WorldWideScience

Sample records for reading delay benefit

  1. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  2. Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobbe, Tim; Hartlaub, Bradley A.; Whitaker, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of…

  3. Eye Movement Control in Scene Viewing and Reading: Evidence from the Stimulus Onset Delay Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Steven G.; Nuthmann, Antje; Henderson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used the stimulus onset delay paradigm to investigate eye movement control in reading and in scene viewing in a within-participants design. Short onset delays (0, 25, 50, 200, and 350 ms) were chosen to simulate the type of natural processing difficulty encountered in reading and scene viewing. Fixation duration increased…

  4. Delayed benefit of naps on motor learning in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Phillip C; Kurdziel, Laura B F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-03-01

    Sleep benefits memory consolidation across a variety of domains in young adults. However, while declarative memories benefit from sleep in young children, such improvements are not consistently seen for procedural skill learning. Here we examined whether performance improvements on a procedural task, although not immediately observed, are evident after a longer delay when augmented by overnight sleep (24 h after learning). We trained 47 children, aged 33-71 months, on a serial reaction time task and, using a within-subject design, evaluated performance at three time points: immediately after learning, after a daytime nap (nap condition) or equivalent wake opportunity (wake condition), and 24 h after learning. Consistent with previous studies, performance improvements following the nap did not differ from performance improvements following an equivalent interval spent awake. However, significant benefits of the nap were found when performance was assessed 24 h after learning. This research demonstrates that motor skill learning is benefited by sleep, but that this benefit is only evident after an extended period of time.

  5. Benefits of Delay Tolerant Networking for Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Faith; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been much discussion about the value of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) for space missions. Claims of various benefits, based on paper analysis, are good; however a benefits statement with empirical evidence to support is even better. This paper presents potential and actual advantages of using DTN for Earth science missions based on results from multiple demonstrations, conducted by the Communications, Standards, and Technology Laboratory (CSTL) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Demonstrations included two flight demonstrations using the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Near Earth Network (NEN), a ground based demonstration over satellite links to the Internet Router in Space (IRIS) payload on Intelsat-14, and others using the NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Real and potential findings include increased flexibility and efficiency in science campaigns, reduced latency in a collaborative science scenario, and improved scientist-instrument communication and control.

  6. Social Process Variables Affecting Reading Performance in Delayed Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Christopher

    1978-01-01

    Examines the relationship between 14 social process variables and the reading performances of 180 slow learners, ages 7-15. Finds that two of those factors (brith trauma and being held back in school) emerge as predictors of reading comprehension, word recognition, and spelling. (RL)

  7. [Language and behavioral difficulties at age 3 and half and reading delay in grade 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier, L; Dellatolas, G; Chevrie-Muller, C

    2006-09-01

    Early detection of specific language impairment and dyslexia in children is an important public health problem. Longitudinal studies are needed for the distinction of real impairments from simple transitory delays. Teachers filled a 29-item questionnaire on language and behavior for 695 children aged 3.5 years. Four years later (at second grade of primary school) the same children were evaluated for reading and writing. Statistical analysis focused on the relationships between teacher's early observations and reading delay 4 years later. Associated factors were age, sex, educational level and bilinguism of the parents, and area of the school. The delay in written language acquisition (8.5% of the children) was significantly associated with low educational level (but not bilinguism) of the parents and to the area of the school. In univariate analysis, most of the teacher's early negative assessments were significantly related to reading/writing delay, with the exception of some behavioral problems. However, when the effect of associated factors was taken into account only a few items, mainly concerning language expression, remained significantly associated with later reading/writing delay. These data show a major role of associated factors (educational level of the parents, area of the school) in reading delay, and help to select specific teacher's observations for an early prediction of this delay.

  8. When can insurers offer products that dominate delayed old-age pension benefit claiming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Nijman, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice for public pension schemes to offer individuals the option to delay benefit claiming until after the normal retirement age, and increase the annual benefit level as a result. Existing literature shows that for non-liquidity constrained individuals, delaying benefit claiming for

  9. Preschoolers' Reading Skills Benefit from One Modest Change by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmeier, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    A small change in how teachers and parents read aloud to preschoolers may provide a big boost to their reading skills later on, a new study found. That change involves making specific references to print in books while reading--such as pointing out letters and words on the pages, showing capital letters, and showing how they read from left to…

  10. Language delays, reading delays, and learning difficulties: interactive elements requiring multidimensional programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Ian; Elias, Gordon; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized four levels of instructional dialogue and claimed that teachers can improve children's language development by incorporating these dialogue levels in their classrooms. It has also been hypothesized that enhancing children's early language development enhances children's later reading development. This quasi-experimental research study investigated both of these hypotheses using a collaborative service delivery model for Grade 1 children with language difficulties from a socially and economically disadvantaged urban community in Australia. Comparing the end-of-year reading achievement scores for the 57 children who received the language intervention with those of the 59 children in the comparison group, the findings from this research are supportive of both hypotheses. The interrelationships between learning difficulties, reading difficulties, and language difficulties are discussed along with children's development in vocabulary, use of memory strategies and verbal reasoning, and the need for multidimensional programming.

  11. Promoting Listening Reading Comprehension for Nonverbal English Language Learners Who Have a Severe Intellectual Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Talya

    2012-01-01

    This study used an alternating treatment design to examine the use of a listening reading comprehension intervention package. This package was implemented in English as well as bilingually (on alternating days). This package was applied to four participants who were English Language Learners, were diagnosed with a severe intellectual delay, and…

  12. Otitis media: is precursor of delayed reading in Arabic speaking children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Safinaz Nagib; Rhman, Samir Shokr A

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relation between otitis media in the language acquisition years and the occurrence of delayed reading between the ages of 7 and 10. Participants were 40 children, half of whom had a history of otitis media between the ages of birth and three years and half who were free of the disease. These children, now ages 7-10, were tested with the Stanford Beint and Arabic Dyslexia Assessment Test. Children with a history of otitis media scored over a year below grade level in reading and significantly below controls on Arabic Dyslexia Assessment tests as well as on the Verbal IQ factor on the Stanford Binet. Children with early onset otitis media (birth to three years) tend to be at greater risk for delayed reading than age-matched controls. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Does delaying the first mowing date benefit biodiversity in meadowland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert Jean-Yves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meadows are regularly mown in order to provide fodder or litter for livestock and to prevent vegetation succession. However, the time of year at which meadows should be first mown in order to maximize biological diversity remains controversial and may vary with respect to context and focal taxa. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of delaying the first mowing date upon plants and invertebrates in European meadowlands. Methods Following a CEE protocol, ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, JSTOR, Google and Google Scholar were searched. We recorded all studies that compared the species richness of plants, or the species richness or abundance of invertebrates, between grassland plots mown at a postponed date (treatment vs plots mown earlier (control. In order to be included in the meta-analysis, compared plots had to be similar in all management respects, except the date of the first cut that was (mostly experimentally manipulated. They were also to be located in the same meadow type. Meta-analyses applying Hedges’d statistic were performed. Results Plant species richness responded differently to the date to which mowing was postponed. Delaying mowing from spring to summer had a positive effect, while delaying either from spring to fall, or from early summer to later in the season had a negative effect. Invertebrates were expected to show a strong response to delayed mowing due to their dependence on sward structure, but only species richness showed a clearly significant positive response. Invertebrate abundance was positively influenced in only a few studies. Conclusions The present meta-analysis shows that in general delaying the first mowing date in European meadowlands has either positive or neutral effects on plant and invertebrate biodiversity (except for plant species richness when delaying from spring to fall or from early summer to later. Overall, there was also strong between

  14. Modelling the Costs and Benefits of Delayed Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hau L. Lee; Christopher S. Tang

    1997-01-01

    Expanding product variety and high customer service provision are both major challenges for manufacturers to compete in the global market. In addition to many ongoing programs, such as lead-time reduction, redesigning products and processes so as to delay the point of product differentiation is becoming an emerging means to address these challenges. Such a strategy calls for redesigning products and processes so that the stages of the production process in which a common process is used are p...

  15. Does delaying the first mowing date benefit biodiversity in meadowland?

    OpenAIRE

    Humbert J.Y. J. Pellet P. Buri & R. Arlettaz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Meadows are regularly mown in order to provide fodder or litter for livestock and to prevent vegetation succession. However the time of year at which meadows should be first mown in order to maximize biological diversity remains controversial and may vary with respect to context and focal taxa. We carried out a systematic review and meta analysis on the effects of delaying the first mowing date upon plants and invertebrates in European meadowlands. Methods: Following a CEE protoco...

  16. Claims Procedure for Plans Providing Disability Benefits; 90-Day Delay of Applicability Date. Final rule; delay of applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    This document delays for ninety (90) days--through April 1, 2018--the applicability of a final rule amending the claims procedure requirements applicable to ERISA-covered employee benefit plans that provide disability benefits (Final Rule). The Final Rule was published in the Federal Register on December 19, 2016, became effective on January 18, 2017, and was scheduled to become applicable on January 1, 2018. The delay announced in this document is necessary to enable the Department of Labor to carefully consider comments and data as part of its effort, pursuant to Executive Order 13777, to examine regulatory alternatives that meet its objectives of ensuring the full and fair review of disability benefit claims while not imposing unnecessary costs and adverse consequences.

  17. Benefits of Repeated Book Readings in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Ceurremans, Josefa; Horst, Jessica S.

    2018-01-01

    In this pilot study, we ask whether repeated storybook reading is also beneficial for word learning in children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI). We compared 3-year-old German learning children diagnosed with SLI to typically developing children matched on age and socioeconomic status (SES). One week later, children with SLI…

  18. "Show-Me Bedtime Reading'" An Unusual Study of the Benefits of Reading to Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Deborah

    1989-01-01

    Nine primary-age children at a residential school for the deaf were read bedtime stories using a Total Communication approach. Every child subsequently demonstrated growth on each of several language assessments, including language comprehension and expressive language. (JDD)

  19. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  20. The Effects of Play-Based Intervention on Vocabulary Acquisition by Preschoolers at Risk for Reading and Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Ragan H.; Hardy, Jessica K.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2017-01-01

    Closing the vocabulary gap for young children at risk for reading and language delays due to low socioeconomic status may have far reaching effects, as the relationship between early vocabulary knowledge and later academic achievement has been well-established. Vocabulary instruction for young children at risk for reading and language delays…

  1. Reading and understanding employee benefit plan financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C; Van Sertima, Michael A

    2004-03-01

    If your employee benefit plan has more than 100 participants, chances are you've had to work your way through the audited financial statements you're required to include with your Form 5500 filing. These statements contain a wealth of information about the financial health of your plan, and understanding them is an important fiduciary responsibility. To strengthen your grasp of financial statements, this article gives an overview that will make a plan's financial statements more informative, explains their basic structure and provides information on some of the more arcane aspects (such as actuarial tables). While this article focuses on Taft-Hartley (multiemployer) plans, much of it applies to other types of employee benefit plans.

  2. Dyslexie font does not benefit reading in children with or without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Sanne M; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Gompel, Marjolein; Bosman, Anna M T

    2017-12-04

    In two experiments, the claim was tested that the font "Dyslexie", specifically designed for people with dyslexia, eases reading performance of children with (and without) dyslexia. Three questions were investigated. (1) Does the Dyslexie font lead to faster and/or more accurate reading? (2) Do children have a preference for the Dyslexie font? And, (3) is font preference related to reading performance? In Experiment 1, children with dyslexia (n = 170) did not read text written in Dyslexie font faster or more accurately than in Arial font. The majority preferred reading in Arial and preference was not related to reading performance. In Experiment 2, children with (n = 102) and without dyslexia (n = 45) read word lists in three different font types (Dyslexie, Arial, Times New Roman). Words written in Dyslexie font were not read faster or more accurately. Moreover, participants showed a preference for the fonts Arial and Times New Roman rather than Dyslexie, and again, preference was not related to reading performance. These experiments clearly justify the conclusion that the Dyslexie font neither benefits nor impedes the reading process of children with and without dyslexia.

  3. Analyzing the Extensive Reading Approach: Benefits and Challenges in the Mexican Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Varona Archer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some scholars have highlighted the benefits of using extensive reading as a way to motivate students to learn a second language (L2. This article is derived from a study that aimed at implementing extensive reading in an action research project in a public University in Mexico. Therefore, the following article examines some arguments of different researchers who have carried out extensive reading studies in contexts of teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL. The implementation issues of this reading approach are also analyzed by the approach’s constraints and educational practices in the Mexican TEFL context. The concluding remarks are an attempt to contribute to the growth of future research in the field of extensive reading in Mexico.

  4. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

  5. Resistance delaying strategies on UK sheep farms: A cost benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Glover, Mike J; Taylor, Mike A

    2018-04-30

    UK guidelines for the sustainable control of parasites in sheep (SCOPS) were formulated with the primary aim of delaying development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) on UK sheep farms. Promoting their use requires the engagement and commitment of stakeholders. An important driver for behavioural change in sheep farmers is evidence of economic benefits. A recent evaluation of SCOPS guidance in practice demonstrated a significant reduction in anthelmintic use, suggesting economic benefits through a direct reduction in product and labour costs. However, in order to maintain production, a range of alternative control strategies are advised, resulting in additional costs to farmers and so a full cost benefit analysis of best practice management was undertaken. We allocated financial values to the management recommendations described in the SCOPS technical manual. Benefits were calculated using data for production variables and anthelmintic use measured during studies to evaluate the effect of SCOPS recommendations on 16 UK sheep farms and from other published work. As SCOPS control is not prescriptive and a range of different diagnostics are available, best and worst case scenarios were presented, comparing the cheapest methods (e.g. egg counts without larval culture) and management situations (e.g closed flocks not requiring quarantine treatments) with the most laborious and expensive. Simulations were run for farms with a small, medium or large flock (300; 1000; 1900 ewes) as well as comparing scenarios with and without potential production benefits from using effective wormers. Analysis demonstrated a moderate cost for all farms under both scenarios when production benefits were not included. A cost benefit was demonstrated for medium and large farms when production benefits were included and the benefit could be perceived as significant in the case of the large farms for the best case scenario (>£5000 per annum). Despite a significant potential reduction in

  6. Adaptive working-memory training benefits reading, but not mathematics in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Julia; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity is highly correlated with general cognitive ability and has proven to be an excellent predictor for academic success. Given that WM can be improved by training, our aim was to test whether WM training benefited academic abilities in elementary-school children. We examined 28 participants (mean age = 8.3 years, SD = 0.4) in a pretest-training-posttest-follow-up design. Over 14 training sessions, children either performed adaptive WM training (training group, n = 14) or nonadaptive low-level training (active control group, n = 14) on the same tasks. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up at 3 months after posttest included a neurocognitive test battery (WM, task switching, inhibition) and standardized tests for math and reading abilities. Adaptive WM training resulted in larger training gains than nonadaptive low-level training. The benefits induced by the adaptive training transferred to an untrained WM task and a standardized test for reading ability, but not to task switching, inhibition, or performance on a standardized math test. Transfer to the untrained WM task was maintained over 3 months. The analysis of individual differences revealed compensatory effects with larger gains in children with lower WM and reading scores at pretest. These training and transfer effects are discussed against the background of cognitive processing resulting from WM span training and the nature of the intervention.

  7. Comparison of Meaning and Graphophonemic Feedback Strategies for Guided Reading Instruction of Children with Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Theresa A.; Selle, Carrie A.; Riley, Sarah A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Guided reading is a common practice recommended for children in the early stages of literacy development. While experts agree that oral reading facilitates literacy skills, controversy exists concerning which corrective feedback strategies are most effective. The purpose of this study was to compare feedback procedures stemming from 2…

  8. Semantic Interference in Immediate and Delayed Naming and Reading: Attention and Task Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitoria; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Disagreement exists about whether lexical selection in word production is a competitive process. Competition predicts semantic interference from distractor words in immediate but not in delayed picture naming. In contrast, Janssen, Schirm, Mahon, and Caramazza (2008) obtained semantic interference in delayed picture naming when participants had to…

  9. A self-adjusting delay circuit for pixel read-out chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raith, B.

    1997-01-01

    A simple concept for automatic adjustment of important VLSI-circuit properties was proposed in (Fischer and Joens, Nucl. Instr. and. Meth.). As an application, a self-adjusting monoflop is reviewed, and detailed measurements are discussed regarding a possible implementation in the LHC 1 read-out chip for the ATLAS experiment (ATLAS Internal Note, 1995). (orig.)

  10. Individual dispersal delays in a cooperative breeder: Ecological constraints, the benefits of philopatry and the social queue for dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Flower, Martha J; Wiley, Elizabeth M; Flower, Tom P; Ridley, Amanda R

    2018-03-20

    Delayed dispersal is a key step in the evolution of familial animal societies and cooperative breeding. However, no consensus has been reached on the ecological and social circumstances driving delayed dispersal. Here, we test predictions from the ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry hypotheses as well as the recently proposed dual benefits hypothesis to better understand the evolution of group-living and cooperative breeding. Furthermore, we consider how individual social circumstances within groups affect dispersal decisions. We examine 11 years of life-history information on a wild population of cooperatively breeding southern pied babblers Turdoides bicolor. We investigate the effects of ecological conditions, natal-group membership and individual social context on male and female dispersal delays, disperser survival and acquisition of dominance. Female dispersal decisions are generally unconstrained by ecological or social circumstances. In contrast, males disperse in response to relaxed ecological constraints, decreases in nepotistic tolerance or when low social rank in the queue for dominance decreases their likelihood of gaining a dominant breeding position. Early dispersal by end-of-queue males often leads to a head-of-queue subordinate position in a non-natal group, thereby increasing access to dominant breeding positions. However, males and females remaining in natal groups gain benefits of philopatry via increased survival and, for head-of-queue males, very high likelihood of acquisition of a breeding position. Overall, predictions from the dual benefits hypothesis best describe these results, while some predictions from each of the ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry hypotheses were supported. The benefits of living and working together (collective action benefits) in large stable groups are of central importance in shaping dispersal delays in southern pied babbler societies. In addition, position in the subordinate social

  11. A MWPC with a cathode coupled delay line read-out as radioactivity detector for DNA repair studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Del Guerra, A.; Massai, M.M.; Ragadini, M.; Spandre, G.; Tonelli, G.

    1981-01-01

    A non selective method for the isolation of DNA repair-deficient mutants in mammalian cells is discussed. The method requires radioactive labelling of the short DNA sequences synthesized during repair of damaged regions. Mutants should be recognized by the absence of radioactive incorporation into their DNA. A multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) is proposed as a suitable radioactivity detector. The performance of a MWPC prototype with a cathode coupled delay line read-out is described and is shown to be adequate for this application. The main advantages of a MWPC are reviewed with respect to other methods used for β - radioactivity counting of biological samples, such as liquid scintillators or autoradiography: the proposed detection method is non destructive for the cells, which are being kept alive for further biological studies, furthermore many cell clones can be screened within a reasonable time. (orig.)

  12. No economic benefit of early knee reconstruction over optional delayed reconstruction for ACL tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Englund, Martin; Stefan Lohmander, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyse 5-year cost-effectiveness of early versus optional delayed acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods 121 young, active adults with acute ACL injury to a previously uninjured knee were randomised to early ACL reconstruction (n=62, within 10 weeks of injur...

  13. Dyslexie font does not benefit reading in children with or without dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuster, S.M.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Gompel, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2018-01-01

    In two experiments, the claim was tested that the font "Dyslexie", specifically designed for people with dyslexia, eases reading performance of children with (and without) dyslexia. Three questions were investigated. (1) Does the Dyslexie font lead to faster and/or more accurate reading? (2) Do

  14. The Impact of Text Structure Reading Strategy Instruction in a Second Language: Benefits across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ana Isabel; Mendoza, Laura; Meyer, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of learning a text structure strategy (TSS) for improving reading comprehension and recall for second language (L2) learners, as well as to test for transfer of the strategy to the native language (L1). University L2 learners of English completed a five-session course on using the TSS to…

  15. Bimodal Reading: Benefits of a Talking Computer for Average and Less Skilled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montali, Julie; Lewandowski, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen average readers and 18 less-skilled readers (grades 8 and 9) were presented with social studies and science passages via a computer either visually (on screen), auditorily (read by digitized voice), or bimodally (on screen, highlighted while being voiced). Less-skilled readers demonstrated comprehension in the bimodal condition equivalent…

  16. Benefits and harms of general health checks- lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arreskov, Anne Beiter; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke

    the paper using the method of critical appraisal. Session content The didactic method used in the workshop is mostly small group activities with eight participants and two tutors in each group. The participants will receive two scientific papers: the BMJ-version of the Cochrane review about general health......Abstract title: Benefits and harms of general health checks - lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature Objectives After this workshop the participants will know the basics of how to read a systematic literature review and interpret a meta-analysis and be able......, assesses, and implements methods of diagnosis and treatment on the basis of the best available current research, clinical expertise, and combines this with the needs and preferences of the patient, is termed evidence-based medicine. By learning and practising the principles of evidence-based medicine, GPs...

  17. Assessing public benefits and costs of freight transportation projects : measuring shippers' value of delay on the freight system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Freight delay is detrimental to the national economy. In an effort to gauge the economic impact of freight delay due : to highway congestion, this project focuses on estimating shippers value of delay (VOD). We have accomplished : this through thr...

  18. Costs and Benefits of Orthographic Inconsistency in Reading: Evidence from a Cross-Linguistic Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Valeria Marinelli

    Full Text Available We compared reading acquisition in English and Italian children up to late primary school analyzing RTs and errors as a function of various psycholinguistic variables and changes due to experience. Our results show that reading becomes progressively more reliant on larger processing units with age, but that this is modulated by consistency of the language. In English, an inconsistent orthography, reliance on larger units occurs earlier on and it is demonstrated by faster RTs, a stronger effect of lexical variables and lack of length effect (by fifth grade. However, not all English children are able to master this mode of processing yielding larger inter-individual variability. In Italian, a consistent orthography, reliance on larger units occurs later and it is less pronounced. This is demonstrated by larger length effects which remain significant even in older children and by larger effects of a global factor (related to speed of orthographic decoding explaining changes of performance across ages. Our results show the importance of considering not only overall performance, but inter-individual variability and variability between conditions when interpreting cross-linguistic differences.

