Sample records for reactive melt infiltration

  1. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay


    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  2. Reactive Infiltration of Silicon Melt Through Microporous Amorphous Carbon Preforms

    Sangsuwan, P.; Tewari, S. N.; Gatica, J. E.; Singh, M.; Dickerson, R.


    The kinetics of unidirectional capillary infiltration of silicon melt into microporous carbon preforms have been investigated as a function of the pore morphology and melt temperature. The infiltrated specimens showed alternating bands of dark and bright regions, which corresponded to the unreacted free carbon and free silicon regions, respectively. The decrease in the infiltration front velocity for increasing infiltration distances, is in qualitative agreement with the closed-form solution of capillarity driven fluid flow through constant cross section cylindrical pores. However, drastic changes in the thermal response and infiltration front morphologies were observed for minute differences in the preforms microstructure. This suggests the need for a dynamic percolation model that would account for the exothermic nature of the silicon-carbon chemical reaction and the associated pore closing phenomenon.

  3. Wear and Reactivity Studies of Melt infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Jarmon, David C.; Ojard, Greg; Brewer, David N.


    As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. A series of CMC/material couples were wear tested in a custom elevated temperature test rig and tested as diffusion couples, to identify interactions. Specifically, melt infiltrated silicon carbide/silicon carbide (MI SiC/SiC) CMC was tested in combination with a nickel-based super alloy, Waspaloy, a thermal barrier coating, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a monolithic ceramic, silicon nitride (Si3N4). To make the tests more representative of actual hardware, the surface of the CMC was kept in the as-received state (not machined) with the full surface features/roughness present. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.

  4. Fabrication of fiber composites with a MAX phase matrix by reactive melt infiltration

    Lenz, F; Krenkel, W, E-mail: [University of Bayreuth, Chair of Ceramic Materials Engineering, Ludwig-Thoma-Str. 36b, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany)


    Due to the inherent brittleness of ceramics it is very desirable to increase the damage tolerance of ceramics. The ternary MAX phases are a promising group of materials with high fracture toughness. The topic of this study is the development of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) with a matrix containing MAX phases, to achieve a damage tolerant structural composite material. For this purpose carbon fiber reinforced preforms with a carbon-titanium carbide matrix (C/C-TiC) were developed and infiltrated with silicon by a pressureless reactive melt infiltration. Finally liquid silicon caused the formation of SiC, TiSi{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} in the matrix of the composite.

  5. Computational simulation of reactive melt infiltration in a porous preform pertaining to the fabrication of ceramic-matrix composites

    Rajesh, Gopalaswamy

    Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are an important class of composite materials that are being considered for a broad range of aerospace components that need to withstand elevated temperatures. CMCs offer significant potential for raising the thrust-to-weight ratio of gas turbine engines by tailoring directions of high specific reliability using design-based fiber architecture. Reactive melt infiltration is a process used to manufacture silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites. This method of making SiC/SiC composites is advantageous since it is fast and net shapes can be obtained. The present stage of research on reactive infiltration is primarily experimental, wherein complete infiltration is rarely achieved and unreacted silicon still remains in the composite. Towards this end, this thesis deals with the modeling aspect of reactive melt infiltration and estimates permeability as a function of time for a preform geometry of hexagonally packed array of cylindrical (carbon-coated silicon carbide) fibers. The modeling of the complete process has been structured into two stages, namely, micro and macro modeling. At the micro level, spherical and cylindrical geometries are considered for the reinforcements coated with carbon and solutions to the problem of coupled heat and mass transfer with chemical reaction and volume expansion are derived and solved numerically. Finite element analysis is used to qualitatively study the change in porosity in a representative volume element (RVE) with moving boundaries. The porosity of an RVE is calculated as a function of time from the growth of the SiC layer on the carbon-coated reinforcement. The permeability of the preform is then estimated as a function of the porosity in the macro model. The thickness of the reaction product (SiC) layer forming the matrix in the composite is determined in terms of physical parameters (diffusivity of the reactants Si and carbon, temperature) and non

  6. Fundamental study of a refractory-based carbon fiber reinforced composite made by reactive melt infiltration for hypersonic applications

