WorldWideScience

Sample records for reactor hot laboratory

  1. New reactors for laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.

    1978-02-01

    Recent developments in design of laboratory and bench-scale reactors reflect mostly the developments in reaction engineering; that is the improved understanding of physical and chemical rate limiting processes, their interactions, and their effects on commercial-scale reactor performance. Whether a laboratory reactor is used to study the fundamentals of a commercial process or for pure scientific interest, it is important to know what physical or chemical process is limiting or influencing the rate and selectivity. To clarify this, a definition is required of the regime where physical influences exist, and study the intrinsic kinetics at conditions where physical processes do not affect the rate. Reactors are illustrated whose design was influenced by the above considerations. These reactors produce results which are independent of the reactors in which they were measured, and which can be scaled up with up-to-date reaction engineering techniques.

  2. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE REACTOR BUILDING, HOT LABORATORY, PRIMARY PUMP HOUSE, AND LAND AREAS AT THE PLUM BROOK REACTOR FACILITY, SANDUSKY, OHIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika N. Bailey

    2011-10-10

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  3. Moving hot cell for LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1994-09-16

    A moving hot cell for an LMFBR type reactor is made movable on a reactor operation floor between a position just above the reactor container and a position retreated therefrom. Further, it comprises an overhung portion which can incorporate a spent fuel just thereunder, and a crane for moving a fuel assembly between a spent fuel cask and a reactor container. Further, an opening/closing means having a shielding structure is disposed to the bottom portion and the overhung portion thereof, to provide a sealing structure, in which only the receiving port for the spent fuel cask faces to the inner side, and the cask itself is disposed at the outside. Upon exchange of fuels, the movable hot cell is placed just above the reactor to take out the spent fuels, so that a region contaminated with primary sodium is limited within the hot cell. On the other hand, upon maintenance and repair for equipments, the hot cell is moved, thereby enabling to provide a not contaminated reactor operation floor. (N.H.).

  4. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-12-31

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  5. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  6. Preliminary Requirement of Hot Pool Free Surface Level from PGSFR Reactor Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeonghoi; Joo, Hyeongkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The sensitivity study on structural integrity evaluations are carried out to make a decision of a hot pool free surface location from the reactor head for a preliminary designed reactor enclosure system. To do this, the thermal stress evaluations for a reactor vessel are carried out for a steady state normal operating condition with detailed heat transfer analyses through the reactor enclosure system. From these results, the preliminary design requirement of a hot pool free surface location from the reactor head is established to be 2.0m. From the sensitivity studies on the structural integrity evaluations for a steady state condition, the preliminary distance from the hot pool free surface to the reactor head is determined to be 2.0m same as a conceptual design. More detailed structural analyses for a reactor enclosure system will be carried out as a PGSFR structural design goes forward in detail.

  7. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of EX-SO3 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 110 {micro}m particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-550 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  8. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  9. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical Development of Hot Laboratories. From April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report describes activities, in fiscal year 1994, of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) which belong to the Department of Hot laboratories. In the RFEF, Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of PWR fuel rods irradiated in the Takahama Unit 3, a BWR fuel assembly irradiated in the Fukusima Daini Unit have been performed. Also, PIEs of ATR fuel assemblies and segment fuel assemblies irradiated in the Fugen Reactor have been carried out. To support R and D works in JAERI, refabrication of segmented fuel rods have been done using irradiated LWR fuel rods for pulse irradiation in the NSRR and re-irradiation tests in the JMTR. PIEs have been performed on high burnup fuel rods from the Halden reactor and TMI-2 debris samples. For the RHL, PIEs have been performed on segment fuels irradiated in the NSRR, fuels and materials for HTTR, standard fuels for JRR-3M and materials for nuclear fusion reactor. In addition, a monitoring test of fuel elements in accordance with the surveillance program of the Magnox reactor of the Japan Atomic Power Corporation have been continued. In the WASTEF, leaching tests on TRU in simulated glass forms and a low flow rate tests on glass waste forms have been carried out. The examinations of alpha damage acceleration for the Synroc waste forms have also been performed. (author).

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Experimenters' Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagle, C.D. (comp.)

    1982-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates six research reactors dedicated to research and development work as well as radioisotope production. These reactors are used by ORNL and qualified non-ORNL research and development groups. The purpose of this report is to provide information to research personnel concerning the facilities and the ORNL research and services groups available to assist in the design, fabrication, operation, and post-operation examination of irradiation assemblies. Safety and operability reviews and quality assurance requirements are also described.

  11. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This report describes activities, in the fiscal year 2000, of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) and the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) which belong to the Department of Hot laboratories. In the RFEF, reassembling of a PWR fuel irradiated in the Takahama Unit 3 has been continued. Also, non-destructive tests on a BWR fuel assembly irradiated in the Fukushima-2 unit 1 have been carried out. To support R and D works in JAERI, refabrications of segmented fuel rods have been done using irradiated LWR fuel rods for pulse irradiation in the NSRR. And post irradiation examinations (PIEs) have been performed for the pulse-irradiated fuel rods, Rock-like OXide fuel (ROX) samples irradiated in the JRR-3M and mixed carbonitride fuel samples irradiated in the JOYO. In the WASTEF, migration tests on the radioactive nuclides for terrestrial environment, leaching tests for evaluation of barrier performance and characterization on irradiated ROX fuels have been carried out. Also, reliability tests on equipment materials used in reprocessing plants have been performed in order to clarify the corrosion behavior in the simulated environment. In addition, as one project in its technological pursuit for the transmutation of transuraniums (TRU), the examination of converting TRU to its nitride using the Carbothermic Reduction method has been continuously carried out. In the RHL, PIEs have been performed on segment fuels irradiated in the NSRR, LWR pressure vessel materials and a candidate material for the first wall of nuclear fusion reactor irradiated in research and test reactors. (author)

  12. Current Reactor Physics Benchmark Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; Mackenzie L. Gorham; Joseph Christensen; James C. Turnbull; Kim Clark

    2011-11-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [1] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) [2] were established to preserve integral reactor physics and criticality experiment data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, developing, and validating our integral nuclear data, and experimental and computational methods. These projects are managed through the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA). Staff and students at the Department of Energy - Idaho (DOE-ID) and INL are engaged in the development of benchmarks to support ongoing research activities. These benchmarks include reactors or assemblies that support Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) research, space nuclear Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) design validation, and currently operational facilities in Southeastern Idaho.

  13. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report describes activities, in fiscal year 1996, of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) which belong to the Department of Hot laboratories. In the RFEF, Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of PWR fuel assemblies irradiated in the Takahama Unit 3, a BWR fuel assembly irradiated in the Fukusima Daini Unit have been performed. Also, PIEs of assembly materials irradiated in the Fugen Reactor have been carried out. To support R and D works in JAERI, refabrication of segmented fuel rods have been done using irradiated LWR fuel rods for pulse irradiation in the NSRR and re-irradiation tests in the JMTR. PIEs have been performed on high burnup fuel rods and ROX fuel rods. For the RHL, PIEs have been performed on segment fuels irradiated in the NSRR, fuels and materials for HTTR, standard fuels for JRR-3M and materials for nuclear fusion reactor. In addition, a monitoring test of fuel elements in accordance with the surveillance program of the Magnox reactor of the Japan Atomic Power Corporation has been continued. In the WASTEF, leaching tests on TRU in simulated glass forms and a low flow rate tests on glass waste forms have been carried out. The examinations of alpha damage acceleration for the Synroc waste forms have also been performed. (author)

  14. Experimental study on thermal stratification in a reactor hot plenum of a Japanese demonstration LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Tomonari [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.; Yamamoto, K.; Takakuwa, M.; Kajiwara, H.; Watanabe, O.; Akamatsu, K.

    1997-12-31

    Thermal stratification which occurs in a reactor hot plenum after reactor trip has been regarded as one of the most serious phenomena in the thermal-hydraulics of LMFBR. Using a 1/8th scale water model, an experimental study has been conducted to estimate the thermal stratification for a Japanese demonstration LMFBR (DFBR). In the present study, reactor trip was simulated by changing the core outlet temperature with maintaining a constant flow rate. Temperature distribution was measured during the transient and detailed phenomena have been acquired in the study. A severe density interface on structural integrity occurs in a hot plenum under the thermal stratification. Experimental results for temperature gradient and rising speed of the density interface were estimated based on a similarity rule so that an actual condition in the DFBR could be fully discerned. (author)

  15. Advanced high-pressure bench-scale reactor for testing with hot corrosive gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Wangerow, J.R. (Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Mojtahedi, W.; Salo, K. (Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    A bench-scale, high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) system is described that is capable of operating at a maximum temperature and pressure of 1,000 C and 30 bar in a corrosive atmosphere. The design of the unit is based on a double-shell balanced-pressure system. All the hot parts of the reactor that are wetted by the corrosive (and/or reactive) gases and the entire sampling line are constructed of inert material to prevent corrosion and loss of the reactant gases. The unit has been used for over 200 high-pressure hot coal gas desulfurization tests at 20 bars and up to 750 C without any experimental problem and with excellent sulfur balance, indicating that this reactor system is ideal for testing with reactive and corrosive gases at elevated pressures and temperatures.

  16. CFD analysis of hot spot formation through a fixed bed reactor of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aligolzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the interesting methods for conversion of synthesis gas to heavy hydrocarbons is Fischer–Tropsch process. The process has some bottlenecks, such as hot spot formation and low degree of conversion. In this work, computational fluid dynamics technique was used to simulate conversion of synthetic gas and product distribution. Also, hot spot formation in the catalytic fixed-bed reactor was investigated in several runs. Simulation results indicated that hot spot formation occurred more likely in the early and middle part of reactor due to high reaction rates. Based on the simulation results, the temperature of hot spots increased with increase in the inlet temperature as well as pressure. Among the many CFD runs conducted, it is found that the optimal temperature and pressure for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis are 565 K and 20 bar, respectively. As it seems that the reactor shall work very well under optimal conditions, the reaction rates and catalyst duration would simultaneously be maximum .

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Experimenters' Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagle, C.D. (comp.)

    1982-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has three multipurpose research reactors which accommodate testing loops, target irradiations, and beam-type experiments. Since the experiments must share common or similar facilities and utilities, be designed and fabricated by the same groups, and meet the same safety criteria, certain standards for these have been developed. These standards deal only with those properties from which safety and economy of time and money can be maximized and do not relate to the intent of the experiment or quality of the data obtained. The necessity for, and the limitations of, the standards are discussed; and a compilation of general standards is included.

  18. Design and installation of a hot water layer system at the Tehran research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmohammadi Sayedeh Leila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hot water layer system (HWLS is a novel system for reducing radioactivity under research reactor containment. This system is particularly useful in pool-type research reactors or other light water reactors with an open pool surface. The main purpose of a HWLS is to provide more protection for operators and reactor personnel against undesired doses due to the radio- activity of the primary loop. This radioactivity originates mainly from the induced radioactivity contained within the cooling water or probable minute leaks of fuel elements. More importantly, the bothersome radioactivity is progressively proportional to reactor power and, thus, the HWLS is a partial solution for mitigating such problems when power upgrading is planned. Following a series of tests and checks for different parameters, a HWLS has been built and put into operation at the Tehran research reactor in 2009. It underwent a series of comprehensive tests for a period of 6 months. Within this time-frame, it was realized that the HWLS could provide a better protection for reactor personnel against prevailing radiation under containment. The system is especially suitable in cases of abnormality, e. g. the spread of fission products due to fuel failure, because it prevents the mixing of pollutants developed deep in the pool with the upper layer and thus mitigates widespread leakage of radioactivity.

  19. Acoustic emission monitoring of hot functional testing: Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, P.H.; Dawson, J.F.; Friesel, M.A.; Harris, J.C.; Pappas, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during hot functional preservice testing is described in this report. The report deals with background, methodology, and results. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing toward AE monitoring during reactor operation.

  20. Radiological performance of hot water layer system in open pool type reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abdelhady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculated dose rate carried out by using MicroShield code to show the importance of hot water layer system (HWL in 22 MW open pool type reactor from the radiation protection safety point of view. The paper presents the dose rate profiles over the pool surface in normal and abnormal operations of HWL system. The results show that, in case of losing the hot water layer effect, the radiation dose rate profiles over the pool surface will increase from values lower than the worker permissible dose limits to values very higher than the permissible dose limits.

  1. Characterization of hot spots in microstructured reactors for fast and exothermic reactions in mixing regime

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Julien; Kashid, Madhavanand N.; Borhani, Navid; Jiang, Bo; Maeder, Thomas; Thome, John Richard; Renken, Albert; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov

    2012-01-01

    The intensification of fast exothermic reactions can be achieved by using microstructured reactors (MSR) which provide improved mass & heat transfer rates leading to higher overall reaction kinetics. But for highly exothermic reactions the heat evacuation becomes not efficient enough and unwanted hot spots are formed. In this study, first the mixing in MSR is quantified for different geometries and then temperature profiles are measured using a novel quantitative IR-thermometry method. The re...

  2. Design of a three-layer hot-wall horizontal flow MOCVD reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Chengyan; Lee Chengming; Liu Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    A new three-layer hot-wall horizontal flow metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor is proposed.When the susceptor is heated,the temperature of the wall over the susceptor also increases to the same temperature.Furthermore,the flowing speed of the top layer is also increased by up to four times that of the bottom layer.Both methods effectively decrease the convection and make most of the metal organic (MO) gas and the reactive gas distribute at the bottom surface of the reactor.By selecting appropriate shapes,sizes,nozzles array,and heating area of the walls,the source gases are kept in a laminar flow state.Results of the numeric simulation indicate that the nitrogen is a good carrier to reduce the diffusion among the precursors before arriving at the substrate,which leads to the reduction of pre-reaction.To get a good comparison with the conventional MOCVD horizontal reactor,the two-layer horizontal MOCVD reactor is also investigated.The results indicate that a twolayer reactor cannot control the gas flow effectively when its size and shape are the same as that of the three-layer reactor,so that the concentration distributions of the source gases in the susceptor surface are much more uniform in the new design than those in the conventional one.

  3. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H.W.

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  4. Creation of a neutrino laboratory for search for sterile neutrino at SM-3 reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Serebrov, A P; Samoylov, R M; Fomin, A K; Zinoviev, V G; Neustroev, P V; Golovtsov, V L; Gruzinsky, N V; Solovey, V A; Cherniy, A V; Zherebtsov, O M; Martemyanov, V P; Zinoev, V G; Tarasenkov, V G; Aleshin, V I; Petelin, A L; Pavlov, S V; Izhutov, A L; Sazontov, S A; Ryazanov, D K; Gromov, M O; Afanasiev, V V; Matrosov, L N; Matrosova, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    In connection with the question of possible existence of sterile neutrino the laboratory on the basis of SM-3 reactor was created to search for oscillations of reactor antineutrino. A prototype of a neutrino detector with scintillator volume of 400 l can be moved at the distance of 6-11 m from the reactor core. The measurements of background conditions have been made. It is shown that the main experimental problem is associated with cosmic radiation background. Test measurements of dependence of a reactor antineutrino flux on the distance from a reactor core have been made. The prospects of search for oscillations of reactor antineutrino at short distances are discussed.

  5. Performance characterization of geopolymer composites for hot sodium exposed sacrificial layer in fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneefa, K. Mohammed, E-mail: mhkolakkadan@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Santhanam, Manu [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Parida, F.C. [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of geopolymers subjected to hot liquid sodium is performed. • Apart from mechanical properties, micro-analytical techniques are used for material characterization. • The geopolymer composite showed comparatively lesser damage than conventional cement composites. • Geopolymer technology can emerge as a new choice for sacrificial layer in SCFBRs. - Abstract: A sacrificial layer of concrete is used in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (SCFBRs) to mitigate thermo-chemical effect of accidentally spilled sodium at and above 550 °C on structural concrete. Performance of this layer is governed by thermo-chemical stability of the ingredients of sacrificial layer concrete. Concrete with limestone aggregate is generally used as a sacrificial layer. Conventional cement based systems exhibit instability in hot liquid sodium environment. Geo-polymer composites are well known to perform excellently at elevated temperatures compared to conventional cement systems. This paper discusses performance of such composites subjected to exposure of hot liquid sodium in air. The investigation includes comprehensive evaluation of various geo-polymer composites before any exposure, after heating to 550 °C in air, and after immersing in hot liquid sodium initially heated to 550 °C in air. Results from the current study indicate that hot liquid sodium produces less damage to geopolymer composites than to the existing conventional cement based system. Hence, the geopolymer technology has potential application in mitigating the degrading effects of sodium fires and can emerge as a new choice for sodium exposed sacrificial layer in SCFBRs.

  6. The Entrance and Exit Effects in Small Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Ferrer, Angel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Jose; Saez, Veronica; Exposito, Eduardo; Sanchez-Sanchez, Carlos M.; Mantiel, Vicente; Walsh, Frank C.; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed to examine the entrance and exit effects in small electrochemical filter-press reactors used in the laboratory is presented. The single compartment of the filter-press reactor is filled with different turbulence promoters to study their influence as compared to the empty configuration.

  7. KINETICS OF TEMPER EMBRITTLEMENT IN 2.25Cr-1Mo STEEL USED FOR HOT-WALL HYDROFINING REACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Z.Tan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the theory of grain boundary segregation,a kinetics model of temper embrittlement caused by long-term service for hot-wall hydrofining reactors was studied.The kinetics model was applied to phosphorus(P)segregation in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel used for a hot-wall hydrofining reactor,and the kinetics of grain boundary segregation of impurity P in the steel exposed to the process environment of the hydrofining reactor was calculated on the basis of the model.The Auger electron spectroscopy test was performed in order to determine the grain boundary concentration of P.The experimental result is agreement with the theoretical calculated data.The results show that the kinetics equation is reasonable for predicting the levels of grain boundary segregation of impurity P in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel used for hot-wall hydrofining reactors.

  8. Thermal hydraulics in the hot pool of Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmakumar, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, TN 603 102 (India)], E-mail: gpk@igcar.gov.in; Pandey, G.K.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, TN 603 102 (India)

    2009-06-15

    Sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of 40 MWt/13 MWe capacity is in operation at Kalpakkam, near Chennai. Presently it is operating with a core of 10.5 MWt. Knowledge of temperatures and flow pattern in the hot pool of FBTR is essential to assess the thermal stresses in the hot pool. While theoretical analysis of the hot pool has been conducted by a three-dimensional code to access the temperature profile, it involves tuning due to complex geometry, thermal stresses and vibration. With this in view, an experimental model was fabricated in 1/4 scale using acrylic material and tests were conducted in water. Initially hydraulic studies were conducted with ambient water maintaining Froude number similarity. After that thermal studies were conducted using hot and cold water maintaining Richardson similitude. In both cases Euler similarity was also maintained. Studies were conducted simulating both low and full power operating conditions. This paper discusses the model simulation, similarity criteria, the various thermal hydraulic studies that were carried out, the results obtained and the comparison with the prototype measurements.

  9. Laboratory spectra of hot molecules: Data needs for hot super-Earth exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of stars are now thought to support exoplanets. Many of those exoplanets discovered thus far are categorized as rocky objects with an atmosphere. Most of these objects are however hot due to their short orbital period. Models suggest that water is the dominant species in their atmospheres. The hot temperatures are expected to turn these atmospheres into a (high pressure) steam bath containing remains of melted rock. The spectroscopy of these hot rocky objects will be very different from that of cooler objects or hot gas giants. Molecules suggested to be important for the spectroscopy of these objects are reviewed together with the current status of the corresponding spectroscopic data. Perspectives of building a comprehensive database of linelist/cross sections applicable for atmospheric models of rocky super-Earths as part of the ExoMol project are discussed. The quantum-mechanical approaches used in linelist productions and their challenges are summarized.

  10. Combined Reactor and Microelectrode Measurements in Laboratory Grown Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Harremoës, Poul

    1994-01-01

    A combined biofilm reactor-/microelectrode experimental set-up has been constructed, allowing for simultaneous reactor mass balances and measurements of concentration profiles within the biofilm. The system consists of an annular biofilm reactor equipped with an oxygen microelectrode. Experiments...... were carried out with aerobic glucose and starch degrading biofilms. The well described aerobic glucose degradation biofilm system was used to test the combined reactor set-up. Results predicted from known biofilm kinetics were obtained. In the starch degrading biofilm, basic assumptions were tested...

  11. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This is an annual report in a fiscal year of 2001 that describes activities of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF), and the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) in the Department of Hot laboratories. In RFEF, PIEs including destructive and nondestructive tests were performed on a BWR fuel assembly and/or its fuel rod irradiated in the Fukushima-2 Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 and a fuel assembly with UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pellets for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In addition, 34 fuel assemblies irradiated in the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' were conveyed from Mutsu Establishment, and re-assembly and PIEs for the assemblies were carried out. In WASTEF, tests for evaluating barrier performance in terms of disposal of waste, high temperature tests for evaluating stable on TRansUraniums (TRU) nitrides, leaching tests on Rock-like OXide (ROX) fuels were performed. The slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) apparatuses were installed for investigation of Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) on light water structural materials, and characterization tests for the apparatus were performed. In RHL, PIEs for light water reactor materials, fusion materials, and target materials of Proton Accelerator Facilities were carried out for laboratories in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. PIEs for zirconium alloys for ultra-high burn-up irradiated in the Kashiwazaki Nuclear Power Station Unit-5 were also performed. In order to investigate roots cause of pipe rupture in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of Chubu Electric Power Company, several examinations including SEM observation, EPMA, and Vickers hardness test were performed in those three facilities. The data from the examinations greatly contribute to clarify roots cause of the pipe rupture. (author)

  12. Structural biology facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s high flux beam reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korszun, Z.R.; Saxena, A.M.; Schneider, D.K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The techniques for determining the structure of biological molecules and larger biological assemblies depend on the extent of order in the particular system. At the High Flux Beam Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Biology Department operates three beam lines dedicated to biological structure studies. These beam lines span the resolution range from approximately 700{Angstrom} to approximately 1.5{Angstrom} and are designed to perform structural studies on a wide range of biological systems. Beam line H3A is dedicated to single crystal diffraction studies of macromolecules, while beam line H3B is designed to study diffraction from partially ordered systems such as biological membranes. Beam line H9B is located on the cold source and is designed for small angle scattering experiments on oligomeric biological systems.

  13. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  14. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. (Nuclear Energy Services, Inc., Danbury, CT (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  15. Internet accessible hot cell with gamma spectroscopy at the Missouri S and T nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Edwin [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 203 Fulton Hall, 300 W. 13th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Mueller, Gary, E-mail: gmueller@mst.edu [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 203 Fulton Hall, 300 W. 13th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Castano, Carlos; Usman, Shoaib; Kumar, Arvind [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 203 Fulton Hall, 300 W. 13th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility has been built. > The facility allows distance users to analyze neutron irradiated samples remotely. > The Missouri S and T system uses computer automation with user feedback. > The system can analyze multiple samples and assist several researchers concurrently. - Abstract: A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility with pneumatic access to the University of Missouri Science and Technology (Missouri S and T) 200 kW Research Nuclear Reactor (MSTR) core has been built and is currently available for irradiation and analysis of samples. The facility allows authorized distance users engaged in collaborative activities with Missouri S and T to remotely manipulate and analyze neutron irradiated samples. The system consists of two shielded compartments, one for multiple sample storage, and the other dedicated exclusively for radiation measurements and spectroscopy. The second chamber has multiple detector ports, with graded shielding, and has the capability to support gamma spectroscopy using radiation detectors such as an HPGe detector. Both these chambers are connected though a rapid pneumatic system with access to the MSTR nuclear reactor core. This new internet-based system complements the MSTR's current bare pneumatic tube (BPT) and cadmium lined pneumatic tube (CPT) facilities. The total transportation time between the core and the hot cell, for samples weighing 10 g, irradiated in the MSTR core, is roughly 3.0 s. This work was funded by the DOE grant number DE-FG07-07ID14852 and expands the capabilities of teaching and research at the MSTR. It allows individuals who do not have on-site access to a nuclear reactor facility to remotely participate in research and educational activities.

  16. Students' Assessment of Interactive Distance Experimentation in Nuclear Reactor Physics Laboratory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkawi, Salaheddin; Al-Araidah, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments develop students' skills in dealing with laboratory instruments and physical processes with the objective of reinforcing the understanding of the investigated subject. In nuclear engineering, where research reactors play a vital role in the practical education of students, the high cost and long construction time of research…

  17. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  18. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  19. Laboratory Reactor for Processing Carbon-Containing Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, I. O.; Medvedev, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes a reactor for high-temperature pyrolysis of carbon-containing sludge with the possibility of further development of environmentally safe technology of hydrocarbon waste disposal to produce secondary products. A solution of the urgent problem has been found: prevention of environmental pollution resulting from oil pollution of soils using the pyrolysis process as a method of disposal of hydrocarbon waste to produce secondary products.

  20. Radiation Protection Report of the First Hot Test at China Reprocessing and Radiochemistry Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Yang; LIU; Ning; JIAO; Xiao-yan; XU; Xin; MA; Hao-ran; WANG; Xiang-li

    2015-01-01

    The first hot test has been completed at China Reprocessing and Radiochemistry Laboratory in September to December 2015.In order to ensure the safety of personal,facility and environment,security group wrote safety management regulation,drew up the specialized radiation monitoring plan and organized emergency exercise.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Support of Non-light Water Reactor Technologies: Capabilities Assessment for NRC Near-term Implementation Action Plans for Non-light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jain, Prashant K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a rich history of support for light water reactor (LWR) and non-LWR technologies. The ORNL history involves operation of 13 reactors at ORNL including the graphite reactor dating back to World War II, two aqueous homogeneous reactors, two molten salt reactors (MSRs), a fast-burst health physics reactor, and seven LWRs. Operation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been ongoing since 1965. Expertise exists amongst the ORNL staff to provide non-LWR training; support evaluation of non-LWR licensing and safety issues; perform modeling and simulation using advanced computational tools; run laboratory experiments using equipment such as the liquid salt component test facility; and perform in-depth fuel performance and thermal-hydraulic technology reviews using a vast suite of computer codes and tools. Summaries of this expertise are included in this paper.

  2. Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning activities at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Lainetti, Paulo E.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rcamilo@ipen.br, e-mail: lainetti@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    IPEN's fuel cycle activities were accomplished in laboratory and pilot plant scale and most facilities were built in the 70-80 years. Nevertheless, radical changes of the Brazilian nuclear policy in the beginning of 90's determined the interruption of several fuel cycle activities and facilities shutdown. Since then, IPEN has faced the problem of the pilot plants decommissioning considering that there was no experience/expertise in this field at all. In spite of this, some laboratory and pilot plant decommissioning activities have been performed in IPEN in the last years, even without previous experience and training support. One of the first decommissioning activities accomplished in IPEN involved the Hot Chemistry Laboratory. This facility was built in the beginning of the 80's with the proposal of supporting research and development in the nuclear chemistry area. It was decided to settle a new laboratory in the place where the Hot Chemistry Laboratory was installed, being necessary its total releasing from the radioactive contamination point of view. The previous work in the laboratory involved the manipulation of samples of irradiated nuclear fuel, besides plutonium-239 and uranium-233 standard solutions. There were 5 glove-boxes in the facility but only 3 were used with radioactive material. The glove-boxes contained several devices and materials, besides the radioactive compounds, such as: electric and electronic equipment, metallic and plastic pieces, chemical reagents, liquid and solid radioactive wastes, etc. The laboratory's decommissioning process was divided in 12 steps. This paper describes the procedures, problems faced and results related to the Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning operations and its reintegration as a new laboratory of the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center (CQMA) - IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  3. Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-06

    OAK A271 Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996. The Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) is one of a number of former nuclear facilities undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The RIHL facility is in the later stages of dismantlement, with the final objective of returning the site location to its original natural state. This report documents the decontamination and dismantlement activities performed at the facility over the time period 1988 through 1996. At this time, the support buildings, all equipment associated with the facility, and the entire above-ground structure of the primary facility building (Building 020) have been removed. The basement portion of this building and the outside yard areas (primarily asphalt and soil) are scheduled for D&D activities beginning in 1997.

  4. Gas temperature measurements inside a hot wall chemical vapor synthesis reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Christian; Schilling, Carolin; Winterer, Markus

    2012-11-01

    One key but complex parameter in the chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) of nanoparticles is the time temperature profile of the gas phase, which determines particle characteristics such as size (distribution), morphology, microstructure, crystal, and local structure. Relevant for the CVS process and for the corresponding particle characteristics is, however, not the T(t)-profile generated by an external energy source such as a hot wall or microwave reactor but the temperature of the gas carrying reactants and products (particles). Due to a complex feedback of the thermodynamic and chemical processes in the reaction volume with the external energy source, it is very difficult to predict the real gas phase temperature field from the externally applied T(t)-profile. Therefore, a measurement technique capable to determine the temperature distribution of the gas phase under process conditions is needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate with three proof of principle experiments the use of laser induced fluorescence thermometry to investigate the CVS process under realistic conditions.

  5. Gas temperature measurements inside a hot wall chemical vapor synthesis reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Christian; Schilling, Carolin; Winterer, Markus

    2012-11-01

    One key but complex parameter in the chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) of nanoparticles is the time temperature profile of the gas phase, which determines particle characteristics such as size (distribution), morphology, microstructure, crystal, and local structure. Relevant for the CVS process and for the corresponding particle characteristics is, however, not the T(t)-profile generated by an external energy source such as a hot wall or microwave reactor but the temperature of the gas carrying reactants and products (particles). Due to a complex feedback of the thermodynamic and chemical processes in the reaction volume with the external energy source, it is very difficult to predict the real gas phase temperature field from the externally applied T(t)-profile. Therefore, a measurement technique capable to determine the temperature distribution of the gas phase under process conditions is needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate with three proof of principle experiments the use of laser induced fluorescence thermometry to investigate the CVS process under realistic conditions.

  6. Formation and Transport of Atomic Hydrogen in Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we focus on diamond film hot-filament chemical vapor deposition reactors where the only reactant ishydrogen so as to study the formation and transport of hydrogen atoms. Analysis of dimensionless numbers forheat and mass transfer reveals that thermal conduction and diffusion are the dominant mechanisms for gas-phaseheat and mass transfer, respectively. A simplified model has been established to simulate gas-phase temperature andH concentration distributions between the filament and the substrate. Examination of the relative importance ofhomogeneous and heterogeneous production of H atoms indicates that filament-surface decomposition of molecularhydrogen is the dominant source of H and gas-phase reaction plays a negligible role. The filament-surface dissociationrates of H2 for various filament temperatures were calculated to match H-atom concentrations observed in the liter-ature or derived from power consumption by filaments. Arrhenius plots of the filament-surface hydrogen dissociationrates suggest that dissociation of H2 at refractory filament surface is a catalytic process, which has a rather lowereffective activation energy than homogeneous thermal dissociation. Atomic hydrogen, acting as an important heattransfer medium to heat the substrate, can freely diffuse from the filament to the substrate without recombination.

  7. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Hot-Spot Fuel Temperature in Pebble Bed and Prismatic Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, W. K.; Lee, S. W.; Lim, H. S.; Lee, W. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    High temperature gas-cooled reactors(HTGR) have been reviewed as potential sources for future energy needs, particularly for a hydrogen production. Among the HTGRs, the pebble bed reactor(PBR) and a prismatic modular reactor(PMR) are considered as the nuclear heat source in Korea's nuclear hydrogen development and demonstration project. PBR uses coated fuel particles embedded in spherical graphite fuel pebbles. The fuel pebbles flow down through the core during an operation. PMR uses graphite fuel blocks which contain cylindrical fuel compacts consisting of the fuel particles. The fuel blocks also contain coolant passages and locations for absorber and control material. The maximum fuel temperature in the core hot spot is one of the important design parameters for both a PBR and a PMR. The objective of this study is to predict the hot-spot fuel temperature distributions in a PBR and a PMR at a steady state. The computational fluid dynamics(CFD) code, CFX-10 is used to perform the three-dimensional analysis. The latest design data was used here based on the reference reactor designs, PBMR400 and GTMHR60.

  8. Decontamination and dismantlement of the JANUS Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East. Project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellhauer, C.R.; Clark, F.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.; Garlock, G.A. [MOTA Corp., Cayce, SC (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination and dismantlement of the JANUS Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) was completed in October 1997. Descriptions and evaluations of the activities performed and analyses of the results obtained during the JANUS D and D Project are provided in this Final Report. The following information is included: objective of the JANUS D and D Project; history of the JANUS Reactor facility; description of the ANL-E site and the JANUS Reactor facility; overview of the D and D activities performed; description of the project planning and engineering; description of the D and D operations; summary of the final status of the JANUS Reactor facility based upon the final survey results; description of the health and safety aspects of the project, including personnel exposure and OSHA reporting; summary of the waste minimization techniques utilized and total waste generated by the project; and summary of the final cost and schedule for the JANUS D and D Project.

  9. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivill, R.L.

    1990-03-01

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Radiological survey support activities for the decommissioning of the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor Facility, Ames, Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Justus, A.L.; Flynn, K.F.

    1984-09-01

    At the request of the Engineering Support Division of the US Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office and in accordance with the programmatic overview/certification responsibilities of the Department of Energy Environmental and Safety Engineering Division, the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological Survey Group conducted a series of radiological measurements and tests at the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor located in Ames, Iowa. These measurements and tests were conducted during 1980 and 1981 while the reactor building was being decontaminated and decommissioned for the purpose of returning the building to general use. The results of these evaluations are included in this report. Although the surface contamination within the reactor building could presumably be reduced to negligible levels, the potential for airborne contamination from tritiated water vapor remains. This vapor emmanates from contamination within the concrete of the building and should be monitored until such time as it is reduced to background levels. 2 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor Project: Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program FY 2002 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Dolan, Thomas James; Miller, Gregory Kent; Moore, Richard Leroy; Terry, William Knox; Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami; Oh, Chang H; Gougar, Hans D

    2002-11-01

    This report documents the results of our research in FY-02 on pebble-bed reactor technology under our Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled the Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor. The MPBR is an advanced reactor concept that can meet the energy and environmental needs of future generations under DOE’s Generation IV initiative. Our work is focused in three areas: neutronics, core design and fuel cycle; reactor safety and thermal hydraulics; and fuel performance.