  19. Reading: Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2018-01-01

    Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:

  20. Reading Comprehension in Quiet and in Noise: Effects on Immediate and Delayed Recall in Relation to Tinnitus and High-Frequency Hearing Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Waechter, Sebastian

    2018-06-01

    A common complaint by people with tinnitus is that they experience that the tinnitus causes attention and concentration problems. Previous studies have examined how tinnitus influences cognitive performance on short and intensive cognitive tasks but without proper control of hearing status. To examine the impact tinnitus and high-frequency hearing thresholds have on reading comprehension in quiet and in background noise. A between-group design with matched control participants. One group of participants with tinnitus (n = 20) and an age and gender matched control group without tinnitus (n = 20) participated. Both groups had normal hearing thresholds (20 dB HL at frequencies 0.125 to 8 kHz). Measurements were made assessing hearing thresholds and immediate and delayed recall using a reading comprehension test in quiet and in noise. All participants completed the Swedish version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and participants with tinnitus also completed the Tinnitus Questionnaire. The groups did not differ in immediate nor delayed recall. Accounting for the effect of age, a significant positive correlation was found between best ear high-frequency pure tone average (HF-PTA; 10000, 12500, and 14000 Hz) and the difference score between immediate and delayed recall in noise. Tinnitus seems to have no effect on immediate and delayed recall in quiet or in background noise when hearing status is controlled for. The detrimental effect of background noise on the processes utilized for efficient encoding into long-term memory is larger in participants with better HF-PTA. More specifically, when reading in noise, participants with better HF-PTA seem to recall less information than participants with poorer HF-PTA. American Academy of Audiology.

  1. Benefit of Delayed Fertility Therapy With Preconception Weight Loss Over Immediate Therapy in Obese Women With PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Dodson, William C; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Williams, Nancy I; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Allison, Kelly C; Sarwer, David B; Diamond, Michael P; Schlaff, William D; Casson, Peter R; Christman, Gregory M; Barnhart, Kurt T; Bates, G Wright; Usadi, Rebecca; Lucidi, Scott; Baker, Valerie; Zhang, Heping; Eisenberg, Esther; Coutifaris, Christos; Dokras, Anuja

    2016-07-01

    In overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the relative benefit of delaying infertility treatment to lose weight vs seeking immediate treatment is unknown. We compared the results of two, multicenter, concurrent clinical trials treating infertility in women with PCOS. This was a secondary analysis of two randomized trials conducted at academic health centers studying women 18-40 years of age who were overweight/obese and infertile with PCOS. We compared immediate treatment with clomiphene from the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOS II) trial (N = 187) to delayed treatment with clomiphene after preconception treatment with continuous oral contraceptives, lifestyle modification (Lifestyle: including caloric restriction, antiobesity medication, behavioral modification, and exercise) or the combination of both (combined) from the Treatment of Hyperandrogenism Versus Insulin Resistance in Infertile Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (OWL PCOS) trial (N = 142). Live birth, pregnancy loss, and ovulation were measured. In PPCOS II, after four cycles of clomiphene, the cumulative per-cycle ovulation rate was 44.7% (277/619) and the cumulative live birth rate was 10.2% (19/187), nearly identical to that after oral contraceptive pretreatment in the OWL PCOS trial (ovulation 45% [67/149] and live birth: 8.5% [4/47]). In comparison, deferred clomiphene treatment preceded by lifestyle and combined treatment in OWL PCOS offered a significantly better cumulative ovulation rate compared to immediate treatment with clomiphene. (Lifestyle: 62.0% [80/129]; risk ratio compared to PPCOS II = 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.7; P = .003; combined: 64.3% [83/129]; risk ratio compared to PPCOS II = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8; P treatment with clomiphene citrate when preceded by lifestyle modification with weight loss compared with immediate treatment. Pretreatment with oral contraceptives likely has little effect on the ovulation and live birth rate compared

  2. Delayed Release from Proactive Interference with Meaningful Material: How Much Do We Remember After Reading Brief Prose Passages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Gary B.; Robbins, Donald

    1977-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted, investigating the buildup of and the release from proactive interference, in which the stimulus materials were brief prose passages about specific topics. Each passage was followed by a multiple-choice test, and then a final test on all the passages read was given. Implications of the data for standardized tests…

  3. To What Extent Does Hong Kong Primary School Students' Chinese Reading Comprehension Benefit from After-School Private Tuition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek Kam

    2014-01-01

    The reading attainment of the 3,875 primary 4 Hong Kong primary school students participating in the 2011 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study ranked first among 49 countries and regions surveyed worldwide. Analysis of the association between (a) participating students' reading attainment and (b) responses to questionnaires completed…

  4. Preparing for College Success: Exploring Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Benefits of a College Reading and Study Skills Course through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christy M.; Moret, Lanette; Faulconer, Johna; Cannon, Tanya; Tomlin, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate students' perceptions of the benefits of a college reading and study skills course. Researchers have found that even with increased emphasis on college readiness, many students continue to enter college unprepared for the rigorous academic expectations they may face. With this in mind, this…

  5. Promoting reading skills or wasting time? Students’ perceived benefits of reading in an intermediary programme at the Vaal University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Scott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the substantial transformation of education in South Africa in the last 20 years, specifically to redress the past inequalities, the challenges are ongoing. These challenges include tertiary institutions having to accommodate a culturally and linguistically diverse group of students, often second-language (L2 English speakers, in an English lingua franca classroom. This study investigated the reading attitudes and habits of students in an intermediary programme of a tertiary institution and any perceived changes to these attitudes or habits, as well as their perceptions of the promotion of reading by the programme. On successful completion of the intermediary programme, students register for the compulsory first-year English distance learning course and are required to complete a placement test. Results for students who attended the intermediary programme were compared with those of students who did not attend the intermediary programme but registered directly for mainstream. The teaching of reading appeared invaluable at the tertiary level with the indication that students’ attitudes and behaviour changed and that they inter alia realised the academic value thereof, made decisions to take up reading as a hobby and discovered new genres. Keywords: Reading; Linguistically diverse

  6. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  7. Benefits of the quality assured double and arbitration reading of mammograms in the early diagnosis of breast cancer in symptomatic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, Annika; Katalinic, Alexander; Kapsimalakou, Smaragda; Grande-Nagel, Isabell; Barkhausen, Joerg; Vogt, Florian M.; Stoeckelhuber, Beate M.; Fischer, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    To address the benefits of double and arbitration reading regarding tumour detection rates, percentage of in situ tumours, and number (of patients) needed to send for expert reading (number needed to treat; NNT) for one additional tumour finding. QuaMaDi is a quality assured breast cancer diagnosis programme; with two-view mammography (craniocaudal, mediolateral oblique) and, in case of breast density ACR 3 or 4, routine ultrasound imaging; and with independent double reading of all images. A consecutive sample of symptomatic women, i.e. women at risk for breast cancer, women aged 70 and above, and/or women with preceding BI-RADS III findings, was analysed. 28,558 mammograms were performed (mean age of women: 57.3 [standard deviation: 12.3] years). Discordant findings were present in 3,837 double readings and were sent for arbitration reading. After histopathological assessment, 52 carcinomas were found (thereof 32% in situ). These carcinomas accounted for 1.8 tumours per 1,000 examinations in the total cohort and increased the tumour detection rate up to 16.4/1,000. The NNT in discordant cases was 74. Double and arbitration reading appears to be a useful tool to ensure the quality of early detection of breast lesions in symptomatic women during indication-based, standardised mammography. circle Quality assured breast cancer diagnosis is feasible outside organised screening structures. (orig.)

  8. Increasing Word-Reading Speed in Poor Readers: No Additional Benefits of Explicit Letter-Cluster Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus, Eva; de Jong, Peter; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether explicit training of letter-clusters leads to more gains in word-reading speed than training of the separate letters of the same clusters. Ninety-nine poor reading second-grade children were randomly assigned to a cluster-training, a parallel letter-training, or a no-training condition. The cluster-training…

  9. Impact of delayed umbilical cord clamping on public cord blood donations: can we help future patients and benefit infant donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotariu, Rodica; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Ciubotariu, Ilinca; Tarnawski, Michal; Lloyd, Sara; Albano, Maria; Dobrila, Ludy; Rubinstein, Pablo; Grunebaum, Amos

    2018-03-25

    Cord blood (CB) is a widely accepted stem cell source and its clinical utilization depends, to a great extent, on its cell content. Birth-to-clamping (BTC) time of umbilical cord determines placental transfusion to the newborn, and the remaining blood that can be collected and banked. The 2017 Committee Opinion of the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends a delay of "at least 30-60 seconds" before clamping the cord for all newborns to ensure adequate iron stores. The impact of delayed cord clamping (DCC) on public CB banking can be substantial. Cord blood units (CBUs) collected from 1210 mothers at one hospital were evaluated for total nucleated cells (TNCs) and weight/volume based on time to clamping. Bank staff recorded BTC time in seconds as reported by obstetricians; collections were performed ex utero. Immediate clamping was defined as BTC of less than 30 seconds, whereas DCC was defined as BTC of 30 seconds or more. Cord clamping was immediate in 903 (75%) and delayed in 307 (25%) deliveries. Successful recovery (% clinical CBUs) decreased 10-fold with DCC of more than 60 seconds (22% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001). CBUs collected after DCC of more than 60 seconds had significantly lower TNC counts than those after DCC of less than 60 seconds (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 38% to 46% of CBUs after DCC of more than 60 seconds had volume of less than 40 mL. Our study indicates that DCC of 30 to 60 seconds has a small negative impact on collection of high-TNC-count CBUs. However, increasing BTC to more than 60 seconds decreases significantly both TNC content and volume, reducing drastically the chances of obtaining clinically useful CBUs. © 2018 AABB.

  10. Too Late to Vaccinate? The Incremental Benefits and Cost-effectiveness of a Delayed Catch-up Program Using the 4-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A.; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Kim, Jane J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are ideally administered before HPV exposure; therefore, catch-up programs for girls past adolescence have not been readily funded. We evaluated the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, 1-year female catch-up vaccination program in Norway. Methods We calibrated a dynamic HPV transmission model to Norwegian data and projected the costs and benefits associated with 8 HPV-related conditions while varying the upper vaccination age limit to 20, 22, 24, or 26 years. We explored the impact of vaccine protection in women with prior vaccine-targeted HPV infections, vaccine cost, coverage, and natural- and vaccine-induced immunity. Results The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness decreased as the upper age limit for catch-up increased. Assuming a vaccine cost of $150/dose, vaccination up to age 20 years remained below Norway's willingness-to-pay threshold (approximately $83 000/quality-adjusted life year gained); extension to age 22 years was cost-effective at a lower cost per dose ($50–$75). At high levels of vaccine protection in women with prior HPV exposure, vaccinating up to age 26 years was cost-effective. Results were stable with lower coverage. Conclusions HPV vaccination catch-up programs, 5 years after routine implementation, may be warranted; however, even at low vaccine cost per dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating beyond age 22 years remains uncertain. PMID:25057044

  11. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.

  12. Too late to vaccinate? The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed catch-up program using the 4-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Kim, Jane J

    2015-01-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are ideally administered before HPV exposure; therefore, catch-up programs for girls past adolescence have not been readily funded. We evaluated the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, 1-year female catch-up vaccination program in Norway. We calibrated a dynamic HPV transmission model to Norwegian data and projected the costs and benefits associated with 8 HPV-related conditions while varying the upper vaccination age limit to 20, 22, 24, or 26 years. We explored the impact of vaccine protection in women with prior vaccine-targeted HPV infections, vaccine cost, coverage, and natural- and vaccine-induced immunity. The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness decreased as the upper age limit for catch-up increased. Assuming a vaccine cost of $150/dose, vaccination up to age 20 years remained below Norway's willingness-to-pay threshold (approximately $83 000/quality-adjusted life year gained); extension to age 22 years was cost-effective at a lower cost per dose ($50-$75). At high levels of vaccine protection in women with prior HPV exposure, vaccinating up to age 26 years was cost-effective. Results were stable with lower coverage. HPV vaccination catch-up programs, 5 years after routine implementation, may be warranted; however, even at low vaccine cost per dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating beyond age 22 years remains uncertain. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  14. Reading use in preschool

    OpenAIRE

    Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

  15. Complex word reading in Dutch deaf children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, A.H. van; Knoors, H.E.T.; Schreuder, R.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex

  16. Complex Word Reading in Dutch Deaf Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to…

  17. Pleasure Reading Offers Educational, Social, and Personal Benefits for Young Teenagers. A Review of: Howard, V. (2011. The importance of pleasure reading in the lives of young teens: Self-identification, self-construction and self-awareness. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 43(1, 46-55. doi:10.1177/0961000610390992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Medaille

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the role thatpleasure reading plays in the lives of youngteenagers.Design – A series of focus groups were used.Setting – Focus groups were held in ninejunior high schools in an eastern Canadianmunicipality.Subjects – Participants consisted of 68students in grades 7, 8, and 9, ranging in agefrom 12-15 years old. Seventy percent ofparticipants were girls and 30% were boys.Methods – A semi-structured interviewprotocol was used. Responses were coded andcategorized by using QSR NUD*IST, and agrounded theory approach was used toanalyze the data.Main Results – This study found that youngteenagers derive numerous benefits frompleasure reading. From an educationalperspective, pleasure reading helps improveliteracy and thinking skills, and helps youngteenagers clarify and explore career goals.From a social perspective, pleasure readinghelps young teenagers understand historicaland current events, helps them developcompassion and empathy, empowers them todevelop and act on their beliefs, and helpsthem to understand the consequences of riskybehaviors. From a personal perspective,pleasure reading provides young teenagers with entertainment, relaxation, reassurance, a creative outlet, and a means of escape.Conclusion – Reading for pleasure provides a means of everyday life information seeking for young teenagers. It helps them improve skills and learn about themselves, their relationships, and their values, all of which help them to make the transition to adulthood.

  18. Do Readers Obtain Preview Benefit from Word n + 2? A Test of Serial Attention Shift versus Distributed Lexical Processing Models of Eye Movement Control in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Juhasz, Barbara J.; Brown, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions derived from serial lexical processing and parallel distributed models of eye movement control in reading. The boundary paradigm (K. Rayner, 1975) was used, and the boundary location was set either at the end of word n - 1 (the word just to the left of the target word) or at the end of word n - 2. Serial lexical…

  19. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  20. Reading faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nation

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  1. Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ishikura, Keisuke; Nagayama, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Maeda, Seiji; Ito, Masaharu; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) has a lot of the biological, physiological, and pharmocological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress. Although previous studies have appreciated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), consistent finding has not still convinced. The aim of this study was to examine the additional effect of TAU with BCAA on the DOMS and muscle damages after eccentric exercise. Thirty-six untrained male volunteers were equally divided into four groups, and ingested a combination with 2.0 g TAU (or placebo) and 3.2 g BCAA (or placebo), thrice a day, 2 weeks prior to and 4 days after elbow flexion eccentric exercise. Following the period after eccentric exercise, the physiological and blood biochemical markers for DOMS and muscle damage showed improvement in the combination of TAU and BCAA supplementation rather than in the single or placebo supplementations. In conclusion, additional supplement of TAU with BCAA would be a useful way to attenuate DOMS and muscle damages induced by high-intensity exercise.

  2. Reading Fluency and Students with Reading Disabilities: How Fast Is Fast Enough to Promote Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of improving reading rate and fluency is to positively impact reading comprehension; however, it is unclear how fast students with learning disabilities (LD) need to read to reap this benefit. The purpose of this research was to identify the point of diminishing return for students who were dysfluent readers. Participants included 337…

  3. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  4. Enhancing the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Children with Reading Disabilities in an Orthographically Transparent Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellings, Patrick; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.; Blok, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Breznitz (2006) demonstrated that Hebrew-speaking adults with reading disabilities benefited from a training in which reading rate was experimentally manipulated. In the present study, the authors examine whether silent reading training enhances the sentence reading rate and comprehension of children with reading disabilities and whether results…

  5. The association of abnormal cerebellar function in children with developmental coordination disorder and reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Anne; Khalid, Shabana

    2002-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder/dyspraxia (DCD) are at high risk of reading and writing delay. The difficulties with motor skills are heterogeneous and many children have features of poor cerebellar function, reflected in problems with posture, balance and fast accurate control of movement. This study confirmed a high level of parental reporting of reading and writing delay in a clinical group of 23 children with DCD, defined on the basis of both clinical examination and standardized testing of motor function. Direct measurement of reading delay, identified still further children in the group. Those children with reading delay had associated findings typical of phonological awareness difficulties. The children also underwent a standardized test of neurological function and although they all had difficulties with cerebellar function, no distinctive pattern emerged for those whose presentation was complicated by delayed reading and writing. Both the children with DCD and 136 typically developing children, completed the pilot parental questionnaire on gross motor skills. The three skills of catching a ball, jumping on a moving playground roundabout and handwriting, distinguished the children with DCD. This study therefore confirms that children with DCD should be assessed for difficulties in phonological awareness. Additionally, children aged between 7 and 12 years are on the whole, highly competent in a range of gross motor skills and further study might determine whether a simple parental questionnaire might detect children who would benefit from further assessment. The study also suggests that all the children with DCD have cerebellar dysfunction and further work with a larger group might determine particular patterns associated with reading delay.

  6. Storage in alluvial deposits controls the timing of particle delivery from large watersheds, filtering upland erosional signals and delaying benefits from watershed best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, J. E.; Skalak, K.; Karwan, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Transport of suspended sediment and sediment-borne constituents (here termed fluvial particles) through large river systems can be significantly influenced by episodic storage in floodplains and other alluvial deposits. Geomorphologists quantify the importance of storage using sediment budgets, but these data alone are insufficient to determine how storage influences the routing of fluvial particles through river corridors across large spatial scales. For steady state systems, models that combine sediment budget data with "waiting time distributions" (to define how long deposited particles remain stored until being remobilized) and velocities during transport events can provide useful predictions. Limited field data suggest that waiting time distributions are well represented by power laws, extending from 104 years, while the probability of storage defined by sediment budgets varies from 0.1 km-1 for small drainage basins to 0.001 km-1 for the world's largest watersheds. Timescales of particle delivery from large watersheds are determined by storage rather than by transport processes, with most particles requiring 102 -104 years to reach the basin outlet. These predictions suggest that erosional "signals" induced by climate change, tectonics, or anthropogenic activity will be transformed by storage before delivery to the outlets of large watersheds. In particular, best management practices (BMPs) implemented in upland source areas, designed to reduce the loading of fluvial particles to estuarine receiving waters, will not achieve their intended benefits for centuries (or longer). For transient systems, waiting time distributions cannot be constant, but will vary as portions of transient sediment "pulses" enter and are later released from storage. The delivery of sediment pulses under transient conditions can be predicted by adopting the hypothesis that the probability of erosion of stored particles will decrease with increasing "age" (where age is defined as the

  7. Building the Foundation for Close Reading with Developing Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sheila F.; McEnery, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Close Reading utilizes several strategies to help readers think more critically about a text. Close reading can be performed within the context of shared readings, read-alouds by the teacher, literature discussion groups, and guided reading groups. Students attempting to more closely read difficult texts may benefit from technologies and platforms…

  8. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  9. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, it is due to a combination of physical and psychological concerns. Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication ...

  10. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  11. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  12. Multicultural Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  13. Recognizing Psychiatric Comorbidity With Reading Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Hendren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading disorder (RD, a specific learning disorder (SLD of reading that includes impairment in word reading, reading fluency, and/or reading comprehension, is common in the general population but often is not comprehensively understood or assessed in mental health settings. In education settings, comorbid mental and associated disorders may be inadequately integrated into intervention plans. Assessment and intervention for RD may be delayed or absent in children with frequently co-occurring mental disorders not fully responding to treatment in both school and mental health settings. To address this oversight, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding RDs and common comorbid or co-occurring disorders that are important for mental health and school settings. We chose to highlight RD because it is the most common SLD, and connections to other often comorbid disorders have been more thoroughly described in the literature. Much of the literature we describe is on decoding-based RD (or developmental dyslexia as it is the most common form of RD. In addition to risk for academic struggle and social, emotional, and behavioral problems, those with RD often show early evidence of combined or intertwined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition childhood disorders. These include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression, disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and other SLDs. The present review highlights issues and areas of controversy within these comorbidities, as well as directions for future research. An interdisciplinary, integrated approach between mental health professionals and educators can lead to comprehensive and targeted treatments encompassing both academic and mental health interventions. Such targeted treatments may contribute to improved educational and health-related outcomes in vulnerable youth. While there is a growing research literature

  14. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  15. How my brain stopped reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Due to a medical condition I temporarily lost the ability to read and write. As an academic researcher specialised in understanding the reading process, I can benefit from this terrible experience by explaining – on a scientific level – what happened to me, and hence draw the lines to existing re...

  16. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  17. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...

  18. Reading Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…

  19. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  20. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  1. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  2. Echocardiographic effects of changing atrioventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy based on displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Nana; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Risum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial....

  3. Understanding the delayed-keyword effect on metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M. Anderson, 2003; K. W. Thiede, M. C. M. Anderson, & D. Therriault, 2003). The delayed and immediate conditions in these studies confounded the delay between reading and generation tasks with other task lags, including the lag between multiple generation tasks and the lag between generation tasks and judgments. The first 2 experiments disentangle these confounded manipulations and provide clear evidence that the delay between reading and keyword generation is the only lag critical to improving metacomprehension accuracy. The 3rd and 4th experiments show that not all delayed tasks produce improvements and suggest that delayed generative tasks provide necessary diagnostic cues about comprehension for improving metacomprehension accuracy.

  4. Reading Aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 34 children's books that are excellent for reading aloud: some of them for inviting interaction, for laughing out loud, for prompting discussion, for living vicariously, for lingering over language, and for making curricular connections. (SR)

  5. Phonological Awareness and Reading in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…

  6. What Is the Value of Connecting Reading and Writing? Reading Education Report No. 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Robert J.; Leys, Margie

    The study of reading-writing connections involves appreciating how reading and writing work together as tools for information storage and retrieval, discovery and logical thought, communication, and self-indulgence. There are numerous benefits that can be accrued from connecting reading and writing. Thus far, for example, the research data have…

  7. Using Authentic Materials for Extensive Reading to Promote English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siao-cing

    2012-01-01

    Current literature points to the importance and benefits of extensive reading. Extensive reading provides contextualized clues for better reading comprehension (Krashen, 1982), and substantial linguistic input (Bell, 1998) needed for language development. Several studies have found a correlation between extensive reading and specific linguistic…

  8. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...

  9. Reading Rembrandt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and

  10. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  11. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...

  12. Echocardiographic effects of changing atrioventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy based on displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Nana; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Risum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial.......In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial....

  13. The relevance of 7-day patch test reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Eleanor; Collins, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Patch test readings are usually performed on day 2 (48 hours) and day 4 (96 hours). However, reports in the literature identify delayed allergy to metals, corticosteroids, antibiotics, some preservatives, acrylic and methacrylic monomers and p-phenylenediamine. The aim of our study was to identify the benefit of performing a day 7 (168 hours) reading to identify relevant late positive reactions. Two hundred three consecutive patients were patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard series with additional test series selected according to clinical history and applied at the same time. Twenty-six patients (12.8%) had new positive reactions on day 7 (168 hours), with 28 relevant positive reactions to 21 allergens. These included mercury 0.5% (2/26); cobalt chloride 1% (2/26); colophony 20% (2/26); disperse blue mix 106/124 1% (2/26); preservatives (4/26) that included Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, sodium metabisulfite, and diazolidinyl urea; fragrances (7/26); and gentamycin sulfate 20% (1/26). These results confirm findings in the literature and support the argument for performing a day 7 reading (168 hours) to identify relevant late positive reactions.