    Wali, Natalie Alice

    Ceramic matrix composites are excellent candidates for ultrahigh temperature applications due their good physical properties, which are a combination of a chemically stable matrix and tough fiber reinforcement. This work is a fundamental study of a carbon fiber reinforced zirconium carbide composite (Cf/ZrC). The background chapter reviews reactive melt infiltration, which is the processing method used to make the Cf/ZrC composite. The first chapter discusses the microstructural characterization and development of Cf/ZrC. A formation mechanism of the unique matrix microstructure is proposed based on the characterization results. In the second chapter the mechanical properties of Cf/ZrC were determined. The fracture toughness at room temperature is obtained with a standard four point bend test, while flexural strength of Cf/ZrC is obtained to the ultra high temperature regime. For high temperatures a testing rig was modified to operate in inert atmosphere and tests were conducted at 1100 °C, 1350 °C and 1650 °C. Correlation is made between the flexural strength and fiber coatings of two different composite types. In situ compression tests were performed a modified SEM. Digital image correlation was used to monitor strains during compression. The stress-strain information is correlated to surface deformation. The environmental durability and oxidation behavior of Cf/ZrC and ZrC is detailed in the third and fourth chapters. The oxidation and shock behavior of Cf/ZrC were observed under both slow and rapid heating rates to ultra high temperatures. For rapid heating rates a panel was subjected to heating at steady-state and non-steady state heat flux. For slow heating rates specimen coupons were heated at 2000 °C in a bottom-loading furnace. Specimens were characterized post-test by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and optical microscopy. The oxidation kinetics of Cf/ZrC composites and ZrC powders (45 micron and 60 nanometer

  7. Ti_3AlC_2-Al_2O_3-TiAl_3 composite fabricated by reactive melt infiltration

    HE Shan-shan; YIN Xiao-wei; ZHANG Li-tong; LI Xiang-ming; CHENG Lai-fei


    Porous preforms were fabricated by cold-pressing process using powder mixture of TiC, TiO_2 and dextrin. After pyrolysis and sintering, Al melt was infiltrated into the porous preforms, leading to the formation of Ti_3AlC_2-Al_2O_3-TiAl_3 composite. Effects of cold-pressing pressure of preforms on microstructures and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. Synthesis mechanism and toughening mechanism of composite were also analyzed. The results shows that TiO_2 is reduced into Ti_2O_3 by carbon, the decomposition product of dextrin, which causes the spontaneous infiltration of Al melt into TiC/Ti_2O_3 preform. Then, Ti_3AlC_2-Al_2O_3-TiAl_3 composite is in-situ formed from the simultaneous reaction of Al melt with TiC and Ti_2O_3. With the increase of cold-pressing pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, the pore size distribution of the preforms becomes increasingly uniform after pre-sintering, which results in the reduction of defects, and the decrease of property discrepancy of composites. Nano-laminated Ti_3AlC_2 grains and Al_2O_3 particles make the fracture toughness of TiAl_3 increase remarkably by various toughening mechanisms including stress-induced microcrack, crack deflection and crack bridging.

  8. Morphology of melt-rich channels formed during reaction infiltration experiments on partially molten mantle rocks

    Pec, Matej; Holtzman, Benjamin; Zimmerman, Mark; Kohlstedt, David


    Geochemical, geophysical and geological observations suggest that melt extraction from the partially molten mantle occurs by some sort of channelized flow. Melt-solid reactions can lead to melt channelization due to a positive feedback between melt flow and reaction. If a melt-solid reaction increases local permeability, subsequent flow is increased as well and promotes further reaction. This process can lead to the development of high-permeability channels which emerge from background flow. In nature, anastomozing tabular dunite bodies within peridotitic massifs are thought to represent fossilized channels that formed by reactive flow. The conditions under which such channels can emerge are treated by the reaction infiltration instability (RII) theory (e.g. Szymczak and Ladd 2014). In this contribution, we report the results of a series of Darcy type experiments designed to study the development of channels due to RII in mantle lithologies (Pec et al. 2015). We sandwiched a partially molten rock between a melt source and a porous sink and annealed it at high-pressures (P = 300 MPa) and high-temperatures (T = 1200° or 1250° C) under a controlled pressure gradient (∇P = 0-100 MPa/mm) for up to 5 hours. The partially molten rock is formed by 50:50 mixtures of San Carlos olivine (Ol, Fo ˜ 88) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) with either 4, 10 or 20 vol% of alkali basalt added. The source and sink are disks of alkali basalt and porous alumina, respectively. During the experiments, silica undersaturated melt from the melt source dissolves Cpx and precipitates an iron rich Ol (Fo ˜ 82) thereby forming a Cpx-free reaction layer at the melt source - partially molten rock interface. The melt fraction in the reaction layer increases significantly (40% melt) compared to the protolith, confirming that the reaction increases the permeability of the partially molten rock. In experiments annealed under a low pressure gradient (and hence slow melt flow velocity) the reaction layer is

  9. Laser Machining of Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Jarmon, D. C.; Ojard, G.; Brewer, D.


    As interest grows in considering the use of ceramic matrix composites for critical components, the effects of different machining techniques, and the resulting machined surfaces, on strength need to be understood. This work presents the characterization of a Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC composite material system machined by different methods. While a range of machining approaches were initially considered, only diamond grinding and laser machining were investigated on a series of tensile coupons. The coupons were tested for residual tensile strength, after a stressed steam exposure cycle. The data clearly differentiated the laser machined coupons as having better capability for the samples tested. These results, along with micro-structural characterization, will be presented.

