4.0 Cm, mostly 8 to 10 mm in diameter (26%). Degree of dilatation of biliary duct appeared more prominent in cancer patients than other causes of obstruction. 2. The site of obstruction was detected in 85% (39/46) and its common site was common bile duct in 63% (29/46). 3. The diagnostic accuracy of choledocholithiasis and cancer was 82% (22/27) and 44% (4/9), respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of the real time ultrasonography in obstructive jaundice was over all 75% (34/46)

  5. Real-time video quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Narvekar, Niranjan; Wang, Beibei; Ding, Ran; Zou, Dekun; Cash, Glenn; Bhagavathy, Sitaram; Bloom, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    The ITU-T Recommendation G.1070 is a standardized opinion model for video telephony applications that uses video bitrate, frame rate, and packet-loss rate to measure the video quality. However, this model was original designed as an offline quality planning tool. It cannot be directly used for quality monitoring since the above three input parameters are not readily available within a network or at the decoder. And there is a great room for the performance improvement of this quality metric. In this article, we present a real-time video quality monitoring solution based on this Recommendation. We first propose a scheme to efficiently estimate the three parameters from video bitstreams, so that it can be used as a real-time video quality monitoring tool. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm based on the G.1070 model that provides more accurate quality prediction is proposed. Finally, to use this metric in real-world applications, we present an example emerging application of real-time quality measurement to the management of transmitted videos, especially those delivered to mobile devices.

  6. Real-time earthquake data feasible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Scientists agree that early warning devices and monitoring of both Hurricane Hugo and the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption saved thousands of lives. What would it take to develop this sort of early warning and monitoring system for earthquake activity?Not all that much, claims a panel assigned to study the feasibility, costs, and technology needed to establish a real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) system. The panel, drafted by the National Academy of Science's Committee on Seismology, has presented its findings in Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring. The recently released report states that “present technology is entirely capable of recording and processing data so as to provide real-time information, enabling people to mitigate somewhat the earthquake disaster.” RTEM systems would consist of two parts—an early warning system that would give a few seconds warning before severe shaking, and immediate postquake information within minutes of the quake that would give actual measurements of the magnitude. At this time, however, this type of warning system has not been addressed at the national level for the United States and is not included in the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, according to the report.

  7. Tuning Linux to meet real time requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Richard S.; Le, Dang N.

    2007-04-01

    There is a desire to use Linux in military systems. Customers are requesting contractors to use open source to the maximal possible extent in contracts. Linux is probably the best operating system of choice to meet this need. It is widely used. It is free. It is royalty free, and, best of all, it is completely open source. However, there is a problem. Linux was not originally built to be a real time operating system. There are many places where interrupts can and will be blocked for an indeterminate amount of time. There have been several attempts to bridge this gap. One of them is from RTLinux, which attempts to build a microkernel underneath Linux. The microkernel will handle all interrupts and then pass it up to the Linux operating system. This does insure good interrupt latency; however, it is not free [1]. Another is RTAI, which provides a similar typed interface; however, the PowerPC platform, which is used widely in real time embedded community, was stated as "recovering" [2]. Thus this is not suited for military usage. This paper provides a method for tuning a standard Linux kernel so it can meet the real time requirement of an embedded system.

  8. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  9. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  10. Simultaneous real-time data collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klincsek, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of electronic test equipment which executes, supervises, and reports on various tests. This validation process uses computers to analyze test results and report conclusions. The test equipment consists of an electronics component and the data collection and reporting unit. The PC software, display screens, and real-time data-base are described. Pass-fail procedures and data replay are discussed. The OS2 operating system and Presentation Manager user interface system were used to create a highly interactive automated system. The system outputs are hardcopy printouts and MS DOS format files which may be used as input for other PC programs.

  11. Temporal logics and real time expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, J A

    1996-10-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert systems, where a fixed (and usually small) response time must be guaranteed. One such expert system, Fagan's VM, is reviewed, and a delineation is given of how to formally describe and reason with time in medical protocols. It is shown that Petri net theory is a useful tool to check the correctness of formalised protocols.

  12. CUDA-based real time surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youquan; De, Suvranu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a general software platform that enables real time surgery simulation on the newly available compute unified device architecture (CUDA)from NVIDIA. CUDA-enabled GPUs harness the power of 128 processors which allow data parallel computations. Compared to the previous GPGPU, it is significantly more flexible with a C language interface. We report implementation of both collision detection and consequent deformation computation algorithms. Our test results indicate that the CUDA enables a twenty times speedup for collision detection and about fifteen times speedup for deformation computation on an Intel Core 2 Quad 2.66 GHz machine with GeForce 8800 GTX.

  13. Real-time PCR in virology

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Ian M.; Arden, Katherine E.; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of P...

  14. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  15. Real-Time Thevenin Impedance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    2013-01-01

    operating state, and strict time constraints are difficult to adhere to as the complexity of the grid increases. Several suggested approaches for real-time stability assessment require Thevenin impedances to be determined for the observed system conditions. By combining matrix factorization, graph reduction......, and parallelization, we develop an algorithm for computing Thevenin impedances an order of magnitude faster than previous approaches. We test the factor-and-solve algorithm with data from several power grids of varying complexity, and we show how the algorithm allows realtime stability assessment of complex power...

  16. Real-time modeling of heat distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Li, Hongfei; Yarlanki, Srinivas

    2018-01-02

    Techniques for real-time modeling temperature distributions based on streaming sensor data are provided. In one aspect, a method for creating a three-dimensional temperature distribution model for a room having a floor and a ceiling is provided. The method includes the following steps. A ceiling temperature distribution in the room is determined. A floor temperature distribution in the room is determined. An interpolation between the ceiling temperature distribution and the floor temperature distribution is used to obtain the three-dimensional temperature distribution model for the room.

  17. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  18. A real-time Global Warming Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K; Allen, M R; Forster, P M; Otto, F E L; Mitchell, D M; Matthews, H D; Frame, D J

    2017-11-13

    We propose a simple real-time index of global human-induced warming and assess its robustness to uncertainties in climate forcing and short-term climate fluctuations. This index provides improved scientific context for temperature stabilisation targets and has the potential to decrease the volatility of climate policy. We quantify uncertainties arising from temperature observations, climate radiative forcings, internal variability and the model response. Our index and the associated rate of human-induced warming is compatible with a range of other more sophisticated methods to estimate the human contribution to observed global temperature change.

  19. General purpose computers in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    I see three main trends in the use of general purpose computers in real time. The first is more processing power. The second is the use of higher speed interconnects between computers (allowing more data to be delivered to the processors). The third is the use of larger programs running in the computers. Although there is still work that needs to be done, I believe that all indications are that the online need for general purpose computers should be available for the SCC and LHC machines. 2 figs

  20. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Toylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.

  1. Software Design Methods for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This module describes the concepts and methods used in the software design of real time systems . It outlines the characteristics of real time systems , describes...the role of software design in real time system development, surveys and compares some software design methods for real - time systems , and

  2. Real-time inextensible surgical thread simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lang; Liu, Qian

    2018-03-27

    This paper discusses a real-time simulation method of inextensible surgical thread based on the Cosserat rod theory using position-based dynamics (PBD). The method realizes stable twining and knotting of surgical thread while including inextensibility, bending, twisting and coupling effects. The Cosserat rod theory is used to model the nonlinear elastic behavior of surgical thread. The surgical thread model is solved with PBD to achieve a real-time, extremely stable simulation. Due to the one-dimensional linear structure of surgical thread, the direct solution of the distance constraint based on tridiagonal matrix algorithm is used to enhance stretching resistance in every constraint projection iteration. In addition, continuous collision detection and collision response guarantee a large time step and high performance. Furthermore, friction is integrated into the constraint projection process to stabilize the twining of multiple threads and complex contact situations. Through comparisons with existing methods, the surgical thread maintains constant length under large deformation after applying the direct distance constraint in our method. The twining and knotting of multiple threads correspond to stable solutions to contact and friction forces. A surgical suture scene is also modeled to demonstrate the practicality and simplicity of our method. Our method achieves stable and fast simulation of inextensible surgical thread. Benefiting from the unified particle framework, the rigid body, elastic rod, and soft body can be simultaneously simulated. The method is appropriate for applications in virtual surgery that require multiple dynamic bodies.

  3. Real-time applications of neural nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs

  4. A real-time radiation mapping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoggins, W.A.; VanEtten, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype of a real-time radiation mapping system, Ranger, was developed to respond to an accident involving the release of plutonium for the Department of Energy's Accident Response Group. In 1987 Ranger demonstrated that it can provide an efficient method of monitoring large areas of land for radioactive contamination. With the experience gained from the operation of the prototype, the external computer and software are being upgraded in order to obtain a fully operational system. The new system uses the prototype's commercially available line-of-sight microwave system for determining position and the same radiation detection instruments. The data obtained from the radiation detection instrument(s) are linked back to the external computer along with the relative position of the measurement through the ranging system. The data are displayed on a gridded map as colored circles and permanently stored in real-time. The different colors represent different contamination levels. Contours can be drawn using the permanently stored data. 4 figs

  5. Real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Choi, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    EPRI has produced a real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system. This system is called SMART ChemWorks and is based on the EPRI ChemWorks codes. System models, chemistry parameter relationships and diagnostic approaches from these codes are integrated with real time data collection, an intelligence engine and Internet technologies to allow for automated analysis of system chemistry. Significant data management capabilities are also included which allow the user to evaluate data and create automated reporting. Additional features have been added to the system in recent years including tracking and evaluation of primary chemistry as well as the calculation and tracking of primary to secondary leakage in PWRs. This system performs virtual sensing, identifies normal and upset conditions, and evaluates the consistency of on-line monitor and grab sample readings. The system also makes use of virtual fingerprinting to identify the cause of any chemistry upsets. This technology employs plant-specific data and models to determine the chemical state of the steam cycle. (authors)

  6. Interfacing real-time information with OILMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Spaulding, M.

    1993-01-01

    OILMAP is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based oil spill response system applicable to oil spill contingency planning and real-time response for any location in the world. OILMAP has a graphic user interface and was designed in a modular framework so that different spill models could be incorporated into the system, as well as a suite of sophisticated data management tools, without increasing the complexity of the user interface. The basic OILMAP configuration contains a surface trajectory model intended for rapid, first-order estimates of spill movement. A variety of additional models are available within the OILMAP shell to address issues such as weathering, cleanup activities, and probabilities of oiling. A simplified geographic information system (GIS) allows display and manipulation of point, line, and area data geographically referenced to the spill domain. The GIS can import raster data so that images collected by satellite and aerial photography may be displayed. Several new capabilities have been implemented for OILMAP that allow real-time data to be integrated. These features include linking with the OILTRACKER free-floating buoys via a global positioning system, linking of hydrodynamic data from the Ocean Data and Information Network, the Harvard ocean forecasting system, and SeaSonde radar, and the capability of importing spill observations from any remotely sensed data. A further link between OILMAP's GIS and spill models has been developed which allows model predictions to be corrected to observed oil locations while the model runs. 13 refs., 6 figs

  7. Real-time applications of neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Real-time applications of neural nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas e.g. improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. In this paper, such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed

  9. Establish and Evaluate Ada Runtime Features of Interest for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-15

    Runtime Features of Interest for Real - Time Systems -,-. CLEARED POR :)E,4 pUEL tCATLON SEP 2 0 19E19 ,CETM ORP t ’R RE LOO O Nt-U~HM- ANDQ SECURITY...ESTABLISH AND EVALUATE py ADA RUNTIME FEATURES OF INTEREST FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS CONTRACT NUMBER: MDA 903-87-D-0056 IITRI PROJECT NUMBER: T06168 PREPARED...2 2.0 SELECTION PROCESS OVERVIEW .................................... 3 2.1 REAL - TIME SYSTEMS IDENTIFICATION ........................... 4 2.2

  10. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  11. Molecular detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in a Dutch traveler by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Lonneke; Bart, Aldert; Verhaar, Nienke; van Gool, Tom; Pronk, Marjolijn; Scharnhorst, Volkher

    2012-07-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi infection with low parasitemia presents a diagnostic challenge, as rapid diagnostic tests are often negative and identification to the species level by microscopy is difficult. P. knowlesi malaria in a traveler is described, and real-time PCR is demonstrated to support fast and reliable diagnosis and identification to the species level.

