WorldWideScience

Sample records for readout electronics present

  1. The PAUCam readout electronics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2016-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with a wide field of view of 1 deg x 1 deg and up to 46 narrow and broad band filters. The camera is already installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain and successfully commissioned during the first period of 2015. The paper presents the main results from the readout electronics commissioning tests and include an overview of the whole readout electronics system, its configuration and current performance.

  2. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kulibaba, V I; Naumov, S V

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) sup 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc.

  3. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulibaba, V.I.; Maslov, N.I.; Naumov, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc

  4. A reconfigurable image tube using an external electronic image readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    We have designed and built a sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) intensifier for optical/NUV photon counting applications suitable for 18, 25 and 40 mm diameter formats. The intensifier uses an electronic image readout to provide direct conversion of event position into electronic signals, without the drawbacks associated with phosphor screens and subsequent optical detection. The Image Charge technique is used to remove the readout from the intensifier vacuum enclosure, obviating the requirement for additional electrical vacuum feedthroughs and for the readout pattern to be UHV compatible. The charge signal from an MCP intensifier is capacitively coupled via a thin dielectric vacuum window to the electronic image readout, which is external to the sealed intensifier tube. The readout pattern is a separate item held in proximity to the dielectric window and can be easily detached, making the system easily reconfigurable. Since the readout pattern detects induced charge and is external to the tube, it can be constructed as a multilayer, eliminating the requirement for narrow insulator gaps and allowing it to be constructed using standard PCB manufacturing tolerances. We describe two readout patterns, the tetra wedge anode (TWA), an optimized 4 electrode device similar to the wedge and strip anode (WSA) but with a factor 2 improvement in resolution, and an 8 channel high speed 50 ohm device, both manufactured as multilayer PCBs. We present results of the detector imaging performance, image resolution, linearity and stability, and discuss the development of an integrated readout and electronics device based on these designs.

  5. A radiation-tolerant electronic readout system for portal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östling, J.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.

    2004-06-01

    A new electronic portal imaging device, EPID, is under development at the Karolinska Institutet and the Royal Institute of Technology. Due to considerable demands on radiation tolerance in the radiotherapy environment, a dedicated electronic readout system has been designed. The most interesting aspect of the readout system is that it allows to read out ˜1000 pixels in parallel, with all electronics placed outside the radiation beam—making the detector more radiation resistant. In this work we are presenting the function of a small prototype (6×100 pixels) of the electronic readout board that has been tested. Tests were made with continuous X-rays (10-60 keV) and with α particles. The results show that, without using an optimised gas mixture and with an early prototype only, the electronic readout system still works very well.

  6. D-Zero muon readout electronics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M.; Vaniev, V.

    1996-11-01

    The readout electronics designed for the D null Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D null Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed

  7. Investigation of the readout electronics of DELPHI surround muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khovanskij, N.; Krumshtejn, Z.; Ol'shevskij, A.; Sadovskij, A.; Sedykh, Yu.; Molnar, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomsa, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of the readout electronics of the DELPHI surround muon chambers with various AMPLEX chips (AMPLEX 16 and AMPLEX-SICAL) are presented. This electronics is studied in a cosmic rays test of the real surround muon chamber model. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Readout Electronics Upgrades of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, Christopher Ryan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC will provide 5-7 times higher luminosites than the orignal design. An improved readout system of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is needed to readout the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40 MHz with 16 bit dynamic range in these conditions. Low-noise, low-power, radiation-tolerant and high-bandwidth electronics components are being developed in 65 and 130 nm CMOS technologies. First prototypes of the front-end electronics components show good promise to match the stringent specifications. The off-detector electronics will make use of FPGAs connected through high-speed links to perform energy reconstruction, data reduction and buffering. Results of tests of the first prototypes of front-end components will be presented, along with design studies on the performance of the off-detector readout system.

  9. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  10. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, C.; Ramusino, A.C.A. Cotta; Malaguti, R.; Guerra, A. Del; Domenico, G. Di; Zavattini, G.

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper

  11. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, C; Malaguti, R; Guerra, A D; Domenico, G D; Zavattini, G

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper.

  12. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ('PXL') subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector

  13. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Terri M

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm sup 2. For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes.

  14. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terri M. Shaw et al.

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm 2 . For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes

  15. Readout electronics development for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Beringer, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Chilingarov, A.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Santiard, J.C.; Verweij, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Kambara, H.; La Marra, D.; Leger, A.; Wu, X.; Richeux, J.P.; Taylor, G.N.; Fedotov, M.; Kuper, E.; Velikzhanin, Yu.; Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.

    1995-01-01

    We present the status of the development of the readout electronics for the large area silicon tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, carried out by the CERN RD2 project. Our basic readout concept is to integrate a fast amplifier, analog memory, sparse data scan circuit and analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) on a single VLSI chip. This architecture will provide full analog information of charged particle hits associated unambiguously to one LHC beam crossing, which is expected to be at a frequency of 40 MHz. The expected low occupancy of the ATLAS inner silicon detectors allows us to use a low speed (5 MHz) on-chip ADC with a multiplexing scheme. The functionality of the fast amplifier and analog memory have been demonstrated with various prototype chips. Most recently we have successfully tested improved versions of the amplifier and the analog memory. A piecewise linear ADC has been fabricated and performed satisfactorily up to 5 MHz. A new chip including amplifier, analog memory, memory controller, ADC, and data buffer has been designed and submitted for fabrication and will be tested on a prototype of the ATLAS silicon tracker module with realistic electrical and mechanical constraints. (orig.)

  16. Test beam studies for the atlas tile calorimeter readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new readout system for the Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment is needed. A prototype of the upgrade TileCal electronics has been tested using the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator at CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons at various incident energies and impact angles. The muon data allow to study the response dependence on the incident point and angle in a cell and inter-calibration of the response between cells. The electron data are used to determine the linearity of the electron energy measurement. The hadron data allow to determined the calorimeter response to pions, kaons and protons and tune the calorimeter simulation to that data. The results of the ongoing data analyses are discussed in the presentation.

  17. NIKEL-AMC: readout electronics for the NIKA2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, O.; Bouly, J.L.; Bouvier, J.; Bosson, G.; Catalano, A.; Li, C.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Tourres, D.; Ponchant, N.; Vescovi, C.; Benoit, A.; Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-01-01

    The New Iram Kid Arrays-2 (NIKA2) instrument has recently been installed at the IRAM 30 m telescope. NIKA2 is a state-of-art instrument dedicated to mm-wave astronomy using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (KID) as sensors. The three arrays installed in the camera, two at 1.25 mm and one at 2.05 mm, feature a total of 3300 KIDs. To instrument these large array of detectors, a specifically designed electronics, composed of 20 readout boards and hosted in three microTCA crates, has been developed. The implemented solution and the achieved performances are presented in this paper. We find that multiplexing factors of up to 400 detectors per board can be achieved with homogeneous performance across boards in real observing conditions, and a factor of more than 3 decrease in volume with respect to previous generations.

  18. General-purpose readout electronics for white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Cao, P; Qi, X; Yu, T; Ji, X; Xie, L; An, Q

    2018-01-01

    The under-construction White Neutron Source (WNS) at China Spallation Neutron Source is a facility for accurate measurements of neutron-induced cross section. Seven spectrometers are planned at WNS. As the physical objectives of each spectrometer are different, the requirements for readout electronics are not the same. In order to simplify the development of the readout electronics, this paper presents a general method for detector signal readout. This method has advantages of expansibility and flexibility, which makes it adaptable to most detectors at WNS. In the WNS general-purpose readout electronics, signals from any kinds of detectors are conditioned by a dedicated signal conditioning module corresponding to this detector, and then digitized by a common waveform digitizer with high speed and high precision (1 GSPS at 12-bit) to obtain the full waveform data. The waveform digitizer uses a field programmable gate array chip to process the data stream and trigger information in real time. PXI Express platform is used to support the functionalities of data readout, clock distribution, and trigger information exchange between digitizers and trigger modules. Test results show that the performance of the WNS general-purpose readout electronics can meet the requirements of the WNS spectrometers.

  19. A micromachined surface stress sensor with electronic readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, Edwin; Weinberg, M.S.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor has been fabricated and integrated off chip with a low-noise, differential capacitance, electronic readout circuit. The differential capacitance signal is modulated with a high frequency carrier signal, and the output signal is synchronously demodulated and

  20. A New Readout Electronics for the LHCb Muon Detector Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cadeddu, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The 2018/2019 upgrade of LHCb Muon System foresees a 40 MHz readout scheme and requires the development of a new Off Detector Electronics (nODE) board that will be based on the nSYNC, a radiation tolerant custom ASIC developed in UMC 130 nm technology. Each nODE board has 192 input channels processed by 4 nSYNCs. The nSYNC is equipped with fully digital TDCs and it implements all the required functionalities for the readout: bunch crossing alignment, data zero suppression, time measurements. Optical interfaces, based on GBT and Versatile link components, are used to communicate with DAQ, TFC and ECS systems.

  1. Prototype readout electronics for the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sielewicz, K. M.; Rinella, G. A.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, Jozef; Giubilato, P.; Rossewij, M. J.; Schambach, J.; Vaňát, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, JAN (2017), č. článku C01008. ISSN 1748-0221. [Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics. Karlsruhe, 26.09.2016-30.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052; GA MŠk LM2015058 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : digital electronic circuits * electronic detector readout concepts * modlar electronics * radiation-hard electronics Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  2. Development of SuperHERO readout electronics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-generation solar hard X-ray (HXR) imagers will make high-sensitivity, high-dynamic-range observations of the signatures of accelerated electrons in solar...

  3. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented

  4. Technology for the compatible integration of silicon detectors with readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Compatible integration of detectors and readout electronics on the same silicon substrate is of growing interest. As the methods of microelectronics technology have already been adapted for detector fabrication, a common technology basis for detectors and readout electronics is available. CMOS technology exhibits most attractive features for the compatible realization of readout electronics when advanced LSI processing steps are combined with detector requirements. The essential requirements for compatible integration are the availability of high resistivity (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon substrate, the formation of suitably doped areas for MOS circuits and the isolation of the low voltage circuit from the detector operated at much higher supply voltage. Junction isolation as a first approach based on present production technology and dielectric isolation based on an advanced SOI-LSI technology are discussed as the most promising solutions for present and future applications, respectively. (orig.)

  5. R&D Studies of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Readout Electronics for super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. 180,000 signals are digitized and processed real-time on detector, to provide energy and time deposited in each detector element at every occurrence of the L1-trigger. A luminosity upgrade (x10) of the LHC will occur around 2016. The current readout electronics will have to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels. A completely innovative readout scheme is being developed. The frontend readout will send out data continuously at each bunch crossing through highspeed radiation resistant optical links. The data (100Gbps each board) will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms for clusters and electron/photon identification at a much higher granularity than what currently implemented. We present here an overview of the R&D activities and architectural s...

  6. Development of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andeen, Timothy; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC will provide 5-7 times higher luminosites than the orignal design. An improved readout system of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is needed to readout the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40 MHz with 16 bit dynamic range in these conditions. Low-noise, low-power, radiation-tolerant and high-bandwidth electronics components are being developed in 65 and 130 nm CMOS technologies. First prototypes of the front-end electronics components show good promise to match the stringent specifications. The off-detector electronics will make use of FPGAs connected through high-speed links to perform energy reconstruction, data reduction and buffering. Results of tests of the first prototypes of front-end components will be presented, along with design studies on the performance of the off-detector readout system.

  7. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Bugalho, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Carassiti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Di Francesco, A.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Marciniewski, P.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Varela, J.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2017-07-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM readout

  8. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolo, M. Da Rocha; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Bianchi, F.; Cossio, F.; Mori, F. De; Destefanis, M.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Chai, J.Y.; Bertani, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Capodiferro, M.; Cerioni, S.; Bettoni, D.; Canale, N.; Carassiti, V.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Bugalho, R.

    2017-01-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM

  9. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  10. Repetitive readout of a single electronic spin via quantum logic with nuclear spin ancillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L; Hodges, J S; Maze, J R; Maurer, P; Taylor, J M; Cory, D G; Hemmer, P R; Walsworth, R L; Yacoby, A; Zibrov, A S; Lukin, M D

    2009-10-09

    Robust measurement of single quantum bits plays a key role in the realization of quantum computation and communication as well as in quantum metrology and sensing. We have implemented a method for the improved readout of single electronic spin qubits in solid-state systems. The method makes use of quantum logic operations on a system consisting of a single electronic spin and several proximal nuclear spin ancillae in order to repetitively readout the state of the electronic spin. Using coherent manipulation of a single nitrogen vacancy center in room-temperature diamond, full quantum control of an electronic-nuclear system consisting of up to three spins was achieved. We took advantage of a single nuclear-spin memory in order to obtain a 10-fold enhancement in the signal amplitude of the electronic spin readout. We also present a two-level, concatenated procedure to improve the readout by use of a pair of nuclear spin ancillae, an important step toward the realization of robust quantum information processors using electronic- and nuclear-spin qubits. Our technique can be used to improve the sensitivity and speed of spin-based nanoscale diamond magnetometers.

  11. Performance and calibration of the CHORUS scintillating fiber tracker and opto-electronics readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Aoki, S.; Brunner, J.; De Jong, M.; Fabre, J.P.; Ferreira, R.; Flegel, W.; Frekers, D.; Gregoire, G.; Herin, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Konijn, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Macina, D.; Meijer Drees, R.; Meinhard, H.; Michel, L.; Mommaert, C.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Niu, E.; Panman, J.; Riccardi, F.; Rondeshagen, D.; Sato, O.; Stefanini, G.; Vander Donckt, M.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    An essential component of the CERN WA95/CHORUS experiment is a scintillating fiber tracker system for precise track reconstruction of particles. The tracker design, its opto-electronics readout and calibration system are discussed. Performances of the detector are presented. (orig.)

  12. Electronic readout for THGEM detectors based on FPGA TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Tobias; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Kunz, Tobias; Michalski, Christoph; Schopferer, Sebastian; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS-II RICH upgrade Group

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the RD51 programme the characteristics of a new detector design, called THGEM, which is based on multi-layer arrangements of printed circuit board material, is investigated. The THGEMs combine the advantages for covering gains up to 10{sup 6} in electron multiplication at large detector areas and low material budget. Studies are performed by extending the design to a hybrid gas detector by adding a Micromega layer, which significantly improves the ion back flow ratio of the chamber. With the upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN a MWPC plane of the RICH-1 detector will be replaced by installing THGEM chambers. This summarizes to 40k channels of electronic readout, including amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion of the anode signals. Due to the expected hit rate of the detector we design a cost-efficient TDC, based on Artix7 FPGA technology, with time resolution below 100 ps and sufficient hit buffer depth. To cover the large readout area the data is transferred via optical fibres to a central readout system which is part of the GANDALF framework.

  13. Front-end electronics and readout system for the ILD TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Hedberg, V; Lundberg, B; Mjörnmark, U; Oskarsson, A; Österman, L; De Lentdecker, G; Yang, Y; Zhang, F

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution TPC is the main option for a central tracking detector at the future International Linear Collider (ILC). It is planned that the MPGD (Micro Pattern Gas Detector) technology will be used for the readout. A Large Prototype TPC at DESY has been used to test the performance of MPGDs in an electron beam of energies up to 6 GeV. The first step in the technology development was to demonstrate that the MPGDs are able to achieve the necessary performance set by the goals of ILC. For this ’proof of principle’ phase, the ALTRO front-end electronics from the ALICE TPC was used, modified to adapt to MPGD readout. The proof of principle has been verified and at present further improvement of the MPGD technology is going on, using the same readout electronics. The next step is the ’feasibility phase’, which aims at producing front-end electronics comparable in size (few mm2) to the readout pads of the TPC. This development work is based on the succeeding SALTRO16 chip, which combines the analogue ...

  14. Electronics development for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter trigger and readout for future LHC running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Walter

    2017-02-11

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide 7 times greater instantaneous and 10 times greater total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019–2020, a trigger readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024–2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energies of all cells will be available at the second trigger level operating at 1 MHz, in order to allow further mitigation of pile-up effects in energy reconstruction. Radiation tolerant, low-power front-end electronics optimized for high pile-up conditions are currently being developed, including pre-amplifier, ADC and serializer components in 65–180 nm technology. This contribution will give an overview of the future LAr readout electronics and present research results from the two upgrade programs.

  15. Readout and trigger electronics for the TPC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.; Jared, R.C.; McGathen, T.K.; Eisner, A.M.; Broeder, W.J.; Godfrey, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    The introduction of the vertex chamber required the addition of new front-end electronics and a new 1024-channel, high-accuracy TDC system. The preamplifier/discriminator should be capable of triggering on the first electrons and the time digitzer should preserve the measurement resolution. For the TDC's, in order to maintain compatibility with the existing TPC readout system, an upgrade of a previous inner drift chamber digitizer system has been chosen. Tests of the accuracy and stability of the original design indicated that the new design specifications would be met. The TPC detector requires a fast pretrigger to turn on its gating grid within 500 ns of the e/sup +/e/sup -/ beam crossing time, to minimize the loss of ionization information. A pretrigger based on the Straw Chamber signals, operating at a rate of about 2 K/sec, will be used for charged particle final states. In addition, in order to reject low mass Two-Photon events at the final trigger level, an accurate transverse momentum cutoff will be made by the Straw Chamber trigger logic. In this paper, we describe the readout and trigger electronics systems which have been built to satisfy the above requirements. 5 refs., 8 figs

  16. Design of readout electronics for a scintillating plate calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, H.B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Thomas, W.D.; Blair, R.E.; Buehring, A.; Dawson, J.; Hill, N.; Noland, R.; Petereit, E.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; Spinka, H.; Talaga, R.; Trost, H.J.; Underwood, D.; Wickland, A.B.; Hurlbut, C.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Bolen, L.; Cremaldi, L.; Reidy, J.; Summers, D.; Fu, P.; Gabriel, T.; Handler, T.; Ficenec, J.R.; Lu, B.; Mo, L.; Piilonen, L.E.; Nunamaker, T.; Burke, M.; Hackworth, D.T.; Porter, T.F.; Ravas, R.J.; Scherbarth, D.; Swensrud, R.; Carlsmith, D.; Foudas, C.; Lackey, J.; Loveless, D.; Reeder, D.; Robb, P.; Smith, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    A scintillator calorimeter produces unique problems for the designer of readout electronics. On the one hand the narrow time structure of scintillator pulses, ∼10 nsec, is well matched to the rf structure of the SSC and gives hope of isolating information from individual beam crossings. On the other hand, the compensation mechanism and the need to broaden the pulse shape for use with analog signal sampling devices gives a somewhat wider time structure, ∼50-100 nsec. Furthermore the granularity of such a device implies that the full energy of an electromagnetic shower may be totally contained within one readout channel. If the resolution of the electronics is not to compromise the intrinsic resolution of the calorimeter, assumed to be σ/E ∼ 15%/√E + 1% (E in Gev), coverage of the full dynamic range (40,000:1) requires at least two 12-bit devices with 7 bits of overlap for a linear front-end electronics chain. The positioning of the electronics also is a critical issue. At luminosities of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 , electronics placed on the calorimeter must withstand doses of at least 10 10 neutron/cm 2 and 2,000 Rad per year at 90 degree. In the past year, the scintillating calorimeter collaboration has begun studying these and related issues. Among the work reported below is: a study related to remote location of the calorimeter electronics, a comprehensive program to evaluate the properties of FADCs capable of operation at 60-80 MHz, design of a analog memory unit and development of a benchmark system to help evaluate components under development both within and outside the authors' collaboration

  17. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DE GERONIMO, G.; O CONNOR, P.; KANDASAMY, A.; GROSHOLZ, J.

    2002-01-01

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 (micro)m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed

  18. Pixel detector readout electronics with two-level discriminator scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengg, F.

    1998-01-01

    In preparation for a silicon pixel detector with more than 3,000 readout channels per chip for operation at the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN the analog front end of the readout electronics has been designed and measured on several test-arrays with 16 by 4 cells. They are implemented in the HP 0.8 microm process but compatible with the design rules of the radiation hard Honeywell 0.8 microm bulk process. Each cell contains bump bonding pad, preamplifier, discriminator and control logic for masking and testing within a layout area of only 50 microm by 140 microm. A new two-level discriminator scheme has been implemented to cope with the problems of time-walk and interpixel cross-coupling. The measured gain of the preamplifier is 900 mV for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP, about 24,000 e - for a 300 microm thick Si-detector) with a return to baseline within 750 ns for a 1 MIP input signal. The full readout chain (without detector) shows an equivalent noise charge to 60e - r.m.s. The time-walk, a function of the separation between the two threshold levels, is measured to be 22 ns at a separation of 1,500 e - , which is adequate for the 40 MHz beam-crossing frequency at the LHC. The interpixel cross-coupling, measured with a 40fF coupling capacitance, is less than 3%. A single cell consumes 35 microW at 3.5 V supply voltage

  19. Development of a 10-inch HPD with integrated readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Giunta, M; Malakhov, N; Menzione, A; Pegna, R; Piccioli, A; Raffaelli, F; Sartori, G

    2003-01-01

    A round 10-in. diameter Hybrid Photodiode (HPD) with spherical entrance window is under development for Cherenkov imaging applications in cosmic ray astronomy. The HPD adopts the fountain focusing electron optics, which, as already demonstrated in the 5 inch Pad HPD, allows for a linear demagnification of the image over practically the full tube diameter. Self-triggering front-end electronics providing also sparse readout capability, has been tested. High-efficiency Rb//2Te cathodes have been produced on a UV extended borosilicate glass windows with very thin conductive underlayers of Indium Tin Oxide. We report on the design of the 10- in. HPD, the fabrication procedure and first tests of a 5-in. HPD with Rb//2Te photocathode and 2048 channels.

  20. Development of readout electronics for monolithic integration with diode strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, B.J.; Wrede, M.; Zimmer, G.; Kemmer, J.; Hofmann, R.; Lutz, G.

    1984-03-01

    Parallel in - serial out analog readout electronics integrated with silicon strip detectors will bring a reduction of two orders of magnitude in external electronics. The readout concept and the chosen CMOS technology solve the basic problem of low noise and low power requirements. A hybrid solution is an intermediate step towards the final goal of monolithic integration of detector and electronics. (orig.)

  1. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  2. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M; Bettarini, S; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V; Verzellesi, G; Zorzi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  3. Investigation of image distortion due to MCP electronic readout misalignment and correction via customized GUI application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitucci, G.; Minniti, T.; Tremsin, A. S.; Kockelmann, W.; Gorini, G.

    2018-04-01

    The MCP-based neutron counting detector is a novel device that allows high spatial resolution and time-resolved neutron radiography and tomography with epithermal, thermal and cold neutrons. Time resolution is possible by the high readout speeds of ~ 1200 frames/sec, allowing high resolution event counting with relatively high rates without spatial resolution degradation due to event overlaps. The electronic readout is based on a Timepix sensor, a CMOS pixel readout chip developed at CERN. Currently, a geometry of a quad Timepix detector is used with an active format of 28 × 28 mm2 limited by the size of the Timepix quad (2 × 2 chips) readout. Measurements of a set of high-precision micrometers test samples have been performed at the Imaging and Materials Science & Engineering (IMAT) beamline operating at the ISIS spallation neutron source (U.K.). The aim of these experiments was the full characterization of the chip misalignment and of the gaps between each pad in the quad Timepix sensor. Such misalignment causes distortions of the recorded shape of the sample analyzed. We present in this work a post-processing image procedure that considers and corrects these effects. Results of the correction will be discussed and the efficacy of this method evaluated.

  4. Development of an external readout electronics for a hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Uyttenhove, Simon; Tichon, Jacques; Garcia, Salvador

    The pixel hybrid photon detectors currently installed in the LHCb Cherenkov system encapsulate readout electronics in the vacuum tube envelope. The LHCb upgrade and the new trigger system will require their replacement with new photon detectors. The baseline photon detector candidate is the multi-anode photomultiplier. A hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics has been proposed as a backup option. This master thesis covers a R & D phase to investigate this latter concept. Extensive studies of the initial electronics system underlined the noise contributions from the Beetle chip used as front-end readout ASIC and from the ceramic carrier of the photon detector. New front-end electronic boards have been developed and made fully compatible with the existing LHCb-RICH infrastructure. With this compact readout system, Cherenkov photons have been successfully detected in a real particle beam environment. The proof-of-concept of a hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics was val...

  5. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4 T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. The charge collection in silicon detectors was modeled, which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolution method of fast pulse shaping, electronic noise constraints and radiation effects. Moreover, extensive measurements on prototype components of the CMS Tracker and different versions of the APV chip in particular were performed. There was a significant contribution to the construction of several detector modules, characterized them in particle beam tests and quantified radiation induced effects on the APV chip and on silicon detectors. In addition, a prototype of the analog optical link and the analog performance of the back-end digitization unit were evaluated. The results are very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker system and motivating progress towards the construction phase. (author)

  6. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Liang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The present small wheel muon detector at ATLAS will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector to handle the increase in data rates and harsh radiation environment expected at the LHC. Resistive Micromegas and small strip Thin Gap Chambers will be used to provide both trigger and tracking primitives. Muon segments found at NSW will be combined with the segments found at the Big Wheel to determine the muon transverse momentum at the first-level trigger. A new trigger and readout system is developed for the NSW detector. The new system has about 2.4 million trigger and readout channels and about 8,000 Front-End boards. The large number of input channels, short time available to prepare and transmit data, harsh radiation environment, and low power consumption all impose great challenges on the design. We will discuss the overall electronics design and studies with various ASICs and high-speed circuit board prototypes.

  7. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Antrim, Daniel Joseph; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The present small wheel muon detector at ATLAS will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector to handle the increase in data rates and harsh radiation environment expected at the LHC. Resistive Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers will be used to provide both trigger and tracking primitives. Muon segments found at NSW will be combined with the segments found at the Big Wheel to determine the muon transverse momentum at the first-level trigger. A new trigger and readout system is developed for the NSW detector. The new system has about 2.4 million trigger and readout channels and about 8,000 frontend boards. The large number of input channels, short time available to prepare and transmit data, harsh radiation environment, and low power consumption all impose great challenges on the design. We will discuss the overall electronics design and studies with various ASIC and board prototypes.

  8. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  9. FILTRES: a 128 channels VLSI mixed front-end readout electronic development for microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstotz, F.; Hu, Y.; Michel, J.; Sohler, J.L.; Lachartre, D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a VLSI digital-analog readout electronic chain for silicon microstrip detectors. The characteristics of this circuit have been optimized for the high resolution tracker of the CERN CMS experiment. This chip consists of 128 channels at 50 μm pitch. Each channel is composed by a charge amplifier, a CR-RC shaper, an analog memory, an analog processor, an output FIFO read out serially by a multiplexer. This chip has been processed in the radiation hard technology DMILL. This paper describes the architecture of the circuit and presents test results of the 128 channel full chain chip. (orig.)

  10. Optimization of the ATLAS (s)MDT readout electronics for high counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Nowak, Sebastian; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the ATLAS muon spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers are used for precise muon track measurement. For the high background rates expected at HL-LHC, which are mainly due to neutrons and photons produced by interactions of the proton collision products in the detector and shielding, new small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT)-chambers with half the drift tube diameter of the MDT-chambers and ten times higher rate capability have been developed. The standard MDT readout electronics uses bipolar shaping in front of a discriminator. This shaping leads to an undershoot of same charge but opposite polarity following each pulse. With count rates also the probability of having the subsequent pulse in this undershoot increases, which leads to losses in efficiency and spatial resolution. In order to decrease this effect, discrete prototype electronics including Baseline Restoration has been developed. Results of their tests and data taken with them during muon beamtime measurements at CERN's Gamma Irradiation Facility will be presented. which causes a deterioration of signal pulses by preceding background hits, leading to losses in muon efficiency and drift tube spatial resolution. In order to mitigate these so-called signal pile-up effects, new readout electronics with active baseline restoration (BLR) is under development. Discrete prototype electronics with BLR functionality has been tested in laboratory measurements and in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN under high γ-irradiation rates. Results of the measurements are presented.

  11. A Low Power Rad-Hard ADC for the KID Readout Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal aims to develop a radiation hardened analog-to-digital converter (ADC) required for the Kinetic Inductance Detector (KID) readout electronics. KIDs are...

  12. Digital frequency domain multiplexing readout electronics for the next generation of millimeter telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Amy N.; Cliche, Jean-François; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt A.; Gilbert, Adam J.; Montgomery, Joshua; Rowlands, Neil; Smecher, Graeme M.; Smith, Ken; Wilson, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) is an established technique for the readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in millimeter-wavelength astrophysical instrumentation. In fMux, the signals from multiple detectors are read out on a single pair of wires reducing the total cryogenic thermal loading as well as the cold component complexity and cost of a system. The current digital fMux system, in use by POLARBEAR, EBEX, and the South Pole Telescope, is limited to a multiplexing factor of 16 by the dynamic range of the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device pre-amplifier and the total system bandwidth. Increased multiplexing is key for the next generation of large format TES cameras, such as SPT-3G and POLARBEAR2, which plan to have on the of order 15,000 detectors. Here, we present the next generation fMux readout, focusing on the warm electronics. In this system, the multiplexing factor increases to 64 channels per module (2 wires) while maintaining low noise levels and detector stability. This is achieved by increasing the system bandwidth, reducing the dynamic range requirements though active feedback, and digital synthesis of voltage biases with a novel polyphase filter algorithm. In addition, a version of the new fMux readout includes features such as low power consumption and radiation-hard components making it viable for future space-based millimeter telescopes such as the LiteBIRD satellite.

  13. The Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Ines; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electronics developments are pursued for the trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeter towards the Phase-I upgrade scheduled in the LHC shut-down period of 2019-2020. The LAr Trigger Digitizer system will digitize 34000 channels at a 40 MHz sampling with 12 bit precision after the bipolar shaper at the front-end system, and transmit to the LAr Digital Processing system in the back-end to extract the transverse energies. Results of ASIC developments including QA and radiation hardness evaluations, and performances on prototypes will presented with the overall system design.

  14. The Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Enari, Yuji; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Electronics developments are pursued for the trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeter towards the Phase-I upgrade scheduled in the LHC shut-down period of 2019-2020. The LAr Trigger Digitizer system will digitize 34000 channels at a 40 MHz sampling with 12 bit precision after the bipolar shaper at the front-end system, and transmit to the LAr Digital Processing system in the back-end to extract the transverse energies. Results of ASIC developments including QA and radiation hardness evaluations, performances of the final prototypes and results of the system integration tests will presented along with the overall system design.

  15. READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR A HIGH-RATE CSC DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OCONNOR, P.; GRATCHEV, V.; KANDASAMY, A.; POLYCHRONAKOS, V.; TCHERNIATINE, V.; PARSONS, J.; SIPPACH, W.

    1999-01-01

    A readout system for a high-rate muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is described. The system, planned for use in the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, uses two custom CMOS integrated circuits to achieve good position resolution at a flux of up to 2,500 tracks/cm 2 /s

  16. Electronic zooming TV readout system for an x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Matsumura, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Hirai, N.; Sugiyama, M.; Kihara, H.; Watanabe, N.; Shimanuki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic zooming TV readout system using the X-ray zooming tube has been developed for purposes of real-time readout of very high resolution X-ray image, e.g. the output image from an X-ray microscope. The system limiting resolution is 0.2∼0.3 μm and it is easy to operate in practical applications

  17. Feasibility studies on the direct wire readout on wire scanners in electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, Michael

    2010-10-01

    This bachelor thesis deals essentially with the signal processing of a so-called wire scanner, a special monitor, which comes to application in the beam diagnostics of particle accelerators. In this direct wire readout the voltage signal, which is induced by the particle beam in the measurement wire of the wire scanner, shall be directly read out. The aim of this thesis is to show fundamental considerations and perform studies, which study, whether and how in the future by means of a suited data transmission as well as readout electronics conclusion on the most important parameters of the beam, like position and profile, are possible. The measurement system presented here is divided in three main components: Signal measurement, signal preparation, and signal stretching. A suited test facility was developed and is presented in detail, in which then all components, like for instance the transmission cables, the wire-scanner fork, and the developed measurement circuit, are studied, which are of importance for a faultless signal transmission and presentation. Extensive measurements on the single components, as well as calculations for the signal transmission on and in the wire scanner were performed, whereby a good agreement could be found. Thereafter a comparison and a selection of the component used in this project were made. Furthermore improvement proposals, new constructions, and outlooks are presented, which could be of importance in further works.

  18. Cost effective electronics for LAr and photo-detectors readout

    CERN Document Server

    Centro, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The T600 ICARUS detector has a DAQ system that has proved a quite satisfactory performance in the test run performed in Pavia in summer 2001. The electronics has been described in various papers and technical notes. In this paper, starting from the experience gained in the T600 operation, we propose an upgraded DAQ scheme that implements the same basic architecture with more performing new components and different modularity in view a multi-kton TPC (e.g. MODULAr) with a number of channels in the order of ~n*105. Also the electronics for PMTs detecting scintillation light in Ar will be shortly presented.

  19. A Serializer ASIC at 5 Gbps for Detector Front-end Electronics Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Liu, T; Xiang, A; Ye, J

    2010-01-01

    High speed and ultra low power serial data transmission over fiber optics plays an essential roll in detector front-end electronics readout for experiments at the LHC. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter front-end readout upgrade for the sLHC calls for an optical link system with a data bandwidth of 100 Gbps per each front-end board (FEB), a factor of 62 increase compared with the present optical link system. The transmitter of this optical link will have to withstand the radiation environment where the front-end crates are situated, and stay within the current power dissipation budget limited by the present FEB cooling capacity. To meet these challenges, we developed a 16:1 serializer based on a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) CMOS technology. This serializer, designed to work at 5 Gbps, is a key component in an optical link system. Test results of this ASIC will be reported. A system design for the 100 Gbps optical link system will also be presented, with discussions about key components identi...

  20. Test Beam Studies for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is expected to deliver 3-4/ab of p-p collisions with around 200 collisions per proton bunch crossing starting in 2026, and the readout electronics of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter need to be upgraded to deal with the high rate of data taking as well as the large pileup conditions. The proposed digitizer/shaper cards were tested in 2016-7 in the North Area at CERN using the beam from the SPS to produce high energy pions, electrons, muons, and kaons. This presentation summarizes the setup for particle identification and study of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter data taking in preparation for the production of main boards and digitizer/shaper boards for the photo-multiplier tubes. The fully assembled and tested mini-drawers will start to be installed after the LHC long shutdown in December 2023. The pulse shape, uniformity, and timing precision of the upgrade system are demonstrated.

  1. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  2. Test of New Readout Electronics for the BONuS12 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Mathieu [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire (IPN), Orsay (France)

    2017-07-01

    For decades, electron-proton scattering experiments have been providing a large amount of data on the proton structure function. However, because of the instability of free neutrons, fewer experiments have been able to study the neutron structure function. The BONuS collaboration at Jefferson Laboratory addresses this challenge by scattering electrons off a deuterium target, using a RTPC capable of detecting the low-momentum spectator protons near the target. Events of electrons scattering on almost free neutrons are selected by constraining the spectator protons to very low momenta and very backward scattering angles. In 2005, BONuS successfully measured the neutron structure with scattering electrons of up to 5.3 GeV energy. An extension of this measurement has been approved using the newly upgraded 12 GeV electron beam and CLAS12 (CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer). For this new set of measurements, a new RTPC detector using GEM trackers is being developed to allow measurements of spectator protons with momenta as low as 70 MeV/c. The new RTPC will use a new readout electronic system, which is also used by other trackers in CLAS12. This thesis will present the first tests of this electronics using a previously built RTPC of similar design.

  3. Development of radiation hard readout electronics for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sexauer, Edgar; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The experiment LHCb is under development at CERN and aims to measure CP-violation in the B-Meson system at very high precision. The experiment makes use of a vertex detector that is equipped with silicon microstrip detectors. A chip suitable for the readout of this detector has been developed in a working group at the ASIC-laboratory Heidelberg. This readout chip 'Beetle-1.0' contains 128 analog input stages of a charge sensitive preamplifier, a pulse shaper and a buffer. The analog signal is fed into a comparator, from which a fast trigger signal can be derived. The following pipeline, realized as an array of gate capacitances, can be used to either store the analog output of the input amplifiers or to store the digital comparator output. External trigger signals mark events that have to be read out and the according pipeline location is stored in a derandomizing buffer. Pending events are read out from the pipeline via a charge-sensitive, resetable amplifier and an analog multiplexer, which serializes the s...

  4. AREUS - a software framework for the ATLAS Readout Electronics Upgrade Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Philipp; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The design of readout electronics for the LAr calorimeters of the ATLAS detector to be operated at the future High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) requires a detailed simulation of the full readout chain in order to find optimal solutions for the analog and digital processing of the detector signals. Due to the long duration of the LAr calorimeter pulses relative to the LHC bunch crossing time, out-of-time signal pile-up needs to be taken intoaccountandrealisticpulsesequencesmustbesimulatedtogetherwiththeresponseoftheelectronics. For this purpose, the ATLAS Readout Electronics Upgrade Simulation framework (AREUS) has been developed based on the Observer design pattern to provide a fast and flexible simulation tool. Energy deposits in the LAr calorimeters from fully simulated HL-LHC collision events are taken as input. Simulated and measured analog pulse shapes proportional to these energies are then combined in discrete time series with proper representation of electronics noise. Analog-to-digital conversion, gain se...

  5. Superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors: System Model of the Readout Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the readout electronics needed by superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs. MKIDs are typically implemented in the form of cryogenic-cooled high quality factor microwave resonator. The natural frequency of these resonators changes as a millimeter or sub-millimeter wave radiation impinges on the resonator itself. A quantitative system model of the readout electronics (very similar to that of a vector network analyzer has been implemented under ADS environment and tested by several simulation experiments. The developed model is a tool to further optimize the readout electronic and to design the frequency allocation of parallel-connected MKIDs resonators. The applications of MKIDs will be in microwave and millimeter-wave radiometric imaging as well as in radio-astronomy focal plane arrays.

  6. Trigger and readout electronics for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS forward muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakos, Paris; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrades of the LHC accelerator and the experiments in 2019/20 and 2023/24 will increase the instantaneous and integrated luminosity, but also will drastically increase the data and trigger rates. To cope with the huge data flow while maintaining high muon detection efficiency and reducing fake muons found at Level-1, the present ATLAS small wheel muon detector will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector for high luminosity LHC runs. The NSW will feature two new detector technologies: resistive micromegas and small strip Thin Gap Chambers conforming a system of ~2.4 million readout channels. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. A common readout path and a separate trigger path are developed for each detector technology. The electronics design of such a system will be implemented in about 8000 front-end boards, including the design of a number of custom radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), capable of driving trigger and tracking...

  7. Trigger and Readout Electronics for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Forward Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakos, Paris; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrades of the LHC accelerator and the experiments in 2019/20 and 2023/24 will increase the instantaneous and integrated luminosity, but also will drastically increase the data and trigger rates. To cope with the huge data flow while maintaining high muon detection efficiency and reducing fake muons found at Level-1, the present ATLAS small wheel muon detector will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector for high luminosity LHC runs. The NSW will feature two new detector technologies: resistive micromegas (MM) and small strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) conforming a system of ~2.4 million readout channels. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. A common readout path and a separate trigger path are developed for each detector technology. The electronics design of such a system will be implemented in about 8000 front-end boards, including the design of a number of custom radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), capable of driving trigger ...

  8. Towards new analog read-out electronics for the HADES drift chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebusch, Michael [Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Track reconstruction in HADES is realized with 24 planar, low-mass drift chambers (MDC). About 27000 drift cells provide precise spatial information of track hit points together with energy loss information, serving for particle ID. In order to handle high rates and track densities required at the future SIS100 accelerator at FAIR, an upgrade of the MDC system is necessary, i.e. by receiving additional redundant layers of drift cells in front of the magnet. This involves new front-end electronics, as the original analog read-out ASIC (ASD8) is no longer in stock and cannot be produced due to its legacy silicon process. Employing new FEE would allow to further increase the sensitivity, e.g. providing additional valuable information for the analysis. This contribution presents a market analysis of alternative state-of-the-art technologies for the analog read-out of drift chambers. Test procedures to evaluate the suitability for the HADES MDCs are discussed and preliminary results are shown. Emphasis is put on the benefits and possible implementations of using two separate analog channels for reading out a sense wire, i.e. a fast amplifier with a discriminator for recording the arrival time of the signal pulse and a slow integrating amplifier with a time-over-threshold discriminator to measure the total charge of the pulse.