  12. Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor Project: Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program FY 2002 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Dolan, Thomas James; Miller, Gregory Kent; Moore, Richard Leroy; Terry, William Knox; Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami; Oh, Chang H; Gougar, Hans D

    2002-11-01

    This report documents the results of our research in FY-02 on pebble-bed reactor technology under our Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled the Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor. The MPBR is an advanced reactor concept that can meet the energy and environmental needs of future generations under DOE’s Generation IV initiative. Our work is focused in three areas: neutronics, core design and fuel cycle; reactor safety and thermal hydraulics; and fuel performance.

  13. Analyses in support of the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and ICF commercial reactor designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.

    1988-12-28

    Our work on this contract was divided into two major categories; two thirds of the total effort was in support of the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), and one third of the effort was in support of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) commercial reactors. This final report includes copies of the formal reports, memoranda, and viewgraph presentations that were completed under this contract.

  14. 9 CFR 147.15 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of mycoplasma reactors. 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products not mentioned. (1) Deionized distilled water suitable for cell culture fluids should be used. (2... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of mycoplasma reactors. 11 147.15 Section 147.15 Animals and Animal...

  15. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  16. 9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and research facilities. 75.4... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and...

  17. Improvement of COBRA-TF for modeling of PWR cold- and hot-legs during reactor transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salko, Robert K.

    COBRA-TF is a two-phase, three-field (liquid, vapor, droplets) thermal-hydraulic modeling tool that has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under sponsorship of the NRC. The code was developed for Light Water Reactor analysis starting in the 1980s; however, its development has continued to this current time. COBRA-TF still finds wide-spread use throughout the nuclear engineering field, including nuclear-power vendors, academia, and research institutions. It has been proposed that extension of the COBRA-TF code-modeling region from vessel-only components to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant-line regions can lead to improved Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. Improved modeling is anticipated due to COBRA-TF's capability to independently model the entrained-droplet flow-field behavior, which has been observed to impact delivery to the core region[1]. Because COBRA-TF was originally developed for vertically-dominated, in-vessel, sub-channel flow, extension of the COBRA-TF modeling region to the horizontal-pipe geometries of the coolant-lines required several code modifications, including: • Inclusion of the stratified flow regime into the COBRA-TF flow regime map, along with associated interfacial drag, wall drag and interfacial heat transfer correlations, • Inclusion of a horizontal-stratification force between adjacent mesh cells having unequal levels of stratified flow, and • Generation of a new code-input interface for the modeling of coolant-lines. The sheer number of COBRA-TF modifications that were required to complete this work turned this project into a code-development project as much as it was a study of thermal-hydraulics in reactor coolant-lines. The means for achieving these tasks shifted along the way, ultimately leading the development of a separate, nearly completely independent one-dimensional, two-phase-flow modeling code geared toward reactor coolant-line analysis. This developed code has been named CLAP, for

  18. Decomposition of hexamethyldisilane on a hot tungsten filament and gas-phase reactions in a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yujun; Li, Xinmao; Tong, Ling; Toukabri, Rim; Eustergerling, Brett

    2008-05-14

    To study the effect of an Si-Si bond on gas-phase reaction chemistry in the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) process with a single source alkylsilane molecule, soft ionization with a vacuum ultraviolet wavelength of 118 nm was used with time-of-flight mass spectrometry to examine the products from the primary decomposition of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) on a heated tungsten (W) filament and from secondary gas-phase reactions in a HWCVD reactor. It is found that both Si-Si and Si-C bonds break when HMDS decomposes on the W filament. The dominance of the breakage of Si-Si over Si-C bond has been demonstrated. In the reactor, the abstraction of methyl and H atom, respectively, from the abundant HMDS molecules by the dominant primary trimethylsilyl radicals produces tetramethylsilane (TMS) and trimethylsilane (TriMS). Along with TMS and TriMS, various other alkyl-substituted silanes (m/z = 160, 204, 262) and silyl-substituted alkanes (m/z = 218, 276, 290) are also formed from radical combination reactions. With HMDS, an increasing number of Si-Si bonds are found in the gas-phase reaction products aside from the Si-C bond which has been shown to be the major bond connection in the products when TMS is used in the same reactor. Three methyl-substituted 1,3-disilacyclobutane species (m/z = 116, 130, 144) are present in the reactor with HMDS, suggesting a more active involvement from the reactive silene intermediates.

  19. Methodology for determining of the weighted mean coolant temperature in the primary circuit hot legs of WWER-1000 reactor plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunin, Yuri V.; Dobrotvorski, Alexander N.; Semenikhin, Alexander V. [JSC ' Atomtechenergo' , Filial ' Novovoronezhatomtechenergo' , Novovorenezh (Russian Federation); Ryasny, Sergei I. [JSC ' Atomtechenergo' , Mytishi (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    At WWER-1000 NPPs, as well as at PWR NPPs, there is a problem of determining the correct weighted mean coolant temperature in the primary circuit hot legs based on the measuring channels information. The problem is caused by the coolant temperature stratification. The technical documentation for engineering support and maintenance of I and C systems does not provide any regulatory guidelines to consider this effect. Therefore, it is very important to represent a new methodology for determining the weighted mean coolant temperature in the primary circuit hot legs of the WWER-1000 reactor plants. The given paper presents the basic preconditions and approaches applied during the methodology development. They were worked out on the basis of the executed numerical and experimental research taking into account the analysis of the extensive material obtained by the authors from full-scale tests during the commissioning of WWER-1000 power units, as well as operational data obtained from several power units with different fuel loadings.

  20. Laboratory data for review of outlet water temperature limits for BDF type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.; Fitzsimmons, D.E.

    1960-12-11

    A knowledge of the thermal and hydraulic conditions within a reactor fuel channel during an inadvertent flow reduction is needed to establish reactor operating limits. Such limits, which are based on outlet water temperature, are called ``trip-after-instability`` limits by the reactor operating personnel. Laboratory experiments were performed to update the knowledge of such conditions in a BDF reactor type fuel channel while using internally and externally cooled fuel elements (I&E`s) at tube powers up to 1530 KW. In addition to a general extension of previous data, the new data were used to review certain specific details involved in ``trip-after-instability`` limit calculations. It was found that in calculating the limits, the isothermal pressure drop across the fuel elements must be related to flow rate by the exponent 1.8, ({delta}P {proportional_to} F{sup 1.8}), rather than the more convenient value of 2.0. It was found that this method of limit determination is applicable to the high rear header pressures presently attained on the reactors and also applicable to tubes with very low Panellit pressures. And finally, the validity of certain analytical transformations of experimental data, called generalization of hydraulic demand curves, was reaffirmed for the above conditions.

  1. Neutronics calculations for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tokamak Reactor Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.T.; Baker, V.C.; Barnes, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Neutronics calculations have been carried out to analyze the nuclear performance of conceptual blanket and shield designs for the Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) and the Tokamak Demonstration Reactor Plant (DRP) being considered at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These reactor designs represent a sequence in the commercialization of fusion-generated electrical power. All of the calculations were carried out using the one-dimensional discrete ordinates code ANISN and the latest available ENDF/B-IV coupled neutron-gamma-ray transport cross-section data, fluence-to-kerma conversion factors, and radiation damage cross-section data. The calculations include spatial and integral heating-rate estimates in the reactor with emphasis on the recovery of fusion neutron energy in the blanket and limiting the heat-deposition rate in the superconducting toroidal field coils. Radiation damage due to atomic displacements and gas production produced in the reactor structural material and in the toroidal field coil windings were also estimated. The tritium-breeding ratio when natural lithium is used as the fertile material in the DRP blanket and in the experimental breeding modules in the EPR is also given.

  2. Enhancing the actinide sciences in Europe through hot laboratories networking and pooling: from ACTINET to TALISMAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [French Nuclear and Alternative Energies Commission, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F RadioChemistry and Processes Department, CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, Europe supports the strengthening of the European actinides sciences scientific community through the funding of dedicated networks: (i) from 2004 to 2008, the ACTINET6 network of excellence (6. Framework Programme) gathered major laboratories involved in nuclear research and a wide range of academic research organisations and universities with the specific aims of funding and implementing joint research projects to be performed within the network of pooled facilities; (ii) from 2009 to 2013, the ACTINET-I3 integrated infrastructure initiative (I3) supports the cost of access of any academics in the pooled EU hot laboratories. In this continuation, TALISMAN (Trans-national Access to Large Infrastructures for a Safe Management of Actinides) gathers now the main European hot laboratories in actinides sciences in order to promote their opening to academics and universities and strengthen the EU-skills in actinides sciences. Furthermore, a specific focus is set on the development of advanced cutting-edge experimental and spectroscopic capabilities, the combination of state-of-the art experimental with theoretical first-principle methods on a quantum mechanical level and to benefit from the synergy between the different scientific and technical communities. ACTINET-I3 and TALISMAN attach a great importance and promote the Education and Training of the young generation of actinides scientists in the Trans-national access but also by organizing Schools (general Summer Schools or Theoretical User Lab Schools) or by granting students to attend International Conference on actinide sciences. (authors)

  3. HOTLAB: European hot laboratories research and capacities and needs. Plenary meeting 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlaender, B.C.; Jenssen, H.K. (ed.)

    2005-01-01

    The report presents proceedings from the 2004 annual HOTLAB plenary meeting at Halden and Kjeller, Norway. The goal of the yearly plenary meeting was to: Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research. Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling, etc. Promote normalisation and co-operation, e.g. by looking at mutual complementarities. Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The main themes of the five topical oral sessions of the Halden plenary meeting cover: Work package leaders report and specific papers, presentation of PIE facility databases, i.e. one worldwide (IAEA) and one inside the European communities. Reports from present and future needs and on nuclear transports. Refabrication and instrumentation: Available equipment, technical characteristics such as fabrication procedures, hot-cell compatibility, and practical experiences. Post irradiation examination: Updated and new remote techniques and methodologies, new materials such as inert matrix fuels, spallation sources and neutron absorber materials. Refurbishment and decommissioning: reports on refurbishment and decommissioning of PIE facilities. Waste and transport: Hot laboratory waste characteristics and handling, spent fuel research. Several posters are presented.

  4. 3D thermal hydraulic simulation of the hot channel of a typical material testing reactor under normal operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din; Salama, Amgad [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Reactors Dept.

    2010-09-15

    The hot channel in a typical Material Testing Reactor (MTR) is subjected to 3D simulation. Because of the existence of similarity planes, only a quarter of the hot channel including meat thickness, clad, and coolant channel is considered for CFD analysis using the FLUENT code. For the simulation, steady state normal operation regime at the reactor nominal power is assumed. In order to build confidence in our modeling approach, the results obtained in this work are compared with those obtained from the one-dimensional simulation code, MTRTHA. That is, modified variables were generated in order to match those obtained by MTRTHA and to allow comparisons. Quite good agreement is generally observed, however, the maximum clad surface temperature predicted by the 3D calculations, located at the clad mid-width, is higher than the 1D prediction by about 8 C but still below the onset of subcooled boiling by adequate safety margin. The results show quite interesting 3D patterns in both the flow field and the heat transfer. Temperature profiles, velocity profiles and contours are all presented to highlight the essential 3D features of this system. (orig.)

  5. Study on mixed convective flow penetration into subassembly from reactor hot plenum in FBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, J.; Ohshima, H.; Kamide, H.; Ieda, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Fundamental experiments using water were carried out in order to reveal the phenomenon of mixed convective flow penetration into subassemblies from a reactor`s upper plenum of fast breeder reactors. This phenomenon appears under a certain natural circulation conditions during the operation of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for decay heat removal and might influence the natural circulation head which determines the core flow rate and therefore affects the core coolability. In the experiment, a simplified model which simulates an upper plenum and a subassembly was used and the ultrasonic velocity profile monitor as well as thermocouples were applied for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature distributions in the subassembly. From the measured data, empirical equations related to the penetration flow onset condition and the penetration depth were obtained using relevant parameters which were derived from dimensional analysis.

  6. Two-phase flow experiments in a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Tobias; Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Deendarlianto

    2011-09-15

    In order to investigate the two-phase flow behaviour in a complex reactor-typical geometry and to supply suitable data for CFD code validation, a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor was built at FZD. The hot leg model is operated in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform high-pressure experiments under pressure equilibrium with the inside atmosphere of the chamber. This technique makes it possible to visualise the two-phase flow through large windows, also at reactor-typical pressure levels. In order to optimise the optical observation possibilities, the test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section. Experiments were performed with air and water at 1.5 and 3.0 bar at room temperature as well as with steam and water at 15, 30 and 50 bar and the corresponding saturation temperature (i.e. up to 264 C). The total of 194 runs are divided into 4 types of experiments covering stationary co-current flow, counter-current flow, flow without water circulation and transient counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. This report provides a detailed documentation of the experiments including information on the experimental setup, experimental procedure, test matrix and on the calibration of the measuring devices. The available data is described and data sheets were arranged for each experiment in order to give an overview of the most important parameters. For the cocurrent flow experiments, water level histograms were arranged and used to characterise the flow in the hot leg. In fact, the form of the probability distribution was found to be sensitive to the boundary conditions and, therefore, is useful for the CFD comparison. Furthermore, the flooding characteristics of the hot leg model plotted in terms of the classical Wallis parameter or Kutateladze number were found to fail to properly correlate the data of the air/water and steam/water series. Therefore, a modified Wallis parameter is proposed, which

  7. Fabrication and Examination for Hot-wall Hydrotreating Reactor%热壁加氢反应器的制造和检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀战伟

    2012-01-01

    An example of hydrotreating reactor was taken to introduce the hot wall hydrogena-tion reactor manufacturing technology points, nondestructive testing technology requirements, and manufacturing in the problem as well, which should be noticed.%以某加氢精制反应器为例,介绍了热壁加氢反应器的制造技术要点、无损检测技术要求以及制造中应注意的问题.

  8. Liquid-phase catalytic reactor combined with measurement of hot electron flux and chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedrygailov, Ievgen I.; Lee, Changhwan; Moon, Song Yi; Lee, Hyosun; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the role of electronically nonadiabatic interactions during chemical reactions on metal surfaces in liquid media is of great importance for a variety of applications including catalysis, electrochemistry, and environmental science. Here, we report the design of an experimental apparatus for detection of the highly excited (hot) electrons created as a result of nonadiabatic energy transfer during the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide on thin-film metal-semiconductor nanodiodes. The apparatus enables the measurement of hot electron flows and related phenomena (e.g., surface chemiluminescence) as well as the corresponding reaction rates at different temperatures. The products of the chemical reaction can be characterized in the gaseous phase by means of gas chromatography. The combined measurement of hot electron flux, catalytic activity, and light emission can lead to a fundamental understanding of the elementary processes occurring during the heterogeneous catalytic reaction.

  9. Using thermal balance model to determine optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed in a laboratory-scale composting reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Pang, Li; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Yuansheng; Zhou, Kexun; Luo, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive model of thermal balance and degradation kinetics was developed to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material. Biological heat production and five channels of heat loss were considered in the thermal balance model for a representative reactor. Degradation kinetics was developed to make the model applicable to different types of substrates. Simulation of the model showed that the internal energy accumulation of compost was the significant heat loss channel, following by heat loss through reactor wall, and latent heat of water evaporation. Lower proportion of heat loss occurred through the reactor wall when the reactor volume was larger. Insulating materials with low densities and low conductive coefficients were more desirable for building small reactor systems. Model developed could be used to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed before the fabrication of a lab-scale composting system.

  10. Environmental assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment on the proposed decontamination and decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pennsylvania. Based on the environmental assessment, which is available to the public on request, the Department has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, no environmental impact statement is required. The proposed action is to decontaminate and decommission the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division fuel fabrication facilities (the Plutonium Laboratory - Building 7, and the Advanced Fuels Laboratory - Building 8). Decontamination and decommissioning of the facilities would require removal of all process equipment, the associated service lines, and decontamination of the interior surfaces of the buildings so that the empty buildings could be released for unrestricted use. Radioactive waste generated during these activities would be transported in licensed containers by truck for disposal at the Department's facility at Hanford, Washington. Useable non-radioactive materials would be sold as excess material, and non-radioactive waste would be disposed of by burial as sanitary landfill at an approved site.

  11. Thermal performance of small solar domestic hot water systems in theory, in the laboratory and in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    for poor thermal performances of systems tested in practice are given. Based on theoretical calculations the negative impact on the thermal performance, due to a large number of different parameter variations are given. Recommendations for future developments of small solar domestic hot water systems......The aim of the project is to present results of measurements and theoretical calculations for solar domestic hot water systems installed and tested in the laboratory and in practice. The solar domestic hot water systems from which results are presented are all based on small tanks. Further, reasons...

  12. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  13. Production behaviour of gas hydrate under hot sea water injection : laboratory case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nengkoda, A. [Schlumberger, Calgary, AB (Canada); Budhijanto, B.; Supranto, S.; Prasetyo, I.; Purwono, S.; Sutijan, S. [Gadjah Mada Univ., Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    The gas hydrate potential in Indonesia was discussed, with particular reference to offshore production of gas from deep-water gas-hydrates by injection of hot seawater. In 2004, the Indonesian National Agency for Assessment and Application Technology estimated the gas hydrate resource potential to be 850 trillion cubic feet (tcf). To date, the 3 most reliable scenarios for gas hydrate production are thermal stimulation which involves increasing the temperature until the hydrates break into water and gas; depressurization which involves lowering the pressure by pumping out gas at the base of the hydrate to cause dissociation of hydrates into gas; and injection of a chemical inhibitor such as methanol into the hydrated sediments to cause destabilization, thus releasing gas from hydrates. This study investigated the effect of hot seawater injection on the gas hydrate production under laboratory conditions. The temperature profile distribution was examined along with operational parameters and flow characteristics of the dissociated gas and water from hydrates in porous systems under a synthetic hydrate setup. The study showed that gas production increases with time until a maximum is reached, at which time it begins to decrease. The energy ratio of thermal stimulation production was found to be influenced by the injection water temperature and rate as well as the hydrate content in the synthetic sediment. Scale problems were found to be associated with high temperature seawater injection. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Computerization upgrade project for the Rocky Flats Plant Critical Mass Laboratory Reactor Control Console

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, H.C.; Miles, R.E.; Sachs, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses present and planned future work on computerization of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) Nuclear Reactor Control Console. No computerized control functions are planned or anticipated at this time. The scope of this computerization effort is limited to Data Acquisition and Analysis. In this work an IBM-PC will be connected to four (4) Nuclear Safety channels, and two (2) nonnuclear safety channels. Programming is being done in interpretive advanced BASIC. At the present time only two channels, Linear Picoammeters 1 and 2, are having their signals processed by the IBM-PC.

  15. Experimental investigations on turbulent mixing of hot upward flow and cold downward flow inside a chimney model of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Samiran, E-mail: samiran_sengupta@yahoo.co.in [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghosh, Aniruddha [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, C. [Research Reactor Maintenance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vijayan, P.K. [Reactor Design & Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, R.C. [Reactor Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulated mixing of hot upward and cold downward flows in a chimney of a reactor. • Experiments in chimney model (2:9 scale) at Reynolds number (Re)—1.5 to 4.5 × 10{sup 5}. • Hot upward flow comes out of the chimney when bypass flow ratio (R) is zero. • Increase in ratio (R) reduces jet height, vortex spread height and temperature front height. • Effects of Re, chimney height and temperature differential are not significant. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to study the turbulent mixing of hot upward flow and cold downward flow inside a scaled down model of chimney structure of a pool type nuclear research reactor. Open pool type nuclear reactors often use this type of chimney structures to prevent mixing of radioactive core outlet water directly into the reactor pool so that radiation field at the reactor pool top can be kept to a lower limit. The chimney structure is designed to facilitate guiding of the radioactive water towards the two outlet nozzles of the chimney and simultaneously allows drawing water from the reactor pool through the chimney top opening. The present work aims at studying flow mixing behaviour of hot and cold water inside a 2/9th scaled down model of the chimney structure experimentally. The ratio between the cold downward flow and the hot upward flow is varied between 0 and 0.15 to predict the extent of suppression of the hot upward flow within the chimney region for various bypass flow ratios. The Reynolds number of the hot upward flow considered in the experiment is about 1.5 × 10{sup 5} which corresponds to a flow rate of about 500 l min{sup −1}. The upward jet height and the temperature distribution were predicted from the experiment. It was observed that increase in bypass flow ratio reduces the upward jet height of hot water. Experiments were also carried out by increasing the flow rate to 1000 and 1500 l min{sup −1} corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 3 × 10{sup 5} and 4.5 × 10{sup 5

  16. Antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in the hot-plate test in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestehave, Sara; Munro, Gordon; Pedersen, Tina Brønnum; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-09-27

    Researchers performing experiments on animals should always strive towards the refinement of experiments, minimization of stress and provision of better animal welfare. An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve post-operative recovery and welfare in laboratory rats and mice. In addition, it is desirable to provide post-operative analgesia using methods that are minimally invasive and stressful. This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine ingested in Nutella® in comparison with subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. By exposing the animal to a thermal stimulus using a hot plate, significant antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine administered in Nutella® were demonstrated. This was evident at doses of 1.0 mg/kg 60 and 120 min post administration (P Nutella® in a 10-fold higher dose, as well as approximately 60 min earlier, than with the more commonly employed subcutaneous route of administration.

  17. Degradation kinetics of the main carbohydrates in birch wood during hot water extraction in a batch reactor at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Sixta, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Hot water extraction of wood at elevated temperatures may be a suitable method to produce hemicellulose-lean pulps and to recover xylan-derived products from the water extract. In this study, water extractions of birch wood were conducted at temperatures between 180 and 240 °C in a batch reactor. Xylan was extensively removed, whereas cellulose was partly degraded only at temperatures above 180 °C. Under severe extraction conditions, acetic acid content in the water extract was higher than the corresponding amount of acetyl groups in wood. In addition to oligo- and monosaccharides, considerable amounts of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were recovered from the extracts. After reaching a maximum, the furfural yield remained constant with increasing extraction time. This maximum slightly decreased with increasing extraction temperature, suggesting the preferential formation of secondary degradation products from xylose. Kinetic models fitting experimental data are proposed to explain degradation and conversion reactions of xylan and glucan.

  18. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron...

  19. Laboratory Scale Study of Activated Sludge Process in Jet Loop Reactor for Waste WaterTreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP for the treatment of synthetic wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions.A laboratory scale Compact jet loop reactor model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose.Settled synthetic wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the influent and effluent was measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquorvolatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (θ. The results of the studydemonstrated that an efficiency of above 95% could be obtained for COD if the ASP is operated atan MLVSS concentration of 3000 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 1 hour.In the present investigation the preliminary studies were carried out in a lab scale Jet loop reactor made of glass. Synthetic waste water having a composition of 1000 mg/L mixed with other nutrients such as Urea, Primary and secondary Potassium phosphates, Magnesium sulfate, Iron chloriderequired for the bacteria was prepared in the laboratory and reduction in COD and the increase inSuspended Solids (SSand the Sludge Volume Index (SVI were determined.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Monthly Activities Report APRIL 1966 on AEC Division of Reactor Development and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. L. Fawcett

    1966-05-01

    This report has the following sections: Summary of Activities; Civilian Power Reactors; Applied and Reactor Physics; Reactor Fuels and Materials; Engineering Development; Plutonium Recycle Program; Advanced Systems; and Nuclear Safety.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Monthly Activities Report March 1966 On AEC Division of Reactor Development and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. L. Fawcett

    1966-04-01

    This report has the following sections: Summary of Activities; Civilian Power Reactors; Applied and Reactor Physics; Reactor Fuels and Materials; Engineering Development; Plutonium Recycle Program; Advanced Systems; and Nuclear Safety.

  2. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory - East project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellhauer, C.; Garlock, G.; Mathiesen, J.

    1998-12-02

    The ATSR D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: (1) Removal of radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the ATSR Reactor facility; (2) Decontamination of the ATSR Reactor facility to unrestricted use levels; and (3)Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure). These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the ATSR Reactor facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The reactor aluminum, reactor lead, graphite piles in room E-111, and the contaminated concrete in room E-102 were the primary areas of concern. NES, Incorporated (Danbury, CT) characterized the ATSR Reactor facility from January to March 1998. The characterization identified a total of thirteen radionuclides, with a total activity of 64.84 mCi (2.4 GBq). The primary radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Eu{sup 152}, Cs{sup 137}, and U{sup 238}. No additional radionuclides were identified during the D&D of the facility. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the reactor tank and shield tank. Contact radiation levels of 30 mrem/hr (0.3 mSv/hr) were measured on reactor internals during dismantlement of the reactor. A level of 3 mrem/hr (0.03 mSv/hr) was observed in a small area (hot spot) in room E-102. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem/yr (50 mSv/yr); the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  3. Laboratory Simulation of Haze/Aerosol formation in warm and hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib-Nezhad, Ehsan; Lyons, James R.; Wright, David P.

    2016-10-01

    During the transit of an exoplanet across its host star, transmitted starlight through exoplanet atmosphere is absorbed and scattered, and the recorded transit spectra reveal important chemical information. There are many detected exoplanets in which hazes/aerosols obscure the incident photons, and consequently, fewer photons are transmitted through the atmosphere, contributing to a flat/nearly flat transit spectrum. Here, we have carried out two complementary approaches to address haze formation. First, laboratory simulations of haze condensation in exoplanet atmospheres are carried out using an electric discharge tube. A mixture of likely gas species (i.e. H2, He, H2O, CH4, N2 and H2S) is inserted into a glass manifold on a vacuum line, at a pressure ~100-10 mbar, and depending on the exoplanet category (e.g., warm or hot Jupiters), the temperature is set. Applying a few kilovolts produces plasma in the discharge tube, and as a result, particles are formed. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the optical constants (complex refractive index) of the collected laboratory hazes. Then, chemical characterization is made using RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). Second, we developed a transit modeling code by which the transit spectra are generated using observational and laboratory data as an input. The model accounts for Mie scattering from haze particles in the vis-NIR spectral region, and Rayleigh scattering which comes from gases and particles (effective in UV-vis). The measured refractive indexes (real and imaginary part) describe the absorption and scattering in the vis-NIR transmission region, and, by generating transit spectra close to the observed ones from exoplanets, constraints on atmospheric chemical characterization can be revealed. Our laboratory results show that haze particles formed in the presence of water and with the solar C/O ratio = 0.5. The other outcome of our experiment is that

  4. Hot Isostatic Press Can Optimization for Aluminum Cladding of U-10Mo Reactor Fuel Plates: FY12 Final Report and FY13 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scott, Jeffrey E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aikin, Beverly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vargas, Victor D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duffield, Andrew N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weinberg, Richard Y. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montalvo, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hudson, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Liu, Cheng [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lovato, Manuel L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-08-26

    Currently, the proposed processing path for low enriched uranium – 10 wt. pct. molybdenum alloy (LEU-10Mo) monolithic fuel plates for high power research and test reactors includes hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to bond the aluminum cladding that encapsulates the fuel foil. Initial HIP experiments were performed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on approximately ¼ scale “mini” fuel plate samples using a HIP can design intended for these smaller experimental trials. These experiments showed that, with the addition of a co-rolled zirconium diffusion barrier on the LEU-10Mo alloy fuel foil, the HIP bonding process is a viable method for producing monolithic fuel plates. Further experimental trials at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) effectively scaled-up the “mini” can design to produce full-size fuel prototypic plates. This report summarizes current efforts at LANL to produce a HIP can design that is further optimized for higher volume production runs. The production-optimized HIP can design goals were determined by LANL and Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to include maintaining or improving the quality of the fuel plates produced with the baseline scaled-up mini can design, while minimizing material usage, improving dimensional stability, easing assembly and disassembly, eliminating machining, and significantly reducing welding. The initial small-scale experiments described in this report show that a formed-can approach can achieve the goals described above. Future work includes scaling the formed-can approach to full-size fuel plates, and current progress toward this goal is also summarized here.

  5. History of the 185-/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory and its effects on reactor operations at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 185-D deaeration building and the 189-D refrigeration building were constructed at Hanford during 1943 and 1944. Both buildings were constructed as part of the influent water cooling system for D reactor. The CMS studies eliminated the need for 185-D function. Early gains in knowledge ended the original function of the 189-D building mission. In 1951, 185-D and 189-D were converted to a thermal-hydraulic laboratory. The experiments held in the thermal-hydraulic lab lead to historic changes in Hanford reactor operations. In late 1951, the exponential physics experiments were moved to the 189-D building. In 1958, new production reactor experiments were begun in 185/189-D. In 1959, Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor experiments were added to the 185/189-D facility. By 1960, the 185/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory was one of the few full service facilities of its type in the nation. During the years 1961--1963 tests continued in the facility in support of existing reactors, new production reactors, and the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. In 1969, Fast Flux Test Facility developmental testings began in the facility. Simulations in 185/189-D building aided in the N Reactor repairs in the 1980`s. In 1994 the facility was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, because of its pioneering role over many years in thermal hydraulics, flow studies, heat transfer, and other reactor coolant support work. During 1994 and 1995 it was demolished in the largest decontamination and decommissioning project thus far in Hanford Site history.

  6. Laboratory-Scale Membrane Reactor for the Generation of Anhydrous Diazomethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinger, Doris; Pinho, Vagner D; Gutmann, Bernhard; Kappe, C Oliver

    2016-07-15

    A configurationally simple and robust semibatch apparatus for the in situ on-demand generation of anhydrous solutions of diazomethane (CH2N2) avoiding distillation methods is presented. Diazomethane is produced by base-mediated decomposition of commercially available Diazald within a semipermeable Teflon AF-2400 tubing and subsequently selectively separated from the tubing into a solvent- and substrate-filled flask (tube-in-flask reactor). Reactions with CH2N2 can therefore be performed directly in the flask without dangerous and labor-intensive purification operations or exposure of the operator to CH2N2. The reactor has been employed for the methylation of carboxylic acids, the synthesis of α-chloro ketones and pyrazoles, and palladium-catalyzed cyclopropanation reactions on laboratory scale. The implementation of in-line FTIR technology allowed monitoring of the CH2N2 generation and its consumption. In addition, larger scales (1.8 g diazomethane per hour) could be obtained via parallelization (numbering up) by simply wrapping several membrane tubings into the flask.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of hot metal de siliconizing process in ladle; Avaliacao laboratorial do processo de dessiliciacao do gusa na panela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Sergio R.M.; Furtado, Henrique S.; Bentes, Miguel A.G.; Almeida, Pedro S. de [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1996-12-31

    The attractiveness of hot metal de siliconizing in ladle, relative to the process in blast furnace runner, is the previous knowledge of silicon content of hot metal, without the constraints of slag removing by skimmer met in torpedo car, and the better efficiency in low range silicon content, making easier the process controllability. Meanwhile, the main question about this technology is the extent of the resulfurization of hot metal that may occur due to process be performed after the desulfurization. This work simulates de de siliconizing process in ladle by experiments in induction furnace to compare the efficiencies of various de siliconizing agents available at CSN iron and steel making plant, and to evaluate the resulfurization intensity able to occur during the process, as well as, unexpected increasing of refractory wear. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Hot Deformation Behavior of SA508Gr.4N Steel for Reactor Pressure Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhi-qiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The high-temperature plastic deformation and dynamic recrystallization behavior of SA508Gr.4N steel were investigated through hot deformation tests in a Gleeble1500D thermal mechanical simulator. The compression tests were performed in the temperature range of 1050-1250℃ and the strain rate range of 0.001-0.1s-1 with true strain of 0.16. The results show that from the high-temperature true stress-strain curves of the SA508Gr.4N steel, the main feature is dynamic recrystallization,and the peak stress increases with the decrease of deformation temperature or the increase of strain rate, indicating the experimental steel is temperature and strain rate sensitive material. The constitutive equation for SA508Gr.4N steel is established on the basis of the true stress-strain curves, and exhibits the characteristics of the high-temperature flow behavior quite well, while the activation energy of the steel is determined to be 383.862kJ/mol. Furthermore, an inflection point is found in the θ-σ curve, while the -dθ/dσ-σ curve shows a minimum value. The critical strain increases with increasing strain rate and decreasing deformation temperature. A linear relationship between critical strain (εc and peak strain (εp is found and could be expressed as εc/εp=0.517. The predicted model of critical strain could be described as εc=8.57×10-4Z0.148.

  9. Utilization of the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, Douglas L [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Meilleur, Flora [ORNL; Jones, Amy [ORNL; Bailey, William Barton [ORNL; Vandergriff, David H [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the scientific utilization of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Topics to be covered will include: 1) HFIR neutron scattering instruments and the formal instrument user program; 2) Recent upgrades to the neutron scattering instrument stations at the reactor, and 3) eMod a new tool for addressing instrument modifications and providing configuration control and design process for scientific instruments at HFIR and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). There are 15 operating neutron instrument stations at HFIR with 12 of them organized into a formal user program. Since the last presentation on HFIR instruments at IGORR we have installed a Single Crystal Quasi-Laue Diffractometer instrument called IMAGINE; and we have made significant upgrades to HFIR neutron scattering instruments including the Cold Triple Axis Instrument, the Wide Angle Neutron Diffractometer, the Powder Diffractometer, and the Neutron Imaging station. In addition, we have initiated upgrades to the Thermal Triple Axis Instrument and the Bio-SANS cold neutron instrument detector system. All of these upgrades are tied to a continuous effort to maintain a high level neutron scattering user program at the HFIR. For the purpose of tracking modifications such as those mentioned and configuration control we have been developing an electronic system for entering instrument modification requests that follows a modification or instrument project through concept development, design, fabrication, installation, and commissioning. This system, which we call eMod, electronically leads the task leader through a series of questions and checklists that then identifies such things as ES&H and radiological issues and then automatically designates specific individuals for the activity review process. The system has been in use for less than a year and we are still working out some of the inefficiencies, but we believe that this will become a very

  10. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH-[TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James; Bayless, Paul; Strydom, Gerhard; Kumar, Akansha; Gougar, Hans

    2016-11-01

    A point design for a graphite-moderated, high-temperature, gas-cooled test reactor (HTG TR) has been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as part of a United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to explore and potentially expand the existing U.S. test reactor capabilities. This paper provides a summary of the design and its main attributes. The 200 MW HTG TR is a thermal-neutron spectrum reactor composed of hexagonal prismatic fuel and graphite reflector blocks. Twelve fuel columns (96 fuel blocks total and 6.34 m active core height) are arranged in two hexagonal rings to form a relatively compact, high-power density, annular core sandwiched between inner, outer, top, and bottom graphite reflectors. The HTG-TR is designed to operate at 7 MPa with a coolant inlet/outlet temperature of 325°C/650°C, and utilizes TRISO particle fuel from the DOE AGR Program with 425 ?m uranium oxycarbide (UCO) kernels and an enrichment of 15.5 wt% 235U. The primary mission of the HTG TR is material irradiation and therefore the core has been specifically designed and optimized to provide the highest possible thermal and fast neutron fluxes. The highest thermal neutron flux (3.90E+14 n/cm2s) occurs in the outer reflector, and the maximum fast flux levels (1.17E+14 n/cm2s) are produced in the central reflector column where most of the graphite has been removed. Due to high core temperatures under accident conditions, all the irradiation test facilities have been located in the inner and outer reflectors where fast flux levels decline. The core features a large number of irradiation positions with large test volumes and long test lengths, ideal for thermal neutron irradiation of large test articles. The total available test volume is more than 1100 liters. Up to four test loop facilities can be accommodated with pressure tube boundaries to isolate test articles and test fluids (e.g., liquid metal, liquid salt, light water) from the helium primary coolant system.