  14. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  15. Reading Journal as A Way to Improve Students’ Comprehension toward A Textbook Reading Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menik Winiharti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading journal is one way to record students’ independent learning based on text they read. This study was conducted to find out the students’ level of reading comprehension through some notes written in the reading journal, the extent to which the activity of writing reading journals improved students’ reading comprehension, whether the students got benefit from reading journal. There were 104 respondents coming from four different departments in Bina Nusantara University were asked to read a text related to the subject they learned in a certain session. Then they were assigned to write a journal that records the things they had read. When this task was finished, the lecturer ran a quiz containing related questions to check whether they really understood the content of the text. Afterwards, students were to fill in a questionnaire regarding their opinion on the impact of the reading journal toward their reading comprehension. The findings indicate that more than half of the participants appear to understand the material well, and the task plays a certain role in improving students’ understanding. The most crucial thing is that most students think they get benefit by writing the reading journal.

  16. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  17. Developing reading literacy by reading badge

    OpenAIRE

    Rejc, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    Reading is a fundamental activity of our society and is present in all areas of a person’s life. Authors who deal with reading define reading with different definitions, some of them I also presented in my master’s degree thesis. The ways of reading, typology of readers and knowledge of different reading models are only some of the important theoretical facts that serve as a basis for the research and defining reading. Reading motivation is an important motivational factor, which encourages a...

  18. Effects of reading-oriented tasks on students' reading comprehension of geometry proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin; Lin, Fou-Lai

    2012-06-01

    This study compared the effects of reading-oriented tasks and writing-oriented tasks on students' reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP). The reading-oriented tasks were designed with reading strategies and the idea of problem posing. The writing-oriented tasks were consistent with usual proof instruction for writing a proof and applying it. Twenty-two classes of ninth-grade students ( N = 683), aged 14 to 15 years, and 12 mathematics teachers participated in this quasi-experimental classroom study. While the experimental group was instructed to read and discuss the reading tasks in two 45-minute lessons, the control group was instructed to prove and apply the same propositions. Generalised estimating equation (GEE) method was used to compare the scores of the post-test and the delayed post-test with the pre-test scores as covariates. Results showed that the total scores of the delayed post-test of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the scores of the experimental group on all facets of reading comprehension except the application facet were significantly higher than those of the control group for both the post-test and delayed post-test.

  19. Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  20. Vision Problems and Reduced Reading Outcomes in Queensland Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-03-01

    To assess the relationship between vision and reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren to determine whether vision problems are associated with lower reading outcomes in these populations. Vision testing and reading assessments were performed on 508 Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia divided into two age groups: Grades 1 and 2 (6-7 years of age) and Grades 6 and 7 (12-13 years of age). Vision parameters measured included cycloplegic refraction, near point of convergence, heterophoria, fusional vergence range, rapid automatized naming, and visual motor integration. The following vision conditions were then classified based on the vision findings: uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration. Reading accuracy and reading comprehension were measured with the Neale reading test. The effect of uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration on reading accuracy and reading comprehension were investigated with ANCOVAs. The ANCOVAs explained a significant proportion of variance in both reading accuracy and reading comprehension scores in both age groups, with 40% of the variation in reading accuracy and 33% of the variation in reading comprehension explained in the younger age group, and 27% and 10% of the variation in reading accuracy and reading comprehension, respectively, in the older age group. The vision parameters of visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming were significant predictors in all ANCOVAs (P reading results were explained by reduced visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming results. Both reduced rapid automatized naming and visual motor integration were associated with poorer reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. This is an important finding given the recent emphasis placed on Indigenous children

  1. UAVs and Control Delays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vries, S. C

    2005-01-01

    .... Delays of about 250-300 ms often lead to unacceptable airplane handling qualities. Techniques such as filtering and predictive displays may extend the range of acceptable delays up to about 400 ms...

  2. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  3. INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Warzecha, M.A. TESOL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the following paper is to take a closer look at the benefits of incidental learning through reading, with a specific focus on vocabulary acquisition. The teaching of vocabulary has traditionally been an explicit process where the target vocabulary is taken out of context and taught separately. However, this kind of explicit teaching and learning may only take into account a form-meaning connection. Therefore, this paper explores research on incidental learning and specifically looks at what it takes to acquire new vocabulary incidentally through reading while considering the coverage rates of texts, how many words must be known already from the text, how many repetitions it takes to learn a word, types of texts that promote learning, and the effects of pairing students‘ reading with learner tasks. After reviewing many studies, it can be concluded that more reading is better. More specifically, extensive reading of chosen novels at an appropriate level and interest to the students showed important gains in vocabulary. In addition, readings that were supplemented with additional activities that focused on both form and meaning showed an even higher increase in word retention.

  4. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, ...

  5. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  6. Linking crowding, visual span, and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Legge, Gordon E

    2017-09-01

    The visual span is hypothesized to be a sensory bottleneck on reading speed with crowding thought to be the major sensory factor limiting the size of the visual span. This proposed linkage between crowding, visual span, and reading speed is challenged by the finding that training to read crowded letters reduced crowding but did not improve reading speed (Chung, 2007). Here, we examined two properties of letter-recognition training that may influence the transfer to improved reading: the spatial arrangement of training stimuli and the presence of flankers. Three groups of nine young adults were trained with different configurations of letter stimuli at 10° in the lower visual field: a flanked-local group (flanked letters localized at one position), a flanked-distributed group (flanked letters distributed across different horizontal locations), and an isolated-distributed group (isolated and distributed letters). We found that distributed training, but not the presence of flankers, appears to be necessary for the training benefit to transfer to increased reading speed. Localized training may have biased attention to one specific, small area in the visual field, thereby failing to improve reading. We conclude that the visual span represents a sensory bottleneck on reading, but there may also be an attentional bottleneck. Reducing the impact of crowding can enlarge the visual span and can potentially facilitate reading, but not when adverse attentional bias is present. Our results clarify the association between crowding, visual span, and reading.

  7. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  8. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The current study explores the feasibility of an extensive reading programme in the context of a low-income country (Mozambique), as well as the influence of extensive reading on academic reading. The programme took over 4 months and was conducted among 30 students majoring in Journalism at the Eduardo ...

  9. Follow-up study on reading comprehension in Down's syndrome: the role of reading skills and listening comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    According to the 'Simple View of Reading', reading comprehension requires some abilities such as reading skill and listening comprehension. Individuals with Down's syndrome show relative strengths in reading skills, mainly in word recognition, where they attain a reading age of about 7-8 years. Compared with word recognition, their reading comprehension is usually delayed by at least 6 months. Poor reading comprehension is paralleled by weak listening comprehension. It is claimed that poor listening comprehension might constrain the development of reading comprehension and, therefore, be a cause for the asynchrony between reading skills and reading comprehension. A follow-up study was carried out in order to analyse the improvements in reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension, and to support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between listening and reading comprehension. Ten children and adolescents with Down's syndrome, aged between 11 years 3 months and 19 years 10 months, were assessed twice over a one-year period as to their reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension. Three main findings emerged: (1) reading skills, on the one hand, and comprehension (both listening and reading), on the other hand, are independent; (2) reading comprehension development is determined mainly by listening comprehension, which in the present study proved to be very poor; and (3) an improvement after a one-year period, even though limited, occurred for all examined abilities except for listening comprehension. The results are discussed in the light of the theoretical framework of the 'Simple View of Reading' and of their relevance for practical and educational issues. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  10. Electricity Bill [second reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, G.; Williams, C.C.P.; Ezra, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department of Energy introduced the second reading of the Electricity Bill which provides for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Three features at the heart of the Government's proposals are mentioned - first that the proposals will promote competition in electricity generation and supply of electricity so there will be a downward pressure on costs and prices, second is a new deal for customers and third is the security of electricity supply which will be ensured by the diversity of suppliers. The benefits of the scheme are outlined and then specific details of the Bill are considered. The debate which followed lasted six hours and is reported verbatim. The issues raised included environmental effects, efficiency, energy conservation, research and development and investment. (UK)

  11. Reading literacy intervention with fifth graders in Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Morales Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of the reading comprehension program Lectura for fifth graders of middle-class and low-class social economic backgrounds in Lima (Peru on read­ing literacy and reading motivation. The intervention emphasized reading strategies and dimensions of reading motivation. ANOVA was used in order to calculate the effects of measurement point, group, social economic status and gender on reading comprehension and reading motivation. Results showed that reading literacy increased more in the interven­tion group than in the control group. Children from the low social economic background benefited more from the intervention than children with a middle social economic back­ground. The program had also a significant impact on children’s reading motivation.

  12. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Theme: Parents and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This journal issue concentrates on the theme "Parents and Reading." It presents articles on sharing books with young children, using public relations in a reading program, guiding preschool learning, assessing language readiness, working with reading problems, and teaching reading readiness in Wisconsin kindergartens. Resources and a review of…

  14. Psychometric Research in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frederick B.

    This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…

  15. Compensating for telecommunication delays during robotic telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoni, Leonardo J; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation robotic systems may afford better care and telerehabilitation may extend the use and benefits of robotic therapy to the home. Data transmissions over distance are bound by intrinsic communication delays which can be significant enough to deem the activity unfeasible. Here we describe an approach that combines unilateral robotic telerehabilitation and serious games. This approach has a modular and distributed design that permits different types of robots to interact without substantial code changes. We demonstrate the approach through an online multiplayer game. Two users can remotely interact with each other with no force exchanges, while a smoothing and prediction algorithm compensates motions for the delay in the Internet connection. We demonstrate that this approach can successfully compensate for data transmission delays, even when testing between the United States and Brazil. This paper presents the initial experimental results, which highlight the performance degradation with increasing delays as well as improvements provided by the proposed algorithm, and discusses planned future developments.

  16. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  17. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  18. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  19. Workers' compensation in Pennsylvania: the effects of delayed contested cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S E

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of delayed workers' compensation cases in the Pennsylvania system. Forty-five claimants of a workers' compensation support group responded to interviews. Delay periods averaged two years with a 68.4% drop in income. Results indicate that claimants endured financial and emotional stress, exhausted personal assets, relied on assistance from relatives, and received public assistance. Implications for social work practice include educating workers about benefits, counseling claimants with delayed claims, and advocating for administrative reforms.

  20. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b) of...

  1. Delayed interval delivery in twin pregnancy without cerclage: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the loss of the first foetus, delayed delivery in multiple pregnancies can be successful in selected cases as exemplified by the case presentation. In well prepared perinatal centers, with physically and psychologically balanced patients who are well informed about the risks and benefits of the procedure, delayed interval ...

  2. Complex word reading in Dutch deaf children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogmoed, Anne H; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-03-01

    Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to monomorphemic words. The results show that deaf children are delayed in reading both derivational words and compounds as compared to hearing children, while both deaf and hearing adults performed equally well on a lexical decision task. However, deaf adults generally showed slower reaction times than hearing adults. For both deaf and hearing children, derivational words were more difficult than compounds, as reflected in hearing children's slower reaction times and in deaf children's lower accuracy scores. This finding likely reflects deaf children's lack of familiarity with the meaning of the bound morphemes attached to the stems in derivational words. Therefore, it might be beneficial to teach deaf children the meaning of bound morphemes and to train them to use morphology in word reading. Moreover, these findings imply that it is important to focus on both monomorphemic and polymorphemic words when assessing word reading ability in deaf children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Delayed power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)

  4. THE ESSENCE OF QUESTIONING AND EXPLICIT READING INSTRUCTION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa’dulloh Muzammil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Teacher’s questioning may function to assist students comprehend more reading materials and to enable them to be proficient readers. Yet, the students may be less benefited from which if the teacher neither provides sufficient explicit reading strategy nor involves higher-level questions. Consequently, the teacher should pay more careful attentions as follows: 1 teacher should involve both lower- and high-lever questions; 2 teacher should provide students with explicit reading strategy; 3 teacher should be aware of the activities in reading phases: pre-, during-, and post-reading.

  5. Reading Disabilities and PASS Reading Enhancement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    Children experience difficulties in reading either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas reading…

  6. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  7. Benefits | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    flexible work environment that enables and encourages a good work/life balance A growing, changing exceptional work. A woman riding her bike past the NREL entrance sign. Hundreds of NREL employees opt out of their cars, cycling to work, to take part in Bike To Work Day each year. Benefits Package NREL's

  8. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  9. Improving reading comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Komariah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discovering the benefits of the Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM in the reading classroom, finding out the achievements of students after four comprehension training sessions of using RTM, and exploring the perceptions of students on the use of RTM. This method uses four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, to help learners monitor their development of reading comprehension by themselves. Students work in groups of four or five and the members are divided into five roles which are the leader, predictor, clarifier, questioner, and summarizer. The subjects were 24 students from the twelfth grade at a high school in Banda Aceh. Observations, tests, documents and interviews were collected to get the data. The results showed that the students were more active and productive in the reading classroom after RTM sessions and their reading proficiency improved. They learnt how to apply several of the strategies from RTM while reading. The results also showed that they preferred this method for teaching-learning reading compared to the conventional one. Therefore, teachers are suggested to consider using this method for teaching reading that instils the students on how to apply the four comprehension strategies used in reading.

  10. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  11. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  12. Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    2001-01-01

    Compares children who experience divorce in childhood with those who were young adults when their parents divorced using data on British children (N=11,409) who participated in the National Child Development Study. Children's long-term welfare appears to be linked both to conditions preceding and following the divorce event. Results suggest…

  13. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  14. Vernier Delay Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns

  15. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  16. Modelling delays in pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear system analysis has come to form the backbone of pharmacokinetics. Natural systems usually involve time delays, thus models incorporating them would be an order closer approximation to the real world compared to those that do not. Delays may be modelled in several ways. The approach considered in this study is to have a discrete-time delay dependent rate with the delay respresenting the duration between the entry of a drug into a compartment and its release in some form (may be as a metabolite) from the compartment. Such a delay may be because of one or more of several physiological reasons, like, formation of a reservoir, slow metabolism, or receptor binding. The mathematical structure this gives rise to is a system of delay-differential equations. Examples are given of simple one and two compartment systems with drugs like bumetanide, carbamazepine, and quinolone-caffeine interaction. In these examples generally a good fit is obtained and the suggested models form a good approximation. 21 refs., 6 figs

  17. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  18. Readability and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  19. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  20. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  1. Reading: United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rose-Marie

    1983-01-01

    An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…

  2. Teaching Reading with Puppets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth

    The use of traditional stories in American Indian language programs connects students' reading to their lives and familiarizes learners with the rhythms of the oral language. Puppet performances are one way of connecting reading programs to the Native oral tradition. A high school reading lesson in a first-year Hupa language class uses many…

  3. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  4. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  5. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  6. Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Ulker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic success of the university students greatly depends on the mastery of an academic reading skill. However, students as well as teachers, take the learning of this skill for granted, as they tend to presuppose that reading skill is acquired as a part of their secondary education. As a result, most first-year students employ non university strategies to read academic texts, which leads to a surface approach to reading and prevents students from a better understanding of the material. This paper will discuss the strategies that involve students in taking a deep approach to reading academic texts.

  7. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

  8. Designing legible fonts for distance reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews existing knowledge on distance legibility of fonts, and finds that for optimal distance reading, letters and numbers benefit from relative wide shapes, open inner counters and a large x-height; fonts should further be widely spaced, and the weight should not be too heavy or t...

  9. Motivating Readers: Helping Students Set and Attain Personal Reading Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Márquez, Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    The motivational, cognitive, and performance benefits associated with setting goals are presented in light of goal-setting theory. These theoretical principles provide a framework that teachers can use to guide students in setting and pursuing personal reading goals that are proximal, specific, and compatible with students' reading abilities…

  10. Do reading and spelling share a lexicon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C; Rawson, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    In the reading and spelling literature, an ongoing debate concerns whether reading and spelling share a single orthographic lexicon or rely upon independent lexica. Available evidence tends to support a single lexicon account over an independent lexica account, but evidence is mixed and open to alternative explanation. In the current work, we propose another, largely ignored account--separate-but-shared lexica--according to which reading and spelling have separate orthographic lexica, but information can be shared between them. We report three experiments designed to competitively evaluate these three theoretical accounts. In each experiment, participants learned new words via reading training and/or spelling training. The key manipulation concerned the amount of reading versus spelling practice a given item received. Following training, we assessed both response time and accuracy on final outcome measures of reading and spelling. According to the independent lexica account, final performance in one modality will not be influenced by the level of practice in the other modality. According to the single lexicon account, final performance will depend on the overall amount of practice regardless of modality. According to the separate-but-shared account, final performance will be influenced by the level of practice in both modalities but will benefit more from same-modality practice. Results support the separate-but-shared account, indicating that reading and spelling rely upon separate lexica, but information can be shared between them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of spectral filters on reading speed and accuracy following stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Beasley

    2013-07-01

    Conclusions: The present study has shown that spectral filters can immediately improve reading speed and accuracy following stroke, whereas prolonged use does not increase these benefits significantly.

  12. Reading for pleasure and reading circles for adult emergent readers insights in adult learning

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Sam

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, the adult literacy provision has become more functional and more assessment driven over the last decade, largely due to funding requirements. However, one result of this is that the clear benefits of reading for pleasure in adult skills development have become less apparent. This book addresses the need to support teachers in the development of adults' skills through reading for pleasure, by incorporating the activity into the curriculum. It focuses on reading for pleasure for adult emergent readers - those who consider themselves non-readers, either because they feel they cannot or

  13. Optimal Joint Expected Delay Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Xu; Xin Feng; Wen Jun Yang; Ru Chuan Wang; Bing Qing Han

    2013-01-01

    Multicopy forwarding schemes have been employed in delay tolerant network (DTN) to improve the delivery delay and delivery rate. Much effort has been focused on reducing the routing cost while retaining high performance. This paper aims to provide an optimal joint expected delay forwarding (OJEDF) protocol which minimizes the expected delay while satisfying a certain constant on the number of forwardings per message. We propose a comprehensive forwarding metric called joint expected delay (JE...

  14. Extensive reading through the Internet: is it worth the while?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pino Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading materials written in English is the prime goal of many reading programs around the world. Extensive reading (ER has for years aided new students at my institution to gradually acquire large vocabularies and other sub-skills that are needed to read fluently. To continue to do that effectively, a new scheme involving the use of internet - called w-ERP- was set in place in collaboration with the students. The main focus of this article is to describe the 3-phase, gradual process that led to the current design of the web-based ER scheme. The paper begins with a brief discussion of ER, reading on line (RO and self-directed learning as part of the rationale for the new scheme. Participants’ preliminary data on the benefits and potentials for learning to read and reading for learning other things are discussed.

  15. 78 FR 6025 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... issuing this final rule to delay the February 7, 2013, effective date of final rules published by the... establish any requirements but rather delays the effective date of the 2012 Final Rule pending the... delay of the 2012 Final Rule's effective date would generally benefit remittance transfer providers by...

  16. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are herit...

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  18. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  19. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  20. Delayed neutrons in ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1988-01-01

    Delayed neutron analysis carried out at the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization facilities, provides a fast, high sensitivity, low cost, reliable method, particularly suitable for large batches of samples, and for non destructive analysis of a range of materials. While its main use has been in uranium exploration, other applications include archeological investigations, agriculture, oceanography and biology

  1. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  2. INTEREST AND READING MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamdu Alhamdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.

  3. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  4. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  5. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  6. Developmental Relations Between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  7. Critical Pedagogy Principles in Teaching EFL Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Wahyudi Yulianto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to reveal how the use of critical pedagogy principles in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL reading facilitates students to think critically. Additionally, it investigates and elaborates the benefits and challenges of using critical pedagogy principles in teaching EFL reading. The three critical pedagogy principles used in this study were dialogic education, democratic classroom, and reading the world and the word. Critical thinking skills and dispositions expected to be performed by the participants were analysis and evaluation skills, open-mindedness, and making reasoned decision. This is a case study design which was conducted in the form of teaching program. The teaching program which consisted of eight meetings was given to 59 EFL sophomores in the Reading in Professional Context class at a private teacher education in Bandung. Data in the form of classroom talks and activities and students‟ responses as well as their critical thinking skills self-assessment were collected by using video recordings, observation notes, interview guideline, students‟ learning journals, and questionnaires. It is revealed that the teaching program has facilitated students to think critically by providing four categories of activity. They are (1 offering problematic topics and reading materials that are linked to the students‟ lives, (2 encouraging students to read between the lines, (3 distributing classroom power, and (4 creating space for students‟ voices to be heard. Meanwhile, there are two benefits of the teaching program, namely (1 language development and (2 new knowledge as well as experience acquisition. However, there are three major challenges in conducting the teaching program that are (1 the lack of classroom-friendly authentic controversial reading materials, (2 the passive culture, and (3 the unpredictable classroom.

  8. The Place of Reading in EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azize Kavlu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aim is to shed light on the problem of reading in EFL context and also refer to non – Latin Arabic alphabet learners‘ challenges. Researcher tried to analyze myriad research articles to explore the common EFL learners‘ difficulties and problems on the way of English reading and comprehension and bunch together the implemented methods (techniques and go through generated suggestions and feasible solutions. The marshal factors will provide benefits to educators in EFL context (EFL school teachers, university lecturers, people whose concern is EFL development.

  9. The promotion of reading in Education Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Monar van Vliet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research implants a theoretical-practical vision of reading promotion at the educative field. On one hand, they show us the state of the issue focusing on the legislative field, the research and promotion of virtual reading and, concretely, in the País Valenciano case, a practical research location. A panoramic from the nowadays legislation is established parting from the UNESCO. The LOE and the reading plans. Specialists’ different studies enrich the vision and virtual platforms complete the established theoretical description. On the other hand, a qualitative field work is done with the objective of evaluating the benefits of webs, blogs and wikis in the classroom for reading promotion during the school year 2010-2011 with three groups in three different centres. The work consists of watching the digital platforms application for the reading promotion in the classroom and analysing its usefulness through some cases studies, a discussion group and the triangulation. The research concludes with some reflections which invite the reader to approach to the reading promotion at the educational field of virtual technology.