  9. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Readout Electronics Upgrade Program for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The ATLAS upgrade program is divided in three phases: The Phase~0 occurs during 2013-2014, Phase~1 during 2018-1019 and finally Phase~2, which is foreseen for 2022-2023, whereafter the peak luminosity will reach 5-7 x 10$^{34}$ cm$^2$s$^{-1}$ (HL-LHC). The main TileCal upgrade is focused on the Phase~2 period. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. All new electronics must be able to cope with the increased radiation levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued to study different electronics options. Three options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. The first option is an improved version of the present system built using comm...

  10. The Data Merger Readout Controller for the NA48 experiment data acquisition electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galagedera, S.B.; Brierton, B.; Halsall, R.

    1996-01-01

    The NA48 experiment at the CERN SPS offers a four fold improvement in statistical and systematic error over earlier measurements of the magnitude of the direct CP (Charge-Parity) violation of the neutral Kaon system. This requires maximum event readout efficiency, controlled event building and fast monitoring of run time errors. The event data flow in particular must be sustained at 100 Mbyte/s. The Data Merger Readout Controller presented in this paper offers this facility at minimal production cost

  11. Front-end electronics for the readout of CdZnTe sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, D; Rudge, A

    2006-01-01

    The CERN_DxCTA is a front-end ASIC optimized for the readout of CdZn Te sensors. The chip is implemented in 0.25 mum CMOS technology. The circuit consists of 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain-shaper stage with 20 ns peaking time and two discriminators, allowing two threshold settings. Each discriminator includes a 5-bit trim DAC and is followed by an 18-bit static ripple-counter. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and Cd ZnTe pixel detectors.

  12. Development of silicon pad detectors and readout electronics for a Compton camera

    CERN Document Server

    Studen, A; Clinthorne, N H; Czermak, A; Dulinski, W; Fuster, J A; Han, L; Jalocha, P; Kowal, M; Kragh, T; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Meier, D; Mikuz, M; Nygård, E; Park, S J; Roe, S; Rogers, W L; Sowicki, B; Weilhammer, P; Wilderman, S J; Yoshioka, K; Zhang, L

    2003-01-01

    Applications in nuclear medicine and bio-medical engineering may profit using a Compton camera for imaging distributions of radio-isotope labelled tracers in organs and tissues. These applications require detection of photons using thick position-sensitive silicon sensors with the highest possible energy and good spatial resolution. In this paper, research and development on silicon pad sensors and associated readout electronics for a Compton camera are presented. First results with low-noise, self-triggering VATAGP ASIC's are reported. The measured energy resolution was 1.1 keV FWHM at room temperature for the sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am photo-peak at 59.5 keV.

  13. Design and performance of TPC readout electronics for the NA49 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieser, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cooper, G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cwienk, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Eckardt, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Fessler, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Fischer, H.G. [European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Gabler, F. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 - Physik; Gornicki, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Hearn, W.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Heupke, W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 - Physik; Irmscher, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jacobs, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kleinfelder, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lindenstruth, V. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Machowski, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Marks, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Milgrome, O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mock, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Noggle, T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Pimpl, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Poskanzer, A.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rauch, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Renfordt, R. [European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 -Physik; Ritter, H.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Roehrich, D. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 - Physik; Rudolph, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rueschmann, G.W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 13 - Physik; Schaefer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Seyboth, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Seyerlein, J.

    1997-02-01

    Highly integrated readout electronics were developed and produced for the 182000 channels of the four TPCs of the NA49 heavy-ion fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS. The large number of channels, the high packing density and required cost minimization led to the choice of a custom electronics system. The requirements, the design and the performance of the electronics components are described. (orig.).

  14. Development of Digital Readout Electronics for the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Corrin, E P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector, based at CERN in Switzerland, designed to look for new physics in high-energy protonproton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider. The CMS tracker has 10 million readout channels being sampled at a rate of 40 MHz, then read out at up to 100 kHz, generating huge volumes of data; it is essential that the system can handle these rates without any of the data being lost or corrupted. The CMS tracker FED processes the data, removing pedestal and common mode-noise, and then performing hit and cluster finding. Strips below threshold are discarded, resulting in a significant reduction in data size. These zero suppressed data are stored in a buffer before being sent to the DAQ. The processing on the FEDs is done using FPGAs. Programmable logic was chosen over custom ASICs because of the lower cost, faster design and verification process, and the ability to easily upgrade the firmware at a later date. This thesis is concerned with the digital read...

  15. The front-end data conversion and readout electronics for the CMS ECAL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require a significant upgrade of the readout electronics for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). The Very Front-End (VFE) output signal will be sampled at 160 MS/s (i.e. four times the current sampling rate) with 13 bit resolution. Therefore, a high-speed, high-resolution ADC is required. Moreover, each readout channel will produce 2.08 Gb/s, thus requiring fast data transmission circuitry. A new readout architecture, based on two 12 bit, 160 MS/s ADCs, lossless data compression algorithms and fast serial links have been developed for the ECAL upgrade. These functions will be integrated in a single ASIC which is currently under design in a commercial CMOS 65 nm technology using radiation damage mitigation techniques.

  16. The front-end data conversion and readout electronics for the CMS ECAL upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, G.; Cometti, S.

    2018-03-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require a significant upgrade of the readout electronics for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). The Very Front-End (VFE) output signal will be sampled at 160 MS/s (i.e. four times the current sampling rate) with a 13 bits resolution. Therefore, a high-speed, high-resolution ADC is required. Moreover, each readout channel will produce 2.08 Gb/s, thus requiring a fast data transmission circuitry. A new readout architecture, based on two 12 bit, 160 MS/s ADCs, lossless data compression algorithms and fast serial links have been developed for the ECAL upgrade. These functions will be integrated in a single ASIC which is currently under design in a commercial CMOS 65 nm technology using radiation damage mitigation techniques.

  17. Comparison between two possible CMS Barrel Muon Readout Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Pablos, J.L.; Willmott, C.; Alberdi, J.; Marin, J.; Navarrete, J.; Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison between two possible readout arquitectures for the CMS muon barrel readout electronics is presented, including various aspects like costs, reliability, installation, staging and maintenance. A review of the present baseline architecture is given in the appendix. (Author)

  18. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budden, B.S., E-mail: bbudden@lanl.gov [Intelligence and Space Research Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stonehill, L.C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D.D.S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; Proicou, M.; Duran, G. [Intelligence and Space Research Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kamto, J. [Intelligence and Space Research Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Electrical & Computer Engineering Department, Praire View A& M University, Prairie View, TX 77446 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    A new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurable to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.

  19. Readout ASICs and Electronics for the 144-channel HAPDs for the Aerogel RICH at Belle II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, S.; Adachi, I.; Ikeda, H.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Iwata, S.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kuroda, E.; Pestotnik, R.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takagaki, H.

    The particle identification (PID) device in the endcap of the Belle detector will be upgraded to a ring imaging Cherenkov counter (RICH) using aerogel as a radiator at the Belle II experiment. We develop the electronics to read out the 70,000 channels of hit information from the 144-channel hybrid avalanche photodetectors (HAPD), of the aerogel RICH detector. A readout ASIC is developed to digitize the HAPD signals, and was used in a beam test with the prototype detector. The performance and plan of the ASIC is reported in this study. We have also designed the readout electronics for the aerogel RICH, which consist of front-end boards with the ASICs merger boards to collect data from the front-end boards. A front-end board that fits in the actual available space for the aerogel RICH electronics was produced.

  20. Digitally controlled high-performance dc SQUID readout electronics for a 304-channel vector magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechstein, S.; Petsche, F.; Scheiner, M.; Drung, D.; Thiel, F.; Schnabel, A.; Schurig, Th

    2006-06-01

    Recently, we have developed a family of dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout electronics for several applications. These electronics comprise a low-noise preamplifier followed by an integrator, and an analog SQUID bias circuit. A highly-compact low-power version with a flux-locked loop bandwidth of 0.3 MHz and a white noise level of 1 nV/√Hz was specially designed for a 304-channel low-Tc dc SQUID vector magnetometer, intended to operate in the new Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room (BMSR-2). In order to minimize the space needed to mount the electronics on top of the dewar and to minimize the power consumption, we have integrated four electronics channels on one 3 cm × 10 cm sized board. Furthermore we embedded the analog components of these four channels into a digitally controlled system including an in-system programmable microcontroller. Four of these integrated boards were combined to one module with a size of 4 cm × 4 cm × 16 cm. 19 of these modules were implemented, resulting in a total power consumption of about 61 W. To initialize the 304 channels and to service the system we have developed software tools running on a laptop computer. By means of these software tools the microcontrollers are fed with all required data such as the working points, the characteristic parameters of the sensors (noise, voltage swing), or the sensor position inside of the vector magnetometer system. In this paper, the developed electronics including the software tools are described, and first results are presented.

  1. Digitally controlled high-performance dc SQUID readout electronics for a 304-channel vector magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechstein, S; Petsche, F; Scheiner, M; Drung, D; Thiel, F; Schnabel, A; Schurig, Th

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have developed a family of dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout electronics for several applications. These electronics comprise a low-noise preamplifier followed by an integrator, and an analog SQUID bias circuit. A highly-compact low-power version with a flux-locked loop bandwidth of 0.3 MHz and a white noise level of 1 nV/√Hz was specially designed for a 304-channel low-T c dc SQUID vector magnetometer, intended to operate in the new Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room (BMSR-2). In order to minimize the space needed to mount the electronics on top of the dewar and to minimize the power consumption, we have integrated four electronics channels on one 3 cm x 10 cm sized board. Furthermore we embedded the analog components of these four channels into a digitally controlled system including an in-system programmable microcontroller. Four of these integrated boards were combined to one module with a size of 4 cm x 4 cm x 16 cm. 19 of these modules were implemented, resulting in a total power consumption of about 61 W. To initialize the 304 channels and to service the system we have developed software tools running on a laptop computer. By means of these software tools the microcontrollers are fed with all required data such as the working points, the characteristic parameters of the sensors (noise, voltage swing), or the sensor position inside of the vector magnetometer system. In this paper, the developed electronics including the software tools are described, and first results are presented

  2. Digitally controlled high-performance dc SQUID readout electronics for a 304-channel vector magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechstein, S [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Petsche, F [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Scheiner, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Drung, D [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Thiel, F [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Schnabel, A [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Schurig, Th [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-01

    Recently, we have developed a family of dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout electronics for several applications. These electronics comprise a low-noise preamplifier followed by an integrator, and an analog SQUID bias circuit. A highly-compact low-power version with a flux-locked loop bandwidth of 0.3 MHz and a white noise level of 1 nV/{radical}Hz was specially designed for a 304-channel low-T{sub c} dc SQUID vector magnetometer, intended to operate in the new Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room (BMSR-2). In order to minimize the space needed to mount the electronics on top of the dewar and to minimize the power consumption, we have integrated four electronics channels on one 3 cm x 10 cm sized board. Furthermore we embedded the analog components of these four channels into a digitally controlled system including an in-system programmable microcontroller. Four of these integrated boards were combined to one module with a size of 4 cm x 4 cm x 16 cm. 19 of these modules were implemented, resulting in a total power consumption of about 61 W. To initialize the 304 channels and to service the system we have developed software tools running on a laptop computer. By means of these software tools the microcontrollers are fed with all required data such as the working points, the characteristic parameters of the sensors (noise, voltage swing), or the sensor position inside of the vector magnetometer system. In this paper, the developed electronics including the software tools are described, and first results are presented.

  3. Use of an axisymmetric microscope with electronic readout for collecting soft X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavailler, C.; Henry, P.; Launspach, J.; De Mascureau, J.; Millerioux, M.; Rostaing, M.; Sauneuf, R.

    1984-08-01

    The axisymmetric microscope, first discussed by Wolter, provides high resolution and sensitivity for investigating the soft X-ray emission of laser-driven plasmas. Such a device having a 10 X magnification has been constructed. We present a comparison between the images of laser-driven plasmas given by this microscope and by a 10 X pinhole camera. Until now these images were recorded on X-ray film. We have shown that film could be replaced by C.C.D. in a pinhole camera when the photon energy lies within the 1-10 keV range. Below 1 keV the quantum yield is too low so we have used an image converter tube made by RTC. It is a diode-inverter tube with a soft X-ray photocathode and a P20 phosphor deposited on an optic fiber plate. The electronic image appearing on the screen is read by a C.C.D. working in the visible spectral fields. An electronic image readout chain, which is identical to those associated with streak cameras, then processes automatically and immediately the images given by the microscope [fr

  4. Coherent operation of detector systems and their readout electronics in a complex experiment control environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestner, Stefan [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: koestner@mpi-halle.mpg.de

    2009-09-11

    With the increasing size and degree of complexity of today's experiments in high energy physics the required amount of work and complexity to integrate a complete subdetector into an experiment control system is often underestimated. We report here on the layered software structure and protocols used by the LHCb experiment to control its detectors and readout boards. The experiment control system of LHCb is based on the commercial SCADA system PVSS II. Readout boards which are outside the radiation area are accessed via embedded credit card sized PCs which are connected to a large local area network. The SPECS protocol is used for control of the front end electronics. Finite state machines are introduced to facilitate the control of a large number of electronic devices and to model the whole experiment at the level of an expert system.

  5. Beam test results for the upgraded LHCb RICH opto-electronic readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Carniti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is devoted to high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics by studying the decays of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Two RICH detectors are currently installed and operating successfully, providing a crucial role in the particle identification system of the LHCb experiment. Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity, extending its potential for discovery and study of new phenomena. Both the RICH detectors will be upgraded and the entire opto-electronic system has been redesigned in order to cope with the new specifications, namely higher readout rates, and increased occupancies. The new photodetectors, readout electronics, mechanical assembly and cooling system have reached the final phase of development and their performance was thoroughly and successfully validated during several beam test sessions in 2014 and 2015 at the SPS facility at CERN. Details of the test setup and perf...

  6. Study on FPGA SEU Mitigation for the Readout Electronics of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhongtao; Feng, Changqing; Gao, Shanshan; Zhang, Deliang; Jiang, Di; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    2015-06-01

    The BGO calorimeter, which provides a wide measurement range of the primary cosmic ray spectrum, is a key sub-detector of the Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE). The readout electronics of calorimeter consists of 16 pieces of Actel ProASIC Plus FLASH-based field-programmable gate array (FPGA), of which the design-level flip-flops and embedded block random access memories (RAM) are single event upset (SEU) sensitive in the harsh space environment. To comply with radiation hardness assurance (RHA), SEU mitigation methods, including partial triple modular redundancy (TMR), CRC checksum, and multi-domain reset are analyzed and tested by the heavy-ion beam test. Composed of multi-level redundancy, a FPGA design with the characteristics of SEU tolerance and low resource consumption is implemented for the readout electronics.

  7. Tips for Good Electronic Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    Describes library uses of presentation graphics software and offers tips for creating electronic presentations. Tips include: audience retention; visual aid options; software package options; presentation planning; presentation showing; and use of text, colors, and graphics. Sidebars note common presentation errors and popular presentation…

  8. Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Readout. The design of custom developed hardware for fast real-time data processing and transfer is presented. Performance results from the prototype boards operated in the demonstrator system, first measurements of noise behavior and responses on the test pulses to the demonstrator system are shown.

  9. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R and D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision

  10. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  11. Optimizing read-out of the NECTAr front-end electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiov, S.; Feinstein, F.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Delagnes, E.; Falvard, A.; Gascón, D.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C. L.; Nayman, P.; Ribo, M.; Sanuy, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.

    2012-12-01

    We describe the optimization of the read-out specifications of the NECTAr front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The NECTAr project aims at building and testing a demonstrator module of a new front-end electronics design, which takes an advantage of the know-how acquired while building the cameras of the CAT, H.E.S.S.-I and H.E.S.S.-II experiments. The goal of the optimization work is to define the specifications of the digitizing electronics of a CTA camera, in particular integration time window, sampling rate, analog bandwidth using physics simulations. We employed for this work real photomultiplier pulses, sampled at 100 ps with a 600 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The individual pulses are drawn randomly at the times at which the photo-electrons, originating from atmospheric showers, arrive at the focal planes of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The timing information is extracted from the existing CTA simulations on the GRID and organized in a local database, together with all the relevant physical parameters (energy, primary particle type, zenith angle, distance from the shower axis, pixel offset from the optical axis, night-sky background level, etc.), and detector configurations (telescope types, camera/mirror configurations, etc.). While investigating the parameter space, an optimal pixel charge integration time window, which minimizes relative error in the measured charge, has been determined. This will allow to gain in sensitivity and to lower the energy threshold of CTA telescopes. We present results of our optimizations and first measurements obtained using the NECTAr demonstrator module.

  12. Optimizing read-out of the NECTAr front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiov, S., E-mail: vorobiov@lpta.in2p3.fr [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Falvard, A. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Gascon, D. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Glicenstein, J.-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Ribo, M.; Sanuy, A. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2012-12-11

    We describe the optimization of the read-out specifications of the NECTAr front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The NECTAr project aims at building and testing a demonstrator module of a new front-end electronics design, which takes an advantage of the know-how acquired while building the cameras of the CAT, H.E.S.S.-I and H.E.S.S.-II experiments. The goal of the optimization work is to define the specifications of the digitizing electronics of a CTA camera, in particular integration time window, sampling rate, analog bandwidth using physics simulations. We employed for this work real photomultiplier pulses, sampled at 100 ps with a 600 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The individual pulses are drawn randomly at the times at which the photo-electrons, originating from atmospheric showers, arrive at the focal planes of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The timing information is extracted from the existing CTA simulations on the GRID and organized in a local database, together with all the relevant physical parameters (energy, primary particle type, zenith angle, distance from the shower axis, pixel offset from the optical axis, night-sky background level, etc.), and detector configurations (telescope types, camera/mirror configurations, etc.). While investigating the parameter space, an optimal pixel charge integration time window, which minimizes relative error in the measured charge, has been determined. This will allow to gain in sensitivity and to lower the energy threshold of CTA telescopes. We present results of our optimizations and first measurements obtained using the NECTAr demonstrator module.

  13. Optimizing read-out of the NECTAr front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobiov, S.; Feinstein, F.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Delagnes, E.; Falvard, A.; Gascón, D.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P.; Ribo, M.; Sanuy, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the optimization of the read-out specifications of the NECTAr front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The NECTAr project aims at building and testing a demonstrator module of a new front-end electronics design, which takes an advantage of the know-how acquired while building the cameras of the CAT, H.E.S.S.-I and H.E.S.S.-II experiments. The goal of the optimization work is to define the specifications of the digitizing electronics of a CTA camera, in particular integration time window, sampling rate, analog bandwidth using physics simulations. We employed for this work real photomultiplier pulses, sampled at 100 ps with a 600 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The individual pulses are drawn randomly at the times at which the photo-electrons, originating from atmospheric showers, arrive at the focal planes of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The timing information is extracted from the existing CTA simulations on the GRID and organized in a local database, together with all the relevant physical parameters (energy, primary particle type, zenith angle, distance from the shower axis, pixel offset from the optical axis, night-sky background level, etc.), and detector configurations (telescope types, camera/mirror configurations, etc.). While investigating the parameter space, an optimal pixel charge integration time window, which minimizes relative error in the measured charge, has been determined. This will allow to gain in sensitivity and to lower the energy threshold of CTA telescopes. We present results of our optimizations and first measurements obtained using the NECTAr demonstrator module.

  14. Development of new readout electronics for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter at the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Strässner, A

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter consists of 182,486 detector cells whose signals need to be read out, digitized and processed, in order to provide signal timing and the energy deposited in each detector element. The current readout electronics is not designed to sustain the ten times higher radiation levels expected at sLHC in the years beyond 2017, and will be replaced by new electronics with a completely different readout scheme. The future on-detector electronics is planned to send out all data continuously at each bunch crossing, as opposed to the current system which only transfers data at a trigger-accept signal. Multiple high-speed and radiation-resistant optical links will transmit 100 Gbps per front-end board, each covering 128 readout channels. The off-detector processing units will not only process the data in real-time and provide digital data buffering, but will also implement trigger algorithms. An overview about the various components necessary to develop such a complex system will be ...

  15. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Theresa; /FERMILAB; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; /Barcelona, IFAE; Chappa, Steve; /Fermilab; de Vicente, Juan; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; /Fermilab; Martinez, Gustavo; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  16. Beam test of a full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber with the readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Z.H.; Chen, Y.B.; Sheng, H.Y.; Wu, L.H.; Liu, J.B.; Zhuang, B.A.; Jiang, X.S.; Zhao, Y.B.; Zhu, K.J.; Yan, Z.K.; Chen, C.; Xu, M.H.; Wang, L.; Ma, X.Y.; Tang, X.; Liu, R.G.; Jin, Y.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhang, G.F.; Wu, Z.; Li, R.Y.; Zhao, P.P.; Dai, H.L.; Li, X.P.; Li, J.

    2007-01-01

    A full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber together with its readout electronics was built and a beam test was performed. Two different methods, namely 'single-threshold method' and 'double-threshold method' for timing measurement, were studied. Test results show that the BESIII drift chamber and its readout electronics can reach their design specifications. The 'double-threshold method' results in a better timing accuracy and noise suppression capabilities as compared with the 'single-threshold method'

  17. Electronics and readout of a large area silicon detector for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Campbell, M.; Chilingarov, A.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Santiard, J.C.; Scampoli, P.; Verweij, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Spiwoks, R.; Tsesmelis, E.; Benslama, K.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Kambara, H.; Wu, X.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Schultz, T.; Bardos, R.A.; Gorfine, G.W.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Tovey, S.N.; Bibby, J.H.; Hawkings, R.J.; Kundu, N.; Weidberg, A.; Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.; Teiger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the RD2 project is to evaluate the feasibility of a silicon tracker and/or preshower detector for LHC. Irradiation studies with doses equivalent to those expected at LHC have been performed to determine the behavior of operational parameters such as leakage current, depletion voltage and charge collection during the life of the detector. The development of fast, dense, low power and low cost signal processing electronics is one of the major activities of the collaboration. We describe the first fully functional integrated analog memory chip with asynchronous read and write operations and level 1 trigger capture capabilities. A complete test beam system using this analog memory chip at 66 MHz has been successfully operated with RD2 prototype silicon detectors during various test runs. The flexibility of the electronics and readout have allowed us to easily interface our set-up to other data acquisition systems. Mechanical studies are in progress to design a silicon tracking detector with several million channels that may be operated at low (0-10 C) temperature, while maintaining the required geometrical precision. Prototype readout boards for such a detector are being developed and simulation studies are being performed to optimize the readout architecture. (orig.)

  18. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide up to 7.5 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. The radiation tolerance criteria and the improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger-readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated ...

  19. Cold front-end electronics and Ethernet-based DAQ systems for large LAr TPC readout

    CERN Document Server

    D.Autiero,; B.Carlus,; Y.Declais,; S.Gardien,; C.Girerd,; J.Marteau; H.Mathez

    2010-01-01

    Large LAr TPCs are among the most powerful detectors to address open problems in particle and astro-particle physics, such as CP violation in leptonic sector, neutrino properties and their astrophysical implications, proton decay search etc. The scale of such detectors implies severe constraints on their readout and DAQ system. We are carrying on a R&D in electronics on a complete readout chain including an ASIC located close to the collecting planes in the argon gas phase and a DAQ system based on smart Ethernet sensors implemented in a µTCA standard. The choice of the latter standard is motivated by the similarity in the constraints with those existing in Network Telecommunication Industry. We also developed a synchronization scheme developed from the IEEE1588 standard integrated by the use of the recovered clock from the Gigabit link

  20. Studies of Read-Out Electronics and Trigger for Muon Drift Tube Detectors at High Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. For precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs-Boson and searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, the LHC luminosity of $L=10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ is planned to be increased by a factor of ten leading to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to cope with the higher background and data rates, the LHC experiments need to be upgraded. In this thesis, studies for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are presented with respect to the read-out electronics of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) and the small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers and the Level-1 muon trigger. Due to the reduced tube diameter of sMDT chambers, background occupancy and space charge effects are suppressed by an order of magnitude compar...

  1. R&D Studies of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Readout Electronics for super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors, total about 180,000 signals are digitized and processed real-time on detector, to provide energy and time deposited in each detector element at every occurrence of the L1-trigger. A luminosity upgrade (x10) of the LHC will occur ~2017, the current readout electronics will have to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels. A completely innovative readout scheme is being developed. The front-end readout will send out data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed radiation resistant optical links, the data will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms. This article is an overview of the R&D activities and architectural studies the ATLAS LAr collaboration is developing: front-end analog and mixed-signal ASIC design, radiation resistance optical-links in SOS, high-speed back-end processing units based on FPGA architectures and power supply d...

  2. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00567140; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile-up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. To be able to retain interesting physics events even at rather low transverse energy scales, increased trigger rates are foreseen for the ATLAS detector. At the hardware selection stage acceptance rates of 1 MHz are planned, combined with longer latencies up to 60 micro-seconds in order to read out the necessary data from all detector channels. Under these conditions, the current readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities. Furthermore, the expected total radiation doses are beyond the qualification range of the current front-end electronics. For these reasons a replacement of the LAr front-end and back-end readout system is foreseen for all 182,500 readout channels, with the exception of t...

  3. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00069444; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile- up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. To be able to retain interesting physics events at electroweak energy scales, increased trigger rates are foreseen for the ATLAS detector. At the hardware selection stage acceptance rates of up to 1 MHz are planned, combined with longer latencies up to 40 micro-seconds in order to read out the necessary data from all detector channels. The current readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities. For these reasons a replacement of the LAr front-end and off-detector readout systems is foreseen for all 182,500 readout channels, with the exception of the cold pre-amplifier and summing devices of the hadronic LAr Calorimeter. The new low-power electronics must be able to capture the triangular dete...

  4. High-pitch metal-on-glass technology for pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, Miguel; Campabadal, Francesca; Fleta, Celeste; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bernabeu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics and astrophysics strip detectors have increased channel density to levels at which their connection with readout electronics has become very complex due to high pad pitch. Also, direct wire bonding is prevented by the fact that typically detector's pad pitch and electronics' pad pitch do not match. A high- pitch metal-on-glass technology is presented, that allows pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics. It consists of high-density metal lines on top of an insulating glass substrate. A photoresist layer is deposited covering the metal tracks for passivation and protection The technology is tested for conductivity, bondability, bonding pull force, peel off, and radiation hardness, and it is an established technology in the clean room of the CNM Institute in Barcelona. This technology has been chosen by the ATLAS Collaboration for the pad pitch adapters (PPA) of the SCT Endcap Modules, by a Compton camera project, and by other HEP groups for interconnection betwe...

  5. Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00452211; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the Long Shut-down period of 2019-2020 (LS2), referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sucient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modi ed to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identi cation effciencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger.

  6. SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics for compact gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, N., E-mail: dinu@lal.in2p3.fr [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Imando, T. Ait; Nagai, A. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Pinot, L. [Laboratory of Imaging and Modelisation in Neurobiology and Cancerology, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Puill, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Callier, S. [Omega Microelectronics Group, CNRS, Palaiseau (France); Janvier, B.; Esnault, C.; Verdier, M.-A. [Laboratory of Imaging and Modelisation in Neurobiology and Cancerology, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Raux, L. [Omega Microelectronics Group, CNRS, Palaiseau (France); Vandenbussche, V.; Charon, Y.; Menard, L. [Laboratory of Imaging and Modelisation in Neurobiology and Cancerology, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on the design and features of a very compact and light gamma camera based on SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics dedicated to tumor localization during radio-guided cancer surgery. This gamma camera, called MAGICS, is composed of four (2×2) photo-detection elementary modules coupled to an inorganic scintillator. The 256 channels photo-detection system covers a sensitive area of 54×53 m{sup 2}. Each elementary module is based on four (2×2) SiPM monolithic arrays, each array consisting of 16 SiPM photo-sensors (4×4) with 3×3 mm{sup 2} sensitive area, coupled to a miniaturized readout electronics and a dedicated ASIC. The overall dimensions of the electronics fit the size of the detector, enabling to assemble side-by-side several elementary modules in a close-packed arrangement. The preliminary performances of the system are very encouraging, showing an energy resolution of 9.8% and a spatial resolution of less than 1 mm at 122 keV.

  7. Development of new readout electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Strässner, A

    2009-01-01

    The readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter is a complex multi-channel system to amplify, shape, digitize and process signals of the detector cells. The current on-detector electronics is not designed to sustain the ten times higher radiation levels expected at sLHC in the years beyond 2019/2020, and will be replaced by new electronics with a completely different readout scheme. The future on-detector electronics is planned to send out all data continuously at each bunch crossing, as opposed to the current system which only transfers data at a trigger-accept signal. Multiple high-speed and radiation-resistant optical links will transmit 100 Gb/s per front-end board. The off-detector processing units will not only process the data in real-time and provide digital data buffering, but will also implement trigger algorithms. An overview about the various components necessary to develop such a complex system is given. The current R&D activities and architectural studies of the LAr Calorimeter group...

  8. Use of spectrophotometric readout method for free radical dosimetry in radiation processing including low energy electrons and bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Our laboratory maintains standards for high doses in India. The glutamine powder dosimeter (spectrophotometric readout) is used for this purpose. Present studies show that 20 mg of unirradiated/irradiated glutamine dissolved in freshly prepared 10 ml of aerated aqueous acidic FX solution containing 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 ferrous ammonium sulphate and 10 -4 mol dm -3 xylenol orange in 0.033 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid is suitable for the dosimetry in the dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. Normally no corrections are required for the post-irradiation fading of the irradiated glutamine. The response of glutamine dosimeter is independent of irradiation temperature in the range of about 23-30 deg. C and at other temperatures, a correction is necessary. The dose intercomparison results for photon, electron and bremsstrahlung radiations show that glutamine can be used as a reference standard dosimeter. The use of flat polyethylene bags containing glutamine powder has proved very successful for electron dosimetry of wide energies. Several other amino acids like alanine, valine and threonine can also be used to cover wide range of doses using spectrophotometric readout method. (author)

  9. FPGA-based upgrade of the read-out electronics for the low energy polarimeter at the cooler synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, Nils [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: JEDI-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Cooler Synchrotron (COSY) is a storage ring used for experiments with polarized proton and deuteron beams. The low energy polarimeter is used to determine the vector and tensor polarization of the beam before injection at kinetic energies up to 45 MeV for protons and 75 MeV for deuterons. The polarimeter uses scintillators to measure the energy of both outgoing particles of a scattering reaction and the time between their detection. The present read-out electronics consists of analog NIM modules and is limited in terms of time resolution and the capability for online data analysis. The read-out electronics will be replaced with a a new system based on analog pulse sampling and an FPGA chip for logic operations. The new system will be able to measure the time at which particles arrive to a precision better than 50 ps, facilitating better background reduction using coincidence measurement. In addition to measuring the beam polarization, the system will be used to precisely determine the vector and tensor analyzing powers for deuteron scattering off carbon at a kinetic energy of 75 MeV.

  10. Proton and Neutron Irradiation Tests of Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Menke, Sven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter will have to withstand the about ten times larger radiation environment of the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to their design values. The GaAs ASIC which comprises the heart of the readout electronics has been exposed to neutron and proton radiation with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the HL-LHC. Neutron tests where performed at the NPI in Rez, Czech Republic, where a 36 MeV proton beam is directed on a thick heavy water target to produce neutrons. The proton irradiation was done with 200 MeV protons at the PROSCAN area of the Proton Irradiation Facility at the PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. In-situ measurements of S-parameters in both tests allow the evaluation of frequency dependent performance parameters - like gain and input impedance - as a function of the fluence. The linearity of the ASIC response has been measured directly in the neutron tests with a triangular input pulse of...

  11. Proton and Neutron Irradiation Tests of Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00106910

    2012-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter will have to withstand the about ten times larger radiation environment of the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to their design values. The GaAs ASIC which comprises the heart of the readout electronics has been exposed to neutron and proton radiation with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the HL-LHC. Neutron tests were performed at the NPI in Rez, Czech Republic, where a 36 MeV proton beam is directed on a thick heavy water target to produce neutrons. The proton irradiation was done with 200 MeV protons at the PROSCAN area of the Proton Irradiation Facility at the PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. In-situ measurements of S-parameters in both tests allow the evaluation of frequency dependent performance parameters - like gain and input impedance - as a function of the fluence. The linearity of the ASIC response has been measured directly in the neutron tests with a triangular input pulse of ...

  12. Conditional Dispersive Readout of a CMOS Single-Electron Memory Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, S.; Barraud, S.; Morton, J. J. L.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.

    2018-05-01

    Quantum computers require interfaces with classical electronics for efficient qubit control, measurement, and fast data processing. Fabricating the qubit and the classical control layer using the same technology is appealing because it will facilitate the integration process, improving feedback speeds and offering potential solutions to wiring and layout challenges. Integrating classical and quantum devices monolithically, using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes, enables the processor to profit from the most mature industrial technology for the fabrication of large-scale circuits. We demonstrate a CMOS single-electron memory cell composed of a single quantum dot and a transistor that locks charge on the quantum-dot gate. The single-electron memory cell is conditionally read out by gate-based dispersive sensing using a lumped-element L C resonator. The control field-effect transistor (FET) and quantum dot are fabricated on the same chip using fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology. We obtain a charge sensitivity of δ q =95 ×10-6e Hz-1 /2 when the quantum-dot readout is enabled by the control FET, comparable to results without the control FET. Additionally, we observe a single-electron retention time on the order of a second when storing a single-electron charge on the quantum dot at millikelvin temperatures. These results demonstrate first steps towards time-based multiplexing of gate-based dispersive readout in CMOS quantum devices opening the path for the development of an all-silicon quantum-classical processor.

  13. Soft X-ray imaging with axisymmetry microscope and electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauneuf, A.; Cavailler, C.; Henry, Ph.; Launspach, J.; Mascureau, J. de; Rostaing, M.

    1984-11-01

    An axisymmetric microscope with 10 X magnification has been constructed; its resolution has been measured using severals grids, backlighted by an X-ray source and found to be near 25 μm. So it could be used to make images of laser driven plasmas in the soft X-ray region. In order to see rapidly those images we have associated it with a new detector. It is a small image converter tube with a soft X-ray photocathode and a P20 phosphor deposited on an optic fiber plate. The electronic image appearing on the screen is read by a CCD working in the spectral range. An electronic image readout chain, which is identical to those we use with streak cameras, then processes automatically and immediatly the images given by the microscope

  14. Diode readout electronics for beam intensity and position monitors for FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S; Hart, P; Freytag, M; Pines, J; Weaver, M; Sapozhnikov, L; Nelson, S; Koglin, J; Carini, G A; Tomada, A; Haller, G

    2014-01-01

    LCLS uses Intensity-Position Monitors (IPM) to measure intensity and position of the FEL x-ray pulses. The primary beam passes through a silicon nitride film and four diodes, arranged in quadrants, detect the backscattered x-ray photons. The position is derived from the relative intensity of the four diodes, while the sum provides beam intensity information. In contrast to traditional synchrotron beam monitors, where diodes measure a DC current signal, the LCLS beam monitors have to cope with the pulsed nature of the FEL, which requires a large single shot dynamic range. A key component of these beam monitors is the readout electronics. The first generation of beam monitors showed some limitations. A new scheme with upgraded electronics, firmware and software was implemented resulting in a more robust and reliable measuring tool.

  15. Phase - I Trigger Readout Electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Dinkespiler, Bernard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for shut-down period of 2018-2019, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be tr...

  16. Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Camplani, Alessandra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for shut-down period of 2018-2019, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be tr...

  17. Common Bias Readout for TES Array on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Maehisa, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array as an X-ray sensor for a scanning transmission electron microscope system is being developed. The technical challenge of this system is a high count rate of ˜ 5000 counts/second/array. We adopted a 64 pixel array with a parallel readout. Common SQUID bias, and common TES bias are planned to reduce the number of wires and the resources of a room temperature circuit. The reduction rate of wires is 44 % when a 64 pixel array is read out by a common bias of 8 channels. The possible degradation of the energy resolution has been investigated by simulations and experiments. The bias fluctuation effects of a series connection are less than those of a parallel connection. Simple calculations expect that the fluctuations of the common SQUID bias and common TES bias in a series connection are 10^{-7} and 10^{-3}, respectively. We constructed 8 SQUIDs which are connected to 8 TES outputs and a room temperature circuit for common bias readout and evaluated experimentally. Our simulation of crosstalk indicates that at an X-ray event rate of 500 cps/pixel, crosstalk will broaden a monochromatic line by about 0.01 %, or about 1.5 eV at 15 keV. Thus, our design goal of 10 eV energy resolution across the 0.5-15 keV band should be achievable.

  18. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chun Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (E-Nose is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  19. Feasibility study to use an SRAM-based FPGA in the readout electronics of the upgraded LHCb outer tracker detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faerber, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the feasibility to use SRAM-based FPGAs as central component of the upgraded LHCb Outer Tracker readout electronics. The FPGA should contain the functionality of a TDC and should provide fast data links using multi-GBit/s transceivers. The TDC core that was developed provides 5 bit time measurements for 32 channels with a bin size of 780 ps. The TDC has the required time resolution of better than 1 ns. This was achieved by manually placing every logic element of the TDC channels and with an iterative procedure feeding timing measurements back to the Place and Route step of the router software. A transceiver and TDC card, and an adapter board for the existing readout electronics was developed. Both boards were used successfully to read out drift times from an Outer Tracker straw-tube module in a cosmic setup. To qualify the proposed electronics for the expected radiation levels an irradiation test with 22 MeV protons and two FPGA boards was performed up to a total ionization dose of 30 Mrad. Both chips sustained the irradiation expected for the full life time of the upgraded LHCb detector of up to 30 krad. After an irradiation dose of 150 krad the first deteriorations of the performance of the chips were observed. The proton cross section for configuration bit flips was determined to be 1.6.10 16 cm 2 per bit. The measured error rate scaled to the upgrade environment would correspond to a manageable firmware error rate.

  20. Operation of a Fast-RICH Prototype with VLSI readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyonnet, J.L. (CRN, IN2P3-CNRS / Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Arnold, R. (CRN, IN2P3-CNRS / Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Jobez, J.P. (Coll. de France, 75 - Paris (France)); Seguinot, J. (Coll. de France, 75 - Paris (France)); Ypsilantis, T. (Coll. de France, 75 - Paris (France)); Chesi, E. (CERN / ECP Div., Geneve (Switzerland)); Racz, A. (CERN / ECP Div., Geneve (Switzerland)); Egger, J. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)); Gabathuler, K. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)); Joram, C. (Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)); Adachi, I. (KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)); Enomoto, R. (KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)); Sumiyoshi, T. (KEK, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the first test results, obtained with cosmic rays, of a full-scale Fast-RICH Prototype with proximity-focused 10 mm thick LiF (CaF[sub 2]) solid radiators, TEA as photosensor in CH[sub 4], and readout of 12 x 10[sup 3] cathode pads (5.334 x 6.604 mm[sup 2]) using dedicated VLSI electronics we have developed. The number of detected photoelectrons is 7.7 (6.9) for the CaF[sub 2] (LiF) radiator, very near to the expected values 6.4 (7.5) from Monte Carlo simulations. The single-photon Cherenkov angle resolution [sigma][sub [theta

  1. Readout electronics for the SiPM tracking plane in the NEXT-1 prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, V.; Toledo, J.; Català, J.M.; Esteve, R.; Gil, A.; Lorca, D.; Monzó, J.M.; Sanchis, F.; Verdugo, A.

    2012-01-01

    NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a 100 kg radio-pure high-pressure gaseous xenon TPC with electroluminescence readout. A large-scale prototype with a SiPM tracking plane has been built. The primary electron paths can be reconstructed from time-resolved measurements of the light that arrives to the SiPM plane. Our approach is to measure how many photons have reached each SiPM sensor each microsecond with a gated integrator. We have designed and tested a 16-channel front-end board that includes the analog paths and a digital section. Each analog path consists of three different stages: a transimpedance amplifier, a gated integrator and an offset and gain control stage. Measurements show good linearity and the ability to detect single photoelectrons.