  12. Robust synthesis for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Traonouez, Luois-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Specification theories for real-time systems allow reasoning about interfaces and their implementation models, using a set of operators that includes satisfaction, refinement, logical and parallel composition. To make such theories applicable throughout the entire design process from an abstract...... of introducing small perturbations into formal models. We address this problem of robust implementations in timed specification theories. We first consider a fixed perturbation and study the robustness of timed specifications with respect to the operators of the theory. To this end we synthesize robust...... specification to an implementation, we need to reason about the possibility to effectively implement the theoretical specifications on physical systems, despite their limited precision. In the literature, this implementation problem has been linked to the robustness problem that analyzes the consequences...

  13. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON REAL TIME DATA WAREHOUSING (RTDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Bogdan DINU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The RTDW concept originated in the early 2000s. By that time, computing power had increased to a level that was allowing extraction of data collections for reporting purposes. Such collections were used almost in real time and at speeds nearly comparable to what an operation system was capable to deliver. The main idea will be to eliminate some of the components of the classic extraction process which is basically the most costly factor less time - consuming. We anticipate that the following factors will be decisive: elimination of batch-type processes [1], data compression techniques, data capture techniques, ability to keep in cache a large volume of data, parallel processing, and data mining algorithms that can adapt to such applications.

  15. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...... from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and may present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in both clinical and veterinarian settings....

  16. Operational and real-time Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ioana SANDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component of a company’s IT framework is a business intelligence (BI system. BI enables business users to report on, analyze and optimize business operations to reduce costs and increase revenues. Organizations use BI for strategic and tactical decision making where the decision-making cycle may span a time period of several weeks (e.g., campaign management or months (e.g., improving customer satisfaction.Competitive pressures coming from a very dynamic business environment are forcing companies to react faster to changing business conditions and customer requirements. As a result, there is now a need to use BI to help drive and optimize business operations on a daily basis, and, in some cases, even for intraday decision making. This type of BI is usually called operational business intelligence and real-time business intelligence.

  17. Performance evaluation of real time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Saravanan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The Real Time Radiography (RTR) system can be studied completely by knowing the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the whole system. The MTF curve is a special form of contrast/detail-size diagram in which the image contrast is plotted against the spatial frequency of a test object measured in line-pairs per millimetre (lp/mm). MTF curves are widely used to measure the characteristics of optical equipment, particularly for assessing the contribution of individual items in a complex imaging transfer system. Codes of practice indicate that the image intensifier systems should be checked periodically to assess its performance through the use of MTF curves and step wedges for contrast ratio. Authors, instead, suggest the use of performance curves which are simple to obtain and can be easily interpreted by radiographers. (author)

  18. Real time ray tracing based on shader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, JiangHeng; Li, Min

    2017-07-01

    Ray tracing is a rendering algorithm for generating an image through tracing lights into an image plane, it can simulate complicate optical phenomenon like refraction, depth of field and motion blur. Compared with rasterization, ray tracing can achieve more realistic rendering result, however with greater computational cost, simple scene rendering can consume tons of time. With the GPU's performance improvement and the advent of programmable rendering pipeline, complicated algorithm can also be implemented directly on shader. So, this paper proposes a new method that implement ray tracing directly on fragment shader, mainly include: surface intersection, importance sampling and progressive rendering. With the help of GPU's powerful throughput capability, it can implement real time rendering of simple scene.

  19. Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2009-01-01

    Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.

  20. Optimal, real-time control--colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1991-05-01

    With reasonable definitions, optimal control is possible for both classical and quantal systems with new approaches called PISC(Parallel) and NISC(Neural) from analogy with RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing). If control equals interaction, observation and comparison to some figure of merit with interaction via external fields, then optimization comes from varying these fields to give design or operating goals. Structural stability can then give us tolerance and design constraints. But simulations use simplified models, are not in real-time and assume fixed or stationary conditions, so optimal control goes far beyond convergence rates of algorithms. It is inseparable from design and this has many implications for colliders. 12 refs., 3 figs

  1. Real-time rockmass response from microseismics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew King; Michael Lofgren; Matt van de Werken [CSIRO Exploration and Mining (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a prototype real-time microseismic monitoring system for strata control management and forewarning of geotechnical hazards. Power and communications problems have been addressed by developing a wirelessly connected network of solar-powered acquisition nodes, one at the top of each instrumented borehole. The open-source 'earthworm' earthquake acquisition software, which can run on different hardware platforms and use different acquisition cards, was modified for use in a coal environment by developing special new arrival-picking and event-location procedures. The system was field-trialled at Moranbah North mine. The acquisition software performed well, as did wireless communications and solar power. There were issues with the acquisition hardware selected, including problems with timing synchronisation, which is essential for seismic event location. Although these were fixed during the test, different hardware is likely to be used in future installations.

  2. Analyzer of neutron flux in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Carrillo M, R.A.; Balderas, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    With base in the study of the real signals of neutron flux of instability events occurred in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant where the nucleus oscillation phenomena of the reactor are in the 0 to 2.5 Hz range, it has been seen the possibility about the development a surveillance and diagnostic equipment capable to analyze in real time the behavior of nucleus in this frequencies range. An important method for surveillance the stability of the reactor nucleus is the use of the Power spectral density which allows to determine the frequencies and amplitudes contained in the signals. It is used an instrument carried out by LabVIEW graphic programming with a data acquisition card of 16 channels which works at Windows 95/98 environment. (Author)

  3. Development of the real time monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Tadashi; Kaburaki, Hideo

    1996-10-01

    Large-scale simulation technique is studied at the Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering (CCSE) for the computational science research in nuclear fields. Visualization and animation processing technique are studied and developed for efficient understanding of simulation results. The real time monitor system, in which on-going simulation results are transferred from a supercomputer or workstation to a graphic workstation and are visualized and recorded, is described in this report. This system is composed of the graphic workstation and the video equipment connected to the network. The control shell programs are the job-execution shell for simulations on supercomputers, the file-transfer shell for output files for visualization, and the shell for starting visualization tools. Special image processing technique and hardware are not necessary in this system and the standard visualization tool AVS and the UNIX commands are used, so that this system can be implemented and applied in various computer environments. (author)

  4. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, K C

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  5. Real-time Human Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albukhary, N.; Mustafah, Y. M.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional Closed-circuit Television (CCTV) system requires human to monitor the CCTV for 24/7 which is inefficient and costly. Therefore, there’s a need for a system which can recognize human activity effectively in real-time. This paper concentrates on recognizing simple activity such as walking, running, sitting, standing and landing by using image processing techniques. Firstly, object detection is done by using background subtraction to detect moving object. Then, object tracking and object classification are constructed so that different person can be differentiated by using feature detection. Geometrical attributes of tracked object, which are centroid and aspect ratio of identified tracked are manipulated so that simple activity can be detected.

  6. The RHIC real time data link system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.

    1997-01-01

    The RHIC Real Time Data Link (RTDL) System distributes to all locations around the RHIC ring machine parameters of general interest to accelerator systems and users. The system, along with supporting host interface, is centrally located. The RTDL System is comprised of two module types: the Encoder Module (V105) and the Input Module (V106). There is only one V105 module, but many (up to 128) Input Modules. Multiple buffered outputs are provided for use locally or for retransmission to other RHIC equipment locations. Machine parameters are generated from the V115 Waveform Generator Module (WFG) or from machine hardware and coupled directly through a fiber optic serial link to one of the V106 input channels

  7. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES (11505)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  8. A distributed real-time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuynman, F.; Hertzberger, L.O.

    1984-07-01

    A distributed real-time operating system, Fados, has been developed for an embedded multi-processor system. The operating system is based on a host target approach and provides for communication between arbitrary processes on host and target machine. The facilities offered are, apart from process communication, access to the file system on the host by programs on the target machine and monitoring and debugging of programs on the target machine from the host. The process communication has been designed in such a way that the possibilities are the same as those offered by the Ada programming language. The operating system is implemented on a MC 68000 based multiprocessor system in combination with a Unix host. (orig.)

  9. REAL TIME SPEED ESTIMATION FROM MONOCULAR VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Temiz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed studies have been performed for developing a real time system to be used for surveillance of the traffic flow by using monocular video cameras to find speeds of the vehicles for secure travelling are presented. We assume that the studied road segment is planar and straight, the camera is tilted downward a bridge and the length of one line segment in the image is known. In order to estimate the speed of a moving vehicle from a video camera, rectification of video images is performed to eliminate the perspective effects and then the interest region namely the ROI is determined for tracking the vehicles. Velocity vectors of a sufficient number of reference points are identified on the image of the vehicle from each video frame. For this purpose sufficient number of points from the vehicle is selected, and these points must be accurately tracked on at least two successive video frames. In the second step, by using the displacement vectors of the tracked points and passed time, the velocity vectors of those points are computed. Computed velocity vectors are defined in the video image coordinate system and displacement vectors are measured by the means of pixel units. Then the magnitudes of the computed vectors in the image space are transformed to the object space to find the absolute values of these magnitudes. The accuracy of the estimated speed is approximately ±1 – 2 km/h. In order to solve the real time speed estimation problem, the authors have written a software system in C++ programming language. This software system has been used for all of the computations and test applications.

  10. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Kawchuk

    Full Text Available Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  11. Real Time Monitor of Grid job executions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colling, D J; Martyniak, J; McGough, A S; Krenek, A; Sitera, J; Mulac, M; Dvorak, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and operation of the Real Time Monitor (RTM), developed by the Grid team in the HEP group at Imperial College London. This is arguably the most popular dissemination tool within the EGEE [1] Grid. Having been used, on many occasions including GridFest and LHC inauguration events held at CERN in October 2008. The RTM gathers information from EGEE sites hosting Logging and Bookkeeping (LB) services. Information is cached locally at a dedicated server at Imperial College London and made available for clients to use in near real time. The system consists of three main components: the RTM server, enquirer and an apache Web Server which is queried by clients. The RTM server queries the LB servers at fixed time intervals, collecting job related information and storing this in a local database. Job related data includes not only job state (i.e. Scheduled, Waiting, Running or Done) along with timing information but also other attributes such as Virtual Organization and Computing Element (CE) queue - if known. The job data stored in the RTM database is read by the enquirer every minute and converted to an XML format which is stored on a Web Server. This decouples the RTM server database from the client removing the bottleneck problem caused by many clients simultaneously accessing the database. This information can be visualized through either a 2D or 3D Java based client with live job data either being overlaid on to a 2 dimensional map of the world or rendered in 3 dimensions over a globe map using OpenGL.

  12. Deep neural networks to enable real-time multimessenger astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel; Huerta, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy has set in motion a scientific revolution. To further enhance the science reach of this emergent field of research, there is a pressing need to increase the depth and speed of the algorithms used to enable these ground-breaking discoveries. We introduce Deep Filtering—a new scalable machine learning method for end-to-end time-series signal processing. Deep Filtering is based on deep learning with two deep convolutional neural networks, which are designed for classification and regression, to detect gravitational wave signals in highly noisy time-series data streams and also estimate the parameters of their sources in real time. Acknowledging that some of the most sensitive algorithms for the detection of gravitational waves are based on implementations of matched filtering, and that a matched filter is the optimal linear filter in Gaussian noise, the application of Deep Filtering using whitened signals in Gaussian noise is investigated in this foundational article. The results indicate that Deep Filtering outperforms conventional machine learning techniques, achieves similar performance compared to matched filtering, while being several orders of magnitude faster, allowing real-time signal processing with minimal resources. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Deep Filtering can detect and characterize waveform signals emitted from new classes of eccentric or spin-precessing binary black holes, even when trained with data sets of only quasicircular binary black hole waveforms. The results presented in this article, and the recent use of deep neural networks for the identification of optical transients in telescope data, suggests that deep learning can facilitate real-time searches of gravitational wave sources and their electromagnetic and astroparticle counterparts. In the subsequent article, the framework introduced herein is directly applied to identify and characterize gravitational wave events in real LIGO data.