  10. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  11. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroki

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. E-Book and Printed Book Reading in Different Contexts as Emergent Literacy Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Segal-Drori, Ora

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: We present 3 studies that focused on preschoolers' electronic book (e-book) reading in different contexts aimed at supporting children's early literacy. In Study 1 we researched the impact of children's age and number of independent readings on phonological awareness and word reading. We found that all age groups benefited from…

  13. Engaging Children with Print: Building Early Literacy Skills through Quality Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Sofka, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool teachers and early childhood professionals know that storybook reading is important, but they may not know how to maximize its benefits for later reading achievement. This indispensable guide presents research-based techniques for using reading aloud to intentionally and systematically build children's knowledge of print. Simple yet…

  14. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  15. Investigation of the Effect of Using a Novel as an Extensive Reading on Students’ Attitudes and Reading Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ghiabi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating learners’ perceptions on the use of a novel as an extensive reading in a college EFL reading course. For this purpose, fifty Iranian EFL students read and received instructions on an unabridged short novel in addition to, their text book for one semester. Three questionnaires were used to measure students’ attitudes toward novel-reading, students’ confidence in novel reading ability and students’ perceptions toward using a novel as an auxiliary material, prior to and after reading the novel. In addition, three open questions were offered to obtain benefits and obstacles of the novel reading. T-test analysis were used and findings revealed that there was a significant improvement after reading the novel in students’ attitudes, confidence, interest and their novel-reading ability. However, they suggested reading the novels according to the theme that they preferred. The result of this study are of pedagogic significance to EFL teaching in that they indicated how well a novel was received in an EFL Advanced reading class.

  16. CSAF Reading List 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Undaunted Zero Dark Thirty 101109-F-RH756-737 Raptor's Reveille Featured Books Featured Films Featured Art House To House House To House by David Bellavia and John Bruning One of the great heroes of the Iraq War /McMillan/Switzler Read More... Fearless Book: Fearless by Eric Blehm Read More... Zero Dark Thirty Zero

  17. Reading Patterns Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Modern life is changing the way people read April 23 was the 16th World Book and Copyright Day,also known as the World Book Day.Reading-related problems have once again attracted people’s attention.Today,living a life with an increasingly rapid pace,most people are

  18. VISION AND READING ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

    SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

  19. Reading and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the concept of working memory, with particular reference to a hypothetical subcomponent, the articulatory loop. Discusses the role of the loop in fluent adult reading, then examines the reading performance of adults with deficits in auditory verbal memory, showing that a capacity to articulate is not necessary for the effective…

  20. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  1. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  2. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  3. TEACHING READING USING MAGAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.

  4. Children's Reading Comprehension and Narrative Recall in Sung and Spoken Story Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Theresa; Telander, Karen

    2008-01-01

    A growing number of reading professionals have advocated teaching literacy through music and song; however, little research exists supporting such practices. The purpose of this study was to determine if sung story book readings would enhance story comprehension and narrative re-tellings in children with histories of speech and language delay.…

  5. Internet video telephony allows speech reading by deaf individuals and improves speech perception by cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Mantokoudis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze speech reading through Internet video calls by profoundly hearing-impaired individuals and cochlear implant (CI users. METHODS: Speech reading skills of 14 deaf adults and 21 CI users were assessed using the Hochmair Schulz Moser (HSM sentence test. We presented video simulations using different video resolutions (1280 × 720, 640 × 480, 320 × 240, 160 × 120 px, frame rates (30, 20, 10, 7, 5 frames per second (fps, speech velocities (three different speakers, webcameras (Logitech Pro9000, C600 and C500 and image/sound delays (0-500 ms. All video simulations were presented with and without sound and in two screen sizes. Additionally, scores for live Skype™ video connection and live face-to-face communication were assessed. RESULTS: Higher frame rate (>7 fps, higher camera resolution (>640 × 480 px and shorter picture/sound delay (<100 ms were associated with increased speech perception scores. Scores were strongly dependent on the speaker but were not influenced by physical properties of the camera optics or the full screen mode. There is a significant median gain of +8.5%pts (p = 0.009 in speech perception for all 21 CI-users if visual cues are additionally shown. CI users with poor open set speech perception scores (n = 11 showed the greatest benefit under combined audio-visual presentation (median speech perception +11.8%pts, p = 0.032. CONCLUSION: Webcameras have the potential to improve telecommunication of hearing-impaired individuals.

  6. Bilingual Dialogic Book-Reading Intervention for Preschoolers with Slow Expressive Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybina, Irina; Eriks-Brophy, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a dialogic book-reading intervention for 22-r41-month-old bilingual preschool children with expressive vocabulary delays. The intervention was provided in English and Spanish concurrently to an experimental group of six children, while six other children were in a delayed treatment control group. Thirty…

  7. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Airport Capacity and Delay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David A.; Nelson, Caroline; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    The ASAC Airport Capacity Model and the ASAC Airport Delay Model support analyses of technologies addressing airport capacity. NASA's Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Airport Capacity Model estimates the capacity of an airport as a function of weather, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures, traffic characteristics, and the level of technology available. Airport capacity is presented as a Pareto frontier of arrivals per hour versus departures per hour. The ASAC Airport Delay Model allows the user to estimate the minutes of arrival delay for an airport, given its (weather dependent) capacity. Historical weather observations and demand patterns are provided by ASAC as inputs to the delay model. The ASAC economic models can translate a reduction in delay minutes into benefit dollars.

  8. Read and Move: A New Approach to Read-Aloud Time in Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Carri S.

    2018-01-01

    Literacy is the foundation of education, and so modern education devotes significant school time to promoting and developing literacy. Yet we also need to ensure that young bodies and minds are ready to absorb their literacy lessons. Integrating physical exercise with reading activities in unique ways can be a great benefit to young learners.

  9. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  10. Delay-slope-dependent stability results of recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zheng, Wei Xing; Lin, Chong

    2011-12-01

    By using the fact that the neuron activation functions are sector bounded and nondecreasing, this brief presents a new method, named the delay-slope-dependent method, for stability analysis of a class of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays. This method includes more information on the slope of neuron activation functions and fewer matrix variables in the constructed Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Then some improved delay-dependent stability criteria with less computational burden and conservatism are obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.

  11. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  12. I read, you read, we read: the history of reading in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dular

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The aim of the article is to research reading habits in Slovenia in the period between 16th and 19th century and to find similarities with Austria and other European countries of that time.Methodology/approach: For the purpose of the analysis different resources were used – study books, catechisms, prayer books and manuals. We were focused on introductions in which readers are advised how to read, explaining to whom the work is intended and emphasizing the importance of meditation on the texts.Results: Historically the laud reading was prefered, as to continue the folk tradition. However, the 16th century texts were transmitted by women while the folk tradition was narrated by males. In the 18th century the higher level of literacy and greater book production and availability caused that the books were not a privilege of a few. At that time more texts were intended for silent, individual reading. Interestingly, the authors emphasized the importance of meditation on the texts, too. It was also advised when to read – it wasrecommedend to read in leisure time on Sundays, and on holidays. The role of books was also to breakaway with the reality and to forget everyday problems. Due to the overproduction of books in the 17th centrury it was concerned that books are misleading the crowds. The church considered the reading of books as inappropriate, and criticized fiction, novels and adventure stories mostly read by women.Research limitation: The study is based on Slovenian texts only, although the foreign literature, especially in German, was generally available, too.Originality/practical implications: The study is fullfiling the gap in the history of reading in Slovenia.

  13. Reading and Calculating Billing Through Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alexandra Moreno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article broadly describes the analysis, design and development of the system utilitarian, called “Reading and billing calculation site through mobile devices.” The application is oriented Public Services Companies, first water services, to perform part of the billing process “in place” through phones or any mobile devices compatible with Android. Will enable you to take readings of service consumption, recording new gauging, online update and control the information for users and turnover. This technology is considered as such one site billing method as through Internet is connected with the database of the company, sending and receiving date information, which makes the calculation of the billing for the reading period, bringing benefits to the client and the service generating company.

  14. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  15. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    in the environment where one engages in individual silent reading. The primary goal of the study was to explore the role and possible associations of a number of variables (text type, purpose, device) in selecting generic (e.g. indoors vs outdoors) as well as specific (e.g. home vs library) reading environments....... Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...

  16. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  17. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  18. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  19. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  20. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  1. Reading the Tourist Guidebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    of information sought, amount of information read and level of involvement displayed, indicating a three-pronged typology of guidebook readers. The guidebook reader typology thus constructed may be regarded as a first step in understanding the effect of guidebooks on tourists’ behaviour and their experience......This article investigates tourists’ ways of reading their guidebooks on the basis of qualitative interviews with tourists visiting Copenhagen, Denmark. Tourist guidebooks have only been dealt with sporadically by tourism scholars. The relatively few studies that focus on guidebooks either present...... a historical perspective on the guidebook or centre on content analyses of place representation, whereas virtually no research exists on the way in which tourists read and use their guidebooks. This study reveals that tourists read the same guidebooks in a number of different ways regarding types...

  2. What Are Reading Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...

  3. Textbook Reading Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Charles R.; Kim, Paul Y.

    1974-01-01

    Since the reading abilities of general business students vary from one individual to the next, the author's report on the readability of three general business textbooks to guide business teachers in their selection of textbooks. (AG)

  4. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  5. Reading-Boxing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin

    1969-01-01

    The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)

  6. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  7. Reading Every Single Day: A Journey to Authentic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alida K.; Williams, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    This article details one teacher's implementation of reading workshop in her second grade classroom. She provided a framework for authentic reading using the five components of reading workshop: time, choice, response, community, and structure. She found that reading workshop is a highly effective practice for not only increasing students'…

  8. Exploring Students' Reading Profiles to Guide a Reading Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Naomi A. N. Y.

    2017-01-01

    There have been a number of studies on reading interventions to improve students' reading proficiency, yet the majority of these interventions are undertaken with the assumption that students' reading challenges are obvious and generic in nature. The interventions do not take into consideration the diversity in students' reading backgrounds and…

  9. "Read the Text, as if!"The Reading Retention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoll, Kent; Browning, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Students do not always read what is expected in college courses (Berry, Cook, Hill, & Stevens, 2010; Phillips & Phillips, 2007; Sikorski et al., 2002) or they read to cram for an exam or quiz (Clump, Bauer, & Bradley, 2004). The Reading Retention Strategy (RRS) is designed to motivate students to read and assist students in…

  10. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.

  11. A dual V t disturb-free subthreshold SRAM with write-assist and read isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Vipul; Kumar, Pradeep; Pandey, Neeta; Pandey, Sujata

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a new dual V t 8T SRAM cell having single bit-line read and write, in addition to Write Assist and Read Isolation (WARI). Also a faster write back scheme is proposed for the half selected cells. A high V t device is used for interrupting the supply to one of the inverters for weakening the feedback loop for assisted write. The proposed cell provides an improved read static noise margin (RSNM) due to the bit-line isolation during the read. Static noise margins for data read (RSNM), write (WSNM), read delay, write delay, data retention voltage (DRV), leakage and average powers have been calculated. The proposed cell was found to operate properly at a supply voltage as small as 0.41 V. A new write back scheme has been suggested for half-selected cells, which uses a single NMOS access device and provides reduced delay, pulse timing hardware requirements and power consumption. The proposed new WARI 8T cell shows better performance in terms of easier write, improved read noise margin, reduced leakage power, and less delay as compared to the existing schemes that have been available so far. It was also observed that with proper adjustment of the cell ratio the supply voltage can further be reduced to 0.2 V.

  12. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Johari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture

  13. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  14. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH IINTERACTIVE READ-ALOUD TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santoso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study, entitled Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Interactive Read-Aloud, attempts to unlock problems found in teaching and reading comprehension through interactive read-aloud in a Senior High School of Sport (SMAN Olah Raga Lampung, in Metro. The findings revealed that students’ reading comprehension improved through interactive read-aloud. The improvement can be seen from the increase of test results, meaning construction, and motivation. The process of reading activities showed that the teacher’s gesture and body language, 20 questions, explain and guess activities were proven to help the students construct meaning from the given texts. In addition, interactive read-aloud is effective to boost students’ motivation to comprehend the texts.   Key words: Reading comprehension, interactive read-aloud.

  15. 39% access time improvement, 11% energy reduction, 32 kbit 1-read/1-write 2-port static random-access memory using two-stage read boost and write-boost after read sensing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasue; Moriwaki, Shinichi; Kawasumi, Atsushi; Miyano, Shinji; Shinohara, Hirofumi

    2016-04-01

    We propose novel circuit techniques for 1 clock (1CLK) 1 read/1 write (1R/1W) 2-port static random-access memories (SRAMs) to improve read access time (tAC) and write margins at low voltages. Two-stage read boost (TSR-BST) and write word line boost (WWL-BST) after the read sensing schemes have been proposed. TSR-BST reduces the worst read bit line (RBL) delay by 61% and RBL amplitude by 10% at V DD = 0.5 V, which improves tAC by 39% and reduces energy dissipation by 11% at V DD = 0.55 V. WWL-BST after read sensing scheme improves minimum operating voltage (V min) by 140 mV. A 32 kbit 1CLK 1R/1W 2-port SRAM with TSR-BST and WWL-BST has been developed using a 40 nm CMOS.

  16. The importance of leisure reading to health sciences students: results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Erin M

    2016-03-01

    To determine what value health sciences students place on leisure reading, whether they prefer to read online or in print, what the principal barriers are to their reading and whether they wish to have a leisure reading collection at their health sciences library. In October 2010, a link to a survey was sent to all 1800 students in health sciences professional programmes at the author's institution. Two hundred and thirteen students (11.8%) responded. Most felt that leisure reading had helped in their development as health professionals and increased their empathy. They listed many benefits of reading, such as improved understanding of minority groups, reduced stress, and improved thinking and communication skills. The majority preferred to read books and magazines in print, while the largest number preferred reading newspapers in print as well. Lack of time, fatigue and the expense of purchasing reading materials were the greatest barriers to reading. A majority of students were in favour of having a leisure reading collection set up at their library. Leisure reading was valued by the respondents, who felt it provided personal and professional benefits. However, many indicated that circumstances made it difficult to participate in leisure reading. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  17. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  18. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  19. Assistive technology as reading interventions for children with reading impairments with a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeblad, Emma; Nilsson, Staffan; Gustafson, Stefan; Svensson, Idor

    2017-10-01

    This pilot study investigated the possible transfer effect on reading ability in children with reading difficulties after a systematic intervention to train and compensate for reading deficiencies by using applications in smartphones and tablets. The effects of using assistive technology (AT) one year after the interventions were completely studied. School related motivation, independent learning and family relations were also considered. 35 pupils aged 10-12 years participated. They were assessed five times with reading tests. The participants, their parents and teachers were surveyed with questionnaires regarding their experience of using AT. The data from the assessments were analyzed with paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The data from the questionnaires were analyzed using content analysis. The paper shows that using AT can create transfer effects on reading ability one year after the interventions were finished. This means that reading impaired children may develop at the same rate as non-impaired readers. Also, increased school motivation and an increase in independent learning and family effects have been shown. This paper provides implications in how to facilitate reading impaired pupils' learning process and realizes the need to challenge the concept of reading to change to fit modern means of gaining information. Implications for rehabilitation Children with reading impairment could benefit from assistive technology in regards of their reading development process and increase their chances of not falling behind peers. Assistive technology as applications in smartphones and tablets may aid children with reading impairment to have an equal platform for learning in school as their peers without reading difficulties. Assistive technology could facilitate the information gaining process and subsequently increase motivation to learn and increase interest in reading activities. Assistive technology had wider effects on its users: stigmatizing

  20. Reading in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    2017-01-01

    The many advantages of reading digitally also bring with them implications for how we learn differently when we read differently. The author suggests that new contemporary technologies are changing the very notion of what it means to read. Even millennials acknowledge that their attention is more focused when they read print rather than online.…

  1. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  2. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  3. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  4. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  5. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay

  6. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  7. Monitoring Progress toward Independent Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Lillian H.; Hildebrandt, Jeannette

    1984-01-01

    Concludes, among other things, that fluent oral reading is an important step toward reading for meaning and independent silent reading and that silent reading should be encouraged from the beginning of reading instruction. (FL)

  8. Survey of time preference, delay discounting models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Doyle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys over twenty models of delay discounting (also known as temporal discounting, time preference, time discounting, that psychologists and economists have put forward to explain the way people actually trade off time and money. Using little more than the basic algebra of powers and logarithms, I show how the models are derived, what assumptions they are based upon, and how different models relate to each other. Rather than concentrate only on discount functions themselves, I show how discount functions may be manipulated to isolate rate parameters for each model. This approach, consistently applied, helps focus attention on the three main components in any discounting model: subjectively perceived money; subjectively perceived time; and how these elements are combined. We group models by the number of parameters that have to be estimated, which means our exposition follows a trajectory of increasing complexity to the models. However, as the story unfolds it becomes clear that most models fall into a smaller number of families. We also show how new models may be constructed by combining elements of different models. The surveyed models are: Exponential; Hyperbolic; Arithmetic; Hyperboloid (Green and Myerson, Rachlin; Loewenstein and Prelec Generalized Hyperboloid; quasi-Hyperbolic (also known as beta-delta discounting; Benhabib et al's fixed cost; Benhabib et al's Exponential / Hyperbolic / quasi-Hyperbolic; Read's discounting fractions; Roelofsma's exponential time; Scholten and Read's discounting-by-intervals (DBI; Ebert and Prelec's constant sensitivity (CS; Bleichrodt et al.'s constant absolute decreasing impatience (CADI; Bleichrodt et al.'s constant relative decreasing impatience (CRDI; Green, Myerson, and Macaux's hyperboloid over intervals models; Killeen's additive utility; size-sensitive additive utility; Yi, Landes, and Bickel's memory trace models; McClure et al.'s two exponentials; and Scholten and Read's trade

  9. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  10. Memory profiles of Down, Williams, and fragile X syndromes: implications for reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Frances A; Moore, Marie S; Loveall, Susan J; Merrill, Edward C

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to understand the types of memory impairments that are associated with intellectual disability (ID, formerly called mental retardation) and the implications of these impairments for reading development. Specifically, studies on working memory, delayed memory and learning, and semantic/conceptual memory in Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, and fragile X syndrome were examined. A distinct memory profile emerged for each of the 3 etiologies of ID. Memory profiles are discussed in relation to strengths and weaknesses in reading skills in these three etiologies. We suggest that reading instruction be designed to capitalize on relatively stronger memory skills while providing extra support for especially challenging aspects of reading.

  11. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  12. Reading through Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Gayathri Raman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

  13. [Binocular coordination during reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

  14. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA and Guided Reading (GR on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. The instruction lasted for ten weeks. This study utilized a pretest posttest control group in quantitative quasi- experimental design. The same reading comprehension test was administered as pre-test and post-test. The results were twofold: First, the instruction of learning strategies could foster reading comprehension skill. Second, while the explicit instruction of both strategies could improve the students' reading comprehension skill, Directed Reading Thinking Activity had a more significant positive effect than Guided Reading.

  15. READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.

  16. Reading Authentic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...... proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements were monitored. The experiment shows a cognate advantage for morphologically simple words, but only when cognateness is defined relative to translation equivalents that are appropriate in the context. For morphologically complex words, a cognate disadvantage...... word predictability indexed by the conditional probability of each word....

  17. Shorter lines facilitate reading in those who struggle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Schneps

    Full Text Available People with dyslexia, who ordinarily struggle to read, sometimes remark that reading is easier when e-readers are used. Here, we used eye tracking to observe high school students with dyslexia as they read using these devices. Among the factors investigated, we found that reading using a small device resulted in substantial benefits, improving reading speeds by 27%, reducing the number of fixations by 11%, and importantly, reducing the number of regressive saccades by more than a factor of 2, with no cost to comprehension. Given that an expected trade-off between horizontal and vertical regression was not observed when line lengths were altered, we speculate that these effects occur because sluggish attention spreads perception to the left as the gaze shifts during reading. Short lines eliminate crowded text to the left, reducing regression. The effects of attention modulation by the hand, and of increased letter spacing to reduce crowding, were also found to modulate the oculomotor dynamics in reading, but whether these factors resulted in benefits or costs depended on characteristics, such as visual attention span, that varied within our sample.

  18. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversarys task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  19. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  20. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  1. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  2. Project delay analysis of HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Novega, A. S.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo

    2017-08-01

    Completion of HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) fabrication project sometimes is not sufficient with the targeted time written on the contract. The delay on fabrication process can cause some disadvantages for fabricator, including forfeit payment, delay on HRSG construction process up until HRSG trials delay. In this paper, the author is using semi quantitative on HRSG pressure part fabrication delay with configuration plant 1 GT (Gas Turbine) + 1 HRSG + 1 STG (Steam Turbine Generator) using bow-tie analysis method. Bow-tie analysis method is a combination from FTA (Fault tree analysis) and ETA (Event tree analysis) to develop the risk matrix of HRSG. The result from FTA analysis is use as a threat for preventive measure. The result from ETA analysis is use as impact from fabrication delay.

  3. Benefits of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Preventing Illness Benefits of Coffee Print Email Benefits of Coffee Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, RDN, ... your daily cup (or three) provides some health benefits as well. Drinking moderate amounts of coffee (including ...

  4. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING You may enjoy the following when ... about $2,000 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  5. Computer Simulation of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leton, Donald A.

    In recent years, coding and decoding have been claimed to be the processes for converting one language form to another. But there has been little effort to locate these processes in the human learner or to identify the nature of the internal codes. Computer simulation of reading is useful because the similarities in the human reception and…

  6. Readings in risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glickman, Theodore S; Gough, Michael

    1990-01-01

    ... from Resources for the Future are distributed worldwide by The Johns Hopkins University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Readings in risk I Theodore S. Glickman and Michael Gough, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-915707-55-1 (alk. paper) 1. Technology-Risk assessment. 2. Health risk assessment....

  7. Time for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

  8. Recipe for Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jacquelyn W.; Shaul, Nancy Pera

    The program described in this paper was based upon the premise that the activity of cooking in the classroom is an excellent way of integrating all areas of learning and a very useful reading vehicle. Through cooking activities and related field trips, children can add to both their knowledge in basic subject areas and their motor skills as well…

  9. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  10. Reading, Perception and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Drake D., Ed.; Rawson, Margaret B., Ed.

    The nine papers in this book discuss aspects of language processing that contribute to reading difficulty. After a summary of the 1974 World Congress on Dyslexia, at which these papers were presented, the following subjects are examined: historical background and educational treatment of dyslexia; the structure of language; neuroanatomy underlying…

  11. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen…

  12. Reading in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leah

    2012-01-01

    The digital age is rendering books more common, not less. It is true that there is nothing new about "furniture books": The trade in reading material has long been dwarfed by the market for coffee-table books, books that steakhouse chains buy by the yard, empty bindings that interior decorators use to accessorize the upholstery. As coffee-table…

  13. Reading the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Keith

    Given the strong sense of passing time which seems to be wired into human beings, it is only natural that the Year 2000, or Y2K in contemporary jargon, should lead to serious speculation about the future. Reading and literacy, old skills relatively speaking, continue rightly to figure in those predictions (along with the technologically advanced…

  14. Reading's Next Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

  15. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  16. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshiko; Miyamoto, Kazuto; Beppu, Hirokuni; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author)

  17. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  18. The effectiveness of a 2-year supplementary tutor-assisted computerized intervention on the reading development of beginning readers at risk for reading difficulties: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtvoort, A.; Zijlstra, H.; van der Leij, A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with low (pre-)literacy skills may benefit from individual tutoring during the early phases of learning to read. Dutch at-risk students from 13 schools received in first and second grade a computerized reading intervention, delivered by non-professional tutors at school. Digital logs

  19. "One Glove Does Not Fit All" in Bilingual Reading Acquisition: Using the Age of First Bilingual Language Exposure to Understand Optimal Contexts for Reading Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Salah-Ud-Din, Maha; Berens, Melody S.; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2015-01-01

    In teaching reading, educators strive to find the balance between a code-emphasis approach and a meaning-oriented literacy approach. However, little is known about how different approaches to literacy can benefit bilingual children's early reading acquisition. To investigate the novel hypothesis that children's age of first bilingual exposure can…

  20. Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

    2011-12-01

    Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy.