  11. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic

  12. Safety Analyses at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Test Reactor Area - Past to Present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosek, Richard Garry; Ingram, Frederick William

    1999-11-01

    Test reactors are unique in that the core configuration may change with each operating interval. The process of safety analyses for test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Test Reactor Area has evolved as the computing capabilities, software, and regulatory requirements have changed. The evaluations for experiments and the reactor have moved from measurements in a set configuration and then application to other configurations with a relatively large error to modeling in three-dimensions and explicit analyses for each experiment and operating interval. This evolution is briefly discussed for the Test Reactor Area.

  13. Purchase of Microwave Reactors for Implementation of Small-scale Microwave-accelerated Organic Chemistry Laboratory Program in Undergraduate Curriculum and Synthetic Chemistry Research at HU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-16

    Microwave-accelerated Organic Chemistry Laboratory Program in Undergraduate Curriculum and Synthetic Chemistry Research at HU The views, opinions and/or...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Microwave laboratory facility, Undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory, Implementation/Development of...Purchase of Microwave Reactors for Implementation of Small-scale Microwave-accelerated Organic Chemistry Laboratory Program in Undergraduate

  14. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 7, Safety operation procedure for hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for the safety operation procedure for hot cell. It covers the master-slave manipulators, dry waste removal, cell transfers, hoists, cask handling, liquid waste system, and physical characterization of fluids.

  15. Clostridium bornimense sp. nov., isolated from a mesophilic, two-phase, laboratory-scale biogas reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnke, Sarah; Striesow, Jutta; Elvert, Marcus; Mollar, Xavier Prieto; Klocke, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A novel anaerobic, mesophilic, hydrogen-producing bacterium, designated strain M2/40(T), was isolated from a mesophilic, two-phase, laboratory-scale biogas reactor fed continuously with maize silage supplemented with 5% wheat straw. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed an affiliation to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (cluster I of the clostridia), with Clostridium cellulovorans as the closest characterized species, showing 93.8% sequence similarity to the type strain. Cells of strain M2/40(T) were rods to elongated filamentous rods that showed variable Gram staining. Optimal growth occurred at 35 °C and at pH 7. Grown on glucose, the main fermentation products were H2, CO2, formate, lactate and propionate. The DNA G+C content was 29.6 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were C(16 : 0), summed feature 10 (C(18 : 1)ω11c/ω9t/ω6t and/or unknown ECL 17.834) and C(18 : 1)ω11c dimethylacetal. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic differences, strain M2/40(T) represents a novel species within the genus Clostridium, for which we propose the name Clostridium bornimense sp. nov. The type strain is M2/40(T) ( = DSM 25664(T) = CECT 8097(T)).

  16. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weimin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Criddle, Craig S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of the Hydrogen Reduction of Magnetite Concentrate in a Laboratory Flash Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, De-Qiu; Sohn, H. Y.; Mohassab, Yousef; Elzohiery, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the hydrogen reduction of magnetite concentrate particles in a laboratory flash reactor representing a novel flash ironmaking process. The model was used to simulate the fluid flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions involved. The governing equations for the gas phase were solved in the Eulerian frame of reference while the particles were tracked in the Lagrangian framework. The change in the particle mass was related to the chemical reaction and the particle temperature was calculated by taking into consideration the heat of reaction, convection, and radiation. The stochastic trajectory model was used to describe particle dispersion due to turbulence. Partial combustion of H2 by O2 injected through a non-premixed burner was also simulated in this study. The partial combustion mechanism used in this model consisted of seven chemical reactions involving six species. The temperature profiles and reduction degrees obtained from the simulations satisfactorily agreed with the experimental measurements.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of the Hydrogen Reduction of Magnetite Concentrate in a Laboratory Flash Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, De-Qiu; Sohn, H. Y.; Mohassab, Yousef; Elzohiery, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the hydrogen reduction of magnetite concentrate particles in a laboratory flash reactor representing a novel flash ironmaking process. The model was used to simulate the fluid flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions involved. The governing equations for the gas phase were solved in the Eulerian frame of reference while the particles were tracked in the Lagrangian framework. The change in the particle mass was related to the chemical reaction and the particle temperature was calculated by taking into consideration the heat of reaction, convection, and radiation. The stochastic trajectory model was used to describe particle dispersion due to turbulence. Partial combustion of H2 by O2 injected through a non-premixed burner was also simulated in this study. The partial combustion mechanism used in this model consisted of seven chemical reactions involving six species. The temperature profiles and reduction degrees obtained from the simulations satisfactorily agreed with the experimental measurements.

  19. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  20. Laboratory test reactor for the investigation of liquid reducing agents in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitz, D.; Bernhard, A.; Elsener, M.; Kröcher, O.

    2011-08-01

    A test reactor was designed and built for investigating liquid reducing agents in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process in the laboratory. The design of the experimental setup is described in detail and its performance was evaluated. Using a glass nebulizer, liquid reducing agents were sprayed directly onto a catalyst positioned in a heated glass reactor with a length of 250 mm and an internal diameter of 20.4 mm or 40 mm. Model exhaust gases were mixed from individual gas components and were heated up to 450 °C in a heat exchanger before entering the reactor. The off-gas was analyzed using two complimentary techniques, a multi-component online FTIR gas analysis and a liquid quench gas absorption setup, to detect higher molecular compounds and aerosols. Due to the versatility of construction, processes not related to SCR, but involving three-phase reactions with gases, liquids and a catalyst, can also be investigated.

  1. Computational Thermodynamic Modeling of Hot Corrosion of Alloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N for Molten Salt Service in Advanced High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Glazoff, Michael; Charit, Indrajt; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-09-17

    An evaluation of thermodynamic aspects of hot corrosion of the superalloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N in the eutectic mixtures of KF and ZrF4 is carried out for development of Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). This work models the behavior of several superalloys, potential candidates for the AHTR, using computational thermodynamics tool (ThermoCalc), leading to the development of thermodynamic description of the molten salt eutectic mixtures, and on that basis, mechanistic prediction of hot corrosion. The results from these studies indicated that the principal mechanism of hot corrosion was associated with chromium leaching for all of the superalloys described above. However, HastelloyTM N displayed the best hot corrosion performance. This was not surprising given it was developed originally to withstand the harsh conditions of molten salt environment. However, the results obtained in this study provided confidence in the employed methods of computational thermodynamics and could be further used for future alloy design efforts. Finally, several potential solutions to mitigate hot corrosion were proposed for further exploration, including coating development and controlled scaling of intermediate compounds in the KF-ZrF4 system.

  2. Completion Summary for Well NRF-16 near the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Naval Reactors Laboratory Field Office, Idaho Branch Office cored and completed well NRF-16 for monitoring the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP) aquifer. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 425 feet below land surface and water samples and geophysical data were collected and analyzed to determine if well NRF-16 would meet criteria requested by Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) for a new upgradient well. Final construction continued after initial water samples and geophysical data indicated that NRF-16 would produce chemical concentrations representative of upgradient aquifer water not influenced by NRF facility disposal, and that the well was capable of producing sustainable discharge for ongoing monitoring. The borehole was reamed and constructed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act monitoring well complete with screen and dedicated pump. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and final completion of the monitoring well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which are believed to occur in the intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt and to describe borehole lithology in detail. Geophysical data also were examined to look for evidence of perched water and the extent of the annular seal after cement grouting the casing in place. Borehole videos were collected to confirm that no perched water was present and to examine the borehole before and after setting the screen in well NRF-16. Two consecutive single-well aquifer tests to define hydraulic characteristics for well NRF-16 were conducted in the eastern SRP aquifer. Transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity averaged from the aquifer tests were 4.8 x 103 ft2/d and 9.9 ft/d, respectively. The transmissivity for well NRF-16 was within the range of values determined from past aquifer

  3. Remediation of Water Contaminated with an Azo Dye: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Utilizing an Inexpensive Photocatalytic Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, John A.; Tricker, Jennifer; Andrzejewski, Ken; Rhoads, Heather; Tatarko, Matthew

    1999-12-01

    The construction and use of an inexpensive photocatalytic reactor that utilizes titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst for wastewater treatment is described. In these experiments and in supplementary material, students are made aware that a variety of techniques have been developed to treat wastewaters, including those generated by the chemical industry. Water contaminated with the azo dye Congo Red was selected as an example of how one might treat contaminated water from a textile manufacturing facility. These experiments emphasize that, in addition to product development, chemists must also be concerned with waste treatment. A summary of the theory of titanium dioxide-mediated photocatalysis is provided. The phenomenon of photosensitization is also discussed. The usefulness of Congo Red is summarized and a brief history of this dye is given. In addition to being inexpensive, the photocatalytic reactor described is easy to construct and uses a readily available low-wattage fluorescent light. An important feature of this reactor is that the heat generated by the light source is readily dissipated by the water undergoing treatment. Thus no special cooling apparatus is required. One of the most important aspects of this work is that it provides a wide variety of continuing research suggestions that would be suitable and readily accomplished in undergraduate departments and high school laboratories; even those where budgetary priorities are a major concern. Use of this reactor would also enable students to design systems to treat "real-world" wastes, including some that are generated in instructional laboratories.

  4. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014–October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  5. Evaluating the effects of compaction of hot mix asphalt on selected laboratory tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, SL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) surfaced roads provide good riding quality when properly constructed, but there are serious distresses associated with HMA, and asphalt rutting is one of them. The existence of rutting on roads results in ponding of water...

  6. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten

  7. Characterisation of the oxide layer on carbon steel during hot conditioning of primary heat transport systems in heavy-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinov, Martin [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Kl. Ohridski Blvd. 8, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: mbojinov@yahoo.com; Gaonkar, Krishna; Ghosh, Swati; Kain, Vivekanand; Kumar, Kiran [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Saario, Timo [VTT Materials and Building, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, Kemistintie 3, FIN-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2009-05-15

    The corrosion layer formation on carbon steel during hot conditioning of primary heat transport systems of pressurised heavy-water reactors has been characterised using ex-situ methods (gravimetry, electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry). In addition, the electric and electrochemical properties of the corrosion layers have been followed in-situ by voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy during exposure to simulated hot conditioning water chemistry. The corrosion layer formed has been found to be a bilayer oxide of the inverse spinel type. The impedance data have been quantitatively interpreted using the Mixed-Conduction Model for oxide films allowing for the estimation of certain kinetic parameters at the compact layer/electrolyte interface. The obtained results point out to the fact that the electric and electrochemical properties of the carbon steel are determined by the processes in a thin n-type semiconductor layer and at its interface with the electrolyte.

  8. Thermal performance of a photographic laboratory process: Solar Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. A.; Jensen, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal performance of a solar process hot water system is described. The system was designed to supply 22,000 liters (5,500 gallons) per day of 66 C (150 F) process water for photographic processing. The 328 sq m (3,528 sq. ft.) solar field has supplied 58% of the thermal energy for the system. Techniques used for analyzing various thermal values are given. Load and performance factors and the resulting solar contribution are discussed.

  9. Plan for fully decontaminating and decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. This volume contains the following 3 attachments: (1) Plan for Fully Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontamination and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, PA; and (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities.

  10. DIissolution of low enriched uranium from the experimental breeder reactor-II fuel stored at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-28

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively engaged in the development of electrochemical processing technology for the treatment of fast reactor fuels using irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as the primary test material. The research and development (R&D) activities generate a low enriched uranium (LEU) metal product from the electrorefining of the EBR-II fuel and the subsequent consolidation and removal of chloride salts by the cathode processor. The LEU metal ingots from past R&D activities are currently stored at INL awaiting disposition. One potential disposition pathway is the shipment of the ingots to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for dissolution in H-Canyon. Carbon steel cans containing the LEU metal would be loaded into reusable charging bundles in the H-Canyon Crane Maintenance Area and charged to the 6.4D or 6.1D dissolver. The LEU dissolution would be accomplished as the final charge in a dissolver batch (following the dissolution of multiple charges of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)). The solution would then be purified and the 235U enrichment downblended to allow use of the U in commercial reactor fuel. To support this potential disposition path, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a dissolution flowsheet for the LEU using samples of the material received from INL.

  11. Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This document describes the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South (HFEF/S). The proposed action, to modify the existing HFEF/S at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, would allow important aspects of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, offering potential advantages in nuclear safety and economics, to be demonstrated. It would support fuel cycle experiments and would supply fresh fuel to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the INEL. 35 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Laboratory investigation of the performance properties of hot mix asphalt containing waste glass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available CSIR is currently undertaking a study on potential utilization of crushed glass as a substitute material to natural aggregate in asphalt mixes. As part of the study, laboratory investigation is needed to determine the performance characteristics...

  13. Policies and practices pertaining to the selection, qualification requirements, and training programs for nuclear-reactor operating personnel at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culbert, W.H.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the policies and practices of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) regarding the selection of and training requirements for reactor operating personnel at the Laboratory's nuclear-reactor facilities. The training programs, both for initial certification and for requalification, are described and provide the guidelines for ensuring that ORNL's research reactors are operated in a safe and reliable manner by qualified personnel. This document gives an overview of the reactor facilities and addresses the various qualifications, training, testing, and requalification requirements stipulated in DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter VI (Safety of DOE-Owned Reactors); it is intended to be in compliance with this DOE Order, as applicable to ORNL facilities. Included also are examples of the documentation maintained amenable for audit.

  14. Is mudflow in Sidoarjo, East Java due to the pumping mechanism of hot air bubbles? : Laboratory simulations and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.

    2015-09-01

    Extraordinary mudflow has happened in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia since 2006. This mud comes from the giant crater that is located close to the BJP - 01. Thousands of homes have been submerged due to mudflow. Till today this giant mud crater is still has great strength despite the mud flowing over 8 years. This is a very rare phenomenon in the world. This mud flow mechanism raises big questions, because it has been going on for years, naturally the mudflow will stop by itself because the pressure should be reduced. This research evaluates all aspects of integrated observations, laboratory tests and field observations since the beginning of this ongoing mudflow. Laboratory tests were done by providing hot air bubbles into the fluid inside the inverted funnel showed that the fluid can flow with a high altitude. It is due to the mechanism of buoyant force from air bubbles to the water where the contrast density of the water and the air is quite large. Quantity of air bubbles provides direct effect to the debit of fluid flow. Direct observation in the field, in 2006 and 2007, with TIMNAS and LPPM ITB showed the large number of air bubbles on the surface of the mud craters. Temperature observation on the surface of mud crater is around 98 degree C whereas at greater depth shows the temperature is increasingly rising. This strengthens the hypothesis or proves that the mud pumping mechanism comes from buoyant force of hot air bubbles. Inversion gravity images show that the deep subsurface of main crater is close to volcanic layers or root of Arjuna mountain. Based on the simulation laboratory and field observation data, it can be concluded that the geothermal factor plays a key role in the mudflow mechanism.

  15. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  16. Carbon mass balance and microbial ecology in a laboratory scale reactor achieving simultaneous sludge reduction and nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei; Li, Liang; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Goel, Ramesh

    2014-04-15

    Solids reduction in activated sludge processes (ASP) at source using process manipulation has been researched widely over the last two-decades. However, the absence of nutrient removal component, lack of understanding on the organic carbon, and limited information on key microbial community in solids minimizing ASP preclude the widespread acceptance of sludge minimizing processes. In this manuscript, we report simultaneous solids reduction through anaerobiosis along with nitrogen and phosphorus removals. The manuscript also reports carbon mass balance using stable isotope of carbon, microbial ecology of nitrifiers and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Two laboratory scale reactors were operated in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic (A(2)O) mode. One reactor was run in the standard mode (hereafter called the control-SBR) simulating conventional A(2)O type of activated sludge process and the second reactor was run in the sludge minimizing mode (called the modified-SBR). Unlike other research efforts where the sludge minimizing reactor was maintained at nearly infinite solids retention time (SRT). To sustain the efficient nutrient removal, the modified-SBR in this research was operated at a very small solids yield rather than at infinite SRT. Both reactors showed consistent NH3-N, phosphorus and COD removals over a period of 263 days. Both reactors also showed active denitrification during the anoxic phase even if there was no organic carbon source available during this phase, suggesting the presence of denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs). The observed solids yield in the modified-SBR was 60% less than the observed solids yield in the control-SBR. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for the modified-SBR was almost 44% more than the control-SBR under identical feeding conditions, but was nearly the same for both reactors under fasting conditions. The modified-SBR showed greater diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and PAOs compared to the control-SBR. The diversity of PAOs

  17. Development of a Monolithic Research Reactor Fuel Type at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.R.; Briggs, R.J.

    2004-10-06

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been tasked with the conversion of research reactors from highly enriched to low-enriched uranium (LEU). To convert several high power reactors, monolithic fuel, a new fuel type, is being developed. This fuel type replaces the standard fuel dispersion with a fuel alloy foil, which allows for fuel densities far in excess of that found in dispersion fuel. The single-piece fuel foil also contains a significantly lower interface area between the fuel and the aluminum in the plate than the standard fuel type, limiting the amount of detrimental fuel-aluminum interaction that can occur. Implementation of monolithic fuel is dependant on the development of a suitable fabrication method as traditional roll-bonding techniques are inadequate.

  18. Facility for a Low Power Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalker, R. G.

    1949-09-14

    Preliminary investigation indicates that a reactor facility with ample research provisions for use by University or other interested groups, featuring safety in design, can be economically constructed in the Los Angeles area. The complete installation, including an underground gas-tight reactor building, with associated storage and experiment assembly building, administration offices, two general laboratory buildings, hot latoratory and lodge, can be constructed for approxinately $1,500,000. This does not include the cost of the reactor itself or of its auxiliary equipment,

  19. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  20. Deposition of hematite particles on alumina seal faceplates of nuclear reactor coolant pumps: Laboratory experiments and industrial feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefèvre Grégory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR, the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspected to be the cause. As better understanding of the adhesion mechanism is the key factor in the prevention of fouling and particle removal, an experimental study was carried out using a laboratory set-up. With model materials, hematite and sintered alumina, the adhesion rate and surface potentials of the interacting solids were measured under different chemical conditions (solution pH and composition in analogy with the PWR ones. The obtained results were in good agreement with the DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey- Overbeek theory and used as such to interpret this industrial phenomenon.

  1. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

    2013-05-01

    Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  2. Surveillance and radiological protection in the Hot Cell laboratory; Vigilancia y proteccion radiologica en el Laboratorio de Celdas Calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.M.; Torre, J. De la; Garcia C, M.A. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The Hot Cells Laboratory (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are an installation that was designed for the management at distance of 10,000 Curies of Co-60 or other radioactive materials with different values in activity. The management of such materials in the installation, implies to analyze and to determine the doses that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of protection measures and appropriate radiological safety so that is completed the specified by the ALARA concept. In this work it is carried out an evaluation of the doses to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of results is made with the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that carried out in the installation. (Author)

  3. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process.

  4. Optimisation of the hot conditioning of carbon steel surfaces of primary heat transport system of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Kumar, M.; Gaonkar, Krishna; Ghosh, Swati; Kain, Vivekanand; Bojinov, Martin; Saario, Timo

    2010-06-01

    Hot conditioning operation of the primary heat transport system is an important step prior to the commissioning of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. One of the major objectives of the operation is to develop a stable and protective magnetite layer on the inner surfaces of carbon steel piping. The correlation between stable magnetite film growth on carbon steel surfaces and the period of exposure to hot conditioning environment is generally established by a combination of weight change measurements and microscopic/morphological observations of the specimens periodically removed during the operation. In the present study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at room temperature is demonstrated as an alternate, quantitative technique to arrive at an optimal duration of the exposure period. Specimens of carbon steel were exposed for 24, 35 and 48 h during hot conditioning of primary heat transport system of two Indian PHWRs. The composition and morphology of oxide films grown during exposure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Further, ex situ electrochemical impedance spectra of magnetite films formed after each exposure were measured, in 1 ppm Li + electrolyte at room temperature as a function of potential in a range of -0.8 to +0.3 VSCE. The defect density of the magnetite films formed after each exposure was estimated by Mott-Schottky analysis of capacitances extracted from the impedance spectra. Further the ionic resistance of the oxide was also extracted from the impedance spectra. Defect density was observed to decrease with increase in exposure time and to saturate after 35 h, indicating stabilisation of the barrier layer part of the magnetite film. The values of the ionic transport resistance start to increase after 35-40 h of exposure. The quantitative ability of EIS technique to assess the film quality demonstrates that it can be used as a supplementary tool to the thickness and morphological characterizations of samples

  5. Optimisation of the hot conditioning of carbon steel surfaces of primary heat transport system of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Kumar, M., E-mail: mkiran@barc.gov.i [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Gaonkar, Krishna; Ghosh, Swati; Kain, Vivekanand [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bojinov, Martin [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Kl. Ohridski Blvd. 8, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Saario, Timo [VTT Materials and Building, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, Kemistintie 3, FIN-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    Hot conditioning operation of the primary heat transport system is an important step prior to the commissioning of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. One of the major objectives of the operation is to develop a stable and protective magnetite layer on the inner surfaces of carbon steel piping. The correlation between stable magnetite film growth on carbon steel surfaces and the period of exposure to hot conditioning environment is generally established by a combination of weight change measurements and microscopic/morphological observations of the specimens periodically removed during the operation. In the present study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at room temperature is demonstrated as an alternate, quantitative technique to arrive at an optimal duration of the exposure period. Specimens of carbon steel were exposed for 24, 35 and 48 h during hot conditioning of primary heat transport system of two Indian PHWRs. The composition and morphology of oxide films grown during exposure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Further, ex situ electrochemical impedance spectra of magnetite films formed after each exposure were measured, in 1 ppm Li{sup +} electrolyte at room temperature as a function of potential in a range of -0.8 to +0.3 V{sub SCE}. The defect density of the magnetite films formed after each exposure was estimated by Mott-Schottky analysis of capacitances extracted from the impedance spectra. Further the ionic resistance of the oxide was also extracted from the impedance spectra. Defect density was observed to decrease with increase in exposure time and to saturate after 35 h, indicating stabilisation of the barrier layer part of the magnetite film. The values of the ionic transport resistance start to increase after 35-40 h of exposure. The quantitative ability of EIS technique to assess the film quality demonstrates that it can be used as a supplementary tool to the thickness and morphological characterizations of

  6. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  7. Operating characteristic analysis of a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor in connection with a laboratory scale LCC type HVDC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to their advantages. Most line commutated converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for long-distance transmission require large inductance of DC reactor; however, generally, copper-based reactors cause a lot of electrical losses during the system operation. This is driving researchers to develop a new type of DC reactor using HTS wire. The authors have developed a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC system and applied the HTS DC reactor to the HVDC system to investigate their operating characteristics. The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor is designed using a toroid type magnet. The HVDC system is designed in the form of a mono-pole system with thyristor-based 12-pulse power converters. In this paper, the investigation results of the HTS DC reactor in connection with the HVDC system are described. The operating characteristics of the HTS DC reactor are analyzed under various operating conditions of the system. Through the results, applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is discussed in detail.

  8. Experience of steam generator tube examination in the hot laboratory of EDF: analysis of recent events concerning the secondary side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Y.; Bouvier, O. de; Boccanfuso, M.; Coquio, N.; Barbe, V.; Molinie, E. [EDF-DIN-CEIDRE (France)

    2011-07-01

    Until 2010, more than 60 steam generator (SG) tubes have been removed and analysed in the EDF hot laboratory of CEIDRE/Chinon. This article is particularly related to three recent events that lead to the extraction of several tubes dedicated to laboratory destructive examinations. The first event that constitutes a first occurrence on the EDF Park, concerns the detection of a circumferential crack on the external surface of a tube located at tube support plate elevation. After this observation, several tubes have been extracted from Bugey 3 and Fessenheim 2 nuclear power plants with steam generators equipped with 600 MA bundle. The other two events concern the consequences of chemical cleaning of the tube bundle steam generators. The examples chosen are from Cruas 4 et Chinon B2 units whose tubes were extracted following non destructive testing performed immediately after or at the completion of cycle following the chemical cleaning. In the case of Cruas 4, Eddy Current Testing (ET) were performed for requalification of steam Generators after chemical cleaning. They allowed the detection of an indication located at the bottom of tube for a large number of tubes; the ET signal was similar to that corresponding to 'deposit' corrosion. Moreover, inspections of Chinon-B2 SGs at the end of the operation cycle following the chemical cleaning, showed the presence of conductor deposits at the bottom of some tubes. The first part of this document presents the major results of laboratory examinations of the pulled tubes of Bugey 3 and Fessenheim 2 and their analysis. Hypothesis concerning damage mechanisms of the tubes are also proposed. The second part of the paper relates the results of the laboratory examinations of the pulled tubes of Cruas 4 and Chinon B 2 after chemical cleaning and their analysis. (authors)

  9. Effect of hot vapor filtration on the characterization of bio-oil from rice husks with fast pyrolysis in a fluidized-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianju; Wu, Ceng; Liu, Ronghou; Fei, Wenting; Liu, Shiyu

    2011-05-01

    To produce high quality bio-oil from biomass using fast pyrolysis, rice husks were pyrolyzed in a 1-5 kg/h bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The effect of hot vapor filtration (HVF) was investigated to filter the solid particles and bio-char. The results showed that the total bio-oil yield decreased from 41.7% to 39.5% by weight and the bio-oil had a higher water content, higher pH, and lower alkali metal content when using HVF. One hundred and twelve different chemical compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The molecular weight of the chemical compounds from the condenser and the EP when the cyclone was coupled with HVF in the separation system decreased compared with those from the condenser and EP when only cyclone was used.

  10. Transport, deposition, and liftoff in laboratory density currents composed of hot particles in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of transport, deposition, and air entrainment in pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is required for accurate predictions of future current behaviors and interpretations of ancient deposits, but directly observing the interiors of natural PDCs is effectively impossible. We model PDCs with scaled, hot, particle-laden density currents generated in a 6 m long, 0.6 m wide, 1.8 m tall air-filled tank. Comparison of relevant scaling between our experiments and natural PDCs indicates that we are accurately capturing much of the dynamics of dilute PDCs: * Reynolds numbers of our experiments are lower than natural currents, 10^3 compared to 10^6, but still fully turbulent; * Densimetric and Thermal Richardson numbers are of O(1) in both natural and modeled currents; * Stokes and settling numbers for particles in the experiments fall within the expected range for natural PDCs. Conditions within the tank are monitored with temperature and humidity probes. Experiments are illuminated with sheet lighting, and recorded with high-definition video cameras. In general, currents have average velocities of 10-20 cm/s, initial thicknesses of 10-20 cm (although thickness greatly increases as currents entrain and expand air), and run out or lift off distances of 3-5 m. Large Kelvin-Helmholtz type eddies usually form along the top of the current immediately behind the head; these vortices are similar in size to the total current thickness. In currents that lift off, the distal current end typically retreats with time. Preliminary results suggest that lift off distance decreases with increasing thermal Richardson number. Analysis of turbulent structures indicates that the current heads are dominated by large coherent structures with length scales, L, comparable to the current thickness. Within 5-10 L of the current fronts, sequences of similar large eddies often occur. At greater distances behind the current fronts, turbulent structures become smaller and less

  11. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James; Bayless, Paul; Strydom, Gerhard; Kumar, Akansha; Gougar, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis is an indispensable element of any substantial attempt in reactor simulation validation. The quantification of uncertainties in nuclear engineering has grown more important and the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) initiated in 2012 aims to investigate the various uncertainty quantification methodologies for this type of reactors. The first phase of the CRP is dedicated to the estimation of cell and lattice model uncertainties due to the neutron cross sections co-variances. Phase II is oriented towards the investigation of propagated uncertainties from the lattice to the coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics core calculations. Nominal results for the prismatic single block (Ex.I-2a) and super cell models (Ex.I-2c) have been obtained using the SCALE 6.1.3 two-dimensional lattice code NEWT coupled to the TRITON sequence for cross section generation. In this work, the TRITON/NEWT-flux-weighted cross sections obtained for Ex.I-2a and various models of Ex.I-2c is utilized to perform a sensitivity analysis of the MHTGR-350 core power densities and eigenvalues. The core solutions are obtained with the INL coupled code PHISICS/RELAP5-3D, utilizing a fixed-temperature feedback for Ex. II-1a.. It is observed that the core power density does not vary significantly in shape, but the magnitude of these variations increases as the moderator-to-fuel ratio increases in the super cell lattice models.

  12. Laboratory and field evaluation of hot mix asphalt with high contents of reclaimed asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Clinton Isaac

    Currently in Iowa, the amount of RAP materials allowed for the surface layer is limited to 15% by weight. The objective of this project was to develop quality standards for inclusion of RAP content higher than 15% in asphalt mixtures. To meet Superpave mix design requirements, it was necessary to fractionate the RAP materials. Based on the extensive sieve-by-sieve analysis of RAP materials, the optimum sieve size to fractionate RAP materials was identified. To determine if the higher percentage of RAP materials than 15% can be used in Iowa's state highway, three test sections with 30.0%, 35.5% and 39.2% of RAP materials were constructed on Highway 6 in Iowa City. The construction of the field test sections was monitored and the cores were obtained to measure field densities of test sections. Field mixtures collected from test sections were compacted in the laboratory in order to test the moisture sensitivity using a Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device. The binder was extracted from the field mixtures with varying amounts of RAP materials and tested to determine the effects of RAP materials on the PG grade of a virgin binder. Field cores were taken from the various mix designs to determine the percent density of each test section. A condition survey of the test sections was then performed to evaluate the short-term performance.

  13. Catchments as heterogeneous and multi-species reactors: An integral approach for identifying biogeochemical hot-spots at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Christina; Peiffer, Stefan; Schulze, Kerstin; Borken, Werner; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2014-11-01

    From a biogeochemical perspective, catchments can be regarded as reactors that transform the input of various substances via precipitation or deposition as they pass through soils and aquifers towards draining streams. Understanding and modeling the variability of solute concentrations in catchment waters require the identification of the prevailing processes, determining their respective contribution to the observed transformation of substances, and the localization of "hot spots", that is, the most reactive areas of catchments. For this study, we applied a non-linear variant of the Principle Component Analysis, the Isometric Feature Mapping (Isomap), to a data set composed of 1686 soil solution, groundwater and stream water samples and 16 variables (Al, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4, NO3, SO4, total S, Si, DOC, electric conductivity and pH values) from the Lehstenbach catchment in Germany. The aim was (i) to assess the contribution of the prevailing biogeochemical processes to the variability of solute concentrations in water samples taken from soils, in groundwater and in stream water in a catchment and (ii) to identify hot spots at the catchment scale with respect to 16 solutes along different flow paths. The first three dimensions of the Isomap analysis explained 48%, 30% and 11%, respectively, i.e. 89% of the variance in the data set. Scores of the first three dimensions could be ascribed to three predominating bundles of biogeochemical processes: (i) redox processes, (ii) acid-induced podzolization, and (iii) weathering processes. In general, the upper 1 m topsoil layer could be considered as hot spots along flow paths from upslope soils and in the wetland, although with varying extents for the different prevailing biogeochemical processes. Nearly 67% and 97% of the variance with respect to redox processes and acid induced podzolization could be traced back to hot spots, respectively, representing less than 2% of the total spatial volume of the catchment

  14. Two-phase flow experiments on Counter-Current Flow Limitation in a model of the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor (2015 test series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Matthias; Lucas, Dirk; Pietruske, Heiko; Szalinski, Lutz

    2016-12-15

    Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) is of importance for PWR safety analyses in several accident scenarios connected with loss of coolant. Basing on the experiences obtained during a first series of hot leg tests now new experiments on counter-current flow limitation were conducted in the TOPFLOW pressure vessel. The test series comprises air-water tests at 1 and 2 bar as well as steam-water tests at 10, 25 and 50 bar. During the experiments the flow structure was observed along the hot leg model using a high-speed camera and web-cams. In addition pressure was measured at several positions along the horizontal part and the water levels in the reactor-simulator and steam-generator-simulator tanks were determined. This report documents the experimental setup including the description of operational and special measuring techniques, the experimental procedure and the data obtained. From these data flooding curves were obtained basing on the Wallis parameter. The results show a slight shift of the curves in dependency of the pressure. In addition a slight decrease of the slope was found with increasing pressure. Additional investigations concern the effects of hysteresis and the frequencies of liquid slugs. The latter ones show a dependency on pressure and the mass flow rate of the injected water. The data are available for CFD-model development and validation.