  13. Dynamic Modeling and Real-Time Monitoring of Froth Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushaal Popli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic fundamental model was developed linking processes from the microscopic scale to the equipment scale for batch froth flotation. State estimation, fault detection, and disturbance identification were implemented using the extended Kalman filter (EKF, which reconciles real-time measurements with dynamic models. The online measurements for the EKF were obtained through image analysis of froth images that were captured and analyzed using the commercial package VisioFroth (Metsor Minerals. The extracted image features were then correlated to recovery using principal component analysis and partial least squares regression. The performance of real-time state estimation and fault detection was validated using batch flotation of pure galena at various operating conditions. The image features that were strongly representative of recovery were identified, and calibration and validation were performed against off-line measurements of recovery. The EKF successfully captured the dynamics of the process by updating the model states and parameters using the online measurements. Finally, disturbances in the air flow rate and impeller speed were introduced into the system, and the dynamic behavior of the flotation process was successfully tracked and the disturbances were identified using state estimation.

  14. Real-time application of knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Duke, Eugene L.

    1989-01-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Facility (RPF) was developed to meet a need for a facility which allows flight systems concepts to be prototyped in a manner which allows for real-time flight test experience with a prototype system. This need was focused during the development and demonstration of the expert system flight status monitor (ESFSM). The ESFSM was a prototype system developed on a LISP machine, but lack of a method for progressive testing and problem identification led to an impractical system. The RPF concept was developed, and the ATMS designed to exercise its capabilities. The ATMS Phase 1 demonstration provided a practical vehicle for testing the RPF, as well as a useful tool. ATMS Phase 2 development continues. A dedicated F-18 is expected to be assigned for facility use in late 1988, with RAV modifications. A knowledge-based autopilot is being developed using the RPF. This is a system which provides elementary autopilot functions and is intended as a vehicle for testing expert system verification and validation methods. An expert system propulsion monitor is being prototyped. This system provides real-time assistance to an engineer monitoring a propulsion system during a flight.

  15. Approaching near real-time biosensing: microfluidic microsphere based biosensor for real-time analyte detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noa; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Golberg, Alexander; Konry, Tania

    2015-04-15

    In this study we describe a simple lab-on-a-chip (LOC) biosensor approach utilizing well mixed microfluidic device and a microsphere-based assay capable of performing near real-time diagnostics of clinically relevant analytes such cytokines and antibodies. We were able to overcome the adsorption kinetics reaction rate-limiting mechanism, which is diffusion-controlled in standard immunoassays, by introducing the microsphere-based assay into well-mixed yet simple microfluidic device with turbulent flow profiles in the reaction regions. The integrated microsphere-based LOC device performs dynamic detection of the analyte in minimal amount of biological specimen by continuously sampling micro-liter volumes of sample per minute to detect dynamic changes in target analyte concentration. Furthermore we developed a mathematical model for the well-mixed reaction to describe the near real time detection mechanism observed in the developed LOC method. To demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed real time monitoring LOC approach, we applied the device for clinically relevant analytes: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokine and its clinically used inhibitor, anti-TNF-α antibody. Based on the reported results herein, the developed LOC device provides continuous sensitive and specific near real-time monitoring method for analytes such as cytokines and antibodies, reduces reagent volumes by nearly three orders of magnitude as well as eliminates the washing steps required by standard immunoassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of XML in real-time data warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Wang, Beizhan; Liu, Lizhao; Ye, Su

    2009-07-01

    At present, XML is one of the most widely-used technologies of data-describing and data-exchanging, and the needs for real-time data make real-time data warehouse a popular area in the research of data warehouse. What effects can we have if we apply XML technology to the research of real-time data warehouse? XML technology solves many technologic problems which are impossible to be addressed in traditional real-time data warehouse, and realize the integration of OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing) and OLTP (Online transaction processing) environment. Then real-time data warehouse can truly be called "real time".

  17. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  18. Real Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K.; Kato, T.

    2003-12-01

    An early earthquake notification system in Japan had been developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) as a governmental organization responsible for issuing earthquake information and tsunami forecasts. The system was primarily developed for prompt provision of a tsunami forecast to the public with locating an earthquake and estimating its magnitude as quickly as possible. Years after, a system for a prompt provision of seismic intensity information as indices of degrees of disasters caused by strong ground motion was also developed so that concerned governmental organizations can decide whether it was necessary for them to launch emergency response or not. At present, JMA issues the following kinds of information successively when a large earthquake occurs. 1) Prompt report of occurrence of a large earthquake and major seismic intensities caused by the earthquake in about two minutes after the earthquake occurrence. 2) Tsunami forecast in around three minutes. 3) Information on expected arrival times and maximum heights of tsunami waves in around five minutes. 4) Information on a hypocenter and a magnitude of the earthquake, the seismic intensity at each observation station, the times of high tides in addition to the expected tsunami arrival times in 5-7 minutes. To issue information above, JMA has established; - An advanced nationwide seismic network with about 180 stations for seismic wave observation and about 3,400 stations for instrumental seismic intensity observation including about 2,800 seismic intensity stations maintained by local governments, - Data telemetry networks via landlines and partly via a satellite communication link, - Real-time data processing techniques, for example, the automatic calculation of earthquake location and magnitude, the database driven method for quantitative tsunami estimation, and - Dissemination networks, via computer-to-computer communications and facsimile through dedicated telephone lines. JMA operationally

  19. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  20. RTMOD: Real-Time MODel evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G; Galmarini, S.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 - 1999 RTMOD project is a system based on an automated statistical evaluation for the inter-comparison of real-time forecasts produced by long-range atmospheric dispersion models for national nuclear emergency predictions of cross-boundary consequences. The background of RTMOD was the 1994 ETEX project that involved about 50 models run in several Institutes around the world to simulate two real tracer releases involving a large part of the European territory. In the preliminary phase of ETEX, three dry runs (i.e. simulations in real-time of fictitious releases) were carried out. At that time, the World Wide Web was not available to all the exercise participants, and plume predictions were therefore submitted to JRC-Ispra by fax and regular mail for subsequent processing. The rapid development of the World Wide Web in the second half of the nineties, together with the experience gained during the ETEX exercises suggested the development of this project. RTMOD featured a web-based user-friendly interface for data submission and an interactive program module for displaying, intercomparison and analysis of the forecasts. RTMOD has focussed on model intercomparison of concentration predictions at the nodes of a regular grid with 0.5 degrees of resolution both in latitude and in longitude, the domain grid extending from 5W to 40E and 40N to 65N. Hypothetical releases were notified around the world to the 28 model forecasters via the web on a one-day warning in advance. They then accessed the RTMOD web page for detailed information on the actual release, and as soon as possible they then uploaded their predictions to the RTMOD server and could soon after start their inter-comparison analysis with other modelers. When additional forecast data arrived, already existing statistical results would be recalculated to include the influence by all available predictions. The new web-based RTMOD concept has proven useful as a practical decision-making tool for realtime

  1. Business Hypervisors for Real-time Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perneel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available System virtualization is one of the hottest trends in information technology today. It is not just another nice to use technology but has become fundamental across the business world. It is successfully used with many business application classes where cloud computing is the most visual one. Recently, it started to be used for soft Real-Time (RT applications such as IP telephony, media servers, audio and video streaming servers, automotive and communication systems in general. Running these applications on a traditional system (Hardware + Operating System guarantee their Quality of Service (QoS; virtualizing them means inserting a new layer between the hardware and the (virtual Operating System (OS, and thus adding extra overhead. Although these applications’ areas do not always demand hard time guarantees, they require the underlying virtualization layer supports low latency and provide adequate computational resources for completion within a reasonable or predictable timeframe. These aspects are intimately intertwined with the logic of the hypervisor scheduler. In this paper, a series of tests are conducted on three hypervisors (VMware ESXi, Hyper-V server and Xen to provide a benchmark of the latencies added to the applications running on top of them. These tests are conducted for different scenarios (use cases to take into consideration all the parameters and configurations of the hypervisors’ schedulers. Finally, this benchmark can be used as a reference for choosing the best hypervisor-application combination.

  2. The Colliderscope: a real-time show

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-six LED lights distributed over the facade of the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Blegdamsvej (Denmark) reproduce the actual signals coming from the Transition Radiation Detector (TRT) in ATLAS. Thanks to the Colliderscope, when a collision occurs below the ground in Geneva, people passing by in Blegdamsvej will be aware of it almost in real-time.   Niels Bohr Institute facade lit up to reflect the latest data from ATLAS-TRT . The pattern, intensity and duration of the Colliderscope’s flashes of light depend on the physical parameters of particles crossing the ATLAS TRT detector. “At the Colliderscope very little happens randomly”, explains Troels Petersen, a physicist at NBI and one of the people who conceived it. “Particularly interesting events, such as electrons, are shown by a bright light that remains on the facade for several seconds”. The Niels Bohr Institute has participated in the development of the TRT detector, and this is why t...

  3. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  4. Real-time control of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation fusion experiments, e.g. ITER, will be highly complex and raise new challenges in the field of control and data acquisition systems. The more advanced operation scenarios have to be capable of sustaining long pulse steady-state plasma and to suppress plasma instabilities almost completely. Such scenarios will heavily rely on Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) fast control systems. To ensure safety for the operation these systems have to be robust and resilient to faults while ensuring high availability. Mindful of the importance of such features for future fusion experiments ATCA based systems have been successfully used in fusion experiment as MIMO fast controller. This is the most promising architecture to substantially enhance the performance and capability of existing standard systems delivering well high throughput as well as high availability. The real-time control needs of a fusion experiment, the rational for the presently pursued solutions, the existing problems and the broad scientific and technical questions that need to be addressed on the path to a fusion power plant will be discussed.

  5. Real-time petroleum spill detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakin, D.T.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time autonomous oil and fuel spill detection system has been developed to rapidly detect of a wide range of petroleum products floating on, or suspended in water. The system consists of an array of spill detection buoys distributed within the area to be monitored. The buoys are composed of a float and a multispectral fluorometer, which looks up through the top 5 cm of water to detect floating and suspended petroleum products. The buoys communicate to a base station computer that controls the sampling of the buoys and analyses the data from each buoy to determine if a spill has occurred. If statistically significant background petroleum levels are detected, the system raises an oil spill alarm. The system is useful because early detection of a marine oil spill allows for faster containment, thereby minimizing the contaminated area and reducing cleanup costs. This paper also provided test results for biofouling, various petroleum product detection, water turbidity and wave tolerance. The technology has been successfully demonstrated. The UV light source keeps the optic window free from biofouling, and the electronics are fully submerged so there is no risk that the unit could ignite the vapours of a potential oil spill. The system can also tolerate moderately turbid waters and can therefore be used in many rivers, harbours, water intakes and sumps. The system can detect petroleum products with an average thickness of less than 3 micrometers floating on the water surface. 3 refs., 15 figs

  6. Real-time ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Gopichand; Nair, Satish; Liu, Harry; Brown, Lawrence M.

    1996-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing techniques are currently used as an alternative to radiography for detecting, classifying,and sizing weld defects, and for evaluating weld quality. Typically, ultrasonic weld inspections are performed manually, which require significant operator expertise and time. Thus, in recent years, the emphasis is to develop automated methods to aid or replace operators in critical weld inspections where inspection time, reliability, and operator safety are major issues. During this period, significant advances wee made in the areas of weld defect classification and sizing. Very few of these methods, however have found their way into the market, largely due to the lack of an integrated approach enabling real-time implementation. Also, not much research effort was directed in improving weld acceptance criteria. This paper presents an integrated system utilizing state-of-the-art techniques for a complete automation of the weld inspection procedure. The modules discussed include transducer tracking, classification, sizing, and weld acceptance criteria. Transducer tracking was studied by experimentally evaluating sonic and optical position tracking techniques. Details for this evaluation are presented. Classification is obtained using a multi-layer perceptron. Results from different feature extraction schemes, including a new method based on a combination of time and frequency-domain signal representations are given. Algorithms developed to automate defect registration and sizing are discussed. A fuzzy-logic acceptance criteria for weld acceptance is presented describing how this scheme provides improved robustness compared to the traditional flow-diagram standards.