  2. Readout electronics for the SiPM tracking plane in the NEXT-1 prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, V. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Toledo, J., E-mail: jtoledo@eln.upv.es [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Catala, J.M.; Esteve, R. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gil, A.; Lorca, D. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), 46980 Valencia (Spain); Monzo, J.M.; Sanchis, F. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Verdugo, A. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-11

    NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a 100 kg radio-pure high-pressure gaseous xenon TPC with electroluminescence readout. A large-scale prototype with a SiPM tracking plane has been built. The primary electron paths can be reconstructed from time-resolved measurements of the light that arrives to the SiPM plane. Our approach is to measure how many photons have reached each SiPM sensor each microsecond with a gated integrator. We have designed and tested a 16-channel front-end board that includes the analog paths and a digital section. Each analog path consists of three different stages: a transimpedance amplifier, a gated integrator and an offset and gain control stage. Measurements show good linearity and the ability to detect single photoelectrons.

  3. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose detectors designed to study proton-proton collisions (14 TeV in the center of mass) produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and to explore the full physics potential of the LHC machine at CERN. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS (and its LAr Calorimeters) has been operating and collecting p-p collisions at LHC since 2009. The on-detector electronics (front-end) part of the current readout electronics of the calorimeters measures the ionization current signals by means of preamplifiers, shapers and digitizers and then transfers the data to the off-detector electronics (back-end) for further elaboration, via optical links. Only the data selected by the level-1 calorimeter trigger system are transferred, achieving a bandwidth reduction to 1.6 Gbps. The analog trigger sum sig...

  4. Electronic readout of a single nuclear spin using a molecular spin transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R.; Klyastskaya, S.; Ruben, M.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Balestro, F.

    2012-02-01

    Quantum control of individual spins in condensed matter devices is an emerging field with a wide range of applications ranging from nanospintronics to quantum computing [1,2]. The electron, with its spin and orbital degrees of freedom, is conventionally used as carrier of the quantum information in the devices proposed so far. However, electrons exhibit a strong coupling to the environment leading to reduced relaxation and coherence times. Indeed quantum coherence and stable entanglement of electron spins are extremely difficult to achieve. We propose a new approach using the nuclear spin of an individual metal atom embedded in a single-molecule magnet (SMM). In order to perform the readout of the nuclear spin, the quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) of the magnetic moment of the SMM in a transitor-like set-up is electronically detected. Long spin lifetimes of an individual nuclear spin were observed and the relaxation characteristics were studied. The manipulation of the nuclear spin state of individual atoms embedded in magnetic molecules opens a completely new world, where quantum logic may be integrated.[4pt] [1] L. Bogani, W. Wernsdorfer, Nature Mat. 7, 179 (2008).[0pt] [2] M. Urdampilleta, S. Klyatskaya, J.P. Cleuziou, M. Ruben, W. Wernsdorfer, Nature Mat. 10, 502 (2011).

  5. Dose intercomparison for 400–500 keV electrons using FWT-60 film and glutamine (spectrophotometric readout) dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, B. L.; Nilekani, S. R.; Gehringer, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the dose and the depth dose measurements with FWT-60 film and glutamine (Spectrophotometric readout) dosimeters for 400–500 keV electrons. The glutamine powder was spread uniformly in polyethylene bags and the powder thickness in each bag was 5 mg cm−2. Both techniques show...

  6. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Readout Electronics Upgrade Program for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The ATLAS upgrade program is divided in three phases: The Phase 0 occurs during 2013-2014 and prepares the LHC to reach peak luminosities of 1034 cm2s-1; Phase 1, foreseen for 2018-1019, prepares the LHC for peak luminosity up to 2-3 x 1034 cm2s-1, corresponding to 55 to 80 interactions per bunch-crossing with 25 ns bunch interval; and Phase 2 is foreseen for 2022-2023, whereafter the peak luminosity will reach 5-7 x 1034 cm2s-1 (HL-LHC). With luminosity leveling, the average luminosity will increase with a factor 10. The main TileCal upgrade is focused on the HL-LHC period. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. All new electronics must be able to cope with the increased rad...

  7. SPIROC (SiPM Integrated Read-Out Chip) Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchel, Michel; Dulucq, Frédéric; Fleury, Julien; de La Taille, Christophe; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Raux, Ludovic

    2009-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  8. SPIROC (SiPM Integrated Read-Out Chip) Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchel, Michel; Fleury, Julien; de La Taille, Christophe; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Raux, Ludovic

    2007-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  9. FATALIC: a fully integrated electronics readout for the ATLAS tile calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelidakis, Stylianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast program of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen in 2024. The current readout electronics of every sub-detector, including the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), must be upgraded to comply with the extreme HL-LHC operating conditions. The ASIC described in this document, named Front-end ATlAs tiLe Integrated Circuit (FATALIC), has been developed to fulfill these requirements. FATALIC is based on a $130\\,$nm CMOS technology and performs the complete processing of the signal, including amplification, shaping and digitization on a large dynamic range from $25\\,$fC to $1.2\\,$nC. The overall architecture of this current-reading ASIC is composed by current conveyors, shapers, 12-bits pipeline analog-to-digital converters operating at $40\\,$Mhz and a digital block dealing with the three gains implemented in this electronics. A dedicated channel for low current is also designed in order to be able to perform absolute calibration with radioactive cesium so...

  10. On Certain New Methodology for Reducing Sensor and Readout Electronics Circuitry Noise in Digital Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Miko, Joseph; Bradley, Damon; Heinzen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and upcoming cosmology science missions carry instruments with multiple focal planes populated with many large sensor detector arrays. These sensors are passively cooled to low temperatures for low-level light (L3) and near-infrared (NIR) signal detection, and the sensor readout electronics circuitry must perform at extremely low noise levels to enable new required science measurements. Because we are at the technological edge of enhanced performance for sensors and readout electronics circuitry, as determined by thermal noise level at given temperature in analog domain, we must find new ways of further compensating for the noise in the signal digital domain. To facilitate this new approach, state-of-the-art sensors are augmented at their array hardware boundaries by non-illuminated reference pixels, which can be used to reduce noise attributed to sensors. There are a few proposed methodologies of processing in the digital domain the information carried by reference pixels, as employed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope Projects. These methods involve using spatial and temporal statistical parameters derived from boundary reference pixel information to enhance the active (non-reference) pixel signals. To make a step beyond this heritage methodology, we apply the NASA-developed technology known as the Hilbert- Huang Transform Data Processing System (HHT-DPS) for reference pixel information processing and its utilization in reconfigurable hardware on-board a spaceflight instrument or post-processing on the ground. The methodology examines signal processing for a 2-D domain, in which high-variance components of the thermal noise are carried by both active and reference pixels, similar to that in processing of low-voltage differential signals and subtraction of a single analog reference pixel from all active pixels on the sensor. Heritage methods using the aforementioned statistical parameters in the

  11. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Junjie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The planned Phase-I and Phase-II upgrades of the LHC accelerator drastically impacts the ATLAS trigger and trigger rates. A replacement of the ATLAS innermost endcap muon station with a new small wheel (NSW) detector is planned for the second long shutdown period of 2019 - 2020. This upgrade will allow us to maintain a low pT threshold for single muon and excellent tracking capability even after the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The NSW detector will feature two new detector technologies, Resistive Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. The total number of trigger and readout channels is about 2.4 millions, and the overall power consumption is expected to be about 75 kW. The electronics design will be implemented in some 8000 front-end boards including the design of four custom front-end ASICs capable to drive trigger and tracking primitives with high speed sterilizers to drive trigger candidates to the backend trigger processor sy...

  12. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-1 Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, scheduled for 2019-2020, will increase the instantaneous luminosity by more than three, hence the ATLAS trigger rates. To cope with this increase, the trigger signals from the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter will be rearranged in 34000 so-called super cells to get a 5 to 10 times finer granularity. This will improve the background rejection performance through more precise energy measurements and the use of shower shape information to discriminate electrons, photons and hadronically decaying tau leptons from jets. The new system will process the super cell signal at 40 MHz and with 12 bit precision. The data will be transmitted at 5.12 Gb/s to the back-end system using a custom serializer and optical transmitter. To verify full functionality, a demonstrator set- up has been installed on the ATLAS detector and operated during the LHC Run 2. This document gives a status on hardware developments towards the final design readout system, including the performance of the new...

  13. Study of fast operating readout electronics and charge interpolation technique for micro cathode strip chambers (MCSC)

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchuk, A; Sagidova, Nailia

    1998-01-01

    Study of the factors limiting the spatial resolution of the MCSC caused by nonlinearity of the cathode-charge interpolation technique has been carried out using a special test arrangement that imitates the charge distribution on the cathode strips as a real MCSC and allows high precision comparison of the coordinates determined by the charge interpolation technique with the known values. We considered a MCSC with a 0.6 mm gap between the anode and the cathode strip planes and with the strip pitch of 0.9 mm. Various charge interpolation algorithms have been tested. It was demonstrated that the systematics errors in the coordinate measurements as low as 5 microns can be achieved, after applying some simple corrections, even with rather coarse sampling, when the coordinates is determined only by 2 or 3 adjacent strips. These results have been obtained with the readout electronics specially designed for fast operation of the MCSCs with the signal peaking time of 20 ns. The equivalent noise charge ss 1600e (r.m.s....

  14. FATALIC: a fully integrated electronics readout for the ATLAS tile calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelidakis, Stylianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast program of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen in 2024. The current readout electronics of every sub-detector, including the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), must be upgraded to comply with the extreme HL-LHC operating conditions. The ASIC described in this document, named Front-end ATlAs tiLe Integrated Circuit (FATALIC), has been developed to fulfill these requirements. FATALIC is based on a $130\\,$nm CMOS technology and performs the complete processing of the signal, including amplification, shaping and digitization on a large dynamic range A dedicated channel for low current is also designed in order to perform absolute calibration with radioactive cesium source, producing a known but low signal with a typical frequency of $100\\,$Hz. In this document, the design of FATALIC is described and the measured performances as well as results of tests using beam of particles at CERN are discussed.

  15. Slide Composition for Electronic Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ronald B.

    2004-01-01

    Instructors who use computer-generated graphics in their lectures have many options to consider when developing their presentations. Experts give different advice on which typefaces, background and letter colors, and background imagery improve communications. This study attempted to resolve these controversies by examining how short-term recall of…

  16. Readout Electronics for BGO Calorimeter of DAMPE: Status during the First Half-year after Launching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siyuan; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Deliang; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientic satellite which was successfully launched into a 500 Km sun-synchronous orbit, on December 17th, 2015, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center of China. The major scientific objective of DAMPE mission is indirect searching for dark matter by observing high energy primary cosmic rays, especially positrons/electrons and gamma rays with an energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. The BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) calorimeter, which is a critical sub-detector of DAMPE payload, was developed for measuring the energy of cosmic particles, distinguishing positrons/electrons and gamma rays from hadron background, and providing trigger information. It is composed of 308 BGO crystal logs, with the size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*60cm for each log to form a total absorption electromagnetic calorimeter. All the BGO logs are stacked in 14 layers, with each layer consisting of 22 BGO crystal logs and each log is viewed by two Hamamatsu R5610A PMTs (photomultiplier tubes), from both sides respectively. Each PMT incorporates a three dynode pick off to achieve a large dynamic range, which results in 616 PMTs and 1848 signal channels. The main function of readout electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE(Front End Electronics) modules, is to precisely measure the charge of PMT signals and providing "hit" signals. The hit signals are sent to the trigger module of PDPU (Payload Data Process Unit) to generate triggers for the payload. The calibration of the BGO calorimeter is composed of pedestal testing and electronic linear scale, which are executed frequently in the space after launching. The data of the testing is transmitted to ground station in the form of scientific data. The monitor status consists of temperature, current and status words of the FEE, which are measured and recorded every 16 seconds and packed in the engineering data, then transmitted to ground station. The status of the BGO calorimeter can be evaluated by the calibration

  17. Twelve Tips for Effective Electronic Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Joy

    1994-01-01

    Offers 12 tips for effective electronic presentation. This article is intended for readers who may be considering using electronic presentation for the first time. Offers reasons for its popularity and occasions when it may be used. The tips offer assistance in the design and presentation of electronic material. (LZ)

  18. Resolution and Efficiency of Monitored Drift-Tube Chambers with Final Read-out Electronics at High Background Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Dubbert, J; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck-Möck, S; Rauscher, F; Richter, R; Staude, A; Stiller, W

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a monitored drift-tube chamber for ATLAS with the final read-out electronics was tested at the Gamma Irradiation facility at CERN under varyin photon irradiation rates of up to 990~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$ which corresponds to 10 times the highest background rate expected in ATLAS. The signal pulse-height measurement of the final read-out electronics was used to perform time-slewing corrections. The corrections improve the average single-tube resolution from 106~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the nominal discriminator threshold of 44~mV without irradiation, and from 114~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the maximum nominal irradiation rate in ATLAS of 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The reduction of the threshold from 44~mV to 34~mV and the time-slewing corrections lead to an average single-tube resolution of 82~$\\mu$m without photon background and of 89~$\\mu$m at 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The measured muon detection efficiency agrees with the expectation for the final read-out electronics.

  19. Readout and triggering of the Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The readout and triggering electronics for the Soudan 2 proton decay detector is presented. Pratically all the electronics is implemented in CMOS. The triggering scheme is highly flexible and software controllable

  20. FPGA-based upgrade of the read-out electronics for the low energy polarimeter at COSY/Juelich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, Nils [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: JEDI-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Cooler Synchrotron (COSY) is a facility for cooled polarized beams at the Forschungszentrum in Juelich. The Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) is the polarimeter in the injection beam line of COSY. The beam polarization is measured using scattering off carbon and polyethylene (CH2) targets. The outgoing particles are detected using twelve plastic scintillators installed in groups of three to the left, to the right, above, and below the beam. The LEP is the routine tool for beam set-up, but its performance was limited by the old read-out electronics consisting of analog NIM modules. A new system using analog pulse sampling and an FPGA chip for signal processing was installed and tested. The ejectile particles were identified by relative time of flight measurement using a signal from the RF amplifier of the cyclotron used for acceleration as a reference. The new system is able to measure the time at which a particle arrives to an accuracy in the order of 50 ps. The presentation includes a review of available systems and a report about measurements in May and December 2015.

  1. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, T.A.; Anjos, J.C.; Azzi, G.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Chimenti, P.; Costa, J.A.; Dornelas, T.I.; Farias, P.C.M.A.; Guedes, G.P.; Gonzalez, L.F.G.; Kemp, E.; Lima, H.P.; Machado, R.; Nóbrega, R.A.; Pepe, I.M.; Ribeiro, D.B.S.; Simas Filho, E.F.; Valdiviesso, G.A.; Wagner, S.

    2016-01-01

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  2. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2010-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS pixel detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer having new electronics assembled an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth and also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. The talk will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  3. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2011-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer, having new electronics, an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth, but also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. This paper will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  4. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.

  5. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board

  6. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  7. Feasibility studies on the direct wire readout on wire scanners in electron accelerators; Durchfuehrbarkeitsstudien zur direkten Drahtauslese an Wirescannern in Elektronen-Beschleunigern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markert, Michael

    2010-10-15

    This bachelor thesis deals essentially with the signal processing of a so-called wire scanner, a special monitor, which comes to application in the beam diagnostics of particle accelerators. In this direct wire readout the voltage signal, which is induced by the particle beam in the measurement wire of the wire scanner, shall be directly read out. The aim of this thesis is to show fundamental considerations and perform studies, which study, whether and how in the future by means of a suited data transmission as well as readout electronics conclusion on the most important parameters of the beam, like position and profile, are possible. The measurement system presented here is divided in three main components: Signal measurement, signal preparation, and signal stretching. A suited test facility was developed and is presented in detail, in which then all components, like for instance the transmission cables, the wire-scanner fork, and the developed measurement circuit, are studied, which are of importance for a faultless signal transmission and presentation. Extensive measurements on the single components, as well as calculations for the signal transmission on and in the wire scanner were performed, whereby a good agreement could be found. Thereafter a comparison and a selection of the component used in this project were made. Furthermore improvement proposals, new constructions, and outlooks are presented, which could be of importance in further works.

  8. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  9. LHCb: Radiation tolerance tests of SRAM-based FPGAs for the possible usage in the readout electronics for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Faerber, C; Wiedner, D; Leveringzon, B; Ekelhof, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes radiation studies of SRAM-based FPGAs as a central component of the electronics for a possible upgrade of the LHCb Outer Tracker readout electronics to a frequency of 40 MHz. Two Arria GX FPGAs were irradiated with 20 MeV protons to radiation doses of up to 7 Mrad. During and between the irradiation periods the different FPGA currents, the package temperature, the firmware error rate, the PLL stability, and the stability of a 32 channel TDC implemented on the FPGA were monitored. Results on the radiation tolerance of the FPGA and the measured firmware error rates will be presented. The Arria GX FPGA fulfils the radiation tolerance required for the LHCb upgrade (30 krad) and an expected firmware error rate of 10$^{-6}$ Hz makes the chip viable for the LHCb Upgrade.

  10. Requirements on read-out electronics for future keV-scale sterile neutrino search with KATRIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolde, Kai [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recent publications show the great potential of the KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment in the search for sterile neutrinos in the mass range of a few keV down to active-to-sterile mixing angles at least one order of magnitude smaller than current laboratory limits of sin{sup 2}θ < 10{sup -3}. In order to be sensitive to the tiny kink-like signature of sterile neutrinos in tritium beta decay, KATRIN requires a novel sophisticated detector and read-out system. Several silicon prototype detectors are under construction at the moment to explore the most suitable detector design for this purpose. The selection of appropriate read-out electronics is strongly triggered by the requirements of allowing only very small systematic uncertainties due to ADC Non-Linearities to reach the expected sensitivity. This talk investigates the impact of ADC Non-Linearities on the tritium beta decay spectrum, depending on the digitization method of analogue signals of a multi-pixel silicon detector, peak sensing or waveform digitization. The simulations show a higher achievable sensitivity using waveform digitizers and moreover strongly favor additional variable post-acceleration of the electrons to smear out the periodic structure of the ADC Non-Linearities.

  11. A programmable electronic Microplex Driver Unit for readout of silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1990-08-01

    The unit provides the necessary signals to drive arrays of Microplex devices used to readout silicon strip Vertex detectors as used in DELPHI and OPAL at CERN. The unit has a CAMAC interface allowing operation of the unit by computer in a Remote-control mode. The computer can control all the essential parameters of the drive signals, together with the operational characteristics of the system. Alternatively, the unit can be used in a stand-alone Local-control mode. In this case the front panel controls and displays enable the user to set up the unit. (author)

  12. A high-resolution detector based on liquid-core scintillating fibres with readout via an electron-bombarded charge-coupled device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianfarani, C.; Duane, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Golovkin, S.V.; Gorin, A.M.; Harrison, K.; Kozarenko, E.N.; Kushnirenko, A.E.; Ladygin, E.A.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.M.; Nass, P.A.; Obudovski, V.P.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.P.; Siegmund, W.P.; Tyukov, V.E.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of results from tests in a 5 GeV/c hadron beam of detectors based on liquid-core scintillating fibres, each fibre consisting of a glass capillary filled with organic liquid scintillator. Fibre readout was performed via an Electron-Bombarded Charge-Coupled Device (EBCCD) image tube, a novel instrument that combines the functions of a high-gain, gated image intensifier and a Charge-Coupled Device. Using 1-methylnaphthalene doped with 3 g/l of R45 as liquid scintillator, the attenuation lengths obtained for light propagation over distances greater than 16 cm were 1.5 m in fibres of 20 μm core and 1.0 m in fibres of 16 μm core. For particles that crossed the fibres of 20 μm core at distances of ∼1.8 cm and ∼95 cm from the fibres' readout ends, the recorded hit densities were 5.3 mm -1 and 2.5 mm -1 respectively. Using 1-methylnaphthalene doped with 3.6 g/l of R39 as liquid scintillator and fibres of 75 μm core, the hit density obtained for particles that crossed the fibres at a distance of ∼1.8 cm from their readout ends was 8.5 mm -1 . With a specially designed bundle of tapered fibres, having core diameters that smoothly increase from 16 μm to 75 μm, a spatial precision of 6 μm was measured. (orig.)

  13. Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Tatsuya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is foreseen to be upgraded during the shut-down period of 2018-2019 to deliver about 3 times the instantaneous design luminosity. Since the ATLAS trigger system, at that time, will not support such an increase of the trigger rate an improvement of the trigger system is required. The ATLAS LAr Calorimeter readout will therefore be modified and digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity will be provided to the trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 Super Cells which achieves a 5-10 better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The Super Cell readout is composed of custom developed 12-bit combined SAR ADCs in 130 nm CMOS technology which will be installed on-detector in a radiation environment and digitizes the detector pulses at 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the back end using a custom serializer and optical converter applying 5.44 Gb/s optical links. These components are install...

  14. Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    de La Taille, C

    2008-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  15. Development of a test system for the analysis of the read-out electronic cabling for the CMS drift tube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Montero, M.; Willmott, C.

    2004-01-01

    A test system has been developed for the analysis of the read-out electronics cabling for the CMS drift tube chambers. The read-out electronics will be placed inside some aluminium boxes, so-called Minicrates, which are going to be produced soon at CIEMAT. Due to the difficulty of detecting and repairing errors in the cables once they have been installed and recalling also to the large number of Minicrates that are going to be produced, it was decided to design and develop a test system for testing the cabling before its installation. (Author)

  16. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Mireshghi, A.; Wildermuth, D.; Goodman, C.; Fujieda, I.

    1992-07-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 μm) and thick (> 30 μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-ray, γ rays and thermal neutrons. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For thermal neutron detection we use thin (2∼5 μm) gadolinium converters on 30 μm thick a-Si:H diodes. For direct detection of minimum ionizing particles and others with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Diode and amorphous silicon readouts as well as polysilicon pixel amplifiers are described

  17. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.; Mireshghi, A.

    1994-10-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 μm) and thick (>30 μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and γ rays. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Deposition techniques using helium dilution, which produce samples with low stress are described. Pixel arrays for flux exposures can be readout by transistor, single diode or two diode switches. Polysilicon charge sensitive pixel amplifiers for single event detection are described. Various applications in nuclear, particle physics, x-ray medical imaging, neutron crystallography, and radionuclide chromatography are discussed

  18. A circuit design for front-end read-out electronics of beam homogeneity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Qianshun; Su Hong; Xu Zhiguo; Ma Xiaoli; Hu Zhengguo; Mao Ruishi; Xu Hushan

    2011-01-01

    It introduces a circuit design of beam homogeneity measurement for heavy ion beam in the monitoring needs, which convert multichannel weak current from 10 pA to 100 nA of the output of parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) for large area with sensitive two-dimensional position to voltage signal from -2 V to -20 mV by current-voltage-converter (IVC) circuit which composed of T-feedback resistor networks, combined with data acquisition and processing system realized the beam homogeneity measurement in heavy ion tumor therapy of the Institute of Modern Physics. Experiments have shown that the circuit with speed and high precision. This circuit can be used for read-out of the beam for the Multiwire Proportional Chamber, Faraday Cup and other weak current sources. (authors)

  19. Maximizing the Effectiveness of Electronic Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quible, Zane K.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that the manner in which the author was using the incorporation of electronic slides into his lectures allowed students to become disengaged from the learning process. Presents strategies to combat disengagement and strategies to supplement textbook slides. Concludes that student disengagement can be counteracted with limited expenditure of…

  20. Rutherford X-ray spectrometer readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1978-07-01

    Rutherford electronic X-ray spectrometer readout is based on the combination of two established techniques (a) the detection and location of soft X-rays by means of multichannel electron multiplier arrays (MCP's), and (b) the electronic readout of charge distributions (generally in multi-wire proportional counters) by means of the delay line techniques. In order for the latter device to function well a charge signal of approximately 10 6 electrons must be available to the delay line wand. This is achieved in the present device by means of two cascaded MCP's which can produce electron gains up to approximately 10 8 , and so operate the delay line from the single electron pulses generated at the front face of an MCP by a soft X-ray. The delay line readout technique was chosen because of its simplicity (both in terms of the necessary hardware and the associated electronics), robustness, and ease of implementation. In order to achieve the target spatial resolution of 50 μm (fwhm) or 20 μm (standard deviation) it was necessary to adapt the charge collection system so that the readout takes place from a length of delay line 200 mm long. The general layout of the system and the functions of the electronic circuits are described. Performance testing, setting up procedures and trouble shooting of the system are discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Commissioning of the readout electronics for the prototypes of a hadronic calorimeter and a tailcatcher and muon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, B.

    2006-12-01

    The goal of the CALICE collaboration is to develop and design a highly granular calorimeter for an experiment at the future international linear collider. In an integrated study all parts of the calorimeter are considered. Within this project a hadronic calorimeter prototype, built at DESY, and a tailcatcher and muon tracker prototype, built at NIU and Fermilab, are developed. The subject of this thesis is the combined readout electronics for these prototypes. In a set of measurements it is demonstrated that the individual components answer their purposes. This includes the classification of noise, linearity and signal to noise ratio of the amplifier and a study of the differential nonlinearity of the analog to digital converter in the data acquisition. In addition to these measurements of common parameters, some attributes are measured that are special to the use of the combined system, including the influence of the limited time resolution of the hold signal and the consequences of signals with variable input signal shape. Furthermore, an algorithm is developed for the determination of the SiPM gain from single photoelectron spectra that are recorded with the detector readout electronics. Particular effort is made to ensure that the developed method can be run independently from human intervention, as a 8000 channel system demands. The accuracy and stability of the gain measurement is checked with actual data from the first available hadronic calorimeter modules and a set of requirements for a measurement of 1% accuracy is fixed. Finally, the established gain measurement is used in the calibration of modules with cosmic muons. And the temperature dependence of the SiPM gain is verified. (orig.)

  2. Commissioning of the readout electronics for the prototypes of a hadronic calorimeter and a tailcatcher and muon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, B.

    2006-12-15

    The goal of the CALICE collaboration is to develop and design a highly granular calorimeter for an experiment at the future international linear collider. In an integrated study all parts of the calorimeter are considered. Within this project a hadronic calorimeter prototype, built at DESY, and a tailcatcher and muon tracker prototype, built at NIU and Fermilab, are developed. The subject of this thesis is the combined readout electronics for these prototypes. In a set of measurements it is demonstrated that the individual components answer their purposes. This includes the classification of noise, linearity and signal to noise ratio of the amplifier and a study of the differential nonlinearity of the analog to digital converter in the data acquisition. In addition to these measurements of common parameters, some attributes are measured that are special to the use of the combined system, including the influence of the limited time resolution of the hold signal and the consequences of signals with variable input signal shape. Furthermore, an algorithm is developed for the determination of the SiPM gain from single photoelectron spectra that are recorded with the detector readout electronics. Particular effort is made to ensure that the developed method can be run independently from human intervention, as a 8000 channel system demands. The accuracy and stability of the gain measurement is checked with actual data from the first available hadronic calorimeter modules and a set of requirements for a measurement of 1% accuracy is fixed. Finally, the established gain measurement is used in the calibration of modules with cosmic muons. And the temperature dependence of the SiPM gain is verified. (orig.)

  3. Front-end counting mode electronics for CdZnTe sensor readout

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, Danielle; Kaplon, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The development of a front-end circuit optimized for CdZnTe detector readout, implemented in 0.25 mu m CMOS technology, is reported. The ASIC comprises 17 channels of a charge sensitive amplifier with an active feedback, followed by a gain-shaper stage and a discriminator with a 5 bit fine-tune DAC. The signal from the discriminator is sensed by a 25 ns mono-stable circuit and an 18-bit static ripple- counter. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at a maximum counting rate of 2 million counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 24 mV/fC with 50 ns peaking time and an equivalent noise charge of about 650 e/sup -/, for a detector capacitance of 10 pF. When connected to a 3*3*7 mm/sup 3/ CdZnTe detector the amplifier gain is about 8 mV/keV with a noise around 3.6 keV.

  4. Multi-anode photon-multiplier readout electronics for the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Smale, N J

    2004-01-01

    A readout system for the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detectors of the LHCb experiment has been developed. Two detector technologies for the measurement of Cherenkov photons are considered, the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier Tube (MAPMT) and the Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD), both of which meet the RICH requirements. The properties of the MAPMT are evaluated using a controlled single-photon source; a pixel-to-pixel gain variation of ~3 and a typical signal to noise of ~20 is measured. The relative tube efficiency is found to be reduced by ~26 % due to the detailed focusing structure of the MAPMT device. A radiation hard application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip, the Beetle1.2MA0, has been developed to capture and store signals from a pair of MAPMTs. The Beetle1.2MA0 is built on the architecture of the Beetle family that was designed for silicon strip detectors, the difference being a modified front-end amplifier. The 128 input-channels of the Beetle1.2MA0 have a charge-sensitive pre-amplifier followed...

  5. High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications. The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the PCI Express interface is working, the SDRAM has been successfully tested and the

  6. High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Wolfgang

    2012-06-22

    In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications.The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the PCI Express interface is working, the SDRAM has been successfully tested and the SHARC

  7. Search for second generation leptoquarks in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8-TeV $p^-$ pbar at CDF and silicon detector readout electronics development with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Hisanori [Geneva U.

    1998-02-01

    In this thesis, a search for second generation leptoquark is presented. It is based on the data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab with the Tevatron proton-antiproton collisions of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV. A total integrated luminosity of 110 pb-1 collected during runs in 1992-1995 is used. The search was performed on the charged dimuon plus dijet channel. No evidence for existence of leptoquark was found, and a new production cross section limit is set as a result of this analysis. Using the most recent theoretical calculation of pair leptoquark production [1], a new lower mass limit for second generation scalar leptoquark is extracted. The new limit excludes M(LQ2)< 202 GeV/c2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider with a center of mass energy ($\\sqrt{s}$) of 14 TeV, is currently under the construction at CERN. It will be utilised to extend the searches for the leptoquarks to higher mass regions. As in CDF, tracking detectors are essential to identify charged leptons decaying from leptoquarks. A silicon strip tracking detector is being developed for the ATLAS experiment. A dense and fast readout system with a good signal to noise ratio and low power consumption are required with high luminosity and short event collision interval (25 ns) expected at the LHC. A description of a prototype front-end micro-electronic chip, the ADAM, for silicon strip detector readout application is presented. Results from a complete laboratory test as well as its performance on a test beam at CERN are reported.

  8. Highly Integrated Mixed-Mode Electronics for the readout of Time Projection Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    França Santos, Hugo Miguel; Musa, Luciano

    Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are one of the most prevalent particle trackers for high-energy physics experiments. Future planed TPCs for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) entail very high spatial resolution in large gas volumes, but impose low material budget for the end caps of the TPC cylinder. This constraint is not accomplished with the state-of-the-art front-end electronics because of its unsuited relatively large mass and of its associated water cooling system. To reach the required material budget, highly compact and power efficient dedicated TPC front-end electronics should be developed. This project aims at re-designing the different electronic elements with significant improvements in terms of performance, power efficiency and versatility, and developing an integrated circuit that merges all components of the front-end electronics. This chip ambitions a large volume production at low unitary cost and its employment in multiple detectors. The design of ...

  9. A high performance Front End Electronics for drift chamber readout in MEG experiment upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarello, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Chiri, C.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Panareo, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Pepino, A., E-mail: aurora.pepino@le.infn.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Tassielli, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    Front End (FE) Electronics plays an essential role in Drift Chambers (DC) for time resolution and, therefore, spatial resolution. The use of cluster timing techniques, by measuring the timing of all the individual ionization clusters after the first one, may enable to reach resolutions even below 100 μm in the measurement of the impact parameter. To this purpose, a Front End Electronics with a wide bandwidth and low noise is mandatory in order to acquire and amplify the drift chamber signals.

  10. A high performance Front End Electronics for drift chamber readout in MEG experiment upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarello, G.; Chiri, C.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F.; Panareo, M.; Pepino, A.; Pinto, C.; Tassielli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Front End (FE) Electronics plays an essential role in Drift Chambers (DC) for time resolution and, therefore, spatial resolution. The use of cluster timing techniques, by measuring the timing of all the individual ionization clusters after the first one, may enable to reach resolutions even below 100 μm in the measurement of the impact parameter. To this purpose, a Front End Electronics with a wide bandwidth and low noise is mandatory in order to acquire and amplify the drift chamber signals.

  11. Inexpensive read-out for coincident electron spectroscopy with a transmission electron microscope at nanometer scale using micro channel plates and multistrip anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, R.W.; Bom, V.R.; Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Faber, J.S.; Hoevers, H.; Kruit, P.

    1994-01-01

    The elemental composition of a sample at nanometer scale is determined by measurement of the characteristic energy of Auger electrons, emitted in coincidence with incoming primary electrons from a microbeam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Single electrons are detected with position sensitive detectors, consisting of MicroChannel Plates (MCP) and MultiStrip Anodes (MSA), one for the energy of the Auger electrons (Auger-detector) and one for the energy loss of primary electrons (EELS-detector). The MSAs are sensed with LeCroy 2735DC preamplifiers. The fast readout is based on LeCroy's PCOS III system. On the detection of a coincidence (Event) energy data of Auger and EELS are combined with timing data to an Event word. Event words are stored in list mode in a VME memory module. Blocks of Event words are scanned by transputers in VME and two-dimensional energy histograms are filled using the timing information to obtain a maximal true/accidental ratio. The resulting histograms are stored on disk of a PC-386, which also controls data taking. The system is designed to handle 10 5 Events per second, 90% of which are accidental. In the histograms the ''true'' to ''accidental'' ratio will be 5. The dead time is 15%. ((orig.))

  12. Firmware Development and Integration for ALICE TPC and PHOS Front-end Electronics A Trigger Based Readout and Control System operating in a Radiation Environment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068589; Rohrich, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    The readout electronics in PHOS and TPC - two of the major detectors of the ALICE experiment at the LHC - consist of a set of Front End Cards (FECs) that digitize, process and buffer the data from the detector sensors. The FECs are connected to a Readout Control Unit (RCU) via two sets of custom made PCB backplanes. For PHOS, 28 FECs are connected to one RCU, while for TPC the number is varying from 18 to 25 FECs depending on location. The RCU is in charge of the data readout, including reception and distribution of triggers and in moving the data from the FECs to the Data Acquisition System. In addition it does low level control tasks. The RCU consists of an RCU Motherboard that hosts a Detector Control System (DCS) board and a Source Interface Unit. The DCS board is an embedded computer running Linux that controls the readout electronics. All the mentioned devices are implemented in commercial grade SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even if these devices are not very radiation tolerant, the...

  13. Construction process and read-out electronics of amorphous silicon position detectors for multipoint alignment monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C.; Schubert, M.B.; Lutz, B.; Werner, J.H. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M.G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria IFCA/CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)] (and others)

    2009-09-01

    We describe the construction process of large-area high-performance transparent amorphous silicon position detecting sensors. Details about the characteristics of the associated local electronic board (LEB), specially designed for these sensors, are given. In addition we report on the performance of a multipoint alignment monitoring application of 12 sensors in a 13 m long light path.

  14. Read-out and calibration of a tile calorimeter for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardell, S.

    1997-06-01

    The read-out and calibration of scintillating tiles hadronic calorimeter for ATLAS is discussed. Tests with prototypes of FERMI, a system of read-out electronics based on a dynamic range compressor reducing the dynamic range from 16 to 10 bits and a 40 MHz 10 bits sampling ADC, are presented. In comparison with a standard charge integrating read-out improvements in the resolution of 1% in the constant term are obtained

  15. Acquisition and calibration electronics of a MWPC with a cathodic read-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonara, F; Chiefari, G; Drago, E; Ereditato, A; Lanzano, S; Napolitano, M; Sciacca, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Naples Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Sperimentale)

    1982-02-01

    A periodic calibration of the electronics associated with the cathodic strips of a MWPC is necessary for a correct computation of the centroid of the induced charge. We describe here a method, based on computer controlled analog demultiplexers, which permits the injection of variable amounts of charge into each amplifier. The serial scanning along all the channels produces the complete set of pedestals and slopes which, stored on disk and subsequently read, is used for the conversion of ADC outputs.

  16. Electron holography at atomic dimensions -- Present state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.; Lichte, H.

    1999-01-01

    An electron microscope is a wave optical instrument where the object information is carried by an electron wave. However, an important information, the phase of the electron wave, is lost, because only intensities can be recorded in a conventional electron micrograph. Off-axis electron holography solves this phase problem by encoding amplitude and phase information in an interference pattern, the so-called hologram. After reconstruction, a rather unrestricted wave optical analysis can be performed on a computer. The possibilities as well as the current limitations of off-axis electron holography at atomic dimensions are discussed, and they are illustrated at two applications of structure characterization of ε-NbN and YBCO-1237. Finally, an electron microscope equipped with a Cs-corrector, a monochromator, and a Moellenstedt biprism is outlined for subangstrom holography

  17. Upgraded readout electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andeen, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons or photons, at high background ejection rates. For the first upgrade phase [1] in 2018, new digital tower builder boards (sTBB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies a digital filtering and identifies sig...

  18. Upgraded Readout Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andeen, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons or photons, at high background ejection rates. For the first upgrade phase cite{pahse1loi} in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies a digital filtering and id...

  19. Highly segmented large-area hybrid photodiodes with bialkali photocathodes and enclosed VLSI readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Filthaut, Frank; Go, A; Joram, C; Weilhammer, Peter; Wicht, P; Dulinski, W; Séguinot, Jacques; Wenzel, H; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We report on the principles, design, fabrication, and operation of a highly segmented, large-area hybrid photodiode, which is being developed in the framework of the LHCb RICH project. The device consists of a cylindrical, 127 mm diameter vacuum envelope capped with a spherical borosilicate UV-glass entrance window, with an active-to-total-area fraction of 81A fountain-focusing electron optics is used to demagnify the image onto a 50 mm diameter silicon sensor, containing 2048 pads of size 1*1 mm/sup 2/. (10 refs).

  20. Frequency-domain multiplex with eight-input SQUID and readout electronics over 1MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, K.; Takei, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kimura, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N.Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a magnetic summation method, TES and SQUID driving circuits are isolated and thus small crosstalk and stray impedance are expected. Since a FLL circuit with a large bandwidth and a small noise level is required for a SQUID, we designed and produced an electronics to meet our design of multiplexing with an 8-input SQUID. The FLL circuit achieved an open loop-gain bandwidth product of 8MHz with 1m wire length, which is enough for a TES to be operated with a bias current of 70μA, and a noise level of 30pA/Hz

  1. Readout chip for the CMS pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Marco, E-mail: marco.rossini@phys.ethz.ch

    2014-11-21

    For the CMS experiment a new pixel detector is planned for installation during the extended shutdown in winter 2016/2017. Among the changes of the detector modified front end electronics will be used for higher efficiency at peak luminosity of the LHC and faster readout. The first prototype versions of the new readout chip have been designed and produced. The results of qualification and calibration for the new chip are presented in this paper.

  2. Electronics for the CMS muon drift tube chambers the read-out minicrate

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Oller, Juan Carlos; Willmott, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    On the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experimentat the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN laboratory, the drift tube chambers are responsible for muon detection and precise momentum measurement. In this paper the first level of the read out electronics for these drift tube chambers is described. These drift tube chambers will be located inside the muon barrel detector in the so-called minicrates (MCs), attached to the chambers. The read out boards (ROBs) are the main component of this first level data acquisition system, and they are responsible for the time digitalization related to Level 1 Accept (L1A) trigger of the incoming signals from the front-end electronics, followed by a consequent data merging to the next stages of the data acquisition system. ROBs' architecture and functionality have been exhaustively tested, as well as their capability of operation beyond the expected environmental conditions inside the CMS detector. Due to the satisfactory results obtained, final production of ROBs and their a...

  3. The Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yi-lin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Super Cell has been proposed in the Phase-I LAr upgrade to replace the existing trigger system "Trigger Tower" due to higher luminosity environments in Run 3 at LHC. The higher granularity of the Super Cell trigger systems requires higher data transmission and processing rate. The new system is also needed to be compatible with the existing trigger system. To fulfill these requirements, the new electronics including frond end and back end are developed. In the front-end part, the new LSB sums the LAr cell signals into Super Cell signals. The new baseplane distributes analog signals among FEBs, LTDB and TBB. The LTDB sums Super Cell signals to Trigger Tower signals and redirected the signals to TBB. The Analog signals are also digitized in LTDB and then sent to back end electronics. In the back-end part, the architecture is based on ATCA. The LAr carrier is used for monitoring and controlling. The LATOMEs inserted into the LAr carrier provide energy calculation from the digitized signals. So far, the demon...