  15. Unexpected Stability of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes Communities in Laboratory Biogas Reactors Fed with Different Defined Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratering, S.; Kramer, I.; Schmidt, M.; Zerr, W.; Schnell, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, bacterial communities in 200-liter biogas reactors containing liquid manure consecutively fed with casein, starch, and cream were investigated over a period of up to 33 days. A 16S rRNA gene clone library identified Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as the most abundant bacterial groups in the starting material, at 58.9% and 30.1% of sequences, respectively. The community development of both groups was monitored by real-time PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes communities were unexpectedly stable and hardly influenced by batch-feeding events. The continuous feeding of starch led to community shifts that nevertheless contributed to a stable reactor performance. A longer starving period and a change in the pH value resulted in further community shifts within the Bacteroidetes but did not influence the Firmicutes. Predominant DNA bands from SSCP gels were cloned and sequenced. Sequences related to Peptococcaceae, Cytophagales, and Petrimonas sulfuriphila were found in all samples from all experiments. Real-time PCR demonstrated the abundance of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes and also reflected changes in gene copy numbers in conjunction with a changing pH value and acetate accumulation. PMID:22247168

  16. Laboratory Experiments and Modeling for Interpreting Field Studies of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Using an Oxidation Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This grant was originally funded for deployment of a suite of aerosol instrumentation by our group in collaboration with other research groups and DOE/ARM to the Ganges Valley in India (GVAX) to study aerosols sources and processing. Much of the first year of this grant was focused on preparations for GVAX. That campaign was cancelled due to political reasons and with the consultation with our program manager, the research of this grant was refocused to study the applications of oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) for investigating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic aerosol (OA) processing in the field and laboratory through a series of laboratory and modeling studies. We developed a gas-phase photochemical model of an OFR which was used to 1) explore the sensitivities of key output variables (e.g., OH exposure, O3, HO2/OH) to controlling factors (e.g., water vapor, external reactivity, UV irradiation), 2) develop simplified OH exposure estimation equations, 3) investigate under what conditions non-OH chemistry may be important, and 4) help guide design of future experiments to avoid conditions with undesired chemistry for a wide range of conditions applicable to the ambient, laboratory, and source studies. Uncertainties in the model were quantified and modeled OH exposure was compared to tracer decay measurements of OH exposure in the lab and field. Laboratory studies using OFRs were conducted to explore aerosol yields and composition from anthropogenic and biogenic VOC as well as crude oil evaporates. Various aspects of the modeling and laboratory results and tools were applied to interpretation of ambient and source measurements using OFR. Additionally, novel measurement methods were used to study gas/particle partitioning. The research conducted was highly successful and details of the key results are summarized in this report through narrative text, figures, and a complete list of publications acknowledging this grant.

  17. Transformation of pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles in a laboratory-scale activated sludge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Lauren E; Auffan, Melanie; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Santaella, Catherine; Masion, Armand; Borschneck, Daniel; Olivi, Luca; Roche, Nicolas; Wiesner, Mark R; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used to enhance the properties of many manufactured products and technologies. Increased use of ENMs will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. An important route of exposure is through the waste stream, where ENMs will enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), undergo transformations, and be discharged with treated effluent or biosolids. To better understand the fate of a common ENM in WWTPs, experiments with laboratory-scale activated sludge reactors and pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were conducted. Greater than 90% of the CeO2 introduced was observed to associate with biosolids. This association was accompanied by reduction of the Ce(IV) NPs to Ce(III). After 5 weeks in the reactor, 44 ± 4% reduction was observed for the pristine NPs and 31 ± 3% for the citrate-functionalized NPs, illustrating surface functionality dependence. Thermodynamic arguments suggest that the likely Ce(III) phase generated would be Ce2S3. This study indicates that the majority of CeO2 NPs (>90% by mass) entering WWTPs will be associated with the solid phase, and a significant portion will be present as Ce(III). At maximum, 10% of the CeO2 will remain in the effluent and be discharged as a Ce(IV) phase, governed by cerianite (CeO2).

  18. Assessment of released heavy metals from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) existing in shipwrecks through laboratory-scale simulation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Stylianos, Michailakis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2013-04-15

    In a passenger ship, the existence of EEE is obvious. In time, under shipwreck's conditions, all these materials will undergo an accelerated severe corrosion, due to salt water, releasing, consequently, heavy metals and other hazardous substances in the aquatic environment. In this study, a laboratory-scale reactor was manufactured in order to simulate the conditions under which the "Sea Diamond" shipwreck lies (14 bars of pressure and 16°C of temperature) and remotely observe and assess any heavy metal release that would occur, from part of the EEE present in the ship, into the sea. Ten metals were examined and the results showed that zinc, mercury and copper were abundant in the water samples taken from the reactor and in significantly higher concentrations compared to the US EPA CMC (criterion maximum concentration) criterion. Moreover, nickel and lead were found in concentrations higher than the CCC (criterion constant concentration) criterion set by the US EPA for clean seawater. The rest of the elements were measured in concentrations within the permissible limits. It is therefore of environmental benefit to salvage the wreck and recycle all the WEEE found in it.

  19. Research and development program for PWR safety at the CEA reactor thermal hydraulics laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, M. [CEA, Grenoble (France)

    1995-04-15

    Since the start of the French electronuclear program, the three partners Fermate, EDF and Cea (DRN and IPSN) have devoted considerable effort to research and development for safety issues. In particular an important program on thermal hydraulics was initiated at the beginning of the seventies. It is illustrated by the development of the CATHARE thermalhydraulic safety code which includes physical models derived from a large experimental support program and the construction of the BETHSY integral facility which is aimed to assess both the CATHARE code and the physical relevance of the accident management procedures to be applied on reactors. The state of the art on this program is described with particular emphasis on the capabilities and the assessment of the last version of CATHARE and the lessons drawn from 50 BETHSY tests performed so far. The future plans for safety research cover the following strategy: - to solve the few problems identified on present computing tools and extend the assessment - to solve the few problems identified on present computing tools and extend the assessment - to perform safety studies on the basis of plant operation feedback - to contribute to treating the safety issues related to the future reactors and in particular the case of severe accidents which have to be taken into account from the design stage. The program on severe accidents is aimed to support the design studies performed by the industrial partners and to provide computing tools which model the various phases of severe accidents and will be validated on experiments performed with real and simulating materials. The main lines of the program are: - the development of the TOLBIAC 3D code for the thermal hydraulics of core melt pools, which will be validated against the Bali experiment presently under construction - the Sultan experiment, to study the capability of cooling by external flooding of the reactor vessel - the development of the MC-3D code for core melt

  20. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluska Jacek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  1. Reactor pressure vessel integrity research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, W.R.; Pennell, W.E.; Pace, J.V.

    1995-12-31

    Maintaining the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant is crucial in preventing and controlling severe accidents that have the potential for major contamination release. The RPV is the only key safety-related component of the plant for which a duplicate or redundant backup system does not exist. It is therefore imperative to understand and be able to predict the integrity inherent in the RPV. For this reason, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the related research programs at ORNL described herein to provide for the development and confirmation of the methods used for: (1) establishing the irradiation exposure conditions within the RPV in the Embrittlement Data Base and Dosimetry Evaluation Program, (2) assessing the effects of irradiation on the RPV materials in the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program, and (3) developing overall structural and fracture analyses of RPVs in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program.

  2. Effect of microstructure of carbon steel on magnetite formation in simulated Hot Conditioning environment of nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Prafful Kumar, E-mail: prafful@barc.gov.in; Kiran Kumar, M.; Kain, Vivekanand

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Heat treatments used to tailor microstructure of a low and a high carbon steel. • Oxide growth rates established in Hot Conditioning simulated environment. • Only magnetite formed on all microstructural conditions of both the steels. • Growth rate was higher for all microstructures of high carbon steel upto 72 h. • After 72 h growth rate stabilized in narrow band for all microstructures of a steel. - Abstract: The objective of present investigation is to establish the role of starting microstructure of carbon steel on the magnetite formation behaviour in Hot Conditioning simulated environment. Two grades of carbon steel (low and high carbon) were subjected to selective heat-treatments to generate different microstructures: martensite, tempered martensite and modified ferrite–pearlite. Oxidation was carried out in lithiated water of pH 10–10.2 in a static autoclave at 270 °C. The results of the investigation clearly establish that: (a) high carbon steel (0.63% C) showed a relatively higher rate of oxidation over the low carbon (0.08% C) grade at all the test durations and (b) the oxidation rates for both the grades were sensitive to microstructural differences at initial stages of oxidation while the differences narrowed down after 72 h of exposure. The oxide formed was established to be magnetite on all the specimens.

  3. Simulation of A Main Steam Line Break Accident Using the Coupled 'System Thermal-Hydraulics, 3D reactor Kinetics, and Hot Channel' Analysis Capability of MARS 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Jun; Chung, Bub Dong

    2005-09-15

    For realistic analysis of thermal-hydraulics (T-H) transients in light water reactors, KAERI has developed the best-estimate T-H system code, MARS. The code has been improved from the consolidated version of the RELAP5/MOD3 and COBRA-TF codes. Then, the MARS code was coupled with a three-dimensional (3-D) reactor kinetics code, MASTER. This coupled calculation feature, in conjunction with the existing hot channel analysis capabilities of the MARS and MASTER codes, allows for more realistic simulations of nuclear system transients. In this work, a main steam line break (MSLB) accident is simulated using the coupled 'system T-H, 3-D reactor kinetics, and hot channel analysis' feature of the MARS code. Two coupled calculations are performed for demonstration. First, a coupled calculation of the 'system T-H and 3-D reactor kinetics' with a refined core T-H nodalization is carried out to obtain global core power and local departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) ratio (DNBR) behaviors. Next, for a more accurate DNBR prediction, another coupled calculation with subchannel meshes for the hot channels is performed. The results of the coupled calculations are very reasonable and consistent so that these can be used to remove the excessive conservatism in the conventional safety analysis.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  5. Reduction of ANGRA{sub 1} reactor hot leg temperature: neutronic, operational and safety evaluation; Reducao da temperatura das pernas quentes de Angra-1: avaliacao neutronica, operacional e de seguranca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponzoni Filho, Pedro; Sato, Sadakatu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Fundacao Universitaria Jose Bonifacio

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the reduction of Angra 1 NPP hot leg temperature (T{sub hot}) is to reduce the potential for the initiation and propagation of primary water stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in steam generator (SG) tubes. Many nuclear power plants are operating with reduced T{sub hot} because it has been demonstrated that SG tubes SCC is associated with increased water temperature. This paper is a summary of a full design, made of 6 tasks: determination of new primary thermodynamic parameters; calculation of nuclear parameters that are used as input in accident and transient analysis, for reduced T{sub hot}; safety evaluation of all accidents and transients of Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR); safety evaluation of other transients; plant operation evaluation and reactor Protection System evaluation. The goals and conclusions of the full design are provided in this paper. (author)

  6. Biofouling on mortar mixed with steel slags in a laboratory biofilm reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, K.; Masuda, T.; Kanematsu, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Hirai, N.; Ogawa, A.; Kougo, T.; Yamazaki, K.; Tanaka, T.

    2017-01-01

    The slag produced as by-product in steel-making processes is utilized for various purpose due to its special qualities. Bacteria or other microorganisms generally form the biofilm. They are formed at the interface between materials and water environment by the action of bacteria. Biofilm can cause various problems. Therefore, the control of biofilm formation is needed. In this study, we focused on the application of slag to marine environments and carried out a research on biofouling of mortars mixed with various iron/steel slags through marine immersion and laboratory scale experiments. In this research, we dealt with various mortars. In some cases, iron/steel slags were mixed into mortars. In the laboratory scale research, we observed biofilm formation at the surfaces of sample specimens. As for marine immersion, we carried out the field experiments in summer and winter. Both results were compared. As for laboratory scale experiment, the tap water and artificial sea-water were used. And after the immersion, the specimens were measured and observed by a low vacuum SEM-EDX and the anti-fouling properties were analyzed and discussed. From these results, we confirmed that the biofouling became remarkable with the dissolved iron. Therefore, biofilm formation can be controlled by the concentration of iron/steel slags.

  7. Review of Transient Fuel Test Results at Sandia National Laboratories and the Potential for Future Fast Reactor Fuel Transient Testing in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A.; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Kelly, John; Tikare, Veena [Sandia National Laboratories, Org 6872 MS-1146, PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Reactor driven transient tests of fast reactor fuels may be required to support the development and certification of new fuels for Fast Reactors. The results of the transient fuel tests will likely be needed to support licensing and to provide validation data to support the safety case for a variety of proposed fast fuel types and reactors. In general reactor driven transient tests are used to identify basic phenomenology during reactor transients and to determine the fuel performance limits and margins to failure during design basis accidents such as loss of flow, loss of heat sink, and reactivity insertion accidents. This paper provides a summary description of the previous Sandia Fuel Disruption and Transient Axial Relocation tests that were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission almost 25 years ago. These tests consisted of a number of capsule tests and flowing gas tests that used fission heating to disrupt fresh and irradiated MOX fuel. The behavior of the fuel disruption, the generation of aerosols and the melting and relocation of fuel and cladding was recorded on high speed cinematography. This paper will present videos of the fuel disruption that was observed in these tests which reveal stark differences in fuel behavior between fresh and irradiated fuel. Even though these tests were performed over 25 years ago, their results are still relevant to today's reactor designs. These types of transient tests are again being considered by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to support the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership because of the need to perform tests on metal fuels and transuranic fuels. Because the Annular Core Research Reactor is the only transient test facility available within the US, a brief summary of Sandia's continued capability to perform these tests in the ACRR will also be provided. (authors)

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory report on fusion reactor technology, April 1976 - June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-07-01

    This quarterly report consists of progress summaries of research conducted by the staff of Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). This reporting period includes progress made from April 1, 1976 through June 30, 1976. The summaries are presented in four major categories of: (1) fusion systems engineering, (2) material research and radiation environment simulation, (3) environmental effects of fusion concepts, and (4) manpower development. At the beginning of each section is a brief summary of the reports making up the section. The reports themselves have been kept relatively short and include preliminary results which ultimately are expected to be published elsewhere.

  9. The effect of C/N ratio on ammonia oxidising bacteria community structure in a laboratory nitrification-denitrification reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, S J; Head, I M; Curtis, T P; Godley, A R

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory scale reactor operated as a single sludge, denitrification-nitrification bioreactor (DNB), was fed a synthetic wastewater. The effect of the C/N ratio of the influent on the structure of beta-proteobacterial autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) communities was determined by DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified using a range of AOB-selective primers. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was used to determine quantitative changes in the AOB communities. When operated at a C/N ratio of 2 the DNB was effective in nitrogen removal and nitrification was measured at approximately 1.0 mg NH4+-N/g dry wt/h. Altering the C/N ratio to 5 resulted in a 50% reduction in nitrification rates. Nitrification was restored to its original level when the C/N ratio was returned to 2. AOB were detected by DGGE analysis of samples from the DNB under all operating conditions but the changes in C/N ratio and nitrification rates were accompanied by changes in the community structure of the AOB. However, quantitative FISH analysis indicated that beta-proteobacterial AOB were only present in high numbers (ca. 10(8) cells/ml) under the original operating conditions with a C/N ratio of 2. Beta-proteobacterial AOB could not be detected by FISH when the C/N ratio was 5. When nitrification activity was restored by returning the C/N ratio to 2, beta-proteobacterial AOB were still not detected and it is likely that either beta-proteobacterial AOB were not responsible for ammonia oxidation or that beta-proteobacterial AOB that did not contain the target sites for the range of 4 AOB selective probes used, were present in the reactor.

  10. Supplemental specifications of laboratory hot press process -- For CV size self-supported I&E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.A.; Schweikhardt, G.M.

    1964-06-01

    Some refinements have been introduced into the hot press canning of internally and externally cooled fuel elements. This report outlines the specifications for the process including these refinements. Specifications cover components, dies, and punches, furnace condition, nickel plating, component cleaning, component assembly, sizing, hot pressing and inspection.

  11. Specifications: Laboratory hot press process for {open_quotes}C{close_quotes}size I & E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverberg, J.C.

    1959-09-25

    Hot press canning of internally and externally cooled fuel elements has been developed to a point where the process is feasible. Complete specifications have been written for the process covering component, dies and punches, furnace construction, nickel plating, component cleaning, component assembly, sizing, hot pressing and inspection. Drawings covering each major item are included.

  12. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  13. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  14. Efficacy of commercial products in enhancing oil biodegradation in closed laboratory reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Nisamaneepong, W.; Govind, R.; Pradhan, S.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory screening protocol was designed and conducted to test the efficacy of 8 commercial allochthonous bacterial cultures and 2 non-bacterial products in enhancing the biodegradation of weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil in closed flasks. Three lines of evidence were used to support the decision to progress to field testing in Prince William Sound: rapid onset and high rate of oxygen uptake, substantial growth of oil degraders, and significant degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of the weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil. A product had to enhance biodegradation greater than that achieved with excess mineral nutrients. Experiments were conducted in closed respirometer flasks and shake flasks, using actual seawater from Prince William Sound and weathered crude oil from a contaminated beach. Analysis of the data resulted in the selection of 2 of the 10 products for field testing. Both were bacterial products. Findings suggested that the indigenous Alaskan microorganisms were primarily responsible for the biodegradation in the closed flasks and respirometer vessels.

  15. 2016 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2015–October 31, 2016. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019. This report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Permit required groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2016 permit year, 180.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Ponds. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest in well USGS-065, which is the closest downgradient well to the Cold Waste Ponds. Sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations decrease rapidly as the distance downgradient from the Cold Waste Ponds increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are significantly higher in well USGS-065 than in the other monitoring wells, both parameters remained below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in well USGS-065. The facility was in compliance with the Reuse Permit during the 2016 permit year.

  16. Health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment remediation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Uziel, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of the policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  17. New concepts for shaftless recycle reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.; Berty, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Berty Reaction Engineers, Ltd. (BREL) is developing two new laboratory recycle reactors, the ROTOBERTY and the TURBOBERTY. These new reactors are basically improved versions of the original Berty reactor. To understand why the reactors have the features that they do, it is first necessary to briefly review laboratory reactors in general and specifically the original Berty reactor.

  18. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  19. Deposition of hematite particles on alumina seal faceplates of nuclear reactor coolant pumps: Laboratory experiments and industrial feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre Grégory; Živković Ljiljana S.; Jaubertie Anne

    2012-01-01

    In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR), the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspec...

  20. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 “flux traps” (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loop’s temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation.

  1. The CG-1D Neutron Imaging Beamline at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santodonato, Lou; Bilheux, Hassina; Bailey, Barton; Bilheux, Jean; Nguyen, Phong; Tremsin, Anton; Selby, Doug; Walker, Lakeisha

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Neutron Sciences Directorate has installed a neutron imaging beamline at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cold guide hall. CG-1D is one of the three instruments that make up the CG1 instrument suite. The beamline optics and detector have recently been upgraded to meet the needs of the neutron imaging community (better "smoothing" of guide system artifacts, higher flux or spatial resolution). These upgrades comprise a new diffuser/aperture system, two new detectors, a He-filled flight tube and silicon (Si) windows. Shielding inside the flight tube, beam scrapers and a beam stop ensure that biological dose is less than 50 μSv/hr outside of the radiation boundary. A set of diffusers and apertures (pinhole geometry) has been installed at the exit of the guide system to allow motorized L/D variation. Samples sit on a translation/rotation stage for alignment and tomography purposes. Detectors for the CG-1D beamline are (1) an ANDOR DW936 charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a field of view of approximately 7 cm x 7 cm and ∼ 80 microns spatial resolution and 1 frame per second time resolution, (2) a new Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detector with a 2.8 cm x 2.8 cm field of view and 55 microns spatial resolution, and 5 μs timing capability. 6LiF/ZnS scintillators of thickness varying from 50 to 200 microns are being used at this facility. An overview of the beamline upgrade and preliminary data is presented here.

  2. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  3. Laboratory and Performance Studies of Anti-wear Coatings Deposited on Nitrided Surfaces of Tools used in an Industrial Hot Die Forging Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, Marek; Widomski, Paweł; Smolik, Jerzy; Kaszuba, Marcin; Ziemba, Jacek; Gronostajski, Zbigniew

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory studies performed on produced anti-wear coatings as well as the results of performance tests conducted on tools with these coatings in industrial conditions, in the process of hot die forging. Three different coatings were selected: AlCrTiSiN, Cr/CrN and AlCrTiN, deposited by means of the vacuum-arc method on test samples as well as forging tools used in the hot forging process of a lid. The first part of the paper discusses the results of the studies performed in laboratory conditions, which included: surface morphology by means of SEM, hardness and Young modulus measurements, determination of the chemical composition by means of the EDS method, adhesion tests by means of the scratch method and tribological tests by means of the ball-on-disk method. The obtained results were correlated and applied in the analysis of the performance tests on forging punches with these coatings at an early stage of their performance (up to 4000 produced forgings), which were tested on 19 tools, of which 3 representatives were selected for each coating. A thorough analysis was performed of the wear phenomena and mechanisms and the manner of wear of hybrid layers as well as their resistance to the particular destructive mechanisms. Based on the performed laboratory and performance studies as well as their analysis, it was possible to select the optimal hybrid layer, which enables an increase in the durability of forging tools used in industrial hot die forging processes. The preliminary results showed that the best results for the whole working surface of the tool were obtained for the Cr/CrN layer, which characterizes in high adhesion as well as a lower Young modulus and hardness. In the case of high pressures and the correlated friction, better results were obtained for the AlCrTiN coating, which, besides its good adhesion properties, also exhibited the highest frictional resistance.

  4. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells; Construccion de un electrodo externo para determinacion del potencial de corrosion electroquimico en condiciones normales de operacion de un reactor tipo BWR para celdas calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R. [Departamento de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm{sup 2}, to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  5. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEIDEL CM; JAIN J; OWENS JW

    2009-02-23

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  6. Bacterial Community and “Candidatus Accumulibacter” Population Dynamics in Laboratory-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Reactors ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaomei; Bishop, Forrest I.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2010-01-01

    “Candidatus Accumulibacter” and total bacterial community dynamics were studied in two lab-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) reactors by using a community fingerprint technique, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). We first evaluated the quantitative capability of ARISA compared to quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). ARISA and qPCR provided comparable relative quantification of the two dominant “Ca. Accumulibacter” clades (IA and IIA) detected in our reactors. The quantification of total “Ca. Accumulibacter” 16S rRNA genes relative to that from the total bacterial community was highly correlated, with ARISA systematically underestimating “Ca. Accumulibacter” abundance, probably due to the different normalization techniques applied. During 6 months of normal (undisturbed) operation, the distribution of the two clades within the total “Ca. Accumulibacter” population was quite stable in one reactor while comparatively dynamic in the other reactor. However, the variance in the clade distribution did not appear to affect reactor performance. Instead, good EBPR activity was positively associated with the abundance of total “Ca. Accumulibacter.” Therefore, we concluded that the different clades in the system provided functional redundancy. We disturbed the reactor operation by adding nitrate together with acetate feeding in the anaerobic phase to reach initial reactor concentrations of 10 mg/liter NO3-N for 35 days. The reactor performance deteriorated with a concomitant decrease in the total “Ca. Accumulibacter” population, suggesting that a population shift was the cause of performance upset after a long exposure to nitrate in the anaerobic phase. PMID:20601516

  7. Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laing, W.R.; Corbin, L.T.

    1979-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory was completed 15 years ago and has been used since as an analytical chemistry support lab for reactor, fuel development, and reprocessing programs. Additions have been made to the building on two occasions, and a third addition is planned for the future. Major maintenance items include replacement of ZnBr/sub 2/ windows, cleanup of lead glass windows, and servicing of the intercell conveyor. An upgrading program, now in progress, includes construction of new hot-cell instrumentation and the installation of new equipment such as an x-ray fluorescence analyzer and a spark source mass spectrometer.

  8. The transesterification of rapeseed and waste sunflower oils: Mass-transfer and kinetics in a laboratory batch reactor and in an industrial-scale reactor/separator setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofutar, B; Golob, J; Likozar, B; Klofutar, C; Zagar, E; Poljansek, I

    2010-05-01

    We have investigated the transesterification of rapeseed (RO) and waste sunflower (SO) oils with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The transesterification of tri-acylglycerols was first conducted in a batch reactor. The effect of the temperature on the reaction rates was studied at a constant molar ratio of the alcohol to tri-acylglycerols (6:1) and for a constant concentration of the catalyst (1.0wt%). Size-exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR spectroscopy were used to quantitatively monitor the transesterification reaction. The mass-transfer coefficients of the tri-acylglycerols during the initial transesterification stage were found to be 0.2-1.2x10(-5)mmin(-1), depending on the type of oil and the temperature. Calculated activation energies implied that at higher temperatures the formation of mono-acylglycerols and glycerole was favored for the SO (93kJ/mol for the forward and 48kJ/mol for the backward reaction) and the RO (47kJ/mol for the forward and 36kJ/mol for the backward reaction), respectively. For the continuous industrial reactor/separator setup, the optimum methanol recycle ratio was established as 0.0550.

  9. NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY (NRAD) REACTOR 64-ELEMENT CORE UPGRADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA (registered) (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The interim critical configuration developed during the core upgrade, which contains only 62 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The final 64-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (approximately +/-1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  10. Quantification method of N2O emission from full-scale biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plant by laboratory batch reactor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yesul; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a simplified method for the quantification of N2O emission from a biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The method incorporates a laboratory-scale batch reactor which had almost the same operational (wastewater and sludge flow rates) condition of a unit operation/process of the WWTP. Cumulative N2O emissions from the batch reactor at the corresponding hydraulic retention times of the full-scale units (primary and secondary clarifiers, pre-anoxic, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic basins) were used for the quantification of N2O emission. The analysis showed that the aerobic basin emitted 95% of the total emission and the emission factor (yield) reached 0.8% based on the influent nitrogen load. The method successfully estimated N2O emission from the WWTP and it has shown advantages in measurement time and cost over the direct field measurement (floating chamber) method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Closed-loop biomass co-firing in a laboratory reactor and in a full-scale boiler.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Bryan M. (University of California, Davis, CA); Williams, Robert B. (University of California, Davis, CA); Turn, Scott Q. (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute.); Jakeway, Lee A. (Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company); Blevins, Linda Gail

    2004-05-01

    Co-firing tests were conducted in a pilot-scale reactor at Sandia National Laboratories and in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Combustion tests were performed in the Sandia Multi-Fuel Combustor using Australian coal, whole fiber cane including tops and leaves processed at three different levels (milled only, milled and leached, and milled followed by leaching and subsequent milling), and fiber cane stripped of its tops and leaves and heavily processed through subsequent milling, leaching, and milling cycles. Testing was performed for pure fuels and for biomass co-firing with the coal at levels of 30% and 70% by mass. The laboratory tests revealed the following information: (1) The biomass fuels convert their native nitrogen into NO more efficiently than coal because of higher volatile content and more reactive nitrogen complexes. (2) Adding coal to whole fiber cane to reduce its tendency to form deposits should not adversely affect NO emissions. ( 3 ) Stripped cane does not offer a NO advantage over whole cane when co-fired with coal. During the field test, Sandia measured 0 2 , C02, CO, SO2, and NO concentrations in the stack and gas velocities near the superheater. Gas concentrations and velocities fluctuated more during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The mean 0 2 concentration was lower and the mean C02 concentration was higher during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. When normalized to a constant exhaust 0 2 concentration, mean CO concentration was higher and mean NO concentration was lower for biomass co-firing than for coal. The SO2 concentration tracked the use of Bunker C fuel oil. When normalized by the amount of boiler energy input, the amounts of NO and SO2 formed were lower during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The difference between NOx trends in the lab and in the field are most likely a result of less effective heat and mass transfer in the boiler. Particles were

  12. Review of the International Atomic Energy Agency International database on reactor pressure vessel materials and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Oak Ridge National Laboratory embrittlement data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.A.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1998-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has supported neutron radiation effects information exchange through meetings and conferences since the mid-1960s. Through an International Working Group on Reliability of Reactor Pressure Components, information exchange and research activities were fostered through the Coordinated Research Program (CRP) sponsored by the IAEA. The final CRP meeting was held in November 1993, where it was recommended that the IAEA coordinate the development of an International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (IDRPVM) as the first step in generating an International Database on Aging Management. The purpose of this study was to provide special technical assistance to the NRC in monitoring and evaluating the IAEA activities in developing the IAEA IDRPVM, and to compare the IDRPVM with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) and provide recommendations for improving the PR-EDB. A first test version of the IDRPVM was distributed at the First Meeting of Liaison Officers to the IAEA IDRPVM, in November 1996. No power reactor surveillance data were included in this version; the testing data were mainly from CRP Phase III data. Therefore, because of insufficient data and a lack of power reactor surveillance data received from the IAEA IDRPVM, the comparison is made based only on the structure of the IDRPVM. In general, the IDRPVM and the EDB have very similar data structure and data format. One anticipates that because the IDRPVM data will be collected from so many different sources, quality assurance of the data will be a difficult task. The consistency of experimental test results will be an important issue. A very wide spectrum of material characteristics of RPV steels and irradiation environments exists among the various countries. Hence the development of embrittlement prediction models will be a formidable task. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Inter-comparison of laboratory smog chamber and flow reactor systems on organic aerosol yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bruns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of tools are used to simulate atmospheric aging, including smog chambers and flow reactors. Traditional, large-scale smog chambers age emissions over the course of hours to days, whereas flow reactors rapidly age emissions using high oxidant concentrations to reach higher degrees of oxygenation than typically attained in smog chamber experiments. The atmospheric relevance of the products generated under such rapid oxidation warrants further study. However, no previously published studies have compared the yields and chemical composition of products generated in flow reactors and smog chambers from the same starting mixture. The yields and composition of the organic aerosol formed from the photo-oxidation of α-pinene and of wood combustion emissions were determined using aerosol mass spectrometry in a smog chamber (SC and two flow reactors: a potential aerosol mass reactor (PAM and a micro-smog chamber (MSC. Reactants were sampled from the SC and aged in the MSC and PAM using a range of hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations and then photo-chemically aged in the SC. The maximum yields/emission factors and the chemical composition of the products in both the α-pinene and wood combustion systems determined with the PAM and SC agreed reasonably well. High OH exposures have been shown previously to lower yields by breaking carbon-carbon bonds and forming higher volatility species, which reside largely in the gas phase, however, fragmentation in the PAM was not observed. The yields determined using the PAM for the α-pinene system were slightly lower than in the SC, possibly from increased wall losses of gas-phase species due to the higher surface area to volume ratios in the PAM, even when offset with better isolation of the sampled flow from the walls. The α-pinene SOA results for the MSC were not directly comparable, as particles were smaller than the optimal AMS transmission range. For the wood combustion system, emission factors

  14. Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-15

    This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process.

  15. Systems dynamics (SD) strategy for Small Modular Reactor (SMR) marketing - Conquest at the MIT Energy Laboratory (Pres. MIT Energy Initiative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, T. H. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This reactor has the specification as the power is 330 MWt pressurized water reactor (PWR) with integral steam generators and advanced safety features. In the plant design, it is planned for electricity generation of 100 MWe and thermal applications of seawater desalination where the life span is a 60-year operation design and three-year refueling cycle. Regarding of the licensing, the standard design was approved from the Korean regulator in mid-2012 and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a plan to build a demonstration plant to operate from 2017. According to the previous study of the marketing strategy of the Canadian small reactor, Safe LOW-POwer Kritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) reactor had been investigated in 1988. Therefore, it is interesting to compare SMART and SLOWPOKE. In this work, it is to find out the strategy of the successful marketing of SMART and suggest continuous marketing prospects. There are specifications and parameters of SMART in Tables 1 and 2. The public acceptance (PA) had been studies as safety-public interpretation, SLOWPOKE safety-experience and process, and economics in the previous paper of the SLOWPOKE, which was about the marketing strategy for the commercial nuclear reactor. The highly cognitive networking based dynamical modeling was discussed where the system is treated by a complex and non-linear way. The linear networking of the interested issue was changed by the SD algorithm where the feedback and multiple connections are added to the original networking theory. The non-linear method has shown the complexity of the marketing strategy, especially for the NPP which is the very expensive and safety focused facility.

  16. The Effect of Initial Inoculum Source on the Microbial Community Structure and Dynamics in Laboratory-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez, Susana

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the factors that shapes the microbial community assembly in activated sludge wastewater treatment processes provide a conceptual foundation for improving process performance. The aim of this study was to compare two major theories (deterministic theory and neutral theory) regarding the assembly of microorganisms in activated sludge: Six lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactors were inoculated with activated sludge collected from three different sources (domestic, industrial, and sugar industry WWTP). Additionally, two reactors were seeded with equal proportion of sludge from the three WWTPs. Duplicate reactors were used for each sludge source (i.e. domestic, industrial, sugar and mix). Reactors were operated in parallel for 11 weeks under identical conditions. Bacterial diversity and community structure in the eight SBRs were assessed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed using taxonomic and clustering analysis and by measuring diversity indices (Shannon-weaver and Chao1 indices). Cluster analysis revealed that the microbial community structure was dynamic and that replicate reactors evolved differently. Also the microbial community structure in the SBRs seeded with a different sludge did not converge after 11 weeks of operation under identical conditions. These results suggest that history and distribution of taxa in the source inoculum were stronger regulating factors in shaping bacterial community structure than environmental factors. This supports the neutral theory which states that the assembly of the local microbial community from the metacommunity is random and is regulated by the size and diversity of the metacommunity. Furthermore, sludge performance, measured by COD and ammonia removal, confirmed that broad-scale functions (e.g. COD removal) are not influenced by dynamics in the microbial composition, while specific functions (e.g. nitrification) are more susceptible to these changes.

  17. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  18. Chemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1991--93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, B.J.; Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled 14 wells during 1991--93 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for manmade contaminants and naturally occurring constituents. One hundred sixty-one samples were collected from 10 ground-water monitoring wells and 4 production wells. Twenty-one quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed; 2 were blank samples and 19 were replicate samples. The two blank samples contained concentrations of six inorganic constituents that were slightly greater than the laboratory reporting levels (the smallest measured concentration of a constituent that can be reported using a given analytical method). Concentrations of other constituents in the blank samples were less than their respective reporting levels. The 19 replicate samples and their respective primary samples generated 614 pairs of analytical results for a variety of chemical and radiochemical constituents. Of the 614 data pairs, 588 were statistically equivalent at the 95% confidence level; about 96% of the analytical results were in agreement. Two pairs of turbidity measurements were not evaluated because of insufficient information and one primary sample collected in January 1992 contained tentatively identified organic compounds when the replicate sample did not.