  7. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  8. Mobility and language change in real time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    Diachronic studies of the interrelationship between mobility and language change leave us with some unanswered questions of causation. The most important question is whether language change is caused by mobility, or if mobile informants mark themselves linguistically different than their non-mobi...... mobile and non-mobile informants. I also suggest a human geographic approach to place to explain the differences between the language change of the mobile informants (e.g. Britain 2009; Johnstone 2004).......Diachronic studies of the interrelationship between mobility and language change leave us with some unanswered questions of causation. The most important question is whether language change is caused by mobility, or if mobile informants mark themselves linguistically different than their non......-mobile peers prior to being geographically and socially mobile (e.g. Andersson & Thelander 1994). In the presentation I discuss this question by presenting a real time panel-study of language change in 23 speakers from three municipalities in distinct dialect areas in Denmark. The language change of six mobile...

  9. The Fast Tracker Real Time Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to the SLHC Phase I level and beyond, the high rates, multiplicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the physics we are most interested in, and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK)[1], is a proposed upgrade to the current ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK solves the combinatorial challenge inherent to tracking by exploiting massive parallelism of associative memories [2] that ...

  10. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  11. Real-time scheduling of software tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, L.T.

    1995-01-01

    When designing real-time systems, it is often desirable to schedule execution of software tasks based on the occurrence of events. The events may be clock ticks, interrupts from a hardware device, or software signals from other software tasks. If the nature of the events, is well understood, this scheduling is normally a static part of the system design. If the nature of the events is not completely understood, or is expected to change over time, it may be necessary to provide a mechanism for adjusting the scheduling of the software tasks. RHIC front-end computers (FECs) provide such a mechanism. The goals in designing this mechanism were to be as independent as possible of the underlying operating system, to allow for future expansion of the mechanism to handle new types of events, and to allow easy configuration. Some considerations which steered the design were programming paradigm (object oriented vs. procedural), programming language, and whether events are merely interesting moments in time, or whether they intrinsically have data associated with them. The design also needed to address performance and robustness tradeoffs involving shared task contexts, task priorities, and use of interrupt service routine (ISR) contexts vs. task contexts. This paper will explore these considerations and tradeoffs

  12. An improved real time superresolution FPGA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Mudigoudar, Basavaraj; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2009-05-01

    In numerous computer vision applications, enhancing the quality and resolution of captured video can be critical. Acquired video is often grainy and low quality due to motion, transmission bottlenecks, etc. Postprocessing can enhance it. Superresolution greatly decreases camera jitter to deliver a smooth, stabilized, high quality video. In this paper, we extend previous work on a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware. A gradient based technique is used to register the frames at the sub-pixel level. Once we get the high resolution grid, we use an improved regularization technique in which the image is iteratively modified by applying back-projection to get a sharp and undistorted image. The algorithm was first tested in software and migrated to hardware, to achieve 320x240 -> 1280x960, about 30 fps, a stunning superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Various input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as in FPGA hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The proposed system is robust and highly efficient. We have shown the performance improvement of the hardware superresolution over the software version (C code).

  13. Optimizing near real time accountability for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2010-01-01

    Near Real Time Accountability (NRTA) of actinides at high precision in reprocessing plants has been a long sought-after goal in the safeguards community. Achieving this goal is hampered by the difficulty of making precision measurements in the reprocessing environment, equipment cost, and impact to plant operations. Thus the design of future reprocessing plants requires an optimization of different approaches. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used to evaluate a number of NRTA strategies in a UREX+ reprocessing plant. Strategies examined include the incorporation of additional actinide measurements of internal plant vessels, more use of process monitoring data, and the option of periodic draining of inventory to key tanks. Preliminary results show that the addition of measurement technologies can increase the overall measurement uncertainty due to additional error propagation, so care must be taken when designing an advanced system. Initial results also show that relying on a combination of different NRTA techniques will likely be the best option. The model provides a platform for integrating all the data. The modeling results for the different NRTA options under various material loss conditions will be presented.

  14. Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) addresses the future safety need for Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) in aviation and progressively...

  15. Specification and Automated Verification of Real-Time Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Andersen, J.H.; Skou, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties.......In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties....

  16. Specification and Automated Verification of Real-Time Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.H.; Kristensen, C.H.; Skou, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties.......In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties....

  17. Internet-accessible real-time weather information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Gouveia, A.D.

    An internet-accessible real-time weather information system has been developed. This system provides real-time accessibility to weather information from a multitude of spatially distributed weather stations. The Internet connectivity also offers...

  18. An integrated technique for developing real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooman, J.J.M.; Vain, J.

    1995-01-01

    The integration of conceptual modeling techniques, formal specification, and compositional verification is considered for real time systems within the knowledge engineering context. We define constructive transformations from a conceptual meta model to a real time specification language and give

  19. Virtual timers in hierarchical real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Holenderski, M.J.; Cools, W.A.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from welldefined subsystems. This paper describes an approach to provide hierarchically scheduled real-time applications with virtual event timers, motivated by the need for integrating priority

  20. Spying on real-time computers to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taff, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The sampled program-counter histogram, an established technique for shortening the execution times of programs, is described for a real-time computer. The use of a real-time clock allows particularly easy implementation. (Auth.)

  1. Real-time subway information for improving transit ridership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the standardization of transit schedule information has yielded a dramatic increase in the accessibility of computerized transit schedules and given rise to real-time service schedules. Two such real-time service schedules are the Ge...

  2. Improving Timeliness in Real-Time Secure Database Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Son, Sang H; David, Rasikan; Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition to real-time requirements, security is usually required in many applications. Multilevel security requirements introduce a new dimension to transaction processing in real-time database systems...

  3. Real-time sensor failure detection by dynamic modelling of a PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkcan, E.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    1992-06-01

    Signal validation and sensor failure detection is an important problem in real-time nuclear power plant (NPP) surveillance. Although conventional sensor redundancy, in a way, is a solution, identification of faulty sensor is necessary for further preventive actions to be taken. A comprehensive solution for the system so that any sensory reading is verified by its model based estimated counterpart, in real-time. Such a realization is accomplished by means of dynamic system's states estimation methodology using Kalman filter modelling technique. The method is investigated by means of real-time data of the steam generator of Borssele nuclear power plant and the method has proved to be satisfactory for real-time sensor failure detection as well as model validation verification. (author). 5 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  4. On Real-Time Systems Using Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    87-35 July, 1987 CS-TR-1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks*I VShem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit...1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks* Shem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit Department of Computer Science...constraints and the clock systems that feed the time to real - time systems . A model for real-time system based on LAN communication is presented in

  5. Energy efficient approach for transient fault recovery in real time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Keywords: DVS, Fault tolerance, Real Time System, Transient Fault. ... in which missing the deadline may cause a failure and soft real time system, ..... Pillai, P., Shin, K., Real-time dynamic voltage scaling for low-power embedded operating ...

  6. ClockWork: a Real-Time Feasibility Analysis Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Mullender, Sape J.

    ClockWork shows that we can improve the flexibility and efficiency of real-time kernels. We do this by proposing methods for scheduling based on so-called Real-Time Transactions. ClockWork uses Real-Time Transactions which allow scheduling decisions to be taken by the system. A programmer does not

  7. The real-time price elasticity of electricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The real-time price elasticity of electricity contains important information on the demand response of consumers to the volatility of peak prices. Despite the importance, empirical estimates of the real-time elasticity are hardly available. This paper provides a quantification of the real-time

  8. Temporal Specification and Verification of Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    of concrete real - time systems can be modeled adequately. Specification: We present two conservative extensions of temporal logic that allow for the...logic. We present both model-checking algorithms for the automatic verification of finite-state real - time systems and proof methods for the deductive verification of real - time systems .

  9. Real-time volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this brief review is to review the current status of real-time 3D scintillation dosimetry and what has been done so far in this area. The basic concept is to use a large volume of a scintillator material (liquid or solid) to measure or image the dose distributions from external radiation therapy (RT) beams in three dimensions. In this configuration, the scintillator material fulfills the dual role of being the detector and the phantom material in which the measurements are being performed. In this case, dose perturbations caused by the introduction of a detector within a phantom will not be at issue. All the detector configurations that have been conceived to date used a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera to measure the light produced within the scintillator. In order to accurately measure the scintillation light, one must correct for various optical artefacts that arise as the light propagates from the scintillating centers through the optical chain to the CCD chip. Quenching, defined in its simplest form as a nonlinear response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) charged particles, is one of the disadvantages when such systems are used to measure the absorbed dose from high-LET particles such protons. However, correction methods that restore the linear dose response through the whole proton range have been proven to be effective for both liquid and plastic scintillators. Volumetric scintillation dosimetry has the potential to provide fast, high-resolution and accurate 3D imaging of RT dose distributions. Further research is warranted to optimize the necessary image reconstruction methods and optical corrections needed to achieve its full potential

  10. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  11. A novel universal real-time PCR system using the attached universal duplex probes for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Zoe A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR techniques are being widely used for nucleic acids analysis, but one limitation of current frequently employed real-time PCR is the high cost of the labeled probe for each target molecule. Results We describe a real-time PCR technique employing attached universal duplex probes (AUDP, which has the advantage of generating fluorescence by probe hydrolysis and strand displacement over current real-time PCR methods. AUDP involves one set of universal duplex probes in which the 5' end of the fluorescent probe (FP and a complementary quenching probe (QP lie in close proximity so that fluorescence can be quenched. The PCR primer pair with attached universal template (UT and the FP are identical to the UT sequence. We have shown that the AUDP technique can be used for detecting multiple target DNA sequences in both simplex and duplex real-time PCR assays for gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and genetically modified organism (GMO quantification with comparable sensitivity, reproducibility, and repeatability with other real-time PCR methods. Conclusion The results from GMO quantification, gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and GMO quantification using AUDP real-time PCR assays indicate that the AUDP real-time PCR technique has been successfully applied in nucleic acids analysis, and the developed AUDP real-time PCR technique will offer an alternative way for nucleic acid analysis with high efficiency, reliability, and flexibility at low cost.

  12. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan M. M.; Sultana S.; Foo C.K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUI)operating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time e...

  13. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  14. Real Time Seismic Loss Estimation in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goretti, A.; Sabetta, F.