  4. X-ray acquisition and electronic digital readout by charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavailler, C.; Launspach, J.; Mens, A.; Sauneuf, R.

    1985-09-01

    X-ray imaging adapted to laser-matter interaction experiments consists in recording plasma images from its X-ray emission; these phenomena have between 100 ps and some nanoseconds duration. Investigation of the laser-driven plasma may require the formation and the detection of two-dimensional images formed by X-ray microscopes or spectrometers in the soft X-ray range (from about 50 eV to some keV). To reach that purpose, we have developed and tested two opto-electronic chains. The first one is built around a small image converter tube with a soft X-ray photocathode and P20 phosphor screen deposited on a fiber optic plate; the electronic image appearing on the screen is read by a C.C.D. working in the visible spectral range. The second one, designed to work below 100eV is realized with a very thin phosphor screen deposited on the fiber optic input of a visible microchannel image intensifier; the output image is then read by a C.C.D. in the same manner than previously

  5. Upgrade readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  6. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  7. The read-out electronics of the AMS prototype RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin-Martel, L.; Eraud, L.; Pouxe, J.; Aguayo de Hoyos, P.; Marin Munoz, J.; Martinez Botella, G.

    2003-01-01

    A Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter dedicated to the AMS experiment is under development. An integrated circuit has been designed with the Austriamicrosystems 0.6 πm CMOS technology to process the signals of the 16 anode PMTs used in the photon detection. To improve the detector compactness, the read out electronics is placed very close to the PMTs. This lead to the design of a detection cell that comprises: a light guide, a PMT, a high voltage divider, an analog front end chip and an analog to digital converter. The analog front-end chips were extensively and successfully tested in a laboratory environment, 96 of them are now mounted on the RICH prototype. Tests with cosmic rays have started. Ion beam tests are planed in a near future. (authors)

  8. Readout electronics of Spes III migration chambers. Nevis migration time coding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, E.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bergdolt, G.; Ernwein, R.; Fassnacht, P.; Guterl, P.; Hibou, F.

    1985-01-01

    Time coder is presented: it digitizes the time intervals between the successive signals from 8 entrance ways and triggering entrance. The Encoder module is aimed at reading and processing the data registered by the time coders. The associated modules are presented (oscillator-clock distributor-test signal distributor) [fr

  9. A full-scale prototype for the tracking chambers of the ALICE muon spectrometer. Part II- Electronics. Preamplifier; Read-out prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtat, P.; Charlet, D.; Lebon, S.; Martin, J.M.; Sellem, R.; Wanlin, E. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service d' Electronique Physique; Douet, R.; Harroch, H.; Bimbot, L.; Jouan, D.; Kharmandarian, L.; Le Bornec, Y.; Mac Cormick, M.; Willis, N. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Institut de Physique Nucleaire

    1999-07-01

    A full scale prototype of one module of the first tracking station has already been constructed. It will be equipped with the new read-out electronics proposed for the final chambers. Before integration of the whole chain, tests have been carried out on the individual components in discrete circuit prototypes. The different parts of the chain are described, together with the tests performed. The final version with integrated circuits in then described. (author)

  10. A full-scale prototype for the tracking chambers of the ALICE muon spectrometer. Part II- Electronics. Preamplifier; Read-out prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtat, P.; Charlet, D.; Lebon, S.; Martin, J.M.; Sellem, R.; Wanlin, E.; Douet, R.; Harroch, H.; Bimbot, L.; Jouan, D.; Kharmandarian, L.; Le Bornec, Y.; Mac Cormick, M.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    A full scale prototype of one module of the first tracking station has already been constructed. It will be equipped with the new read-out electronics proposed for the final chambers. Before integration of the whole chain, tests have been carried out on the individual components in discrete circuit prototypes. The different parts of the chain are described, together with the tests performed. The final version with integrated circuits in then described. (author)

  11. A Complete Readout Chain of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the HL-LHC: from FATALIC Front-End Electronics to Signal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Senkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a front-end readout system, an ASIC called FATALIC, proposed for the high-luminosity phase LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Based on 130 nm CMOS technology, FATALIC performs the full signal processing, including amplification, shaping and digitisation.

  12. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-1 Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the shut-down period of 2018-2019 (Phase-I upgrade), will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow a corresponding increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The new trigger signals from the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieve 5-10 times better granularity than the current system; this improves the background rejection capabilities through more precise energy measurements, and the use of shower shapes to discriminate electrons and photons from jets. The new system will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the back-end using a custom serializer and optical converter with 5.12 Gb/s. To verify the full functionality, a demonstrator set-up has been installed on the A...

  13. The ALICE silicon pixel detector front-end and read-out electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost barrel layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 half staves each of which consists of a linear array of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈107. The tight material budget and the limitation in physical dimensions required by the detector design introduce new challenges for the integration of the on-detector electronics. An essential part of the half stave is a low-mass multi-layer flex that carries power, ground, and signals to the pixel chips. Each half stave is read out using a multi-chip module (MCM). The MCM contains three radiation hard ASICs and an 800 Mbit/s custom developed optical link for the data transfer between the detector and the control room. The detector components are less than 3 mm thick. The production of the half-staves and MCMs is currently under way. Test results as well as on overvie...

  14. Radiation Damage Effects and Performance of Silicon Strip Detectors using LHC Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067734

    1998-01-01

    Future high energy physics experiments as the ATLAS experiment at CERN, will use silicon strip detectors for fast and high precision tracking information. The high hadron fluences in these experiments cause permanent damage in the silicon.Additional energy levels are introduced in the bandgap thus changing the electrical properties such as leakage current and full depletion voltage V_fd .Very high leakage currents are observed after irradiation and lead to higher electronic noise and thus decrease the spatial resolution.V_fd increases to a few hundred volts after irradiation and eventually beyond the point of stable operating voltages. Prototype detectors with either p-implanted strips (p-in-n) and n-implanted strip detectors (n-in-n) were irradiated to the maximum expected fluence in ATLAS.The irradiation and the following study of the current and V_fd were carried out under ATLAS operational conditions.The evolution of V_fd after irradiation is compared to models based on diode irradiations.The qualitative ...

  15. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, E., E-mail: elena.ferri@mib.infn.it [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Becker, D.; Bennett, D. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Faverzani, M. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Fowler, J.; Gard, J. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Giachero, A. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Maino, M. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Mates, J. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the {sup 163}Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of {sup 163}Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  16. Evaluation of Giga-bit Ethernet instrumentation for SalSA electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, Gary S.; Murakami, Laine; Ridley, David; Zhu Chaopin; Gorham, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An instrumentation prototype for acquiring high-speed transient data from an array of high bandwidth antennas is presented. Multi-kilometer cable runs complicate acquisition of such large bandwidth radio signals from an extensive antenna array. Solutions using analog fiber optic links are being explored though are very expensive. We propose an inexpensive solution that allows for individual operation of each antenna element, operating at potentially high local self-trigger rates. Digitized data packets are transmitted to the surface via commercially available Giga-bit Ethernet hardware. Events are then reconstructed on a computer farm by sorting the received packets using standard networking gear, eliminating the need for custom, very high speed trigger hardware. Such a system is completely scalable and leverages the enormous capital investment made by the telecommunications industry. Test results from a demonstration prototype are presented

  17. Timing and Readout Contorl in the LHCb Upgraded Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, Federico

    2016-01-01

    In 2019, the LHCb experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade where its detectors electronics and entire readout system will be changed to read-out events at the full LHC rate of 40 MHz. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and readout control system for such upgrade is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the distribution of the clock, timing and synchronization information across the entire readout system using generic FTTH technology like Passive Optical Networks. Moreover the system will be responsible to generically control the Front-End electronics by transmitting configuration data and receiving monitoring data, offloading the software control system from the heavy task of manipulating complex protocols of thousands of Front-End electronics devices. The way in which this was implemented is here reviewed with a description of results from first implementations of the system, including usages in test-benches, implementation of techniques for timing distribution and latency control."

  18. A 16-ch module for thermal neutron detection using ZnS:{sup 6}LiF scintillator with embedded WLS fibers coupled to SiPMs and its dedicated readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosset, J.-B., E-mail: jean-baptiste.mosset@psi.ch; Stoykov, A.; Greuter, U.; Gromov, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Panzner, T.; Schlumpf, N.

    2017-02-11

    A scalable 16-ch thermal neutron detection system has been developed in the framework of the upgrade of a neutron diffractometer. The detector is based on a ZnS:{sup 6}LiF scintillator with embedded WLS fibers which are read out with SiPMs. In this paper, we present the 16-ch module, the dedicated readout electronics, a direct comparison between the performance of the diffractometer obtained with the current {sup 3}He detector and with the 16-ch detection module, and the channel-to-channel uniformity.

  19. A 16-ch module for thermal neutron detection using ZnS:6LiF scintillator with embedded WLS fibers coupled to SiPMs and its dedicated readout electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosset, J.-B.; Stoykov, A.; Greuter, U.; Gromov, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Panzner, T.; Schlumpf, N.

    2017-02-01

    A scalable 16-ch thermal neutron detection system has been developed in the framework of the upgrade of a neutron diffractometer. The detector is based on a ZnS:6LiF scintillator with embedded WLS fibers which are read out with SiPMs. In this paper, we present the 16-ch module, the dedicated readout electronics, a direct comparison between the performance of the diffractometer obtained with the current 3He detector and with the 16-ch detection module, and the channel-to-channel uniformity.

  20. Investigation of high sensitivity radio-frequency readout circuit based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao-Yu; Sun Jian-Dong; Li Xin-Xing; Zhou Yu; Lü Li; Qin Hua; Tan Ren-Bing

    2015-01-01

    An AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device is prepared by using a semiconductor nanofabrication process. A reflective radio-frequency (RF) readout circuit is designed and the HEMT device is assembled in an RF circuit through a coplanar waveguide transmission line. A gate capacitor of the HEMT and a surface-mounted inductor on the transmission line are formed to generate LC resonance. By tuning the gate voltage V g , the variations of gate capacitance and conductance of the HEMT are reflected sensitively from the resonance frequency and the magnitude of the RF reflection signal. The aim of the designed RF readout setup is to develop a highly sensitive HEMT-based detector. (paper)

  1. A radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s ADC prototype for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter readout electronics upgrade at the CERN LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppambatti, J. [Columbia University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Ban, J. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Andeen, T., E-mail: tandeen@utexas.edu [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Brown, R.; Carbone, R. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Kinget, P. [Columbia University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Brooijmans, G.; Sippach, W. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States)

    2017-05-21

    The readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the CERN Large Hadron Collider requires a radiation-hard ADC. The design of a radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s pipeline ADC for this use is presented. The design consists of two pipeline A/D channels each with four Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converters followed by 8-bit Successive-Approximation-Register analog-to-digital converters. The custom design, fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS process, shows a performance of 67.9 dB SNDR at 10 MHz for a single channel at 40 MS/s, with a latency of 87.5 ns (to first bit read out), while its total power consumption is 50 mW/channel. The chip uses two power supply voltages: 1.2 and 2.5 V. The sensitivity to single event effects during irradiation is measured and determined to meet the system requirements.

  2. A Front-End Readout Architecture for the CMS Barrel Muon Detector: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J.M.; Marin, J.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Pablos, J.L. de; Romero, L.; Willmot, C.

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study of a possible architecture for the CMS barrel muon detector readout electronics is presented. some aspects of system reliability are discussed. Values for the required FIFO's to store data during the first level trigger latency are given

  3. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  4. Readout electronics for low dark count pixel detectors based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes fabricated in conventional CMOS technologies for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilella, E.; Arbat, A.; Comerma, A.; Trenado, J.; Alonso, O.; Gascon, D.; Vila, A.; Garrido, L.; Dieguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    High sensitivity and excellent timing accuracy of the Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes make them ideal sensors as pixel detectors for particle tracking in high energy physics experiments to be performed in future linear colliders. Nevertheless, it is well known that these sensors suffer from dark counts and afterpulsing noise, which induce false hits (indistinguishable from event detection) as well as an increase in the necessary area of the readout system. In this work, we present a comparison between APDs fabricated in a high voltage 0.35 μm and a high integration 0.13 μm commercially available CMOS technologies that has been performed to determine which of them best fits the particle collider requirements. In addition, a readout circuit that allows low noise operation is introduced. Experimental characterization of the proposed pixel is also presented in this work.

  5. The Young-Feynman two-slits experiment with single electrons: Build-up of the interference pattern and arrival-time distribution using a fast-readout pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frabboni, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-Institute of Nanoscience-S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Gabrielli, Alessandro [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Institute of Nanoscience-S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Giorgi, Filippo [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Matteucci, Giorgio [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Pozzi, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.pozzi@unibo.it [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cesari, Nicola Semprini; Villa, Mauro; Zoccoli, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    The two-slits experiment for single electrons has been carried out by inserting in a conventional transmission electron microscope a thick sample with two nano-slits fabricated by Focused Ion Beam technique and a fast recording system able to measure the electron arrival-time. The detector, designed for experiments in future colliders, is based on a custom CMOS chip equipped with a fast readout chain able to manage up to 10{sup 6} frames per second. In this way, high statistic samples of single electron events can be collected within a time interval short enough to measure the distribution of the electron arrival-times and to observe the build-up of the interference pattern. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the first results obtained regarding the two-slits Young-Feynman experiment with single electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use two nano-slits fabricated by Focused Ion Beam technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We insert in the transmission electron microscope a detector, designed for experiments in future colliders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We record the build-up of high statistic single electron interference patterns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measure the time distribution of electron arrivals.

  6. Leakage current-induced effects in the silicon microstrip and gas electron multiplier readout chain and their compensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, W.; Kasinski, K.

    2018-04-01

    Leakage current flowing into the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a common issue in many radiation detection systems as it can increase overall system noise, shift a DC baseline or even lead a recording channel to instability. The commonly known leakage current contributor is a detector, however other system components like wires or an input protection circuit may become a serious problem. Compensation of the leakage current resulting from the electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection circuit by properly sizing its components is possible only for a narrow temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current from external sources can be significantly larger. Many applications, especially High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, require a fast baseline restoration for high input hit rates by applying either a low-value feedback resistor or a high feedback resistance combined with a pulsed reset circuit. Leakage current flowing in the feedback in conjunction with a large feedback resistance supplied with a pulsed reset results in a significant voltage offset between the CSA input and output which can cause problems (e.g. fake hits or instability). This paper shows an issue referred to the leakage current of the ESD protection circuit flowing into the input amplifier. The following analysis and proposed solution is a result of the time and energy readout ASIC project realization for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Germany. This chip is purposed to work with microstrip and gaseous detectors, with high average input pulses frequencies (250 kHit/s per channel) and the possibility to process input charge of both polarities. We present measurements of the test structure fabricated in UMC 180 nm technology and propose a solution addressing leakage current related issues. This work combines the leakage current compensation capabilities at the CSA level with high, controllable value of the amplifier

  7. Transistor amplifier as an electrochemical transducer with intuitive optical read-out: Improving its performance with simple electronic solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, K.; Žák, J.; Sopoušek, J.; Szabó, Z.; Václavek, Tomáš; Žeravík, J.; Fiala, P.; Skládal, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 216, OCT (2016), s. 147-151 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09086S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : electrochemical transducer transistor * operational amplifier * optical read-out * ( bio )sensing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  8. Transistor amplifier as an electrochemical transducer with intuitive optical read-out: Improving its performance with simple electronic solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, K.; Žák, J.; Sopoušek, J.; Szabó, Z.; Václavek, Tomáš; Žeravík, J.; Fiala, P.; Skládal, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 216, OCT (2016), s. 147-151 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09086S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : electrochemical transducer transistor * operational amplifier * optical read-out * (bio)sensing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  9. Optimisation of the Read-out Electronics of Muon Drift-Tube Chambers for Very High Background Rates at HL-LHC and Future Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian; Gadow, Philipp; Ecker, Katharina; Fink, David; Fras, Markus; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Müller, Felix; Richter, Robert; Schmid, Clemens; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian; Zhao, Yazhou

    2016-01-01

    In the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers and sMDT chambers with half of the tube diameter of the MDTs are used for precision muon track reconstruction. The sMDT chambers are designed for operation at high counting rates due to neutron and gamma background irradiation expected for the HL-LHC and future hadron colliders. The existing MDT read-out electronics uses bipolar signal shaping which causes an undershoot of opposite polarity and same charge after a signal pulse. At high counting rates and short electronics dead time used for the sMDTs, signal pulses pile up on the undershoot of preceding background pulses leading to a reduction of the signal amplitude and a jitter in the drift time measurement and, therefore, to a degradation of drift tube efficiency and spatial resolution. In order to further increase the rate capability of sMDT tubes, baseline restoration can be used in the read-out electronics to suppress the pile-up effects. A discrete bipolar shaping circuit with baseline...

  10. A time projection chamber with GEM-based readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attié, David [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Behnke, Ties [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); Bellerive, Alain [Carleton University, Department of Physics, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada); Bezshyyko, Oleg [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, City of Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); now at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, Purba [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); now at National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) Bhubaneswar, P.O. Jatni, Khurda 752050, Odisha (India); Bhattacharya, Sudeb [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Caiazza, Stefano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); now at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Colas, Paul [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lentdecker, Gilles De [Inter University ULB-VUB, Av. Fr. Roosevelt 50, B1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Dehmelt, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); now at State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Desch, Klaus [Universität Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2017-06-01

    For the International Large Detector concept at the planned International Linear Collider, the use of time projection chambers (TPC) with micro-pattern gas detector readout as the main tracking detector is investigated. In this paper, results from a prototype TPC, placed in a 1 T solenoidal field and read out with three independent Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based readout modules, are reported. The TPC was exposed to a 6 GeV electron beam at the DESY II synchrotron. The efficiency for reconstructing hits, the measurement of the drift velocity, the space point resolution and the control of field inhomogeneities are presented.

  11. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  12. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  13. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepankiewicz, A., E-mail: Adam.Szczepankiewicz@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-11

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  14. Electronic Presentations in the Corporation: How Are They Being Used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert E.; And Others

    This study measured the impact of electronic presentations on the business presenter. An electronic presentation was defined as a presentation which made use of a computer, presentation graphics software, and a projection device. A questionnaire was sent to 560 subjects (40% returned) randomly selected from a training and development consortium…

  15. New read-out electronics for ICARUS-T600 liquid Argon TPC. Description, simulation and tests of the new front-end and ADC system arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Bagby, L.; Bellini, V.; Bonesini, M.; Braggiotti, A.; Castellani, L.; Centro, S.; Cervi, T.; Cocco, A.G.; Fabris, F.; Falcone, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Fichera, F.; Franciotti, D.; Galet, G.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Guida, R.; Ketchum, W.; Marchini, S.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Menon, G.; Montanari, C.; Nessi, M.; Nicoletto, M.; Pedrotta, R.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Scaramelli, A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Spanu, M.; Torti, M.; Tortorici, F.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Zani, A.; Zatti, P.G.

    The ICARUS T600, a liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) detector mainly devoted to neutrino physics, underwent a major overhauling at CERN in 2016-2017, which included also a new design of the read-out electronics, in view of its operation in Fermilab on the Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) beam from 2019. The new more compact electronics showed capability of handling more efficiently the signals also in the intermediate Induction 2 wire plane with a significant increase of signal to noise (S/N), allowing for charge measurement also in this view. The new front-end and the analog to digital conversion (ADC) system are presented together with the results of the tests on 50 liters liquid argon TPC performed at CERN with cosmic rays.

  16. The pipelined readout for the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, L.

    1991-01-01

    The electron-proton storage ring complex HERA under construction at DESY in Hamburg is the first machine of a new generation of colliders. Since physics to be studied at HERA (covered in chapter 2) base on the precise measurement of kinematic variables over a very large range of energies, a foremost emphasis is set in calorimetry. After long studies and an ambitious test program, the ZEUS collaboration has built a high resolution depleted uranium-scintillator calorimeter with photomultiplier readout, the state of the art in detectors of this type. In chapter 3 the principles of calorimetry are reviewed and the construction of the ZEUS calorimeter is described. Mainly due to the large dynamic range and the short bunch crossing times a novel concept for the readout in an analog pipelined fashion had to be designed. This concept is explained in chapter 4. The solid state implementation of the pipeline required two integrated circuits which were developed specially for the ZEUS calorimeter in collaboration with an electronics research institute and produced by industry. The design and construction of these devices and the detailed testing which has been performed for properties critical in the readout is covered in chapters 5 and 6. The whole pipelined readout is a complicated setup with many steps and collaborating systems. Its implementation and the information to operate it are covered in chapter 7. Finally the concepts presented and the applications discussed have been installed and tested on a test beam calibration experiment. There, the modules of the calorimeter have been calibrated. Chapter 8 presents results from these measurements which show excellent performance of the electronics as well as optimal properties of the calorimeter modules. (orig./HSI)

  17. Energy dependence of EBT-1 radiochromic film response for photon (10 kvp-15 MVp) and electron beams (6-18 MeV) readout by a flatbed scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Christian; Pawelke, Jörg; Karsch, Leonhard; Woithe, Julia

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the energy dependence of the radiochromic film type, Gafchromic EBT-1, when scanned with a flatbed scanner for film readout. Dose response curves were determined for 12 different beam qualities ranging from a 10 kVp x-ray beam to a 15 MVp x-ray beam and include also two high energy electron beam qualities (6 and 18 MeV). The dose responses measured as net optical density (netOD) for the different beam qualities were normalized to the response of a reference beam quality (6 MVp). A strong systematic energy dependence of the film response was found. The lower the effective beam energy, the less sensitive the EBT-1 films get. The maximum decrease in dose for the same film response between the 25 kVp and 6 MVp beam qualities was 44%. Additionally, a difference in energy dependence for different doses was discovered, meaning that higher doses show a smaller dependency on energy than lower doses. The maximum decrease in the normalized netOD was found to be 25% for a dose of 0.5 Gy relative to the normalized netOD for 10 Gy. Moreover, a scaling procedure is introduced, allowing the correction of the energy dependence for the investigated beam qualities and also for comparable x-ray beam qualities within the energy range studied. A strong energy dependence for EBT-1 radiochromic films was found. The films were readout with a flatbed scanner. If the effective beam energy is known, the energy dependence can be corrected with the introduced scaling procedure. Further investigation of the influence of the spectral band of the readout device on energy dependence is needed to understand the reason for the different energy dependences found in this and previous works.

  18. Pad readout for gas detectors using 128-channel integrated preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Drees, A.; Glassel, P.

    1988-01-01

    A novel two-dimensional readout scheme for gas detectors is presented which uses small metal pads with 2.54 mm pitch as an anode. The pads are read out via 128-channel VLSI low-noise preamplifier/multiplexer chips. These chips are mounted on 2.8x2.8 cm/sup 2/ modules which are directly plugged onto the detector backplane, daisy-chained with jumpers and read out sequentially. The readout has been successfully tested with a low-pressure, two-step, TMAE-filled UV-RICH detector prototype. A single electron efficiently of >90% was observed at moderate chamber gains (<10/sup 6/). The method offers high electronic amplification, low noise, and high readout speed with a very flexible and compact design, suited for space-limited applications

  19. Evaluation of mixed-signal noise effects in photon-counting X-ray image sensor readout circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Jan; Abdalla, Suliman; O'Nils, Mattias; Oelmann, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    In readout electronics for photon-counting pixel detectors, the tight integration between analog and digital blocks causes the readout electronics to be sensitive to on-chip noise coupling. This noise coupling can result in faulty luminance values in grayscale X-ray images, or as color distortions in a color X-ray imaging system. An exploration of simulating noise coupling in readout circuits is presented which enables the discovery of sensitive blocks at as early a stage as possible, in order to avoid costly design iterations. The photon-counting readout system has been simulated for noise coupling in order to highlight the existing problems of noise coupling in X-ray imaging systems. The simulation results suggest that on-chip noise coupling should be considered and simulated in future readout electronics systems for X-ray detectors

  20. Frequency multiplexing for readout of spin qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, J. M.; Colless, J. I.; Mahoney, A. C.; Croot, X. G.; Blanvillain, S.; Reilly, D. J., E-mail: david.reilly@sydney.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate a low loss, chip-level frequency multiplexing scheme for readout of scaled-up spin qubit devices. By integrating separate bias tees and resonator circuits on-chip for each readout channel, we realise dispersive gate-sensing in combination with charge detection based on two radio frequency quantum point contacts. We apply this approach to perform multiplexed readout of a double quantum dot in the few-electron regime and further demonstrate operation of a 10-channel multiplexing device. Limitations for scaling spin qubit readout to large numbers of multiplexed channels are discussed.

  1. LYSO crystal calorimeter readout with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, A., E-mail: alessandro.berra@gmail.com [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cecchi, C.; Germani, S. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Guffanti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); Lietti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Prest, M. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Rossi, A. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger–Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (∼10{sup 6}). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9∼18X{sub 0} LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4×4 mm{sup 2} SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter was tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100–500 MeV energy range.

  2. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 (micro)m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 (micro)m 2 pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  3. Design of the new front-end electronics for the readout of the upgraded CMS electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cometti, Simona

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid detector was originally designed to operate for about ten years, for LHC instantaneous luminosities up to $1 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and integrated luminosity of 500 fb$^{-1}$. The High Luminosity LHC will increase the instantaneous luminosity by about a factor of 5 from current levels and CMS will accumulate an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by about 2035. With such high luminosity the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS will have to cope with a challenging increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing and in radiation levels. The front-end readout electronics will be completely redesigned, with the goals of providing precision timing, low noise and added flexibility in the trigger system. It will use a faster pre-amplifier, increase the sampling frequency from 40 MS/s to 160 MS/s and implement a trigger system that resides entirely off-detector.

  4. Design of front end electronics and a full scale 4k pixel readout ASIC for the DSSC X-ray detector at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdinger, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to design a large scale readout ASIC for the 1-Mega pixel DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector system which is being developed by an international collaboration for the European XFEL (EuXFEL). Requirements for the DSSC detector include single photon detection down to 0.5 keV combined with a large dynamic range of up to 10000 photons at frame rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The detector core concepts include full parallel readout, signal compression on the sensor or ASIC level, filtering, immediate digitization and local storage within the pixel. The DSSC is a hybrid pixel detector, each sensor pixel mates to a dedicated ASIC pixel, which includes the entire specified signal processing chain along with auxiliary circuits. One ASIC comprises 4096 pixels and a full periphery including biasing and digital control. This thesis presents the design of the ASIC, its components and integration are described in detail. Emphasis is put on the design of the analog front-end. The first full format ASIC (F1) has been fabricated within the scope of this thesis along with numerous test chips. Furthermore, the EuXFEL and the DSSC detector system are presented to create the context for the ASIC, which is the core topic of this thesis.

  5. Design of front end electronics and a full scale 4k pixel readout ASIC for the DSSC X-ray detector at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdinger, Florian

    2016-11-22

    The goal of this thesis was to design a large scale readout ASIC for the 1-Mega pixel DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector system which is being developed by an international collaboration for the European XFEL (EuXFEL). Requirements for the DSSC detector include single photon detection down to 0.5 keV combined with a large dynamic range of up to 10000 photons at frame rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The detector core concepts include full parallel readout, signal compression on the sensor or ASIC level, filtering, immediate digitization and local storage within the pixel. The DSSC is a hybrid pixel detector, each sensor pixel mates to a dedicated ASIC pixel, which includes the entire specified signal processing chain along with auxiliary circuits. One ASIC comprises 4096 pixels and a full periphery including biasing and digital control. This thesis presents the design of the ASIC, its components and integration are described in detail. Emphasis is put on the design of the analog front-end. The first full format ASIC (F1) has been fabricated within the scope of this thesis along with numerous test chips. Furthermore, the EuXFEL and the DSSC detector system are presented to create the context for the ASIC, which is the core topic of this thesis.

  6. LHCb : Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, Federico; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, Richard; Wyllie, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  7. Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, R; Wyllie, K

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  8. The AMS silicon tracker readout, performance results with minimum ionizing particles

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, B; Battiston, R; Bourquin, Maurice; Burger, W J; Extermann, Pierre; Chang, Y H; Hou, S R; Pauluzzi, M; Produit, N; Qiu, S; Rapin, D; Ribordy, R; Toker, O; Wu, S X

    2000-01-01

    First results for the AMS silicon tracker readout performance are presented. Small 20.0*20.0*0.300 mm/sup 3/ silicon microstrip detectors were installed in a 50 GeV electron beam at CERN. The detector readout consisted of prototypes of the tracker data reduction card equipped with a 12-bit ADC and the tracker frontend hybrid with VA_hdr readout chips. The system performance is assessed in terms of signal-to-noise, position resolution, and efficiency. (13 refs).

  9. A two-dimensional detector with delay line readout for slow neutron fields measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremukhina, G.A.; Chernenko, S.P.; Ivanov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the description of a two-dimensional detector of slow neutrons together with its readout and data acquisition electronics based on a PC/AT> The detector with a sensitive area of 260x140 mm 2 is based on a high pressure multiwire proportional chamber with delay line readout and gas filling of 3.0 atm. 3 He + propane. 25 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs

  11. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.

  12. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  13. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  14. A Complete Readout Chain of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the HL-LHC: from FATALIC Front-End Electronics to Signal Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senkin Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast programme of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC foreseen in 2024. We present here one of the frontend readout options, an ASIC called FATALIC, proposed for the high-luminosity phase LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Based on a 130 nm CMOS technology, FATALIC performs the complete signal processing, including amplification, shaping and digitisation. We describe the full characterisation of FATALIC and also the Optimal Filtering signal reconstruction method adapted to fully exploit the FATALIC three-range layout. Additionally we present the resolution performance of the whole chain measured using the charge injection system designed for calibration. Finally we discuss the results of the signal reconstruction used on real data collected during a preliminary beam test at CERN.

  15. A Complete Readout Chain of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the HL-LHC: from FATALIC Front-End Electronics to Signal Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkin, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast programme of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen in 2024. We present here one of the frontend readout options, an ASIC called FATALIC, proposed for the high-luminosity phase LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Based on a 130 nm CMOS technology, FATALIC performs the complete signal processing, including amplification, shaping and digitisation. We describe the full characterisation of FATALIC and also the Optimal Filtering signal reconstruction method adapted to fully exploit the FATALIC three-range layout. Additionally we present the resolution performance of the whole chain measured using the charge injection system designed for calibration. Finally we discuss the results of the signal reconstruction used on real data collected during a preliminary beam test at CERN.

  16. A Complete Readout Chain of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the HL-LHC: from FATALIC Front-End Electronics to Signal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Senkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast programme of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen in 2024. We present here one of the front-end readout options, an ASIC called FATALIC, which is proposed for the high-luminosity phase LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Based on a 130 nm CMOS technology, FATALIC performs the complete signal processing, including amplification, shaping and digitisation. Hereby we describe the full characterisation of FATALIC and also the signal reconstruction up to the observables of interest for physics: the energy and the arrival time of the particle. The Optimal Filtering signal reconstruction method is adapted to fully exploit the FATALIC three-range layout. Additionally, we present the performance in terms of resolution of the whole chain measured using the charge injection system designed for calibration. Finally, the results of the signal reconstruction used on real data collected during a preliminary beam test at CERN are discussed.

  17. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  18. The Readout Control Unit of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, J A; Musa, L

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector of the central barrel of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider) Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), being constructed at CERN, Geneva. It is a 88 m$^{3}$ cylinder filled with gas and divided into two drift regions by the central electrode located at its axial center. The readout chambers of the TPC are multi-wire proportional chambers with cathode pad readout. About 570 000 pads are read-out by an electronics chain of amplification, digitalization and pre-processing. One of the challenges in designing the TPC for ALICE is the design of Front End Electronics (FEE) to cope with the data rates and the channel occupancy. The Readout Control Unit (RCU), which is presented in this work, is designed to control and monitor the Front End Electronics, and to collect and ship data to the High Level Trigger and the Data Acquisition System, via the Detector Data Link (DDL - optical fibre). The RCU must be capable of reading out up to 200 Mbytes/s f...

  19. Electronic inventions and discoveries electronics from its earliest beginnings to the present day

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1983-01-01

    Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from Its Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day provides a summary of the development of the whole field of electronics. Organized into 13 chapters, the book covers and reviews the history of electronics as a whole and its aspects. The opening chapter covers the beginnings of electronics, while the next chapter discusses the development of components, transistors, and integrated circuits. The third chapter tackles the expansion of electronics and its effects on industry. The succeeding chapters discuss the history of the aspects of electronics

  20. Disruption generated secondary runaway electrons in present day tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, I.M.; Jaspers, R.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions in present day tokamaks (JET, JT-60U, TEXTOR) was made. It was shown that even for tokamaks with the plasma current I approx 100 kA the secondary generation may dominate the runaway production during disruptions. In the same time in tokamaks with I approx 1 MA the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions may be suppressed

  1. A novel readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with pad matrix anode layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: Popov@jlab.org; Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Welch, Benjamin L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a new analog readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with a pad matrix anode layout. This new readout technique is the result of a modification of a technique previously developed at the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab (V. Popov, US patent No: 6,747,263 B1) [V. Popov, S. Majewski, A.G. Weisenberger, Readout Electronics for Multianode Photomultiplier Tubes with Pad Matrix Anode Layout, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, IEEE 2003 Medical Imaging Conference Record, November 2003]. The new analog readout circuit provides the same analog conversion of matrix 2-D output into X and Y projective output with a significant reduction of analog outputs. The old readout network consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, and it provides decoupling of each anode output into two directions (one to X and one to Y coordinates), but a decoupling function that is carried out independent of photomultiplier tube gains nonuniformity. A newly developed readout network (US patent pending) also consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, but the new matrix includes an additional dumping resistor that provides an excess current from anode pad grounding. As a result, we subtract an extra current of high-gain pads in order to move the pads gain to an absolute minimum value for a given photomultiplier tube. This gain equalization procedure reduces image distortion related to gain nonuniformity. The new readout technique was used in several new radiation imaging detectors designed in the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab. It shows a visible readout uniformity and linearity improvement. The test results of an initial evaluation of this readout that is applied for data readout of four H8500 Hamamtsu PSPMT are presented.

  2. Online readout and control unit for high-speed/high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1997-01-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 x 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout. (orig.)

  3. Online readout and control unit for high-speed/high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1997-02-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 × 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout.

  4. Online readout and control unit for high-speed / high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1996-09-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 x 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout. (orig.)

  5. AVME readout module for multichannel ASIC characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, S.P.; Lalwani, S.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.; Reynaud, Serge; )

    2004-01-01

    Electronics Division, BARC has been working on the development of multi-channel ASIC, called SPAIR (Silicon-strip Pulse Amplifier Integrated Readout). It contains 8 channels of preamplifier, shaper and track-and-hold circuitry. Electronics Division has also actively participated in development of test setup for the front-end ASIC, called PACE, for the preshower detector of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment at CERN, Geneva. PACE is a 32 channel ASIC for silicon strip detector, containing preamplifier, shaper, calibration circuitry, switched capacitor array, readout amplifier per channel and an analog multiplexer. A VME Readout Module, (VRM) is developed which can be utilized in data acquisition from ASICs like PACE and SPAIR. The VRM can also be used as the Detector Dependent Unit for digitally processing the data received from the front-end electronics on the 16-bit LVDS port. The processed, data can be read by the VME system. Thus the VRM is very useful in building an ASIC characterization system and/or the automated ASIC production testing system. It can be used also to build the applications using such ASICs. To cater to various requirements arising in future, variety of VME modules are to be developed like ADCs, DACs and D 1/0. VME interface remains a common part to all these modules. The different functional blocks of these modules can be designed and fabricated on small piggyback boards (called Test Boards) and mounted on the VRM, which provides the common VME interface. The design details and uses of VRM are presented here. (author)

  6. Hybrid amplifier for calorimetry with photodiode readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushkov, V V

    1994-12-31

    A hybrid surface mounted amplifier for the photodiode readout of the EM calorimeter has been developed. The main technical characteristics of the design are presented. The design able to math readout constraints for a high luminosity collider experiment is discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. The Electronic Presentation: A Status Report of International Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert E.; And Others

    This paper describes how electronic presentations are currently used by business people. Business people in the United States and Sweden were surveyed to determine how they are using the medium. A questionnaire was mailed to 506 business people in the United States (201 returned) and to 80 business people in Sweden (76 returned). Results are…

  8. Electron stopping power in dosimetry. I. Evolution and present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the theory and the evolution of the calculation of the collision stopping power of electrons has been performed. Special emphasis has been given to those aspects and materials used in the dosimetry electron and photon beams. The important parameters mean excitation energy and the density effect correction are considered in detail to clarify the different models and data available at the present time. Updated data, comparisons and results are given using the formulation and numerical values described in this work. (author)

  9. Upgraded Readout and Trigger Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at the LHC at the Horizons 2018-2022

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira Damazio, Denis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies...

  10. Present status of the theoretical relativistic plasma SHF electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Paper presents a review of theoretical investigations into powerful sources of SHF waves grounded on the forced emission of relativistic electron beams in plasma wave guides and resonator. Emission sources operating under amplification of a certain inlet signal and under generation mode were studied. Two mechanisms of forced emission: resonance Cherenkov radiation of relativistic electron beams in plasma and nonresonance Pierce emission resulting from evolution of high-frequency Pierce instability, were studied. Paper discusses theoretical problems only, all evaluations and calculations are made for the parameters of the exact experiments, the theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. Factors affecting formation of spectrum of waves excited by relativistic electron beam in plasma systems are discussed [ru

  11. Development of a prototype PET scanner with depth-of-interaction measurement using solid-state photomultiplier arrays and parallel readout electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lan, Kejian A; Bircher, Chad; Lou, Kai; Deng, Zhi

    2014-03-07

    In this study, we developed a prototype animal PET by applying several novel technologies to use solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays to measure the depth of interaction (DOI) and improve imaging performance. Each PET detector has an 8 × 8 array of about 1.9 × 1.9 × 30.0 mm(3) lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate scintillators, with each end optically connected to an SSPM array (16 channels in a 4 × 4 matrix) through a light guide to enable continuous DOI measurement. Each SSPM has an active area of about 3 × 3 mm(2), and its output is read by a custom-developed application-specific integrated circuit to directly convert analogue signals to digital timing pulses that encode the interaction information. These pulses are transferred to and are decoded by a field-programmable gate array-based time-to-digital convertor for coincident event selection and data acquisition. The independent readout of each SSPM and the parallel signal process can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and enable the use of flexible algorithms for different data processes. The prototype PET consists of two rotating detector panels on a portable gantry with four detectors in each panel to provide 16 mm axial and variable transaxial field-of-view (FOV) sizes. List-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction was implemented. The measured mean energy, coincidence timing and DOI resolution for a crystal were about 17.6%, 2.8 ns and 5.6 mm, respectively. The measured transaxial resolutions at the center of the FOV were 2.0 mm and 2.3 mm for images reconstructed with and without DOI, respectively. In addition, the resolutions across the FOV with DOI were substantially better than those without DOI. The quality of PET images of both a hot-rod phantom and mouse acquired with DOI was much higher than that of images obtained without DOI. This study demonstrates that SSPM arrays and advanced readout/processing electronics can be used to develop a practical DOI

  12. A new PCI card for readout in high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Marras, D; Usai, G L; David, A

    2004-01-01

    Recently some high energy physics experiments started to adopt readout systems based on the PCI architecture. In this context a new PCI card that can be adapted to several readout schemes has been designed. The card contains a large 64 MB local buffer, programmable FPGA logic and a PLX PCI bridge. The solution to use a PCI bridge external to the programmable logic allows to greatly simplify projects at the level of the on-board local bus. The card is presently used as the basic readout unit of the NA60 experiment. In this context, coupling it to different mezzanine cards it is possible to create interfaces to VME/CAMAC modules or to custom front-end electronics as for the case of the silicon vertex detector. Moreover, it is used as a readout test system for the ALICE muon chambers. (10 refs).