  1. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  2. Effects of Wh-Question Graphic Organizers on Reading Comprehension Skills of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethune, Keri S.; Wood,Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorders often have difficulty with reading comprehension. This study used a delayed multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of graphic organizers on the accuracy of wh-questions answered following short passage reading. Participants were three elementary-age students with autism spectrum…

  3. Teachers’ beliefs about reading and use of reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    VASILIKA RRAKU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to place the focus on teachers’ beliefs about reading and reading strategies to the purpose of emphasizing the im portance of reading strategies in the reading process. The method of study is analytic analysis of teachers’ beliefs obtained through ques tionnaires delivered to 18 English language teachers of elementary, secondary and high level education in the region of Saranda in lbania. The results of the study pointed to a great concordance between teach ers’ bel...

  4. Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.

  5. The influence of delaying judgments of learning on metacognitive accuracy: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have examined the accuracy of predictions of future memory performance solicited through judgments of learning (JOLs). Among the most robust findings in this literature is that delaying predictions serves to substantially increase the relative accuracy of JOLs compared with soliciting JOLs immediately after study, a finding termed the delayed JOL effect. The meta-analyses reported in the current study examined the predominant theoretical accounts as well as potential moderators of the delayed JOL effect. The first meta-analysis examined the relative accuracy of delayed compared with immediate JOLs across 4,554 participants (112 effect sizes) through gamma correlations between JOLs and memory accuracy. Those data showed that delaying JOLs leads to robust benefits to relative accuracy (g = 0.93). The second meta-analysis examined memory performance for delayed compared with immediate JOLs across 3,807 participants (98 effect sizes). Those data showed that delayed JOLs result in a modest but reliable benefit for memory performance relative to immediate JOLs (g = 0.08). Findings from these meta-analyses are well accommodated by theories suggesting that delayed JOL accuracy reflects access to more diagnostic information from long-term memory rather than being a by-product of a retrieval opportunity. However, these data also suggest that theories proposing that the delayed JOL effect results from a memorial benefit or the match between the cues available for JOLs and those available at test may also provide viable explanatory mechanisms necessary for a comprehensive account.

  6. Reading in a second language: Considering the "simple view of reading" as a foundation to support ESL readers in Lesotho, Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Staden, Annalene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, reading proficiency has been a major area of difficulty for English second-language (ESL learners. This research inter alia utilised a quantitative, quasi-experimental, pre-test/post-test research design to address the paucity of evidence-based second-language reading research internationally, as well as in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in Lesotho in particular; and to determine if second-language learners (L2 in the experimental group can improve their L2 reading abilities after being exposed to reading intervention strategies, based on the “simple view of reading”. Drawing from both psycholinguistic and cognitive linguistic principles, the authors considered this as a working model to develop reading strategies to support ESL learners in Lesotho who experienced significant delays in L2 reading abilities and comprehension. In the present study, strategies based on the “simple view of reading”, , included, inter alia, effective language exposure, building a rich vocabulary, improving reading fluency and word recognition abilities, and creating socio-linguistic opportunities to develop vocabulary and enhance reading comprehension (for example, creating a “word wall”, interactive story-book reading and the application of the ReQuest reading method. Results from this quantitative study demonstrated that Grade 4 ESL learners in the experimental group (N=36 significantly outperformed those in the control group (N=36 with regard to sight word fluency, word recognition, syntactic awareness, vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. As we move forward in an attempt to understand the nuances of creating a responsive reading environment to support ESL learners’ reading development, assessing the effectiveness of strategies to improve their reading skills is essential.

  7. Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

  8. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  9. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension Difficulties for Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Gary

    2008-01-01

    There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…

  10. Early reading intervention by means of a multicomponent reading game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

  11. Reading Fluency Instruction for Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…

  12. How do children read words? A focus on reading processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Being able to read is very important in our literate society. Many studies, therefore, have examined children’s reading skills to improve our understanding of reading development. In general, there have been two types of studies. On the one hand, there is a line of research that focuses on the

  13. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  14. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  15. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  16. Organizing of delay, input gate and memory of proportional chamber channel basing on D-trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Kuzichev, V.F.; Rabin, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    Economical organization of delay, input gate and proportional chamber (PC) channel memory on the 155 TM2 D trigger basis is described. The channel consists of an amplifier; delay element permitting to synchronize PC signal and recording strobe-signal; input gate, where coincidence of the above signals occurs; memory element, where the data from a wire are recorded and stored; read gate through which the data are transmitted for further processing. Presented is one of the versions of circuit solution for delay element, input gate and momory element. Flowsheet peculiarity is the simplicity of fabrication and tuning as well as low cost of the device

  17. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-20

    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.

  18. Encouraging Recreational Reading (The Printout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    1988-01-01

    Describes computer software, including "The Electronic Bookshelf" and "Return to Reading," which provides motivation for recreational reading in various ways, including: quizzes, games based on books, and whole language activities for children's literature and young adult fiction. (MM)

  19. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  20. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

  1. Consensus double reading of mammograms in private practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacher, B.; Tscherney, R.; Litmann-Rowenta, B.; Liskutin, J.; Mazewski, I.; Leitner, H.; Tscholakoff, D.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively the results of consensus double reading of mammograms in a private practice for a period of 1.5 years (November 2001 to March 2003). Materials and Method: Two independent experts with dedicated training read all mammograms on a weekly basis. All mammograms including sonographic examinations were evaluated independently and categorized using the Bl-RADS classification. The achieved consensus included a possible recommendation for recall or therapy. A total of 3936 mammograms and 1912 sonography studies were evaluated. All cases with BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories were compared with the histologic results. For a period of three months, the acceptance of double reading including a delay of the final report by one week was tested with a questionnaire and informed consent sheet. Results: BI-RADS categories 4 and 5 were found in 57 cases, with 41 consensus results by two independent readers and 26 carcinomas verified by histology. No consensus could be reached in 16 patients, of which 10 had a final histologic result, with 5 benign lesions and 5 carcinomas of less than 1 cm in diameter. Clinical symptoms or alterations were absent in all patients. The 5 carcinomas were discovered by the double reading procedure. The result of the questionnaire (695 questionnaires) showed a refusal rate of 0.7%, with only 5 women refusing the opportunity of double reading their mammograms. Conclusion: Double reading of mammograms by independent experts is feasible, shows a measurable increase in quality and is accepted by almost all women. (orig.)

  2. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

  3. Initial Reading through Computer Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrion, Leo D.; Bergeron, R. Daniel

    The Computer Animated Reading Instruction System (CARIS) was developed to introduce reading to children with varied sensory, cognitive, and physical handicaps. CARIS employs an exploratory learning approach which encourages children to experiment with the reading and writing of words and sentences. Brief computer-animated cartoons provide the…

  4. MisReading LIS Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need to place a greater emphasis on the subject of reading in library and information science (LIS) education and research. Topics include literacy studies, print culture history, reader-response theory, ethnography of reading, genre fiction and cultural studies, information versus reading, and access to information versus content of…

  5. Teaching Reading in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This handbook on teaching reading in vocational education is designed to provide vocational education teachers with a resource to use in helping students to develop sound reading skills. Provided in the handbook are information sheets, self-checks, practice activities, and suggestions for further reading dealing with the following topics:…

  6. Encouraging Students to Read Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mary D.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the ability to read mathematics is an important skill--one that few of our students possess. A number of people have published some suggestions for helping students learn to read their mathematics textbooks. What these have in common is suggestions for getting students more active while reading. Using these resources as…

  7. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  8. The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

  9. Readability, Reading Ability, and Readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Richard P.; And Others

    This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…

  10. Direct reading dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, I.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a direct reading dosimeter which is light, small enough to be worn on a person, and measures both dose rates and total dose. It is based on a semiconductor sensor. The gate threshold voltage change rather than absolute value is measured and displayed as a direct reading of the dose rate. This is effected by continuously switching the gate of an MOS transistor from positive to negative bias. The output can directly drive a digital readout or trigger an audible alarm. The sensor device can be a MOSFET, bipolar transistor, or MOSFET capacitor which has its electrical characteristics change due to the trapped charge in the insulating layer of the device

  11. Reading, writing, rebelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...... and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective......, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from...

  12. The benefit of generating errors during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Rosalind; Shanks, David R

    2014-04-01

    Testing has been found to be a powerful learning tool, but educators might be reluctant to make full use of its benefits for fear that any errors made would be harmful to learning. We asked whether testing could be beneficial to memory even during novel learning, when nearly all responses were errors, and where errors were unlikely to be related to either cues or targets. In 4 experiments, participants learned definitions for unfamiliar English words, or translations for foreign vocabulary, by generating a response and being given corrective feedback, by reading the word and its definition or translation, or by selecting from a choice of definitions or translations followed by feedback. In a final test of all words, generating errors followed by feedback led to significantly better memory for the correct definition or translation than either reading or making incorrect choices, suggesting that the benefits of generation are not restricted to correctly generated items. Even when information to be learned is novel, errorful generation may play a powerful role in potentiating encoding of corrective feedback. Experiments 2A, 2B, and 3 revealed, via metacognitive judgments of learning, that participants are strikingly unaware of this benefit, judging errorful generation to be a less effective encoding method than reading or incorrect choosing, when in fact it was better. Predictions reflected participants' subjective experience during learning. If subjective difficulty leads to more effort at encoding, this could at least partly explain the errorful generation advantage.

  13. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  14. readShape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitniak, J.; Pargac, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the Slovak Environmental Agency during relative short time originated the first version of software product using of GPS technology for monitoring of negative phenomena in nature. It was denominated as readShape and its primary goal is to minister for conservator of environment geographically strictly to observe endangered territories as are, for example, fire, fish kill, impact of motor vehicle accident or dangerous objects as are illegal stock-piles, wastes and other. Process of monitoring is described

  15. Emotional Landscapes of Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Samutina

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on fan fiction as a literary experience and especially on fan fiction readers’ receptive strategies. Methodologically, its approach is at the intersection of literary theory, theory of popular culture, and qualitative research into practices of communication within online communities. It presents a general characterization of fan fiction as a type of contemporary reading and writing, drawing upon the influential works by H. Jenkins, A. Dericho, K. Tosenberger, and others. T...

  16. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  17. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  18. On the Delay-Energy Tradeoff in Multiuser Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf R. Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the delay-energy tradeoff on a fading channel with multiuser diversity. For fixed arbitrary rates of the users, the total transmitted energy is minimized subject to a delay constraint. To achieve this goal we propose a scheme which schedules a subset of all users simultaneously. The scheduled users are allocated power to guarantee successful separation at the detector by successive decoding. In this way, we can benefit from both multiuser diversity and the near-far situation via scheduling and simultaneous transmission, respectively. We analytically show that when the number of users goes to infinity the energy required to guarantee the required user rates can be made as small as required at the cost of a higher delaydelay-energy tradeoff”. We explicitly compute the delay under the proposed scheduling policy and discuss how delay differentiation can be achieved. We extend the results to multiband multiaccess channel. Finally, all the results can be generalized in a straightforward fashion to broadcast channel due to the Gaussian multiaccess-broadcast channel duality.

  19. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

  20. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  1. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  2. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.

  3. Lip-reading enhancement for law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry J.; Harvey, Richard; Cox, Stephen J.; Lewis, Colin; Owen, Gari P.

    2006-09-01

    Accurate lip-reading techniques would be of enormous benefit for agencies involved in counter-terrorism and other law-enforcement areas. Unfortunately, there are very few skilled lip-readers, and it is apparently a difficult skill to transmit, so the area is under-resourced. In this paper we investigate the possibility of making the lip-reading task more amenable to a wider range of operators by enhancing lip movements in video sequences using active appearance models. These are generative, parametric models commonly used to track faces in images and video sequences. The parametric nature of the model allows a face in an image to be encoded in terms of a few tens of parameters, while the generative nature allows faces to be re-synthesised using the parameters. The aim of this study is to determine if exaggerating lip-motions in video sequences by amplifying the parameters of the model improves lip-reading ability. We also present results of lip-reading tests undertaken by experienced (but non-expert) adult subjects who claim to use lip-reading in their speech recognition process. The results, which are comparisons of word error-rates on unprocessed and processed video, are mixed. We find that there appears to be the potential to improve the word error rate but, for the method to improve the intelligibility there is need for more sophisticated tracking and visual modelling. Our technique can also act as an expression or visual gesture amplifier and so has applications to animation and the presentation of information via avatars or synthetic humans.

  4. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes

  5. Miraculous Readings: Using Fantasy Novels about Reading to Reflect on Reading the Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the vivid images of reading presented in several popular fantasy novels, including "The Spiderwick Chronicles," "The Great Good Thing," and "The Neverending Story." It suggests that these images can be used to help children, youth, and adults reflect on the nature of reading and the potential power of reading sacred texts.…

  6. Book Clubs in Developmental Reading: Building Reading Comprehension, Fostering Reading Enjoyment, and Engaging Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…

  7. The Effects of Extensive Reading on Reading Comprehension, Reading Rate, and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Namhee

    2017-01-01

    Several empirical studies and syntheses of extensive reading have concluded that extensive reading has positive impacts on language learning in second- and foreign-language settings. However, many of the studies contained methodological or curricular limitations, raising questions about the asserted positive effects of extensive reading. The…

  8. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  9. Health Sciences Library Support of a University Common Reading Program: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, Frances A

    2017-01-01

    Common reading programs have become increasingly popular on college and university campuses as a means for increasing student engagement, retention, and success. This article describes the characteristics, goals, and benefits of common reading programs and provides examples from the literature of academic library involvement in them. Finally, an example is provided of how one academic health sciences library participated in its institution's First-Year Summer Reading program.

  10. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  11. The Teaching Reading With Virtual Technology in Education Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Wannmacher Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research had the specific objectives: produce virtual reading materials to the 7th grade of elementary high school students; develop workshops from these materials for these students; check the benefits of these workshops to the student`s reading comprehension development and also their the linguistic learning knowledge; produce an e-book to the teachers; provide this e-book to the publisher`s website at PUCRS. The methodology involved: conducting cooperative work around educational actions (application of virtual materials produced in workshops, research (development and implementation of research instruments and extension (production and availability of e-book. The results were: a productive network between University and schools; a set of reading comprehension material to the 7th grade of elementary school students; students’ reading comprehension development and learning language skills in the test applied before and after the workshops; the e-book which was developed and it is available on the EDIPUCRS site.

  12. Reading Confidence with "Tail Waggin' Tutors"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    This report discusses the benefits of canine-assisted reading through the "Tail Waggin' Tutors" program at the Glen Burnie Regional Library in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Presented are the two different types of therapy dog interactions, Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) and Animal-Assisted Activities (AAA). The first canine-assisted…

  13. Children Reading to Dogs: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Susannah Hall

    Full Text Available Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented.Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b.The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children's reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture.

  14. Children Reading to Dogs: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sophie Susannah; Gee, Nancy R; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented. Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b. The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children's reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture.

  15. Exploring Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies of Non-Native English-Speaking Translation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    International students, a growing population in US universities, need to possess excellent reading skills in order to succeed. American universities also benefit from admitting students who do not require remedial English classes. Reading online has become an integrated part of college education, which requires students to have additional skills.…

  16. The Impact of Tutoring on Early Reading Achievement for Children with and without Attention Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiner, David L.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether the benefits of reading tutoring in first grade were moderated by children's level of attention problems. Participants were 581 children from the intervention and control samples of Fast Track, a longitudinal multisite investigation of the development and prevention of conduct problems. Standardized reading achievement…

  17. Reading and Studying on the Screen: An Overview of Literature towards Good Learning Design Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mark

    2016-01-01

    As distance education moves increasingly towards online provision, and because of the benefits provided by online approaches, students will be expected to engage with more resources available on screen. Contemporary forms of reading from the screen include reading from tablet devices, LCD monitors, and smartphones. However, print remains the…

  18. We Spent Our Summer Chasing Unicorns: A Young Adult Reading Game Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Cathi

    1986-01-01

    Describes a young adult summer reading game which is offered in three age-level versions from grades 1 through 12 at Enoch Pratt Free Library (Maryland). Benefits of young adult reading games in public libraries, game rules and sample questions, and the game finale visit to Walters Art Gallery are highlighted. (EJS)

  19. Contextual knowledge reduces demands on working memory during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cohen, Jason A; Wingfield, Arthur

    2006-09-01

    An experiment is reported in which young, middle-aged, and older adults read and recalled ambiguous texts either with or without the topic title that supplied contextual knowledge. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those with high or low working memory (WM) spans, with available WM capacity further manipulated by the presence or absence of an auditory target detection task concurrent with the reading task. Differences in reading efficiency (reading time per proposition recalled) between low WM span and high WM span groups were greater among readers who had access to contextual knowledge relative to those who did not, suggesting that contextual knowledge reduces demands on WM capacity. This position was further supported by the finding that increased age and attentional demands, two factors associated with reduced WM capacity, exaggerated the benefits of contextual knowledge on reading efficiency. The relative strengths of additional potential predictors of reading efficiency (e.g., interest, effort, and memory beliefs), along with knowledge, WM span, and age, are reported. Findings showed that contextual knowledge was the strongest predictor of reading efficiency even after controlling for the effects of all of the other predictors.

  20. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Snell

    Full Text Available A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were flanked by parafoveal words. In Experiment 1 we found a syntactic parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading, meaning that fixation durations on target words were decreased when there was a syntactically congruent preview word at the target location (n during the fixation on the pre-target (n-1. In Experiment 2 we used a flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify foveal target words as either noun or verb, when those targets were flanked by syntactically congruent or incongruent words (stimulus on-time 170 ms. Lower response times and error rates in the congruent condition suggested that higher-order (syntactic information can be integrated across foveal and parafoveal words. Although higher-order parafoveal-on-foveal effects have been elusive in sentence reading, results from our flanker paradigm show that the reading system can extract higher-order information from multiple words in a single glance. We propose a model of reading to account for the present findings.

  1. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in

  2. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  3. Regret Expression and Social Learning Increases Delay to Sexual Gratification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Quisenberry

    Full Text Available Modification and prevention of risky sexual behavior is important to individuals' health and public health policy. This study employed a novel sexual discounting task to elucidate the effects of social learning and regret expression on delay to sexual gratification in a behavioral task.Amazon Mechanical Turk Workers were assigned to hear one of three scenarios about a friend who engages in similar sexual behavior. The scenarios included a positive health consequence, a negative health consequence or a negative health consequence with the expression of regret. After reading one scenario, participants were asked to select from 60 images, those with whom they would have casual sex. Of the selected images, participants chose one image each for the person they most and least want to have sex with and person most and least likely to have a sexually transmitted infection. They then answered questions about engaging in unprotected sex now or waiting some delay for condom-protected sex in each partner condition.Results indicate that the negative health outcome scenario with regret expression resulted in delayed sexual gratification in the most attractive and least STI partner conditions, whereas in the least attractive and most STI partner conditions the negative health outcome with and without regret resulted in delayed sexual gratification.Results suggest that the sexual discounting task is a relevant laboratory measure and the framing of information to include regret expression may be relevant for prevention of risky sexual behavior.

  4. Orthographic learning in children with isolated and combined reading and spelling deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhase, Heike; Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2018-05-07

    Dissociations between reading and spelling problems are likely to be associated with different underlying cognitive deficits, and with different deficits in orthographic learning. In order to understand these differences, the current study examined orthographic learning using a printed-word learning paradigm. Children (4th grade) with isolated reading, isolated spelling and combined reading and spelling problems were compared to children with age appropriate reading and spelling skills on their performance during learning novel words and symbols (non-verbal control condition), and during immediate and delayed reading and spelling recall tasks. No group differences occurred in the non-verbal control condition. In the verbal condition, initial learning was intact in all groups, but differences occurred during recall tasks. Children with reading fluency deficits showed slower reading times, while children with spelling deficits were less accurate, both in reading and spelling recall. Children with isolated spelling problems showed no difficulties in immediate spelling recall, but had problems in remembering the spellings 2 hours later. The results suggest that different orthographic learning deficits underlie reading fluency and spelling problems: Children with isolated reading fluency deficits have no difficulties in building-up orthographic representations, but access to these representations is slowed down while children with isolated spelling deficits have problems in storing precise orthographic representations in long-term memory.

  5. THE SECONDARY SCHOOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE READING CURRICULUM: A TEACHER’S PERCEPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlina Abdullah

    2016-08-01

    Abstract The Secondary School English Language Reading Curriculum: A teacher’s Perceptions. The problem of reading comprehension is not unique to only Malaysian graduates. In fact many students experience comprehension difficulties. This, some sudents need explicit comprehension strategy instruction. A rational starting point for this discussion is by defining what reading is. It is then followed by a brief review on Communicative Language Teaching (CLT which is adopted in the Malaysian Form 5 English Language Reading Curriculum. Involving the writer, the reader and the text, reading is actually a communication process where a reader is seen to perform an active role in a reading process. Based on the many previous researches, it is obvious that the teacher’s role in aiding students’ reading comprehension skills is vital. This also reflects the importance of the reading curriculum, as teachers will impkement their reading instruction based on the outlined curriculum. It is hoped that this study may benefit those involved in the curriulum development and examination syndicate, to enhance the teaching and learning processes of reading in the second language, not only among teachers in Malaysia but also world-wide. Keywords: English language Reading Curriculum, reading comprehension skill

  6. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  7. Transcatheter Embolization for Delayed Hemorrhage Caused by Blunt Splenic Trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohmer, Steven J.; Hoffer, Eric K.; Burchard, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented at least 3 days after initial splenic trauma with delayed hemorrhage. During a 24-month period 4 patients (all male; ages 19-49 years) presented with acute onset of pain 5-70 days after blunt trauma to the left upper quadrant. Two had known splenic injuries that had been managed nonoperatively. All had computed axial tomography evidence of active splenic hemorrhage or false aneurysm on representation. All underwent successful SAE. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 370 days. These cases and a review of the literature indicate that SAE is safe and effective for NOM failure caused by delayed manifestations of splenic arterial injury.

  8. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  9. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice care How ...