    2009-04-01

    By more than 15 years the Seismic Risk Office is able to perform a real-time evaluation of the earthquake potential loss in any part of Italy. Once the epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake are made available by the National Institute for Geophysiscs and Volca-nology, the model, based on the Italian Geographic Information Sys-tems, is able to evaluate the extent of the damaged area and the consequences on the built environment. In recent years the model has been significantly improved with new methodologies able to conditioning the uncertainties using observa-tions coming from the fields during the first days after the event. However it is reputed that the main challenges in loss analysis are related to the input data, more than to methodologies. Unlike the ur-ban scenario, where the missing data can be collected with enough accuracy, the country-wise analysis requires the use of existing data bases, often collected for other purposed than seismic scenario evaluation, and hence in some way lacking of completeness and homogeneity. Soil properties, building inventory and population dis-tribution are the main input data that are to be known in any site of the whole Italian territory. To this end the National Census on Popu-lation and Dwellings has provided information on the residential building types and the population that lives in that building types. The critical buildings, such as Hospital, Fire Brigade Stations, Schools, are not included in the inventory, since the national plan for seismic risk assessment of critical buildings is still under way. The choice of a proper soil motion parameter, its attenuation with distance and the building type fragility are important ingredients of the model as well. The presentation will focus on the above mentioned issues, highlight-ing the different data sets used and their accuracy, and comparing the model, input data and results when geographical areas with dif-ferent extent are considered: from the urban scenarios

  15. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  16. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  17. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUIoperating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based real-time kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium IIIbased system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical real-time system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  18. Real-time data access layer for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; Luchetta, A.; Taliercio, C.; Fredian, T.; Stillerman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent extensions to MDSplus allow data handling in long discharges and provide a real-time data access and communication layer. The real-time data access layer is an additional component of MDSplus: it is possible to use the traditional MDSplus API during normal operation, and to select a subset of data items to be used in real time. Real-time notification is provided by a communication layer using a publish-subscribe pattern. The notification covers processes sharing the same data items even running on different machines, thus allowing the implementation of distributed control systems. The real-time data access layer has been developed for Windows, Linux, and VxWorks; it is currently being ported to Linux RTAI. In order to quantify the fingerprint of the presented system, the performance of the real-time access layer approach is compared with that of an ad hoc, manually optimized program in a sample real-time application

  19. Integration of MDSplus in real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2006-01-01

    RFX-mod makes extensive usage of real-time systems for feedback control and uses MDSplus to interface them to the main Data Acquisition system. For this purpose, the core of MDSplus has been ported to VxWorks, the operating system used for real-time control in RFX. Using this approach, it is possible to integrate real-time systems, but MDSplus is used only for non-real-time tasks, i.e. those tasks which are executed before and after the pulse and whose performance does not affect the system time constraints. More extensive use of MDSplus in real-time systems is foreseen, and a real-time layer for MDSplus is under development, which will provide access to memory-mapped pulse files, shared by the tasks running on the same CPU. Real-time communication will also be integrated in the MDSplus core to provide support for distributed memory-mapped pulse files

  20. Real-Time Wireless Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Emilio J.; Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Mata, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Current and future aerospace requirements demand the creation of a new breed of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors must possess a high degree of intelligence to provide critical data efficiently and in real-time. Intelligence will include self-calibration, self-health assessment, and pre-processing of raw data at the sensor level. Most of these features are already incorporated in the Wireless Sensors Network (SensorNet(TradeMark)), developed by the Instrumentation Group at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A system based on the SensorNet(TradeMark) architecture consists of data collection point(s) called Central Stations (CS) and intelligent sensors called Remote Stations (RS) where one or more CSs can be accommodated depending on the specific application. The CS's major function is to establish communications with the Remote Stations and to poll each RS for data and health information. The CS also collects, stores and distributes these data to the appropriate systems requiring the information. The system has the ability to perform point-to-point, multi-point and relay mode communications with an autonomous self-diagnosis of each communications link. Upon detection of a communication failure, the system automatically reconfigures to establish new communication paths. These communication paths are automatically and autonomously selected as the best paths by the system based on the existing operating environment. The data acquisition system currently under development at KSC consists of the SensorNet(TradeMark) wireless sensors as the remote stations and the central station called the Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN). The RFF1N is the central station which remotely communicates with the SensorNet(TradeMark) sensors to control them and to receive data. The system's salient feature is the ability to provide deterministic sensor data with accurate time stamps for both time critical and non

  1. Real time measurement of air radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Craciunescu, T.; Teles, S.

    1998-01-01

    commands to the logger according to the command protocol. - ODAS reads the configuration from logger. At initialization the software sends to the logger the desired configuration which is overlooked in the following operations. It calculates the averages of readings over 10 minute and other parameters. Following that the software records the data into a file (one line of data at every 10 min). The interrogation of logger and data collection is repeated at every 10 minute. - After every file recording, ODAS sends a code signal to the workstation. Transmission of data to RODOS workstation is done periodically (every 10 min) or when requested by users. Advantages of our Local Meteorological and Radiological Monitoring System are the following: - it is automate, able to acquire, calculate and transmit data in non-stop mode; - it is a real-time and on-line system; - it is easy to upgrade due to the fact that it was developed as modules working independently. (authors)

  2. A SIMD-VLIW Smart Camera Architecture for Real-Time Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleihorst, R.P.; Broers, H.A.T.; Abbo, A.A.; Ebrahimmalek, H.; Fatemi, H.; Corporaal, H.; Jonker, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for using smart cameras for various applications in surveillance and identification. Although having a small form-factor, most of these applications demand huge processing performance for real-time processing. Face recognition is one of those applications. In this

  3. Usefulness of data from primary care for real-time surveillance of diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.M.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Verheij, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The increased threat of bioterrorism and the outbreaks of new infectious diseases require rapid identification of clusters of illness. The increased availability of electronic data in health care makes real-time surveillance of diseases possible. Therefore, we investigated the

  4. Big IoT data mining for real-time energy disaggregation in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Liotta, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the smart grid context, the identification and prediction of building energy flexibility is a challenging open question, thus paving the way for new optimized behaviors from the demand side. At the same time, the latest smart meters developments allow us to monitor in real-time the power

  5. Validation of an intermediate heat exchanger model for real time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanos, C.P.

    1986-11-01

    A new method was presented for LMFBR intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) analysis in real time for purposes of continuous on-line data validation, plant state verification and fault identification. For the validation of this methodology the EBR-II IHX transient during Test 8A was analyzed. This paper presents the results of this analysis

  6. Detection of three porcine vesicular viruses using multiplex real-time primer-probe energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Aguero, M.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid identification of the etiologic agent in infected animals is important for the control of an outbreak of vesicular disease in livestock. We have in the present study developed a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR, based on primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET), for simultaneous...

  7. Hardware locks for a real-time Java chip multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A software locking mechanism commonly protects shared resources for multithreaded applications. This mechanism can, especially in chip-multiprocessor systems, result in a large synchronization overhead. For real-time systems in particular, this overhead increases the worst-case execution time....... This improvement can allow a larger number of real-time tasks to be reliably scheduled on a multiprocessor real-time platform....

  8. Advanced real-time manipulation of video streams

    CERN Document Server

    Herling, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.

  9. A Programmable Microkernel for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems Christoph M. Kirsch Thomas A. Henzinger Marco A.A. Sanvido Report No. UCB/CSD-3-1250 June 2003...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems ∗ Christoph M

  10. Design Specifications for Adaptive Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    TICfl \\ E CT E Design Specifications for JAN’\\ 1992 Adaptive Real - Time Systems fl Randall W. Lichota U, Alice H. Muntz - December 1991 \\ \\\\/ 0 / r...268-2056 Technical Report CMU/SEI-91-TR-20 ESD-91-TR-20 December 1991 Design Specifications for Adaptive Real - Time Systems Randall W. Lichota Hughes...Design Specifications for Adaptive Real - Time Systems Abstract: The design specification method described in this report treats a software

  11. Temporal Proof Methodologies for Real-Time Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    real time systems that communicate either through shared variables or by message passing and real time issues such as time-outs, process priorities (interrupts) and process scheduling. The authors exhibit two styles for the specification of real - time systems . While the first approach uses bounded versions of temporal operators the second approach allows explicit references to time through a special clock variable. Corresponding to two styles of specification the authors present and compare two fundamentally different proof

  12. Proceedings of the Real-Time Systems Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    real - time systems engineering. The workshop was held as part of the SEI Symposium in...Washington, DC, during September 2000. The objective of the workshop was to identify key issues and obtain feedback from attendees concerning real - time systems engineering...and interoperability. This report summarizes the workshop in terms of foundation, management, and technical topics, and it contains a discussion related to developing a community of interest for real - time systems

  13. Static Schedulers for Embedded Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Because of the need for having efficient scheduling algorithms in large scale real time systems , software engineers put a lot of effort on developing...provide static schedulers for he Embedded Real Time Systems with single processor using Ada programming language. The independent nonpreemptable...support the Computer Aided Rapid Prototyping for Embedded Real Time Systems so that we determine whether the system, as designed, meets the required

  14. PERTS: A Prototyping Environment for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Liu, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    PERTS is a prototyping environment for real-time systems. It is being built incrementally and will contain basic building blocks of operating systems for time-critical applications, tools, and performance models for the analysis, evaluation and measurement of real-time systems and a simulation/emulation environment. It is designed to support the use and evaluation of new design approaches, experimentations with alternative system building blocks, and the analysis and performance profiling of prototype real-time systems.

  15. Design Recovery Technology for Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    RL-TR-95-208 Final Technical Report October 1995 DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL TIME SYSTEMS The MITRE Corporation Lester J. Holtzblatt...92 - Jan 95 4. TTTLE AND SUBTITLE DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lester J. Holtzblatt, Richard Piazza, and Susan...behavior of real - time systems in general, our initial efforts have centered on recovering this information from one system in particular, the Modular

  16. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Hasan; S. Sultana; C.K. Foo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI) operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time...

  17. Timeliness and Predictability in Real-Time Database Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Son, Sang H

    1998-01-01

    The confluence of computers, communications, and databases is quickly creating a globally distributed database where many applications require real time access to both temporally accurate and multimedia data...

  18. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...... subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking...

  19. Building Real-Time Collaborative Applications with a Federated Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ojanguren-Menendez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time collaboration is being offered by multiple libraries and APIs (Google Drive Real-time API, Microsoft Real-Time Communications API, TogetherJS, ShareJS, rapidly becoming a mainstream option for webservices developers. However, they are offered as centralised services running in a single server, regardless if they are free/open source or proprietary software. After re-engineering Apache Wave (former Google Wave, we can now provide the first decentralised and federated free/open source alternative. The new API allows to develop new real-time collaborative web applications in both JavaScript and Java environments.

  20. Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector in Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z., E-mail: zhirui.xu@epfl.ch; Tobin, M.

    2016-07-11

    An automatic real-time alignment and calibration strategy of the LHCb detector was developed for the Run II. Thanks to the online calibration, tighter event selection criteria can be used in the trigger. Furthermore, the online calibration facilitates the use of hadronic particle identification using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors at the trigger level. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configuration are discussed, as well as the working procedures of the framework and its performance.

  1. Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086132; Tobin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An automatic real-time alignment and calibration strategy of the LHCb detector was developed for the Run II. Thanks to the online calibration, tighter event selection criteria can be used in the trigger. Furthermore, the online calibration facilitates the use of hadronic particle identification using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors at the trigger level. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configuration are discussed, as well as the working procedures of the framework and its performance.

  2. Automated Detection of Short Optical Transients of Astrophysical Origin in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sokołowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of short optical transients of astrophysical origin in real time is an important task for existing robotic telescopes. The faster a new optical transient is detected, the earlier follow-up observations can be started. The sooner the object is identified, the more data can be collected before the source fades away, particularly in the most interesting early period of the transient. In this the real-time pipeline designed for identification of optical flashes with the “Pi of the Sky” project will be presented in detail together with solutions used by other experiments.