  10. Melt Infiltration Ability and Microstructural Evolution of Fe40Al/ TiC Composites System

    F; J; Oliveira; J; L; Baptista; J; M; Vieira


    Pressureless melt infiltration is an economic route f or preparation of high-density ceramic/melt composites. In this study, the Fe40 Al iron aluminide intermetallic, a low cost material of excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, was used as binder for fabricating Fe40Al/TiC composites b y pressureless melt infiltration. The wetting ability of liquid Fe40Al in porous TiC pre-form was studied by in-situ monitoring the melting and infiltration p rocess. The infiltration ability was investigated by ob...

  11. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra


    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  12. Preparation of TiC/Ni3Al Composites by Upward Melt Infiltration


    TiC/Ni3Al composites have been prepared using upward infiltration method. The densificstion was performed by both Ni3Al melt filling and TiC sintering during the infiltration. The dissolution of TiC in liquid Ni3Al has been evidenced by finding Ni3(Al,Ti)C after fast cooling in the TiC/Ni3Al composites. The dissolution may be responsible for the infiltration and sintering. Compared with downward infiltration, the upward infiltration brought about higher strength and fracture toughness and shorter infiltration time. TiC/20 vol. pct Ni3Al composite processed by upward infiltration had a flexural strength of 1476 Mpa with a statistic Weibull modulus of 20.2 and a fracture toughness of 20.4 Mpa(m). Better mechanical properties may be attributed to melt unidirectional movement in upward infiltration.

  13. Synthesis of SiC/Al Co-Continuous Composite by Spontaneous Melt Infiltration


    @@Investigation has been made on the process of synthesizing SiC/Al co-continuous composite by spontaneous melt infiltration. It is found that nitrogen atmosphere is an indispensable factor for spontaneous infiltration of melt Al into SiC preform with continuous porosity. The critical temperature for spontaneous infiltration occurrence can be lowered and spontaneous infiltration rate increased by doping a small amount of Mg into the Al alloy. Adding fine SiO2 powders into the ceramic preform can play the similar role as Mg-doping by increasing wetting through the chemical reaction of 3SiO2+4Al=2Al2O3+3Si at the infiltration front. Infiltration rate can also be increased by Si-doping to lower the viscosity of the molten Al alloy. In addition, sufficient Si content in the molten Al is also indispensable to avoid the formation of Al4C in the synthesized composite.

  14. Interacting length scales in the reactive-infiltration instability

    Szymczak, Piotr


    The reactive-infiltration instability, which develops when a porous matrix is dissolved by a flowing fluid, contains two important length scales. Here we outline a linear stability analysis that simultaneously incorporates both scales. We show that the commonly used "thin-front" model is a limiting case of a more general theory, which also includes convection-dominated dissolution as another special case. The wavelength of the instability is bounded from below, and lies in the range 1mm to 1km for physically reasonable flow rates and reaction rates. We obtain a closed form for the growth rate when the change in porosity is small.

  15. Determination of Reactive Surface Area of Melt Glass

    Bourcier,W.L.; Roberts, S.; Smith, D.K.; Hulsey, S.; Newton,L.; Sawvel, A.; Bruton, C.; Papelis, C.; Um, W.; Russell, C. E.; Chapman,J.


    A comprehensive investigation of natural and manmade silicate glasses, and nuclear melt glass was undertaken in order to derive an estimate of glass reactive surface area. Reactive surface area is needed to model release rates of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass in the subsurface. Because of the limited availability of nuclear melt glasses, natural volcanic glass samples were collected which had similar textures and compositions as those of melt glass. A flow-through reactor was used to measure the reactive surface area of the analog glasses in the presence of simplified NTS site ground waters. A measure of the physical surface area of these glasses was obtained using the BET gas-adsorption method. The studies on analog glasses were supplemented by measurement of the surface areas of pieces of actual melt glass using the BET method. The variability of the results reflect the sample preparation and measurement techniques used, as well as textural heterogeneity inherent to these samples. Based on measurements of analog and actual samples, it is recommended that the hydraulic source term calculations employ a range of 0.001 to 0.01 m{sup 2}/g for the reactive surface area of nuclear melt glass.