  10. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  11. Internet Video Telephony Allows Speech Reading by Deaf Individuals and Improves Speech Perception by Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Dähler, Claudia; Dubach, Patrick; Kompis, Martin; Caversaccio, Marco D.; Senn, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze speech reading through Internet video calls by profoundly hearing-impaired individuals and cochlear implant (CI) users. Methods Speech reading skills of 14 deaf adults and 21 CI users were assessed using the Hochmair Schulz Moser (HSM) sentence test. We presented video simulations using different video resolutions (1280×720, 640×480, 320×240, 160×120 px), frame rates (30, 20, 10, 7, 5 frames per second (fps)), speech velocities (three different speakers), webcameras (Logitech Pro9000, C600 and C500) and image/sound delays (0–500 ms). All video simulations were presented with and without sound and in two screen sizes. Additionally, scores for live Skype™ video connection and live face-to-face communication were assessed. Results Higher frame rate (>7 fps), higher camera resolution (>640×480 px) and shorter picture/sound delay (<100 ms) were associated with increased speech perception scores. Scores were strongly dependent on the speaker but were not influenced by physical properties of the camera optics or the full screen mode. There is a significant median gain of +8.5%pts (p = 0.009) in speech perception for all 21 CI-users if visual cues are additionally shown. CI users with poor open set speech perception scores (n = 11) showed the greatest benefit under combined audio-visual presentation (median speech perception +11.8%pts, p = 0.032). Conclusion Webcameras have the potential to improve telecommunication of hearing-impaired individuals. PMID:23359119

  12. Analysis of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kováříková, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with employee benefits in the current labour market, especially from the perspective of young employees. The first part is focused on the theory of motivation and employee benefits also with their tax impact on employee's income. Employee benefits in the current labour market, employee's satisfaction and employer's attitude to this issue are analyzed in the second part of this thesis.

  13. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (Australia); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Gunn, Jill A.E., E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning and School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  14. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment

  15. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  16. Giro form reading machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Ha, Thien; Niggeler, Dieter; Bunke, Horst; Clarinval, Jose

    1995-08-01

    Although giro forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance in Switzerland, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. We describe an ongoing project for building an automatic system that is able to recognize various items printed or written on a giro form. The system comprises three main components, namely, an automatic form feeder, a camera system, and a computer. These components are connected in such a way that the system is able to process a bunch of forms without any human interactions. We present two real applications of our system in the field of payment services, which require the reading of both machine printed and handwritten information that may appear on a giro form. One particular feature of giro forms is their flexible layout, i.e., information items are located differently from one form to another, thus requiring an additional analysis step to localize them before recognition. A commercial optical character recognition software package is used for recognition of machine-printed information, whereas handwritten information is read by our own algorithms, the details of which are presented. The system is implemented by using a client/server architecture providing a high degree of flexibility to change. Preliminary results are reported supporting our claim that the system is usable in practice.

  17. Chaos in the delay logistic equation with discontinuous delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ayan; Mukherjee, Debasis

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes a delay logistic equation which models a feedback control problem. Interval map associated to the system is derived. By calculating Lyapunov exponent, we indicate stable orbit and chaotic phenomenon respectively. The results are verified through computer simulation. We identify the parameter which controls the dynamics.

  18. Technological Transformations of Reading Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech

    The increasing use of social media along with the rapidly developing digitization of the book has led to a range of new circumstances for writing, publishing and reading books, resulting in transformations in reading culture and practices. The social aspect of reading is emphasized when readers...... relations in the network of writers, publishers, readers, and reviewers. Similarly, the increasing use of electronic reading devices plays a key role in the acceleration of a culture in which the audience engages with cultural works in new ways. The print book has an “easy materiality” (Marshall, 2010, p....... 17), but with the electronic book, the materiality of reading becomes more ambiguous and malleable as the book as technology is being radically reconstructed. The purpose of this paper is to explore these changes through an investigation into the technology relations (Ihde, 1990) in fiction reading...

  19. Science teacher's discourse about reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research we start from the assumption that teachers act as mediators of reading practices in school and problematise their practices, meanings and representations of reading. We have investigated meanings constructed by a group of teachers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, working at a federal technical school. Having French discourse analysis as our theoretical-methodological framework, we considered that meanings, concepts and conceptions of reading are built historically through discourses, which produce meanings that determine ideological practices. Our results show that, for that group of teachers, there were no opportunities during either initial training or on-going education for reflecting upon the role of reading in science teaching and learning. Moreover, there seems to be an association between the type of discourse and modes of reading, so that unique meanings are attributed to scientific texts and their reading are linked to search and assimilation of information.

  20. Postraumatic delayed loss of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, C.R.; Graves, V.B.; Ruetenacht, D.A.; Weinstein, J.M.; Strother, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging studies and clinical findings in 10 patients who suffered delayed vision loss beginning 1 day to 13 years after head trauma have been reviewed. Two different primary lesions could be identified: pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery and carotid cavernous fistula. The pathologic changes associated with pseudoaneurysm included compression of the optic nerves and/or chiasm by arterial aneurysm and intracranial hematoma. Carotid cavernous fistula caused delayed vision loss by compression of the optic nerves and chiasm by saccular dilatation of the cavernous sinus and by abnormal orbital venous drainage with retinal venous stasis, retinal edema, and glaucoma

  1. Time delayed Ensemble Nudging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry

    Optimal nudging method based on time delayed embedding theory has shows potentials on analyzing and data assimilation in previous literatures. To extend the application and promote the practical implementation, new nudging assimilation method based on the time delayed embedding space is presented and the connection with other standard assimilation methods are studied. Results shows the incorporating information from the time series of data can reduce the sufficient observation needed to preserve the quality of numerical prediction, making it a potential alternative in the field of data assimilation of large geophysical models.

  2. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time. ...

  3. The Role of Speech Prosody and Text Reading Prosody in Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody--which is independent from reading skills--in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could…

  4. Quality in the billing cycle remote reading through radio frequency walk-by system and prepayment: technical and initial reliability results, cost vs benefit analysis, end user satisfaction; La qualite dans le cycle de facturation. Telereleve HF des compteurs et compteurs a fiches prechargees: resultats thechniques, premieres verifications de fiabilite, rapport cout - benefices, interets et satisfaction des clients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dho, V. [Gruppo Italcogim (Italy); Hensemberger, F. [Schlumberger Industries (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This document, taking as a starting point the needs brought about by the evolution of the gas market, shows two proposals for technological innovations to be applied to company processes, to increase the quality and the opportunities supplied to clients for the gas distribution service. This article will deal with in particular the rationalization of the billing process giving a wider interpretation than the one commonly followed. As for the first proposal - the remote reading of domestic meters - the experimental project carried out on a sample of Italcogim clients is analysed in detail, as well as their related technical results regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of the technology used. An evaluation quality criteria on the suitability of the use of the new remote reading system is also highlighted. The second proposal covers the rechargeable card system, with a description of the technical and economic planning applied to the pilot project which will start in the near future. (authors)

  5. The Effect of Reading Involvement through Open-Ended Strategy vs. Fill-in- the- Blanks Strategy on Young EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Salehi Sepehr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the extent to which an instructional framework of integrating strategy instruction (open-ended strategy and fill-in-the blanks strategy with motivation- support affected on reading result for young EFL learners. The central area of exploration included a comparison among three approaches to reading instruction: First, fill-in-the blanks strategy intervention; second, open-ended strategy intervention; and last, a control group which received the conventional reading strategies. The participants were sampled from amongst a group of seventy-seven pre-intermediate EFL learners in a language school in Tehran- Iran based on convenient sampling technique. For the sake of measurement, the researchers administered PET and CELT along with reading strategy based-test to quantify the participants’ current level of knowledge as well as the degree of achievement after treatment. For measurement’s sake, different types of tests such as PET, reading comprehension test (CELT, and reading strategy based- test were employed to quantify the participants’ current level of knowledge as well as the degree of achievement before and after instruction. The result of the present study indicated that the experimental groups had a significant improvement over the control group. Also, the level of learners’ reading engagement during classroom work mediated the instructional effects on reading outcomes. The results of this study can be to the benefit of both EFL and ESL teachers to teach reading comprehension using the student's critical mind as well as critical involvement in the reading tasks.

  6. Reading assessment and training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to ensure ourselves and the general public that the workers in the Nuclear Materials Processing Department (NMPD) could read, follow, and understand procedures. Procedures were randomly selected and analyzed for reading levels. A tenth grade reading level was established as the standard for all NMPD employees. Employees were tested to determine reading levels and approximately 12% could not read at the target level. A Procedure Walk-Through Evaluation was administered to each person not reaching tenth grade reading level. This was a job performance measure given to ensure that the worker was competent in his/her present job, and should remain there while completing reading training. A mandatory Reading Training Program utilizing Computer Based Training was established. This program is self-paced, individualized instruction and provided to the worker on Company time. Results of the CBT Program have been very good. Instruction is supplemented with test-taking skills seminars, practice exams, individual conferences with their own reading specialist, and some self-directed study books. This paper describes the program at Savannah River Site

  7. Visual search guidance is best after a short delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joseph; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2011-03-25

    Search displays are typically presented immediately after a target cue, but in the real-world, delays often exist between target designation and search. Experiments 1 and 2 asked how search guidance changes with delay. Targets were cued using a picture or text label, each for 3000ms, followed by a delay up to 9000ms before the search display. Search stimuli were realistic objects, and guidance was quantified using multiple eye movement measures. Text-based cues showed a non-significant trend towards greater guidance following any delay relative to a no-delay condition. However, guidance from a pictorial cue increased sharply 300-600ms after preview offset. Experiment 3 replicated this guidance enhancement using shorter preview durations while equating the time from cue onset to search onset, demonstrating that the guidance benefit is linked to preview offset rather than a more complete encoding of the target. Experiment 4 showed that enhanced guidance persists even with a mask flashed at preview offset, suggesting an explanation other than visual priming. We interpret our findings as evidence for the rapid consolidation of target information into a guiding representation, which attains its maximum effectiveness shortly after preview offset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting reading ability in teenagers who are deaf or hard of hearing: A longitudinal analysis of language and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsfold, Sarah; Mahon, Merle; Pimperton, Hannah; Stevenson, Jim; Kennedy, Colin

    2018-04-13

    Deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) children and young people are known to show group-level deficits in spoken language and reading abilities relative to their hearing peers. However, there is little evidence on the longitudinal predictive relationships between language and reading in this population. To determine the extent to which differences in spoken language ability in childhood predict reading ability in D/HH adolescents. and procedures: Participants were drawn from a population-based cohort study and comprised 53 D/HH teenagers, who used spoken language, and a comparison group of 38 normally hearing teenagers. All had completed standardised measures of spoken language (expression and comprehension) and reading (accuracy and comprehension) at 6-10 and 13-19 years of age. and results: Forced entry stepwise regression showed that, after taking reading ability at age 8 years into account, language scores at age 8 years did not add significantly to the prediction of Reading Accuracy z-scores at age 17 years (change in R 2  = 0.01, p = .459) but did make a significant contribution to the prediction of Reading Comprehension z-scores at age 17 years (change in R 2  = 0.17, p skills in middle childhood predict reading comprehension ability in adolescence. Continued intervention to support language development beyond primary school has the potential to benefit reading comprehension and hence educational access for D/HH adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)-how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children ( N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development.

  10. Write to read: the brain's universal reading and writing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A; Tan, Li-Hai

    2013-02-01

    Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting reading and good reading culture through the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is the findings from existing literature on the mechanics of using book talks and story books to inculcate reading and the steps to develop good reading culture in children. This work is an ongoing action research work in selected private and public schools in Lagos Mainland. It has so far been established that the ...

  12. Do You Read Me? Service Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension…

  13. The relationship between children's reading motivation and reading competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晴雪

    2016-01-01

    It has been found that motivation is very important to children's reading competence. This paper intended to study intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and find their relationship with children's reading competence. In order to do so, previous investigations about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were critically reviewed, and their results were discussed in this paper.

  14. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  15. Reading the Web: Internet Guided Reading with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, David

    2015-01-01

    Online reading requires traditional and new comprehension skills and strategies, and these skills and strategies will have to be taught and supported, especially for young beginning readers. But how do elementary teachers go about doing this? Much of the research regarding teaching and supporting online reading comprehension has focused on older…

  16. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  17. Another definition for time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Time delay is defined by geometrical considerations which work in classical as well as in quantum mechanics, and its connection with the S-matrix and the virial is proven for potentials with V(x vector) and x vector V(x vector) vanishing as rsup(-1-epsilon) for r -> infinity. (Author)

  18. Weather delay costs to trucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...

  19. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...

  20. Design flaw could delay collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    "A magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) failed during a key test at the European particle physics laboratory CERN last week. Physicists and engineers will have to repair the damaged magnet and retrofit others to correct the underlynig design flaw, which could delay the start-up of the mammouth subterranean machine." (1,5 page)

  1. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    the delay is contractually defined as a contractor's risk, the contractor is liable to pay liquidated damages to the employer; if it is not, the contractor can under certain circumstances claim an extension of time and in some cases also economic compensation from the employer. The situation where a given...

  2. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the

  3. Livermore blasted for project delay

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    In a 12 page report issued last week, a review committee set up by the University of California has concluded that mismanagement and poor planning are to blame for significant cost overruns and delays in the construction of NIF, the worlds largest laser (1 page).

  4. Providing delay guarantees in Bluetooth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait Yaiz, R.; Heijenk, Geert; Titsworth, F.

    2003-01-01

    Bluetooth polling, also referred to as Bluetooth MAC scheduling or intra-piconet scheduling, is the mechanism that schedules the traffic between the participants in a Bluetooth network. Hence, this mechanism is highly determining with respect to the delay packets experience in a Bluetooth network.

  5. Turkey Reading Culture Map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Akkılık

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived from the project with the same name, the work was published into a book by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Directorate General of Libraries and Publications, the project coordinator. Goal of the project is defined as follows: "specifying the solutions to problems faced directly or indirectly in accessing information, making suggestions to related corporations and persons, determining the perception of libraries in the society, raising the quality of services provided at public libraries and children's libraries affiliated with the Ministry, diversifying these libraries and designating the road map for the future." Carried out with the "method of face-to-face surveys" with 6.212 people in 26 cities, the research revealed the society's habits of reading and library usage.

  6. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Assessment of the Apple iPad as a low-vision reading aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrice, E; Johnson, A P; Marinier, J-A; Wittich, W

    2017-06-01

    PurposeLow-vision clients frequently report having problems with reading. Using magnification, reading performance (as measured by reading speed) can be improved by up to 200%. Current magnification aids can be expensive or bulky; therefore, we explored if the Apple iPad offers comparable performance in improving reading speeds, in comparison with a closed-circuit television (CCTV) video magnifier, or other magnification devices.MethodsWe recruited 100 participants between the ages of 24-97 years, with low vision who were literate and cognitively capable, of whom 57 had age-related macular degeneration. To assess reading, participants read standardized iReST texts and were tested for comprehension. We compared reading speed on the Apple iPad (10 inch) with that of the CCTV, home magnification devices, and baseline measures.ResultsAll assistive devices improved reading rates in comparison to baseline (P1), however, there was no difference in improvement across devices (P>0.05, Hedge's gread, on average, 30 words per minute faster than first time iPad users, whereas CCTV experience did not influence reading speed.ConclusionsIn our sample, the Apple iPad was as effective as currently used technologies for improving reading rates. Moreover, exposure to, and experience with the Apple iPad might increase reading speed with that device. A larger sample size, however, is needed to do subgroup analysis on who would optimally benefit from each type of magnification device.

  8. Application of ray-traced tropospheric slant delays to geodetic VLBI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Armin; Böhm, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    The correction of tropospheric influences via so-called path delays is critical for the analysis of observations from space geodetic techniques like the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). In standard VLBI analysis, the a priori slant path delays are determined using the concept of zenith delays, mapping functions and gradients. The a priori use of ray-traced delays, i.e., tropospheric slant path delays determined with the technique of ray-tracing through the meteorological data of numerical weather models (NWM), serves as an alternative way of correcting the influences of the troposphere on the VLBI observations within the analysis. In the presented research, the application of ray-traced delays to the VLBI analysis of sessions in a time span of 16.5 years is investigated. Ray-traced delays have been determined with program RADIATE (see Hofmeister in Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Geoinformation, Technische Universität Wien. http://resolver.obvsg.at/urn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:1-3444, 2016) utilizing meteorological data provided by NWM of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In comparison with a standard VLBI analysis, which includes the tropospheric gradient estimation, the application of the ray-traced delays to an analysis, which uses the same parameterization except for the a priori slant path delay handling and the used wet mapping factors for the zenith wet delay (ZWD) estimation, improves the baseline length repeatability (BLR) at 55.9% of the baselines at sub-mm level. If no tropospheric gradients are estimated within the compared analyses, 90.6% of all baselines benefit from the application of the ray-traced delays, which leads to an average improvement of the BLR of 1 mm. The effects of the ray-traced delays on the terrestrial reference frame are also investigated. A separate assessment of the RADIATE ray-traced delays is carried out by comparison to the ray-traced delays from the

  9. The power of print reading: comics in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaron, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    Evidence from neuroscience and psychological studies supporting benefits of print reading over digital reading has recently been discussed in these columns (Perbal 2017 J. Cell Commun. Signal. 11:1-4). In the present commentary, I would like to add my perspective as a Humanities educator, and build upon the idea that print reading results in better comprehension, learning and communication. The argumentation that is presented herein is based on a study performed in a French Comics language class aimed at broadening students' knowledge and experience of graphic novels, and providing them with a cultural representation in the foreign language. The results that are discussed in this commentary indicate that upon reading printed books students created connections for a more meaningful learning experience, leading to personal growth and linguistic development. The impact these graphic novels had on students' learning capacity and relationship to reading was tremendous. The kinesthetic relationship with printed text was deeply enriching and gratifying. The stimulatory effects on their imagination allowed for a more creative reading, and a deeper comprehension, resulting in meaningful communication.

  10. Analysis of Employee Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Burešová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The target of this bachelor thesis is to analyze employee benefits from the perspective of employees and to employers suggest possible ideas to improve their provision. The work is divided into two parts: theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes the overal remuneration of employees, payroll system and employee benefits. Benefits are included in the remuneration system, broken and some of them are defined. The practical part presents a survey among employees in the Czech Repub...

  11. Cognitive Training and Reading Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2015-01-01

    Reading difficulties are experienced by children either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas, reading…

  12. Individualizing Teaching in Beginning Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald Connor, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The best way to teach children how to read has been debated for more than a century. Accumulating research now shows that there is no one best way to teach reading. The effect of various types of instruction depends on the constellation of skills learners bring to the classroom. In this article, we discuss the idea of…

  13. The Neurobiological Basis of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane; Noble, Kimberly; Eden, Guinevere

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews studies using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults to study the reading process and notes that general networks of regions seem to be uniquely associated with different components of the reading process. Findings are evaluated in light of technical and experimental limitations and…

  14. Dyslexia and Severe Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Kathleen M.

    This handbook contains advice for the teacher in diagnosing dyslexia and developing an individualized program for overcoming severe reading problems. Observable characteristics of dyslexia are listed as an aid to the teacher's diagnosis, but it is emphasized that cooperation between the teacher and a reading specialist is of great importance in…

  15. Empathy, Reading, and Gender Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.

    2017-01-01

    For this study, empathy was defined as not only understanding and sharing another's mental state, but also responding from a perspective more closely resembling the observed rather than the observer. Based on evidence suggesting relationships between reading and empathy, between empathy and gender, and between reading and gender, the current study…

  16. Reading Prosody in Spanish Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Martínez, Cristina; García, Noemí; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic…

  17. Schemata as a Reading Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Zaliha

    Reading is a multileveled, interactive, and hypothesis-generating process in which readers construct a meaningful representation of text by using their knowledge of the world and of language. If reading involves grasping the significance of an input depending on the reader's mental cognitive-perceptual situation, then there is a form of background…

  18. The Joy of Reading Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Reading groups or book clubs have become increasingly popular in recent years, with many libraries, bookshops and workplaces hosting meetings, while a wealth of support is available online. They provide a chance to read, share opinions, chat and have fun--each one will be unique in how it works. Discussing books can help to reinforce, change or…

  19. Summertime...and Reading Beckons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Otto

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of quotes by famous people about reading for enjoyment and personal development. The collection was assembled from a lifetime of fond association with books and reading by the rare-book librarian at the State Library in Berlin, who after Hitler's rise, relocated to the United States and founded the Bettmann Archive in New…

  20. READ – developing literacy together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard

    2015-01-01

    -home literacy-intervention throughout a school year. The children in the intervention group (1500 children in year 2 and 3) received reading materials and their parents were informed about how to talk about texts, language and knowledge with their children through specially developed tools such as “reading...

  1. Teaching Literature and Reading Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    2011-01-01

    the reading of literature is respectively supported and hindered in literature lessons in upper secondary school. The aim is to investigate the relation between the teacher's conception of learning and knowledge within the subject combined with the student's conception of learning and of reading...

  2. A Study of Boys' Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Lesley

    1999-01-01

    Examined how reading attitudes of Year 6 boys in British primary schools were influenced by gender issues, peers, and peer group culture. Found that confidence and experience shown in private reading was at odds with boys' public attitudes in discussion with peers. Suggests that siblings and adults might provide more positive role models for…

  3. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  4. Prevalence of Persistent Primary Reflexes and Motor Problems in Children with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, M.; Sheehy, N.

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that some children with reading difficulties have underlying developmental delay and that this may be related to the persistence of primary reflexes. This study investigated the prevalence of persistent primary reflexes in the ordinary primary school population and how this related to other cognitive and social factors. Three…

  5. The 'speaking tablet' as an aid in the acquisition of reading skills by dyslexic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, P.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Bouma and Legein suggested that a delayed (internal) transformation from the written word into its corresponding sound image could provide an explanation for the poor reading ability of dyslexic readers. Recent speech technology offers the opportunity of directly available synthetic speech. This

  6. Early identification and intervention in children at risk for reading difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtvoort, A.G.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    In pre-readers, a familial background of dyslexia and/or delayed emergent literacy should be considered a not-to-ignore risk signalling problems with learning to read. This thesis aims to study early identification and intervention in at-risk children shortly before or after the start of formal

  7. Analysis of a first-order delay differential-delay equation containing two delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, C.; Vallée, R.; Delisle, C.

    1989-09-01

    An experimental and numerical analysis of the behavior of a two-delay differential equation is presented. It is shown that much of the system's behavior can be related to the stability behavior of the underlying linearized modes. A new phenomenon, mode crossing, is explored.