  13. An array of cold-electron bolometers with SIN tunnel junctions and JFET readout for cosmology instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, L

    2008-01-01

    A novel concept of the parallel/series array of Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEB) with Superconductor-Insulator-Normal (SIN) Tunnel Junctions has been proposed. The concept was developed specially for matching the CEB with JFET amplifier at conditions of high optical power load. The CEB is a planar antenna-coupled superconducting detector with high sensitivity. For combination of effective HF operation and low noise properties the current-biased CEBs are connected in series for DC and in parallel for HF signal. A signal is concentrated from an antenna to the absorber through the capacitance of the tunnel junctions and through additional capacitance for coupling of superconducting islands. Using array of CEBs the applications can be considerably extended to higher power load by distributing the power between N CEBs and decreasing the electron temperature. Due to increased responsivity the noise matching is so effective that photon NEP could be easily achieved at 300 mK with a room temperature JFET for wide range of optical power loads. The concept of the CEB array has been developed for the BOOMERanG balloon telescope and other Cosmology instruments

  14. Dual-Readout Calorimetry with Lead Tungstate Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Akchurin, N.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and \\v{C}erenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals from the crystal calorimeter were analyzed in great detail in an attempt to determine the contributions from these two types of light ...

  15. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented

  16. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection ...

  17. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  18. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10 16 particles per cm 2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 μm 2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm 2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm 2 ). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  19. Control software for the CBM readout chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizeau, Pierre-Alain [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment, which will be built at FAIR, will use free-streaming readout electronics to acquire high-statistics data-sets of physics probes in fixed target heavy-ion collisions. Since no simple signatures suitable for a hardware trigger are available for most of them, reconstruction and selection of the interesting collisions will be done in software, in a computer farm called First Level Event Selector (FLES). The raw data coming from the detectors is pre-processed, pre-calibrated and aggregated in a FPGA based layer called Data Preprocessing Boards (DPB). IPbus will be used to communicate with the DPBs and through them with the elements of the readout chain closer to detectors. A slow control environment based on this software is developed by CBM to configure in an efficient way the DPBs as well as the Front-End Electronics and monitor their performances. This contribution presents the layout planned for the slow control software, its first implementation and corresponding test results.

  20. Calibration of ALIBAVA readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trofymov, Artur [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS experiment-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LH-LHC) is the upgrade of the LHC that foreseen to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor ten with a total integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker to operate in the new severe LH-LHC conditions (increasing detector granularity to cope with much higher channel occupancy, designing radiation-hard sensors and electronics to cope with radiation damage). Charge collection efficiency (CCE) of silicon strip sensors for the new ATLAS tracker can be done with ALIBAVA analog readout system (analog system gives more information about signal from all strips than digital). In this work the preliminary results of ALIBAVA calibration using two different methods (with ''source data'' and ''calibration data'') are presented. Calibration constant obtained by these methods is necessary for knowing collected charge on the silicon strip sensors and for having the ability to compare it with measurements done at the test beam.

  1. Design and characterization of the readout ASIC for the BESIII CGEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cossio, Fabio; Bugalho, Ricardo; Chai, Junying; Cheng, Weishuai; Da Rocha Rolo, Manuel Dionisio; Di Francesco, Agostino; Greco, Michela; Leng, Chongyang; Li, Huaishen; Maggiora, Marco; Marcello, Simonetta; Mignone, Marco; Rivetti, Angelo; Varela, Joao; Wheadon, Richard

    2018-01-01

    TIGER (Turin Integrated Gem Electronics for Readout) is a mixed-mode ASIC for the readout of signals from CGEM (Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier) detector in the upgraded inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, carried out at BEPCII in Beijing. The ASIC includes 64 channels, each of which features a dual-branch architecture optimized for timing and energy measurement. The input signal time-of-arrival and charge measurement is provided by low-power TDCs, based on analogue interpolation techniques, and Wilkinson ADCs, with a fully-digital output. The silicon results of TIGER first prototype are presented showing its full functionality.

  2. Neutron and proton tests of different technologies for the upgrade of cold readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The expected increase of total integrated luminosity by a factor of ten at the HL-LHC compared to the design goals for LHC essentially eliminates the safety factor for radiation hardness realized at the current cold amplifiers of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter (HEC). New more radiation hard technologies have been studied: SiGe bipolar, Si CMOS FET and GaAs FET transistors have been irradiated with neutrons up to an integrated fluence of 2.2 \\cdot 10^{16} n/cm2 and with 200 MeV protons up to an integrated fluence of 2.6 \\cdot 10^{14} p/cm2. Comparisons of transistor parameters such as the gain for both types of irradiations are presented.

  3. An improved version of the Shadow Position Sensor readout electronics on-board the ESA PROBA-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noce, V.; Focardi, M.; Buckley, S.; Bemporad, A.; Fineschi, S.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Loreggia, D.; Casti, M.; Romoli, M.; Accatino, L.; Thizy, C.; Denis, F.; Ledent, P.

    2017-08-01

    PROBA-3 [1] [2] is a Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) composed by two satellites flying in formation and aimed at achieving unprecedented performance in terms of relative positioning. The mission purpose is, in first place, technological: the repeated formation break and acquisition during each orbit (every about twenty hours) will be useful to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop control system in keeping the formation-flying (FF) and attitude (i.e. the alignment with respect to the Sun) of the system. From the scientific side, instead, the two spacecraft will create a giant instrument about 150 m long: an externally occulted coronagraph named ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun) dedicated to the study of the inner part of the visible solar corona. The two satellites composing the mission are: the Coronagraph Spacecraft (CSC), hosting the Coronagraph Instrument (CI), and the disk-shaped (1.4 m diameter) Occulter Spacecraft (OSC). The PROBA-3 GNC (Guidance, Navigation and Control) system will employ several metrological subsystems to keep and retain the desired relative position and the absolute attitude (i.e. with respect to the Sun) of the aligned spacecraft, when in observational mode. The SPS subsystem [5] is one of these metrological instruments. It is composed of eight silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), sensors operated in photovoltaic mode [6] that will sense the penumbra light around the Instrument's pupil so to detect any FF displacement from the nominal position. In proximity of the CDR (Critical Design Review) phase, we describe in the present paper the changes occurred to design in the last year in consequence of the tests performed on the SPS Breadboard (Evaluation Board, EB) and the SPS Development Model (DM) and that will finally lead to the realization of the flight version of the SPS system.

  4. Digital column readout architectures for hybrid pixel detector readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poikela, T; Plosila, J; Westerlund, T; Buytaert, J; Campbell, M; Gaspari, M De; Llopart, X; Wyllie, K; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Beuzekom, M van; Zappon, F; Zivkovic, V; Brezina, C; Desch, K; Fu, Y; Kruth, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two digital column architectures suitable for sparse readout of data from a pixel matrix in trigger-less applications are presented. Each architecture reads out a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The first architecture has been implemented in the Timepix3 chip, and this is presented together with initial measurements. Simulation results and measured data are compared. The second architecture has been designed for Velopix, a readout chip planned for the LHCb VELO upgrade. Unlike Timepix3, this has to be tolerant to radiation-induced single-event effects. Results from post-layout simulations are shown with the circuit architectures

  5. Design and Performance of the CMS Pixel Detector Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, R P; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Hoermann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The readout chip for the CMS pixel detector has to deal with an enormous data rate. On-chip zero suppression is inevitable and hit data must be buffered locally during the latency of the first level trigger. Dead-time must be kept at a minimum. It is dominated by contributions coming from the readout. To keep it low an analog readout scheme has been adopted where pixel addresses are analog coded. We present the architecture of the final CMS pixel detector readout chip with special emphasis on the analog readout chain. Measurements of its performance are discussed.

  6. LHCb: Fast Readout Control for the upgraded readout architecture of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity with an upgraded LHCb detector. As a consequence, the various LHCb sub-systems in the readout architecture will be upgraded to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate, and higher readout load. The new architecture, new functionalities, and the first hardware implementation of a new LHCb Readout Control system (commonly referred to as S-TFC) for the upgraded LHCb experiment is here presented. Our attention is focused in describing solutions for the distribution of clock and timing information to control the entire upgraded readout architecture by profiting of a bidirectional optical network and powerful FPGAs, including a real-time mechanism to synchronize the entire system. Solutions and implementations are presented, together with first results on the simulation and the validation of the system.

  7. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Pulsed formation and readout of dynamic holograms in a photorefractive GaAs:Cr crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, N. P.; Barashkov, M. S.; Bel'dyugin, Igor'M.; Kruzhilin, Yu I.; Petnikova, V. M.; Umnov, A. F.; Kharchenko, M. A.; Shuvalov, Vladimir V.

    1989-12-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the energy (diffraction efficiency) and time (formation, storage, readout) parameters of four-wave mixing in GaAs:Cr. An investigation of the dynamics of the leading edge of a nonlinear response pulse could become an effective method for pulsed spectroscopy of photorefractive materials.

  8. Medical guidelines presentation and comparing with Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselý, Arnost; Zvárová, Jana; Peleska, Jan; Buchtela, David; Anger, Zdenek

    2006-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems are now being developed in many places. More advanced systems provide also reminder facilities, usually based on if-then rules. In this paper we propose a method how to build the reminder facility directly upon the guideline interchange format (GLIF) model of medical guidelines. The method compares data items on the input of EHR system with medical guidelines GLIF model and is able to reveal if the input data item, that represents patient diagnosis or proposed patient treatment, contradicts with medical guidelines or not. The reminder facility can be part of EHR system itself or it can be realized by a stand-alone reminder system (SRS). The possible architecture of stand-alone reminder system is described in this paper and the advantages of stand-alone solution are discussed. The part of the EHR system could be also a browser that would present graphical GLIF model in easy to understand manner on the user screen. This browser can be data driven and focus attention of user to the relevant part of medical guidelines GLIF model.

  9. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, S; Barrillon, P; La Taille, C de

    2010-01-01

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( ∼ 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: ∼ 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  10. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, S; Barrillon, P; La Taille, C de, E-mail: blin@lal.in2p3.f [CNRS/IN2p3/LAL-OMEGA, Universite Paris Sud, Bat.200, 91898 Orsay (France)

    2010-12-15

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( {approx} 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: {approx} 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  11. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.; de La Taille, C.

    2010-12-01

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( ~ 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: ~ 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  12. The Omega Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector readout system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallewell, G.

    1984-11-01

    The manual describes the electronic readout system of the Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector at the CERN Omega Spectrometer. The system is described in its configuration of September 1984 after the Rich readout system had been used in two Omega experiments. (U.K.)

  13. The read-out chain of the CBM STS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Joerg; Emschermann, David [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will explore the QCD phase diagram at high baryon densities during nucleus-nucleus collisions in a fixed target setup. Its physics goals require interaction rates up to 10 MHz, which can be exploited with fast and radiation hard detectors equipped with free-streaming front-end and readout electronics, connected to a common Data Aquisition (DAQ) system to forward data to the First Level Event Selector (FLES). The core component of the CBM DAQ system is the Data Processing Board (DPB) implementing three important functionalities: - The incoming data via multiple lower-speed, short distance links is preprocessed, concentrated and forwarded to the FLES via higher-speed, long distance links. - The DPBs provide an interface for the Detector Control System (DCS) to configure readout and front-end electronics (FEE). - As part of the Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system the DPBs ensure transmission of the reference clock and synchronous commands necessary to synchronize the FEE. This contribution presents the readout and DAQ chain on the example of the core subdetector, the Silicon Tracking System (STS).

  14. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S.; Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S.; Rugliancich, A.; Saito, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards.

  15. Results from a test of a Cu-scintillator calorimeter module with photodiode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, F.; Kiesling, C.; Lorenz, E.; Mageras, G.; Scholz, S.

    1986-05-01

    A calorimeter module of 17 radiation lengths depth has been built. Wavelength shifter (WLS) bars coupled to rectangular silicon photodiodes (PD's) are use as readout. Considerations in the design of the WLS bars, with particular emphasis on optimising the efficiency for PD readout, are discussed. The energy resolution for electrons has been determined to be about 9%/√E between 2 and 50 GeV. The response to hadrons is presented and the prospects for the construction of a full-sized hadron calorimeter are discussed. (orig.)

  16. BiCMOS amplifier-discriminator integrated circuit for gas-filled detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, C.; Dzahini, D.; Le Caer, T.; Richer, J.-P.; Torki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a 16-channel amplifier-discriminator designed in BiCMOS technology. It will be used for the binary parallel readout of gas-filled detectors being designed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The circuit (named AMS211) has been manufactured. The measured transimpedance gain (400 KΩ), bandwidth (25 MHz) and noise (1570 e - +95 e - /pF ENC) well match the simulated results. The discriminator thresholds are individually controlled by built-in Digital to Analogue Converter. The experience gained with a first prototype of readout electronics indicates that the AMS211 should meet our requirements

  17. BiCMOS amplifier-discriminator integrated circuit for gas-filled detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, C. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: herve@esrf.fr; Dzahini, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Le Caer, T. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Richer, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Torki, K. [Laboratoire TIMA, Grenoble (France)

    2005-03-21

    The paper presents a 16-channel amplifier-discriminator designed in BiCMOS technology. It will be used for the binary parallel readout of gas-filled detectors being designed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The circuit (named AMS211) has been manufactured. The measured transimpedance gain (400 K{omega}), bandwidth (25 MHz) and noise (1570 e{sup -}+95 e{sup -}/pF ENC) well match the simulated results. The discriminator thresholds are individually controlled by built-in Digital to Analogue Converter. The experience gained with a first prototype of readout electronics indicates that the AMS211 should meet our requirements.

  18. A 40 GByte/s read-out system for GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, M.; Carrel, J.; Dorenbosch, J.; Kapoor, V.

    1994-04-01

    The preliminary design of the read-out system for the GEM (Gammas, Electrons, Muons) detector at the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The system reads all digitized data from the detector data sources at a Level 1 trigger rate of up to 100 kHz. A total read-out bandwidth of 40 GBytes/s is available. Data are stored in buffers that are accessible for further event filtering by an on-line, processor farm. Data are transported to the farm only as they are needed by the higher-level trigger algorithms, leading to a reduced bandwidth requirement in the Data Acquisition System

  19. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes the requirements for the readout electronics and DAQ for the instrumentation of the forward region of the future detector at the international linear collider. The preliminary design is discussed. Author Affiliations. Wojciech Wierba1 on behalf of the FCAL Collaboration. The Henryk Niewodniczański ...

  20. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, S.

    2014-11-01

    This project will investigate and develop thermal-management strategies for wide bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. Research will be carried out to deal with thermal aspects at the module- and system-level. Module-level research will focus on die- and substrate-integrated cooling strategies and heat-transfer enhancement technologies. System-level research will focus on thermal-management strategies for the entire power electronics system to enable smart packaging solutions. One challenge with WBG device-based power electronics is that although losses in the form of heat may be lower, the footprint of the components is also likely to be reduced to reduce cost, weight, and volume. Combined with higher operational temperatures, this creates higher heat fluxes which much be removed from a smaller footprint, requiring advanced cooling strategies.

  1. Performance study of large area encoding readout MRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G.; Han, D.; Wang, X.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Guo, B.

    2018-02-01

    Muon tomography system built by the 2-D readout high spatial resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detector is a project of Tsinghua University. An encoding readout method based on the fine-fine configuration has been used to minimize the number of the readout electronic channels resulting in reducing the complexity and the cost of the system. In this paper, we provide a systematic comparison of the MRPC detector performance with and without fine-fine encoding readout. Our results suggest that the application of the fine-fine encoding readout leads us to achieve a detecting system with slightly worse spatial resolution but dramatically reduce the number of electronic channels.

  2. Medical Guidelines Presentation and Comparing with Electronic Health Record

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana; Peleška, Jan; Buchtela, David; Anger, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3-4 (2006), s. 240-245 ISSN 1386-5056 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : medical guidelines * electronic health record * GLIF model * reminder facility Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.726, year: 2006

  3. Development of a new photo-detector readout technique for PET and CT imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Powolny, François; Auffray, Etiennette; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jarron, Pierre; Kaplon, Jan; Lecoq, Paul; Meyer, T C; Trummer, Julia; Velitchko, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the European FP6's BioCare project, we develop a novel photo-detector readout technique to increase sensitivity and timing precision for molecular imaging in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Computer Tomography (CT). Within the Project's work packages, the CERN-BioCare group focuses on the development of a PET detection head suitable to process data from both PET and CT operation in one unit. The detector module consists of a LSO matrix coupled to an APD array. The signal is processed by a fast and low noise readout electronics recently developed for experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The functioning of the individual system components and the performance of the entire readout channel are presented.

  4. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 μm thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm 2 with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm 2 . Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring

  5. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul, E-mail: md.arefin@monash.edu; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet [Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-06-02

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  6. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  7. A four gain readout integrated circuit: FRIC 96 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussat, J.M.; Bohner, G.; Lecoq, J.; Colas, J.; Rossetto, O.; Dzahini, D.; Pouxe, J.

    1996-01-01

    The main difficulty for the readout electronics of the ATLAS LARG calorimeter is to handle the 16 bit dynamic range without spoiling the signal to noise ratio. A possible way to split the input. (authors)

  8. The readout system of the new H1 silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Henschel, H.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.W.; Joensson, L.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Wagener, M.; Eichler, R.; Erdmann, W.; Niggli, H.; Pitzl, D.

    1995-03-01

    The H1 detector at HERA at DESY undergoes presently a major upgrade. In this context silicon strip detectors have been installed at beginning of 1995. The high bunch crossing frequency of HERA (10.4 MHz) demands a novel readout architecture which includes pipelining, signal processing and data reduction at a very early stage. The front end readout is hierarchically organized. The detector elements are read out by the APC chip which contains an analog pipeline and performs first background subtraction. Up to five readout chips are controlled by a Decoder Chip. The readout processor module (OnSiRoC) operates the detectors, controls the Decoder Chips and performs a first level data reduction. The paper describes the readout architecture of the H1 Silicon Detectors and performance data of the complete readout chain. (orig.)

  9. An FPGA-based sampling-ADC readout for the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Johannes [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Marciniewski, Pawel [Angstroemlaboratoriet, Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) investigates the photoproduction of mesons off protons and neutrons. Presently the readout of the CsI(Tl)-crystals of the Crystal Barrel calorimeter is being upgraded from a PIN-diode readout to an APD readout to create a fast signal for first-level-triggering. This will increase the trigger efficiency especially for final states with only neutral particles substantially. To increase the possible data readout rate, which is currently limited by the digitization stage (LeCroy QDC 1885F) to ∼ 2 kHz, the implementation of a new Sampling-ADC (SADC) readout is being prepared. Based on the 64-channel PANDA-SADC, the CB-SADC design was modified and adapted to the needs of the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. It offers 64 channels in one NIM module, together with modular analog or FPGA-based digital shaping. The data transfer will be realized by two standard gigabit links. Using an FPGA together with SADCs provides a multitude of possibilities for online feature extraction, such as the determination of the energy deposited in the crystal, TDC capabilities and pile-up detection and recovery.

  10. A read-out buffer prototype for ATLAS high level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2000-01-01

    Read-Out Buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several Read-Out Buffers are grouped to form a Read-Out Buffer Complex that acts as a data server for the High Level Triggers selection algorithms and for the final data collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a Read-Out Buffer based on a custom made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB/s, to store up to 8 MB of data and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel I960 processor and CPLDs. We present the integration of several of these cards in a Read-Out Buffer Complex. We measure various performance figures and we discuss to which extent these can fulfill ATLAS needs. 5 Refs.

  11. Energy dependence of EBT-1 radiochromic film response for photon (10 kVp-15 MVp) and electron beams (6-18 MeV) readout by a flatbed scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Christian; Pawelke, Joerg; Karsch, Leonhard; Woithe, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to investigate the energy dependence of the radiochromic film type, Gafchromic EBT-1, when scanned with a flatbed scanner for film readout. Methods: Dose response curves were determined for 12 different beam qualities ranging from a 10 kVp x-ray beam to a 15 MVp x-ray beam and include also two high energy electron beam qualities (6 and 18 MeV). The dose responses measured as net optical density (netOD) for the different beam qualities were normalized to the response of a reference beam quality (6 MVp). Results: A strong systematic energy dependence of the film response was found. The lower the effective beam energy, the less sensitive the EBT-1 films get. The maximum decrease in dose for the same film response between the 25 kVp and 6 MVp beam qualities was 44%. Additionally, a difference in energy dependence for different doses was discovered, meaning that higher doses show a smaller dependency on energy than lower doses. The maximum decrease in the normalized netOD was found to be 25% for a dose of 0.5 Gy relative to the normalized netOD for 10 Gy. Moreover, a scaling procedure is introduced, allowing the correction of the energy dependence for the investigated beam qualities and also for comparable x-ray beam qualities within the energy range studied. Conclusions: A strong energy dependence for EBT-1 radiochromic films was found. The films were readout with a flatbed scanner. If the effective beam energy is known, the energy dependence can be corrected with the introduced scaling procedure. Further investigation of the influence of the spectral band of the readout device on energy dependence is needed to understand the reason for the different energy dependences found in this and previous works.

  12. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S. [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Rugliancich, A., E-mail: andrea.rugliancich@pi.infn.it [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Saito, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-07-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards. - Highlights: • The Dragon Board is part of the DAQ of the LST Cherenkov telescope prototype. • We developed an automated quality control system for the Dragon Board. • We check pedestal, linearity, pulse shape and crosstalk values. • The quality control test can be performed on the production line.

  13. 100 Gbps PCI-Express readout for the LHCb upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, P.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Balbi, G.; Marconi, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new generation of readout boards, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We show throughput measurements across the PCI-Express bus, on Altera Stratix 5 devices, using a DMA mechanism and different synchronization schemes between the FPGA and the readout unit. Finally we discuss hardware and software design considerations necessary to achieve a data throughput of 100 Gbps in the final readout board

  14. Transmission-Line Readout with Good Time and Space Resolutions for Planacon MCP-PMTs

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, F; Byrum, K; Drake, G; Ertley, C; Frisch, H; Genat, J-F; May, E

    2008-01-01

    With commercially-available multi-anode microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMT) and electronics, resolutions significantly better than 10 psec have been achieved in small systems with a few readout channels[1,2]. For large-scale time-of-flight systems used in particle physics, which may cover tens of square meters, a solution must be found with a manageable number of electronics channels and low total power consumption on the readout electronics without degrading the system timing resolution. We present here the design of a transmission-line readout for a Photonis Planacon MCP-PMT that has these characteristics. The tube, which is 5 cm square, is characterized by signal pulse rise times in the order of 200 psec and transit time spreads (TTS) in the order of 25 psec[1, 2]. The model 85011-011 MCP has 1024 anode pads laid out in an array of 32 by 32 on the back of the tube. The proposed readout is implemented on a Rogers 4350B printed circuit board with 32 parallel 50-ohm transmission lines on 1.6 mm...

  15. Creating animated GIF files for electronic presentations using Photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Chun-Shan; Kruskal, Jonathan; Larson, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Our objective is to present a simple method for converting movie clips to animated GIFs (graphics interchange format) using Photoshop. Although animated GIF is a more reliable format than movie clips (e.g., AVI and QuickTime) for presenting dynamic data sets in PowerPoint presentations, this output format is not available on most radiology workstations. Therefore, many academic radiologists still experience the problem of incompatible codecs and missing file links when trying to show movie clips in their PowerPoint presentations. One way to resolve this issue is to convert the movie clips to animated GIFs. In this article, we provide a simple method for this conversion using Photoshop--a common software application used by radiologists.

  16. Electron emission and work function-Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shigehiko

    2005-01-01

    The history of electron emission is reviewed from a standpoint of the work function and the applications. For years, in the field of thermionic emission, a great deal of efforts have been devoted to search for low work function materials with a high melting temperature, while the reduction of the local change in time of the work function rather than the work function itself has been the main issue of field emission investigations. High brightness and long life are the central targets of the emission material investigations for the scientific instrument application, while high current density and low power consumption are the guiding principles for the display application. In both fields, field emission has recently become dominant in research and development. In all above cases, the main issue in the future research works will be to analyze the work function in atomic level and thereby to understand the mechanism of the work function reduction by atom adsorption, the change in time of the local work function leading to the current fluctuation, and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic work functions. Our attempt is discussed, where the work function in atomic level is measured by utilizing the STM technique and it is made clear how far the work function in atomic level extends its influence over the neighboring sites. As a result, a simple relationship is established between microscopic and macroscopic work functions

  17. Imaging achievements with the Vernier readout

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Worth, L B C; Tandy, J A

    2002-01-01

    We describe the Vernier anode, a high resolution and charge division image readout for microchannel plate detectors. It comprises a planar structure of insulated electrodes deposited on an insulating substrate. The charge cloud from an event is divided amongst all nine electrodes and the charge ratio uniquely determines the two-dimensional position coordinate of the charge centroid. We discuss the design of the anode pattern and describe the advantages offered by this readout. The cyclic variation of the electrode structure allows the image resolution to exceed the charge measurement resolution and enables the entire active area of the readout to be utilized. In addition, fixed pattern noise is greatly reduced. We present results demonstrating the position resolution and image linearity. A position resolution of 10 mu m FWHM is demonstrated and the overall imaging performance is shown to be limited by the microchannel plate pore spacing. We present measurements of the image distortions and describe techniques...

  18. Drift chamber data readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Lokhonyai, L.

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for processing drift chamber signals is described. The system consists of 4-channel fast amplifier-discriminators of low threshold, 16-channel time-expanders transforming 0.5 μs time intervals to 10 μs and a 9-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) recording up to 16 expanded time intervals. If the average track multiplicity is small, TDC is capable to process signals from 4 time-expanders (i.e., 64 drift gaps). In order to record multiple tracks per drift gap discriminator outputs can be connected to a number of time-expander channels. The fast clear input enables the system to be cleared within 0.5 μs. Efficient readout from TDC is facilated by reading only those channels which contain non-zero data (9 bits - drift time; 6 bits - wire number)

  19. Study for the LHCb upgrade read-out board

    CERN Document Server

    Cachemiche, J P; Hachon, F; Le Gac, R; Marin, F; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12036

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment envisages to upgrade its readout electronics in order to increase the readout rate from 1 MHz to 40 MHz. This electronics upgrade is very challenging, since readout boards will have to handle a higher number of serial links with an increased bandwidth. In addition, the new communication protocol (GBT) developed by the CERN micro-electronics group mixes data acquisition, slow control and clock distribution on the same link. To explore the feasibility of such a readout system, elementary building blocks have been studied. Their goals are multiple: understand signal integrity when using highly integrated high speed serial links running at 8 - 10 Gbits/s; test the implementation of the GBT protocol within FPGAs; understand advantages and limitations of commercial standard with a predefined interconnection topology; validate ideas on how to control easily such a system. We designed two boards compliant with the xTCA standard which meets an increasing interest in the physics community. The first...

  20. First performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chengxin; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Appelshäuser, Harald; Bratrud, Lars Karlot Stubberud; Castro, Andrew; Costa, Filippo; David, Ernö; Gunji, Tako; Kirsch, S; Kiss, Tivadar; Langøy, Rune; Lien, Jørgen; Lippmann, C; Oskarsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    - This paper presents the first performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2). With the upgraded hardware typology and the new readout scheme in FPGA design, the RCU2 is designed to achieve twice the readout speed of the present Readout Control Unit. Design choices such as using the flash-based Microsemi Smartfusion2 FPGA and applying mitigation techniques in interfaces and FPGA design ensure a high degree of radiation tolerance. This paper presents the system level ir...

  1. The NA60 experiment readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Usai, G L; David, A; Rosinsky, P; Ohnishi, H

    2004-01-01

    The NA60 experiment was designed to identify signatures of a new state of matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma, in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchroton. The apparatus is composed of four main detectors: a muon spectrometer (MS), a zero degree calorimeter (ZDC), a silicon vertex telescope (VT), and a silicon microstrip beam tracker (BT). The readout of the whole experiment is based on a PCI architecture. The basic unit is a general purpose PCI card, interfaced to the different subdetectors via custom mezzanine cards. This allowed us to successfully implement several completely different readout protocols (from the VME like protocol of the MS to the custom protocol of the pixel telescope). The system was fully tested with proton and ion beams, and several million events were collected in 2002 and 2003. This paper presents the readout architecture of NA60, with particular emphasis on the PCI layer common to all the subdetectors. (16 refs).

  2. Data readout system utilizing photonic integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopiński, S., E-mail: S.Stopinski@tue.nl [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2013-10-11

    We describe a novel optical solution for data readout systems. The core of the system is an Indium-Phosphide photonic integrated circuit performing as a front-end readout unit. It functions as an optical serializer in which the serialization of the input signal is provided by means of on-chip optical delay lines. The circuit employs electro-optic phase shifters to build amplitude modulators, power splitters for signal distribution, semiconductor optical amplifiers for signal amplification as well as on-chip reflectors. We present the concept of the system, the design and first characterization results of the devices that were fabricated in a multi-project wafer run.

  3. The Belle II SVD data readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmeier, R., E-mail: Richard.Thalmeier@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technolog y Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.

  4. A new read-out architecture for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Alberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The LHC has planned a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) which will increase of order five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. TileCal will undergo an upgrade to accommodate to the HL-LHC parameters. The TileCal read-out electronics will be redesigned introducing a new read-out strategy. The data generated in the detector will be transferred to the new Read-Out Drivers (sRODs) located in off-detector for every bunch crossing before any event selection is applied. Furthermore, the sROD will be responsible of providing preprocessed trigger information to the ATLAS first level of trigger. It will implement pipeline memories to cope with the latencies and rates specified in the new trigger schema and in overall it will represent the interface between the data acquisition, trigger and control systems and the on-detector electronics. The new TileCal read-out architecture will be presented includi...

  5. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry; Mosk, Allard

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: a verifier can check if received classical data was sent by the PUF holder. We call this

  6. Light-to-light readout system of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Denes, P; Lustermann, W; Mathez, H; Pangaud, P; Walder, J P

    2001-01-01

    For the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, an 8OOOO-crysral electromagnetic calorimeter will measure electron and photon energies with high precision over a dynamic range of roughly 16 bits. The readout electronics will be located directly behind the crystals, and must survive a total dose of up to 2x10 Gy along with 5x10**1**3 n/cm**2. A readout chain consisting of a custom wide-range acquisition circuit, commercial ADC and custom optical link for each crystal is presently under construction. An overview of the design is presented, with emphasis on the large-scale fiber communication system. 11 Refs.

  7. A Prototype Combination TPC Cherenkov Detector with GEM Readout for Tracking and Particle Identification and its Potential Use at an Electron Ion Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woody Craig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype detector is being developed which combines the functions of a Time Projection Chamber for charged particle tracking and a Cherenkov detector for particle identification. The TPC consists of a 10×10×10 cm3 drift volume where the charge is drifted to a 10×10 cm2 triple GEM detector. The charge is measured on a readout plane consisting of 2×10 mm2 chevron pads which provide a spatial resolution ∼ 100 μm per point in the chevron direction along with dE/dx information. The Cherenkov portion of the detector consists of a second 10×10 cm2 triple GEM with a photosensitive CsI photocathode on the top layer. This detector measures Cherenkov light produced in the drift gas of the TPC by high velocity particles which are above threshold. CF4 or CF4 mixtures will be used as the drift gas which are highly transparent to UV light and can provide excellent efficiency for detecting Cherenkov photons. The drift gas is also used as the operating gas for both GEM detectors. The prototype detector has been constructed and is currently being tested in the lab with sources and cosmic rays, and additional tests are planned in the future to study the detector in a test beam.

  8. A Prototype Combination TPC Cherenkov Detector with GEM Readout for Tracking and Particle Identification and its Potential Use at an Electron Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Craig; Azmoun, Babak; Majka, Richard; Phipps, Michael; Purschke, Martin; Smirnov, Nikolai

    2018-02-01

    A prototype detector is being developed which combines the functions of a Time Projection Chamber for charged particle tracking and a Cherenkov detector for particle identification. The TPC consists of a 10×10×10 cm3 drift volume where the charge is drifted to a 10×10 cm2 triple GEM detector. The charge is measured on a readout plane consisting of 2×10 mm2 chevron pads which provide a spatial resolution ˜ 100 μm per point in the chevron direction along with dE/dx information. The Cherenkov portion of the detector consists of a second 10×10 cm2 triple GEM with a photosensitive CsI photocathode on the top layer. This detector measures Cherenkov light produced in the drift gas of the TPC by high velocity particles which are above threshold. CF4 or CF4 mixtures will be used as the drift gas which are highly transparent to UV light and can provide excellent efficiency for detecting Cherenkov photons. The drift gas is also used as the operating gas for both GEM detectors. The prototype detector has been constructed and is currently being tested in the lab with sources and cosmic rays, and additional tests are planned in the future to study the detector in a test beam.

  9. Strip detectors read-out system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Dulinski, W.; Lounis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Strip Detector Read-out System consists of two VME modules: SDR-Flash and SDR-seq completed by a fast logic SDR-Trig stand alone card. The system is a self-consistent, cost effective and easy use solution for the read-out of analog multiplexed signals coming from some of the front-end electronics chips (Viking/VA chips family, Premus 128 etc...) currently used together with solid (silicon) or gas microstrip detectors. (author)

  10. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  11. A gas microstrip detector for X-ray imaging with readout of the anode by resistive division

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Lodge, A B; Stephenson, R; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I; Morse, J

    2002-01-01

    The results are presented of a development programme aimed at the validation of the key concepts and technologies for the construction of a two-dimensional X-ray detector based on gas microstrip detector technology using resistive division along the anode to achieve the second dimension. A prototype detector and its associated electronic readout system have been developed which demonstrate the capability of a spatial resolution (standard deviation) of approximately ((1)/(1000)) of the working aperture combined with readout rates of up to 400 kHz per anode. Test results and a description of the position sensing circuitry are given.

  12. Precision Instrumentation Amplifiers and Read-Out Integrated Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Rong; Makinwa, Kofi A A

    2013-01-01

    This book presents innovative solutions in the design of precision instrumentation amplifier and read-out ICs, which can be used to boost millivolt-level signals transmitted by modern sensors, to levels compatible with the input ranges of typical Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs).  The discussion includes the theory, design and realization of interface electronics for bridge transducers and thermocouples. It describes the use of power efficient techniques to mitigate low frequency errors, resulting in interface electronics with high accuracy, low noise and low drift. Since this book is mainly about techniques for eliminating low frequency errors, it describes the nature of these errors and the associated dynamic offset cancellation techniques used to mitigate them.  Surveys comprehensively offset cancellation and accuracy improvement techniques applied in precision amplifier designs; Presents techniques in precision circuit design to mitigate low frequency errors in millivolt-level signals transmitted by ...

  13. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Texas A & M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

    2016-01-12

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required to extract the information from the experiments that is needed to determine the stellar reaction rates. The tools developed through this part of the work will be made freely available for general use.

  14. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  15. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  16. Performance of 20:1 multiplexer for large area charge readouts in directional dark matter TPC detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeribe, A. C.; Robinson, M.; Robinson, N.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Yuriev, L.

    2018-02-01

    More target mass is required in current TPC based directional dark matter detectors for improved detector sensitivity. This can be achieved by scaling up the detector volumes, but this results in the need for more analogue signal channels. A possible solution to reducing the overall cost of the charge readout electronics is to multiplex the signal readout channels. Here, we present a multiplexer system in expanded mode based on LMH6574 chips produced by Texas Instruments, originally designed for video processing. The setup has a capability of reducing the number of readouts in such TPC detectors by a factor of 20. Results indicate that the important charge distribution asymmetry along an ionization track is retained after multiplexed signals are demultiplexed.

  17. High dynamic range low-noise focal plane readout for VLWIR applications implemented with current mode background subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Chao; Shaw, Timothy; Wrigley, Chris; Peddada, Pavani; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1998-09-01

    Design and operation of a low noise CMOS focal pa;ne readout circuit with ultra-high charge handling capacity is presented. Designed for high-background, VLWIR detector readout, each readout unit cell use an accurate dynamic current memory for automatic subtraction of the dark pedestal in current domain enabling measurement of small signals 85 dB below the dark level. The redout circuit operates with low-power dissipation, high linearity, and is capable of handling pedestal currents up to 300 nA. Measurements indicate an effective charge handling capacity of over 5 X 10(superscript 9) charges/pixel with less than 10(superscript 5) electrons of input referred noise.

  18. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the “ROC” family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the “ROC” chips

  19. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-08-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the "ROC" family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the "ROC" chips.

  20. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin-Moreau, N., E-mail: seguin@lal.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiment 200, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2013-08-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the “ROC” family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the “ROC” chips.

  1. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribble, Robert E. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Sobotka, Lee G. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Blackmon, Jeff C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bertulani, Carlos A. [Texas A & M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

    2015-12-29

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested and the performance characterized in a series of tests using particle beams with a variety of atomic numbers at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba facility (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required

  2. Controlling and monitoring the data flow of the LHCb read-out and DAQ network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwemmer, R.; Gaspar, C.; Neufeld, N.; Svantesson, D.

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb read-out uses a set of 320 FPGA based boards as interface between the on-detector hardware and the GBE DAQ network. The boards are the logical Level 1 (L1) read-out electronics and aggregate the experiment's raw data into event fragments that are sent to the DAQ network. To control the many parameters of the read-out boards, an embedded PC is included on each board, connecting to the boards ICs and FPGAs. The data from the L1 boards is sent through an aggregation network into the High Level Trigger farm. The farm comprises approximately 1500 PCs which at first assemble the fragments from the L1 boards and then do a partial reconstruction and selection of the events. In total there are approximately 3500 network connections. Data is pushed through the network and there is no mechanism for resending packets. Loss of data on a small scale is acceptable but care has to be taken to avoid data loss if possible. To monitor and debug losses, different probes are inserted throughout the entire read-out chain to count fragments, packets and their rates at different positions. To keep uniformity throughout the experiment, all control software was developed using the common SCADA software, PVSS, with the JCOP framework as base. The presentation will focus on the low level controls interface developed for the L1 boards and the networking probes, as well as the integration of the high level user interfaces into PVSS. (authors)

  3. Development of an event builder for the new SADC-readout of the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultes, Jan; Muellers, Johannes [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn investigates the photoproduction of mesons off nucleons. Presently the readout of the CsI(Tl)-crystals of the Crystal Barrel calorimeter is being upgraded from a PIN-diode readout to an APD readout to create a fast signal for first-level-triggering. Furthermore, an entirely new setup consisting of Sampling-ADCs (SADC) with FPGA-based readout is being prepared to increase the possible data rate achievable. The SADC is capable of sampling pulses from the detector with 80 MHz, extracting features by FPGA-logic and transferring this data via UDP. To improve package-handling, a server-client structure will be provided. It is foreseen to receive packages from each of the 48 SADC units (32 channels each), detect and handle possible package losses, distribute the received information further via TCP and control the SADC-behaviour. In addition and to assist the FPGA firmware development, a tool to monitor outgoing pulses and to extract important features, such as the deposited energy, timing information and pile-up detection to cross-check the information given by the FPGA is being developed.

  4. Readout ASIC of pair-monitor for international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yutaro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ito, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sasaki, Rei; Takubo, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The pair-monitor is a beam profile monitor at the interaction point of the international linear collider. A prototype of the readout ASIC for the pair-monitor has been designed and tested. Since the pair-monitor uses the hit distribution of electrons and positrons generated by the beam-crossing to measure the beam profile, the readout ASIC is designed to count the number of hits. In a prototype ASIC, 36 readout cells were implemented by TSMC 0.25-μm CMOS process. Each readout cell is equipped with an amplifier, comparator, 8-bit counter and 16 count-registers. By the operation test, all the ASIC component were confirmed to work correctly. As the next step, we develop the prototype ASIC with the silicon on insulator technology. It is produced with OKI 0.2-μm FD-SOI CMOS process.

  5. Readout system of TPC/MPD NICA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averyanov, A. V.; Bajajin, A. G.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cheremukhina, G. A.; Fateev, O. V.; Korotkova, A. M.; Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Lukstins, J.; Movchan, S. A.; Razin, S. V.; Rybakov, A. A.; Vereschagin, S. V., E-mail: vereschagin@jinr.ru; Zanevsky, Yu. V.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zruyev, V. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in the MPD/NICA. The information on charge-particle tracks in the TPC is registered by the MWPG with cathode pad readout. The frontend electronics (FEE) are developed with use of modern technologies such as application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and data transfer to a concentrator via a fast optical interface. The main parameters of the FEE are as follows: total number of channels, ∼95 000; data stream from the whole TPC, 5 GB/s; low power consumption, less than 100 mW/ch; signal to noise ratio (S/N), 30; equivalent noise charge (ENC), <1000e{sup –} (C{sub in} = 10–20 pF); and zero suppression (pad signal rejection ∼90%). The article presents the status of the readout chamber construction and the data acquisition system. The results of testing FEE prototypes are presented.