  16. Lateral Reactive Infiltration in a Vertical Gabbroic Crystal Mush, Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland

    Namur, O.; Humphreys, M.; Holness, M. B.


    The Marginal Border Series of the Skaergaard intrusion (East Greenland) is comprised of rocks having crystallized in situ along the vertical walls of the magma chambers. It is subdivided into an outer Unbanded Division and an inner Banded Division. The Banded Division contains abundant cm- to dm-thick bands dominated by fine-grained mafic minerals, with a morphology evolving from almost planar to deeply scalloped and fingered with increasing distance from the intrusion margin. The morphology of these bands is reminiscent of the reaction fronts described in sedimentary basins infiltrated by reactive fluid. We propose that the banding in the Skaergaard Marginal Border Series is produced by chemical disequilibrium into the crystal mush resulting from the suction of primitive liquid from the main magma body into the crystal mush. Shrinkage of the mush during solidification is the driving force for liquid migration. Liquid porous flow produces partial dissolution of evolved pre-existing mafic minerals in the mush, which changes the new mush liquid composition to one capable of crystallizing mafic rocks with a very minor plagioclase component. Abrupt solidification of this liquid, which results in the formation of the actual colloform bands, is explained by supersaturation of some mafic mineral components (e.g. olivine, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides) in the infiltrating melt. The morphological evolution of the colloform bands, from almost planar to deeply scalloped and fingered with increasing distance from the intrusion margin, is thought to result from increasing crystal mush thickness with progressive differentiation.

  17. Creep of mafic dykes infiltrated by melt in the lower continental crust (Seiland Igneous Province, Norway)

    Degli Alessandrini, G.; Menegon, L.; Malaspina, N.; Dijkstra, A. H.; Anderson, M. W.


    A dry mafic dyke from a continental lower-crustal shear zone in the Seiland Igneous Province (northern Norway) experienced syn-kinematic melt-rock interaction. Viscous shearing occurred at T ≈ 800 °C, P ≈ 0.75-0.95 GPa and was coeval with infiltration of felsic melt from adjacent migmatitic metapelites. The dyke has a mylonitic microstructure where porphyroclasts of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase are wrapped by a fine-grained (4-7 μm) polyphase mixture of clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite ± K-feldspar ± apatite. Microstructural observations and electron backscatter diffraction analysis indicate that the porphyroclasts deformed by a combination of dislocation glide and fracturing, with only a limited record of dislocation creep, recovery and dynamic recrystallization. We identified diffusion creep as the dominant deformation mechanism in the mixture based on the small grain size, phase mixing and weak crystallographic preferred orientation of all phases (interpreted as the result of oriented grain growth during viscous flow). The polyphase mixture did not form by dynamic recrystallization or by mechanical fragmentation of the porphyroclasts, but rather by melt-rock interaction. Thermodynamic models indicate that the syn-kinematic mineral assemblage results from the chemical interaction between a pristine mafic dyke and ca. 10 vol.% of felsic melt infiltrating from the adjacent partially molten metapelites. Extrapolation of laboratory-derived flow laws to natural conditions indicates that the formation of interconnected layers of fine-grained reaction products deforming by diffusion creep induces a dramatic weakening in the mafic granulites, with strain rates increasing up to 2-3 orders of magnitude. The reaction weakening effect is more efficient than the weakening associated with melt-assisted diffusion creep in the presence of up to 10 vol.% of infiltrated melt without formation of fine-grained reaction products

  18. Mechanical Behavior and Analytical Modeling of Melt-Infiltrated SiC/SiC Woven Composite

    Lang, J.; Sankar, J.; Kelkar, A. D.; Bhatt, R. T.; Baaklini, G.; Lua, J.


    The desirable properties in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), such as high temperature strength, corrosion resistance, high toughness, low density, or good creep resistance have led to increased use of CMCs in high-speed engine structural components and structures that operate in extreme temperature and hostile aero-thermo-chemical environments. Ceramic matrix composites have been chosen for turbine material in the design of 21st century civil propulsion systems to achieve high fuel economy, improved reliability, extended life, and reduced cost. Most commercial CMCs are manufactured using a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process. However, a lower cost fabrication known as melt-infiltration process is also providing CMCs marked for use in hot sections of high-speed civil transports. Limited samples of a SiC/SiC melt-infiltrated woven composites are being investigated at room and elevated temperature below and above matrix cracking. These samples show graceful failure and toughness at room temperature with a reduction in strength and modulus at elevated temperatures. A generic finite element model is also being developed to predict monotonic and cyclic loading behavior of the woven composite. Use of the initial test data from the woven composite is being used for the development of the analytical model. This model is the first of a iterative process leading towards the development the model's capability to predict behavior at room and elevated temperature for monotonic and cyclic loading. The purpose of this paper is to report on the material and mechanical findings of the SiC/SiC melt-infiltrated woven composite and progress on the development of the finite element model.