  8. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 5th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholastic Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…

  9. Characterizing preservice Teacherʼs responses to literacy: Read alouds a way to experience the joy for reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Castellanos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a small-scale project which central purpose was to incorporate read-alouds in a pre-intermediate English as a foreign language class of preservice teachers during three weeks. Students responded orally and in a written way on their journals to these readings showing understanding of the texts, relating their personal experiences and / or making connections to them. The project involved students of the undergraduate program in English teaching at Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá. In all, 19 students were involved in the project. Data collection sources for this project include studentsʼ journals, after the fact notes on studentsʼ oral interactions and a group interview. Among the findings observed in this inquiry project include the intertextual connections (Short, 1993 students make across the texts read in class with their personal experiences. Most studentsʼ oral responses were characterized by code-switching; in general most students code switched depending on the difficulty of the answer. Students benefited from the reading-alouds in terms of opportunities to interact among themselves, practice their oral and written skills, and enjoy the pleasures of reading, thus building ground to a positive experience that may be emulated in their future teaching exercise. Finally, I discuss some implications of read-alouds with preservice teachers and teacher education programs in Colombia.

  10. COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING IMPLEMENTATION TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Olivia Riani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative action research is aimed to find out whether or not the implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR improves students' reading comprehension and also to identify students' attitude towards the implementation of CSR. CSR is reading strategy that employs four strategies namely Preview, Click and Clunk, Get the Gist and Wrap Up during students’ cooperative learning. A class of eleventh grade students of a public senior high school in Majalengka, West Java, Indonesia is participated as the participant of the study. The required data were collected through the use of questionnaire, observation checklist, and reading test. The data from the questionnaire indicated that 82% students had positive attitude toward the implementation of CSR. They feel that CSR improves their motivation in learning English and CSR brings more fun to the process of learning. Moreover, it was found from observation data that the students were actively participated during CSR implementation and they were motivated when comprehending a text by means CSR strategy. Finally, the study proved that CSR improved students’ reading comprehension. Students’ mean score of reading test in the beginning of the study was 67, meanwhile, after applying CSR as reading strategy, their mean scores improved to 88.

  11. 75 FR 44065 - Uniformed Services Accounts and Death Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... custodian. This form will be made available on the TSP website and will include instructions to ensure that... SERVICES ACCOUNTS 0 1. The authority citation for part 1604 continues to read as follows: Authority: 5 U.S... second sentence of paragraph (a). PART 1651--DEATH BENEFITS 0 3. The authority citation for part 1651...

  12. Do Multimedia Applications Benefit Learning-Disabled Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen

    2010-01-01

    This paper focusses on the need and benefit of using multimedia applications to cater to the needs of children with learning disabilities. The children with special educational needs found in various schools may face difficulties in acquiring academic skills such as reading, spelling, writing, speaking, understanding, listening, thinking or…

  13. READING COMPREHENSION. NOTION OF READING AND USE OF MACRORREGLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Montes-Salas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the NMS has been relevant to investigate the notion of reading and how reading comprehension skills are developed as they are the basis of learning. According to Frida Diaz Barriga and Hernandez (2002 critical and reflective understanding of the composition of texts written are nodal activities in the construction of meanings. We now know that the skills of reading and typesetting apprentices develop in subjects strategically and self-regulated, thanks to this research. Promote the development of communication skills contributes to the foundation of the curriculum consists of educating for students to acquire skills that allow them to face problems collaboratively and competently.

  14. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  15. Depressive illness delayed Hamlet's revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A B; Pickering, Neil

    2002-12-01

    If Hamlet had not delayed his revenge there would have been no play. Many explanations of the delay have been offered in the last four centuries. None is convincing. The interpretation which best fits the evidence best is that Hamlet was suffering from an acute depressive illness, with some obsessional features. He could not make a firm resolve to act. In Shakespeare's time there was no concept of acute depressive illness, although melancholy was well known. Melancholy, however, would have been seen as a character defect. In the tragic model the hero brings himself and others to ruin because of a character defect. Thus, at the time, the play conformed to the tragic model. With today's knowledge, it does not. This analysis adds to, but does not replace, other insights into the play.

  16. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  17. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  18. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  19. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  20. Putting Paid to Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; J.M. Wildeboer Schut

    2003-01-01

    Original title: De uitkering van de baan. A good deal of time, money and effort is invested in the reintegration of benefit claimants. What is the result? How many recipients of disability, unemployment or social assistance benefit are in principle capable of working but are currently not

  1. Nanocosmetics: benefits and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Summary Various nanomaterials/nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for the development of cosmetic products - a field so-called nanocosmetic formulations. These advanced materials offer some benefits, while their utilization in the cosmetic formulations may be associated with some risks. The main aim of this editorial is to highlight the benefits and risks of the nanomaterials used in the cosmetic products.

  2. Who Benefits from Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochon, Daniel; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have documented the benefits of religious involvement. Indeed, highly religious people tend to be healthier, live longer, and have higher levels of subjective well-being. While religious involvement offers clear benefits to many, in this paper we explore whether it may also be detrimental to some. Specifically, we examine in detail…

  3. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  4. Hodoscope read-out with space-time mapping through an optical pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, A.; Boehler, E.; Kroeger, W.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.

    1993-09-01

    This note describes a new read-out scheme for fine grained hodoscopes with possible applications for a Small Angle Rear Tracking Detector (SRTD) or a pre-sampler in front of the ZEUS Uranium Calorimeter. Several hodoscope strips are read out by one phototube using optical fibres of different lengths. Optical delays of equal increments ensure a linear mapping of the space coordinate onto the time coordinate. A first prototype has been built and first test measurements are being presented. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the effects of showering electrons on the position resolution of the detector. The results of the test measurements, especially those related to the properties of the light guides, and the results of the simulation are of general importance for the SRTD design beyond the optical delay read-out scheme presented here. (orig.)

  5. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  6. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  7. Pupil's motivation in the 3. grades for required reading and The Reading Badge

    OpenAIRE

    Logar, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Reading is extremely important for pupils and their development. The pupil with reading habits riches his vocabulary and gaining knowledge. On the other hand the pupil through reading entry into the world of imagination and stories. Major role in motivating students to read have parents and teachers. In this graduation thesis I was interested in how third grade teachers motivate their pupils to read. In doing so, I was focused mainly to reading for required reading and The Reading Badge. ...

  8. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  9. Development of delayed radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime.

    1983-01-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later. (author)

  10. Fourteen Autumns: A Reading Teacher Teaches Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jo-Anne R.

    1984-01-01

    An elementary school reading teacher describes how she restructured her teaching methods by encouraging children to read and write as part of an integrated process, rather than teaching reading alone as a set of fragmented steps. (GC)

  11. Idea Sharing: The Use of Read-Share-Act to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charumanee, Nisakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

  12. The Habit of Reading: A Neglected Dimension of Adult Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Katherine T.; Devine, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    Less competent adult readers have not developed the habit of reading. Ways to cultivate adult reading habits include relevant material, environment saturated with reading material, reading aloud to adults, having them read to children, sustained silent reading, modeling, book sharing, author conferences, and recognition. (SK)

  13. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  14. Delayed Detection of Esophageal Intubation in Anesthesia Malpractice Claims: Brief Report of a Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honardar, Marzieh R; Posner, Karen L; Domino, Karen B

    2017-12-01

    This retrospective case series analyzed 45 malpractice claims for delayed detection of esophageal intubation from the Anesthesia Closed Claims Project. Inclusion criteria were cases from 1995 to 2013, after adoption of identification of CO2 in expired gas to verify correct endotracheal tube position as a monitoring standard by the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Forty-nine percent (95% confidence interval 34%-64%) occurred in the operating room or other anesthesia location where CO2 detection equipment should have been available. The most common factors contributing to delayed detection were not using, ignoring, or misinterpreting CO2 readings. Misdiagnosis, as with bronchospasm, occurred in 33% (95% confidence interval 20%).

  15. Teaching Reading and Writing: Reading a Balanced Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Maryann; Manning, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Presents elementary school teachers with 13 ideas on how to achieve a balanced "diet" in their primary and intermediate reading and writing programs using 5 different genres--artistic, personal, narrative, expository, and procedural. (BB)

  16. Improved result on stability analysis of discrete stochastic neural networks with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhengguang; Su Hongye; Chu Jian; Zhou Wuneng

    2009-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of exponential stability for discrete stochastic time-delay neural networks. By defining a novel Lyapunov functional, an improved delay-dependent exponential stability criterion is established in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Meanwhile, the computational complexity of the newly established stability condition is reduced because less variables are involved. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.

  17. When the Battle is Lost and Won: Delayed Chest Closure After Bilateral Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soresi, Simona; Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Simon, André R; Popov, Aron-Frederik

    2015-10-12

    In this article we summarize benefits of delayed chest closure strategy in lung transplantation, addressing indications, different surgical techniques, and additional perioperative treatment. Delayed chest closure seems to be a valuable and safe strategy in managing patients with various conditions after lung transplantation, such as instable hemodynamics, need for high respiratory pressures, coagulopathy, and size mismatch. Therefore, this approach should be considered in lung transplant centers to give patients time to recover before the chest is closed.

  18. Foregone benefits of important food crop improvements in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A number of new crops have been developed that address important traits of particular relevance for smallholder farmers in Africa. Scientists, policy makers, and other stakeholders have raised concerns that the approval process for these new crops causes delays that are often scientifically unjustified. This article develops a real option model for the optimal regulation of a risky technology that enhances economic welfare and reduces malnutrition. We consider gradual adoption of the technology and show that delaying approval reduces uncertainty about perceived risks of the technology. Optimal conditions for approval incorporate parameters of the stochastic processes governing the dynamics of risk. The model is applied to three cases of improved crops, which either are, or are expected to be, delayed by the regulatory process. The benefits and costs of the crops are presented in a partial equilibrium that considers changes in adoption over time and the foregone benefits caused by a delay in approval under irreversibility and uncertainty. We derive the equilibrium conditions where the net-benefits of the technology equal the costs that would justify a delay. The sooner information about the safety of the technology arrive, the lower the costs for justifying a delay need to be i.e. it pays more to delay. The costs of a delay can be substantial: e.g. a one year delay in approval of the pod-borer resistant cowpea in Nigeria will cost the country about 33 million USD to 46 million USD and between 100 and 3,000 lives. PMID:28749984

  19. Reading motivation in elementary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Pečjak; Nataša Bucik

    2005-01-01

    Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived r...

  20. Lexical quality and executive control predict children's first and second language reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years, SD  = 5 months) learning to read Dutch in the Netherlands. Bilingual children showed lower Dutch vocabulary, syntactic integration and reading comprehension skills, but better decoding skills than their monolingual peers. There were no differences in working memory or inhibition. Multigroup path analysis showed relatively invariant connections between predictors and reading comprehension for monolingual and bilingual readers. For both groups, there was a direct effect of lexical quality on reading comprehension. In addition, lexical quality and executive control indirectly influenced reading comprehension via syntactic integration. The groups differed in that inhibition more strongly predicted syntactic integration for bilingual than for monolingual children. For a subgroup of bilingual children, for whom home language vocabulary data were available ( n  = 56), there was an additional positive effect of home language vocabulary on second language reading comprehension. Together, the results suggest that similar processes underlie reading comprehension in first and second language readers, but that syntactic integration requires more executive control in second language reading. Moreover, bilingual readers additionally benefit from first language vocabulary to arrive at second language reading comprehension.

  1. Reading skills in children and adults with albinism: the role of visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John T; Kutzbach, Beth R; Holleschau, Ann M; Wyckoff, Suzanne; Summers, C Gail

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether visual impairment in albinism contributes significantly to the acquisition of normal reading skills. The authors administered standardized reading tests to 41 children and 18 adults with albinism. The Young Children's Achievement Test was used for children between 4 and 6 years old and the Woodcock-Johnson III was used for children 7 years and older and adults. Parents of children and adult subjects also completed a questionnaire to document developmental, academic, and/or work experiences. The Spearman test was used to evaluate the relationship between binocular best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and reading test results. Standardized reading tests in both children and adults with albinism showed a normal distribution of scores. BCVA did not appear to play a significant role in the development of normal reading ability in these individuals who were visually impaired except for a mild correlation of decreased reading fluency on the Woodcock-Johnson III with decreased BCVA (r = 0.287, P = .046). Many young children with albinism had superior reading skills despite having a BCVA of 20/200 or worse (legal blindness). This study of cognitively normal children and adults with albinism demonstrates that impaired vision during childhood does not by itself significantly impede a child's ability to acquire normal reading skills. However, the lower reading fluency that occurs in the more visually impaired individuals suggests they would benefit, both in the school system and workplace, with an accommodation involving more time to complete reading tasks. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Cryptographic Aspects of Quantum Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Spedalieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides achieving secure communication between two spatially-separated parties,another important issue in modern cryptography is related to secure communication intime, i.e., the possibility to confidentially store information on a memory for later retrieval.Here we explore this possibility in the setting of quantum reading, which exploits quantumentanglement to efficiently read data from a memory whereas classical strategies (e.g., basedon coherent states or their mixtures cannot retrieve any information. From this point ofview, the technique of quantum reading can provide a new form of technological security fordata storage.

  3. Synchronization in networks with heterogeneous coupling delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter; Bachrathy, Dániel; Orosz, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes. Frequency domain methods are used for the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria and synchronized periodic orbits. As an example, the synchronization behavior in a system of delay-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is investigated. It is shown that the parameter regions where synchronized periodic spiking is unstable expand when increasing the delay heterogeneity.

  4. Reading comprehension and reading related abilities in adolescents with reading disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Karen; Sidhu, Robindra; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-11-01

    Reading comprehension is a very complex task that requires different cognitive processes and reading abilities over the life span. There are fewer studies of reading comprehension relative to investigations of word reading abilities. Reading comprehension difficulties, however, have been identified in two common and frequently overlapping childhood disorders: reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The nature of reading comprehension difficulties in these groups remains unclear. The performance of four groups of adolescents (RD, ADHD, comorbid ADHD and RD, and normal controls) was compared on reading comprehension tasks as well as on reading rate and accuracy tasks. Adolescents with RD showed difficulties across most reading tasks, although their comprehension scores were average. Adolescents with ADHD exhibited adequate single word reading abilities. Subtle difficulties were observed, however, on measures of text reading rate and accuracy as well as on silent reading comprehension, but scores remained in the average range. The comorbid group demonstrated similar difficulties to the RD group on word reading accuracy and on reading rate but experienced problems on only silent reading comprehension. Implications for reading interventions are outlined, as well as the clinical relevance for diagnosis.

  5. Geometric methods of global attraction in systems of delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Morshedy, Hassan A.; Ruiz-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we deduce criteria of global attraction in systems of delay differential equations. Our methodology is new and consists in "dominating" the nonlinear terms of the system by a scalar function and then studying some dynamical properties of that function. One of the crucial benefits of our approach is that we obtain delay-dependent results of global attraction that cover the best delay-independent conditions. We apply our results in a gene regulatory model and the classical Nicholson's blowfly equation with patch structure.

  6. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...

  7. ADHD symptoms and benefit from extended time testing accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Benjamin J; Leja, Ashley M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms, executive functioning problems, and benefit from extended time testing accommodations. College students completed a battery of measures assessing processing speed and reading fluency, reading comprehension (under two different time limits), symptoms of ADHD, executive functioning deficits, and perceptions of need for extended time. Students reporting more symptoms of ADHD and executive functioning deficits actually benefited less from extended time, and students' perceptions of their timing needs did not predict benefit. Students with more ADHD symptoms are less likely to use extended time effectively, possibly because of their associated executive functioning problems. These results suggest there may be little justification for examining a student's ADHD symptoms when making extended time accommodation decisions. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  8. Reading tarot cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, L Henry

    2004-02-01

    In some patients acute myocardial infarction and/or infarct expansion induces progressive left ventricular dilatation that eventually leads to heart failure and death. The five year mortality after onset of heart failure is 50%. Chronically stretched viable myocardium adjacent to or remote from an expanding infarction initiates a myopathic process that leads to progressive myocyte apoptosis and adverse postinfarction remodeling. Revascularization of stunned or hibernating myocardium restores contractility and benefits patients in heart failure; however, revascularization does not restore contractility to myopathic, remodeling myocardium. Contemporary operations for heart failure temporarily reduce ventricular wall stress, but fail to reverse stretch induced myocyte apoptosis, which may not be reversible. Logically, prevention of this myopathic process after acute infarction seems required to extend survival. It follows that surgeons should operate before adverse postinfarction left ventricular remodeling occurs, using new operations, rather than afterwards.

  9. Some indicators of (unsuccessful reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we set the aim to determine whether phonological awareness and short-term verbal memory are indicators of a subsequent reading acquisition. The sample consisted of 194 first graders from two primary schools in Belgrade. The results of our research showed that the most significant indicator of the subsequent (unsuccessful reading was phonological awareness. The short-term verbal memory is, to a lesser extent, an indicator of the subsequent reading acquisition defined by the time needed for reading the text and by the text comprehension. Our findings offer basis for proposing that the phonological awareness assessment should be implemented into the regular procedure of assessing child's readiness for school. In this way children in need for preventive stimulation within the inclusive programme in primary schools could be identified.

  10. CDRH FOIA Electronic Reading Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH FOIA electronic reading room contains frequently requested information via the Freedom of Information Act from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

  11. Action video games improve reading abilities and visual-to-auditory attentional shifting in English-speaking children with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschini, Sandro; Trevisan, Piergiorgio; Ronconi, Luca; Bertoni, Sara; Colmar, Susan; Double, Kit; Facoetti, Andrea; Gori, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written ...

  12. Audio-visual synchronization in reading while listening to texts: Effects on visual behavior and verbal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbier , Emilie; Bailly , Gérard; Bosse , Marie-Line

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Reading while listening to texts (RWL) is a promising way to improve the learning benefits provided by a reading experience. In an exploratory study, we investigated the effect of synchronizing the highlighting of words (visual) with their auditory (speech) counterpart during a RWL task. Forty French children from 3rd to 5th grade read short stories in their native language while hearing the story spoken by a narrator. In the non-synchronized (S-) condition the text wa...

  13. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  14. Contraceptives with novel benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) agonists (progestins) and antagonists are developed for female contraceptives. However, non-contraceptive applications of newer progestins and PR modulators are being given more attention. The newer PR agonists including drospirenone, nomegestrol, trimegestone, dienogest and nestorone are being evaluated as contraceptives with health benefits because of their unique pharmacological properties. The selective PR modulators (SPRM; PR antagonists with PR agonistic properties) are under development not only for emergency contraception but also for other health benefits such as the treatment of endometritis and leiomyoma. After searching the literature from PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and patent database, this review focuses on the effects and mechanisms of these progestins, and SPRMs as contraceptives with other health benefits. PR agonists and antagonists that have novel properties may generate better contraceptive effects with other health benefits.

  15. Benefits of being biased!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. Keywords. codon bias; alcohol dehydrogenase; Darwinian ... RESEARCH COMMENTARY. Benefits of being biased! SUTIRTH DEY*. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,.

  16. Benefits of CHP Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the benefits of being a EPA CHP Partner, which include expert advice and answers to questions, CHP news, marketing resources, publicity and recognition, and being associated with EPA through a demonstrated commitment to CHP.

  17. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, Hoyt W.; McMillan, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans. (IRT)

  18. Narrative theory: II. Self-generated and experimenter-provided negative income shock narratives increase delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Alexandra M; Snider, Sarah E; Bickel, Warren K

    2018-04-01

    Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer. Individuals then completed a task of delay discounting and measures of affective response to narratives, as well as rating various narrative qualities such as personal relevance and vividness. Consistent with past research, narratives of negative income shock increased delay discounting compared to control narratives. No significant differences existed in delay discounting after self-generating compared to reading experimenter-provided narratives. Positive affect was lower and negative affect was higher in response to narratives of job loss, but affect measures did not differ based on whether narratives were experimenter-provided or self-generated. All narratives were rated as equally realistic, but self-generated narratives (whether negative or neutral) were rated as more vivid and relevant than experimenter-provided narratives. These results indicate that the content of negative income shock narratives, regardless of source, consistently drives short-term choices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  20. Benefits at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Herbicide resistant GM plants have been promoted as a tool in the development of more environment-friendly agriculture. The environmental benefits here, however, depend not only on farmer's acceptance of GM crops as such, but also on their willingness to use herbicides in accordance with altered ...... spraying plans. In this paper, we will argue that factors driving the spraying practices of Danish farmers may hamper efforts to secure the environmental benefits of the new crops....

  1. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  2. Neuropsychological and cognitive processes in reading

    CERN Document Server

    Pirozzolo, Francis J

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological and Cognitive Processes in Reading explores reading and reading disabilities within the context of cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Emphasis is on the roles of brain mechanisms in reading and reading disturbances. In the areas of perception and cognition, theoretical models of the reading process are used to highlight the various psychological processes involved in the act of skilled reading. Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental processes of reading, giving particular attention to a psychological theory that builds on two concepts: that the basic processes of reading are few in number, and that they are separable from one another. A useful and testable information-processing model of reading that consists of three separable, fundamental processes - decoding, word meaning, and sentence comprehension - is described. Subsequent chapters deal with some of the external and internal factors involved in reading; a model of disorders of readi...

  3. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Keir X X; Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Leff, Alexander P; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-28

    We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%-270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Reading motivation in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pečjak

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived reading importance factor. The findings of the study are the following: third-graders are more competent and more interested in reading compared to seventh-graders. The same is true for girls in both educational levels. Reading competence , interest and perceived reading importance reflect also in the actual reading behaviour of students – students who are more competent and more interested in reading read more frequently, for longer periods and more often autonomously decide to read compared to their less motivated peers. Higher reading motivation has implications also for higher reading efficiency. Namely, good readers are more competent, show higher interest and perceive reading as more important compared to average and bad readers.

  5. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Leff, Alexander P.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Methods: Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Results: Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%–270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. PMID:26138948

  6. Talking Books in Reading Instruction and Student Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Toke Gissel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In grade 1, Danish students used a talking book with TTS (text-to-speech and participated in a learning design with emphasis on decoding and reading for meaning in written text. The students all read the same unfamiliar text, which for many of the students would traditionally be considered being at their frustration level. Basing the intervention on connectionist theory of reading and Share’s self-teaching hypothesis, students were instructed to try to read the words before activating the TTS-function. Only five students out of 17 used the software in ways that could promote self-teaching, but underused the support. Five other students very quickly refrained from trying to decode, instead clicking the full page TTS. Another five students did not at any point try to decode words independently. These results suggest that by using TTS and talking books in reading instruction without measures to fine tune the scaffolding, it is very doubtful whether any students benefit from the TTS at all.

  7. Strategies identification in an experimental reading comprehension task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Sanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Standardized reading comprehension tests (RCTs usually consist of a small number of texts each accompanied by several multiple-choice questions, with texts and questions simultaneously presented. The score the common measure of reading comprehension ability in RCTs is the score. Literature review suggests that strategies subjects employ may influence their performance on RCT, however the score itself provides no information on the specific strategy employed. Knowledge of test-taking strategies could have impact on understanding of the actual purpose and benefits of using RCTs in pedagogical and psychological practice. With the ultimate objective of constructing a first standard RCT in Serbian language, the preliminary step we took was to conduct an experimental reading comprehension task (ERCT consisting of 27 short texts displayed in succession, each followed by a single multiplechoice question. Using qualitative analysis of subjects’ responses in semi-structured postexperimental interview, we identified four overall strategies used on ERCT. Our results show that groups of students who used specific strategies differed significantly from one another in text reading time, with no differences found regarding the question reading and answering time. More importantly, there were no significant between-group differences found in terms of ERCT score. These findings suggest that choice of strategy is a way to optimize the relation between one’s own potential and ERCT task requirements. RCT based on ERCT principles would allow for a flexible choice of strategy which would not influence the final score.