  6. Ultrafast electron diffraction and electron microscopy: present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchenko, A A; Aseyev, S A; Ryabov, E A; Bagratashvili, V N; Panchenko, V Ya

    2014-01-01

    Acting as complementary research tools, high time-resolved spectroscopy and diffractometry techniques proceeding from various physical principles open up new possibilities for studying matter with necessary integration of the 'structure–dynamics–function' triad in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science. Since the 1980s, a new field of research has started at the leading research laboratories, aimed at developing means of filming the coherent dynamics of nuclei in molecules and fast processes in biological objects ('atomic and molecular movies'). The utilization of ultrashort laser pulse sources has significantly modified traditional electron beam approaches to and provided high space–time resolution for the study of materials. Diffraction methods using frame-by-frame filming and the development of the main principles of the study of coherent dynamics of atoms have paved the way to observing wave packet dynamics, the intermediate states of reaction centers, and the dynamics of electrons in molecules, thus allowing a transition from the kinetics to the dynamics of the phase trajectories of molecules in the investigation of chemical reactions. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. The FE-I4 pixel readout integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M., E-mail: mgarcia-sciveres@bl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arutinov, D.; Barbero, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Dube, S.; Elledge, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleury, J. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Fougeron, D.; Gensolen, F. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Gnani, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gromov, V. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hemperek, T.; Karagounis, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Kluit, R. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kruth, A. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Mekkaoui, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Menouni, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Schipper, J.-D. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-21

    A new pixel readout integrated circuit denominated FE-I4 is being designed to meet the requirements of ATLAS experiment upgrades. It will be the largest readout IC produced to date for particle physics applications, filling the maximum allowed reticle area. This will significantly reduce the cost of future hybrid pixel detectors. In addition, FE-I4 will have smaller pixels and higher rate capability than the present generation of LHC pixel detectors. Design features are described along with simulation and test results, including low power and high rate readout architecture, mixed signal design strategy, and yield hardening.

  8. 100 Gbps PCI-Express Readout for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Paolo; Schwemmer, Rainer; Marconi, Umberto; Balbi, Gabriele; Lax, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new common readout board, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We describe a new high-performance DMA controller for data acquisition, implemented on an FPGA, coupled with a custom software module for the Linux kernel. Lastly, we describe how these components can be leveraged to achieve a throughput of 100 Gbit/s per readout board.

  9. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benato, G. [University of Zurich, (Switzerland); Cattadori, C. [INFN - Milano Bicocca, (Italy); Di Vacri, A. [INFN LNGS, (Italy); Ferri, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy); D' Andrea, V.; Macolino, C. [GSSI/INFN LNGS, (Italy); Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano/INFN Milano, (Italy); Salamida, F. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  10. An induced charge readout scheme incorporating image charge splitting on discrete pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, D.O.; Lapington, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Top hat electrostatic analysers used in space plasma instruments typically use microchannel plates (MCPs) followed by discrete pixel anode readout for the angular definition of the incoming particles. Better angular definition requires more pixels/readout electronics channels but with stringent mass and power budgets common in space applications, the number of channels is restricted. We describe here a technique that improves the angular definition using induced charge and an interleaved anode pattern. The technique adopts the readout philosophy used on the CRRES and CLUSTER I instruments but has the advantages of the induced charge scheme and significantly reduced capacitance. Charge from the MCP collected by an anode pixel is inductively split onto discrete pixels whose geometry can be tailored to suit the scientific requirements of the instrument. For our application, the charge is induced over two pixels. One of them is used for a coarse angular definition but is read out by a single channel of electronics, allowing a higher rate handling. The other provides a finer angular definition but is interleaved and hence carries the expense of lower rate handling. Using the technique and adding four channels of electronics, a four-fold increase in the angular resolution is obtained. Details of the scheme and performance results are presented

  11. Hodoscope read-out with space-time mapping through an optical pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, A.; Boehler, E.; Kroeger, W.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.

    1993-09-01

    This note describes a new read-out scheme for fine grained hodoscopes with possible applications for a Small Angle Rear Tracking Detector (SRTD) or a pre-sampler in front of the ZEUS Uranium Calorimeter. Several hodoscope strips are read out by one phototube using optical fibres of different lengths. Optical delays of equal increments ensure a linear mapping of the space coordinate onto the time coordinate. A first prototype has been built and first test measurements are being presented. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the effects of showering electrons on the position resolution of the detector. The results of the test measurements, especially those related to the properties of the light guides, and the results of the simulation are of general importance for the SRTD design beyond the optical delay read-out scheme presented here. (orig.)

  12. Upgraded Readout and Trigger Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters at the LHC at the Horizons 2018-2022

    CERN Document Server

    Damazio, D O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies...

  13. PRESENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Editors, The

    2017-01-01

    To plan and to implement academic projects remain a systematic challenge for the team and the collaborators of the Electronic Journal. Each study published is an opportunity to strengthen the proposed goals and to add more value to the community involved and interested.

  14. On the presentation of wave phenomena of electrons with the Young-Feynman experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteucci, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The Young-Feynman two-hole interferometer is widely used to present electron wave-particle duality and, in particular, the buildup of interference fringes with single electrons. The teaching approach consists of two steps: (i) electrons come through only one hole but diffraction effects are disregarded and (ii) electrons come through both holes and interference fringes are described. Therefore, a student might believe that wave phenomena are not revealed in case (i), but they arise only by the combined effect of electrons from the two holes. To avoid misunderstanding regarding the distribution of electrons passing through one hole, Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are discussed. In particular, an original experiment, realized with a standard electron microscope and a sample with round holes, is presented to introduce the wave nature of electrons. The experimental results clearly show that a careful discussion of electron diffraction phenomena from one hole provides students with the evidence that the interference experiment from both holes is not strictly required to show the superposition of electron waves.

  15. A compact readout system for multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datema, C.P.; Meng, L.J.; Ramsden, D.

    1999-01-01

    Although the first Multi-pixel Hybrid Photodiode (M-HPD) was developed in the early 1990s by Delft Electronic Products, the main obstacle to its application has been the lack of availability of a compact read-out system. A fast, parallel readout system has been constructed for use with the earlier 25-pixel tube with High-energy Physics applications in mind. The excellent properties of the recently developed multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes (M-HPD) will be easier to exploit following the development of the new hybrid read-out circuits described in this paper. This system will enable all of the required read-out functions to be accommodate on a single board into which the M-HPD is plugged. The design and performance of a versatile system is described in which a trigger-signal, derived from the common-side of the silicon anode in the M-HPD, is used to trigger the readout of the 60-anode pixels in the M-HPD. The multi-channel amplifier section is based on the use of a new, commercial VLSI chip, whilst the read-out sequencer uses a chip of its own design. The common anode signal is processed by a fast amplifier and discriminator to provide a trigger signal when a single event is detected. In the prototype version, the serial analogue output data-stream is processed using a PC-mounted, high speed ADC. Results obtained using the new read-out system in a compact gamma-camera and with a small muon tracking-chamber demonstrate the low-noise performance of the system. The application of this read-out system in other position-sensitive or multi-anode photomultiplier tube applications are also described

  16. Dual-readout calorimetry with scintillating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinci, D

    2009-01-01

    The dual-readout approach, which allows an event-by-event measurement of the electromagnetic shower fraction, was originally demonstrated with the DREAM sampling calorimeter. This approach can be extended to homogeneous detectors like crystals if Cherenkov and scintillation light can be separated. In this paper we present several methods we developed for distinguishing the two components in PWO and BGO based calorimeters and the results obtained.

  17. Analog readout for optical reservoir computers

    OpenAIRE

    Smerieri, Anteo; Duport, François; Paquot, Yvan; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a new, powerful and flexible machine learning technique that is easily implemented in hardware. Recently, by using a time-multiplexed architecture, hardware reservoir computers have reached performance comparable to digital implementations. Operating speeds allowing for real time information operation have been reached using optoelectronic systems. At present the main performance bottleneck is the readout layer which uses slow, digital postprocessing. We have designed a...

  18. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsobky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF, which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC. The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC, a differential difference amplifier (DDA, and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  19. NASA Past, Present, and Future: The Use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Electronics in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Guertin, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has a long history of using commercial grade electronics in space. In this presentation we will provide a brief history of NASA's trends and approaches to commercial grade electronics focusing on processing and memory systems. This will include providing summary information on the space hazards to electronics as well as NASA mission trade space. We will also discuss developing recommendations for risk management approaches to Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts usage in space. Two examples will be provided focusing on a near-earth Polar-orbiting spacecraft as well as a mission to Mars. The final portion will discuss emerging trends impacting usage.

  20. Integrated input protection against discharges for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors readout ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.; Koperny, S.; Wiącek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Immunity against possible random discharges inside active detector volume of MPGDs is one of the key aspects that should be addressed in the design of the front-end electronics. This issue becomes particularly critical for systems with high channel counts and high density readout employing the front-end electronics built as multichannel ASICs implemented in modern CMOS technologies, for which the breakdown voltages are in the range of a few Volts. The paper presents the design of various input protection structures integrated in the ASIC manufactured in a 350 nm CMOS process and test results using an electrical circuit to mimic discharges in the detectors.

  1. A fast readout system for scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steijger, J.; Kok, E.; Kwakkel, E.; Visschers, J.L.; Zwart, A.N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A system of fast readout electronics for segmented scintillation detectors has been constructed and is now operational. Instead of delaying the analog signals in long coaxial cables, they are digitized immediately and stored in dual-port memories, while the trigger decision is being made. A VMEbus system collects the data from these memories on the data acquisition modules within one crate. Several VME crates are connected via a transputer network to transport the data to an event builder. A separate transputer network is used to perform the VME cycles, needed for the computer-controlled tuning of the experiment. (orig.)

  2. Study of preamplifier, shaper and peak detector in readout ASIC for particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Zhang Shengjun; Fan Lei; Li Xian

    2014-01-01

    Recently, kinds of particle detectors have used Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) in their electronics readout system and ASICs have been designed in China now. This project designed a multi-channel readout ASIC for general detector. The chip has Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector embedded for easy readout. For each channel, signal which is preprocessed by a low-noise preamplifier is sent to the shaper to form a quasi-Gaussian pulse and keep its peak for readout. This chip and modules of individual Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector have been manufactured, results will be reported in time. (authors)

  3. Study and optimization of the spatial resolution for detectors with binary readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonamine, R., E-mail: ryo.yonamine@ulb.ac.be; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-09-11

    Using simulations and analytical approaches, we have studied single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout, which is often proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume. Our simulations considering several parameters (e.g. strip pitch) show that the detector geometry and an electronics parameter of the binary readout chips could be optimized for binary readout to offer an equivalent spatial resolution to the one with an analog readout. To understand the behavior as a function of simulation parameters, we developed analytical models that reproduce simulation results with a few parameters. The models can be used to optimize detector designs and operation conditions with regard to the spatial resolution.

  4. A large area cooled-CCD detector for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqi, A.R.; Andrews, H.N.; Raeburn, C.

    1994-01-01

    Large area cooled-CCDs are an excellent medium for (indirectly) recording electron images and electron diffraction patterns in real time and for use in electron tomography; real-time imaging is extremely useful in making rapid adjustments in the electron microscope. CCDs provide high sensitivity (useful for minimising dosage to radiation-sensitive biological specimen), good resolution, stable performance, excellent dynamic range and linearity and a reasonably fast readout.We have built an electron imaging device based on the EEV 1152 by 814 pixel CCD which is controlled from a unix based SUN Sparcstation operating under X-Windows. The incident 100 kV electrons are converted to visible light in a 0.5 mm thick YAG single crystal which is imaged through a lens on to the CCD.The CCD electronics is designed to be as flexible as possible and allows a wide variation in the readout speed to cater for the relatively fast application where readout noise is less critical and low readout noise applications where the extra few seconds of readout time are not significant. The CCD electronics is built in VME format which is controlled through a S-bus to VME driver. With two parallel channels of readout the whole image can be read out in similar 1 s (using the faster readout speed) with 16 bit precision and the image is displayed under X-Windows in a few seconds. The present readout works at 500 kHz and has a noise of similar 30 e rms per pixel. With a Peltier cooling device we can operate the CCD at similar -40 circle C which reduces the dark current adequately to allow exposures of up to several minutes. Several examples of patterns collected with the system on a Philips CM12 microscope will be presented. ((orig.))

  5. New readout and data-acquisition system in an electron-tracking Compton camera for MeV gamma-ray astronomy (SMILE-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, T., E-mail: mizumoto@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan); Matsuoka, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan); Mizumura, Y. [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan); Tanimori, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan); Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan); Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Iwaki, S.; Sawano, T.; Nakamura, K.; Komura, S.; Nakamura, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Oda, M.; Miyamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Parker, J.D.; Tomono, D.; Sonoda, S. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan); Miuchi, K. [Department of Physics, Kobe University, 658-8501 Kobe (Japan); Kurosawa, S. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan)

    2015-11-11

    For MeV gamma-ray astronomy, we have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) as a MeV gamma-ray telescope capable of rejecting the radiation background and attaining the high sensitivity of near 1 mCrab in space. Our ETCC comprises a gaseous time-projection chamber (TPC) with a micro pattern gas detector for tracking recoil electrons and a position-sensitive scintillation camera for detecting scattered gamma rays. After the success of a first balloon experiment in 2006 with a small ETCC (using a 10×10×15 cm{sup 3} TPC) for measuring diffuse cosmic and atmospheric sub-MeV gamma rays (Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment I; SMILE-I), a (30 cm){sup 3} medium-sized ETCC was developed to measure MeV gamma-ray spectra from celestial sources, such as the Crab Nebula, with single-day balloon flights (SMILE-II). To achieve this goal, a 100-times-larger detection area compared with that of SMILE-I is required without changing the weight or power consumption of the detector system. In addition, the event rate is also expected to dramatically increase during observation. Here, we describe both the concept and the performance of the new data-acquisition system with this (30 cm){sup 3} ETCC to manage 100 times more data while satisfying the severe restrictions regarding the weight and power consumption imposed by a balloon-borne observation. In particular, to improve the detection efficiency of the fine tracks in the TPC from ~10% to ~100%, we introduce a new data-handling algorithm in the TPC. Therefore, for efficient management of such large amounts of data, we developed a data-acquisition system with parallel data flow.

  6. XA readout chip characteristics and CdZnTe spectral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, L.M.; Birsa, F.; Odom, J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report on the performance of a CdZnTe (CZT) array readout by an XA (X-ray imaging chip produced at the AMS foundry) application specific readout chip (ASIC). The array was designed and fabricated at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as a prototype for the Burst Arc-Second Imaging and Spectroscopy gamma-ray instrument. The XA ASIC was obtained from Integrated Detector and Electronics (IDE), in Norway. Performance characteristics and spectral data for 241 Am are presented both at room temperature and at -20 C. The measured noise (σ) was 2.5 keV at 60 keV at room temperature. This paper represents a progress report on work with the XA ASIC and CZT detectors. Work is continuing and in particular, larger arrays are planned for future NASA missions

  7. Radiation tolerance of oxygenated n-strip read-out detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P P; Greenall, A

    2003-01-01

    Following earlier work on 'oxygenated' detectors in terms of charge collection efficiencies after proton irradiation, full-size detectors for the LHC have been processed with n-side read-out on oxygen enhanced n-type silicon substrates. Two hundred-micron-thick detectors have been inhomogeneously irradiated up to doses of 7 multiplied by 10**1**4p/cm**2 using 24 GeV protons from the CERN PS. Results are presented on the charge collection efficiencies as a function of operating voltage for regions of the detectors irradiated to different doses, using LHC speed analogue read-out electronics. The measurements confirm the expectations which led to our original proposal of such detectors which are now being envisaged for the silicon-based detector systems at the LHC designed to withstand the greatest doses. The possibilities for survival at an upgraded luminosity LHC (Super-LHC) are also briefly discussed.

  8. Present status of storage ring free electron laser experiment at ETL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Tomimasu, T.; Sugiyama, S.; Noguchi, T.

    1988-01-01

    Outline is described of the present status of the ETL storage-ring free electron laser project. The structure and the performance of the ETL-type transverse optical klystron are given. A modification of the dispersive section has decreased the degradation of the shape of the spontaneous-emission spectrum due to energy spread of the electron beam. Relevant parameters of the stored beam are presented. Measurement of the optical-cavity loss is under way. (author)

  9. Readout scheme for the Baby-MIND detector

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Cadoux, F; Favre, Y; Martinez, B; Nicola, L; Parsa, S; Rayner, M; Antonova, M; Fedotov, S; Izmaylov, A; Kleymenova, A; Khabibullin, M; Khotyantsev, A; Kudenko, Y; Likhacheva, V; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Ovsiannikova, T; Shaykhiev, A; Suvorov, S; Yershov, N; Tsenov, R

    2016-01-01

    A readout scheme has been designed for the plastic scintillator bars of the Baby-MIND detector modules. This spectrometer will measure momentum and identify the charge of 1 GeV/c muons with magnetized iron plates interleaved with detector modules. One challenge the detector aims to address is that of keeping high charge identification efficiencies for momenta below 1 GeV/c where multiple scattering in the iron plates degrades momentum resolution. A front-end board has been developed, with 3 CITIROC readout chips per board and up to 96 channels. Hamamatsu MPPCs type S12571-025C photosensors were chosen for readout of wavelength shifting fibers embedded in plastic scintillators. Procurement of the MPPCs has been carried out to instrument 3000 channels in total. Design choices and first results of this readout scheme are presented.

  10. FAIR: A new fast trigger and readout bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordine, A.; Boiano, A.; Zaghi, A.

    1998-01-01

    FAIR (FAst Intercrate Readout) is a synchronous ECL bus system dedicated to readout. It is based on a new trigger and readout hardware level protocol and on a new control system that learns how to setup and control modules. The hardware protocol along with the data structure allow both readout and event building at the same time at the rate of 22 ns/longword (1.44 Gbit/s) without the need of CPUs. It performs trigger management and full pipelining by using a multilevel FIFO structure. FAIR provides for a multi-crate front-end environment and uses an embedded serial network to accomplish front-end control and setup. The data transfer measured performances and the control system are presented in some detail

  11. A prototype pixel readout chip for asynchronous detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, D.M.; Hall, G.; Lewis, A.J.; Sharp, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional array of amplifier cells has been fabricated as a prototype readout system for a matching array of silicon diode detectors. Each cell contains a preamplifier, shaping amplifier, comparator and analogue signal storage in an area of 300 μmx320 μm using 3 μm CMOS technology. Full size chips will be bump bonded to pixel detector arrays. Low noise and asynchronous operation are novel design features. With noise levels of less than 250 rms electrons for input capacitances up to 600 fF, pixel detectors will be suitable for autoradiography, synchrotron X-ray and high energy particle detection applications. The design of the prototype chip is presented and future developments and prospects for applications are discussed. (orig.)

  12. A new avalanche photo diode based readout for the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Martin [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Nussallee 14-16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA has proven successful in the measurement of double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions on a polarized neutron target with high efficiency, the main calorimeter consisting of 1320 CsI(Tl) crystals has to be integrated into the first level trigger. Key requirement to achieve this goal is an exchange of the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The main advantage of the new readout system is that it will provide timing information which allows a fast trigger signal. The energy resolution will remain compatible to the previous system. Besides the development of automated test routines for the front end electronics, the characterization of all APDs was successfully accomplished in Bonn. After tests with a 3 x 3 CsI(Tl) crystal matrix at the tagged photon beam facilities at ELSA and MAMI the first half of the Crystal Barrel was upgraded in 2014. This talk shows the result of the latest test measurements including the gain stabilization of the new APD readout electronics and presents the progress of the ongoing upgrade.

  13. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  14. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antilogus, P; Bailly, Ph; Juramy, C; Lebbolo, H; Martin, D; Jeglot, J; Moniez, M; Tocut, V; Wicek, F

    2012-01-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  15. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Microwave Readout Multiplexing Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, Mark Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D. A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Mates, J. A. B. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Gard, J. D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Becker, D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Schmidt, D. R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Ullom, J. N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Ultra-high resolution microcalorimeter gamma spectroscopy is a new non-destructive assay technology for measurement of plutonium isotopic composition, with the potential to reduce total measurement uncertainty to a level competitive with destructive analysis methods [1-4]. Achieving this level of performance in practical applications requires not only the energy resolution now routinely achieved with transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter arrays (an order of magnitude better than for germanium detectors) but also high throughput. Microcalorimeter gamma spectrometers have not yet achieved detection efficiency and count rate capability that is comparable to germanium detectors, largely because of limits from existing readout technology. Microcalorimeter detectors must be operated at low temperature to achieve their exceptional energy resolution. Although the typical 100 mK operating temperatures can be achieved with reliable, cryogen-free systems, the cryogenic complexity and heat load from individual readout channels for large sensor arrays is prohibitive. Multiplexing is required for practical systems. The most mature multiplexing technology at present is time-division multiplexing (TDM) [3, 5-6]. In TDM, the sensor outputs are switched by applying bias current to one SQUID amplifier at a time. Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays as large as 256 pixels have been developed for X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy using TDM technology. Due to bandwidth limits and noise scaling, TDM is limited to a maximum multiplexing factor of approximately 32-40 sensors on one readout line [8]. Increasing the size of microcalorimeter arrays above the kilopixel scale, required to match the throughput of germanium detectors, requires the development of a new readout technology with a much higher multiplexing factor.

  17. The Quadrumafios electron cyclotron resonance ion source: presentation and analysis of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Briand, P.; Gaudart, G.; Klein, J.P.; Bourg, F.; Debernardi, J.; Mathonnet, J.M.; Melin, G.; Su, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Quadrumafios electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been especially designed to permit physical studies of the plasma; this paper describes the source itself (which has been operated at 10 GHz in a first step), its preliminary performances, and the different diagnostics involved, which mainly concern the electron population (ECE, X rays, diamagnetism, microwave interferometer, and electron analyser). The results are presented and discussed: there is of course a close relationship between the parameters of the plasma and the performances of the source; this point will be discussed in the article. (authors). 5 refs., 9 figs

  18. Present status of radiation processing and its future development by using electron accelerator in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An; Tran Tich Canh; Doan Binh; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2003-01-01

    In Vietnam, studies on Radiation Processing have been carried out since 1983. Some results are applicable in the field of agriculture, health and foodstuff, some researches were developed to commercial scale and others have high potential for development by using electron accelerator. The paper offers the present status of radiation processing and also give out the growing tendency of using electron accelerator in the future. (author)

  19. Present status of radiation processing and its future development by using electron accelerator in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac An; Tran Tich Canh; Doan Binh [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA), Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Nguyen Quoc Hien [Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-02-01

    In Vietnam, studies on Radiation Processing have been carried out since 1983. Some results are applicable in the field of agriculture, health and foodstuff, some researches were developed to commercial scale and others have high potential for development by using electron accelerator. The paper offers the present status of radiation processing and also give out the growing tendency of using electron accelerator in the future. (author)

  20. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Presentation to Korean Aerospace Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide basic information about NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), for sharing with representatives of the South Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as part of a larger presentation by Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. The NEPP information includes mission and goals, history of the program, basic focus areas, strategies, deliverables and some examples of current tasks.

  1. Neutron and proton tests of different technologies for the upgrade of the cold readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00030110

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of total integrated luminosity by a factor ten at the HL-LHC compared to the design goals for LHC essentially eliminates the safety factor for radiation hardness realized at the current cold amplifiers of the ATLAS Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter (HEC). New more radiation hard technologies have been studied: SiGe bipolar, Si CMOS FET and GaAs FET transistors have been irradiated with neutrons up to an integrated fluence of 2.2 x 10^{16} n/cm^2 and with 200 MeV protons up to an integrated fluence of 2.6 x 10^{14} p/cm^2. Comparisons of transistor parameters such as the gain for both types of irradiations are presented.

  2. Studies and development of a readout ASIC for pixelated CdTe detectors for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowska, A.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is part of a project where a new instrument is developed: a camera for hard X-rays imaging spectroscopy. It is dedicated to fundamental research for observations in astrophysics, at wavelengths which can only be observed using space-borne instruments. In this domain the spectroscopic accuracy as well as the imaging details are of high importance. This work has been realized at CEA/IRFU (Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l'Univers), which has a long-standing and successful experience in instruments for high energy physics and space physics instrumentation. The objective of this thesis is the design of the readout electronics for a pixelated CdTe detector, suitable for a stacked assembly. The principal parameters of this integrated circuit are a very low noise for reaching a good accuracy in X-ray energy measurement, very low power consumption, a critical parameter in space-borne applications, and a small dead area for the full system combining the detector and the readout electronics. In this work I have studied the limits of these three parameters in order to optimize the circuit. In terms of the spectral resolution, two categories of noise had to be distinguished to determine the final performance. The first is the Fano noise limit, related to detector interaction statistics, which cannot be eliminated. The second is the electronic noise, also unavoidable; however it can be minimized through optimization of the detection chain. Within the detector, establishing a small pixel pitch of 300 μm reduces the input capacitance and the dark current. This limits the effects of the electronic noise. Also in order to limit the input capacitance the future camera is designed as a stacked assembly of the detector with the readout ASIC. This allows to reach extremely good input parameters seen by the readout electronics: a capacitance in range of 0.3 pF-1 pF and a dark current below 5 pA. In the frame of this thesis I have

  3. DRM2: the readout board for the ALICE TOF upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Falchieri, Davide

    2018-01-01

    For the upgrade of the ALICE TOF electronics, we have designed a new version of the readout board, named DRM2, a card able to read the data coming from the TDC Readout Module boards via VME. A Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA acts as the VME master and interfaces the GBTx link for transmitting data and receiving triggers and a low-jitter clock. Compared to the old board, the DRM2 is able to cope with faster trigger rates and provides a larger data bandwidth towards the DAQ. The results of the measurements on the received clock jitter and data transmission performances in a full crate are given.

  4. Search for second generation leptoquarks in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8-TeV $p^-$ pbar at CDF and silicon detector readout electronics development with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kambara, Hisanori

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis, a search for second generation leptoquark is presented. It is based on the data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab with the Tevatron proton-antiproton collisions of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV. A total integrated luminosity of 110 pb-1 collected during runs in 1992-1995 is used. The search was performed on the charged dimuon plus dijet channel. No evidence for existence of leptoquark was found, and a new production cross section limit is set as a result of this analysis. Using the most recent theoretical calculation of pair leptoquark production [1], a new lower mass limit for second generation scalar leptoquark is extracted. The new limit excludes M(LQ2)< 202 GeV/c2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider with a center of mass energy ($\\sqrt{s}$) of 14 TeV, is currently under the construction at CERN. It will be utilised to extend the searches for the leptoquarks to higher mass regions. As in CDF, tracking detectors are essential to identify charged leptons decaying...

  5. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  6. An FPGA-based Sampling-ADC readout for the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Johannes [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Marciniewski, Pawel [Angstroemlaboratoriet, Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) investigates the photoproduction of mesons off protons and neutrons. The Crystal Barrel Calorimeter has been upgraded replacing its photodiode readout by APDs, which allows the integration of the calorimeter into the first level trigger. Since the possible DAQ rate is currently limited by the digitization stage (LeCroy QDC1885F) to ∼ 2 kHz, the implementation of a new Sampling-ADC (SADC) readout is the second important step in the upgrade of the detector system. Based on the 64-channel PANDA-SADC, the design was modified, adapting it to the needs of the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. The CB-SADC offers 64 channels in one NIM module with up to 14 bit rate at 125 MHz, accompanied by a modular analog input stage and power supply. Data processing and reduction are realized with Kintex7 FPGAs. Readout is possible via gigabit ethernet links. Using an FPGA provides a multitude of possibilities for online feature extraction, such as the determination of the energy deposited in the crystal, TDC capabilities and pile-up detection and recovery. The SADC development is discussed, and first measurements performed in comparison to the presently used LeCroy QDC are presented.

  7. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  8. Status of readout integrated circuits for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cheng, J. E. and others

    2001-09-01

    In this report, we describe the current status of readout integrated circuits developed for radiation detectors, along with new technologies being applied to this field. The current status of ASCIC chip development related to the readout electronics is also included in this report. Major sources of this report are from product catalogs and web sites of the related industries. In the field of semiconductor process technology in Korea, the current status of the multi-project wafer(MPW) of IDEC, the multi-project chip(MPC) of ISRC and other domestic semiconductor process industries is described. In the case of other countries, the status of the MPW of MOSIS in USA and the MPW of EUROPRACTICE in Europe is studied. This report also describes the technologies and products of readout integrated circuits of industries worldwide

  9. Test vehicles for CMS HGCAL readout ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Thienpont, Damien

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents first measurement results of two test vehicles ASIC embedding some building blocks for the future CMS High Granularity CALorimeter (HGCAL) read-out ASIC. They were fabricated in CMOS 130 nm, in order to first design the Analog and Mixed-Signal blocks before going to a complete and complex chip. Such a circuit needs to achieve low noise high dynamic range charge measurement and 20 ps resolution timing capability. The results show good analog performance but with higher noise levels compared to simulations. We present the results of the preamplifiers, shapers and ADCs.

  10. Changing attitudes toward house arrest with electronic monitoring: the impact of a single presentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Randy R; Payne, Brian K

    2003-04-01

    The notion that community support is critical for program success is a consistent theme in the literature on community-based corrections. Unfortunately, many citizens know very little about alternative sanctions, are misinformed about them, and do not view them favorably. At issue is whether information about alternative sanctions affects individuals' attitudes regarding them. To address this question, students in an upper division criminal justice course were surveyed before and after a presentation on electronic monitoring. Following the presentation, students were more likely to agree that electronic monitoring is punitive and that it meets several goals of the justice system. Implications for policy makers and educators are provided.

  11. Investigation of a Huffman-based compression algorithm for the ALICE TPC read-out in LHC Run 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klewin, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Within the scope of the ALICE upgrade towards the Run 3 of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, starting in 2020, the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will be reworked in order to allow for a continuous read-out. This rework includes not only a replacement of the current read-out chambers with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology, but also new front-end electronics. To be able to read out the whole data stream without loosing information, in particular without zero-suppression, a lossless compression algorithm, the Huffman encoding, was investigated and adapted to the needs of the TPC. In this talk, an algorithm, adapted for an FPGA implementation, is presented. We show its capability to reduce the data volume to less than 40% of its original size.

  12. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  13. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  14. Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickols, W.; Tinoco, I.; Katz, J.E.; Maestre, M.F.; Bustamante, C.

    1985-01-01

    A differential polarization microscope forms two images: one of the transmitted intensity and the other due to the change in intensity between images formed when different polarizations of light are used. The interpretation of these images for linear dichroism and circular dichroism are described. The design constraints on the data acquisition systems and the polarization modulation are described. The advantage of imaging several biological systems which contain optically anisotropic structures are described

  15. Present status of the ETL electron linac and associated experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The 500-MeV electron linac ''TELL'' is operated since Dec. 1980. The main features of TELL are high efficiency, high current - high power acceleration and economical beam sharing to four experimental rooms at the same time. The available beam current is 240 mA (--180 μA ) at 300 MeV at present. A pion channel ( QQDQ ) with solid angle larger than 0.15 sr is under construction. Research on establishing spectro-dosimetric standards of high energy - high intensity electrons, X-rays and pions are in progress. The 600-MeV storage ring ''TERAS'' is operated since Oct. 1981. The circumference is 31.45 m and lambdasub(p) is 22 A. The maximum stored current is 150 mA and 1/e lifetime is 1.5 hours at present. Studies on photometry and soft X ray standards, electronic materials and lithography technology are in progress using synchrotron radiation. (author)

  16. Design and performance of the new cathode readout proportional chambers in LASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiken, G.; Aston, D.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1980-10-01

    The design and construction of a new proportional chamber system for the LASS spectrometer are discussed. This system consists of planar and cylindrical chambers employing anode wire and cathode strip readout techniques. The good timing characteristics of anode readout combine with the excellent spatial resolution of cathode readout to provide powerful and compact detectors. Preliminary resolution data are presented along with operating characteristics of the various devices

  17. Present status and future plans at INS 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.

    1984-01-01

    The 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, was completed in 1961, and it was the first accelerator in Japan that was able to be used for the study on particle physics. The brief chronicle is shown. One of the purposes to construct the electron synchrotron was to train accelerator physicists for the next big project of building a high energy proton synchrotron. This project led to the foundation of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and the Photon Factory was completed in 1982 there. The electron synchrotron has been continuously operated for 22 years. Meanwhile, the major components such as the injector linac, the vacuum system and the of acceleration system were renewed. By these improvement, the beam intensity and stability of the synchrotron were much improved. The circulating current is now 160 mA, and the number of accelerated electrons is 2.5 x 10 12 /sec. These are the highest values in the world. The parameters of the present synchrotron and the operational status are shown. There are five beam channels, that is, bremsstrahlung channel, tagged photon beam, fast extracted electron beam, synchrotron light channel and detector test channel. The recent activities with the INS electron synchrotron and the future plans are summarized. (Kako, I.)

  18. Electronic Slideshow Presentations in the Higher Education Teaching and Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos Miguel; Santos, Ana Isabel; Serpa, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    The use of electronic slide presentations (ESP), usually through PowerPoint or Prezi software, has become widespread in higher education and is part of the expectations and perceptions of both teachers and students of how a successful and quality class should be. Is this dissemination of ESP use justified by the pedagogical quality fostered in…

  19. Overview of the front end electronics for the Atlas LAR calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescia, S.

    1997-11-01

    Proposed experiments for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) set new demands on calorimeter readout electronics. The very high energy and large luminosity of the collider call for a large number of high speed, large dynamic range readout channels which have to be carefully synchronized. The ATLAS liquid argon collaboration, after more than 5 years of R and D developments has now finalized the architecture of its front end and read-out electronics, which have been written down in its Technical Design Report (TDR). An overview is presented

  20. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need

  1. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersi, S; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Giassi, A; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system

  2. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F. E-mail: faustgr@usc.es; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A

    2003-10-21

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 {mu}m thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm{sup 2} with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm{sup 2}. Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring.

  3. The messages presented in online electronic cigarette promotions and discussions: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, Kahlia; Maycock, Bruce; Jancey, Jonine

    2017-11-08

    Electronic cigarettes have become increasingly popular over the last 10 years. These devices represent a new paradigm for tobacco control offering smokers an opportunity to inhale nicotine without inhaling tobacco smoke. To date there are no definite conclusions regarding the safety and long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes; however, there is evidence that they are being marketed online as a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes. This scoping review aims to identify and describe the breadth of messages (eg, health, smoking-cessation and price related claims) presented in online electronic cigarette promotions and discussions. A scoping review will be undertaken adhering to the methodology outlined in The Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Scoping Reviews. Six key electronic databases will be searched to identify eligible studies. Studies must be published in English between 2007 and 2017, examine and/or analyse content captured from online electronic cigarette promotions or discussions and report results for electronic cigarettes separately to other forms of tobacco delivery. Studies will be screened initially by title and abstract, followed by full-text review. Results of the search strategy will be reported in a PRISMA flow diagram and presented in tabular form with accompanying narrative summary. The methodology consists of reviewing and collecting data from publicly available studies, and therefore does not require ethics approval. Results will be published in a peer reviewed journal and be presented at national/international conferences. Additionally, findings will be disseminated via social media and online platforms. Advocacy will be key to informing policy makers of regulatory and health issues that need to be addressed. The review was registered prospectively with The Joanna Briggs Institute Systematic Reviews database. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  4. Multi-Anode Photomultplier (MAPMT) readout for High Granularity Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, Tigran; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadron calorimeter high performance in jet sub-structure measurements can be achieved for objects with $p_{T}$ greater than 1 TeV if the readout geometry is finely segmented in $\\Delta\\eta \\times \\Delta\\phi$. A feasibility study to increase the readout granularity of TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is presented. We show a preliminary study exploring the possibility to increase by a factor 4 the present readout granularity of the inner layer cells of TileCal (0.1->0.025 in $\\Delta\\eta$) and to split into two layers the intermediate section of TileCal. The proposed solution is designed to cope with mechanical and readout bandwidth and power constraints. Assuming that the mechanics of the Tile modules cannot be changed, Multi-Anode PMTs with same boundary geometry of the present single-anode PMTs are considered to readout WLS bers, ideally one per pixel, carrying the signals from the individual scintillating tiles of each detector cells. The discussed challenges of the design are: ...

  5. Drug eruptions presenting at sites of prior radiation damage (sunlight and electron beam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, W.B.; Shelley, E.D.; Campbell, A.C.; Weigensberg, I.J.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients are described in whom sunburn and electron beam radiodermatitis, respectively, were critical determinants in localizing the initial presentation of drug eruptions. In the first instance, a severe sunburn of the back and thighs was followed 7 months later by the appearance of a toxic epidermal necrolysis drug reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the exact sites of the previous bullous sunburn reaction. In the second patient, a radiodermatitis of the left upper arm due to electron beam therapy for metastatic breast cancer was followed 7 weeks later by a codeine drug reaction confined to the area of the radiodermatitis. In both instances, oral rechallenge with the offending drug reproduced the eruption

  6. Geant4 simulation of a scintillator-lead shashlik calorimeter with a SiPM readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, A.

    2011-01-01

    Shashlik calorimeters are sampling calorimeters which, in the last 20 years, have been used in many high-energy experiments: relatively cheap, they can be easily segmented and built in a large variety of geometries and they guarantee energy resolutions comparable to the ones achievable with homogeneous calorimeters. This article presents the complete optical simulation of a prototype of a scintillator lead shashlik calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers readout, characterized in terms of linearity, energy and spatial resolution. The simulation has been used to explain and validate the experimental data, obtained on the PS-T9 beamline at CERN, using electrons in the 1-7 GeV energy range.

  7. Analytical bounds on SET charge sensitivity for qubit readout in a solid-state quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.; Buehler, T.M.; Brenner, R.; Hamilton, A.R.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Quantum Computing promises processing powers orders of magnitude beyond what is possible in conventional silicon-based computers. It harnesses the laws of quantum mechanics directly, exploiting the in built potential of a wave function for massively parallel information processing. Highly ordered and scaleable arrays of single donor atoms (quantum bits, or qubits), embedded in Si, are especially promising; they are a very natural fit to the existing, highly sophisticated, Si industry. The success of Si-based quantum computing depends on precisely initializing the quantum state of each qubit, and on precise reading out its final form. In the Kane architecture the qubit states are read out by detecting the spatial distribution of the donor's electron cloud using a sensitive electrometer. The single-electron transistor (SET) is an attractive candidate readout device for this, since the capacitive, or charging, energy of a SET's metallic central island is exquisitely sensitive to its electronic environment. Use of SETs as high-performance electrometers is therefore a key technology for data transfer in a solid-state quantum computer. We present an efficient analytical method to obtain bounds on the charge sensitivity of a single electron transistor (SET). Our classic Green-function analysis provides reliable estimates of SET sensitivity optimizing the design of the readout hardware. Typical calculations, and their physical meaning, are discussed. We compare them with the measured SET-response data

  8. A fast embedded readout system for large-area Medipix and Timepix systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogna, A S; Balzer, M; Smale, S; Hartmann, J; Bormann, D; Hamann, E; Cecilia, A; Zuber, M; Koenig, T; Weber, M; Fiederle, M; Baumbach, T; Zwerger, A

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a novel readout electronics for an X-ray sensor based on a Si crystal bump-bonded to an array of 3 × 2 Medipix ASICs. The pixel size is 55 μm × 55 μm with a total number of ∼ 400k pixels and a sensitive area of 42 mm × 28 mm. The readout electronics operate Medipix-2 MXR or Timepix ASICs with a clock speed of 125 MHz. The data acquisition system is centered around an FPGA and each of the six ASICs has a dedicated I/O port for simultaneous data acquisition. The settings of the auxiliary devices (ADCs and DACs) are also processed in the FPGA. Moreover, a high-resolution timer operates the electronic shutter to select the exposure time from 8 ns to several milliseconds. A sophisticated trigger is available in hardware and software to synchronize the acquisition with external electro-mechanical motors. The system includes a diagnostic subsystem to check the sensor temperature and to control the cooling Peltier cells and a programmable high-voltage generator to bias the crystal. A network cable transfers the data, encapsulated into the UDP protocol and streamed at 1 Gb/s. Therefore most notebooks or personal computers are able to process the data and to program the system without a dedicated interface. The data readout software is compatible with the well-known Pixelman 2.x running both on Windows and GNU/Linux. Furthermore the open architecture encourages users to write their own applications. With a low-level interface library which implements all the basic features, a MATLAB or Python script can be implemented for special manipulations of the raw data. In this paper we present selected images taken with a microfocus X-ray tube to demonstrate the capability to collect the data at rates up to 120 fps corresponding to 0.76 Gb/s

  9. A digital Front-End and Readout MIcrosystem for calorimetry at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-16 A Digital Front-End and Readout Microsystem for Calorimetry at LHC \\\\ \\\\Front-end signal processing for calorimetric detectors is essential in order to achieve adequate selectivity in the trigger function of an LHC experiment, with data identification and compaction before readout being required in the harsh, high rate environment of a high luminosity hadron machine. Other crucial considerations are the extremely wide dynamic range and bandwidth requirements, as well as the volume of data to be transferred to following stages of the trigger and readout system. These requirements are best met by an early digitalization of the detector information, followed by integrated digital signal processing and buffering functions covering the trigger latencies.\\\\ \\\\The FERMI (Front-End Readout MIcrosystem) is a digital implementation of the front-end and readout electronic chain for calorimeters. It is based on dynamic range compression, high speed A to D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter c...