  19. Two-step infiltration of aluminum melts into Al-Ti-B4C-CuO powder mixture pellets

    Zhang, Jingjing; Lee, Jung-Moo; Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Yu, Huashun


    Aluminum matrix composites with a high volume fraction of B4C and TiB2 were fabricated by a novel processing technique - a quick spontaneous infiltration process. The process combines a pressureless infiltration with the combustion reaction of Al-Ti-B4C-CuO in molten aluminum. The process is realized in a simple and economical way in which the whole process is performed in air in a few minutes. To verify the rapidity of the process, the infiltration kinetics was calculated based on the Washburn equation in which melt flows into a porous skeleton. However, there was a noticeable deviation from the calculated results with the experimental results. Considering the cross-sections of the samples at different processing times, a new infiltration model (two step infiltration) consisting of macro-infiltration and micro-infiltration is suggested. The calculated kinetics results in light of the proposed model agree well with the experimental results.

  20. The effect of melt infiltration of borosilicate glass on biaxial flexural strength of porcelain-veneered zirconia

    Joo, Kyu Ji; Song, Kyung Woo; Jung, Jong Hyun; Ahn, Hyo Jin; Park, Il Song; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Tae Sung


    To evaluate the effect of melt infiltration on the biaxial flexural strength of porcelain-bonded zirconia, borosilicate glasses were used in this study. Presintered yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) blocks were milled and used for disc specimens. Prior to veneering of porcelain, the infiltration of borosilicate glass on zirconia was performed at 1,100 °C for 1 h. After a biaxial flexural test with the crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/min, fractured surfaces and interfaces between zirconia and veneer porcelain were observed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The fracture strength of sintered zirconia and veneer porcelain was significantly increased by the melt infiltration of borosilicate glass (P porcelain increased slightly. The sintered zirconia group showed a smooth fracture surface containing many pores, but the glass-infiltrated zirconia group showed a rough fracture surface.

  1. Reactive-infiltration instabilities in rocks. Fracture dissolution

    Szymczak, Piotr


    A reactive fluid dissolving the surface of a uniform fracture will trigger an instability in the dissolution front, leading to spontaneous formation of pronounced well-spaced channels in the surrounding rock matrix. Although the underlying mechanism is similar to the wormhole instability in porous rocks there are significant differences in the physics, due to the absence of a steadily propagating reaction front. In previous work we have described the geophysical implications of this instability in regard to the formation of long conduits in soluble rocks. Here we describe a more general linear stability analysis, including axial diffusion, transport limited dissolution, non-linear kinetics, and a finite length system.

  2. Prepreg and Melt Infiltration Technology Developed for Affordable, Robust Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeannie F.


    Affordable fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with multifunctional properties are critically needed for high-temperature aerospace and space transportation applications. These materials have various applications in advanced high-efficiency and high-performance engines, airframe and propulsion components for next-generation launch vehicles, and components for land-based systems. A number of these applications require materials with specific functional characteristics: for example, thick component, hybrid layups for environmental durability and stress management, and self-healing and smart composite matrices. At present, with limited success and very high cost, traditional composite fabrication technologies have been utilized to manufacture some large, complex-shape components of these materials. However, many challenges still remain in developing affordable, robust, and flexible manufacturing technologies for large, complex-shape components with multifunctional properties. The prepreg and melt infiltration (PREMI) technology provides an affordable and robust manufacturing route for low-cost, large-scale production of multifunctional ceramic composite components.