  3. Real-time Fluorescence Image-Guided Oncologic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Suman B.; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a critical role in cancer diagnosis and planning. Many of these patients rely on surgical intervention for curative outcomes. This requires a careful identification of the primary and microscopic tumors, and the complete removal of cancer. Although there have been efforts to adapt traditional imaging modalities for intraoperative image guidance, they suffer from several constraints such as large hardware footprint, high operation cost, and disruption of the surgical workflow. Because of the ease of image acquisition, relatively low cost devices and intuitive operation, optical imaging methods have received tremendous interests for use in real-time image-guided surgery. To improve imaging depth under low interference by tissue autofluorescence, many of these applications utilize light in the near-infra red (NIR) wavelengths, which is invisible to human eyes. With the availability of a wide selection of tumor-avid contrast agents, advancements in imaging sensors, electronic and optical designs, surgeons are able to combine different attributes of NIR optical imaging techniques to improve treatment outcomes. The emergence of diverse commercial and experimental image guidance systems, which are in various stages of clinical translation, attests to the potential high impact of intraoperative optical imaging methods to improve speed of oncologic surgery with high accuracy and minimal margin positivity. PMID:25287689

  4. Real-Time Rotational Activity Detection in Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Muñoz, Gonzalo R.; Arenal, Ángel; Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Rotational activations, or spiral waves, are one of the proposed mechanisms for atrial fibrillation (AF) maintenance. We present a system for assessing the presence of rotational activity from intracardiac electrograms (EGMs). Our system is able to operate in real-time with multi-electrode catheters of different topologies in contact with the atrial wall, and it is based on new local activation time (LAT) estimation and rotational activity detection methods. The EGM LAT estimation method is based on the identification of the highest sustained negative slope of unipolar signals. The method is implemented as a linear filter whose output is interpolated on a regular grid to match any catheter topology. Its operation is illustrated on selected signals and compared to the classical Hilbert-Transform-based phase analysis. After the estimation of the LAT on the regular grid, the detection of rotational activity in the atrium is done by a novel method based on the optical flow of the wavefront dynamics, and a rotation pattern match. The methods have been validated using in silico and real AF signals. PMID:29593566

  5. Real time physics analysis with the ATLAS tau trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Lechuga, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    The scope of the ATLAS tau trigger system at the LHC is most ambitious. It aims at reconstructing in real time, a matter of seconds, a detailed picture of the high energy proton proton collisions at the LHC. Such system is mandatory in order to select efficiently data needed for discovery of new physics in a proton proton collision environment where the rates of jets observed in the detector are high and the tau identification is difficult. New physics scenarios targeted specifically by the the ATLAS tau trigger system are Standard Model or Supersymmetric Higgs production, and production of new exotic resonances. This contribution will detail how the analysis techniques developed offline for efficient data analysis have been implemented in the algorithms which run online at the trigger. In particular, the focus will be on how to satisfy the requirements imposed by the physics goals while addressing the limitations from the overall event rate and latency allowed. The prospects for early running during the first LHC collisions and trigger evolution from first collisions to stable running will be also summarized, following change of trigger goals from commissioning of detector to measurement of Standard Model physics and discoveries. (author)

  6. GNSS global real-time augmentation positioning: Real-time precise satellite clock estimation, prototype system construction and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Qile; Hu, Zhigang; Jiang, Xinyuan; Geng, Changjiang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang

    2018-01-01

    Lots of ambiguities in un-differenced (UD) model lead to lower calculation efficiency, which isn't appropriate for the high-frequency real-time GNSS clock estimation, like 1 Hz. Mixed differenced model fusing UD pseudo-range and epoch-differenced (ED) phase observations has been introduced into real-time clock estimation. In this contribution, we extend the mixed differenced model for realizing multi-GNSS real-time clock high-frequency updating and a rigorous comparison and analysis on same conditions are performed to achieve the best real-time clock estimation performance taking the efficiency, accuracy, consistency and reliability into consideration. Based on the multi-GNSS real-time data streams provided by multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and Wuhan University, GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning prototype system is designed and constructed, including real-time precise orbit determination, real-time precise clock estimation, real-time Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) and real-time Standard Point Positioning (RT-SPP). The statistical analysis of the 6 h-predicted real-time orbits shows that the root mean square (RMS) in radial direction is about 1-5 cm for GPS, Beidou MEO and Galileo satellites and about 10 cm for Beidou GEO and IGSO satellites. Using the mixed differenced estimation model, the prototype system can realize high-efficient real-time satellite absolute clock estimation with no constant clock-bias and can be used for high-frequency augmentation message updating (such as 1 Hz). The real-time augmentation message signal-in-space ranging error (SISRE), a comprehensive accuracy of orbit and clock and effecting the users' actual positioning performance, is introduced to evaluate and analyze the performance of GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning system. The statistical analysis of real-time augmentation message SISRE is about 4-7 cm for GPS, whlile 10 cm for Beidou IGSO/MEO, Galileo and about 30 cm

  7. The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Fraser, Thomas G; Bauer, Thomas W; Joyce, Michael J; Hall, Gerri S; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W

    2006-07-01

    We identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction on a specimen from an osteolytic lesion of a femoral condyle, in which the frozen section demonstrated granulomas. The process was much more rapid than is possible with culture. The rapid detection of M tuberculosis and the concomitant exclusion of granulomatous disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria or systemic fungi are necessary to appropriately treat skeletal tuberculosis. The detection and identification of M tuberculosis by culture may require several weeks using traditional methods. The real-time polymerase chain reaction method used has been shown to be rapid and reliable, and is able to detect and differentiate both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Real-time polymerase chain reaction may become a diagnostic standard for the evaluation of clinical specimens for the presence of mycobacteria; this case demonstrates the potential utility of this assay for the rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

  8. Data-driven modeling and real-time distributed control for energy efficient manufacturing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Jing; Chang, Qing; Arinez, Jorge; Xiao, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    As manufacturers face the challenges of increasing global competition and energy saving requirements, it is imperative to seek out opportunities to reduce energy waste and overall cost. In this paper, a novel data-driven stochastic manufacturing system modeling method is proposed to identify and predict energy saving opportunities and their impact on production. A real-time distributed feedback production control policy, which integrates the current and predicted system performance, is established to improve the overall profit and energy efficiency. A case study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control policy. - Highlights: • A data-driven stochastic manufacturing system model is proposed. • Real-time system performance and energy saving opportunity identification method is developed. • Prediction method for future potential system performance and energy saving opportunity is developed. • A real-time distributed feedback control policy is established to improve energy efficiency and overall system profit.

  9. Design of real-time voice over internet protocol system under bandwidth network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Gong, Lina

    2017-04-01

    With the increasing bandwidth of the network and network convergence accelerating, VoIP means of communication across the network is becoming increasingly popular phenomenon. The real-time identification and analysis for VOIP flow over backbone network become the urgent needs and research hotspot of network operations management. Based on this, the paper proposes a VoIP business management system over backbone network. The system first filters VoIP data stream over backbone network and further resolves the call signaling information and media voice. The system can also be able to design appropriate rules to complete real-time reduction and presentation of specific categories of calls. Experimental results show that the system can parse and process real-time backbone of the VoIP call, and the results are presented accurately in the management interface, VoIP-based network traffic management and maintenance provide the necessary technical support.

  10. Flexible Scheduling by Deadline Inheritance in Soft Real Time Kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.; Wygerink, Emiel

    1996-01-01

    Current Hard Real Time (HRT) kernels have their timely behaviour guaranteed on the cost of a rather restrictive use of the available resources. This makes HRT scheduling techniques inadequate for use in Soft Real Time (SRT) environment where we can make a considerable profit by a better and more

  11. Real-Time Plasma Control Tools for Advanced Tokamak Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C. A. F.; Sousa, J.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Carvalho, B. B.; Fernandes, H.; Batista, A. J.; Cruz, N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time control will play an important role in the operation and scientific exploitation of the new generation fusion devices. This paper summarizes the real-time systems and diagnostics developed by the Portuguese Fusion Euratom Association based on digital signal processors and field programmable gate arrays

  12. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarcel, D.F.; Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J.; Sartori, F.; Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 μs. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  13. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based realtime kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium III based system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical realtime system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  14. An algorithm for learning real-time automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2007-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for learning simple timed automata, known as real-time automata. The transitions of real-time automata can have a temporal constraint on the time of occurrence of the current symbol relative to the previous symbol. The learning algorithm is similar to the redblue fringe

  15. Real-Time Adaptation of Influence Strategies in Online Selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on

  16. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...-Time System Management Information Program AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Real-Time System Management Information Program and general information about current and planned... establishing requirements for the Real-Time System Management Information Program on November 8, 2010, at 75 FR...

  17. 75 FR 68418 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-Time System Management Information Program AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION...) to establish a Real-Time System Management Information Program that provides, in all States, the... traveler information. The purposes of the Real-Time System Management Information Program are to: (1...

  18. Compilation and synthesis for real-time embedded controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Müller-Olm, Markus

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview over two constructive approaches to provably correct hard real-time code generation where hard real-time code is generated from abstract requirements rather than verified against the timing requirements a posteriori. The first, more pragmatic approach is concerne......-time systems at a very high level of abstraction....

  19. Real-Time Engagement Area Development Program (READ-Pro)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burger, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The Real Time Engagement Area Development Program (READ-Pro) is a PC-based prototype system which provides company-level commanders with real-time operational analysis tools to develop ENGAGEMENT AREAS(EA) for direct fire (DF) systems...

  20. Real-time centre detection of an OLED structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.S.; Jonker, P.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this paper focuses on real-time image processing for visual servoing, i.e. the positioning of a x-y table by using a camera only instead of encoders. A camera image stream plus real-time image processing determines the position in the next iteration of the table controller.

  1. Real-Time Center Detection of an OLED Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.S.; Jonker, P.P.; Nijmeijer, H.; Blanc-Talon, J.; Philips, W.; Popescu, D.; Scheunders, P.

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this paper focuses on real-time image processing for visual servoing, i.e. the positioning of a x-y table by using a camera only instead of encoders. A camera image stream plus real-time image processing determines the position in the next iteration of the table controller.

  2. Real-Time PCR for Universal Phytoplasma Detection and Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the most efficient detection and precise quantification of phytoplasmas is by real-time PCR. Compared to nested PCR, this method is less sensitive to contamination and is less work intensive. Therefore, a universal real-time PCR method will be valuable in screening programs and in other...

  3. Real-Time Operating Systems for Multicore Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Honda, Shinya; Takada, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Multicore systems-on-chip have become popular inthe design of embedded systems in order to simultaneously achieve high performance and low power consumption. On the software side, real-time operating systems are necessary in orderto handle growing complexity of embedded software. This paper describes requirements, design principles and implementation techniques for real-time operating systems to be used inasymmetric multicore systems.

  4. Parametric Room Acoustic workflows with real-time acoustic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages......The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages...

  5. Process algebra with timing : real time and discrete time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.J.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    We present real time and discrete time versions of ACP with absolute timing and relative timing. The starting-point is a new real time version with absolute timing, called ACPsat, featuring urgent actions and a delay operator. The discrete time versions are conservative extensions of the discrete

  6. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarcel, D.F., E-mail: danielv@ipfn.ist.utl.p [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sartori, F. [Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB Oxon (United Kingdom); Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-15

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 {mu}s. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  7. Issues Involved in Developing Ada Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-15

    expensive modifications to the compiler or Ada runtime system to fit a particular application. Whether we can solve the problems of programming real - time systems in...lock in solutions to problems that are not yet well understood in standards as rigorous as the Ada language. Moreover, real - time systems typically have

  8. The Synthesis of Intelligent Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-09

    Synthesis of Intelligent Real - Time Systems . The purpose of the effort was to develop and extend theories and techniques that facilitate the design and...implementation of intelligent real - time systems . In particular, Teleos has extended situated-automata theory to apply to situations in which the system has

  9. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Felici, F.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on TCV paired with the flexibility of plasma shaping and ECRH actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for fusion applications. The ability to control MHD instabilities is particularly

  10. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodriques, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV) coupled with the flexibility of plasma shaping and electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for

  11. Real Time Synchronization for Creativity in Distributed Innovation Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Dennis Kjaersgaard; Dolog, Peter; Pedersen, Esben Staunsbjerg

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings....

  12. Distributed, Embedded and Real-time Java Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wellings, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Research on real-time Java technology has been prolific over the past decade, leading to a large number of corresponding hardware and software solutions, and frameworks for distributed and embedded real-time Java systems.  This book is aimed primarily at researchers in real-time embedded systems, particularly those who wish to understand the current state of the art in using Java in this domain.  Much of the work in real-time distributed, embedded and real-time Java has focused on the Real-time Specification for Java (RTSJ) as the underlying base technology, and consequently many of the Chapters in this book address issues with, or solve problems using, this framework. Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service and communication systems supporting real-time Java applications; Includes coverage of multiprocessor embedded systems and parallel programming; Discusses state-of-the-art resource management for embedded systems, including Java’s real-time garbage collect...

  13. Real time ray tracing of skeletal implicit surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouiller, Olivier; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    Modeling and rendering in real time is usually done via rasterization of polygonal meshes. We present a method to model with skeletal implicit surfaces and an algorithm to ray trace these surfaces in real time in the GPU. Our skeletal representation of the surfaces allows to create smooth models...