  19. Feasibility of processing the experimental breeder reactor-II driver fuel from the Idaho National Laboratory through Savannah River Site's H-Canyon facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to evaluate the potential to receive and process the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) uranium (U) recovered from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel through the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) H-Canyon as a way to disposition the material. INL recovers the uranium from the sodium bonded metallic fuel irradiated in the EBR-II reactor using an electrorefining process. There were two compositions of EBR-II driver fuel. The early generation fuel was U-5Fs, which consisted of 95% U metal alloyed with 5% noble metal elements “fissium” (2.5% molybdenum, 2.0% ruthenium, 0.3% rhodium, 0.1% palladium, and 0.1% zirconium), while the later generation was U-10Zr which was 90% U metal alloyed with 10% zirconium. A potential concern during the H-Canyon nitric acid dissolution process of the U metal containing zirconium (Zr) is the explosive behavior that has been reported for alloys of these materials. For this reason, this evaluation was focused on the ability to process the lower Zr content materials, the U-5Fs material.

  20. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  1. Risk factors for visible lesions or positive laboratory tests in bovine tuberculosis reactor cattle in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Courcier, E A; Drewe, J A; Gordon, A W; McNair, J; Abernethy, D A

    2015-07-01

    An observational case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for confirmed bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection in cattle reacting positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical test (SICCT) in Northern Ireland in the years 1998, 2002 and 2006. Macroscopic lesions were detected at slaughter (positive visible lesion (VL) status) in 43.0% of reactor cattle, whilst 45.3% of those sampled were confirmed as bTB positive due to the presence of lesions or positive histopathology/mycobacterial culture (positive bTB status). In 97.5% of the reactors, the VL status and bTB status were either both negative or both positive. Generalized linear mixed model analyses were conducted on data of 24,923 reactor cattle with the variables herd identifier, local veterinary office (DVO) and abattoir being used as random effects within all the models generated at univariable and multivariable level. The other variables within the dataset were used as fixed effects. Significant risk factors associated with VL status and bTB status at multivariable level (pbovine tuberculin injection site, epidemiological status of skin test, total number of reactors at the disclosure test, mean herd size and prior response to the skin test. These risk factors are likely related to the time since infection, the strength of the challenge of infection and the susceptibility of the animal. These findings are important as the detection of visible lesions and the confirmation of bTB are an integral part of the overall bTB control programme in Northern Ireland and the veterinary meat inspection and hygiene programme. The visible lesion status and bTB status of an animal can affect the way in which bTB breakdowns are managed, since failure to detect visible lesions and recovery of Mycobacterium bovis can lead to a less stringent follow-up after other risk factors have been taken into account.

  2. The Large Magellanic Cloud as a laboratory for Hot Bottom Burning in massive Asymptotic Giant Branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Dell'Agli, F; Boyer, M L; García-Hernández, D A; Di Criscienzo, M; Schneider, R

    2015-01-01

    We use Spitzer observations of the rich population of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to test models describing the internal structure and nucleosynthesis of the most massive of these stars, i.e. those with initial mass above $\\sim 4M_{\\odot}$. To this aim, we compare Spitzer observations of LMC stars with the theoretical tracks of Asymptotic Giant Branch models, calculated with two of the most popular evolution codes, that are known to differ in particular for the treatment of convection. Although the physical evolution of the two models are significantly different, the properties of dust formed in their winds are surprisingly similar, as is their position in the colour-colour (CCD) and colour-magnitude (CMD) diagrams obtained with the Spitzer bands. This model independent result allows us to select a well defined region in the ($[3.6]-[4.5], [5.8]-[8.0]$) plane, populated by AGB stars experiencing Hot Bottom Burning, the progeny of stars with mass $M\\sim 5.5M_{\\odot}$. This...

  3. Preliminary Results of an On-Line, Multi-Spectrometer Fission Product Monitoring System to Support Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Testing and Qualification in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John B. Walter; Mark W. Drigert

    2007-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 (AGR-1) experiment is the first experiment in a series of eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments scheduled for placement in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and will continue irradiation for about 2.5 years. During this time six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The goals of the irradiation experiment is to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. This paper presents the preliminary test details of the fuel performance, as measured by the control and acquisition software.

  4. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 140 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole USGS 141 was drilled and constructed as a monitor well without coring. Boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 are separated by about 375 feet (ft) and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geophysical and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 required 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel well screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed about 50 ft into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, between 496 and 546 ft below land surface (BLS) at both sites. Following construction and data collection, dedicated pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Borehole USGS 140 was cored continuously, starting from land surface to a depth of 543 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole USGS 140 was about 98 and 65 percent, respectively. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, about 32 basalt flows and 4 sediment layers were collected from borehole USGS 140 between 34 and 543 ft BLS. Basalt texture for borehole USGS 140 generally was described as aphanitic, phaneritic, and porphyritic; rubble zones and flow mold structure also were described in recovered core material. Sediment layers, starting near 163 ft BLS, generally were composed of fine-grained sand and silt with a lesser amount of clay; however, between 223 and 228 ft BLS, silt

  5. Inter-comparison of laboratory smog chamber and flow reactor systems on organic aerosol yield and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, E. A.; El Haddad, I.; Keller, A.; Klein, F.; Kumar, N. K.; Pieber, S. M.; Corbin, J. C.; Slowik, J. G.; Brune, W. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-06-01

    A variety of tools are used to simulate atmospheric aging, including smog chambers and flow reactors. Traditional, large-scale smog chambers age emissions over the course of hours to days, whereas flow reactors rapidly age emissions using high oxidant concentrations to reach higher degrees of oxygenation than typically attained in smog chamber experiments. The atmospheric relevance of the products generated under such rapid oxidation warrants further study. However, no previously published studies have compared the yields and chemical composition of products generated in flow reactors and smog chambers from the same starting mixture. The yields and composition of the organic aerosol formed from the photo-oxidation of α-pinene and of wood-combustion emissions in a smog chamber (SC) and two flow reactors: a potential aerosol mass reactor (PAM) and a micro-smog chamber (MSC), were determined using aerosol mass spectrometry. Reactants were sampled from the SC and aged in the MSC and the PAM using a range of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations and then photo-chemically aged in the SC. The chemical composition, as well as the maximum yields and emission factors, of the products in both the α-pinene and wood-combustion systems determined with the PAM and the SC agreed reasonably well. High OH exposures have been shown previously to lower yields by breaking carbon-carbon bonds and forming higher volatility species, which reside largely in the gas phase; however, fragmentation in the PAM was not observed. The yields determined using the PAM for the α-pinene system were slightly lower than in the SC, possibly from increased wall losses of gas phase species due to the higher surface area to volume ratios in the PAM, even when offset with better isolation of the sampled flow from the walls. The α-pinene SOA results for the MSC were not directly comparable, as particles were smaller than the optimal AMS transmission range. The higher supersaturation in the flow reactors

  6. Current and future capabilities of the neutron reflectometer MIRROR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. A.; Smith, G. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Larkins, B. M.; Porcar, L.

    2006-11-01

    The peripatetic ORNL HFIR Center for Neutron Scattering reflectometer instrument MIRROR has recently been re-installed in an interim beam line position in the reactor beam room. In 2006 an upgraded version of the instrument will move to a high intensity guide hall position fed by the new HFIR cold source. In this short note, we present some aspects of current instrument operation-particularly with respect to data reduction from the instrument's linear reflection plane detector-with examples of ongoing research and analysis, and a brief outline of the expected capabilities of the fully upgraded guide hall instrument.

  7. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  8. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  9. Hot Money, Hot Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    International hot money flowing into Chinese capital markets has caught the attention of Chinese watchdogs The Chinese are not the only ones feasting on the thriving property and stock markets. Apparently, these markets are the targets of international h

  10. Comparison of tungsten films grown by CVD and hot-wire assisted atomic layer deposition in a cold-wall reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Mengdi; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    In this work, the authors developed hot-wire assisted atomic layer deposition (HWALD) to deposit tungsten (W) with a tungsten filament heated up to 1700–2000 C. Atomic hydrogen (at-H) was generated by dissociation of molecular hydrogen (H2), which reacted with WF6 at the substrate to deposit W. The

  11. Chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the naval reactors facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Tucker, Betty J.; Twining, Brian V.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Phtsburgh Naval Reactors Ofilce, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997?98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A totalof91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen qualityassurance samples also were collected and analyze~ seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however, some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  12. Influence of temperature and pretreatments on the anaerobic digestion of wastewater grown microalgae in a laboratory-scale accumulating-volume reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Viljami; Craggs, Rupert; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-06-15

    This laboratory-scale study investigated the performance of a low-cost anaerobic digester for microalgae. Low (∼2%) solids content wastewater-grown microalgal biomass (MB) was digested in an unmixed, accumulating-volume reactor (AVR) with solid and liquid separation that enabled a long solids retention time. AVRs (2 or 20 L) were operated at 20 °C, 37 °C or ambient temperature (8-21 °C), and the influence of two pretreatments - low-temperature thermal (50-57 °C) and freeze-thaw - on algal digestion were studied. The highest methane yield from untreated MB was in the 37 °C AVR with 225 L CH4 kg volatile solids (VS)(-1), compared with 180 L CH4 kg VS(-1)added in a conventional, 37 °C completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and 101 L CH4 kg VS(-1)added in the 20 °C AVR. Freeze-thaw and low-temperature thermal pretreatments promoted protein hydrolysis and increased methane yields by 32-50% at 20 °C, compared with untreated MB. Pretreatments also increased the mineralisation of nitrogen (41-57%) and phosphorus (76-84%) during digestion. MB digestion at ambient temperature was comparable with digestion at 20 °C, until temperature dropped below 16 °C.

  13. Chemical and Radiochemical Constituents in Water from Wells in the Vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. L. Knobel; R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. M. Williams (USGS)

    1999-10-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office (IBO), samples water from 13 wells during 1996 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality to the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. The IBO requires information about the mobility of radionuclide- and chemical-waste constituents in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Waste-constituent mobility is determined principally by (1) the rate and direction of ground-water flow; (2) the locations, quantities, and methods of waste disposal; (3) waste-constituents chemistry; and (4) the geochemical processes taking place in the aquifer. The purpose of the data-collection program is to provide IBO with water-chemistry data to evaluate the effect of NRF activities on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants.

  14. Fe{sup 3+}-doped zeolites. Optimised conditions for the oxidative degradation of 2,4-xylidine in laboratory and solar photochemical reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, N.; Thanh, H. le; Bonfill, A.; Woerner, M.; Lang, J.; Bossmann, S.H.; Oliveros, E.; Braun, A.M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltmesstechnik am Engler-Bunte Inst. der Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Among advanced oxidation processes (AOP), the photochemically enhanced Fenton reaction (photo-Fenton) may be considered as one of the most efficient for the degradation of contaminants in industrial wastewater. This process involves a series of complex reactions, which cannot be described completely by conventional models. Therefore, the experimental design methodology has been employed for modelling the experimental data obtained in a laboratory batch reactor as well as in a novel type of solar reactor. As heterogeneous Fenton catalyst, a Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged zeolite Y photocatalyst was employed. As a model pollutant, 2,4-dimethyl aniline (2,4-xylidine) was chosen, because its oxidative degradation chemistry is well known. The experimental design model has been used for describing the behaviour of the reaction system in sensitivity studies aimed at optimising the amounts of Fenton reagents (heterogeneous Fenton catalyst and hydrogen peroxide) employed in the process. The results show that this heterogeneous photo-Fenton process is very sensitive to the concentration of catalyst as well as of added hydrogen peroxide. (orig.)

  15. AECL hot-cell facilities and post-irradiation examination services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schankula, M.H.; Plaice, E.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Woodworth, L.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) services available at AECL's hot-cell facilities (HCF). The HCFs are used primarily to provide PIE support for operating CANDU power reactors in Canada and abroad, and for the examination of experimental fuel bundles and core components irradiated in research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and off-shore. A variety of examinations and analyses are performed ranging from non-destructive visual and dimensional inspections to detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examinations. Several hot cells are dedicated to mechanical property testing of structural materials and to determine the fitness-for-service of reactor core components. Facility upgrades and the development of innovative examination techniques continue to improve AECL's PIE capabilities. (author)

  16. Program management plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The primary mission of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project is to effectively implement the risk-reduction strategies and technical plans to stabilize and prevent further migration of uranium within the MSRE facility, remove the uranium and fuel salts from the system, and dispose of the fuel and flush salts by storage in appropriate depositories to bring the facility to a surveillance and maintenance condition before decontamination and decommissioning. This Project Management Plan (PMP) for the MSRE Remediation Project details project purpose; technical objectives, milestones, and cost objectives; work plan; work breakdown structure (WBS); schedule; management organization and responsibilities; project management performance measurement planning, and control; conduct of operations; configuration management; environmental, safety, and health compliance; quality assurance; operational readiness reviews; and training.

  17. Program management plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The primary mission of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project is to effectively implement the risk-reduction strategies and technical plans to stabilize and prevent further migration of uranium within the MSRE facility, remove the uranium and fuel salts from the system, and dispose of the fuel and flush salts by storage in appropriate depositories to bring the facility to a surveillance and maintenance condition before decontamination and decommissioning. This Project Management Plan (PMP) for the MSRE Remediation Project details project purpose; technical objectives, milestones, and cost objectives; work plan; work breakdown structure (WBS); schedule; management organization and responsibilities; project management performance measurement planning, and control; conduct of operations; configuration management; environmental, safety, and health compliance; quality assurance; operational readiness reviews; and training.

  18. Proceedings of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Brookhaven National Laboratory workshop on neutron scattering instrumentation at high-flux reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBee, M.R. (ed.); Axe, J.D.; Hayter, J.B.

    1990-07-01

    For the first three decades following World War II, the US, which pioneered the field of neutron scattering research, enjoyed uncontested leadership in the field. By the mid-1970's, other countries, most notably through the West European consortium at Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France, had begun funding neutron scattering on a scale unmatched in this country. By the early 1980's, observers charged with defining US scientific priorities began to stress the need for upgrading and expansion of US research reactor facilities. The conceptual design of the ANS facility is now well under way, and line-item funding for more advanced design is being sought for FY 1992. This should lead to a construction request in FY 1994 and start-up in FY 1999, assuming an optimal funding profile. While it may be too early to finalize designs for instruments whose construction is nearly a decade removed, it is imperative that we begin to develop the necessary concepts to ensure state-of-the-art instrumentation for the ANS. It is in this context that this Instrumentation Workshop was planned. The workshop touched upon many ideas that must be considered for the ANS, and as anticipated, several of the discussions and findings were relevant to the planning of the HFBR Upgrade. In addition, this report recognizes numerous opportunities for further breakthroughs on neutron instrumentation in areas such as improved detection schemes (including better tailored scintillation materials and image plates, and increased speed in both detection and data handling), in-beam monitors, transmission white beam polarizers, multilayers and supermirrors, and more. Each individual report has been cataloged separately.

  19. Idaho National Laboratory Experimental Program to Measure the Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor Lower Plenum for Validation of CFD Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-09-01

    The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a prismatic gas-cooled reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A description of the scaling analysis, experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that will be presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits high-quality measurements to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL MIR system is its large size which allows improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements

  20. Stellar laboratories. V. The Xe VI ultraviolet spectrum and the xenon abundance in the hot DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Gallardo, M; Raineri, M

    2015-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Reliable Xe VI oscillator strengths are used to identify Xe lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine its photospheric Xe abundance. Based on a recently measured Xe VI laboratory line spectrum, newly calculated oscillator strengths were published. These were used to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Xe VI lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of RE0503-289. We identified three hitherto unknown Xe VI lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of RE0503-289 and confirmed its previously measured photospheric Xe abundance (-4.2 +/- 0.6 by mass). Reliable measuremen...

  1. Fabrication of Monolithic RERTR Fuels by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan-Fong Jue; Blair H. Park; Curtis R. Clark; Glenn A. Moore; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    The RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) Program is developing advanced nuclear fuels for high-power test reactors. Monolithic fuel design provides higher uranium loading than that of the traditional dispersion fuel design. Hot isostatic pressing is a promising process for low-cost batch fabrication of monolithic RERTR fuel plates for these high-power reactors. Bonding U Mo fuel foil and 6061 Al cladding by hot isostatic press bonding was successfully developed at Idaho National Laboratory. Due to the relatively high processing temperature, the interaction between fuel meat and aluminum cladding is a concern. Two different methods were employed to mitigate this effect: (1) a diffusion barrier and (2) a doping addition to the interface. Both types of fuel plates have been fabricated by hot isostatic press bonding. Preliminary results show that the direct fuel/cladding interaction during the bonding process was eliminated by introducing a thin zirconium diffusion barrier layer between the fuel and the cladding. Fuel plates were also produced and characterized with a silicon-rich interlayer between fuel and cladding. This paper reports the recent progress of this developmental effort and identifies the areas that need further attention.

  2. Operational trials of single- and multi-element CR-39 dosemeters for the DIDO and PLUTO reactors at the Harwell Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallacher, G.G.; Perks, C.A. (AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1993-04-01

    Single- and multi-element CR-39 dosemeters, developed at the Harwell Laboratory, and a commercially available multi-element CR-39 dosemeter (obtained from Track Analysis Systems Ltd), were evaluated for their potential as neutron dosemeters for personnel working at Harwell Laboratory's research reactors. Owing to the angular dependence of the CR-39 (processed using electrochemical etching), the single-element dosemeter was found to be impractical. Consequently, a multi-element dosemeter was developed, which consisted of a cube of side 36 mm with CR-39 elements (also processed using electrochemical etching) attached to each of the sides. Although this dosemeter was technically suitable for this type of dosimetry, it was considered to be unacceptably bulky in personnel trials. The commercially available CR-39 dosemeter tested was much smaller (the CR-39 was only chemically etched) and this was considered to be acceptable as a personnel dosemeter. In addition, trials with personnel working at active handling glove boxes indicated that single-element dosemeters might be adequate, but further work would be needed to verify this. (author).

  3. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  4. Solar photocatalytic oxidation of pretreated wastewaters: laboratory scale generation of design data for technical-scale double-skin sheet reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, H; Jain, H B; Susanto, A L; Malekpur, M; Harasiuk, K; Krawczyk, I; Choromanski, P; Furmanska, M

    2005-05-01

    Batchwise heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of model wastewater (solutions of the azo dye "Acid Orange 7" in tap water) has been performed in a laboratory-scale stirred vessel reactor with non-submerged UV-A lamps using titanium dioxide "P25" as photocatalyst. Comparison to results of solar pilot-scale Plexiglass double-skin sheet reactor (DSSR) experiments indicates that the lab-scale method may predict area demand for technical-scale DSSR design. Characteristic UV-A fluences leading to TOC or COD reduction to e(-1) of the initial concentrations were determined in lab-scale stirred vessel experiments for treated effluents of seven different industrial branches, secondary municipal effluent and biologically treated greywater. Predicted areas for solar photocatalytic oxidation of these effluents in DSSRs yielding mineralization of 95% of organics in 100 m3 of the respective effluents for a TiO2 concentration of 2 g l(-1) and a sky and solar radiation of 3.9kWh m(-2) d(-1) within one day greatly varied from below 6,000 m2 (biologically treated lubricating oil refinery effluent) to more than 100,000 m2 (highly saline biologically treated effluent of chemical industry). Especially municipal and refinery effluents (except oil reclaiming) have been identified as promising candidates for reuse after solar photocatalytic oxidation. Mineralization efficiency was decreasing with increasing alkalinity of effluents. This was interpreted by competition of hydrogen carbonate anions with organics for binding sites on photocatalyst surface and by OH radical scavenging by hydrogen carbonate. Dependence on alkalinity was superimposed by salinity influence as some effluents with high alkalinity also exhibited high salt concentrations (especially chloride).

  5. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project and the Tokamak Physics Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-27

    If the US is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors. Fusion energy has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion energy would provide a substantially reduced environmental impact as compared with other forms of energy generation. Since fusion utilizes no fossil fuels, there would be no release of chemical combustion products to the atmosphere. Additionally, there are no fission products formed to present handling and disposal problems, and runaway fuel reactions are impossible due to the small amounts of deuterium and tritium present. The purpose of the TPX Project is to support the development of the physics and technology to extend tokamak operation into the continuously operating (steady-state) regime, and to demonstrate advances in fundamental tokamak performance. The purpose of TFTR D&D is to ensure compliance with DOE Order 5820.2A ``Radioactive Waste Management`` and to remove environmental and health hazards posed by the TFTR in a non-operational mode. There are two proposed actions evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA). The actions are related because one must take place before the other can proceed. The proposed actions assessed in this EA are: the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR); to be followed by the construction and operation of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Both of these proposed actions would take place primarily within the TFTR Test Cell Complex at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The TFTR is located on ``D-site`` at the James Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, and is operated by PPPL under contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Effect of hot acid hydrolysis and hot chlorine dioxide stage on bleaching effluent biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, C M; Colodette, J L; Delantonio, N R N; Mounteer, A H; Silva, C M

    2007-01-01

    The hot acid hydrolysis followed by chlorine dioxide (A/D*) and hot chlorine dioxide (D*) technologies have proven very useful for bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp. Although the characteristics and biodegradability of effluents from conventional chlorine dioxide bleaching are well known, such information is not yet available for effluents derived from hot acid hydrolysis and hot chorine dioxide bleaching. This study discusses the characteristics and biodegradability of such effluents. Combined whole effluents from the complete sequences DEpD, D*EpD, A/D*EpD and ADEpD, and from the pre-bleaching sequences DEp, D*Ep, A/D*Ep and ADEp were characterized by quantifying their colour, AOX and organic load (BOD, COD, TOC). These effluents were also evaluated for their treatability by simulation of an activated sludge system. It was concluded that treatment in the laboratory sequencing batch reactor was efficient for removal of COD, BOD and TOC of all effluents. However, colour increased after biological treatment, with the greatest increase found for the effluent produced using the AD technology. Biological treatment was less efficient at removing AOX of effluents from the sequences with D*, A/D* and AD as the first stages, when compared to the reference D stage; there was evidence of the lower treatability of these organochlorine compounds from these sequences.

  7. Characterizing oxidative flow reactor SOA production and OH radical exposure from laboratory experiments of complex mixtures (engine exhaust) and simple precursors (monoterpenes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Link, M. L.; Friedman, B.; Ortega, J. V.; Son, J.; Kim, J.; Park, G.; Park, T.; Kim, K.; Lee, T.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent commercialization of the Oxidative Flow Reactor (OFR, occasionally described in the literature as a "Potential Aerosol Mass") has created the opportunity for many researchers to explore the mechanisms behind OH-driven aerosol formation on a wide range of oxidative timescales (hours to weeks) in both laboratory and field measurements. These experiments have been conducted in both laboratory and field settings, including simple (i.e. single component) and complex (multi-component) precursors. Standard practices for performing OFR experiments, and interpreting data from the measurements, are still being developed. Measurement of gas and particle phase chemistry, from oxidation products generated in the OFR, through laboratory studies on single precursors and the measurement of SOA from vehicle emissions on short atmospheric timescales represent two very different experiments in which careful experimental design is essential for exploring reaction mechanisms and SOA yields. Two parameters essential in experimental design are (1) the role of seed aerosol in controlling gas-particle partitioning and SOA yields, and (2) the accurate determination of OH exposure during any one experiment. We investigated the role of seed aerosol surface area in controlling the observed SOA yields and gas/particle composition from the OH-initiated oxidation of four monoterpenes using an aerosol chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer and scanning mobility particle sizer. While the OH exposure during laboratory experiments is simple to constrain, complex mixtures such as diesel exhaust have high estimated OH reactivity values, and thus require careful consideration. We developed methods for constraining OH radical exposure in the OFR during vehicle exhaust oxidation experiments. We observe changes in O/C ratios and highly functionalized species over the temperature gradient employed in the aerosol-CIMS measurement. We relate this observed, speciated chemistry to the

  8. Comparative study of emerging micropollutants removal by aerobic activated sludge of large laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors and sequencing batch reactors under low-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, Antonina; Kråkström, Matilda; Riska, Mats; Mikola, Anna; Rantanen, Pirjo; Vahala, Riku; Kronberg, Leif

    2016-08-01

    Four emerging micropollutants ibuprofen, diclofenac, estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were studied in large laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with high nitrifying activity. Activated sludge (AS) with sludge retention times (SRTs) of 12days and 14days in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and 30days, 60days and 90days in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were examined at 8°C and 12°C. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their main metabolites were analysed in liquid phase and solid phase of AS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A remarkable amount of contaminants were detected in solids of AS, meaning the accumulation of micropollutants in bacterial cells. The biodegradation rate constants (Kbiol) were affected by SRT and temperature. MBR with a 90-day SRT showed the best results of removal. Conventional SBR process was inefficient at 8°C showing Kbiol values lower than 0.5lgSS(-1)d(-1) for studied micropollutants.

  9. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  10. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Permit required groundwater monitoring data; Status of compliance activities; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2014 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the downgradient monitoring wells.

  11. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  12. Environmental health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Tiner, P.F.; Gosslee, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environmental protection and safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  13. Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between damaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur because of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A scoping study was conducted to learn what parameters are important for core damage propagation, and to obtain initial estimates of core melt mass for addressing recriticality and steam explosion events. The study included investigating the effects of the plate contact area, the convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity upon fuel swelling, and the initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects on damage propagation. The results provide useful insights into how various uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.

  14. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  15. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sabharwall Piyush; O’Brien James E.; Yoon SuJong; Sun Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed includ...

  16. Comparison of tungsten films grown by CVD and hot-wire assisted atomic layer deposition in a cold-wall reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mengdi, E-mail: M.Yang@utwente.nl; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J.; Wolters, Rob A. M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the authors developed hot-wire assisted atomic layer deposition (HWALD) to deposit tungsten (W) with a tungsten filament heated up to 1700–2000 °C. Atomic hydrogen (at-H) was generated by dissociation of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), which reacted with WF{sub 6} at the substrate to deposit W. The growth behavior was monitored in real time by an in situ spectroscopic ellipsometer. In this work, the authors compare samples with tungsten grown by either HWALD or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in terms of growth kinetics and properties. For CVD, the samples were made in a mixture of WF{sub 6} and molecular or atomic hydrogen. Resistivity of the WF{sub 6}-H{sub 2} CVD layers was 20 μΩ·cm, whereas for the WF{sub 6}-at-H-CVD layers, it was 28 μΩ·cm. Interestingly, the resistivity was as high as 100 μΩ·cm for the HWALD films, although the tungsten films were 99% pure according to x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction reveals that the HWALD W was crystallized as β-W, whereas both CVD films were in the α-W phase.

  17. Paleomagnetic correlation and ages of basalt flow groups in coreholes at and near the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Duane E.; Davis, Linda C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.; Lanphere, Marvin A.

    2013-01-01

    Paleomagnetic inclination and polarity studies were conducted on subcore samples from eight coreholes located at and near the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These studies were used to characterize and to correlate successive stratigraphic basalt flow groups in each corehole to basalt flow groups with similar paleomagnetic inclinations in adjacent coreholes. Results were used to extend the subsurface geologic framework at the INL previously derived from paleomagnetic data for south INL coreholes. Geologic framework studies are used in conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Sample handling and demagnetization protocols are described, as well as the paleomagnetic data averaging process. Paleomagnetic inclination comparisons among NRF coreholes show comparable stratigraphic successions of mean inclination values over tens to hundreds of meters of depth. Corehole USGS 133 is more than 5 kilometers from the nearest NRF area corehole, and the mean inclination values of basalt flow groups in that corehole are somewhat less consistent than with NRF area basalt flow groups. Some basalt flow groups in USGS 133 are missing, additional basalt flow groups are present, or the basalt flow groups are at depths different from those of NRF area coreholes. Age experiments on young, low potassium olivine tholeiite basalts may yield inconclusive results; paleomagnetic and stratigraphic data were used to choose the most reasonable ages. Results of age experiments using conventional potassium argon and argon-40/argon-39 protocols indicate that the youngest and uppermost basalt flow group in the NRF area is 303 ± 30 ka and that the oldest and deepest basalt flow group analyzed is 884 ± 53 ka. A south to north line of cross-section drawn through the NRF coreholes shows corehole-to-corehole basalt flow group correlations derived from the paleomagnetic inclination data. From stratigraphic top to bottom, key results

  18. Nitrogen and phosphorus treatment of marine wastewater by a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor with eco-friendly marine high-efficiency sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonghyeon; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Sungchul; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2017-06-22

    We screened and identified a NH3-N-removing bacterial strain, Bacillus sp. KGN1, and a [Formula: see text] removing strain, Vibrio sp. KGP1, from 960 indigenous marine isolates from seawater and marine sediment from Tongyeong, South Korea. We developed eco-friendly high-efficiency marine sludge (eco-HEMS), and inoculated these marine bacterial strains into the marine sediment. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using the eco-HEMS for marine wastewater from land-based fish farms improved the treatment performance as indicated by 88.2% removal efficiency (RE) of total nitrogen (initial: 5.6 mg/L) and 90.6% RE of total phosphorus (initial: 1.2 mg/L) under the optimal operation conditions (food and microorganism (F/M) ratio, 0.35 g SCODCr/g mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)·d; dissolved oxygen (DO) 1.0 ± 0.2 mg/L; hydraulic retention time (HRT), 6.6 h; solids retention time (SRT), 12 d). The following kinetic parameters were obtained: cell yield (Y), 0.29 g MLVSS/g SCODCr; specific growth rate (µ), 0.06 d(-1); specific nitrification rate (SNR), 0.49 mg NH3-N/g MLVSS·h; specific denitrification rate (SDNR), 0.005 mg [Formula: see text]/g MLVSS·h; specific phosphorus uptake rate (SPUR), 0.12 mg [Formula: see text]/g MLVSS·h. The nitrogen- and phosphorus-removing bacterial strains comprised 18.4% of distribution rate in the microbial community of eco-HEMS under the optimal operation conditions. Therefore, eco-HEMS effectively removed nitrogen and phosphorus from highly saline marine wastewater from land-based fish farms with improving SNR, SDNR, and SPUR values in more diverse microbial communities. DO: dissolved oxygen; Eco-HEMS: eco-friendly high efficiency marine sludge; F/M: food and microorganism ratio; HRT: hydraulic retention time; ML(V)SS: mixed liquor (volatile) suspended solids; NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information; ND: not determined; qPCR: quantitative real-time polymerase chain

  19. Field and laboratory studies of the nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of N2O: Corona discharge production, biomass burning, and ocean and "Arctic hot spot" emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boering, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    While inverse modeling studies of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations have narrowed uncertainties in the magnitudes, geographic distribution, and timing of N2O fluxes to the atmosphere that are needed to understand and to mitigate the rising concentration of this greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance in the atmosphere, significant uncertainties remain, including accounting for the return of N2O-depleted air from the stratosphere. Measurements of the average and site-specific nitrogen and the oxygen isotopic compositions of N2O can provide an additional means to attribute observed N2O variations to its various sources or stratospheric sink [e.g., Park et al., 2012]. In this presentation, we will highlight recent laboratory work determining the isotopic composition of N2O produced in a corona discharge (the process that produces N2O in thunderstorms), showing it has an isotopic fingerprint that is distinct from that for soil and ocean emissions, for biomass burning, and for the return of air from the stratosphere. Although N2O produced by lightning is only a small fraction of the global annual source of N2O to the atmosphere, the large and unique isotopic signature of corona discharge N2O now characterized completes the array needed to identify the origin, for example, of the unexplained N2O enhancements measured in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere during the 2009 HIPPO mission [Wofsy 2011]. Such N2O enhancements may also be consistent with inverse modeling studies [e.g., Hirsch et al., 2006; Huang et al., 2008] suggesting tropical N2O source(s) must be larger than expected from bottom-up inventories, so identifying the source of these enhancements is critical. Isotope compositions of N2O in a biomass burning plume in the tropical upper troposphere, from a Southern Ocean ship cruise, and from an Arctic peat circle `hot spot' will also be briefly compared and contrasted with the corona discharge results. Hirsch, A.I., et al., Glob

  20. Annual report in compliance with the reactor sharing program, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, R.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report contains information with regard to facilities utilization, descriptions (brief), personnel, organization, and programs of the Neely Nuclear Research Center (NNRC) at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The NNRC has two major facilities: the Georgia Tech Research Reactor and the Hot Cell Laboratory. This report of NNRC utilization is prepared in compliance with the contract requirements between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Georgia Institute of Technology. The NNRC is a participant in the University Reactor Sharing Program; as such, it makes available its 5 MW research reactor, its Co-60 irradiation facility and its activation analysis laboratory to large numbers of students and faculty from many universities and colleges.

  1. Hot microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroy, Klaus; Chakraborty, Dipanjan; Cichos, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Hot microswimmers are self-propelled Brownian particles that exploit local heating for their directed self-thermophoretic motion. We provide a pedagogical overview of the key physical mechanisms underlying this promising new technology. It covers the hydrodynamics of swimming, thermophoresis and -osmosis, hot Brownian motion, force-free steering, and dedicated experimental and simulation tools to analyze hot Brownian swimmers.

  2. Development and application of PIE apparatuses in Tokai hot cell facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hidetoshi; Kodaira, Tsuneo; Sukegawa, Tomohide [Department of Hot Laboratories, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The Department of Hot Laboratories (DHL) operates three hot cell facilities, which are the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF). The RFEF is especially examining the reliability of actual power reactor fuel assemblies for PWR and BWR. The RHL is established to perform post irradiation examinations (PIEs) for fuels and materials irradiated in research and test reactors. In the WASTEF, Synroc and new ceramic waste forms were prepared and investigated for the safety disposal of high level radioactive waste. At present, one of concentrated works is the PIE of high burnup fuels, for which the RFEF improved and developed several apparatuses such as thermal properties measurement and microscopic analysis. The other is the PIE concerning with studies of component aging and structural reliability, for which the charpy impact-testing machine is instrumented and a low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test apparatus is now under developing in the RHL. This paper describes these development and application of PIE apparatuses in DHL. (author)

  3. K-East and K-West Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hanford's "sister reactors", the K-East and the K-West Reactors, were built side-by-side in the early 1950's. The two reactors went operational within four months of...