  3. Melt variability in percolated peridotite: an experimental study applied to reactive migration of tholeiitic basalt in the upper mantle

    van den Bleeken, Greg; Müntener, Othmar; Ulmer, Peter


    Melt-rock reaction in the upper mantle is recorded in a variety of ultramafic rocks and is an important process in modifying melt composition on its way from the source region towards the surface. This experimental study evaluates the compositional variability of tholeiitic basalts upon reaction with depleted peridotite at uppermost-mantle conditions. Infiltration-reaction processes are simulated by employing a three-layered set-up: primitive basaltic powder (`melt layer') is overlain by a `peridotite layer' and a layer of vitreous carbon spheres (`melt trap'). Melt from the melt layer is forced to move through the peridotite layer into the melt trap. Experiments were conducted at 0.65 and 0.8 GPa in the temperature range 1,170-1,290°C. In this P-T range, representing conditions encountered in the transition zone (thermal boundary layer) between the asthenosphere and the lithosphere underneath oceanic spreading centres, the melt is subjected to fractionation, and the peridotite is partially melting ( T s ~ 1,260°C). The effect of reaction between melt and peridotite on the melt composition was investigated across each experimental charge. Quenched melts in the peridotite layers display larger compositional variations than melt layer glasses. A difference between glasses in the melt and peridotite layer becomes more important at decreasing temperature through a combination of enrichment in incompatible elements in the melt layer and less efficient diffusive equilibration in the melt phase. At 1,290°C, preferential dissolution of pyroxenes enriches the melt in silica and dilutes it in incompatible elements. Moreover, liquids become increasingly enriched in Cr2O3 at higher temperatures due to the dissolution of spinel. Silica contents of liquids decrease at 1,260°C, whereas incompatible elements start to concentrate in the melt due to increasing levels of crystallization. At the lowest temperatures investigated, increasing alkali contents cause silica to increase

  4. Melting and Reactive Flow of Carbonated Peridotite Beneath Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Keller, T.; Katz, R. F.


    The mantle carbon reservoir is four orders of magnitude more massive than that of the atmosphere and ocean combined. The behaviour of carbon in the mantle, especially its transport and extraction, is thus of crucial importance to understanding the coupling between the deep interior and the surface environment of Earth. Laboratory experiments indicate that even small concentrations of carbon dioxide (and other volatiles like H2O) in the upper mantle significantly affect silicate melting [HK96,DH06] by stabilising carbon-rich melt at high pressure. The presence of carbon in the mantle substantially extends the region where partial melt is stable and has important consequences for the dynamics of magma transport and chemical differentiation [H10,DH10]. We have developed theory and numerical implementation to simulate thermo-chemically coupled magma/mantle dynamics in terms of a two-phase (rock+melt), three component (dunite+MORB+carbonated MORB) physical model. The fluid dynamics is based on McKenzie's equations [McK84]. The thermo-chemical formulation of the system is represented by a novel, disequilibrium, multi-component melting model based on thermodynamic theory [RBS11]. This physical model is implemented as a parallel, two-dimensional, finite-volume code that leverages tools from the PETSc toolkit. First results show that carbon and other volatiles cause a qualitative difference to the style of melt transport, potentially enhancing its extraction efficiency - measured in the carbon mass flux arriving at the mid-ocean ridge axis - by at least an order of magnitude. The process that controls magma transport in our models is a volatile flux-induced reactive infiltration instability, causing carbonated melt to rise from depth in localized channels. These results add to our understanding of melt formation and transport at mid-ocean ridges (the most important magmatic system in the mantle) and may have important implications for subduction zones. REFERENCESHK96 Hirth




    Full Text Available The use of low quality fuel in land based driven turbine in Saudi Arabia usually results in hot corrosion attack (Type 1 due to the penetration of V2O5 into the existing micro pores and cracks on the top coat of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs. As a result of dissolution-precipitation reaction, 4-5% volumetric expansion of the coating occurs due to the tetragonal-to-monoclinic (destabilization transformation of Zirconia. In the current work, a Phase Field Model that estimates the kinetics of micro-structural evolution during the diffusional tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation in the Melt Infiltrated Reaction Zone of the top coat at 900ºC is developed. The model is sequentiallycoupled with constitutive model in order to determine the resulting stress field developed in the top coat. The results show that localized stresses are developed due to the Zirconia-destabilization transformation, and the stresses are found to be higher at the corners and curvatures formed by inter-lamella connection of the micro-pores and micro-cracks.

  6. Fundamentals of Melt infiltration for the Preparation of Supported Metal Catalysts.The Case of Co/SiO2 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Eggenhuisen, T.M.; den Breejen, J.P.; Verdoes, D.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.


    We explored melt infiltration of mesoporous silica supports to prepare supported metal catalysts with high loadings and controllable particle sizes. Melting of Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O in the presence of silica supports was studied in situ with differential scanning calorimetry. The melting point depression o

  7. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.