  8. Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNamara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decoding processes and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between reading processes and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’ reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

  9. An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongshe Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS had important subcomponents, (b more than half of the students generally did not feel anxious when reading English, and were confident in and satisfied with their English reading proficiency. Meanwhile, (c more than half of them moderately used different types of reading strategies such as planning, checking and confirming, predicting and assessing, when reading English, (d compared with their female peers, male students felt significantly more anxious when facing reading activities, less satisfied with their English reading proficiency, and used specific analyzing and planning strategies significantly less often during a reading activity, (e FLRAS was significantly inversely related to FLRSUS, and both were significantly correlated with the students’ FL reading comprehension performance, and (f FLRAS (overall FL reading anxiety, FLRAS1 (general anxiety about FL reading, and FLRSUS2 (predicting strategies were good predictors of FL reading comprehension performance. Based on the findings, some implications are discussed.

  10. The Relationship between Strategic Reading Instruction, Student Learning of L2-Based Reading Strategies and L2 Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between strategic reading instruction, the process of learning second language-based reading strategies and English reading achievement for Thai university students of science and technology. In a course in reading general English texts for 16?weeks, 82 students were taught using a strategies-based approach…

  11. Tracking the Mind's Eye: A New Technology for Researching Twenty-First-Century Writing and Reading Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Chris M.; Schwegler, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the nature of eye-tracking technology and its use in the study of discourse processes, particularly reading. It then suggests several areas of research in composition studies, especially at the intersection of writing, reading, and digital media, that can benefit from the use of this technology. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. One Step Forward and Two Steps Back in Teaching an Endangered Language? Revisiting L2 Reading in Irish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Tina M.; Stenson, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Hickey's (1991) article ["Leisure reading in a second language: An experiment with audio tapes." "Language, Culture and Curriculum," 4(2), 119-131. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07908319109525098] reported the benefits of audio-support for L2 reading of real books, showing gains in fluency and motivation among…

  13. Peer Tutoring in Reading: The Effects of Role and Organization on Two Dimensions of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Topping, Keith; Thurston, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Paired reading (PR) is an application of peer tutoring. It has been extensively researched, and its efficacy across a range of outcomes has been established. Benefits include improvements in key reading skills, and also in affective aspects of learning. Several studies have shown gains in self-esteem, although measurement methods have…

  14. Applying behavioral insights to delay school start times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl Malone, Susan; Ziporyn, Terra; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2017-12-01

    Healthy People 2020 established a national objective to increase the proportion of 9th-to-12th-grade students reporting sufficient sleep. A salient approach for achieving this objective is to delay middle and high school start times. Despite decades of research supporting the benefits of delayed school start times on adolescent sleep, health, and well-being, progress has been slow. Accelerating progress will require new approaches incorporating strategies that influence how school policy decisions are made. In this commentary, we introduce four strategies that influence decision-making processes and demonstrate how they can be applied to efforts aimed at changing school start time policies. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. All rights reserved.

  15. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  16. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.

  17. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps.

  18. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  19. Using Cooperative Learning In Teaching Critical Thinking In Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anit Pranita Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how cooperative learning facilitates students in learning critical thinking in reading and to find out the benefits and challenges during the implementation of cooperative learning in one vocational school in Cimahi. A case study is utilized by using instruments of classroom observations, questionnaires, semi structured interview and students’ written tests. The findings show that the implementation of cooperative learning facilitates students develop their critical thinking and enhance critical thinking dispositions in reading. Three features which contribute to the development of students’ critical thinking in reading are: the encouragement of student-student interaction; the provision of group purposes; and the provision of stimulus to the students’ development of thought and ideas. The aforementioned features promote benefits which involved higher motivation and involvement, increased opportunity for language use, and developed interpersonal relationship. Nevertheless, these benefits are constrained by the availability of time, students’ English proficiency, and students’ contribution to the groupwork. It is recommended that further researchers conduct the similar study in a longer period to make sure that the key elements of cooperative learning are well-structured.

  20. Development of a Case-based Reading Curriculum and Its Effect on Resident Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman, Anne M; Walker, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Textbook reading plays a foundational role in a resident's knowledge base. Many residency programs place residents on identical reading schedules, regardless of the clinical work or rotation the resident is doing. We sought to develop a reading curriculum that takes into account the clinical work a resident is doing so their reading curriculum corresponds with their clinical work. Preliminary data suggests an increased amount of resident reading and an increased interest in reading as a result of this change to their reading curriculum.

  1. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  2. Reasons for diagnostic delay in gynecological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Christensen, René dePont Christensen; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    (≤ or > 60 years), performance of gynecological examination by the GP and notification of cancer suspicion on first referral from GP’s on the diagnostic delay (short delay ≤90 days and long delay >90 days). Results Across cancer type a median total delay of 101 days was observed. The 10% of women......Aim The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe different delay types in women with gynecologic cancer, and to analyze the relationship between diagnostic delay and a number of characteristics for patients, cancers and the health care system. Setting A cohort study of women newly......) and The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD). 161 women were included; ovarian cancer: 63, endometrial cancer: 50, cervical cancer: 34 and vulvar cancer: 14. Outcome measures were different delay types counted in days and the influence of four clinical important variables: Presence of alarm symptoms, age...

  3. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...

  4. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  5. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n s , and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z * =1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ε α i <0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  6. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  7. Improving reading comprehension in reading and listening settings: the effect of two training programmes focusing on metacognition and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Caldarola, Nadia; Tencati, Chiara; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-06-01

    Metacognition and working memory (WM) have been found associated with success in reading comprehension, but no studies have examined their combined effect on the training of reading comprehension. Another open question concerns the role of listening comprehension: In particular, it is not clear whether training to improve reading comprehension must necessarily be based on processing written material or whether, as suggested in a recent study by Clarke et al. (2010, Psychol. Sci., 21, 1106), a programme based on verbal language could also be effective. The study examined the feasibility of improving text comprehension in school children by comparing the efficacy of two training programmes, both involving metacognition and WM, but one based on listening comprehension, the other on reading comprehension. The study involved a sample of 159 pupils attending eight classes in the fourth and fifth grades (age range 9-11 years). The listening and reading programmes focused on the same abilities/processes strictly related to text comprehension, and particularly metacognitive knowledge and control, WM (per se and in terms of integrating information in a text). The training programmes were implemented by school teachers as part of the class's normal school activities, under the supervision of experts. Their efficacy was compared with the results obtained in an active control group that completed standard text comprehension activities. Our results showed that both the training programmes focusing on specific text comprehension skills were effective in improving the children's achievement, but training in reading comprehension generated greater gains than the listening comprehension programme. Our study suggests that activities focusing specifically on metacognition and WM could foster text comprehension, but the potential benefit is influenced by the training modality, that is, the Reading group obtained greater and longer-lasting improvements than the Active control or

  8. An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongshe Lu; Meihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL) reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a) Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS) had important subcomponents, (b) more than half of the stu...

  9. Reading by Children with Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompel, Marjolein; van Bon, Wim H. J.; Schreuder, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This study of the reading of text found that despite their lower reading speed on a reading-comprehension task, the children with low vision comprehended texts at least as well as did the sighted children. Children with low vision need more time to read and comprehend a text, but they seem to use this time with enough efficiency to process the…

  10. Waging a Battle to Promote Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Suzanne Liacos

    2010-01-01

    As advocates for reading, librarians cannot help but love a reading program. In this article, the author talks about the Battle of the Books, a reading enrichment program that had been in place since 1996. Battle of the Books promotes reading among middle school students by offering interesting books and a trivia-type competition. The author…

  11. The Politics of the Teaching of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Historically, political debates have broken out over how to teach reading in primary schools and infant classrooms. These debates and "reading wars" have often resulted from public concerns and media reportage of a fall in reading standards. They also reflect the importance placed on learning to read by parents, teachers, employers, and…

  12. Speaking My Mind: Stop Reading Shakespeare!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading skills are vital to student success, and those skills could be practiced with Shakespeare "if students are taught reading skills in the classroom." The problem is that many teachers of English do not consider themselves reading specialists and do not teach reading skills to their students. Fred L. Hamel notes that teachers in a recent…

  13. Reading Habits of Undergraduates and their Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading is an indispensable tool of learning. Every course of study is accomplished partly through reading. Lecturers in the University usually have high expectations of a students‟ ability to cope with the demands of reading. However, reading as a practice and an art has tended to diminish. The general expectations of ...

  14. Learning to Read and the Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    You have young preschool children. You think ahead to when they will begin school, and wonder what you might do to make it easy for your children to learn to read. This article offers some hints for parents and caregivers about learning to read: (1) Reading can begin at birth; (2) When reading aloud to an infant, make the experience a warm, loving…

  15. A reading intervention programme for mathematics students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the results of Phase I of a reading skills project in 2000 (SAJHE 16(3) 2002), Phase II was undertaken to set up a reading intervention programme on a voluntary basis for students enrolled in a mathematics access module, to determine whether explicit attention given to reading would improve their reading skills ...

  16. AUTHENTIC TEXTS FOR CRITICAL READING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Amalia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research takes an action research aimed at promoting critical reading (“thinking” while reading skills using authentic materials among the students. This research also aims to reveal the students perception on using critical reading skills in reading activities. Nineteen English Education Department students who took Reading IV class, participated in this project. There were three cycles with three different critical reading strategies were applied. Meanwhile, the authentic materials were taken from newspaper and internet articles. The result revealed that the use of critical reading strategies along with the use of authentic materials has improved students’ critical reading skills as seen from the improvement of each cycle - the students critical reading skill was 54% (fair in the cycle 1 improved to 68% (average in cycle 2, and 82% (good in cycle 3.. In addition, based on the critical reading skill criteria, the students’ critical reading skill has improved from 40% (nearly meet to 80% (exceed. Meanwhile, from the students’ perception questionnaire, it was shown that 63% students agreed the critical reading activity using authentic text could improve critical thinking and 58% students agreed that doing critical reading activity could improve reading comprehension. The result had the implication that the use of authentic texts could improve students’ critical reading skills if it was taught by performing not lecturing them. Selectively choosing various strategies and materials can trigger students’ activeness in responding to a text, that eventually shape their critical reading skills.

  17. Sharing a Reading Technique with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Christy K.; Parsons, Seth A.

    2016-01-01

    Sharing reading techniques with families is an important responsibility of teachers. Dialogic reading is one way to improve young students' expressive vocabulary skills, which are important for later reading success. Dialogic reading also supports students' understanding of story structure and content. This well researched technique has not been…

  18. Man's Best Friend as a Reading Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donita Massengill

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript was to describe information about an animal-assisted therapy, specifically the Reading Education Assistance Dog (R.E.A.D.) program. In this manuscript I provide information about R.E.A.D. programs in general. Next, I share perspectives solicited from R.E.A.D. participants, specifically teachers, parents, students and…

  19. A Review of Reading Motivation Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marcia H.; Tonks, Stephen M.; Hock, Michael; Wang, Wenhao; Rodriguez, Aldo

    2018-01-01

    Reading motivation is a critical contributor to reading achievement and has the potential to influence its development. Educators, researchers, and evaluators need to select the best reading motivation scales for their research and classroom. The goals of this review were to identify a set of reading motivation student self-report scales used in…

  20. Investigating students' motivations and attitudes towards reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on an investigation into students' attitudes to and motivations for reading. These socio-affective factors relating to students' reading abilities have been largely ignored in L1 and L2 reading research, especially in L2 contexts. Yet, L2 students tend to display differing motivations and attitudes for L2 reading ...

  1. Introducing Newspapers in Developmental Reading Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstadt, Roberta; Rey, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers are an effective educational and motivational tool in developmental reading classes. However, many students are unfamiliar with newspapers and read them infrequently. In order to foster newspaper reading and familiarize the college freshmen enrolled in their developmental reading classes with newspapers, the writers of this article…

  2. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  3. The parent/child/teacher reading relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Machet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a reader involves gaining the meaning of the activities involved which includes the purposes, values and roles that are part of the activity. At home literacy is contextualised and a child becomes aware of the uses and practises of reading in his or her culture. This home based literacy is a more natural form of literacy and must be distinguishedfrom school based literacy which is a more organised, systematic literacy. Teachers need to be aware of the important role that preliteracy experience plays in a child's ability to learn to read successfully. They can then provide experiences that will help those children who come to school without the prerequisite emergent literacy skills to become good readers. Teachers will benefit from being aware of family literacy practices and encouraging parents to become involved in their children's reading, because this will help children to make reading and general literacy activities more meaningful. Children who become successful readers associate books with enjoyment and are therefore willing to make the effort to become readers. This is more likely to happen with the support from the family. Research indicates that a key predictor of student success is family involvement in children's education (Ginsburg, 1999:3. Om 'n leser te word, hou in dat betekenis gevorm moet word van die aktiwiteite wat by lees betrokke is, nl die doel, waardes en rolle wat deel van die aktiwiteite. Geletterdheid word by die huis gekontekstualiseer en 'n kind word bewus van die gebruike van en praktyke vir lees in sy of haar kultuur. Hierdie huisgebaseerde geletterdheid is die natuurlikste vorm van geletterdheid en moet onderskei word van skoolgebaseerde geletterdheid wat 'n meer georganiseerde sistematiese soort geletterdheid is. Onderwysers moet bewus wees van die belangrike rol wat voor-geletterdheidervaring speel in In kind se vermoe om suksesvol te leer lees. Hulle kan dan geleenthede organiseer wat daardie kinders

  4. Cascading Delay Risk of Airline Workforce Deployments with Crew Pairing and Schedule Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sai Ho; Ma, Hoi Lam; Chan, Hing Kai

    2017-08-01

    This article concerns the assignment of buffer time between two connected flights and the number of reserve crews in crew pairing to mitigate flight disruption due to flight arrival delay. Insufficient crew members for a flight will lead to flight disruptions such as delays or cancellations. In reality, most of these disruption cases are due to arrival delays of the previous flights. To tackle this problem, many research studies have examined the assignment method based on the historical flight arrival delay data of the concerned flights. However, flight arrival delays can be triggered by numerous factors. Accordingly, this article proposes a new forecasting approach using a cascade neural network, which considers a massive amount of historical flight arrival and departure data. The approach also incorporates learning ability so that unknown relationships behind the data can be revealed. Based on the expected flight arrival delay, the buffer time can be determined and a new dynamic reserve crew strategy can then be used to determine the required number of reserve crews. Numerical experiments are carried out based on one year of flight data obtained from 112 airports around the world. The results demonstrate that by predicting the flight departure delay as the input for the prediction of the flight arrival delay, the prediction accuracy can be increased. Moreover, by using the new dynamic reserve crew strategy, the total crew cost can be reduced. This significantly benefits airlines in flight schedule stability and cost saving in the current big data era. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  6. Delay-Limited Capacity in the Low Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2016-02-11

    Outage performance of the M-block fading with additive white Gaussian noise (BF-AWGN) is investigated in the low-power regime. We consider delay-constrained constant-rate communications with perfect channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and the receiver (CSI-TR), under a shortterm power constraint (STPC) and a long-term power constraint (LTPC). Subject to STPC, we show that selection diversity that allocates all the power to the strongest block is asymptotically optimal. Then, we provide a simple characterization of the outage probability in the regime of interest. We quantify the reward due to CSI-TR over the constant-rate constant-power scheme and show that this reward increases with the delay constraint. For instance, for Rayleigh fading, we find that a power gain up to 4.3 dB is achievable. Subject to LTPC, we show that the above guidelines still holds and that the outage performance improves due to the flexibility of the LTPC over the STPC. More interestingly, we prove that LTPC allows zero-outage communication even at low SNR and characterize the delaylimited capacity at low SNR in a simple form. More precisely, we establish that the delay-limited capacity scales linearly with the power constraint, for a given M < 1. Our framework highlights the benefit of fading at low SNR as the delay-limited capacity may outperform the AWGN capacity. For instance, for Rayleigh fading and with M = 3, the delay-limited capacity is 16% higher than the capacity of an AWGN channel.

  7. Enhancing reading performance through action video games: the role of visual attention span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antzaka, A; Lallier, M; Meyer, S; Diard, J; Carreiras, M; Valdois, S

    2017-11-06

    Recent studies reported that Action Video Game-AVG training improves not only certain attentional components, but also reading fluency in children with dyslexia. We aimed to investigate the shared attentional components of AVG playing and reading, by studying whether the Visual Attention (VA) span, a component of visual attention that has previously been linked to both reading development and dyslexia, is improved in frequent players of AVGs. Thirty-six French fluent adult readers, matched on chronological age and text reading proficiency, composed two groups: frequent AVG players and non-players. Participants performed behavioural tasks measuring the VA span, and a challenging reading task (reading of briefly presented pseudo-words). AVG players performed better on both tasks and performance on these tasks was correlated. These results further support the transfer of the attentional benefits of playing AVGs to reading, and indicate that the VA span could be a core component mediating this transfer. The correlation between VA span and pseudo-word reading also supports the involvement of VA span even in adult reading. Future studies could combine VA span training with defining features of AVGs, in order to build a new generation of remediation software.

  8. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  9. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: A study on Italian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eAngelelli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs non-derived words. Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs low of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  10. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children's story recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M.; Curtis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to “read or tell the story” as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations. PMID:25101018

  11. THE EFFECT OF A READING COMPREHENSION SOFTWARE PROGRAM ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Proudfoot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to increase student achievement, research was conducted to determine the degree in which a reading comprehension software program effected the reading and math abilities of fourth and fifth grade students. Cognitive and educational studies were examined to select a reading comprehension software program as an intervention that would produce positive results in reading comprehension and possibly transfer positive results to achievement in other academic areas, specifically in math. The effects of the intervention were measured by assigning subjects to an experimental group. The total sample consisted of 39 students who were deficient in reading comprehension, and also exposed a significant weakness with word problem items on mathematical assessments. Four instruments were used to collect data before and after the treatment to measure student achievement. To determine the degree to which the software program effected student achievement, data from the four instruments were analyzed using SPSS software. A paired-samples dependent t test and a Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was computed with ratio level data to test for a correlation between increased math scores and reading comprehension scores. Results yielded statistically significant and positive results in increasing reading comprehension skills that could possibly benefit students in reading and understanding mathematical problems. Results did not conclusively support that the increase of reading-comprehension skills had a collateral effect on students scoring higher with math word problems. The results are conducive to providing insight to educational leaders who plan to implement software as a means for increasing student achievement.

  12. Metacognitive Unawareness of the Errorful Generation Benefit and Its Effects on Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunliang; Potts, Rosalind; Shanks, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Generating errors followed by corrective feedback enhances retention more effectively than does reading--the benefit of errorful generation--but people tend to be unaware of this benefit. The current research explored this metacognitive unawareness, its effect on self-regulated learning, and how to alleviate or reverse it. People's beliefs about…

  13. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  14. Deserving social benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmark, Anders; Richardt Schoop, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    welfare reforms involving reductions of social benefits in Denmark in 2005 and 2013, the article analyses the frames used by politicians supporting and opposing reform, as well as the frames used by the media. The article shows, first, that political reforms reducing social benefits are followed...... by increased framing of recipients as undeserving. The article finds a strong correlation between the political objective of reducing benefits and the reliance on frames that position recipients as undeserving. Second, the article shows that media framing remains significantly different from political framing......The article contributes to the growing literature on framing of deservingness as an alternative to ‘blame avoidance’ strategies in the politics of welfare retrenchment. In particular, the article focuses on the interplay between political framing and media framing. Based on an analysis of two major...

  15. Function modeling: improved raster analysis through delayed reading and function raster datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hogland; Nathaniel M. Anderson; J .Greg Jones

    2013-01-01

    Raster modeling is an integral component of spatial analysis. However, conventional raster modeling techniques can require a substantial amount of processing time and storage space, often limiting the types of analyses that can be performed. To address this issue, we have developed Function Modeling. Function Modeling is a new modeling framework that streamlines the...

  16. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...

  17. Processing changes across reading encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, B A; Newell, S; Snyder, J; Timmins, K

    1986-10-01

    Five experiments examined changes in the processing of a text across reading encounters. Experiment 1 showed that reading speed increased systematically across encounters, with no loss in the extensiveness of analyses of the printed text, as indicated by the ability to detect nonword errors embedded within that passage. Experiment 2 replicated this improved reading fluency with experience and showed that it occurred even with typescript changes across trials, thus indicating that a primed visual operations explanation cannot account for the effect. The third and fourth experiments then extended the study of the familiarity effect to higher level processing, as indicated by the detection of word errors. Familiarity facilitated the detection of these violations at the syntactic-semantic levels. Finally, Experiment 5 showed that these higher level violations continued to be well detected over a series of reading encounters with the same text. The results indicate that prior experience improves reading speed, with no attenuation of analysis of the printed words or of the passage's message.

  18. SHAPING OUR READING CLASSROOM ALIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Purjayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading Comprehension has been determined (by the Director of First Common Year Program to be one of the core subjects for the first year IPB students, either in semester one or two. With the objective of being able to read English texts effectively and efficiently, the teaching of reading for these undergraduate programs are basically confined to skills that can develop reading speed and improve students‘ comprehension and reasoning abilities. Thus, skills like finding both general and specific ideas, guessing unknown words, finding meanings from English-English dictionary, predicting, ad nfinding inferences are those need to be covered. Such kind of teaching, however, can sometimes become a demanding task when dealing with certain classroom conditions and with certain targets. It is, therefore, a challenge for all English teachers in my university to be able to carry out the task well so as to achieve the above teaching objectives. Meanwhile, students‘ evaluation reveals that 3 semesters ago, teachers obtained various scores in their teaching evaluation, ranging from 2 to 3.7 out of the 1-4 scale. This paper, accordingly, is written to find out the teaching method and strategies used by those obtaining relatively good scores (3.2 and above in order to disseminate them as better insights for the teaching of reading not only in my university but also other schools or colleges.

  19. Smart Strategy to Boost Students' Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Sfafi'i, Muhammad Lukman

    2015-01-01

    Reading as one of language skills plays significant roles in the teaching English as a foreign language. Since the teacher still uses the conventional way to teach reading, students‘ ability in reading comprehension seems still unsatisfactory yet. So, teacher should explore and develop new strategies. One of strategies in reading comprehension that can trigger our students to attain that purpose is SMART (Self Monitoring Approach for Reading and Thinking) strategy. ...

  20. BenefitClaimWebServiceBean/BenefitClaimWebService

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — A formal or informal request for a type of monetary or non-monetary benefit. This service provides benefit claims and benefit claim special issues data, allows the...