  4. Fresh-Core Reload of the Neutron Radiography (NRAD) Reactor with Uranium(20)-Erbium-Zirconium-Hydride Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Thomas L. Maddock; Margaret A. Marshall; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The 60-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The initial critical configuration developed during the fuel loading process, which contains only 56 fuel elements, has not been evaluated as it is very similar to the evaluated core configuration. The benchmark eigenvalue is 1.0012 ± 0.0029. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (~±1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  5. Fresh-Core Reload of the Neutron Radiography (NRAD) Reactor with Uranium(20)-Erbium-Zirconium-Hydride Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Thomas L. Maddock; Margaret A. Marshall; Leland M. Montierth

    2013-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The initial critical configuration developed during the fuel loading process, which contains only 56 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The 60-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (~±1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  6. Fresh-Core Reload of the Neutron Radiography (NRAD) Reactor with Uranium(20)-Erbium-Zirconium-Hydride Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Thomas L. Maddock; Margaret A. Marshall; Leland M. Montierth

    2011-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The 60-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The initial critical configuration developed during the fuel loading process, which contains only 56 fuel elements, has not been evaluated as it is very similar to the evaluated core configuration. The benchmark eigenvalue is 1.0012 ± 0.0029. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (~±1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  7. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey.

  8. Evaluation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment drain tanks for reuse in salt disposal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This report was prepared to identify the source documentation used to evaluate the drain tanks in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The evaluation considered the original quality of the tanks, their service history, and their intended use during the removal of fluoride salts. It also includes recommendations for a quality verification plan. The estimates of corrosion damage to the salt containing system at the MSRE are low enough to lend optimism that the system will be fit for its intended use, which is disposal of the salt by transferring it to transport containers. The expected corrosion to date is estimated between 10 and 50 mil, or 2 to 10% of the shell wall. The expected corrosion rate when the tanks are used to remove the salt at 110 F is estimated to be .025 to 0.1 mil per hour of exposure to HF and molten salt. To provide additional assurance that the estimates of corrosion damage are accurate, cost effective nondestructive examination (NDE) has been recommended. The NDE procedures are compared with industry standards and give a perspective for the extent of additional measures taken in the recommendation. A methodology for establishing the remaining life has been recommended, and work is progressing towards providing an engineering evaluation based upon thickness and design conditions for the future use of the tanks. These extra measures and the code based analysis will serve to define the risk of salt or radioactive gases leaking during processing and transfer of the salt as acceptable.

  9. Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2008-04-01

    The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Hot Block Rewetting Process during Nuclear Reactor Emergency Cooling%堆芯应急冷却热块再淹没过程实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 陈德奇; 潘良明

    2013-01-01

    实验模拟核反应堆堆芯失水后堆芯熔融物和被加热压力容器壁等热块再淹没时的应急冷却过程.实验研究发现,液滴飞溅对热块钢板起到了预冷作用,在淹没液位上升的过程中,热块纵向导热越来越强,被淹没位置具有很高的中心冷却速率;热块被淹没位置的中心冷却速率并不随浸没速率单调变化,而是在一定区间内呈起伏变化,这说明在某个淹没速率下存在一个最小中心冷却速率的区间,因此在进行应急冷却时要避免这个区间;在高温情况下,冷却的初始温度对中心冷却速率影响不大.%An experimental investigation was carried out to simulate the process of emergency cooling rewetting of the hot block such as molten material and pressure vessel wall in nuclear reactor core under the serious accident. According to the present experimental study, the liquid spatters can pre-cool the hot block; the heat transfer in the y direction has been enhanced with the increasing liquid level and the central temperature cooling speed is very high. The experiments reveal the nonlinear relationship between the center temperature dropping speed and the liquid level increasing speed, and it shows an U-shape trend which suggests that a minimum center temperature dropping speed exists during rewetting with a certain liquid level increasing speed which should be avoid. With higher initial temperature, the temperature dropping speed is affected by the initial temperature mildly.

  11. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  12. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  13. Assessment of the thorium fuel cycle in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.; Allen, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate the role of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors. Three thermal reactor systems were considered: Light Water Reactors (LWRs); High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs); and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) of the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU) type; most of the effort was on these systems. A summary comparing thorium and uranium fuel cycles in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) was also compiled.

  14. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  15. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  16. Removal of an acid fume system contaminated with perchlorates located within hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Vroman, W.R.; Krsul, J.R.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Knighton, G.C.

    1992-09-01

    An add scrubbing system located within the confines of a highly radioactive hot cell at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was remotely removed. The acid scrubbing system was routinely used for the dissolution of irradiated reactor fuel samples and structural materials. Perchloric acid was one of the acids used in the dissolution process and remained in the system with its inherent risks. Personnel could not enter the hot cell to perform the dismantling of the acid scabbing system due to the high radiation field and the explosion potential associated with the perchlorates. A robot was designed and built at ANL-W and used to dismantle the system without the need for personnel entry into the hot cell. The robot was also used for size reduction of removed components and loading of the removed components into waste containers.

  17. Non destructive testing of irradiated fuel assemblies at the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Castanheira, Myrthes; Teodoro, Celso Antonio; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Damy, Margaret de Almeida; Lucki, Georgi [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: jersilva@ipen.br; laaterre@ipen.br; myrthes@ipen.br; cteodoro@ipen.br; teixeira@ipen.br; madamy@ipen.br; glucki@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Fuel performance and nuclear fuel qualification require a post-irradiation analysis. Non-destructive methods are utilised both in irradiated fuel storage pools and in hot-cells laboratories. As Brazil does not have hot-cells facilities for post-irradiation analysis, a qualification program for the Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements made at IPEN/CNEN-SP was adopted, based on non-destructive tests. The IPEN Fuel Engineering Group - CENC developed basic facilities for fuels post-irradiated analysis inside the reactor pool, which gives indications of: general state, by visual inspection; the integrity of the irradiated fuel cladding, by sipping tests; thickness measurements of the fuel miniplates during the irradiation time, for swelling evaluation; and, local burn-up evaluation by gamma spectrometry along the active area of the fuel element. This work describes that facilities, equipment and examples of some irradiated fuels analysis performed. (author)

  18. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  19. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

    1995-10-01

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  20. Initial RattleSnake Calculations of the Hot Zero Power BEAVRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ellis; J. Ortensi; Y. Wang; K. Smith; R.C. Martineau

    2014-01-01

    The validation of the Idaho National Laboratory's next generation of reactor physics analysis codes is an essential and ongoing task. The validation process requires a large undertaking and includes detailed, realistic models that can accurately predict the behavior of an operational nuclear reactor. Over the past few years the INL has developed the RattleSnake application and supporting tools on the MOOSE framework to perform these reactor physics calculations. RattleSnake solves the linearized Boltzmann transport equation with a variety of solution meth­ ods. Various traditional reactor physics benchmarks have already been performed, but a more realistic light water reactor comparison was needed to solidify the status of the code and deter­ mine its fidelity. The INL team decided to use the Benchmark for Evaluation and Validation of Reactor Simulations, which was made available in early 2013. This benchmark is a one­ of-a-kind document assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which includes two cycles of detailed, measured PWR operational data. The results from this initial study of the hot zero power conditions show the current INL analysis procedure with DRAGON4 cross section preparation and using the low order diffusion solver in RattleSnake for the whole core calculations yield very encouraging results for PWR analysis. The radial assembly power distributions, radial detector measurements and control rod worths were computed with good accuracy. The computation of the isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity require further study.

  1. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  2. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  3. The Jules Horowitz reactor (JHR), a European material testing reactor (MTR), with extended experimental capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A.; Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Bravo, X.; Guigon, B.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[CEA Saclay Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is the European MTR (Material Testing Reactor) designed to provide, after 2010, the necessary knowledge for keeping the existing power plants in operation and to design innovative reactors types with new objectives such as: minimizing the radioactive waste production, taking into account additional safety requirements, preventing risks of nuclear proliferation... To achieve such an ambitious objective. The JHR is designed with a high flexibility in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and to be able to accommodate future requirements. The JHR will offer a wide range of performances and services in gathering, in a single site at Cadarache, all the necessary functionalities and facilities for an effective production of results: e.g. fuel fabrication laboratories, preparation of the instrumented devices, interpretation of the experiments, modelling. The JHR must rely on a top level scientific environment based on experts teams from CEA and EC and local universities. With a thermal flux of 7,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a fast flux of 6,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, it is possible to carry out irradiation experiments on materials and fuels whatever the reactor type considered. It will also be possible to carry out locally, fast neutron irradiation to achieve damage effect up to 25 dpa/year. (dpa = displacement per atom.) The study of the fuels behavior under accidental conditions, from analytical experiments, on a limited amount of irradiated fuel, is a major objective of the project. These oriented safety tests are possible by taking into account specific requirements in the design of the facility such as the tightness level of the containment building, the addition of an alpha hot cell and a laboratory for on line fission products measurement. (authors)

  4. The Jules Horowitz reactor (JHR), a European material testing reactor (MTR), with extended experimental capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A.; Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Bravo, X.; Guigon, B.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[CEA Saclay Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is the European MTR (Material Testing Reactor) designed to provide, after 2010, the necessary knowledge for keeping the existing power plants in operation and to design innovative reactors types with new objectives such as: minimizing the radioactive waste production, taking into account additional safety requirements, preventing risks of nuclear proliferation... To achieve such an ambitious objective. The JHR is designed with a high flexibility in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and to be able to accommodate future requirements. The JHR will offer a wide range of performances and services in gathering, in a single site at Cadarache, all the necessary functionalities and facilities for an effective production of results: e.g. fuel fabrication laboratories, preparation of the instrumented devices, interpretation of the experiments, modelling. The JHR must rely on a top level scientific environment based on experts teams from CEA and EC and local universities. With a thermal flux of 7,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a fast flux of 6,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, it is possible to carry out irradiation experiments on materials and fuels whatever the reactor type considered. It will also be possible to carry out locally, fast neutron irradiation to achieve damage effect up to 25 dpa/year. (dpa = displacement per atom.) The study of the fuels behavior under accidental conditions, from analytical experiments, on a limited amount of irradiated fuel, is a major objective of the project. These oriented safety tests are possible by taking into account specific requirements in the design of the facility such as the tightness level of the containment building, the addition of an alpha hot cell and a laboratory for on line fission products measurement. (authors)

  5. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  6. BOILING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  7. Stellar laboratories: new Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths and their validation in the hot white dwarf RE 0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Biemont, E; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art spectral analysis of hot stars by means of non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques has arrived at a high level of sophistication. The analysis of high-resolution and high-S/N spectra, however, is strongly restricted by the lack of reliable atomic data for highly ionized species from intermediate-mass metals to trans-iron elements. Especially data for the latter has only been sparsely calculated. Many of their lines are identified in spectra of extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars. A reliable determination of their abundances establishes crucial constraints for AGB nucleosynthesis simulations and, thus, for stellar evolutionary theory. In a previous analysis of the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, spectral lines of highly ionized Ga, Ge, As, Se, Kr, Mo, Sn, Te, I, and Xe were identified. Individual abundance determinations are hampered by the lack of reliable oscillator strengths. Most of these identified lines stem from Ge V. In addition, we identified Ge VI lines for the first time. We ca...

  8. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Akiba, M. [Naka Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility ({open_quotes}OHBIS{close_quotes}, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10{sup -4}Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility.

  9. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  10. Study on neutron irradiation effect of superconductors and installation of 15.5 T magnet in hot laboratory at IMR in Tohoku University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Arata; Takeuchi, Takao; Nishijima, Shigehiro; Ochiai, Kentaro; Nishijima, Gen; Watanabe, Kazuo; Narui, Minoru; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Shikama, Tatsuo

    2011-10-01

    A fusion reactor will yield a lot of high energy neutrons, and some of them will stream out of a plasma vacuum vessel and penetrate a blanket system and reach superconducting magnets which provide high magnetic field to confine high energy ionized particles. Under the neutron irradiation, the magnet materials will be activated and the properties will change. In this study, a research network on study of the irradiation effects is introduced and some data recently obtained are presented. By neutron irradiation, the critical current of the Nb 3Sn wire increased and the critical field did not change. The organic insulation materials were degraded at neutron fluence of 1 × 10 22 n/m 2. In addition, the outline of an installation plan of 15.5 T superconducting magnet into radiation control area is described and study issues are explained. The project is undergoing as a program of Nuclear Basic Infrastructure Strategic Study Initiative.

  11. Membrane reactor. Membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y.; Wakabayashi, K. (National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    Many reaction examples were introduced of membrane reactor, to be on the point of forming a new region in the field of chemical technology. It is a reactor to exhibit excellent function, by its being installed with membrane therein, and is generally classified into catalyst function type and reaction promotion type. What firstly belongs to the former is stabilized zirconia, where oxygen, supplied to the cathodic side of membrane with voltage, impressed thereon, becomes O {sup 2 {minus}} to be diffused through the membrane and supplied, as variously activated oxygenous species, on the anodic side. Examples with many advantages can be given such as methane coupling, propylene oxidation, methanating reaction of carbon dioxide, etc. Apart, palladium film and naphion film also belong to the former. While examples of the latter comprise, among others, decomposition of hydrogen sulfide by porous glass film and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane or palladium alloy film, which are expected to be developed and materialized in the industry. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Safety reassessment of nuclear installations: consequences for the 900 MWe-PWR type reactors. Safety reassessment of laboratories and nuclear industrial plant, application to a nuclear laboratory; Les reexamens de la surete des installations nucleaires: conclusions des reexamens de surete des tranches de 900 MWE. Le reexamen de surete des laboratoires et usines nucleaires, application au laboratoire d'examen des combustibles actifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dousson, D.; Guillard, M.; Charles, Th

    2002-10-01

    In 1987 EDF (Electricite de France) launched the first campaign of the reassessment of safety of 6 operating nuclear reactors (2 Fessenheim units and the 4 reactors of the Bugey plant). This reassessment was requested by the Safety Authority in order to: - check that the safety studies led by EDF are consistent with the real state of the reactors and - be sure that the feedback experience cumulated over years of operating life has been profitable. This work ended in 1995. In 1990 EDF launched the second campaign involving the remaining 28 units of the 900 MWe-PWR type reactors. The aim was the same as previously but this time the procedure has included the use of probabilistic studies of safety. This second campaign has now entered its final stage and has led to several measures concerning fire protection, seismic resistance, and protection against deep cold weather. The probabilistic studies have shown that the reliability of some systems important for safety might be improved, so some modifications have been proposed. These modifications concern the emergency feedwater supply of steam generators, the ventilation systems and the emergency turbine generator set. The second part of the document presents the reassessment of safety that has been performed on a CEA laboratory dedicated to the study of irradiated fuel rods. (A.C.)

  13. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  14. The OPAL reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.; Irwin, T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Ordonez, J.P. [INVAP SE, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    The project to provide a replacement for Australia's HIFAR reactor began with governmental approval in September 1997 and reached its latest milestone with the achievement of the first full power operation of the OPAL reactor in November 2006. OPAL is a pool-type reactor with a thermal power of 20 MW and a fuel enrichment maximum of 20 per cent. This has been a successful project for both ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) and the contractor INVAP SE. This project was characterised by extensive interaction with the project's stake-holders during project definition and the use of a performance-based turnkey contract which gave the contractor the maximum opportunity to optimise the design to achieve performance and cost effectiveness. The contactor provided significant in-house resources as well as capacity to manage an international team of suppliers and sub-contractors. A key contributor to the project's successful outcomes has been the development and maintenance of an excellent working relationship between ANSTO and INVAP project teams. Commissioning was undertaken in accordance with the IAEA recommended stages. This paper presents the approaches used to define the project requirements, to choose the supplier and to deliver the project. The main results of hot commissioning are reviewed and the problems encountered examined. Operational experience since hot commissioning is also reviewed.

  15. Initial Neutronics Analyses for HEU to LEU Fuel Conversion of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontogeorgakos, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Derstine, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wright, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bauer, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stevens, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the TREAT reactor is to generate large transient neutron pulses in test samples without over-heating the core to simulate fuel assembly accident conditions. The power transients in the present HEU core are inherently self-limiting such that the core prevents itself from overheating even in the event of a reactivity insertion accident. The objective of this study was to support the assessment of the feasibility of the TREAT core conversion based on the present reactor performance metrics and the technical specifications of the HEU core. The LEU fuel assembly studied had the same overall design, materials (UO2 particles finely dispersed in graphite) and impurities content as the HEU fuel assembly. The Monte Carlo N–Particle code (MCNP) and the point kinetics code TREKIN were used in the analyses.

  16. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  17. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  18. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  19. Stellar laboratories. VI. New Mo IV - VII oscillator strengths and the molybdenum abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Hoyer, D; Werner, K; Demleitner, M; Kruk, J W

    2015-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. To identify molybdenum lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Mo abundances, newly calculated Mo IV - VII oscillator strengths are used. We identified twelve Mo V and nine Mo VI lines in the UV spectrum of RE0503-289 and measured a photospheric Mo abundance of 1.2 - 3.0 x 10**-4 (mass fraction, 22500 - 56400 times the solar abundance). In addition, from the As V and Sn IV resonance lines, we measured mass fractions of arsenic (0.5 - 1.3 x 10**-5, about 300 - 1200 times solar) and tin (1.3 - 3.2 x 10**-4, about 14300 35200 times solar). For G191-B2B, upper limits were determined for the abundances of Mo (5.3 x 10*...

  20. Design of high temperature irradiation materials inspection cells. (Spent fuel inspection cells) in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Hiroichi; Ueta, Shouhei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tobita, Tsutomu [Nuclear Engineering Company, Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes design requirements and design results for shields, ventilation system and fuel handling devices for the high temperature irradiation materials inspection cells (spent fuel inspection cells). These cells are small cells to carry out few post-irradiation examinations of spent fuels, specimen, etc., which are irradiated in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, since the cells should be built in limited space in the HTTR reactor building, the cells are designed considering relationship between the cells and the reactor building to utilize the limited space effectively. The cells consist of three partitioned hot cells with wall for neutron and gamma-ray shields, ventilation system including filtering units and fuel handling devices. The post-irradiation examinations of the fuels and materials are planed by using the cells and the Hot Laboratory of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor to establish the technology basis on high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In future, irradiation tests and post-irradiation examinations will be carried out with the cells to upgrade present HTGR technologies and to make the innovative basic research on high-temperature engineering. (author)

  1. Hot Tickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the highlights of this year's BookExpo America (BEA) held at the Los Angeles Convention Center. The attendees at BEA had not minded that the air was recycled, the lighting was fluorescent, and the food was bad. The first hot book sighting came courtesy of Anne Rice. Michelle Moran, author of newly published novel, "The…

  2. Study of the Effect of SRT on Microbial Diversity in Laboratory-scale Sequencing Batch Reactors Using Acclimated and Non-Acclimated Seed

    KAUST Repository

    Tellez, Berenice

    2011-07-07

    Solids Retention Time (SRT) is an important design parameter in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. In this study, the effect of SRT on the bacterial community structure and diversity was examined in replicate lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactors were operated for a period of 8 weeks and seeded with acclimated or non-acclimated sludge. Four SBRs (acclimated) were set up as duplicates and operated at an SRT of 2 days, and another set of four SBRs (non-acclimated) were operated at an SRT of 10 days. To characterize the microbial community in the SBRs, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to measure biodiversity and to assess the reproducibility and stability of the bacterial community structure in replicate reactors. Diversity results showed that SBRs operated at an SRT of 10 days are more diverse than SBRs operated at an SRT of 2 days. This suggests that engineering decision could enhance diversity in activated sludge systems. Cluster analysis based on phylogenetic information revealed that the bacterial community structure was not stable and replicated SBRs evolved differently.

  3. Stellar Laboratories . [VI. New Mo IV - VII Oscillator Strengths and the Molybdenum Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, T.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Demleitner, M.; Kruk, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (SN) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To identify molybdenum lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503289 and, to determine their photospheric Mo abundances, reliable Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths are used. Methods: We newly calculated Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions indetail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Mo lines exhibited in high-resolution and high SN UV observations of RE 0503289.Results. We identified 12 Mo v and nine Mo vi lines in the UV spectrum of RE 0503289 and measured a photospheric Mo abundance of 1.2 3.0 104(mass fraction, 22 500 56 400 times the solar abundance). In addition, from the As v and Sn iv resonance lines,we measured mass fractions of arsenic (0.51.3 105, about 300 1200 times solar) and tin (1.33.2 104, about 14 300 35 200 times solar). For G191B2B, upper limits were determined for the abundances of Mo (5.3 107, 100 times solar) and, in addition, for Kr (1.1106, 10 times solar) and Xe (1.7107, 10 times solar). The arsenic abundance was determined (2.35.9 107, about 21 53 times solar). A new, registered German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service, TOSS, has been constructed to provide weighted oscillator strengths and transition probabilities.Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Mo v-vi line profiles in the UV spectrum of the white dwarf RE 0503289 were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. For the first time, this allowed the photospheric Mo abundance in a white dwarf to be determined.

  4. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  5. The hot Hagedorn Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the half-centenary of Hagedorn temperature and the statistical bootstrap model (SBM) we present a short account of how these insights coincided with the establishment of the hot big-bang model (BBM) and helped resolve some of the early philosophical difficulties. We then turn attention to the present day context and show the dominance of strong interaction quark and gluon degrees of freedom in the early stage, helping to characterize the properties of the hot Universe. We focus attention on the current experimental insights about cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuation, and develop a much improved understanding of the neutrino freeze-out, in this way paving the path to the opening of a direct connection of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) physics in the early Universe with the QCD-lattice, and the study of the properties of QGP formed in the laboratory.

  6. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [NSTec

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  7. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, March 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-04-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation March 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  8. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, September 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-10-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, September 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics operations are discussed.

  9. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, August 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-09-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, August 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  10. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, July 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-08-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  11. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, March 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-04-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, March 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics operation, and programming operations are discussed.

  12. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, June 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-07-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, June 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  13. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, May 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-06-14

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics, and programming operation are discussed.

  14. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, May 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-06-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  15. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, January 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-02-14

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, January 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  16. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, December 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-01-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, December 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics, and programming operations are discussed.

  17. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, February 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-03-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February, 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation process, reactor technology financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, applied mathematics, programming, and radiation protection are discussed.

  18. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, October 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-11-16

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, October 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics operations are discussed.

  19. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, September 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-10-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, September 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  20. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, January 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-02-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation January 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  1. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-11-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, October 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  2. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, November 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-12-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, November 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  3. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, July 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-08-14

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  4. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, April 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-05-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, April 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  5. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, April, 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-05-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, April, 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, applied mathematics operation, programming, and radiation protection operation discussed.

  6. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, August 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-09-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, August 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics, and programming operations are discussed.

  7. Setup for polarized neutron imaging using in situ 3He cells at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor CG-1D beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, I.; Ziesche, Ralf; Wang, Tianhao; Bilheux, Hassina; Santodonato, Lou; Tong, X.; Jiang, C. Y.; Manke, Ingo; Treimer, Wolfgang; Chatterji, Tapan; Kardjilov, Nikolay

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we report a new setup for polarized neutron imaging at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor CG-1D beamline using an in situ 3He polarizer and analyzer. This development is very important for extending the capabilities of the imaging instrument at ORNL providing a polarized beam with a large field-of-view, which can be further used in combination with optical devices like Wolter optics, focusing guides, or other lenses for the development of microscope arrangement. Such a setup can be of advantage for the existing and future imaging beamlines at the pulsed neutron sources. The first proof-of-concept experiment is performed to study the ferromagnetic phase transition in the Fe3Pt sample. We also demonstrate that the polychromatic neutron beam in combination with in situ 3He cells can be used as the initial step for the rapid measurement and qualitative analysis of radiographs.

  8. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-02-15

    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification.

  9. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-02-15

    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification.

  10. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit

    2008-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

  11. Biomass Conversion to Produce Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Via Hot-vapor Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydrotreating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C; French, Richard J; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-12-25

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and the processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. The protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research.

  12. Hot Money,Hot Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    After emerging from the economic doldrums, developing economies are now confronted with a new danger-a flood of international hot money. But how has the speculative capital circumvented regulatory controls and what are the consequences concerning the stability of the developing world? Zhao Zhongwei, a senior researcher with the Institute of World Politics and Economics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed these issues in an article recently published in the China Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow

  13. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  14. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and

  15. Reactor neutrons in nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, René; Glorius, Jan; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Jentschel, Michael; Jurado, Beatriz; Käppeler, Franz; Köster, Ulli; Langer, Christoph; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Weigand, Mario

    2017-09-01

    The huge neutron fluxes offer the possibility to use research reactors to produce isotopes of interest, which can be investigated afterwards. An example is the half-lives of long-lived isotopes like 129I. A direct usage of reactor neutrons in the astrophysical energy regime is only possible, if the corresponding ions are not at rest in the laboratory frame. The combination of an ion storage ring with a reactor and a neutron guide could open the path to direct measurements of neutron-induced cross sections on short-lived radioactive isotopes in the astrophysically interesting energy regime.

  16. Are 'hot spots' hot spots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Gillian R.

    2012-07-01

    The term 'hot spot' emerged in the 1960s from speculations that Hawaii might have its origins in an unusually hot source region in the mantle. It subsequently became widely used to refer to volcanic regions considered to be anomalous in the then-new plate tectonic paradigm. It carried with it the implication that volcanism (a) is emplaced by a single, spatially restricted, mongenetic melt-delivery system, assumed to be a mantle plume, and (b) that the source is unusually hot. This model has tended to be assumed a priori to be correct. Nevertheless, there are many geological ways of testing it, and a great deal of work has recently been done to do so. Two fundamental problems challenge this work. First is the difficulty of deciding a 'normal' mantle temperature against which to compare estimates. This is usually taken to be the source temperature of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). However, Earth's surface conduction layer is ˜200 km thick, and such a norm is not appropriate if the lavas under investigation formed deeper than the 40-50 km source depth of MORB. Second, methods for estimating temperature suffer from ambiguity of interpretation with composition and partial melt, controversy regarding how they should be applied, lack of repeatability between studies using the same data, and insufficient precision to detect the 200-300 °C temperature variations postulated. Available methods include multiple seismological and petrological approaches, modelling bathymetry and topography, and measuring heat flow. Investigations have been carried out in many areas postulated to represent either (hot) plume heads or (hotter) tails. These include sections of the mid-ocean spreading ridge postulated to include ridge-centred plumes, the North Atlantic Igneous Province, Iceland, Hawaii, oceanic plateaus, and high-standing continental areas such as the Hoggar swell. Most volcanic regions that may reasonably be considered anomalous in the simple plate-tectonic paradigm have been

  17. Evaluation of Alternate Materials for Coated Particle Fuels for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Karen Wright; Jian Gan; David Petti; Todd Allen; Jake Blanchard

    2006-09-01

    Candidate ceramic materials were studied to determine their suitability as Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor particle fuel coatings. The ceramics examined in this work were: TiC, TiN, ZrC, ZrN, AlN, and SiC. The studies focused on (i) chemical reactivity of the ceramics with fission products palladium and rhodium, (ii) the thermomechanical stresses that develop in the fuel coatings from a variety of causes during burnup, and (iii) the radiation resiliency of the materials. The chemical reactivity of TiC, TiN, ZrC, and ZrN with Pd and Rh were all found to be much lower than that of SiC. A number of important chemical behaviors were observed at the ceramic-metal interfaces, including the formation of specific intermetallic phases and a variation in reaction rates for the different ceramics investigated. Based on the data collected in this work, the nitride ceramics (TiN and ZrN) exhibit chemical behavior that is characterized by lower reaction rates with Pd and Rh than the carbides TiC and ZrC. The thermomechanical stresses in spherical fuel particle ceramic coatings were modeled using finite element analysis, and included contributions from differential thermal expansion, fission gas pressure, fuel kernel swelling, and thermal creep. In general the tangential stresses in the coatings during full reactor operation are tensile, with ZrC showing the lowest values among TiC, ZrC, and SiC (TiN and ZrN were excluded from the comprehensive calculations due to a lack of available materials data). The work has highlighted the fact that thermal creep plays a critical role in the development of the stress state of the coatings by relaxing many of the stresses at high temperatures. To perform ion irradiations of sample materials, an irradiation beamline and high-temperature sample irradiation stage was constructed at the University of Wisconsin’s 1.7MV Tandem Accelerator Facility. This facility is now capable of irradiating of materials to high dose while controlling sample temperature

  18. Packaging design criteria for the N Reactor/single pass reactor fuel characterization shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-08-31

    The majority of the spent fuel from the N Reactor and the single pass reactors (SPR) is presently being stored at the basins in the 100 K Area. Characterization of these fuels is essential to formulate a safe and efficient processing/disposal method for the spent fuel. Consequently, it is necessary to transport a cross section of spent fuel from the K Basins to the hot cells at the 327 Building in the 300 Area for analysis. The CNS 1-13G cask, a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified cask manufactured by the ChemNuclear company, will be utilized for the transportation for irradiated fuel elements from the K Basins to the 327 Laboratories for characterization. The cask will utilize an inner container to compensate for the possibility of failed fuel cladding and to reduce the chances of contaminating the cask or the off loading facility. The Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) for these shipments establishes the acceptance criteria for the cask and for the design of an inner container that will be used in the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP).

  19. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  20. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  2. Reactor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Juan M.; López, Carmen; Eibes, Gemma; Taboada-Puig, Roberto; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    In this chapter, the engineering aspects of processes catalyzed by peroxidases will be presented. In particular, a discussion of the existing technologies that utilize peroxidases for different purposes, such as the removal of recalcitrant compounds or the synthesis of polymers, is analyzed. In the first section, the essential variables controlling the process will be investigated, not only those that are common in any enzymatic system but also those specific to peroxidative reactions. Next, different reactor configurations and operational modes will be proposed, emphasizing their suitability and unsuitability for different systems. Finally, two specific reactors will be described in detail: enzymatic membrane reactors and biphasic reactors. These configurations are especially valuable for the treatment of xenobiotics with high and poor water solubility, respectively.

  3. Hot Zero and Full Power Validation of PHISICS RELAP-5 Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Lodi; C. Rabiti; A. Alfonsi; A. Epiney; M. Sumini

    2013-06-01

    PHISICS is a reactor analysis toolkit developed in the last 3 years at the Idaho National Laboratory that has been also coupled with the thermo-hydraulic plant simulator RELAP5-3D. PHISICS is aimed to provide an optimal trade off between needed computational resources and accuracy in the range of 10~100 cores. In fact this range has been identified as the next 5 to 10 years average computational capability available to nuclear engineer designing and optimizing nuclear reactor cores. Different publication has been already presented [1] showing test of the single modules composing the PHISICS package. Lately the Idaho National Laboratory had the opportunity to access to plant data for the first cycle of a PWR including Hot Zero Power (HZP) and Hot Full Power (HFP). This data provided the opportunity to validate the transport solver, the interpolation capability for mixed macro and micro cross section and the criticality search option of the PHISICS package. In the following we will firstly recall briefly the structure of the different PHISICS modules and then we will illustrate the modeling process and some preliminary results.

  4. Catalyst-coated cement beads for the degradation and mineralization of fungicide carbendazim using laboratory and pilot-scale reactor: catalyst stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanjit; Verma, Anoop; Bansal, Palak; Aggarwal, Kashish; Kaur, Taranjeet; Toor, Amrit Pal; Sangal, Vikas Kumar

    2017-03-18

    The fixed-bed photocatalytic degradation of fungicide carbendazim using catalyst-coated spherical cement beads has been investigated. Thirty beads with optimum size 13 mm along with 0.3 gL(-1) H2O2 with an initial concentration of carbendazim of 10 mgL(-1) were the optimized conditions for better degradation. The reduction in COD and total organic carbon along with the generation of nitrite and nitrate ions under the optimized conditions confirms the complete mineralization of compound. The suggested degradation pathway for carbendazim has also been proposed as intermediates formed during photodegradation were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The coated cement beads were found to be durable even after 30 cycles as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Scale-up trails have also been carried out in a solar-baffled fixed-bed reactor for the degradation of pollutant to seek the commercial viability of the technique.

  5. A laboratory flow reactor with gas particle separation and on-line MS/MS for product identification in atmospherically important reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Bennett

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A system to study the gas and particle phase products from gas phase hydrocarbon oxidation is described. It consists of a gas phase photochemical flow reactor followed by a diffusion membrane denuder to remove gases from the reacted products, or a filter to remove the particles. Chemical analysis is performed by an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A diffusion membrane denuder is shown to remove trace gases to below detectable limits so the particle phase can be studied. The system was tested by examining the products of the oxidation of m-xylene initiated by HO radicals. Dimethylphenol was observed in both the gas and particle phases although individual isomers could not be identified. Two furanone isomers, 5-methyl-2(3Hfuranone and 3-methyl-2(5Hfuranone were identified in the particulate phase, but the isobaric product 2,5 furandione was not observed. One isomer of dimethyl-nitrophenol was identified in the particle phase but not in the gas phase.

  6. A laboratory flow reactor with gas particle separation and on-line MS/MS for product identification in atmospherically important reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Bennett

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A system to study the gas and particle phase products from gas phase hydrocarbon oxidation is described. It consists of a gas phase photochemical flow reactor followed by a diffusion membrane denuder to remove gases from the reacted products, or a filter to remove the particles. Chemical analysis is performed by an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A diffusion membrane denuder is shown to remove trace gases to below detectable limits so the particle phase can be studied. The system was tested by examining the products of the oxidation of m-xylene initiated by HO radicals. Dimethylphenol was observed in both the gas and particle phases although individual isomers could not be identified. Two furanone isomers, 5-methyl-2(3Hfuranone and 3-methyl-2(5Hfuranone were identified in the particulate phase, but the isobaric product 2,5 furandione was not observed. One isomer of dimethyl-nitrophenol was identified in the particle phase but not in the gas phase.

  7. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  8. Hot subluminous stars

    CERN Document Server

    Heber, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich vs. He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC~2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope phase of evolution.They provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet purely understood phase of stellar evolution. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW~Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the pulsator V391 ...