    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  8. Temperature Dependence of Electrical Resistance of Woven Melt-Infiltrated SiCf/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Appleby, Matthew P.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming


    Recent studies have successfully shown the use of electrical resistance (ER)measurements to monitor room temperature damage accumulation in SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiCf/SiC) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). In order to determine the feasibility of resistance monitoring at elevated temperatures, the present work investigates the temperature dependent electrical response of various MI (Melt Infiltrated)-CVI (Chemical Vapor Infiltrated) SiC/SiC composites containing Hi-Nicalon Type S, Tyranno ZMI and SA reinforcing fibers. Test were conducted using a commercially available isothermal testing apparatus as well as a novel, laser-based heating approach developed to more accurately simulate thermomechanical testing of CMCs. Secondly, a post-test inspection technique is demonstrated to show the effect of high-temperature exposure on electrical properties. Analysis was performed to determine the respective contribution of the fiber and matrix to the overall composite conductivity at elevated temperatures. It was concluded that because the silicon-rich matrix material dominates the electrical response at high temperature, ER monitoring would continue to be a feasible method for monitoring stress dependent matrix cracking of melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composites under high temperature mechanical testing conditions. Finally, the effect of thermal gradients generated during localized heating of tensile coupons on overall electrical response of the composite is determined.

  9. Development of Si3N4/Al composite by pressureless melt infiltration

    Akhtar Farid; GUO Shi-ju


    Pressureless infiltration process to synthesize Si3N4/Al composite was investigated. Al-2%Mg alloy was infiltrated into Si3N4 and Si3N4 containing 10% Al2O3 preforms in the atmosphere of nitrogen. It is possible to infiltrate Al-2%Mg alloy in Si3N4 and Si3N4 containing 10% Al2O3 preforms. The growth of the dense composite of useful thickness was facilitated by the presence of magnesium powder at the interface and by flowing nitrogen. During infiltration Si3N4 reacted with aluminium to form Si and AlN,the growth of composite was found to proceed in two ways, depending on the Al2O3 content in the initial preform. Firstly, preform without Al2O3 content gives rise to AlN, Al3.27Si0.47 and Al type phases after infiltration. Secondly, perform with 10% Al2O3 content gives rise to AlN-Al2O3 solid solution phase (AlON), MgAl2O4, Al and Si type phases. AlON phase was only present in composite,containing 10% Al2O3 in the Si3N4 preforms before infiltration.

  10. Analytical solutions for reactive transport under an infiltration-redistribution cycle.

    Severino, Gerardo; Indelman, Peter


    Transport of reactive solute in unsaturated soils under an infiltration-redistribution cycle is investigated. The study is based on the model of vertical flow and transport in the unsaturated zone proposed by Indelman et al. [J. Contam. Hydrol. 32 (1998) 77], and generalizes it by accounting for linear nonequilibrium kinetics. An exact analytical solution is derived for an irreversible desorption reaction. The transport of solute obeying linear kinetics is modeled by assuming equilibrium during the redistribution stage. The model which accounts for nonequilibrium during the infiltration and assumes equilibrium at the redistribution stage is termed partial equilibrium infiltration-redistribution model (PEIRM). It allows to derive approximate closed form solutions for transport in one-dimensional homogeneous soils. These solutions are further applied to computing the field-scale concentration by adopting the Dagan and Bresler [Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43 (1979) 461] column model. The effect of soil heterogeneity on the solute spread is investigated by modeling the hydraulic saturated conductivity as a random function of horizontal coordinates. The quality of the PEIRM is illustrated by calculating the critical values of the Damköhler number which provide the achievable accuracy in estimating the solute mass in the mobile phase. The distinguishing feature of transport during the infiltration-redistribution cycle as compared to that of infiltration only is the finite depth of solute penetration. For irreversible desorption, the maximum solute penetration W/theta(r) is determined by the amount of applied water W and the residual water content theta(r). For sorption-desorption kinetics, the maximum depth of penetration z(r)(e, infinity ) also depends on the ratio between the rate of application and the column-saturated conductivity. It is shown that z(r)(e, infinity ) is bounded between the depths W/(theta(r)+K(d)) and W/theta(r) corresponding to the maximum solute

  11. Effects of volatiles on melt production and reactive flow in the mantle

    Keller, Tobias


    Magmatism in the Earth interior has a significant impact on its dynamic, thermal and compositional evolution. Experimental studies of petrology of mantle melting find that small concentrations of water and carbon dioxide have a significant effect on the solidus temperature and distribution of melting in the upper mantle. However, it has remained unclear what effect small fractions of deep, volatile-rich melts have on melting and melt transport in the shallow asthenosphere. We present a method to simulate the thermochemical evolution of the upper mantle in the presence of volatiles. The method is based on a novel, thermodynamically consistent framework for reactive, disequilibrium, multi-component melting/crystallisation. This is coupled with a system of equations representing conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for a partially molten grain aggregate. Application of this method to upwelling-column models demonstrates that it captures leading-order features of hydrated and carbonated peridotite melting. ...