  14. Quo vadis? : persuasive computing using real time queue information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meys, Wouter; Groen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    By presenting tourists with real-time information an increase in efficiency and satisfaction of their day planning can be achieved. At the same time, real-time information services can offer the municipality the opportunity to spread the tourists throughout the city centre. An important factor for

  15. Real-time communication for distributed plasma control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchetta, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)], E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Barbalace, A.; Manduchi, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    Real-time control applications will benefit in the near future from the enhanced performance provided by multi-core processor architectures. Nevertheless real-time communication will continue to be critical in distributed plasma control systems where the plant under control typically is distributed over a wide area. At RFX-mod real-time communication is crucial for hard real-time plasma control, due to the distributed architecture of the system, which consists of several VMEbus stations. The system runs under VxWorks and uses Gigabit Ethernet for sub-millisecond real-time communication. To optimize communication in the system, a set of detailed measurements has been carried out on the target platforms (Motorola MVME5100 and MVME5500) using either the VxWorks User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack or raw communication based on the data link layer. Measurements have been carried out also under Linux, using its UDP stack or, in alternative, RTnet, an open source hard real-time network protocol stack. RTnet runs under Xenomai or RTAI, two popular real-time extensions based on the Linux kernel. The paper reports on the measurements carried out and compares the results, showing that the performance obtained by using open source code is suitable for sub-millisecond real-time communication in plasma control.

  16. Innovative tools for real-time simulation of dynamic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palli, Gianluca; Carloni, Raffaella; Melchiorri, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a software architecture, based on RTAI-Linux, for the real-time simulation of dynamic systems and for the rapid prototyping of digital controllers. Our aim is to simplify the testing phase of digital controllers by providing the real-time simulation of the plant with the

  17. Process algebra with timing: Real time and discrete time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present real time and discrete time versions of ACP with absolute timing and relative timing. The startingpoint is a new real time version with absolute timing, called ACPsat , featuring urgent actions and a delay operator. The discrete time versions are conservative extensions of the discrete

  18. Academic Training: Real Time Process Control - Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 7, 8 and 9 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Real Time Process Control T. Riesco / CERN-TS What exactly is meant by Real-time? There are several definitions of real-time, most of them contradictory. Unfortunately the topic is controversial, and there does not seem to be 100% agreement over the terminology. Real-time applications are becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and can be found in diverse environments such as the automatic braking system on an automobile, a lottery ticket system, or robotic environmental samplers on a space station. These lectures will introduce concepts and theory like basic concepts timing constraints, task scheduling, periodic server mechanisms, hard and soft real-time.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  19. A real-time photogrammetry system based on embedded architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the demand of real-time spatial data processing and improve the online processing capability of photogrammetric system, a kind of real-time photogrammetry method is proposed in this paper. According to the proposed method, system based on embedded architecture is then designed: using FPGA, ARM+DSP and other embedded computing technology to build specialized hardware operating environment, transplanting and optimizing the existing photogrammetric algorithm to the embedded system, and finally real-time photogrammetric data processing is realized. At last, aerial photogrammetric experiment shows that the method can achieve high-speed and stable on-line processing of photogrammetric data. And the experiment also verifies the feasibility of the proposed real-time photogrammetric system based on embedded architecture. It is the first time to realize real-time aerial photogrammetric system, which can improve the online processing efficiency of photogrammetry to a higher level and broaden the application field of photogrammetry.

  20. Recent achievements in real-time computational seismology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time computational seismology is currently possible to be achieved which needs highly connection between seismic database and high performance computing. We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) by using continuous BATS records and moment tensor inversion (CMT) technique. The real-time online earthquake simulation service is also ready to open for researchers and public earthquake science education (ROS). Combine RMT with ROS, the earthquake report based on computational seismology can provide within 5 minutes after an earthquake occurred (RMT obtains point source information ROS completes a 3D simulation real-time now. For more information, welcome to visit real-time computational seismology earthquake report webpage (RCS).

  1. The FERMI-Elettra distributed real-time framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivetta, L.; Gaio, G.; Passuello, R.; Scalamera, G.

    2012-01-01

    FERMI-Elettra is a Free Electron Laser (FEL) based on a 1.5 GeV linac. The pulsed operation of the accelerator and the necessity to characterize and control each electron bunch requires synchronous acquisition of the beam diagnostics together with the ability to drive actuators in real-time at the linac repetition rate. The Adeos/Xenomai real-time extensions have been adopted in order to add real-time capabilities to the Linux based control system computers running the Tango software. A software communication protocol based on Gigabit Ethernet and known as Network Reflective Memory (NRM) has been developed to implement a shared memory across the whole control system, allowing computers to communicate in real-time. The NRM architecture, the real-time performance and the integration in the control system are described. (authors)

  2. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  3. Performance evaluation of near-real-time accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Examples are given illustrating the application of near-real-time accounting concepts and principles to actual nuclear facilities. Experience with prototypical systems at the AGNS reprocessing plant and the Los Alamos plutonium facility is described using examples of actual data to illustrate the performance and effectiveness of near-real-time systems. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) identify the major components of near-real-time accounting systems; (2) describe qualitatively the advantages, limitations, and performance of such systems in real nuclear facilities; (3) identify process and facility design characteristics that affect the performance of near-real-time systems; and (4) describe qualitatively the steps necessary to implement a near-real-time accounting and control system in a nuclear facility

  4. Self-Organization in Embedded Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkschulte, Uwe; Rettberg, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the emerging field of self-organizing, multicore, distributed and real-time embedded systems.  Self-organization of both hardware and software can be a key technique to handle the growing complexity of modern computing systems. Distributed systems running hundreds of tasks on dozens of processors, each equipped with multiple cores, requires self-organization principles to ensure efficient and reliable operation. This book addresses various, so-called Self-X features such as self-configuration, self-optimization, self-adaptation, self-healing and self-protection. Presents open components for embedded real-time adaptive and self-organizing applications; Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service, communications supporting organic real-time applications; Covers multi-/many-core embedded systems supporting real-time adaptive systems and power-aware, adaptive hardware and software systems; Includes case studies of open embedded real-time self-organizi...

  5. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  6. Real-time stability monitoring method for boiling water reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, K.; Suzuki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A method for real-time stability monitoring is developed for supervising the steady-state operation of a boiling water reactor core. The decay ratio of the reactor power fluctuation is determined by measuring only the output neutron noise. The concept of an inverse system is introduced to identify the dynamic characteristics of the reactor core. The adoption of an adaptive digital filter is useful in real-time identification. A feasibility test that used measured output noise as an indication of reactor power suggests that this method is useful in a real-time stability monitoring system. Using this method, the tedious and difficult work for modeling reactor core dynamics can be reduced. The method employs a simple algorithm that eliminates the need for stochastic computation, thus making the method suitable for real-time computation with a simple microprocessor. In addition, there is no need to disturb the reactor core during operation. Real-time stability monitoring using the proposed algorithm may allow operation under less stable margins

  7. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  8. An In-Home Digital Network Architecture for Real-Time and Non-Real-Time Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Hattink, Tjalling

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an in-home digital network architecture that supports both real-time and non-real-time communication. The architecture deploys a distributed token mechanism to schedule communication streams and to offer guaranteed quality-ofservice. Essentially, the token mechanism prevents

  9. The Fast Tracker Real Time Processor: high quality real-time tracking at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Stabile, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to the design level of 1x1034 cm−2 s−1 and beyond, the high rates, multiplicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the most important physics and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK)[1], [2] is a proposed upgrade to the current ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK is a dedicated Super Computer based on a mixture of advanced technologies. The architecture broadly employs powerf...

  10. Single tube multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankuntaw, Nipaporn; Sukprasert, Saovaluk; Engchanil, Chulapan; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Chantratita, Wasun; Pairoj, Vantanit; Lulitanond, Viraphong

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus infection of immunocompromised hosts may lead to central nervous system (CNS) infection and diseases. In this study, a single tube multiplex real-time PCR was developed for the detection of five herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV and CMV) in clinical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Two primer pairs specific for the herpesvirus polymerase gene and five hybridization probe pairs for the specific identification of the herpesvirus types were used in a LightCycler multiplex real-time PCR. A singleplex real-time PCR was first optimized and then applied to the multiplex real-time PCR. The singleplex and multiplex real-time PCRs showed no cross-reactivity. The sensitivity of the singleplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for each herpesvirus, while that of the multiplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for HSV-1 and VZV and 10 copies per reaction for HSV-2, EBV and CMV. Intra and inter-assay variations of the single tube multiplex assay were in the range of 0.02%-3.67% and 0.79%-4.35%, respectively. The assay was evaluated by testing 62 clinical CSF samples and was found to have equivalent sensitivity, specificity and agreement as the routine real-time PCR, but reducing time, cost and amount of used sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  12. A Process For Performance Evaluation Of Real-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Kornecki

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time developers and engineers must not only meet the system functional requirements, but also the stringent timing requirements. One of the critical decisions leading to meeting these timing requirements is the selection of an operating system under which the software will be developed and run. Although there is ample documentation on real-time systems performance and evaluation, little can be found that combines such information into an efficient process for use by developers. As the software industry moves towards clearly defined processes, creation of appropriate guidelines describing a process for performance evaluation of real-time system would greatly benefit real-time developers. This technology transition research focuses on developing such a process. PROPERT (PROcess for Performance Evaluation of Real Time systems - the process described in this paper - is based upon established techniques for evaluating real-time systems. It organizes already existing real-time performance criteria and assessment techniques in a manner consistent with a well-formed process, based on the Personal Software Process concepts.

  13. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  14. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems

  15. Real-time object-oriented programming: studies and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquier, Gilles

    1996-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the introduction of real-time features in object-oriented programming. Object-oriented programming favours modularity and reusability. Therefore, its application to real-time introduces many theoretical and conceptual problems. To deal with these problems, a new real-time object-oriented programming model is presented. This model is based on the active object model which allows concurrence and maintains the encapsulation property. The real-time aspect is treated by replacing the concept of task by the concept of method processing and by associating a real-time constraint to each message (priority or deadline). The set of all the running methods is scheduled. This model, called ATOME, contains several sub-models to deal with the usual concurrence control integrating their priority and deadline processing. The classical HPF and EDF scheduling avoid priority or deadline inversion. This model and its variants are new proposals to program real-time applications in the object-oriented way, therefore easing reusability and code writing. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by extending and existing active object-based language to real-time, in using the rules defined in the ATOME model. (author) [fr

  16. Reagentless chemiluminescence-based fiber optic sensors for regenerative life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The initial feasibility demonstration of a reagentless chemiluminescence based fiber optic sensor technology for use in advanced regenerative life support applications in space and planetary outposts is described. The primary constraints for extraterrestrial deployment of any technology are compatibility with microgravity and hypogravity environments; minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and minimal use of expendables due to the great expense and difficulty inherent to resupply logistics. In the current research, we report the integration of solid state flow through modules for the production of aqueous phase reagents into an integrated system for the detection of important analytes by chemiluminescence, with fiber optic light transmission. By minimizing the need for resupply expendables, the use of solid phase modules makes complex chemical detection schemes practical. For the proof of concept, hydrogen peroxide and glucose were chosen as analytes. The reaction is catalyzed by glucose oxidase, an immobilized enzyme. The aqueous phase chemistry required for sensor operation is implemented using solid phase modules which adjust the pH of the influent stream, catalyze the oxidation of analyte, and provide the controlled addition of the luminophore to the flowing aqueous stream. Precise control of the pH has proven essential for the long-term sustained release of the luminophore. Electrocatalysis is achieved using a controlled potential across gold mesh and gold foil electrodes which undergo periodic polarity reversals. The development and initial characterization of performance of the reagentless fiber optic chemiluminescence sensors are presented in this paper.

  17. Real-time embedded systems design principles and engineering practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you

  18. Real-time Testing of Operating Systems on Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Murstad, Amund

    2016-01-01

    A subset of operating systems are called ``real time'' operating systems. While a general operating system like Windows or OSX can make no guarantee when a process gets to run, a real time one has the ability to do so. They are used for systems where the quality of the results from the operating system is not only defined by their correctness, but also by when they arrive. These kinds of systems are called Real-time Systems and can be divided into soft, hard and firm. If a deadline is missed ...