  9. Hot Subluminous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  10. Performance of a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henquin, E.R. [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina); Bisang, J.M., E-mail: jbisang@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > For this reactor configuration the current distribution is uniform. > For this reactor configuration with bipolar connection the leakage current is small. > The mass-transfer conditions are closely uniform along the electrode. > The fluidodynamic behaviour can be represented by the dispersion model. > This reactor represents a suitable device for laboratory trials. - Abstract: This paper reports on a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor with an innovative design feature, which is based on a filter press arrangement with inclined segmented electrodes and under a modular assembly. Under bipolar connection, the fraction of leakage current is lower than 4%, depending on the bipolar Wagner number, and the current distribution is closely uniform. When a turbulence promoter is used, the local mass-transfer coefficient shows a variation of {+-}10% with respect to its mean value. The fluidodynamics of the reactor responds to the dispersion model with a Peclet number higher than 10. It is concluded that this reactor is convenient for laboratory research.

  11. k{sub 0}-NAA quality assessment in an Algerian laboratory by analysis of SMELS and four IAEA reference materials using Es-Salam research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidatou, L.A., E-mail: lylia.h@hotmail.fr [Nuclear Reseach Center of Birine, P.O. Box 180 Ain Oussera, 17200 Djelfa (Algeria); Dekar, S.; Boukari, S. [Department of physics, Ferhat Abbes University, 19000 Setif (Algeria)

    2012-08-01

    Different types of synthetic multi-element standard material (SMELS) and four IAEA reference materials, 140, Sl-1, Soil-7 and Lichen-336 were analyzed for validation and QC/QA of the k{sub 0}-standardised Neutron Activation Analysis (k{sub 0}-NAA). The samples of SMELS and RMs were irradiated at Es-Salam research reactor and measured on an absolutely calibrated HPGe detector with 35% relative efficiency connected to a Canberra Genie 2k inspector. Concentrations of 33 elements such as As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb, Zn, and Zr were determined in SMELS and RMs. The analytical results agreed well with the assigned values of SMELS and certified values of RMs. In the case of RMs, concentrations of a few elements, whose certified values are not available, could be determined. The comparison between experimental values and assigned/certified data for SMELS and RMs was made by means of the results from Relative Bias, Z-score and U-score. The relatives bias of the elements determined in SMELS with respect to the assigned values were all within{+-}4.6%. For RMs with respect to certified values were within{+-}10% except for few elements for which RB varied from -28.6% to +12.8%. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level for most of the elements in both the materials were within {+-}1. The U-scores for most of the elements were lower than 1.

  12. Documented Safety Analysis Addendum for the Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility Core Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2009-05-01

    The Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility (NRAD) is a Training, Research, Isotope Production, General Atomics (TRIGA) reactor which was installed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) in the mid 1970s. The facility provides researchers the capability to examine both irradiated and non-irradiated materials in support of reactor fuel and components programs through non-destructive neutron radiography examination. The facility has been used in the past as one facet of a suite of reactor fuels and component examination facilities available to researchers at the INL and throughout the DOE complex. The facility has also served various commercial research activities in addition to the DOE research and development support. The reactor was initially constructed using Fuel Lifetime Improvement Program (FLIP)- type highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel obtained from the dismantled Puerto Rico Nuclear Center (PRNC) reactor. In accordance with international non-proliferation agreements, the NRAD core will be converted to a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel and will continue to utilize the PRNC control rods, control rod drives, startup source, and instrument console as was previously used with the HEU core. The existing NRAD Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was created and maintained in the preferred format of the day, combining sections of both DOE-STD-3009 and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.70. An addendum was developed to cover the refueling and reactor operation with the LEU core. This addendum follows the existing SAR format combining required formats from both the DOE and NRC. This paper discusses the project to successfully write a compliant and approved addendum to the existing safety basis documents.

  13. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  14. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  15. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  16. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  17. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  18. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  19. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Federico; Bass, Steffen A.; Bellwied, Rene; Ullrich, Thomas; Velkovska, Julia; Wiedemann, Urs

    2005-04-01

    his research and we spent an entire week talking physics and having fun from breakfast in the morning until late at night. A symbolic award was instituted for the best presentation at the workshop, dedicated to the memory of Klaus Kinder-Geiger, a sharp and brilliant young theorist who perished in the crash of Swissair Flight 111 on 2 September 1998 off the coast of Nova Scotia. It went to Denesh Molnar from Ohio State University for his outstanding talk on parton coalescence. The organizers wish to extend their gratitude to all participants for the high quality presentations making Hot Quarks 2004 a notable event. We are also very grateful for the superb hospitality of the staff of the Snakedance Inn, in particular Mitch Daniels who worked sheer miracles. Given the success of the first Hot Quarks workshop we decided to organize a second one, possibly even turning Hot Quarks into a series. The next meeting will be held in the late spring of 2006, probably in Italy. We hope it will be as memorable as the first one! Last but not least, we wish to thank all the generous sponsors of the conference: Brookhaven National Laboratory, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fA~ 1/4 r Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute of Physics Publishing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, National Science Foundation, and Vanderbilt University. We are grateful for their support and are particularly happy that this support came from institutions both in the US and in Europe and from all the main experimental facilities that pursue a prominent heavy-ion program. Their support was essential for the success of a workshop targeting young scientists.

  20. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  1. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    Efforts in the area of nuclear reactors and scientific computations are reported, including: robotics; reactor irradiation of nonend-bonded target slugs; computer link with Los Alamos National Laboratory; L-reactor thermal mitigation; aging of carbon in SRP reactor airborne activity confinement systems; and reactor risk assessment for earthquakes. Activities in chemical processes and environmental technology are reported, including: solids formation in a plutonium product stream; revised safety analysis reporting for F and H-Canyon operations; organic carbon analysis of DWPF samples; applications of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry; water chemistry analyzer for SRP reactors; and study of a biological community in Par Pond. Defense waste and laboratory operations activities include: Pu-238 waste incinerator startup; experimental canister frit blaster; saltstone disposal area design; powder metallurgy core diameter measurement; and a new maintenance shop facility. Nuclear materials planning encompasses decontamination and decommissioning of SRP facilities and a comprehensive compilation of environmental and nuclear safety issues. (LEW)

  2. Research on Hot Gunning Repairing in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; LONG Shigang; MENG Qingmin; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2003-01-01

    The lining of blast furnace may be damaged partly,so that gunning repair is needed. The bonding strength of boundary surface between the repairing layer and remained lining of blast furnace has been studied by thermal simulation.The factors influencing the bonding strength are the ingredient gunning repair temperature,remained lining condition and water content of gunning refractory.The bonding strength decreases with the increases of remained lining temperature.

  3. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, as well as component mock-up tests on technology loops to validate potential applications while accounting for mechanical design rules and manufacturing processes. The selection, assessment and validation of materials necessitate a large number of experiments, involving rare and expensive facilities such as research reactors, hot laboratories or corrosion loops. The modelling and the codification of the behaviour of materials will always involve the use of such technological experiments, but it is of utmost importance to develop also a predictive material science. Finally, the paper stresses the benefit of prospects of multilateral collaboration to join skills and share efforts of R&D to achieve in the nuclear field breakthroughs on materials that have already been achieved over the past decades in other industry sectors (aeronautics, metallurgy, chemistry, etc.).

  4. Characterization and catalytic performance of CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using nitrogen-diluted synthesis gas over a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Dai; Changchun Yu

    2008-01-01

    The surface species of CO hydrogenation on CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst were investigated using the techniques of temperature programmed reaction and transient response method. The results indicated that the formation of H2O and CO2 was the competitive reaction for the surface oxygen species, CH4 was produced via the hydrogenation of carbon species step by step, and C2 products were formed by the polymerization of surface-active carbon species (-CH2-). Hydrogen assisted the dissociation of CO. The hydrogenation of surface carbon species was the rate-limiting step in the hydrogenation of CO over CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst. The investigation of total pressure, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), and product distribution using nitrogen-rich synthesis gas as feedstock over a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor indicated that total pressure and GHSV had a significant effect on the catalytic performance of CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst. The removal of heat and control of the reaction temperature were extremely critical steps, which required lower GHSV and appropriate CO conversion to avoid the deactivation of the catalyst. The feedstock of nitrogen-rich synthesis gas was favorable to increase the conversion of CO, but there was a shift of product distribution toward the light hydrocarbon. The nitrogen-rich synthesis gas was feasible for F-T synthesis for the utilization of remote natural gas.

  5. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and lysophospholipid micellar electrokinetic chromatography . J. Chromatogr. A 1998, 810, 95-103. 50...Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Airbase...immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) can also be integrated directly to further analytical methods such as liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry.[6] In

  6. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  7. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  8. History of fast reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, J.H.; Frost, B.R.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Mustelier, J.P. (COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France))

    1992-01-01

    Most of the first generation of fast reactors that were operated at significant power levels employed solid metal fuels. They were constructed in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1950s and included Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-I and -II operated by Argonne National Laboratory, United States, the Enrico Fermi Reactor operated by the Atomic Power Development Associates, United States and DFR operated by the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Their paper tracer pre-development of fast reactor fuel from these early days through the 1980s including ceramic fuels.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, April 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-14

    This report discusses research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on topics relating to hanford production reactors. The topic deal with: reactor and material technology; reactor physics and instruments; chemistry; biology and medicine; applied mathematics; radiation protection; and test reactor and engineering services.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of reactivity accidents in MTR reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Hany

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a dynamic model for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of MTR research reactors during a reactivity insertion accident. The model is formulated for coupling reactor kinetics with feedback reactivity and reactor core thermal-hydraulics. To represent the reactor core, two types of channels are considered, average and hot channels. The developed computer program is compiled and executed on a personal computer, using the FORTRAN language. The model is validated by safety-related benchmark calculations for MTR-TYPE reactors of IAEA 10 MW generic reactor for both slow and fast reactivity insertion transients. A good agreement is shown between the present model and the benchmark calculations. Then, the model is used for simulating the uncontrolled withdrawal of a control rod of an ETRR-2 reactor in transient with over power scram trip. The model results for ETRR-2 are analyzed and discussed.

  11. Desenvolvimento e operação de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB no tratamento dos efluentes da suinocultura em escala laboratorial Development and operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating liquid effluent from swine manure in laboratory scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade suinícola vem, desde meados da década de 70, sendo uma das mais poluidoras atividades agroindustriais no Estado de Minas Gerais. Sendo assim, objetivou-se desenvolver um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket visando tratar os dejetos produzidos com máxima eficiência dentro de um tempo e com custo reduzidos. Para tanto um experimento em escala laboratorial foi projetado e monitorado no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (LAADEG, sendo composto por um Tanque de Acidificação e Equalização (TAE, um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo e uma Lagoa Aerada Facultativa (LAF, o qual foi alimentado com fluxo contínuo. As análises físico-químicas realizadas foram: DQO, DBO5, Sólidos Totais (Fixos e Voláteis, Temperatura, pH, Nitrogênio, Fósforo, Acidez e Alcalinidade Total. O sistema proporcionou eficiência de remoção média de 93% de DQO, 84% de DBO5 e 85% de Sólidos Totais Voláteis, demonstrando adequada adaptação aos diversos tempos de detenção hidráulica adotados (55, 40, 30, 25, 18 e 15 horas. Os parâmetros adotados na partida do reator UASB foram: COV: 1,11kgDQO.m-3.d-1, COB: 0,019 kgDBO5.kgSVT-1.d-1 e TDH: 55h.The swine production, since 70th , is one of the most pollutant agro-industrial activities in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of this research was to develop an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, aiming at treating the effluent generated within a maximum efficiency and minimum time and cost. Therefore, a lab-scale reactor was built up and monitored in the laboratory of Engineering Department at the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The system consisted of an Acidification and Equalization Tank (AET, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB, and an Aerated Facultative Pond (AFP. The system was fed continuously. The physical-chemical analyses carried out were: COD, BOD5, Total

  12. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  13. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; James I. Cole; Jeff B. Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of the world’s premier test reactors for studying the effects of intense neutron radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR began operation in 1967, and has operated continuously since then, averaging approximately 250 operating days per year. The combination of high flux, large test volumes, and multiple experiment configuration options provide unique testing opportunities for nuclear fuels and material researchers. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected highly-enriched uranium fueled, reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The ATR peak thermal flux can reach 1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec, and the core configuration creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) that can be operated at different powers during the same operating cycle. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. The test positions range from 0.5” to 5.0” in diameter and are all 48” in length, the active length of the fuel. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material radiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. Goals of the ATR NSUF are to define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light water reactors, and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. The ATR NSUF has developed partnerships with other universities and national laboratories to enable ATR NSUF researchers to perform research at these other facilities, when the research objectives

  14. Evaluation of the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process Using a Bench-Scale, 20-L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Results of Test 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-08-30

    The goal of the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program (SPP) is to evaluate the presently available technologies and select the most effective approach for treatment of high-level waste salt solutions currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. One of the three technologies currently being developed for this application is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) to precipitate and remove radioactive cesium from the waste and monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb and remove radioactive strontium and actinides. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-L-capacity continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system. Since March 1999, five operating campaigns of the 20-L CSTR have been conducted. The ultimate goal is to verify that this process, under certain extremes of operating conditions, can meet the minimum treatment criteria necessary for processing and disposing of the salt waste at the Savannah River Saltstone Facility. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and total alpha nuclides are <40 nCi/g, <40 nCi/g, and <18 nCi/g, respectively. However, to allow for changes in process conditions, the SPP is seeking a level of treatment that is about 50% of the WAC. The bounding separation goals for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are to obtain decontamination factors (DFs) of 40,000 (99.998% removal) and 26 (96.15% removal), respectively. (DF is mathematically defined as the concentration of contaminant in the waste feed divided by the concentration of contaminant in the effluent stream.)

  15. Transport simulation for EBT reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T.; Uckan, N.A.; Jaeger, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    Transport simulation and modeling studies for the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor are carried out by using zero-dimensional (0-D) and one-and-one-half-dimensional (1 1/2-D) transport calculations. The time-dependent 0-D model is used for global analysis, whereas the 1 1/2-D radial transport code is used for accurate determination of density, temperature, and ambipolar potential profiles and of the role of these profiles in reactor plasma performance. Analysis with the 1 1/2-D transport code shows that profile effects near the outer edge of the hot electron ring lead to enhanced confinement by at least a factor of 2 to 5 beyond the simple scaling that is obtained from the global analysis. The radial profiles of core plasma density and temperatures (or core pressure) obtained from 1 1/2-D transport calculations are found to be similar to those theoretically required for stability.

  16. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, August 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-09-14

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation August 1962. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  17. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, August 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-09-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, August, 1959. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, and operations research and synthesis operation are discussed.

  18. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, June 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-07-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July 1957. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  19. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, July 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-08-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July 1969. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  20. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, November 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-12-14

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, November 1962. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  1. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, November 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-12-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, November 1959. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  2. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-01-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, December 1962. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  3. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, June 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation June 1962. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  4. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, August 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-09-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, September 1957. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  5. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, March 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-04-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation March 1962. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  6. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, March 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-04-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, April 1961. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  7. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, August 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-09-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation August 1961. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  8. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, October 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-11-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation October 1962. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  9. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, May 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-06-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May, 1957. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  10. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, May 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-06-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May, 1962. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation process, reactor technology employee relations, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, and radiation protection are discussed.

  11. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, July 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-08-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July, 1959. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  12. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, February 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-03-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February, 1960. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  13. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, March 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, H.M.

    1958-04-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, March, 1958. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  14. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, April 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-05-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May, 1958. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  15. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, September 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-10-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, October 1959. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  16. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, June 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-07-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July 1960. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities,, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  17. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, January 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-02-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, January 1961. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  18. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-01-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, January 1960. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  19. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, April 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-05-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, April 1961. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  20. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, September 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-10-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, October, 1960. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  1. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, November 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, W.

    1960-12-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, November 1960. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  2. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, October 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-11-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, October 1960. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  3. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, March 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaugh, E.W.

    1957-04-15

    This is the monthly report of the Hanford Laboratories Operation, March, 1957. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  4. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, October 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-11-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation October 1961. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  5. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, February 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-03-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February 1961. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  6. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, February 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-03-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February 1962. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis operation, and programming are discussed.

  7. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, July 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-08-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation July 1962. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  8. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-10-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, September, 1957. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  9. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, September 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-10-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation September 1961. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  10. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, September 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-10-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, September 1962. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis operation, and programming are discussed.

  11. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  12. Naval reactors physics handbook. Volume 3: The physics of intermediate spectrum reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehn, J.R. [ed.] [Knolls Atomic Power Lab., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1958-09-01

    The present volume has been prepared for persons with some knowledge of the physics of nuclear reactors. It is intended to make available the accumulated physics experience of the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory in its work on intermediate spectrum reactors. Only those portions have been selected which were deemed to be most useful and significant to other physicists concerned with the problems of reactor design. The volume is divided into four parts which are more or less independent of one another. Part 1 (Chaps. 2--9), Investigation of Reactor Characteristics by Critical Assemblies, reflects the importance of the properties of critical assemblies and of the techniques for obtaining experimental information about such assemblies. Part 2 (Chaps. 10--20), Reactivity Effects Associated with Reactor Operation, details the use of both critical assemblies and reactor theory to make and test predictions of the manner in which the reactivity of an intermediate power reactor will vary during operation. Part 3 (Chaps. 21--26), Heat Generation and Nuclear Materials Problems, considers how reactor heat generation is spread out in space and time, and what nuclear effects result from the presence of beryllium or sodium in the reactor. Part 4 (Chaps. 27--38), Reactor Kinetics and Temperature Coefficients, relates to the transient or near-transient behavior of intermediate reactors.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. HotSpot Software Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Test Plan (STP) describes the procedures used to verify and validate that the HotSpot Health Physics Codes meet the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot conducting consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendation 2 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  16. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  17. Sources of antibiotics: Hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Girish B; Balachandran, Lakshmi

    2017-06-15

    The discovery of antibiotics heralded an era of improved health care. However, the over-prescription and misuse of antibiotics resulted in the development of resistant strains of various pathogens. Since then, there has been an incessant search for discovering novel compounds from bacteria at various locations with extreme conditions. The soil is one of the most explored locations for bioprospecting. In recent times, hypersaline environments and symbiotic associations have been investigated for novel antimicrobial compounds. Among the extreme environments, hot springs are comparatively less explored. Many researchers have reported the presence of microbial life and secretion of antimicrobial compounds by microorganisms in hot springs. A pioneering research in the corresponding author's laboratory resulted in the identification of the antibiotic Fusaricidin B isolated from a hot spring derived eubacteria, Paenibacillus polymyxa, which has been assigned a new application for its anti-tubercular properties. The corresponding author has also reported anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activity of 73 bacterial isolates from hot springs in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Uso de lagoa aerada facultativa como polimento do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo UASB no tratamento de dejetos de suínos em escala laboratorial The efficiency of an aerated pond used for treating the effluent of an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating swine manure in a lab-scale system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ribeiro do Carmo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As atividades agroindustriais têm se voltado não somente para o aumento da produtividade, mas também para a conservação do meio ambiente. A suinocultura é, sem dúvida, uma das atividades agroindustriais mais poluidoras, principalmente no Estado de Minas Gerais. Sendo assim, objetivou-se desenvolver e operar uma Lagoa Aerada Facultativa (LAF em escala de bancada (laboratorial, e como polimento de um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo (UASB, visando a tratar os dejetos de suínos com máxima eficiência e custo mínimo. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia (LAADEG da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, sendo composto por um tanque de acidificação e equalização (TAE, um reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB e uma lagoa aerada facultativa (LAF para polimento. As análises fisico-químicas realizadas foram: pH, DBO5, DQO T, Sólidos Totais (fixos e voláteis, Temperatura, Nitrogênio, Fósforo, Alcalinidade e Acidez Total. A unidade LAF mostrou uma eficiência média de 83 e 42% de DQO T e Nitrogênio Total, respectivamente. O sistema proporcionou remoção média de 93, 84 e 85% de DQO T, DBO5 e Sólidos Totais Voláteis, respectivamente.Nowadays the agro-industry activities have not only focused its direction to the production increasing, but also, to the environmental preservation. The swine production is amo doubt, an activity, which can be considered, one of the most pollutants, mainly in the Minas Gerais State (BRAZIL. Therefore, this research aimed at developing and operating an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, followed by an Aerobic Facultative Pound (AFP (Lab-Scale, with the objective of treating the liquid effluent originated from swine with the maximum efficiency and lower costs. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Water Analysis of the Engineering Department of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The system was assembled with an

  19. Risk analysis in support of improved safety at US department of energy hot cell facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, F.A.; Golay, M.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Phillips, Jerold; Leahy, Timothy

    2000-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (US-DOE) manages diverse facilities ranging from laboratory complexes to nuclear reactors and waste repositories. It is self-regulating in the areas of radiological safety, occupational protection and environmental disturbances. In these areas the US-DOE has obtained mostly good results, but at high expense by using conservative and unsystematic approaches. In an effort to improve both safety and use of resources a project has been undertaken to understand better how to utilize risk assessment techniques to obtain improved safety outcomes and their regulation. The example of the Test Reactor Area Hot Cell (TRAHC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the subject of a simple probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the areas of radiological releases to the environment and of occupational hazards. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to utilize quantitative risk analyses for management of non-radiological occupational risks. Its purpose is to examine the feasibility of utilizing risk assessment as a technique to supplant the currently employed, less formal, hazard analysis as the basis for allocating safety-related resources. Problems of data and modeling adequacy have proven to be important; results to-date indicate areas where revised resource allocation should be considered. (author)

  20. Optimization of process parameters in a large-area hot-wire CVD reactor for the deposition of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) for solar cell application with highly uniform material quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueger, A.; Mukherjee, C.; Schroeder, B. [Department of Physics, Center of Materials Science, University of Kaiserslautern, P.O. Box 3049, D-67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Scale-up of a-Si:H-based thin film applications such as solar cells, entirely or partly prepared by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), requires research on the deposition process in a large-area HWCVD system. The influence of gas supply and filament geometry on thickness uniformity has already been reported, but their influence on material quality is systematically studied for the first time. The optimization of deposition parameters for obtaining best material quality in our large-area HWCVD system resulted in an optimum filament temperature, T{sub fil}{approx}1600C, pressure, p=8mTorr and silane flow, F(SiH{sub 4})=100sccm, keeping the substrate temperature at T{sub S}=200C. A special gas supply (gas shower with tiny holes of uniform size) and a filament grid, consisting of six filaments with an interfilament distance, d{sub fil}=4cm were used. The optimum filament-to-substrate distance was found to be d{sub fil-S}=8.4cm. While studying the influence of different d{sub fil} and gas supply configurations on the material quality, the above-mentioned setup and parameters yield best results for both uniformity and material quality. With the setup mentioned, we could achieve device quality a-Si:H films with a thickness uniformity of {+-}2.5% on a circular area of 20cm in diameter. The material, grown at a deposition rate of r{sub d}{approx}4A/s, was characterized on nine positions of the 30cmx30cm substrate area, and revealed reasonable uniformity of the opto-electronic properties, e.g photosensitivity, {sigma}{sub Ph}/{sigma}{sub D}=(2.46{+-}0.7)x10{sup 5}, microstructure factor, R=0.17{+-}0.05, defect densities, N{sub d(PDS)}=(2.06{+-}0.6)x10{sup 17}cm{sup -3} and N{sub d(CPM)}=(2.05{+-}0.5)x10{sup 16}cm{sup -3} (film properties are given as mean values and standard deviations). Finally, we fabricated pin solar cells, with the i-layer deposited on small-area p-substrates distributed over an area of 20cmx20cm in this large-area deposition system, and

  1. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  2. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  3. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  4. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included.

  5. Hot-dome anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian E.

    1998-05-01

    Hot-dome anemometry obtains three components of flow velocity using an array of sensors, specifically five hot films in the present contribution, which are mounted around the hemispherical tip of a cylindrical support. Calibration for speed and angle resembles that of hot wires and split films except that the procedures accommodate heat transfer dominated by forced convection from the surface of a sphere rather than single or multiple cylinders. Measurements are obtained with hot domes, conventional hot wires, and impact probes in the wake of a wing to quantify measurement uncertainties.

  6. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2016-05-17

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  8. In-reactor performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, D. K.; Coleman, C. E.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G. A.; Theaker, J. R.; Muir, I.; Bahurmuz, A. A.; Lawrence, S. St.; Resta Levi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors have been operating for times up to about 25 years. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behaviour and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components in currently operating CANDU reactors. The mechanical properties (such as ultimate tensile strength, UTS, and fracture toughness), and delayed-hydride-cracking properties (crack growth rate Vc, and threshold stress intensity factor, KIH) change with irradiation; the former reach a limiting value at a fluence of Pressure tubes exhibit elongation and diametral expansion. The deformation behaviour is a function of operating conditions and material properties that vary from tube-to-tube and as a function of axial location. Semi-empirical predictive models have been developed to describe the deformation response of average tubes as a function of operating conditions. For corrosion and, more importantly deuterium pickup, semi-empirical predictive models have also been developed to represent the behaviour of an average tube. The effect of material variability on corrosion behaviour is less well defined compared with other properties. Improvements in manufacturing have increased fracture resistance by minimising trace elements, especially H and Cl, and reduced variability by tightening controls on forming parameters, especially hot-working temperatures.

  9. Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot-Pressed Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot-Pressed Aluminum Nitride by Guangli Hu, C. Q. Chen, K. T. Ramesh, and J. W. McCauley ARL-RP-0487...Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-RP-0487 June 2014 Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot-Pressed Aluminum Nitride...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2010–January 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot-Pressed Aluminum Nitride 5a

  10. Influence of Hot Rolling Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; WU Di

    2008-01-01

    Influence of hot rolling conditions on the mechanical properties of hot rolled TRIP steel was investigated.Thermomechanical control processing(TMCP)was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill,in which three different kinds of finish rolling temperatures were applied.The results show that polygonal ferrite,granular bainite and larger amount of stabilized retained anstenite can be obtained by controlled rolling processes.The finer ferrite grain size is produced through the deformation induced transformation during deformation rather than after deformation,which affects the mechanical properties of hot rolled TRIP steel.Mechanical properties increase with decreasing finish rolling temperature due to the stabilization of retained austenite.Ultimate tensile strength(UTS),total elongation(TEL)and the product of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation(UTS×TEL)reaches optimal values(791 MPa,36% and 28 476 MPa%,respectively)whenthe specimen was hot rolled for 50% reduction at finish rolling temperature of 700℃.

  11. Virus Silicification under Simulated Hot Spring Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidler, James R.; Stedman, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Silicification of organisms in silica-depositing environments can impact both their ecology and their presence in the fossil record. Although microbes have been silicified under laboratory and environmental conditions, viruses have not. Bacteriophage T4 was successfully silicified under laboratory conditions that closely simulated those found in silica-depositing hot springs. Virus morphology was maintained, and a clear elemental signature of phosphorus was detected by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS).

  12. Decommissioning of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment: A technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    This report completes a technical evaluation of decommissioning planning for the former Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, which was shut down in December, 1969. The key issues revolve around the treatment and disposal of some five tons of solid fuel salt which contains over 30 kg of fissionable uranium-233 plus fission products and higher actinides. The chemistry of this material is complicated by the formation of elemental fluorine via a radiolysis reaction under certain conditions. Supporting studies carried out as part of this evaluation include (a) a broad scope analysis of possible options for storage/disposal of the salts, (b) calculation of nuclide decay in future years, (c) technical evaluation of the containment facility and hot cell penetrations, (d) review and update of surveillance and maintenance procedures, (e) measurements of facility groundwater radioactivity and sump pump operation, (f) laboratory studies of the radiolysis reaction, and (g) laboratory studies which resulted in finding a suitable getter for elemental fluorine. In addition, geologic and hydrologic factors of the surrounding area were considered, and also the implications of entombment of the fuel in-place with concrete. The results of this evaluation show that the fuel salt cannot be left in its present form and location permanently. On the other hand, extended storage in its present form is quite acceptable for 20 to 30 years, or even longer. For continued storage in-place, some facility modifications are recommended. 30 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Influence of Hot Deformation and Subsequent Austempering on the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled Multiphase Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang LI; Di WU

    2006-01-01

    Influence of hot deformation and subsequent austempering on the mechanical properties of hot rolled multiphase steel was investigated. Thermo-mechanical control processing (TMCP) was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill, where three different kinds of finishing rolling reduction, and austemperings with various isothermal holding duration were applied. The results have shown that a multiphase microstructure consisting of polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and larger amount of stabilized retained austenite can be obtained by controlled rolling processes. Mechanical properties increase with increasing the amount of deformation because of the stabilization of retained austenite. Ultimate tensile strength (σb), total elongation (δ)36% and 28476 MPa%, respectively) at optimal processes.

  14. Cocurrent downflow circulating fluidized bed (downer) reactors - a state of the art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.-X.; Yu, Z.-Q.; Jin, Y.; Grace, J.R.; Issangya, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    A new type of chemical reactor known as the cocurrent downflow fluidized bed reactor (or reversed riser reactor or downer reactor), that overcomes some of the disadvantages of the riser reactor, is described. Since both the gas and solids flow directions are downwards in the cocurrent downflow fluidized bed reactor, particle residence times are uniform, and there is no backmixing. The literature on downer studies is reviewed. Laboratory results on axial voidage profiles, pressure profiles, radial flow, mixing and residence time distribution, heat transfer, and particle velocities are summarized. Suggestions are made both for possible industrial applications of downer reactors and for suitable research directions. 56 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  15. MODELLING AND CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR WITH PID CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wodołażski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of dynamics control for continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR in methanol synthesis in a three-phase system. The reactor simulation was carried out for steady and transient state. Efficiency ratio to achieve maximum performance of the product per reactor unit volume was calculated. Reactor dynamics simulation in closed loop allowed to received data for tuning PID controller (proportional-integral-derivative. The results of the regulation process allow to receive data for optimum reactor production capacity, along with local hot spots eliminations or temperature runaway.

  16. Conduction heat transfer in a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat, H. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)], E-mail: hamou.sadat@univ-poitiers.fr; Dubus, N. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France); Pinard, L.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Barrault, J. [Laboratoire en catalyse et chimie organique, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thermal behaviour of a dielectric barrier discharge reactor is studied. The experimental tests are performed on a laboratory reactor with two working fluids: helium and air. A simple heat conduction model for calculating the heat loss is developed. By using temperature measurements in the internal and external electrodes, a thermal resistance of the reactor is defined. Finally, the percentage of the input power that is dissipated to the environment is given.

  17. Development of advanced automatic control system for nuclear ship. 2. Perfect automatic operation after reactor scram events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya; Hoshi, Tsutao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    An automatic operation system has been developed for the purpose of realizing a perfect automatic plant operation after reactor scram events. The goal of the automatic operation after a reactor scram event is to bring the reactor hot stand-by condition automatically. The basic functions of this system are as follows; to monitor actions of the equipments of safety actions after a reactor scram, to control necessary control equipments to bring a reactor to a hot stand-by condition automatically, and to energize a decay heat removal system. The performance evaluation on this system was carried out by comparing the results using to Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and the those measured in the scram test of the nuclear ship `Mutsu`. As the result, it was showed that this system had the sufficient performance to bring a reactor to a hot syand-by condition quickly and safety. (author)

  18. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  19. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors, for example, such characteristics include rapid on-line refueling, and a core design with room for such a large number of assemblies or targets that it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors, such as hot cells, where plutonium could be separated, could pose a safeguards challenge because, in some cases, they are not declared (because they are not located in the facility or because nuclear materials are not foreseen to be processed inside) and may not be accessible to inspectors in States without an Additional Protocol in force.

  20. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schenter, R.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  1. High temperature catalytic membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e. dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result, the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost of reactants and energy.

  2. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J. D. [Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Work in nuclear energy research and development in what has become the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation began in 1946. During the evolution of these operations, small test and demonstration reactors and critical assemblies were operated, reactor fuel elements were fabricated and used reactor fuel elements were disassembled and declad. These projects have been completed and terminated over the past 30 years. Most of this work was performed at the Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL) and is described in detail in Reference 18. No work with nuclear materials has been conducted since 1987, and the only ongoing work during 1989 was the cleanup of the Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) and continuing decontamination of the remaining nuclear facilities. In October 1989, the NRC Special Nuclear Materials License was amended to permit only a minor amount of nuclear material for research purposes. Since then, the license has been further amended to permit only decommissioning operations. These operations have been conducted under State and Federal licenses and under contract to DOE and its predecessors at three main locations. identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL). De Soto (DS), and Canoga (CA).

  3. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  4. Stellar laboratories. VII. New Kr IV - VII oscillator strengths and an improved spectral analysis of the hot, hydrogen-deficient DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Hoyer, D; Werner, K; Richter, P; Kruk, J W; Demleitner, M

    2016-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. New of Kr IV - VII oscillator strengths for a large number of lines allow to construct more detailed model atoms for our NLTE model-atmosphere calculations. This enables us to search for additional Kr lines in observed spectra and to improve Kr abundance determinations. We calculated Kr IV - VII oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Kr lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N ultraviolet (UV) observations of the hot white dwarf RE 0503-289. We reanalyzed the effective temperature and surface gravity and determined Teff = 70 000 +/- 2000 K and log (g / cm/s**2) = 7.5 +/- 0.1. We newly identified ten Kr V...

  5. Stellar laboratories III. New Ba V, Ba VI, and Ba VII oscillator strengths and the barium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2014-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Reliable Ba V - VII oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. We newly calculated Ba V - VII oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba VI and Ba VII lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE0503-289. The Ba VI / Ba VII ionization equil...

  6. Stellar laboratories. VIII. New Zr IV - VII, Xe IV - V, and Xe VII oscillator strengths and the Al, Zr, and Xe abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Loebling, L; Hoyer, D; Werner, K; Kruk, J W; Demleitner, M

    2016-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. To search for Zr and Xe lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of G191-B2B and RE0503-289, new Zr IV-VII, Xe IV-V, and Xe VIII oscillator strengths were calculated. This allows for the first time, determination of the Zr abundance in white dwarf (WD) stars and improvement of the Xe abundance determinations. We calculated Zr IV-VII, Xe IV-V, and Xe VIII oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Zr and Xe in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of their lines exhibited in UV observations of the hot WDs G191-B2B and RE0503-289. We identified one new Zr IV, 14 new Zr V, and ten new Zr VI lines in the spectrum of RE0503-289. Zr was detected for the first time in a WD. We mea...