  10. 3 ns single-shot read-out in a quantum dot-based memory structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowozin, T.; Bimberg, D.; Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.

    2014-01-01

    Fast read-out of two to six charges per dot from the ground and first excited state in a quantum dot (QD)-based memory is demonstrated using a two-dimensional electron gas. Single-shot measurements on modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures with embedded InAs/GaAs QDs show read-out times as short as 3 ns. At low temperature (T = 4.2 K) this read-out time is still limited by the parasitics of the setup and the device structure. Faster read-out times and a larger read-out signal are expected for an improved setup and device structure

  11. dc readout experiment at the Caltech 40m prototype interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R L; Adhikari, R; Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Bork, R; Fricke, T; Heefner, J; Ivanov, A; Miyakawa, O; Smith, M; Taylor, R; Vass, S; Waldman, S; Weinstein, A; Barron, D; Frolov, V; McKenzie, K; Slagmolen, B

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) operates a 40m prototype interferometer on the Caltech campus. The primary mission of the prototype is to serve as an experimental testbed for upgrades to the LIGO interferometers and for gaining experience with advanced interferometric techniques, including detuned resonant sideband extraction (i.e. signal recycling) and dc readout (optical homodyne detection). The former technique will be employed in Advanced LIGO, and the latter in both Enhanced and Advanced LIGO. Using dc readout for gravitational wave signal extraction has several technical advantages, including reduced laser and oscillator noise couplings as well as reduced shot noise, when compared to the traditional rf readout technique (optical heterodyne detection) currently in use in large-scale ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The Caltech 40m laboratory is currently prototyping a dc readout system for a fully suspended interferometric gravitational wave detector. The system includes an optical filter cavity at the interferometer's output port, and the associated controls and optics to ensure that the filter cavity is optimally coupled to the interferometer. We present the results of measurements to characterize noise couplings in rf and dc readout using this system

  12. MWPC with highly segmented cathode pad readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbe, R.; Fischer, J.; Lissauer, D.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments being conducted with high energy heavy ion beams at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at CERN have shown the importance of developing position sensitive detectors capable of handling events with high multiplicity in environments of high track density as will also be the case in future high luminosity colliders like SSC and RHIC. In addition, these detectors are required to have a dynamic range wide enough to detect minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions like oxygen or silicon. We present here a description of work being done on a prototype of such a detector at BNL. Results from a similar counter are also presented in this Conference. The ''pad chamber'' is a detector with a cathode area subdivided into a very large number of pixel-like elements such that a charged particle traversing the detector at normal incidence leaves an induced charge on a few localized pads. The pads are interconnected by a resistive strip, and readout amplifiers are connected to the resistive strip at appropriate, carefully determined spacings. The pattern of tracks in a multi-hit event is easily recognized, and a centroid-finding readout system allows position determination to a small fraction of the basic cell size. 5 refs., 9 figs

  13. CASAGEM: a readout ASIC for micro pattern gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Li; Deng Zhi; Liu Yinong

    2012-01-01

    A readout ASIC for micro pattern gas detectors has been designed This ASIC integrates 16 channels for anode readout and 1 channel for cathode readout which can make use of the signal of detector's cathode to generate a trigger Every channel can provide amplification and shaping of detector signals. The ASIC can also provide adjustable gain which can be adjusted from 2 mV/fC to 40 mV/fC, and adjustable shaping time which can be adjusted from 20 ns to 80 ns; so this ASIC can be applied to detectors with wide range output signal and different counting rate. The ASIC is fabricated with Chartered 0.35 μm CMOS process More circuit design Details and test results will be presented. (authors)

  14. Development of Micromegas-like gaseous detectors using a pixel readout chip as collecting anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chefdeville, M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports on the fabrication and test of a new gaseous detector with a very large number of readout channels. This detector is intended for measuring the tracks of charged particles with an unprecedented sensitivity to single electrons of almost 100 %. It combines a metal grid for signal amplification called the Micromegas with a pixel readout chip as signal collecting anode and is dubbed GridPix. GridPix is a potential candidate for a sub-detector at a future electron linear collider (ILC) foreseen to work in parallel with the LHC around 2020--2030. The tracking capability of GridPix is best exploited if the Micromegas is integrated on the pixel chip. This integrated grid is called InGrid and is precisely fabricated by wafer post-processing. The various steps of the fabrication process and the measurements of its gain, energy resolution and ion back-flow property are reported in this document. Studies of the response of the complete detector formed by an InGrid and a TimePix pixel chip to X-rays and cosmic particles are also presented. In particular, the efficiency for detecting single electrons and the point resolution in the pixel plane are measured. Implications for a GridPix detector at ILC are discussed. (author)

  15. Waveshifting fiber readout of lanthanum halide scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, G.L.; Cherry, M.L.; Stacy, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Newly developed high-light-yield inorganic scintillators coupled to waveshifting optical fibers provide the capability of efficient X-ray detection and millimeter scale position resolution suitable for high-energy cosmic ray instruments, hard X-ray/gamma ray astronomy telescopes and applications to national security. The CASTER design for NASA's proposed Black Hole Finder Probe mission, in particular, calls for a 6-8 m 2 hard X-ray coded aperture imaging telescope operating in the 20-600 keV energy band, putting significant constraints on cost and readout complexity. The development of new inorganic scintillator materials (e.g., cerium-doped LaBr 3 and LaCl 3 ) provides improved energy resolution and timing performance that is well suited to the requirements for national security and astrophysics applications. LaBr 3 or LaCl 3 detector arrays coupled with waveshifting fiber optic readout represent a significant advance in the performance capabilities of scintillator-based gamma cameras and provide the potential for a feasible approach to affordable, large area, extremely sensitive detectors. We describe some of the applications and present laboratory test results demonstrating the expected scintillator performance

  16. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    Measuring the energy of hadronic jets with high precision is essential at present and future colliders, in particular at ILC. The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of determining for each shower the corresponding electromagnetic fraction, thus eliminating the strong effect of fluctuations in this fraction on the overall energy resolution. In this respect, 4th is orthogonal to the other three concepts, which rely on particle flow analysis (PFA). The DREAM test-beam results hold promises for excellent performances, coupled with relatively simple construction and moderate costs, making such a solution an interesting alternative to the PFA paradigm. The next foreseen steps are to extend the dual-readout principle to homogeneous calorimeters (with the potential of achieving even better performances) and to tackle another source of, fluctuation in hadronic showers, originating from binding energy losses in nuclear break-up (measuring neutrons of few MeV energy). (author)

  17. MKID digital readout tuning with deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodkins, R.; Mahashabde, S.; O'Brien, K.; Thatte, N.; Fruitwala, N.; Walter, A. B.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Mazin, B. A.

    2018-04-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) devices offer inherent spectral resolution, simultaneous read out of thousands of pixels, and photon-limited sensitivity at optical wavelengths. Before taking observations the readout power and frequency of each pixel must be individually tuned, and if the equilibrium state of the pixels change, then the readout must be retuned. This process has previously been performed through manual inspection, and typically takes one hour per 500 resonators (20 h for a ten-kilo-pixel array). We present an algorithm based on a deep convolution neural network (CNN) architecture to determine the optimal bias power for each resonator. The bias point classifications from this CNN model, and those from alternative automated methods, are compared to those from human decisions, and the accuracy of each method is assessed. On a test feed-line dataset, the CNN achieves an accuracy of 90% within 1 dB of the designated optimal value, which is equivalent accuracy to a randomly selected human operator, and superior to the highest scoring alternative automated method by 10%. On a full ten-kilopixel array, the CNN performs the characterization in a matter of minutes - paving the way for future mega-pixel MKID arrays.

  18. Performance of the Prototype Readout System for the CMS Endcap Hadron Calorimeter Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverin, Nate; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Pastika, Nathaniel; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will upgrade the photodetectors and readout systems of the endcap hadron calorimeter during the technical stop scheduled for late 2016 and early 2017. A major milestone for this project was a highly successful testbeam run at CERN in August 2015. The testbeam run served as a full integration test of the electronics, allowing a study of the response of the preproduction electronics to the true detector light profile, as well as a test of the light yield of various new plastic scintillator materials. We present implications for the performance of the hadron calorimeter front-end electronics based on testbeam data, and we report on the production status of various components of the system in preparation for the upgrade.

  19. Fault injection as a test method for an FPGA in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Roed, K; Richter, M; Fehlker, D; Helstrup, H; Alme, J; Ullaland, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how fault injection has been implemented as a test method for an FPGA in an existing hardware configuration setup. As this FPGA is in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector, the reliability of this FPGA is of high importance. Due to the complexity of the readout electronics, irradiation testing is technically difficult at this stage of the system commissioning. The work presented in this paper is therefore motivated by introducing fault injection as an alternative method to characterize failures caused by SEUs. It is a method to study the effect that a configuration upset may have on the operation of the FPGA. The target platform consists of two independent modules for data acquisition and detector control functionality. Fault injection to test the response of the data acquisition module is made possible by implementing the solution as part of the detector control functionality. Correct implementation is validated by a simple shift register design. Our results demonstrate th...

  20. The PASERO Project: parallel and serial readout systems for gas proportional synchrotron radiation X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, M H J; Briquet-Laugier, F; Epstein, A; Sheldon, S; Beloeuvre, E; Gabriel, A; Hervé, C; Kocsis, M; Koschuch, A; Laggner, P; Leingartner, W; Raad-Iseli, C D; Reimann, T; Golding, F; Torki, K

    2001-01-01

    A project aiming at producing more efficient position sensitive gas proportional detectors and readout systems is presented. An area detector with reduced electrode spacing and a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm and two time to digital convertors (TDC) based on ASICs were produced. The first TDC, intended for use with linear detectors, relies on time to space conversion, whereas the second one, for area detectors, uses a ring oscillator with a phase locked loop. A parallel readout system for multi-anode detectors aiming at a maximum count rate extensively uses RISC microcontrollers. An electronic simulator of linear detectors built for test purposes and a mechanical chopper used for attenuation of the X-ray beam are also briefly described.

  1. New Subarray Readout Patterns for the ACS Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimowski, D.; Anderson, J.; Arslanian, S.; Chiaberge, M.; Grogin, N.; Lim, Pey Lian; Lupie, O.; McMaster, M.; Reinhart, M.; Schiffer, F.; Serrano, B.; Van Marshall, M.; Welty, A.

    2017-04-01

    At the start of Cycle 24, the original CCD-readout timing patterns used to generate ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) subarray images were replaced with new patterns adapted from the four-quadrant readout pattern used to generate full-frame WFC images. The primary motivation for this replacement was a substantial reduction of observatory and staff resources needed to support WFC subarray bias calibration, which became a new and challenging obligation after the installation of the ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement during Servicing Mission 4. The new readout patterns also improve the overall efficiency of observing with WFC subarrays and enable the processing of subarray images through stages of the ACS data calibration pipeline (calacs) that were previously restricted to full-frame WFC images. The new readout patterns replace the original 512×512, 1024×1024, and 2048×2046-pixel subarrays with subarrays having 2048 columns and 512, 1024, and 2048 rows, respectively. Whereas the original square subarrays were limited to certain WFC quadrants, the new rectangular subarrays are available in all four quadrants. The underlying bias structure of the new subarrays now conforms with those of the corresponding regions of the full-frame image, which allows raw frames in all image formats to be calibrated using one contemporaneous full-frame "superbias" reference image. The original subarrays remain available for scientific use, but calibration of these image formats is no longer supported by STScI.

  2. DOSIMO - an interactive web service of the GSF Readout Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, S.; Lempart, R.

    2002-01-01

    Under the Radiation Protection and X-ray Ordinances, official personnel dosimetry centers are charged with measuring, documenting, and monitoring personnel doses as independent agencies. The GSF Readout Center (AWST) for Personnel Dosimeters and Area Monitors is responsible for monitoring persons occupationally exposed to radiation in the federal states of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, and Schleswig-Holstein. The largest German readout center uses new media in personnel dosimetry in order to simplify and speed up data transfer. In October 1998, AWST in cooperation with ADANAT ENTIRE SYSTEMS implemented an Internet interface. As a result, AWST is the first European readout center to offer not only a possibility to disseminate information through the Internet by means of the DOSIMO (DOSIMETRY On-line) Internet Service, but also enabling the interactive data exchange by electronic means with authorized customers. DOSIMO users enjoy the decisive advantage of having the results of readout of their dosimeters ready for use as soon as they have become available. (orig.) [de

  3. Implementation of the Timepix ASIC in the Scalable Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupberger, M., E-mail: lupberger@physik.uni-bonn.de; Desch, K.; Kaminski, J.

    2016-09-11

    We report on the development of electronics hardware, FPGA firmware and software to provide a flexible multi-chip readout of the Timepix ASIC within the framework of the Scalable Readout System (SRS). The system features FPGA-based zero-suppression and the possibility to read out up to 4×8 chips with a single Front End Concentrator (FEC). By operating several FECs in parallel, in principle an arbitrary number of chips can be read out, exploiting the scaling features of SRS. Specifically, we tested the system with a setup consisting of 160 Timepix ASICs, operated as GridPix devices in a large TPC field cage in a 1 T magnetic field at a DESY test beam facility providing an electron beam of up to 6 GeV. We discuss the design choices, the dedicated hardware components, the FPGA firmware as well as the performance of the system in the test beam.

  4. BATS, the readout control of UA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botlo, M.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jimack, M.; Szoncso, F.; Taurok, A.; Walzel, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-04-15

    A steadily rising luminosity and different readout architectures for the various detector systems of UA1 required a new data flow control to minimize the dead time. BATS, a finite state machine conceived around two microprocessors in a single VME crate, improved flexibility and reliability. Compatibility with BATS streamlined all readout branches. BATS also proved to be a valuable asset in spotting readout problems and previously undetected data flow bottlenecks. (orig.).

  5. Understanding the electron-phonon interaction in polar crystals: Perspective presented by the vibronic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishtshev, A.; Kristoffel, N.

    2017-05-01

    We outline our novel results relating to the physics of the electron-TO-phonon (el-TO-ph) interaction in a polar crystal. We explained why the el-TO-ph interaction becomes effectively strong in a ferroelectric, and showed how the electron density redistribution establishes favorable conditions for soft-behavior of the long-wavelength branch of the active TO vibration. In the context of the vibronic theory it has been demonstrated that at the macroscopic level the interaction of electrons with the polar zone-centre TO phonons can be associated with the internal long-range dipole forces. Also we elucidated a methodological issue of how local field effects are incorporated within the vibronic theory. These result provided not only substantial support for the vibronic mechanism of ferroelectricity but also presented direct evidence of equivalence between vibronic and the other lattice dynamics models. The corresponding comparison allowed us to introduce the original parametrization for constants of the vibronic interaction in terms of key material constants. The applicability of the suggested formula has been tested for a wide class of polar materials.

  6. A Prospective Analysis of Patients Presenting for Medical Attention at a Large Electronic Dance Music Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Matt S; Plocki, Alex; Likourezos, Antonios; Pushkar, Illya; Bazos, Andrew N; Fromm, Christian; Friedman, Benjamin W

    2017-02-01

    Mass-Gathering Medicine studies have identified variables that predict greater patient presentation rates (PPRs) and transport to hospital rates (TTHRs). This is a descriptive report of patients who presented for medical attention at an annual electronic dance music festival (EDMF). At this large, single EDMF in New York City (NYC; New York, USA), the frequency of patient presentation, the range of presentations, and interventions performed were identified. This descriptive report examined consecutive patients who presented to the medical tent of a summertime EDMF held at an outdoor venue with an active, mobile, bounded crowd. Alcohol was available for sale. Entry was restricted to persons 18 years and older. The festival occurred on three consecutive days with a total cumulative attendance of 58,000. Medical staffing included two Emergency Medicine physicians, four registered nurses, and 86 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. Data collected included demographics, past medical history, vital signs, physical exam, drug and alcohol use, interventions performed, and transport decisions. Eighty-four patients were enrolled over 2.5 days. Six were transported and zero died. The ages of the subjects ranged from 17 to 61 years. Forty-three (51%) were male. Thirty-eight (45%) initially presented with abnormal vital signs; four (5%) were hyperthermic. Of these latter patients, 34 (90%) reported ingestions with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or other drugs. Eleven (65%) patients were diaphoretic or mydriatic. The most common prehospital interventions were intravenous normal saline (8/84; 10%), ondansetron (6/84; 7%), and midazolam (3/84; 4%). Electronic dance music festivals are a growing trend and a new challenge for Mass-Gathering Medicine as new strategies must be employed to decrease TTHR and mortality. Addressing common and expected medical emergencies at mass-gathering events through awareness, preparation, and early, focused medical interventions may

  7. Hybrid nanowire ion-to-electron transducers for integrated bioelectronic circuitry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrad, Damon J.; Mostert, Bernard; Meredith, Paul; Micolich, Adam P.

    2016-09-01

    A key task in bioelectronics is the transduction between ionic/protonic signals and electronic signals at high fidelity. This is a considerable challenge since the two carrier types exhibit intrinsically different physics. We present our work on a new class of organic-inorganic transducing interface utilising semiconducting InAs and GaAs nanowires directly gated with a proton transporting hygroscopic polymer consisting of undoped polyethylene oxide (PEO) patterned to nanoscale dimensions by a newly developed electron-beam lithography process [1]. Remarkably, we find our undoped PEO polymer electrolyte gate dielectric [2] gives equivalent electrical performance to the more traditionally used LiClO4-doped PEO [3], with an ionic conductivity three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported for undoped PEO [4]. The observed behaviour is consistent with proton conduction in PEO. We attribute our undoped PEO-based devices' performance to the small external surface and high surface-to-volume ratio of both the nanowire conducting channel and patterned PEO dielectric in our devices, as well as the enhanced hydration afforded by device processing and atmospheric conditions. In addition to studying the basic transducing mechanisms, we also demonstrate high-fidelity ionic to electronic conversion of a.c. signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz. Moreover, by combining complementary n- and p-type transducers we demonstrate functional hybrid ionic-electronic circuits can achieve logic (NOT operation), and with some further engineering of the nanowire contacts, potentially also amplification. Our device structures have significant potential to be scaled towards realising integrated bioelectronic circuitry. [1] D.J. Carrad et al., Nano Letters 14, 94 (2014). [2] D.J. Carrad et al., Manuscript in preparation (2016). [3] S.H. Kim et al., Advanced Materials 25, 1822 (2013). [4] S.K. Fullerton-Shirey et al., Macromolecules 42, 2142 (2009).

  8. Test of high time resolution MRPC with different readout modes for the BESIII upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Sun, Y.J., E-mail: sunday@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Li, C., E-mail: licheng@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Heng, Y.K.; Qian, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Chen, H.F.; Chen, T.X. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Dai, H.L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Fan, H.H.; Liu, S.B. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Liu, S.D.; Jiang, X.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Shao, M.; Tang, Z.B.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.G. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China)

    2014-11-01

    In order to further enhance the particle identification capability of the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII), it is proposed to upgrade the current end-cap time-of-flight (eTOF) detector with multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The prototypes, together with the front end electronics (FEE) and time digitizer (TDIG) module have been tested at the E3 line of Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) to study the difference between the single and double-end readout MRPC designs. The time resolutions (sigma) of the single-end readout MRPC are 47/53 ps obtained by 600 MeV/c proton/pion beam, while that of the double-end readout MRPC is 40 ps (proton beam). The efficiencies of three MRPC modules tested by both proton and pion beam are better than 98%. For the double-end readout MRPC, no incident position dependence is observed.

  9. Dead Time in the LAr Calorimeter Front-End Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M

    2002-01-01

    We present readout time, latency, buffering, and dead-time calculations for the switched capacitor array controllers of the LAr calorimeter. The dead time is compared with algorithms for the dead-time generation in the level-1 central trigger processor.

  10. Flexible geometry hodoscope using proportional chamber cathode read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubret, C.; Bellefon, A. de; Benoit, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Tristram, G.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of a cathode read-out proportional chamber, used as a low mass hodoscope is described. Results on efficiency, time resolution and space resolution are shown. The associative logic, which permits the use of the chamber as a coplanarity chamber is briefly presented

  11. Optimised cantilever biosensor with piezoresistive read-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Thaysen, J.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present a cantilever-based biochemical sensor with piezoresistive read-out which has been optimised for measuring surface stress. The resistors and the electrical wiring on the chip are encapsulated in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride, so that the chip is well sui...

  12. A brief review of nuclear electronics standards . . . Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Modular Nuclear Instrument Standards have played a key role in U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories and similar scientific laboratories worldwide for more than three decades. The scientific and engineering efficiency and economic benefits have been well documented. Standards are constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies and the present is a time of rapid change. This report is based on an invited talk presented at the Joint Meeting of the U.S. Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) and European Standards for Norms in Electronics (ESONE) Standards Committees, Lyon, France, October 20, 2000. It provides a brief overview of past developments and attempts to identify areas of possible opportunities for renewed standardization efforts to meet future challenges

  13. The Binary Offset Effect in CCDs: an Anomalous Readout Artifact Affecting Most Astronomical CCDs in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kyle Robert; Aldering, Gregory; Copin, Yannick; Dixon, Samantha; Domagalski, Rachel; Gangler, Emmanuel; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Nearby Supernova Factory Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We discovered an anomalous behavior of CCD readout electronics that affects their use in many astronomical applications, which we call the “binary offset effect”. Due to feedback in the readout electronics, an offset is introduced in the values read out for each pixel that depends on the binary encoding of the previously read-out pixel values. One consequence of this effect is that a pathological local background offset can be introduced in images that only appears where science data are present on the CCD. The amplitude of this introduced offset does not scale monotonically with the amplitude of the objects in the image, and can be up to 4.5 ADU per pixel for certain instruments. Additionally, this background offset will be shifted by several pixels from the science data, potentially distorting the shape of objects in the image. We tested 22 instruments for signs of the binary offset effect and found evidence of it in 16 of them, including LRIS and DEIMOS on the Keck telescopes, WFC3-UVIS and STIS on HST, MegaCam on CFHT, SNIFS on the UH88 telescope, GMOS on the Gemini telescopes, HSC on Subaru, and FORS on VLT. A large amount of archival data is therefore affected by the binary offset effect, and conventional methods of reducing CCD images do not measure or remove the introduced offsets. As a demonstration of how to correct for the binary offset effect, we have developed a model that can accurately predict and remove the introduced offsets for the SNIFS instrument on the UH88 telescope. Accounting for the binary offset effect is essential for precision low-count astronomical observations with CCDs.

  14. Optical readout in a multi-module system test for the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flick, Tobias; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Gerlach, Peter; Kersten, Susanne; Maettig, Peter; Nderitu Kirichu, Simon; Reeves, Kendall; Richter, Jennifer; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN, will be a pixel detector, which is presently under construction. The command messages and the readout data of the detector are transmitted over an optical data path. The readout chain consists of many components which are produced at several locations around the world, and must work together in the pixel detector. To verify that these parts are working together as expected a system test has been built up. It consists of detector modules, optoboards, optical fibres, Back of Crate cards, Readout Drivers, and control computers. In this paper, the system test setup and the operation of the readout chain are described. Also, some results of tests using the final pixel detector readout chain are given

  15. Present status of the NIJI-IV storage-ring free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T.; Yamada, K.; Sei, N. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The tunable region of the free-electron-laser (FEL) wavelength with the NIJI-IV system is now 348{approximately}595 nm. After the lasing at 352 nm in 1994, the quality of the electron beam stored in the ring has been improved further, and the highest peak intensity of the laser obtained so far is more than 300 times as high as that of the resonated spontaneous emission. The macro-temporal structure of the lasing has been greatly improved. Recently, a single-bunch injection system was completed, and the system has been installed in the injector linac, which is expected to increase the peak stored-beam current. The commissioning and the test of the new system is under way. The beam transporting system from the linac to the ring is also being modified by increasing the number of quadrupole magnets. The experiments related to the FEL in the ultraviolet wavelength region will be begun in this coming May. The results and the status of the FEL experiments will be presented at the Conference.

  16. New electronic apex locator Romiapex A-15 presented accuracy for working length determination in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aims to evaluate, ex vivo, the accuracy of electronic apex locators Root ZX II and Romiapex-15, for working length (WL determination in permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Fourteen single-rooted teeth (incisors and canines, with their apices fully formed were used. The dental crowns were removed. The anatomic length of the tooth (real measurement was visually determined through the insertion of a size 10 K-file until the tip of the instrument could be observed in the apical foramen under a microscope (20X. Teeth were fixed in a model of resin and adapted into alginate soaked with saline solution, which was used as an  electrical conductor. Using a K-file, root canals were measured electronically using both devices. The results obtained for each apex locator were compared to the real measurements. The accuracy between the devices was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman graph, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, and Student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference between the measurements using the Root ZX II was 0.277mm greater than the real measurement, while the measurements from the Romiapex-15 were 0.308mm higher on average. The comparison between Root ZX II and Romiapex-15 had no significant difference (p= 0.868. Conclusion: It was concluded that Root ZX II and Romiapex-15 had similar accuracy. Romiapex-15 could be an option for WL determination in permanent teeth.

  17. Electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) battery-related burns presenting to US emergency departments, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Chang, Joanne T; Rostron, Brian L

    2018-03-05

    Currently, an estimated 7.9 million US adults use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Although published reports have identified fires and explosions related to use of ENDS since 2009, these reports do not provide national estimates of burn injuries associated with ENDS batteries in the US. We analyzed nationally representative data provided in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to estimate the number of US emergency department (ED) visits for burn injuries associated with ENDS batteries. We reviewed the case narrative field to gain additional insights into the circumstances of the burn injury. In 2016, 26 ENDS battery-related burn cases were captured by NEISS, which translates to a national estimate of 1007 (95%CI: 357-1657) injuries presenting in US EDs. Most of the burns were thermal burns (80.4%) and occurred to the upper leg/lower trunk (77.3%). Examination of the case narrative field indicated that at least 20 of the burn injuries occurred while ENDS batteries were in the user's pocket. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the current burden of ENDS battery-related burn injuries treated in US EDs. The nature and circumstances of the injuries suggest these incidents were unintentional and would potentially be prevented through battery design requirements, battery testing standards and public education related to ENDS battery safety.

  18. Optimal CCD readout by digital correlated double sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, C.; Abusleme, A.; Guzman, D.; Passalacqua, I.; Alvarez-Fontecilla, E.; Guarini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital correlated double sampling (DCDS), a readout technique for charge-coupled devices (CCD), is gaining popularity in astronomical applications. By using an oversampling ADC and a digital filter, a DCDS system can achieve a better performance than traditional analogue readout techniques at the expense of a more complex system analysis. Several attempts to analyse and optimize a DCDS system have been reported, but most of the work presented in the literature has been experimental. Some approximate analytical tools have been presented for independent parameters of the system, but the overall performance and trade-offs have not been yet modelled. Furthermore, there is disagreement among experimental results that cannot be explained by the analytical tools available. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a generic DCDS readout system is presented, including key aspects such as the signal conditioning stage, the ADC resolution, the sampling frequency and the digital filter implementation. By using a time-domain noise model, the effect of the digital filter is properly modelled as a discrete-time process, thus avoiding the imprecision of continuous-time approximations that have been used so far. As a result, an accurate, closed-form expression for the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the readout system is reached. This expression can be easily optimized in order to meet a set of specifications for a given CCD, thus providing a systematic design methodology for an optimal readout system. Simulated results are presented to validate the theory, obtained with both time- and frequency-domain noise generation models for completeness.

  19. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a calorimeter system of a relatively simple construction and moderate costs, however with excellent properties, built upon experience gained with the extensively beam-tested DREAM (Dual REAdout. Module) prototype. The main idea of multiple readout calorimetry is to indepen- dently measure for each hadronic shower ...

  20. A multichannel front end ASIC for PMT readout in LHAASO WCDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Zhao, L.; Guo, Y.; Qin, J.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, B.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Time and charge measurements over a large dynamic range from 1 Photo Electron (P.E.) to 4000 P.E. are required for the Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA), which is one of the key components in the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO). To simplify the circuit structure of the readout electronics, a front end ASIC was designed. Based on the charge-to-time conversion method, the output pulse width of the ASIC corresponds to the input signal charge information while time information of the input signal is picked off through a discriminator, and thus the time and charge information can be digitized simultaneously using this ASIC and a following Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC). To address the challenge of mismatch among the channels observed in the previous prototype version, this work presents approaches for analyzing the problem and optimizing the circuits. A new version of the ASIC was designed and fabricated in the GLOBALFOUNDRIES 0.35 μm CMOS technology, which integrates 6 channels (corresponding to the readout of the 3 PMTs) in each chip. The test results indicate that the mismatch between the channels is significantly reduced to less than 20% using the proposed approach. The time measurement resolution better than 300 ps is achieved, and the charge measurement resolution is better than 10% at 1 P.E., and 1% at 4000 P.E., which meets the application requirements.

  1. A fast integrated readout system for a cathode pad photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, M. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)); Lovell, M. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)); Chesi, E. (CERN, ECP Div., Geneva (Switzerland)); Racz, A. (CERN, ECP Div., Geneva (Switzerland)); Seguinot, J. (Coll. de France, Paris (France)); Ypsilantis, T. (Coll. de France, Paris (France)); Arnold, R. (CRN, Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Guyonnet, J.L. (CRN, Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Egger, J. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)); Gabathuler, K. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1994-04-01

    A fast integrated electronic chain is presented to read out the cathode pad array of a multiwire photon detector for a fast RICH counter. Two VLSI circuits have been designed and produced. An analog eight channel, low noise, fast, bipolar, current preamplifier and discriminator chip serves as front-end electronics. It has an rms equivalent noise current of 10 nA (2000 e[sup -]), 50 MHz bandwidth with 10 mW of power consumption per channel. Two analogue chips are coupled to a digital 16 channels CMOS readout chip, operating at 20 MHz, that provides a pipelined delay of 1.3 [mu]s and zero suppression with a power consumption of about 6 mW per channel. Readout of a 4000 pad sector requires 3-4 [mu]s depending on the number of hit pads. The full RICH counter is made up of many of such sectors (the prototype has three fully equipped sectors), read out in parallel. The minimum time to separate successive hits on the same pad is about 70 ns. The time skew of the full chain is about 15 ns. (orig.)

  2. Towards self-triggered digitization and data readout in the CBM time-of-flight system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Christian; Herrmann, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut und Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The design goal of the future Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is to measure rare probes of dense strongly interacting matter with an unprecedented accuracy. Target interaction rates of up to 10 MHz for heavy systems like Au+Au and the need to identify experimental signatures of probes like multi-strange hyperons in the online data stream place challenging demands on the experiment's data acquisition system. Each detector subsystem in CBM implements a self-triggered digitization and readout chain fitted to the respective front-end electronics sending continuous data streams to a high-performance computing farm called the First-Level Event Selector (FLES). Here, events are reconstructed online to identify the physically most interesting ones as only a fraction of the enormous data rate (up to 1 TB/s) can be stored permanently for later offline analysis. The time-of-flight (TOF) wall of CBM is composed of high-resolution timing multi-gap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs) which are estimated to deliver signal rates of up to 500 kHz per electronics channel. Prototypical readout schemes currently under test which are able to transport this high payload are presented, and an outline towards inclusion in the FLES network is given.

  3. An X-Ray facility to perform irradiation tests and TID studies on electronics and detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brundu, Davide; Cadeddu, Sandro; Wyllie, Ken; Ciambrone, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The X-Ray irradiation system of the LHCb group, installed in Cagliari, is presented; with a particular focus on the setup configuration and dose rate calibration. The system can be used to perform Total Ionizing Dose (TID) studies for detectors, readout and front-end electronics. It was already used to test the nSYNC chip, an ASIC for the readout of the LHCb upgraded muon system.

  4. Mass-gathering Medicine: Risks and Patient Presentations at a 2-Day Electronic Dance Music Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Adam; Turris, Sheila A

    2015-06-01

    Music festivals, including electronic dance music events (EDMEs), increasingly are common in Canada and internationally. Part of a US $4.5 billion industry annually, the target audience is youth and young adults aged 15-25 years. Little is known about the impact of these events on local emergency departments (EDs). Drawing on prospective data over a 2-day EDME, the authors of this study employed mixed methods to describe the case mix and prospectively compared patient presentation rate (PPR) and ambulance transfer rate (ATR) between a first aid (FA) only and a higher level of care (HLC) model. There were 20,301 ticketed attendees. Seventy patient encounters were recorded over two days. The average age was 19.1 years. Roughly 69% were female (n=48/70). Forty-six percent of those seen in the main medical area were under the age of 19 years (n=32/70). The average length of stay in the main medical area was 70.8 minutes. The overall PPR was 4.09 per 1,000 attendees. The ATR with FA only would have been 1.98; ATR with HLC model was 0.52. The presence of an on-site HLC team had a significant positive effect on avoiding ambulance transfers. Twenty-nine ambulance transfers and ED visits were avoided by the presence of an on-site HLC medical team. Reduction of impact to the public health care system was substantial. Electronic dance music events have predictable risks and patient presentations, and appropriate on-site health care resources may reduce significantly the impact on the prehospital and emergency health resources in the host community.

  5. Digital readout alpha survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype solid-state digital readout alpha particle survey instrument has been designed and constructed. The meter incorporates a Ludlum alpha scintillator as a detector, digital logic circuits for control and timing, and a Digilin counting module with reflective liquid crystal display. The device is used to monitor alpha radiation from a surface. Sample counts are totalized over 10-second intervals and displayed digitally in counts per minute up to 19,999. Tests over source samples with counts to 15,600 cpm have shown the device to be rapid, versatile and accurate. The instrument can be fabricated in one man-week and requires about $835 in material costs. A complete set of drawings is included

  6. Development of a hadron blind detector using a finely segmented pad readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Koki, E-mail: kkanno@post.kek.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aoki, Kazuya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Aramaki, Yoki; En' yo, Hideto; Kawama, Daisuke [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Komatsu, Yusuke; Masumoto, Shinichi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakai, Wataru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Obara, Yuki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Sekimoto, Michiko [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Shibukawa, Takuya [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomonori [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Watanabe, Yosuke [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yokkaichi, Satoshi [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-05-21

    We constructed a hadron blind detector (HBD) using a finely segmented pad readout. The finely segmented pad readout enabled us to adopt an advanced particle identification method which applies a threshold to the number of pad hits in addition to the total amount of collected charge. The responses of the detector to electrons and pions were evaluated using a negatively charged secondary beam at 1.0 GeV/c containing 20% electrons at the J-PARC K1.1BR beam line. We observed 7.3 photoelectrons per incident electron. Using the advanced particle identification method, an electron detection efficiency of 83% was achieved with a pion rejection factor of 120. The method improved the pion rejection by approximately a factor of five, compared to the one which just applies a threshold to the amount of collected charge. The newly introduced finely segmented pad readout was found to be effective in rejecting pions.

  7. Development of a hadron blind detector using a finely segmented pad readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Koki; Aoki, Kazuya; Aramaki, Yoki; En'yo, Hideto; Kawama, Daisuke; Komatsu, Yusuke; Masumoto, Shinichi; Nakai, Wataru; Obara, Yuki; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Sekimoto, Michiko; Shibukawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomonori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Yokkaichi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a hadron blind detector (HBD) using a finely segmented pad readout. The finely segmented pad readout enabled us to adopt an advanced particle identification method which applies a threshold to the number of pad hits in addition to the total amount of collected charge. The responses of the detector to electrons and pions were evaluated using a negatively charged secondary beam at 1.0 GeV/c containing 20% electrons at the J-PARC K1.1BR beam line. We observed 7.3 photoelectrons per incident electron. Using the advanced particle identification method, an electron detection efficiency of 83% was achieved with a pion rejection factor of 120. The method improved the pion rejection by approximately a factor of five, compared to the one which just applies a threshold to the amount of collected charge. The newly introduced finely segmented pad readout was found to be effective in rejecting pions.

  8. A readout system for the wavelength-shifting optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foesig, Carl-Christian; Boeser, Sebastian [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The success of IceCube and the plans for an IceCube-Gen2 stimulate the development of new photo sensors. The approach of the Wavelength-shifting Optical Module is to provide a device which has a low dark noise rate combined with a high detection efficiency. A small PMT is used to detect red shifted photons guided in a coated PMMA tube, originally emitted by a wavelength shifting coating that absorbs photons in the UV Region. We have studied several PMTs for their usability with the IceCube-Gen2 readout system. Relevant parameters are the pulse widths in relation to the bandwidth of the IceCube-Gen2 readout electronics and the dark noise rates.

  9. Development of a free-running readout ASIC for the PANDA micro vertex detector and investigation of the performance to reconstruct anti pp → anti Ξ"+Ξ"-(1690)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambanini, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The PANDA experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector, investigating hadron physics topics in the strange and charm quark mass regime. PANDA will measure antiproton-proton annihilation reactions at the FAIR complex, which is currently under construction. Caused by the initial reaction, signal and background events are similar to each other. Hence, self-triggering readout electronics is required throughout all sub-detectors. The innermost sub-detector, the Micro Vertex Detector, is based on silicon sensors with pixel and microstrip segmentation. This thesis describes the development of a readout solution (PASTA) for the microstrip sensors and the preparations for a characterization setup to perform laboratory measurements with this readout prototype. Furthermore, an exploratory study on the reconstructability of the reaction anti pp→ anti Ξ"+Ξ"-(1690) with PANDA's software framework is presented.

  10. Development of a free-running readout ASIC for the PANDA micro vertex detector and investigation of the performance to reconstruct anti pp → anti Ξ{sup +}Ξ{sup -}(1690)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambanini, Andre

    2015-12-08

    The PANDA experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector, investigating hadron physics topics in the strange and charm quark mass regime. PANDA will measure antiproton-proton annihilation reactions at the FAIR complex, which is currently under construction. Caused by the initial reaction, signal and background events are similar to each other. Hence, self-triggering readout electronics is required throughout all sub-detectors. The innermost sub-detector, the Micro Vertex Detector, is based on silicon sensors with pixel and microstrip segmentation. This thesis describes the development of a readout solution (PASTA) for the microstrip sensors and the preparations for a characterization setup to perform laboratory measurements with this readout prototype. Furthermore, an exploratory study on the reconstructability of the reaction anti pp→ anti Ξ{sup +}Ξ{sup -}(1690) with PANDA's software framework is presented.

  11. Evaluation of an Integrated Read-Out Layer Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Ajamieh, Fayez

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents evaluation results of an Integrated Read-out Layer (IRL), a proposed concept in scintillator-based calorimetry intended to meet the exceptional calorimetric requirements of the envisaged International Linear Collider (ILC). This study presents a full characterization of the prototype IRL, including exploration of relevant parameters, calibration performance, and the uniformity of response. The study represents proof of the IRL concept. Finally, proposed design enhancements are presented.

  12. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-09-15

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm². In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time.