  19. Prototyping Real-Time Control in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, J; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Lamont, M; Wenninger, J; Wijnands, Thijs; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    Real-time control of beam related parameters will be required in the LHC. In order to gain experience of the issues involved in implementing distributed real-time control over large distances, a prototype local orbit feedback system is being developed in the SPS. This will use 6 pickups, each equipped with the full LHC acquisition electronics chain and linked to a real-time communication and feedback system. This reports summarises the .rst tests performed with this system in October 2002, where the data from four pickups was successfully acquired and displayed at 10 Hz in the control room.

  20. Real-time Avatar Animation from a Single Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Jason M; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2011-01-01

    A real time facial puppetry system is presented. Compared with existing systems, the proposed method requires no special hardware, runs in real time (23 frames-per-second), and requires only a single image of the avatar and user. The user's facial expression is captured through a real-time 3D non-rigid tracking system. Expression transfer is achieved by combining a generic expression model with synthetically generated examples that better capture person specific characteristics. Performance of the system is evaluated on avatars of real people as well as masks and cartoon characters.

  1. Distributed Issues for Ada Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-23

    NUMBERS Distributed Issues for Ada Real - Time Systems MDA 903-87- C- 0056 S. AUTHOR(S) Thomas E. Griest 7. PERFORMING ORGANiZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 8...considerations. I Adding to the problem of distributed real - time systems is the issue of maintaining a common sense of time among all of the processors...because -omeone is waiting for the final output of a very large set of computations. However in real - time systems , consistent meeting of short-term

  2. Dense time discretization technique for verification of real time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makackas, Dalius; Miseviciene, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Verifying the real-time system there are two different models to control the time: discrete and dense time based models. This paper argues a novel verification technique, which calculates discrete time intervals from dense time in order to create all the system states that can be reached from the initial system state. The technique is designed for real-time systems specified by a piece-linear aggregate approach. Key words: real-time system, dense time, verification, model checking, piece-linear aggregate

  3. Formal methods for dependable real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    The motivation for using formal methods to specify and reason about real time properties is outlined and approaches that were proposed and used are sketched. The formal verifications of clock synchronization algorithms are concluded as showing that mechanically supported reasoning about complex real time behavior is feasible. However, there was significant increase in the effectiveness of verification systems since those verifications were performed, at it is to be expected that verifications of comparable difficulty will become fairly routine. The current challenge lies in developing perspicuous and economical approaches to the formalization and specification of real time properties.

  4. A Distributed Computing Network for Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-03

    7 ) AU2 o NAVA TUNDEWATER SY$TEMS CENTER NEWPORT RI F/G 9/2 UIS RIBUT E 0 COMPUTIN G N LTWORK FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS .(U) UASSIFIED NOV Al 6 1...MORAIS - UT 92 dLEVEL c A Distributed Computing Network for Real - Time Systems . 11 𔃺-1 Gordon E/Morson I7 y tm- ,r - t "en t As J 2 -p .. - 7 I’ cNaval...NUMBER TD 5932 / N 4. TITLE mand SubotI. S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED A DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING NETWORK FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS 6. PERFORMING ORG

  5. Developments in architecture for real-time data systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.L.; Myers, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Real-time data systems typically operate at two levels: a fast-response instrument-oriented level for data acquisition and control, and a slow human-oriented level for interaction and computation. Traditional minicomputer data systems support real-time applications by implementation of background/foreground software. Recent developments in computer technology including microprocessors enable the functional organization of hardware in distributed or hierarchical form to provide new system structures for real-time requirements. Examples of systems with distributed architecture will be discussed in detail

  6. Real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotherapy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yong; Wang Jingjin; Song Zheng; Zheng Putang; Wang Jianguo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotheraphy accelerator. With the flash X-ray imager and the technique of digital image processing, a real-time 3-dimension dosage image is created from the intensity profile of the accelerator beam in real time. This system helps to obtain all the physical characters of the beam in any section plane, such as FWHM, penumbra, peak value, symmetry and homogeneity. This system has been used to acquire a 3-dimension dosage distribution of dynamic wedge modulator and the transient process of beam dosage. The system configure and the tested beam profile images are also presented

  7. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  8. Real-Time Business Intelligence for the Utilities Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina POPEANGA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment with rapid innovation in smart metering and smart grids, there is an increased need for real-time business intelligence (RTBI in the utilities industry. Giving the fact that this industry is an environment where decisions are time sensitive, RTBI solutions will help utilities improve customer experiences and operational efficiencies. The focus of this paper is on the importance of real-time business intelligence (RTBI in the utilities industry, outlining our vision of real-time business intelligence for this industry. Besides the analysis in this area, the article presents as a case study the Oracle Business Intelligence solution for utilities.

  9. The Implementation of a Real-Time Polyphase Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Adámek, Karel; Novotný, Jan; Armour, Wes

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the suitability of dierent computational accelerators for the task of real-time data processing. The algorithm used for comparison is the polyphase filter, a standard tool in signal processing and a well established algorithm. We measure performance in FLOPs and execution time, which is a critical factor for real-time systems. For our real-time studies we have chosen a data rate of 6.5GB/s, which is the estimated data rate for a single channel on the SKAs Low Frequenc...

  10. Army Secure Operating System: Information Security for Real Time Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Eric

    1984-01-01

    The Army Secure Operating System (ASOS) project, under the management of the U.S. Army CECOM organization, will provide real time systems software necessary for fielding modern Battlefield Automation Systems...

  11. Real-time logo detection and tracking in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M.; Kehtarnavaz, N.; Rahman, M.; Carlsohn, M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a real-time implementation of a logo detection and tracking algorithm in video. The motivation of this work stems from applications on smart phones that require the detection of logos in real-time. For example, one application involves detecting company logos so that customers can easily get special offers in real-time. This algorithm uses a hybrid approach by initially running the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm on the first frame in order to obtain the logo location and then by using an online calibration of color within the SIFT detected area in order to detect and track the logo in subsequent frames in a time efficient manner. The results obtained indicate that this hybrid approach allows robust logo detection and tracking to be achieved in real-time.

  12. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  13. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  15. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  16. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  17. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  18. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  20. Addressing Software Engineering Issues in Real-Time Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addressing Software Engineering Issues in Real-Time Software ... systems, manufacturing process, process control, military, space exploration, and ... but also physical properties such as timeliness, Quality of Service and reliability.

  1. Real-time quasi-3D tomographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurlage, Jan-Willem; Kohr, Holger; Palenstijn, Willem Jan; Joost Batenburg, K.

    2018-06-01

    Developments in acquisition technology and a growing need for time-resolved experiments pose great computational challenges in tomography. In addition, access to reconstructions in real time is a highly demanded feature but has so far been out of reach. We show that by exploiting the mathematical properties of filtered backprojection-type methods, having access to real-time reconstructions of arbitrarily oriented slices becomes feasible. Furthermore, we present , software for visualization and on-demand reconstruction of slices. A user of can interactively shift and rotate slices in a GUI, while the software updates the slice in real time. For certain use cases, the possibility to study arbitrarily oriented slices in real time directly from the measured data provides sufficient visual and quantitative insight. Two such applications are discussed in this article.

  2. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  3. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  4. RadNet-Air Near Real Time Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet-Air is a national network of air monitoring stations that regularly collect air samples for near real time analysis of radioactivity. The data is transmitted...

  5. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  6. Real-time personal dose measurement and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang; Liu Zhengshan; Yang Huating; Deng Changming; Zhang Xiu; Guo Zhanjie

    2001-01-01

    The composition and design of a real-time personal dose measurement and management system are described. Accordingly, some pertinent hardware circuits and software codes including their operation modes are presented

  7. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  8. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  9. Games and Scenarios for Real-Time System Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuhao

    This thesis presents research on the validation of real-time embedded software systems in the context of model-based development. The thesis proposes scenario-based and game-theoretic approaches to system analysis, verification, synthesis and testing to address the challenges that arise from....... By linking our prototype translators with existing model checker Uppaal and game solver Uppaal-Tiga, we show that these methods contribute to the interaction correctness and timeliness of early system designs. The thesis also shows that testing a real-time reactive system can be viewed as playing a timed...... communicating real-time systems can be modeled and specified with LSC. By translating LSC to timed automata (TAs), we reduce scenario-based model consistency checking and property verification to CTL real-time model checking problems, and reduce scenario-based synthesis to a timed game solving problem...

  10. Analysis and Synthesis of Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    like automotive electronics, real-time multimedia, avionics, medical equipment, and factory systems. The proposed analysis and synthesis techniques derive optimized implementations that fulfill the imposed design constraints. An important part of the implementation process is the synthesis...

  11. The real-time price elasticity of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    The real-time price elasticity of electricity contains important information on the demand response of consumers to the volatility of peak prices. Despite the importance, empirical estimates of the real-time elasticity are hardly available. This paper provides a quantification of the real-time relationship between total peak demand and spot market prices. We find a low value for the real-time price elasticity, which may partly be explained from the fact that not all users observe the spot market price. If we correct for this phenomenon, we find the elasticity to be fairly low for consumers currently active in the spot market. If this conclusion applies to all users, this would imply a limited scope for government intervention in supply security issues. (Author)

  12. Real-Time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    .... The objective of the Real-time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control project is to replace ad hoc, post-mortem performance optimization with an extensible, portable, and distributed...

  13. Specification and Compilation of Real-Time Stream Processing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the specification, compilation and corresponding temporal analysis of real-time stream processing applications that are executed on embedded multiprocessor systems. An example of such applications are software defined radio applications. These applications typically

  14. Algorithm Development for a Real-Time Military Noise Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vipperman, Jeffrey S; Bucci, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The long-range goal of this 1-year SERDP Exploratory Development (SEED) project was to create an improved real-time, high-energy military impulse noise monitoring system that can detect events with peak levels (Lpk...

  15. Real-Time Multi-Directional Equipment Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Program, Lehigh University has established the Real-Time Multi-Directional...

  16. Design principles of a resource sharing real-time-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliss, B.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for developing a resource sharing real time system are given. Resource sharing necessitates extra precautions for guaranteeing stable operating conditions. Some relevant measures to insure reliability and maintainability of the system are discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Cluster Computing for Embedded/Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D.; Kepner, J.

    1999-01-01

    Embedded and real-time systems, like other computing systems, seek to maximize computing power for a given price, and thus can significantly benefit from the advancing capabilities of cluster computing.

  18. A reliable information management for real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Takuo; Tomita, Seiji

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a system configuration suitable for the hard realtime systems in which integrity and durability of information are important. On most hard real-time systems, where response time constraints are critical, the data which program access are volatile, and may be lost in case the systems are down. But for some real-time systems, the value-added intelligent network (IN) systems, e.g., integrity and durability of the stored data are very important. We propose a distributed system configuration for such hard real-time systems, comprised of service control modules and data management modules. The service control modules process transactions and responses based on deadline control, and the data management modules deal the stored data based on information recovery schemes well-restablished in fault real-time systems. (author)

  19. Real-time UNIX in HEP data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, S.; Gaponenko, I.; Jones, R.; Mapelli, L.; Mornacchi, G.; Prigent, D.; Sanchez-Corral, E.; Skiadelli, M.; Toppers, A.; Duval, P.Y.; Ferrato, D.; Le Van Suu, A.; Qian, Z.; Rondot, C.; Ambrosini, G.; Fumagalli, G.; Aguer, M.; Huet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Today's experimentation in high energy physics is characterized by an increasing need for sensitivity to rare phenomena and complex physics signatures, which require the use of huge and sophisticated detectors and consequently a high performance readout and data acquisition. Multi-level triggering, hierarchical data collection and an always increasing amount of processing power, distributed throughout the data acquisition layers, will impose a number of features on the software environment, especially the need for a high level of standardization. Real-time UNIX seems, today, the best solution for the platform independence, operating system interface standards and real-time features necessary for data acquisition in HEP experiments. We present the results of the evaluation, in a realistic application environment, of a Real-Time UNIX operating system: the EP/LX real-time UNIX system. ((orig.))

  20. True Time API Link (real time arrival info)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This link will take you to the site where you can create an account to access Port Authority's real time arrival information. To request access to Port Authority's...