  7. Degradation of Non-Diffusible Organic Matter in Biofilm Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, Lars Erik; Harremoës, Poul

    1993-01-01

    A simple laboratory test has been developed in order to demonstrate qualitatively, that the removal of non-diffusible organics in a biofilm reactor requires hydrolysis by extracellular enzymes in the bulk water of the reactor. The results demonstrate the effect of changing volume of bulk water...

  8. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  9. Heat transport in cold-wall single-wafer low pressure chemical-vapor-deposition reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasper, A.; Schmitz, J.E.J.; Holleman, J.; Verweij, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    A model is formulated to understand and predict wafer temperatures in a tungsten low pressure chemical‐vapor‐deposition (LPCVD) single‐wafer cold‐wall reactor equipped with hot plate heating. The temperature control is usually carried out on the hot plate temperature. Large differences can occur

  10. Treatment of domestic wastewater in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by moving bed biofilm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tawfik, A.; El-Gohary, F.; Temmink, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale sewage treatment system composed of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at a temperature of (22-35 A degrees C) was evaluated. The entire treatment system was operated at different hydraulic retention times

  11. CONTROL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY AN AC ENERGIZED FERROELECTRIC PELLET REACTOR AND A PULSED CORONA REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study to develop baseline engineering data to demonstrate the feasibility of application of plasma reactors to the destruction of various volatile organic compounds at ppm levels. Two laboratory-scale reactors, an alternating current energized ferroel...

  12. Attrition reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  13. Advanced Computational Thermal Fluid Physics (CTFP) and Its Assessment for Light Water Reactors and Supercritical Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. McEligot; K. G. Condie; G. E. McCreery; H. M. McIlroy; R. J. Pink; L.E. Hochreiter; J.D. Jackson; R.H. Pletcher; B.L. Smith; P. Vukoslavcevic; J.M. Wallace; J.Y. Yoo; J.S. Lee; S.T. Ro; S.O. Park

    2005-10-01

    Background: The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of Generation IV reactor systems such as supercritical water reactors (SCWR) for higher efficiency, improved performance and operation, design simplification, enhanced safety and reduced waste and cost. The objective of this Korean / US / laboratory / university collaboration of coupled fundamental computational and experimental studies is to develop the supporting knowledge needed for improved predictive techniques for use in the technology development of Generation IV reactor concepts and their passive safety systems. The present study emphasizes SCWR concepts in the Generation IV program.

  14. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  15. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  16. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  17. Gas-liquid autoxidation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Paludetto, R.; Carra, S.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure for the simulation of autoxidation gas-liquid reactors has been developed based both on mathematical models and laboratory experiments. It has been shown that the complex radical chain mechanism of the autoxidation process can be simulated through two global parallel reactions, whose rates are obtained by assuming pseudo-steady-state concentration values for all the radical species involved. Using ethylbenzene autoxidation as a model reaction, an experimental analysis has been performed in order to estimate all the kinetic parameters of the model. The effect of the interaction between gas-liquid mass-transfer phenomena and the complex kinetic mechanism on the overall performance of an autoxidation reactor has been examined in detail within the framework of the liquid film model.

  18. Assessment of Sensor Technologies for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vlim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wootan, D. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anheier, Jr, N. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, E. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chien, H. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sheen, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gopalsami, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heifetz, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tam, S. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Park, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Upadhyaya, B. R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stanford, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Sensors and measurement technologies provide information on processes, support operations and provide indications of component health. They are therefore crucial to plant operations and to commercialization of advanced reactors (AdvRx). This report, developed by a three-laboratory team consisting of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an assessment of sensor technologies and a determination of measurement needs for AdvRx. It provides the technical basis for identifying and prioritizing research targets within the instrumentation and control (I&C) Technology Area under the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program and contributes to the design and implementation of AdvRx concepts.

  19. Irradiation behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Walters, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Metallic fuels were the first fuels chosen for liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMR's). In the late 1960's world-wide interest turned toward ceramic LMR fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel was realized. However, during the 1970's the performance limitations of metallic fuel were resolved in order to achieve a high plant factor at the Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The 1980's spawned renewed interest in metallic fuel when the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept emerged at Argonne National Laboratory. A fuel performance demonstration program was put into place to obtain the data needed for the eventual licensing of metallic fuel. This paper will summarize the results of the irradiation program carried out since 1985.

  20. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  1. Effect of Controlled Cooling After Hot Rolling on Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Di; LI Zhuang; L(U) Hui-sheng

    2008-01-01

    A three-step cooling pattern on the runout table (ROT) was conducted for the hot rolled TRIP steel. Microstructural evolution during thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP) was investigated. Proeessing condition of controlled cooling on a ROT in the laboratory rolling mill was discussed. The results indicated that the microstructure containing polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and a significant amount of the stable retained austenite can be obtained through three-step cooling on the ROT after hot rolling. TMCP led to ferrite grain refinement. Controlled cooling after hot rolling resulted in the stability of the remaining austenite and a satisfactory TRIP effect. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained through TMCP for the hot rolled TRIP steel.

  2. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Cerbone, R.J.; Sastre, C.

    1980-06-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  3. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  4. Utilization of the Recycle Reactor in Determining Kinetics of Gas-Solid Catalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspek, Stephen C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a laboratory scale reactor that determines the kinetics of a gas-solid catalytic reaction. The external recycle reactor construction is detailed with accompanying diagrams. Experimental details, application of the reactor to CO oxidation kinetics, interphase gradients, and intraphase gradients are discussed. (CS)

  5. Scale Effects in Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Reactors for Trickle-Flow Processes Les conséquences de l'extrapolation appliquée aux procédés à écoulement ruisselant réalisés en laboratoire et dans les réacteurs des unités-pilotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sie S. T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and development studies in a laboratory are necessarily conducted on a scale which is orders of magnitude smaller than that in commercial practice. In the case of the development and commercialization of an unprecedented novel process technology, available laboratory results have to be translated into envisaged technology on a commercial scale, i. e. the problem is that of scaling-up. However, in many circumstances the commercial technology is more or less defined as far as type of reactor is concerned and laboratory studies are concerned with the generation of predictive information on the behaviour of new catalysts, alternative feedstocks, etc. , in such a reactor. In many cases the complexity of feed composition and reaction kinetics preclude the prediction to be made on the basis of a combination of fundamental kinetic data and computer models, so that there is no other option than to simulate the commercial reactor on a laboratory scale, i. e. the problem is that of scaling-down. From the point of view of R & D Defficiency, the scale of the laboratory experiments should be as small as possible without detracting from the meaningfulness of the results. In the present paper some problems in the scaling-down of a trickle-flow reactor as applied in hydrotreating processes to kinetically equivalent laboratory reactors of different sizes will be discussed. Two main aspects relating to inequalities in fluid dynamics resulting from the differences in scale will be treated in more detail, viz. deviations from ideal plug flow and non ideal wetting or irrigation of the catalyst particles. Although a laboratory reactor can never be a true small-scale replica of a commercial trickle-flow reactor in all respects, it can nevertheless be made to provide representative data as far as the catalytic conversion aspects are concerned. By ressorting to measures such as catalyst bed dilution with fine catalytically inert material it proves possible to

  6. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-08-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July, 1958. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, radiation protection, and laboratory auxiliaries operation area discussed.

  7. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, May 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-06-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May 1958. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, radiation protection, and laboratory auxiliaries operation area discussed.

  8. Hanford Laboratories operation monthly activities report, November 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-21

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operations research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for November, 1956.

  9. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, April 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-05-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, April, 1959. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities. Biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, operations research and synthesis operation programming, radiation protection, and laboratory auxiliaries operation are discussed.

  10. Hanford Laboratories operation monthly activities report, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-02-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for January 1957.

  11. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-01-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May 1961. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, laboratory auxiliaries operation, and technical administration operation are discussed.

  12. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, August 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-09-15

    This is the monthly report of the Hanford Laboratories Operation, August 1958. Reactor fuels, chemistry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, plutonium recycling, programming, radiation protection, laboratory auxiliaries operation, and inventions are discussed.

  13. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, June 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-07-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, June 1961. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, laboratory auxiliaries operation, and professional placement and relations practices are discussed.

  14. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-07-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, June, 1958. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics, instrumentation research, employee relations, operations research, synthesis operation, programming, radiation protection, and laboratory auxiliaries operation are discussed.

  15. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, May 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-06-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May, 1959. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, radiation protection, and laboratory auxiliaries operation area discussed.

  16. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, May 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-06-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May 1961. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, laboratory auxiliaries operation, and professional placement and relations practices are discussed.

  17. Hanford Laboratories operation monthly activities report, October 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for October 1956.

  18. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, February 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-03-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February, 1959. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, radiation protection operation, and laboratories auxiliaries operation area discussed.

  19. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, December 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for December 1957.

  20. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, March 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-04-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for March 1960.

  1. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-07-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, June, 1958. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics, instrumentation research, employee relations, operations research, synthesis operation, programming, radiation protection, and laboratory auxiliaries operation are discussed.

  2. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, September 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-10-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, September, 1958. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, 4000 program research and development, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, radiation protection, and laboratory auxiliaries operation are discussed.

  3. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, January 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-02-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, January, 1962. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, radiation protection, laboratory auxiliaries operation, and technical administration operation area discussed.

  4. Hanford Laboratories operation monthly activities report, November 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-12-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for November 1958.

  5. Hanford Laboratories operation monthly activities report, May 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-06-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for May 1960.

  6. Hanford Laboratories operation monthly activities report, November 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-12-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for November 1957.

  7. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, October 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-11-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for October 1957.

  8. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, October 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-11-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for October 1958.

  9. Hanford Laboratories Operation monthly activities report, November 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-12-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, November 1961. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis operation, programming, laboratory auxiliaries operation, and technical administration operation are discussed.

  10. Hanford Laboratories operation monthly activities report, February 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-03-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, physics and instrumentation, reactor technology, chemistry, separation processes, biology, financial activities, employee relations, laboratories auxiliaries, radiation protection, operation research, inventions, visits, and personnel status are discussed. This report is for February 1958.

  11. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    fulfill its mission that is to contribute in improving the quality of life of the Brazilian people. The nuclear fuel cycle is a series of steps involved in the production and use of fuel for nuclear reactors. The Laboratories of Chemistry and Environmental Diagnosis Center, CQMA, support the demand of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Program providing chemical characterization of uranium compounds and other related materials. In this period the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) concentrated efforts on improving equipment and systems to enable the IEA-R1 research reactor to operate at higher power, increasing the capacity of radioisotopes production, samples irradiation, tests and experiments. (author)

  12. Analysis of hot leg natural circulation under station blackout severe accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Under severe accidents, natural circulation flows are important to influence the accident progression and result in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In a station blackout accident with no recovery of steam generator (SG) auxiliary feedwater (TMLB' severe accident scenario), the hot leg countercurrent natural circulation flow is analyzed by using a severe-accident code, to better understand its potential impacts on the creep-rupture timing among the surge line, the hot leg, and SG tubes. The results show that the natural circulation may delay the failure time of the hot leg.The recirculation ratio and the hot mixing factor are also calculated and discussed.

  13. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  14. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  15. Light Intensity Affects Pungency of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Chang-shan; WANG Jin-ling; YU Guang-jian

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out both laboratory and field experiment to research the effects of three different light intensity on capsaicin content of hot pepper fruits during the growing stage, the varieties in the study were in different hot levels named No.4 Xiangyan (mid-hot) and No.3 Jingjianjiao (very hot). The study showed that capsaicin content increased accompanied with light intensity weakening. There was an inverse relationship between capsaicin content and peroxidase activity.

  16. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  17. Evaluation of fatigue data including reactor water environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States); Nickell, R.E. [Applied Science and Technology, Poway, CA (United States); Van Der Sluys, W.A. [Alliance, OH (United States); Yukawa, S. [Boulder, CO (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Laboratory data have been gathered in the past decade indicating a significant reduction in component fatigue life when reactor water environmental effects are experimentally simulated. However, these laboratory data have not been supported by nuclear power plant component operating experience. The laboratory data under simulated operating conditions are being used to support arguments for revising the design-basis fatigue curves in the ASME Code Section III, Division 1, for Class 1 components. A thorough review of available laboratory fatigue data and their applicability to actual component operating conditions was performed. The evaluation divided the assembly, review and assessment of existing laboratory fatigue data and its applicability to plant operating conditions into four principal tasks: (1) review of available laboratory data relative to thresholds for environmental parameters, such as temperature, reactor water oxidation potential, strain rate, strain amplitude, reactor water flow rate, and component metal sulfur content; (2) determination of the relevance of the laboratory data to actual plant operating conditions; (3) review of laboratory S-N data curve-fitting models; and (4) assessment of existing ASME Code Section III Class 1 margins This paper summarizes the results of the data review. In addition, recommendations are made for additional laboratory testing intended to improve the applicability of laboratory test results under simulated reactor water environmental conditions. (authors)

  18. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, January-June 1986: Reactor Safety Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the technology base supporting licensing decisions.

  19. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  20. Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels in a Laboratory Fluidized-bed Reactor Combustion de charges solides avec la boucle chimique dans un lit fluidisé de laboratoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leion H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When using solid fuel in a chemical looping system, the char fraction of the fuel needs to be gasified before syngas react with the oxygen carrier. This can be done inside the fuel reactor with fuel and oxygen carriers well mixed, and, since this gasification is comparably slow, this will be the time limiting step of such a system. An option is to use an oxygen carrier that is able to release gas-phase oxygen which can react with the fuel by normal combustion giving a significantly faster overall fuel conversion. This last option is generally referred to as Chemical Looping combustion with Oxygen Un-coupling (CLOU. In this work, an overview is given of parameters that affect the fuel conversion in laboratory CLC and CLOU experiments. The main factor determining the fuel conversion, in both CLC and CLOU, is the fuel itself. High-volatile fuels are generally more rapidly converted than low volatile fuels. This difference in fuel conversion rate is more pronounced in CLC than in CLOU. However, the fuel conversion is also, both for CLC and CLOU, increased by increasing temperature. Increased steam and SO2 fraction in the surrounding gas will also enhance the fuel conversion in CLC. CO2 gasification in CLC appears to be very slow in comparison to steam gasification. H2 can inhibit fuel gasification in CLC whereas CO did not seem to have any effect. Possible deactivation of oxygen carriers due to SO2 or ash also has to be considered. Lorsque l’on utilise des combustibles solides dans la boucle chimique (CLC pour Chemical Looping Combustion, il est nécessaire de gazéifier le char avant de faire la combustion du gaz de synthèse au contact du transporteur d’oxygène. Ces réactions peuvent s’effectuer dans le réacteur fuel, dans lequel le combustible et le transporteur d’oxygène sont bien mélangés. Cependant, la gazéification du charbon est lente et reste l’étape limitante du processus de combustion dans ces conditions. Une alternative

  1. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems: Annual and Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevan D. Weaver; Theron Marshall; James Parry

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) contribution to the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project number 2002-005 was divided into reactor physics, and thermal-hydraulics and plant design. The research targeted credible physics and thermal-hydraulics models for a gas-cooled fast reactor, analyzing various fuel and in-core fuel cycle options to achieve a true breed and burn core, and performing a design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis on that design. For the physics analysis, a 1/8 core model was created using different enrichments and simulated equilibrium fuel loadings. The model was used to locate the hot spot of the reactor, and the peak to average energy deposition at that location. The model was also used to create contour plots of the flux and energy deposition over the volume of the reactor. The eigenvalue over time was evaluated using three different fuel configurations with the same core geometry. The breeding capabilities of this configuration were excellent for a 7% U-235 model and good in both a plutonium model and a 14% U-235 model. Changing the fuel composition from the Pu fuel which provided about 78% U-238 for breeding to the 14% U-235 fuel with about 86% U-238 slowed the rate of decrease in the eigenvalue a noticeable amount. Switching to the 7% U-235 fuel with about 93% U-238 showed an increase in the eigenvalue over time. For the thermal-hydraulic analysis, the reactor design used was the one forwarded by the MIT team. This reactor design uses helium coolant, a Brayton cycle, and has a thermal power of 600 MW. The core design parameters were supplied by MIT; however, the other key reactor components that were necessary for a plausible simulation of a LOCA were not defined. The thermal-hydraulic and plant design research concentrated on determining reasonable values for those undefined components. The LOCA simulation was intended to provide insights on the influence of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), the

  2. Hot plasma dielectric tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    The hot plasma dielectric tensor is discussed in its various approximations. Collisionless cyclotron resonant damping and ion/electron Bernstein waves are discussed to exemplify the significance of a kinetic description of plasma waves.

  3. Reactor pulse repeatability studies at the annular core research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, K.R. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Trinh, T.Q. [Nuclear Facility Operations, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 0614, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Luker, S. M. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories is a water-moderated pool-type reactor designed for testing many types of objects in the pulse and steady-state mode of operations. Personnel at Sandia began working to improve the repeatability of pulse operations for experimenters in the facility. The ACRR has a unique UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel that makes the task of producing repeatable pulses difficult with the current operating procedure. The ACRR produces a significant quantity of photoneutrons through the {sup 9}Be({gamma}, n){sup 8}Be reaction in the fuel elements. The photoneutrons are the result of the gammas produced during fission and in fission product decay, so their production is very much dependent on the reactor power history and changes throughout the day/week of experiments in the facility. Because the photoneutrons interfere with the delayed-critical measurements required for accurate pulse reactivity prediction, a new operating procedure was created. The photoneutron effects at delayed critical are minimized when using the modified procedure. In addition, the pulse element removal time is standardized for all pulse operations with the modified procedure, and this produces less variation in reactivity removal times. (authors)

  4. Recent upgrades and new scientific infrastructure of MARIA research reactor, Otwock-Swierk, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The MARIA reactor is open-pool type, water and beryllium moderated. It has two independent primary cooling systems: fuel and pool cooling system. Each fuel assembly is cooled down separately in pressurized channels with individual performances characterization. The fuel assemblies consist of five layers of bent plates or six concentric tubes. Currently it is one of the most powerful research reactors in Europe with operation availability at least up to 2030. Its nominal thermal power is 30 MW. It is characterized by high neutron flux density: up to 3x10{sup 14} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in case of thermal neutrons, and up to 2x10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in case of fast neutrons. The reactor is operated for ca. 4000 h per year. The reactor facility is equipped with fully equipped three hot cells with shielding up to 10{sup 15} Bq. Adjacent to the reactor facility, the radio-pharmaceutics plant (POLATOM) and Material Research Laboratory are located. They are equipped with a number of hot cells with instrumentation. The transport system of radioactive materials from reactor facility to Material Research Laboratory is available. During 2014 the MARIA reactor has been operated with three different types of fuel the same time: previous 36% enriched fuel, and two types of new LEU fuels. In the meantime, molybdenum irradiation programme has been developed. Maria is a multifunctional research tool, with a notable application in production of radioisotopes, radio-pharmaceutics manufacturing (ca. 600 TBq/y), {sup 99}Mo for medical scintigraphy (ca. 6000 TBq/y), neutron transmutation doping of silicon single crystals, wide scientific research based on neutron beams utilization. From the beginning MARIA reactor was intended for loop and fuel testing research activities. Currently it is used mostly as material testing and irradiation facility and for that reason it has wide experimental capabilities. There are eight horizontal irradiation channels from among whom six of them

  5. Development of two-dimensional hot pool model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn, H. D

    2000-05-01

    During a normal reactor scram, the heat generation is reduced almost instantaneously while the coolant flow rate follows the pump coast-down. This mismatch between power and flow results in a situation where the core flow entering the hot pool is at a lower temperature than the temperature of the bulk pool sodium. This temperature difference leads to thermal stratification. Thermal stratification can occur in the hot pool region if the entering coolant is colder than the existing hot pool coolant and the flow momentum is not large enough to overcome the negative buoyancy force. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHX{sub s}, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response. Hence, it is necessary to predict the pool coolant temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy to determine the inlet temperature conditions for the IHX{sub s} and its contribution to the net buoyancy head. Therefore, in this study two-dimensional hot pool model is developed instead of existing one-dimensional model to predict the hot pool coolant temperature and velocity distribution more accurately and is applied to the SSC-K code.

  6. Stellar laboratories II. New Zn IV and Zn V oscillator strengths and their validation in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2014-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. In a recent analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B, 21 Zn IV lines were newly identified. Because of the lack of Zn IV data, transition probabilities of the isoelectronic Ge VI were adapted for a first, coarse determination of the photospheric Zn abundance. We performed new calculations of Zn IV and Zn V oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Zn IV - V spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. In the UV spectrum of G191-B2B, we identify 31 Zn IV and 16 Zn V lines. Most of these are identified for the first time in an...

  7. Stellar laboratories IV. New Ga IV, Ga V, and Ga VI oscillator strengths and the gallium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2015-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These atmospheres are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that are used to calculate them. Reliable Ga IV - VI oscillator strengths are used to identify Ga lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ga abundances. We newly calculated Ga IV - VI oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for analyzing of Ga lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. We unambiguously detected 20 isolated and 6 blended (with lines of other species) Ga V lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE0503-289. The identification of Ga IV and Ga VI lines is uncertain because th...

  8. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  9. Design options for a bunsen reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles

    2013-10-01

    This work is being performed for Matt Channon Consulting as part of the Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA). Matt Channon Consulting has requested Sandia's assistance in the design of a chemical Bunsen reactor for the reaction of SO2, I2 and H2O to produce H2SO4 and HI with a SO2 feed rate to the reactor of 50 kg/hour. Based on this value, an assumed reactor efficiency of 33%, and kinetic data from the literature, a plug flow reactor approximately 1%E2%80%9D diameter and and 12 inches long would be needed to meet the specification of the project. Because the Bunsen reaction is exothermic, heat in the amount of approximately 128,000 kJ/hr would need to be removed using a cooling jacket placed around the tubular reactor. The available literature information on Bunsen reactor design and operation, certain support equipment needed for process operation and a design that meet the specification of Matt Channon Consulting are presented.

  10. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwall Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX. Research topics to be addressed include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs at prototypical operating conditions. Each loop will also include an interchangeable high-temperature test section that can be customized to address specific research issues associated with each working fluid. This paper also discusses needs and challenges associated with advanced instrumentation for the multi-loop facility, which could be further applied to advanced high-temperature reactors. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST facility. A preliminary design configuration of the ARTIST facility will be presented with the required design and operating characteristics of the various components. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750 °C, high-pressure (7 MPa helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4 flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa, at a temperature of ∼450 °C. The salt loop will be thermally integrated with the steam/water loop operating at PWR conditions. Experiment design challenges include identifying suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. The instrumentation needs to be highly accurate (negligible drift in measuring operational data for extended periods of times, as data collected will be

  11. Final report. U.S. Department of Energy University Reactor Sharing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, John A

    2003-01-21

    Activities supported at the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory under the U.S. DOE University Reactor Sharing Program are reported for Grant DE FG02-95NE38121 (September 16, 1995 through May 31, 2002). These activities fell under four subcategories: support for research at thesis and post-doctoral levels, support for college-level laboratory exercises, support for reactor tours/lectures on nuclear energy, and support for science fair participants.

  12. Stellar laboratories. III. New Ba v, Ba vi, and Ba vii oscillator strengths and the barium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: Reliable Ba v-vii oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods: We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g = 7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 ± 0.5 × 10-4 (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 ± 0.5 × 10-6 (about 265 times solar). Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for

  13. Stellar laboratories . VIII. New Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths and the Al, Zr, and Xe abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Gamrath, S.; Quinet, P.; Löbling, L.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To search for zirconium and xenon lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289, new Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths were calculated. This allows, for the first time, determination of the Zr abundance in white dwarf (WD) stars and improvement of the Xe abundance determinations. Methods: We calculated Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Zr and Xe in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of their lines exhibited in UV observations of the hot WDs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: We identified one new Zr iv, 14 new Zr v, and ten new Zr vi lines in the spectrum of RE 0503-289. Zr was detected for the first time in a WD. We measured a Zr abundance of -3.5 ± 0.2 (logarithmic mass fraction, approx. 11 500 times solar). We identified five new Xe vi lines and determined a Xe abundance of -3.9 ± 0.2 (approx. 7500 times solar). We determined a preliminary photospheric Al abundance of -4.3 ± 0.2 (solar) in RE 0503-289. In the spectra of G191-B2B, no Zr line was identified. The strongest Zr iv line (1598.948 Å) in our model gave an upper limit of -5.6 ± 0.3 (approx. 100 times solar). No Xe line was identified in the UV spectrum of G191-B2B and we confirmed the previously determined upper limit of -6.8 ± 0.3 (ten times solar). Conclusions: Precise measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for advanced NLTE stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zr iv-vi and Xe vi-vii line profiles in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 were simultaneously well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. Based on observations

  14. A Web Application to Facilitate Syphilis Reactor Grid Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoundjian, Tigran; Khosropour, Christine M; Golden, Matthew R; Barbee, Lindley A; Dombrowski, Julia C

    2017-08-28

    Many health departments use a "reactor grid" to determine which laboratory-reported syphilis serologic test results require investigation. We developed a Web-based tool, the Syphilis Reactor Grid Evaluator (SRGE), to facilitate health department reactor grid evaluations and test the tool using data from Seattle & King County, Washington. We developed SRGE using the R Shiny Web application framework. When populated with a data set including titer results and final disposition codes, SRGE displays the percent of verified early syphilis cases by serologic titer result and patient age in each cell of the grid. The results can be optionally stratified by sex, test type, and previous rapid plasma reagin titer. The impact of closing laboratory results without investigation in cells selected by the user is dynamically computed. The SRGE calculates the percent of all laboratory reports closed ("efficiency gained"), the proportion of all early syphilis cases closed without investigation ("case finding loss"), and the ratio of percent of cases identified for investigation to percent of all laboratory reports investigated ("efficiency ratio"). After defining algorithms, users can compare them side-by-side, combine subgroup-specific algorithms, and export results. We used SRGE to compare the current Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) reactor grid to 5 alternate algorithms. Of 13,504 rapid plasma reagin results reported to PHSKC from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015, 1565 were linked to verified early syphilis cases. Updating PHSKC's current reactor grid could result in an efficiency gain of 4.8% to 25.2% (653-3403 laboratory reports) and case finding loss of 1% to 8.4% (10-99 fewer cases investigated). The Syphilis Reactor Grid Evaluator can be used to rapidly evaluate alternative approaches to optimizing the reactor grid. Changing the reactor grid in King County to close more laboratory results without investigation could improve efficiency with minimal impact on

  15. SNTP program reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.

    1993-06-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  16. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  17. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  18. Irradiation rigs in material testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenblum, F.; Gonnier, C.; Bignan, G. [CEA, Research Centers of Saclay and Cadarache (France)

    2011-07-01

    Osiris is a research reactor with a thermal power of 70 MW. It is a light-water reactor, open-core pool type, the principal aim of which is to carry out tests and irradiate structural materials and fuel elements of nuclear power plants under a high flux of neutrons, and to produce radioisotopes. Osiris operates around 200 days a year, in cycles of varying lengths from 3 to 4 weeks. A shutdown of about 10 days between two cycles allows reloading the core with fuel. Mainly 2 types of irradiation device are present: capsules for materials irradiation (CHOUCA and IRMA devices) and fuels irradiation loops (GRIFFONOS and ISABELLE). Although Osiris is still providing experiments of very good quality, it is facing obsolescence due to its ageing. Osiris is planned to be shut down during next decade. Consequently, it has been decided to launch the construction of the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) in Cadarache. JHR is a water cooled reactor which provides the necessary flexibility and accessibility to manage several highly instrumented experiments, reproducing different reactor environments (water, gas or liquid metal loops), generating transient regimes (key for safety). The JHR facility includes the reactor building, including core, cooling system and the experimental bunkers connected to the core through pool wall penetrations and the auxiliary building, including pools and hot cells necessary for the experimental irradiation process. JHR core is optimised to produce high fast neutron flux to study structural material ageing and high thermal neutrons flux for fuel experiments. The conception of this first fleet of devices integrates the operational experience accumulated by the existing MTR and specifically the Osiris one

  19. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryskamp, J.M. [ed.; Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG&G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options.

  20. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryskamp, J.M. (ed.); Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options.

  1. Product Characterization and Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis in a Three-Zone Free-Fall Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaya Punsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of biomass including palm shell, palm kernel, and cassava pulp residue was studied in a laboratory free-fall reactor with three separated hot zones. The effects of pyrolysis temperature (250–1050°C and particle size (0.18–1.55 mm on the distribution and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated. A higher pyrolysis temperature and smaller particle size increased the gas yield but decreased the char yield. Cassava pulp residue gave more volatiles and less char than those of palm kernel and palm shell. The derived solid product (char gave a high calorific value of 29.87 MJ/kg and a reasonably high BET surface area of 200 m2/g. The biooil from palm shell is less attractive to use as a direct fuel, due to its high water contents, low calorific value, and high acidity. On gas composition, carbon monoxide was the dominant component in the gas product. A pyrolysis model for biomass pyrolysis in the free-fall reactor was developed, based on solving the proposed two-parallel reactions kinetic model and equations of particle motion, which gave excellent prediction of char yields for all biomass precursors under all pyrolysis conditions studied.

  2. Improving Jet Reactor Configuration for Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povitsky, Alex

    2000-01-01

    The jet mixing reactor has been proposed for the industrial production of fullerene carbon nanotubes. Here we study the flowfield of this reactor using the SIMPLER algorithm. Hot peripheral jets are used to enhance heating of the central jet by mixing with the ambiance of reactor. Numerous configurations of peripheral jets with various number of jets, distance between nozzles, angles between the central jet and a peripheral jets, and twisted configuration of nozzles are considered. Unlike the previous studies of jet mixing, the optimal configuration of peripheral jets produces strong non-uniformity of the central jet in a cross-section. The geometrical shape of reactor is designed to obtain a uniform temperature of a catalyst.

  3. High power density reactors based on direct cooled particle beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. R.; Horn, F. L.

    Reactors based on direct cooled High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) type particle fuel are described. The small diameter particle fuel is packed between concentric porous cylinders to make annular fuel elements, with the inlet coolant gas flowing inwards. Hot exit gas flows out along the central channel of each element. Because of the very large heat transfer area in the packed beds, power densities in particle bed reactors (PBRs) are extremely high resulting in compact, lightweight systems. Coolant exit temperatures are high, because of the ceramic fuel temperature capabilities, and the reactors can be ramped to full power and temperature very rapidly. PBR systems can generate very high burst power levels using open cycle hydrogen coolant, or high continuous powers using closed cycle helium coolant. PBR technology is described and development requirements assessed.

  4. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosics with hot-compressed water treatment followed by acetic acid fermentation and hydrogenolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, S.; Phaiboonsilpa, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Masuda, S.; Lu, X.; Yamauchi, K.; Miyafuji, H.; Kawamoto, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described a newly developed ethanol production system which involves hot-compressed water treatment combined with acetic acid fermentation and catalytic hydrogenation. The hot-compressed water treatment was optimized by using a semi-flow treatment on Japanese beech wood at 230 degrees C/10 MPa for 15 min, and then at 270 degrees C/10 MPa for 15 min. Under these conditions, 54 per cent of the hemicelluloses and 71 wt per cent of the cellulose were hydrolyzed, respectively. However, approximately 12 wt per cent of the wood decomposed into dehydrated and fragmented products. Approximately 88 per cent of the lignin also decomposed. The fermentability of these various compounds to acetic acid was then examined. Monosaccharides as well as some decomposed compounds and lignin-derived compounds were all found to be fermentable to acetic acid with Clostridium thermoaceticum. In particular, glucose, xylose and fructose could be effectively converted to acetic acid with a 70 to 80 per cent yield. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides were converted with C. thermocellum to glucose and organic acids. Almost all compounds obtained by the hot-compressed water treatment were converted to acetic acid in co-culture fermentation. A flow-type laboratory reactor was used to evaluate ethanol production from acetic acid using a one-step hydrogenation method to ethanol. A very dilute aqueous solution of acetic acid was effectively hydrogenated to ethanol. It was concluded that compared to conventional yeast fermentation, ethanol can be produced more efficiently from lignocellulosics by combining the 3 steps of hot-compressed water treatment followed by acetic acid fermentation and hydrogenation.

  5. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  6. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  7. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  8. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  9. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  10. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  11. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  12. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  13. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    broaden the IAEA safeguards toolbox, the study recommends that the Agency consider closing potential gaps in safeguards coverage by, among other things: 1) adapting its safeguards measures based on a case-by-case assessment; 2) using more frequent and expanded/enhanced mailbox declarations (ideally with remote transmission of the data to IAEA Headquarters in Vienna) coupled with short-notice or unannounced inspections; 3) putting more emphasis on the collection and analysis of environmental samples at hot cells and waste storage tanks; 4) taking Safeguards by Design into account for the construction of new research reactors and best practices for existing research reactors; 5) utilizing fully all legal authorities to enhance inspection access (including a strengthened and continuing DIV process); and 6) utilizing new approaches to improve auditing activities, verify reactor operating data history, and track/monitor the movement and storage of spent fuel.

  14. Proceedings of the NEACRP/IAEA Specialists meeting on the international comparison calculation of a large sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor at Argonne National Laboratory on February 7-9, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L.G.; McKnight, R.D.; Wade, D.C.; Freese, K.E.; Collins, P.J.

    1980-08-01

    The results of an international comparison calculation of a large (1250 MWe) LMFBR benchmark model are presented and discussed. Eight reactor configurations were calculated. Parameters included with the comparison were: eigenvalue, k/sub infinity/, neutron balance data, breeding reaction rate ratios, reactivity worths, central control rod worth, regional sodium void reactivity, core Doppler and effective delayed neutron fraction. Ten countries participated in the comparison, and sixteen solutions were contributed. The discussion focuses on the variation in parameter values, the degree of consistency among the various parameters and solutions, and the identification of unexpected results. The results are displayed and discussed both by individual participants and by groupings of participants (e.g., results from adjusted data sets versus non-adjusted data sets).

  15. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  16. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  17. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  18. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  19. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris{o} National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...