  13. Spectrophotometric readout for an alanine dosimeter for food irradiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraheem, S.; Beshir, W.B.; Eid, S.; Sobhy, R.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    The alanine-electron spin resonance (EPR) readout system is well known as a reference and transfer dosimetry system for the evaluation of high doses in radiation processing. The high cost of an EPR/alanine dosimetry system is a serious handicap for large-scale routine application in irradiation facilities. In this study, the use of a complex produced by dissolving irradiated L-alanine in 1,4-phenyl diammonium dichloride solution was investigated for dosimetry purposes. This complex--having a purple colour--has an increasing absorbance with increasing dose in the range of 1-20 kGy. The applicability of spectrophotometric evaluation was studied by measuring the absorbance intensity of this complex at 360 and 505 nm, respectively. Fluorimetric evaluation was also investigated by measuring the emission of the complex at 435 nm as a function of dose. The present method is easy for routine application. The effect of the dye concentration as well as the suitable amount of irradiated alanine has been studied. With respect to routine application, the stability of the product complex after its formation was also investigated

  14. Characterization of Medipix3 with the MARS readout and software

    CERN Document Server

    Ronaldson, J P; van Leeuwen, D; Doesburg, R M N; Ballabriga, R; Butler, A P H; Donaldson, J; Walsh, M; Nik, S J; Clyne, M N

    2011-01-01

    The Medipix3 x-ray imaging detector has been characterized using the MARS camera. This x-ray camera comprises custom built readout electronics and software libraries designed for the Medipix family of detectors. The performance of the Medipix3 and MARS camera system is being studied prior to use in real-world applications such as the recently developed MARS-CT3 spectroscopic micro-CT scanner. We present the results of characterization measurements, describe methods for optimizing performance and give examples of spectroscopic images acquired with Medipix3 and the MARS camera system. A limited number of operating modes of the Medipix3 chip have been characterized and single-pixel mode has been found to give acceptable performance in terms of energy response, image quality and stability over time. Spectroscopic performance is significantly better in charge-summing mode than single-pixel mode however image quality and stability over time are compromised. There are more modes of operation to be tested and further...

  15. A CMOS smart temperature and humidity sensor with combined readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-09-16

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 µA.

  16. Note: Readout of a micromechanical magnetometer for the ITER fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimminen, H.; Kyynäräinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present readout instrumentation for a MEMS magnetometer, placed 30 m away from the MEMS element. This is particularly useful when sensing is performed in high-radiation environment, where the semiconductors in the readout cannot survive. High bandwidth transimpedance amplifiers are used to cancel the cable capacitances of several nanofarads. A frequency doubling readout scheme is used for crosstalk elimination. Signal-to-noise ratio in the range of 60 dB was achieved and with sub-percent nonlinearity. The presented instrument is intended for the steady-state magnetic field measurements in the ITER fusion reactor.

  17. Application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readout technologies for future ion beam analytical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, Harry J. E-mail: harry_j.whitlow@nuclear.lu.se

    2000-03-01

    New possibilities for ion beam analysis (IBA) are afforded by recent developments in detector technology which facilitate the parallel collection of data from a large number of channels. Application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technologies, which have been widely employed for multi-channel readout systems in nuclear and particle physics, are more net-cost effective (160/channel for 1000 channels) and a more rational solution for readout of a large number of channels than afforded by conventional electronics. Based on results from existing and on-going chip designs, the possibilities and issues of ASIC readout technology are considered from the IBA viewpoint. Consideration is given to readout chip architecture and how the stringent resolution, linearity and stability requirements for IBA may be met. In addition the implications of the restrictions imposed by ASIC technology are discussed.

  18. Study of multi-channel readout ASIC and its discrete module for particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Fan Lei; Zhang Shengjun; Li Xian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, kinds of particle detectors have used Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) in their electronics readout systems, it is the key part for the whole system. This project designed a multi-channel readout ASIC for general detectors. The chip has Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector embedded for easy readout. For each channel, signal which is preprocessed by a low-noise preamplifier is sent to the shaper to form a quasi-Gaussian pulse and keep its peak for readout. This chip and modules of individual Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector have been manufactured and tested. The discrete modules work well, and the 6-channel chip NPRE 6 is ready for test in some particle detection system. (authors)

  19. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Zeng, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Cheng, J.

    2014-09-01

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given.

  20. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, X; Zeng, M; Wang, Y; Wang, X; Zeng, Z; Zhao, Z; Cheng, J

    2014-01-01

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given

  1. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T.; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface

  2. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K

    2000-07-11

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface.

  3. Conformable wearable systems comprising organic electronics on foil for well being and healthcare (presentation video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, Margreet M.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of electronics into materials and objects that have not been functionalized with electronics before, open up extensive possibilities to support mankind. By adding intelligence and/or operating power to materials in close skin contact like clothing, furniture or bandages the health of people can be monitored or even improved. Foil based electronics are interesting components to be integrated as they are thin, large area and cost effective available components Our developed technology of printed electronic structures to which components are reliably bonded, fulfills the promise. We have integrated these components into textiles and built wearable encapsulated products with foil based electronics. Foil components with organic and inorganic LEDs are interconnected and laminated onto electronic textiles by using conductive adhesives to bond the contact pads of the component to conductive yarns in the textile. Modelling and reliability testing under dynamic circumstances provided important insights in order to optimise the technology. The design of the interconnection and choice of conductive adhesive / underfill and lamination contributed to the durability of the system. Transition zones from laminated foil to textile are engineered to withstand dynamic use. As an example of a product, we have realized an electronic wristband that is encapsulated in rubber and has a number of sensor functionalities integrated on stretchable electronic circuits based on Cu and Ag. The encapsulation with silicone or polyurethanes was performed such, that charging and sensor/skin contacts are possible while simultaneously protecting the electronics from mechanical and environmental stresses.

  4. Results on a 10 micron pitch detector with individual strip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinori, F.; Dameri, M.; Olcese, A.; Osculati, B.; Rossi, L.; Forino, A.; Marioli, D.; Meroni, C.; Redaelli, N.; Torretta, D.

    1990-01-01

    A 10 μm pitch silicon microstrip detector with individual strip readout via hybrid electronics has been produced and operated. Connections to digital and analog electronics is realized through an insensitive fan-out structure on the detector itself. The detector has been used in the WA82 experiment at the CERN Ω' spectrometer. (orig.)

  5. First functionality tests of a 64 × 64 pixel DSSC sensor module connected to the complete ladder readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, M.; Hansen, K.; Kalavakuru, P.; Kirchgessner, M.; Kuster, M.; Porro, M.; Reckleben, C.; Turcato, M.

    2017-03-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide every 0.1 s a train of 2700 spatially coherent ultrashort X-ray pulses at 4.5 MHz repetition rate. The Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument and the Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering instrument (SCS) operate with soft X-rays between 0.5 keV-6 keV. The DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector is being developed to meet the requirements set by these two XFEL.EU instruments. The DSSC imager is a 1 mega-pixel camera able to store up to 800 single-pulse images per train. The so-called ladder is the basic unit of the DSSC detector. It is the single unit out of sixteen identical-units composing the DSSC-megapixel camera, containing all representative electronic components of the full-size system and allows testing the full electronic chain. Each DSSC ladder has a focal plane sensor with 128× 512 pixels. The read-out ASIC provides full-parallel readout of the sensor pixels. Every read-out channel contains an amplifier and an analog filter, an up-to 9 bit ADC and the digital memory. The ASIC amplifier have a double front-end to allow one to use either DEPFET sensors or Mini-SDD sensors. In the first case, the signal compression is a characteristic intrinsic of the sensor; in the second case, the compression is implemented at the first amplification stage. The goal of signal compression is to meet the requirement of single-photon detection capability and wide dynamic range. We present the first results of measurements obtained using a 64× 64 pixel DEPFET sensor attached to the full final electronic and data-acquisition chain.

  6. Performance of a thermal imager employing a hybrid pyroelectric detector array with MOSFET readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watton, R.; Mansi, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal imager employing a two-dimensional hybrid array of pyroelectric detectors with MOSFET readout has been built. The design and theoretical performance of the detector are discussed, and the results of performance measurements are presented. 8 references

  7. Data readout system for proportional chambers; Sistema schityvaniya informatsii s proportsional`nykh kamer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, N I; Sidorov, V T

    1996-12-31

    Paper studies data readout system designed for data output from proportional chambers with up to 1000 channel total number. Short descriptions of the above mentioned units made according to CAMAC standard and their main characteristics are presented here. 2 figs.

  8. Present state and progress of industrial electron processing systems in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, I.; Mizusawa, K.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of the state of utilisation of electron processing systems in Japan, mainly for (1) cross-linking of wire and cable insulator, (2) heat shrinkable tube and sheet, (3) foamed polyethylene, and (4) curing of paint coats. Details are given of some of the electron processing systems. (U.K.)

  9. Development and Implementation of Optimal Filtering in a Virtex FPGA for the Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Stärz, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    In the context of upgraded read-out systems for the Liquid-Argon Calorimeters of the ATLAS detector, modified front-end, back-end and trigger electronics are foreseen for operation in the high-luminosity phase of the LHC. Accuracy and efficiency of the energy measurement and reliability of pile-up suppression are substantial when processing the detector raw-data in real-time. Several digital filter algorithms are investigated for their performance to extract energies from incoming detector signals and for the needs of the future trigger system. The implementation of fast, resource economizing, parameter driven filter algorithms in a modern Virtex FPGA is presented.

  10. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  11. Direct ion storage dosimetry systems for photon, beta and neutron radiation with instant readout capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernli, C.; Kahilainen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The direct ion storage (DIS) dosemeter is a new type of electronic dosemeter from which the dose information for both H p (10) and H p (0.07) can be obtained instantly at the workplace by using an electronic reader unit. The number of readouts is unlimited and the stored information is not affected by the readout procedure. The accumulated dose can also be electronically reset by authorised personnel. The DIS dosemeter represents a potential alternative for replacing the existing film and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) used in occupational monitoring due to its ease of use and low operating costs. The standard version for normal photon and beta dosimetry, as well as a developmental version for neutron dosimetry, have been characterised in several field studies. Two new small size variations are also introduced including a contactless readout device and a militarised version optimised for field use. (author)

  12. Optimization of MKID noise performance via readout technique for astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakon, Nicole G.; Schlaerth, James A.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matt I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    Detectors employing superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) can be read out by measuring changes in either the resonator frequency or dissipation. We will discuss the pros and cons of both methods, in particular, the readout method strategies being explored for the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) to be commissioned at the CSO in 2010. As predicted theoretically and observed experimentally, the frequency responsivity is larger than the dissipation responsivity, by a factor of 2-4 under typical conditions. In the absence of any other noise contributions, it should be easier to overcome amplifier noise by simply using frequency readout. The resonators, however, exhibit excess frequency noise which has been ascribed to a surface distribution of two-level fluctuators sensitive to specific device geometries and fabrication techniques. Impressive dark noise performance has been achieved using modified resonator geometries employing interdigitated capacitors (IDCs). To date, our noise measurement and modeling efforts have assumed an onresonance readout, with the carrier power set well below the nonlinear regime. Several experimental indicators suggested to us that the optimal readout technique may in fact require a higher readout power, with the carrier tuned somewhat off resonance, and that a careful systematic study of the optimal readout conditions was needed. We will present the results of such a study, and discuss the optimum readout conditions as well as the performance that can be achieved relative to BLIP.

  13. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of deter- ... The main idea of multiple readout calorimetry is to indepen- ... in a campaign of R&D and tests (with sources, cosmic rays and beams) through-.

  14. Cryogenic readout for multiple VUV4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counters in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Bruno, G.; Conicella, V.; Di Giovanni, A.; Fawwaz, O.; Messina, M.; Candela, A.; Franchi, G.

    2018-06-01

    We present the performances and characterization of an array made of S13370-3050CN (VUV4 generation) Multi-Pixel Photon Counters manufactured by Hamamatsu and equipped with a low power consumption preamplifier operating at liquid xenon temperature (∼ 175 K). The electronics is designed for the readout of a matrix of maximum dimension of 8 × 8 individual photosensors and it is based on a single operational amplifier. The detector prototype presented in this paper utilizes the Analog Devices AD8011 current feedback operational amplifier, but other models can be used depending on the application. A biasing correction circuit has been implemented for the gain equalization of photosensors operating at different voltages. The results show single photon detection capability making this device a promising choice for future generation of large scale dark matter detectors based on liquid xenon, such as DARWIN.

  15. Innovative multi-cantilever array sensor system with MOEMS read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaldi, F.; Bieniek, T.; Janus, P.; Grabiec, P.; Majstrzyk, W.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.

    2016-11-01

    Cantilever based sensor system are a well-established sensor family exploited in several every-day life applications as well as in high-end research areas. The very high sensitivity of such systems and the possibility to design and functionalize the cantilevers to create purpose built and highly selective sensors have increased the interest of the scientific community and the industry in further exploiting this promising sensors type. Optical deflection detection systems for cantilever sensors provide a reliable, flexible method for reading information from cantilevers with the highest sensitivity. However the need of using multi-cantilever arrays in several fields of application such as medicine, biology or safety related areas, make the optical method less suitable due to its structural complexity. Working in the frame of a the Joint Undertaking project Lab4MEMS II our group proposes a novel and innovative approach to solve this issue, by integrating a Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-System (MOEMS) with dedicated optics, electronics and software with a MOEMS micro-mirror, ultimately developed in the frame of Lab4MEMSII. In this way we are able to present a closely packed, lightweight solution combining the advantages of standard optical read-out systems with the possibility of recording multiple read-outs from large cantilever arrays quasi simultaneously.

  16. Medipix3 array high performance read-out board for synchrotron research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartoni, N.; Horswell, I. C.; Marchal, J.; Gimenez, E. N.; Fearn, R. D.; Silfhout, R. G. van

    2010-01-01

    The Medipix3 ASIC is one of the most advanced chip that is presently available to build photon counting area detectors. The capabilities of the chip include adjacent pixels charge summing circuitry to sort out the distortion due to charge sharing, simultaneous counting and read-out that enables frames to be acquired without dead time, the colour mode of operation that enables up to eight energy bands to be acquired. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of the Medipix3 chip in synchrotron research, a high performance electronic board capable of driving large arrays of chips is necessary. We propose a parallel read-out board of Medipix3 chip arrays with a scalable architecture that allows driving the Medipix3 chip in all of its modes of operation. The board functions include the control of the chip arrays, data formatting and data compression, the management of the communications with the data storage devices, and operation in various trigger modes. In addition to this the board will have some 'intelligence' embedded. This will add some very important features to the final detector such as pattern recognition, capability of variable frame duration as a function of the photon flux, feedback to other equipment and real time calculations of data relevant to experiments such as the autocorrelation function.

  17. SiGe HBT cryogenic preamplification for higher bandwidth donor spin read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Matthew; Carr, Stephen; Ten-Eyck, Greg; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Single-shot read-out of a donor spin can be performed using the response of a single-electron-transistor (SET). This technique can produce relatively large changes in current, on the order of 1 (nA), to distinguish between the spin states. Despite the relatively large signal, the read-out time resolution has been limited to approximately 100 (kHz) of bandwidth because of noise. Cryogenic pre-amplification has been shown to extend the response of certain detection circuits to shorter time resolution and thus higher bandwidth. We examine a SiGe HBT circuit configuration for cryogenic preamplification, which has potential advantages over commonly used HEMT configurations. Here we present 4 (K) measurements of a circuit consisting of a Silicon-SET inline with a Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor (HBT). We compare the measured bandwidth with and without the HBT inline and find that at higher frequencies the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) with the HBT inline exceeds the SNR without the HBT inline. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Development of high performance readout ASICs for silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are novel kind of solid state photon detectors with extremely high photon detection resolution. They are composed of hundreds or thousands of avalanche photon diode pixels connected in parallel. These avalanche photon diodes are operated in Geiger Mode. SiPMs have the same magnitude of multiplication gain compared to the conventional photomultipliers (PMTs). Moreover, they have a lot of advantages such as compactness, relatively low bias voltage and magnetic field immunity etc. Special readout electronics are required to preserve the high performance of the detector. KLauS and STiC are two CMOS ASIC chips designed in particular for SiPMs. KLauS is used for SiPM charge readout applications. Since SiPMs have a much larger detector capacitance compared to other solid state photon detectors such as PIN diodes and APDs, a few special techniques are used inside the chip to make sure a descent signal to noise ratio for pixel charge signal can be obtained. STiC is a chip dedicated to SiPM time-of-flight applications. High bandwidth and low jitter design schemes are mandatory for such applications where time jitter less than tens of picoseconds is required. Design schemes and error analysis as well as measurement results are presented in the thesis.

  19. A new readout control system for the LHCb upgrade at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessio, F; Jacobsson, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and a first hardware implementation of a new fast Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade, which will be entirely based on FPGAs and bi-directional links. We also outline the real-time implementations of the new Readout Control system, together with solutions on how to handle the synchronous distribution of timing and synchronous information to the complex upgraded LHCb readout architecture. One section will also be dedicated to the control and usage of the newly developed CERN GBT chipset to transmit fast and slow control commands to the upgraded LHCb Front-End electronics. At the end, we outline the plans for the deployment of the system in the global LHCb upgrade readout architecture.

  20. A radiation tolerance study of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Chengxin; Balk, Helge; Alme, Johan

    2017-11-17

    ALICE is a general-purpose detector that is designed to study the physics of quark-gluon plasma. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is one of the major detectors of ALICE. The TPC electronics consists of 4356 Front-end cards (FECs), which are controlled by 216 Readout Control Units (RCU). Each RCU connects to between 18 and 25 FECs using a multi-drop bus. In LHC Run1, the Readout Control Unit 1 (RCU1) performed even better than specification. However, in Run2 the energy of colliding beams is increased from 8 TeV to 14 TeV (maximum value) and higher luminosity, which leads to larger event size and higher radiation load on the electronics. As a solution, the Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2) is designed to provide faster readout speed and improved radiation tolerance with respect to the RCU1. The RCU2 is conceptually similar to the RCU1 and it reuses the existing infrastructure and readout architecture of the TPC electronics. However, the multi-drop bus is split into four branches from the two branches and the bandw...

  1. Test and improvement of readout system based on APV25 chip for GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shouyang; Jian Siyu; Zhou Jing; Shan Chao; Li Xinglong; Li Xia; Li Xiaomei; Zhou Yi

    2014-01-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) is the most promising position sensitive gas detector. The new generation of readout electronics system includes APV25 front-end card, multi-purpose digitizer (MPD), VME controller and Linux-based acquisition software DAQ. The construction and preliminary test of this readout system were finished, and the ideal data with the system working frequency of 40 MHz and 20 MHz were obtained. The long time running test shows that the system has a very good time-stable ability. Through optimizing the software configuration and improving hardware quality, the noise level was reduced, and the signal noise ratio was improved. (authors)

  2. Animated Powerpoint Presentations for Teaching Operations and Supply Chain Management: Perceived Value and Electronic Exchange of Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the innovation of sharing animated PowerPoint presentations used in teaching operations and supply chain management techniques and concepts through an international electronic exchange. The plan for the exchange is presented and discussed. The potential benefits to faculty and students of using PowerPoint animations in…

  3. An optical fiber-based flexible readout system for micro-pattern gas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Feng, C. Q.; Zhu, D. Y.; Liu, S. B.; An, Q.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an optical fiber-based readout system that is intended to provide a general purpose multi-channel readout solution for various Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs). The proposed readout system is composed of several front-end cards (FECs) and a data collection module (DCM). The FEC exploits the capability of an existing 64-channel generic TPC readout ASIC chip, named AGET, to implement 256 channels readout. AGET offers FEC a large flexibility in gain range (4 options from 120 fC to 10 pC), peaking time (16 options from 50 ns to 1 us) and sampling freqency (100 MHz max.). The DCM contains multiple 1 Gbps optical fiber serial link interfaces that allow the system scaling up to 1536 channels with 6 FECs and 1 DCM. Further scaling up is possible through cascading of multiple DCMs, by configuring one DCM as a master while other DCMs in slave mode. This design offers a rapid readout solution for different application senario. Tests indicate that the nonlinearity of each channel is less than 1%, and the equivalent input noise charge is typically around 0.7 fC in RMS (root mean square), with a noise slope of about 0.01 fC/pF. The system level trigger rate limit is about 700 Hz in all channel readout mode. When in hit channel readout mode, supposing that typically 10 percent of channels are fired, trigger rate can go up to about 7 kHz. This system has been tested with Micromegas detector and GEM detector, confirming its capability in MPGD readout. Details of hardware and FPGA firmware design, as well as system performances, are described in the paper.

  4. Two-dimensional readout in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Solovov, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Lopes, M I; Pereira, A; Policarpo, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional readout with metal strips deposited on both sides of a glass plate is investigated aiming to assess the possibility of its use in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber for positron emission tomography. Here, we present results obtained with an alpha-source. It is shown that position resolution of <=1 mm, fwhm, can be achieved for free charge depositions equivalent to those due to gamma-rays with energy from 220 down to 110 keV.

  5. Performance of an optical readout GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margato, L.M.S.; Fraga, F.A.F.; Fetal, S.T.G.; Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Balau, E.F.S.; Blanco, A.; Marques, R. Ferreira; Policarpo, A.J.P.L

    2004-01-01

    We report on the operation of a GEM-based small TPC using an optical readout. The detector was operated with a mixture of Ar+CF 4 using 5.48 MeV alpha particles obtained from a 241 Am source and the GEM scintillation was concurrently read by a CCD camera and a photomultiplier. Precision collimators were used to define the track orientation. Qualitative results on the accuracy of the track angle, length and charge deposition measurements are presented

  6. Dielectron analysis in p-p collisions at 3.5 GeV with the HADES spectrometer. ω-meson line shape and a new electronics readout for the multi-wire drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantola Peloni, Attilio

    2011-06-01

    The HADES (High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer) is an experimental apparatus installed at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI, Darmstadt. The main physics motivation of the HADES experiment is the measurement of e + e - pairs in the invariant-mass range up to 1 GeV/c 2 in heavy-ion collisions as well as in pion and proton-induced reactions. The HADES physics program is focused on in-medium properties of the light vector mesons ρ(770), ω(783) and φ(1020), which decay with a small branching ratio into dileptons. Dileptons are penetrating probes which allow to study the in-medium properties of hadrons. However, in heavy-ion collisions, the measurement of such lepton pairs is difficult because they are rare and have a very large combinatorial background. Recently, HADES has been upgraded with new detectors and new electronics in order to handle higher intensity beams and reactions with heavy nuclei up to Au. HADES will continue for a few more years its rich physics program at its current place at SIS-18 and then move to the upcoming international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) accelerator complex. In this context the physics results presented in this work are important prerequisites for the investigation of in-medium vector meson properties in p + A and A+A collisions. This work consists of five chapters. The first chapter introduces the physics motivation and a review of recent physics results. In the second chapter, the HADES spectrometer is described and its sub-detectors are presented. Chapter three deals with the issue of lepton identification and the reconstruction of the dielectron spectra in p + p collisions is presented. Here, two reactions are characterized: inclusive and exclusive dilepton production reactions. From the spectra obtained, the corresponding cross sections are presented with the respective statistical and systematical errors. A comparison with theoretical models is included as well. Conclusions are given in chapter

  7. Dielectron analysis in p-p collisions at 3.5 GeV with the HADES spectrometer. {omega}-meson line shape and a new electronics readout for the multi-wire drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantola Peloni, Attilio

    2011-06-15

    The HADES (High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer) is an experimental apparatus installed at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI, Darmstadt. The main physics motivation of the HADES experiment is the measurement of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in the invariant-mass range up to 1 GeV/c{sup 2} in heavy-ion collisions as well as in pion and proton-induced reactions. The HADES physics program is focused on in-medium properties of the light vector mesons {rho}(770), {omega}(783) and {phi}(1020), which decay with a small branching ratio into dileptons. Dileptons are penetrating probes which allow to study the in-medium properties of hadrons. However, in heavy-ion collisions, the measurement of such lepton pairs is difficult because they are rare and have a very large combinatorial background. Recently, HADES has been upgraded with new detectors and new electronics in order to handle higher intensity beams and reactions with heavy nuclei up to Au. HADES will continue for a few more years its rich physics program at its current place at SIS-18 and then move to the upcoming international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) accelerator complex. In this context the physics results presented in this work are important prerequisites for the investigation of in-medium vector meson properties in p + A and A+A collisions. This work consists of five chapters. The first chapter introduces the physics motivation and a review of recent physics results. In the second chapter, the HADES spectrometer is described and its sub-detectors are presented. Chapter three deals with the issue of lepton identification and the reconstruction of the dielectron spectra in p + p collisions is presented. Here, two reactions are characterized: inclusive and exclusive dilepton production reactions. From the spectra obtained, the corresponding cross sections are presented with the respective statistical and systematical errors. A comparison with theoretical models is included as well

  8. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonamine, R., E-mail: ryo.yonamine@ulb.ac.be; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-11

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  9. Readout ASIC for ILC-FPCCD vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takubo, Yosuke; Miyamoto, Akiya; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Itagaki, Kennosuke; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The concept of FPCCD (Fine Pixel CCD) whose pixel size is 5x5μm 2 has been proposed as vertex detector at ILC. Since FPCCD has 128 x20,000 pixels in one readout channel, its readout poses a considerable challenge. We have developed a prototype of readout ASIC to readout the large number of pixels during the inter-train gap of the ILC beam. In this paper, we report the design and performance of the readout ASIC.

  10. D0 calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamberger, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description of the electronics used to readout the signals from the D0 Uranium-Liquid Argon Calorimeter is presented. The three major components of the readout system are the charge sensitive preamps, the shaping and sample and hold circuits, and the Analog to Digital converters. The very low noise preamps achieve an input noise equivalent to 2000e's + 3000e's per nanofarad of input capacitance. The coherent noise in the system is very low, less than 1/20 of an ADC count which is equivalent to about 200 KeV of energy incident on the detector. The ADC system contains a 12 bit, 5 μsecond successive approximation digitizer. We maintain a 15 bit dynamic range by automatically amplifying small signals after they are held, but before digitization. The ADC also contains pedestal and limit memory, to allow (on a channel by channel basis) offset subtraction, and suppression of small signals, symmetrically around zero signal. (orig.)

  11. The prototype readout chain for CBM using the AFCK board and its software components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizeau, Pierre-Alain; Emscherman, David; Lehnert, Jörg; Müller, Walter F. J.; Yang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a prototype for the readout chain of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment using the AFCK FPGA board as Data Processing Board (DPB). The components of the readout chain are described, followed by some test setups, all based on different flavors of AFCK-DPB. Details about the functional blocks in the different versions of the DPB firmware are given, followed by a description of the corresponding software elements.

  12. Design of a hysteretic SQUID as the readout for a dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper present a design for an optimal hysteretic SQUID readout circuit for a DC SQUID, thus eliminating the need for bulky output transformers or resonance matching circuits. The hysteretic readout system, which is based in part on standard sampling theory, is compared to another similar system and shown to be superior in terms of slew rate and immunity of electromagnetic interference. The circuit will be useful in optimizing the performance of biomagnetic systems

  13. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Klemish, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector

  14. Thermal Spray Applications in Electronics and Sensors: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Thermal spray has enjoyed unprecedented growth and has emerged as an innovative and multifaceted deposition technology. Thermal spray coatings are crucial to the enhanced utilization of various engineering systems. Industries, in recognition of thermal spray's versatility and economics, have introduced it into manufacturing environments. The majority of modern thermal spray applications are "passive" protective coatings, and they rarely perform an electronic function. The ability to consolidate dissimilar material multilayers without substrate thermal loading has long been considered a virtue for thick-film electronics. However, the complexity of understanding/controlling materials functions especially those resulting from rapid solidification and layered assemblage has stymied expansion into electronics. That situation is changing: enhancements in process/material science are allowing reconsideration for novel electronic/sensor devices. This review critically examines past efforts in terms of materials functionality from a device perspective, along with ongoing/future concepts addressing the aforementioned deficiencies. The analysis points to intriguing future possibilities for thermal spray technology in the world of thick-film sensors.

  15. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-10-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5.3 mm × 6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μ W. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μ W. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e - RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature.

  16. The GOTTHARD charge integrating readout detector: design and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozzanica, A; Bergamaschi, A; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Henrich, B; Johnson, I; Valeria, R; Schmitt, B; Xintian, S; Graafsma, H; Lohmann, M

    2012-01-01

    A charge integrating readout ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for silicon strip sensors has been developed at PSI in collaboration with DESY. The goal of the project is to provide a charge integrating readout system able to cope with the pulsed beam of XFEL machines and at the same time to retain the high dynamic range and single photon resolution performances typical for photon counting systems. The ASIC, designed in IBM 130 nm CMOS technology, takes advantage of its three gain stages with automatic stage selection to achieve a dynamic range of 10000 12 keV photons and a noise better than 300 e.n.c.. The 4 analog outputs of the ASIC are optimized for speed, allowing frame rates higher than 1 MHz, without compromises on linearity and noise performances. This work presents the design features of the ASIC, and reports the characterization results of the chip itself.

  17. TID-dependent current measurements of IBL readout chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dette, Karola [TU Dortmund, Experimentelle Physik IV (Germany); CERN (Switzerland); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS detector consists of several subsystems with a hybrid pixel detector as the innermost component of the tracking system. The pixel detector has been composed of three layers of silicon sensor assemblies during the first data taking run of the LHC and has been upgraded with a new 4th layer, the so-called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), in summer 2014. Each silicon sensor of the IBL is connected to a Front End readout chip (FE-I4) via bump bonds. During the first year of data taking an increase of the LV current produced by the readout chips was observed. This increase could be traced back to radiation damage inside the silicon. The dependence of the current on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and temperature has been tested with X-ray irradiations and will be presented in this talk.

  18. Test of a PCIe based readout option for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Simon; Lange, Soeren; Kuehn, Wolfgang [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Engel, Heiko [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The future PANDA detector will achieve an event rate at about 20 MHz resulting in a high data load of up to 200 GB/s. The data acquisition system will be based on a triggerless readout concept, leading to the requirement of large data bandwidths. The data reduction will be guaranteed on the first level by an array of FPGAs running a full on-line reconstruction followed by the second level of a CPU/GPU cluster to achieve a reduction factor more than 1000. The C-RORC (Common Readout Receiver Card), originally developed for ALICE, provides on the one hand 12 optical links with 6.25 Gbps each, and on the other hand a PCIe interface with up to 40 Gbps. The receiver card has been installed and tested, and the firmware has been adjusted for the Panda data format. Test results are presented.

  19. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M; Ballabriga, R.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile- ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  20. Front-end electronics development for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.

    1990-12-01

    This is a status report on electronics development undertaken by the Front-End Electronics Collaboration. The overall goal of the collaboration remains the development by 1992 of complete, architecturally compatible, front end electronic systems for calorimeter, wire drift chamber, and silicon strip readout. We report here a few highlights to give a brief overview of the work underway. Performance requirements and capabilities, selected architectures, circuit designs and test results are presented. 13 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  1. Contributions to noise in the data readout for Trigger Tracker in the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bieler, Ueli

    This thesis reports the analysis of contributions to noise in the data readout for Trigger Tracker in the LHCb experiment. Measurements have shown that some specific data channels have more noise than the others. This additional contributions to noise cannot be explained by basic electronic noise principles of the detector but by noise sources in the readout chain. The focus is on the channels near the header. Because of a crosstalk effect in the readout electronics the pseudo- digital header affects the close-by analog data channels. Therefore the correlation between the header and the data channels is studied precisely by self-made analysis tools in order to develop an algorithm that cancels the crosstalk contribution to noise. Thanks the algorithm the noise can be reduced efficiently.

  2. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M

    2015-01-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds

  3. Development of the specialized integrated circuit for signal readout from micro-strip structures of a coordinate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.; Shekhtman, L.; Zhulanov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents current status of development of a specialized 64-channel integrated circuit (IC, ASIC) for front-end electronics of coordinate detectors in the Budker INP. The ASIC is produced using 180 nm process. During the recording phase the IC allows integration of short current pulses from strips of a coordinate sensor, and storing of up to 100 corresponding charge values in the analogue memory with minimum time interval of 100 ns. Maximum input charge is equal to 2×10 6 electrons, equivalent noise charge is ∼2.7×10 3 electrons. Conversion of the data, stored in the analogue memory, to digital form is performed by an external ADC during the readout through an analogue multiplexer

  4. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  5. Metal and Silicate Particles Including Nanoparticles Are Present in Electronic Cigarette Cartomizer Fluid and Aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monique; Villarreal, Amanda; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Lin, Sabrina; Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (EC) deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC. Methods Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed...

  6. [Evaluation of Image Quality of Readout Segmented EPI with Readout Partial Fourier Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuuki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyahara, Kanae

    Readout segmented EPI (readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains: RESOLVE) segmented k-space in the readout direction. By using the partial Fourier method in the readout direction, the imaging time was shortened. However, the influence on image quality due to insufficient data sampling is concerned. The setting of the partial Fourier method in the readout direction in each segment was changed. Then, we examined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and distortion ratio for changes in image quality due to differences in data sampling. As the number of sampling segments decreased, SNR and CNR showed a low value. In addition, the distortion ratio did not change. The image quality of minimum sampling segments is greatly different from full data sampling, and caution is required when using it.

  7. Optimization of a readout board for mass assembly and light yield measurements with a cosmic ray test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Phi [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We have built a readout board prototype, equipped with SiPMs, scintillators and readout electronics for an highly granular calorimeter. The design was optimized for mass assembly due to about 8 million channels in the final detector. The prototype showed good performance in several test beams and in a cosmic ray test stand, which was built to characterize the MIP response of these kinds of boards. We show an overview of the cosmic ray test stand and measurement results for the readout board and plans for an improved 2nd generation prototype.

  8. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  9. The effects of electron beam irradiation on additives present in food-contact polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, Andrew.

    1991-09-01

    A range of additives (Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, Irganox 1330, Irgafos 168 and Tinuvin 622) has been incorporated into a variety of food-contact polymers including polypropylene and low density polyethylene. Samples of these stabilized polymers were subjected to electron-beam or gamma irradiation to receive doses of 1,5,10,25 and 50 kGy. The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the amount of extractable antioxidant in polymers were determined. Using hplc techniques it was found that there was a dose-related reduction in the amount of extractable antioxidant similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. The magnitude of this reduction was found to be dependent upon the nature of both the antioxidant and the polymer type. Electron-beam irradiation was also found to cause a dose-related reduction in the levels of the antioxidants Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 migrating from polymers into a food simulant. This effect was similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. (author)

  10. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  11. Performance of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter with fast readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Franz, A.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.F.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sala, P.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.; Towers, S.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype lead-liquid-argon electromagnetic calorimeter with parallel plates and Accordion geometry has been equipped with high speed readout electronics and tested with electron and muon beams at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of about 35 ns, fast enough for operation at the future hadron colliders, the energy resolution for electrons is 9.6%/√E[GeV] with a local constant term of 0.3% and a noise contribution of 0.33/E[GeV]. The spatial accuracy achieved with a detector granularity of 2.7 cm is 3.7 mm/√E[GeV] and the angular resolution 12 mrad at 60 GeV. (orig.)

  12. Operation of a GEM-TPC with pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Kaminski, J; Killenberg, M; Krautscheid, T

    2012-01-01

    A prototype time projection chamber with 26 cm drift length was operated with a short-spaced triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) stack in a setup triggering on cosmic muon tracks. A small part of the anode plane is read out with a CMOS pixel application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) named Timepix, which provides ultimate readout granularity. Pixel clusters of charge depositions corresponding to single primary electrons are observed and analyzed to reconstruct charged particle tracks. A dataset of several weeks of cosmic ray data is analyzed. The number of clusters per track length is well described by simulation. The obtained single point resolution approaches 50 m at short drift distances and is well reproduced by a simple model of single-electron diffusion.

  13. A Discrete Component Low-Noise Preamplifier Readout for a Linear (1x16) SiC Photodiode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Duncan; Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Frederico A.; Waczynski, Augustyn

    2016-01-01

    A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1x16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analogue signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power.

  14. A discrete component low-noise preamplifier readout for a linear (1×16) SiC photodiode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahle, Duncan [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Detector Systems Branch, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Aslam, Shahid, E-mail: shahid.aslam-1@nasa.gov [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Planetary Systems Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Herrero, Federico A.; Waczynski, Augustyn [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Detector Systems Branch, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-09-11

    A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1×16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analog signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power.

  15. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Varner, G.; Cooney, M.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10 -4 . A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  16. Tracking animals in freshwater with electronic tags: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Thiem, Jason D.; Klimley, Peter; Lucas, Martyn C.; Thorstad, Eva B.; Eiler, John; Holbrook, Chris; Ebner, Brendan C.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable technical developments over the past half century have enabled widespread application of electronic tags to the study of animals in the wild, including in freshwater environments. We review the constraints associated with freshwater telemetry and biologging and the technical developments relevant to their use. Technical constraints for tracking animals are often influenced by the characteristics of the animals being studied and the environment they inhabit. Collectively, they influence which and how technologies can be used and their relative effectiveness. Although radio telemetry has historically been the most commonly used technology in freshwater, passive integrated transponder (PIT) technology, acoustic telemetry and biologgers are becoming more popular. Most telemetry studies have focused on fish, although an increasing number have focused on other taxa, such as turtles, crustaceans and molluscs. Key technical developments for freshwater systems include: miniaturization of tags for tracking small-size life stages and species, fixed stations and coded tags for tracking large samples of animals over long distances and large temporal scales, inexpensive PIT systems that enable mass tagging to yield population- and community-level relevant sample sizes, incorporation of sensors into electronic tags, validation of tag attachment procedures with a focus on maintaining animal welfare, incorporation of different techniques (for example, genetics, stable isotopes) and peripheral technologies (for example, geographic information systems, hydroacoustics), development of novel analytical techniques, and extensive international collaboration. Innovations are still needed in tag miniaturization, data analysis and visualization, and in tracking animals over larger spatial scales (for example, pelagic areas of lakes) and in challenging environments (for example, large dynamic floodplain systems, under ice). There seems to be a particular need for adapting

  17. Description of the SAltro-16 chip for gas detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P; Garcia Garcia, E; de Gaspari, M; Mager, M; Musa, L; Rehman, A; Trampitsch, G

    2010-01-01

    The S-ALTRO prototype chip is a mixed-signal integrated circuit designed to be one of the building blocks of the readout electronics for gas detectors. Its architecture is based in the ALTRO (ALICE TPC Read Out) chip, being its main difference the integration of the charge shaping amplifier in the same IC. Just like ALTRO chip, the prototype architecture and programmability make it suitable for the readout of a wider class of detectors. In one single chip, 16 analogue signals from the detector are shaped, digitised, processed, compressed and stored in a multi-acquisition memory. The Analogue-to- Digital converters embedded in the chip have a 10-bit dynamic range and a maximum sampling rate up to 40MHz. After digitisation, a pipelined Data Processor is able to remove from the input signal a wide range of perturbations, related to the non- ideal behaviour of the detector, temperature variation of the electronics, environmental noise, etc. Moreover, the Data Processor is able to suppress the pulse tail within 1�...

  18. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, C., E-mail: C.Lippmann@gsi.de

    2016-07-11

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb–Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  19. Present status on the use of electron accelerator for wastewater treatment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Han, Bum Soo; Choi, Jang Seung; Kang, Ho

    2006-01-01

    In the part 1, four major irradiation R and D works studied in field of wastewater treatment in Korea were introduced. Disinfection of total coli-forms in unchlorinated secondary effluent, removal of color in dyeing wastewater and feasibility test to control algal bloom used the electron beam as a radiation source. Treatment of groundwater polluted by TCE and PCE used gamma rays as a radiation source. Backgrounds and experimental results on each research topic were introduced. In the part 2, national on-going projects related to wastewater treatment using irradiation technology in Korea were introduced. With regarding these projects, EB treatment plant for textile dyeing wastewater was described based on the construction and evaluation of ecological stability. (author)

  20. Social Media and Oncology: The Past, Present, and Future of Electronic Communication Between Physician and Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark A; Dicker, Adam P

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between patient and physician is in flux with the advent of electronic media that are advancing and enhancing communication. We perform a retrospective, current, and forward-looking examination of the technologies by which information is exchanged within the healthcare community. The evolution from e-mail and listservs to blogs and the modern social networks is described, with emphasis on the advantages and pitfalls of each medium, especially in regard to maintaining the standards of privacy and professionalism to which doctors are held accountable. We support the use of contemporary platforms like Twitter and Facebook for physicians to establish themselves as trustworthy online sources of medical knowledge, and anticipate ongoing collaboration between researchers, patients, and their advocates in trial design and accrual. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.