  12. Alteration of Mantle Sulfides: the Effects of Oxidation and Melt Infiltration in a Kilbourne Hole Harzburgite Xenolith

    Barrett, T. J.; Harvey, J.; Warren, J. M.; Klein, F.; Walshaw, R.


    Sulfides, while commonly present in volumetrically minor amounts (account for up to 22 weight % of the sulfide. Critically, no fresh, unaltered sulfides were recovered and in all of the sulfides there is evidence for at least two secondary processes. EDS mapping of the sulfides reveals pervasive, but incomplete, oxidation in all of the grains; Raman spectroscopy reveals this oxide to be goethite. In addition, there is also evidence for the interaction of many of the sulfides with a volatile-rich silicate melt. Silicate melt veins cross-cut the original sulfide mineralogy in some areas of the sulfide grain, while leaving other areas virtually untouched. The degree of oxidation and sulfide-melt interaction varies from slight to almost complete alteration amongst the 24 sulfide grains. Remarkably, in some grains, the melt infiltration, which could be due either to metasomatism before the xenolith was entrained or occurred during transport to the surface, appears to cross-cut some of the oxidation features, i.e. at least some of the oxidation features appear to pre-date the melt-rock interaction. This makes it difficult to attribute all of the oxidation to supergene weathering and suggests that some of the oxidation occurred before melt-rock interaction and must therefore have occurred within the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. [1] Luguet et al. (2001) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 189, 285-294. [2] Burton et al. (1999) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 172, 311-322. [3] Harvey et al. (2011) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 5574-5596. [4] Alard et al. (2011) J. Petrol. 52, 2009-2045. [5] Lorand et al. (2003) 67, 4137-4151. [6] Handler & Bennett (1999) Geology 27, 75-78.

  13. Mineral reactions and strain localization in a sheared mafic granulite infiltrated by melt (Seiland Igneous Province, Norway)

    degli Alessandrini, Giulia; Menegon, Luca; Malaspina, Nadia; Dijkstra, Arjan; Anderson, Mark


    This study investigates the deformation mechanisms of a metagabbroic dyke experiencing syn-kinematic melt-rock interaction in a continental lower-crustal shear zone in the Seiland Igneous Province (northern Norway). Solid state shearing occurred at T ≈750-820 °C, P ≈0.75-0.95 GPa and was coeval with melt infiltration from dehydration melting of adjacent metasediments, as evident from thin leucosome veinlets within the dykes. The mylonite consists of cpx [Ca0.47,Mg0.35,Fe0.18]SiO3 + opx [Ca0.1,Mg0.5,Fe0.4]SiO3 + pl (An77Ab22Or1) porphyroclasts with localized grt and ilm coronas, embedded in a fine grained matrix of cpx + opx + pl + qtz + ilm ± kfs. Porphyroclasts range in size (diameter) between 25 to 650 μm, whereas the fine grain matrix is consistently below 10 μm (average 4-7 μm). Porphyroclasts show varying degrees of elongation, with the opx reaching aspect ratios of 1:16 and the cpx reaching rare maxima of 1:7. Cpx and pl porphyroclasts are micro-fractured and micro-boudinaged with fine-grained material infill. Texturally, opx porphyroclasts display a marked crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and activity of the {100} and minor {100} slip systems, whereas cpx and pl porphyroclasts are randomly oriented. All porphyroclasts have strong internal misorientations (undulatory and sweeping extinction) and lack recovery features (subgrains). The fine-grained polyphase matrix wrapping the porphyroclasts displays weak to absent CPO, with the exception of opx that shows a {100} poles-to-planes maxima perpendicular to the foliation. Based on the microstructure, we argue that a large part of the matrix is the product of metamorphic reactions in the presence of melt. To test this hypothesis, the interaction between the studied mafic dyke and an adjacent felsic leucosome was modelled using PerpleX for P-T conditions ranging between 7-9 kbar and 700-1000°C. Results show that the syn-kinematic mineral assemblage (opx + cpx + pl + qtz + ilm ± kfs) can be

  14. Melting of SmBa2Cu3O7-y-seeds during preparation of YBCO Bulk Superconductors by Infiltration Growth Method

    Vojtkova, L.; Diko, P.; Volochová, D.


    The conditions for single-grain growth of YBCO bulk superconductors by top seeded infiltration growth were tested. It is shown that the interaction of melt formed from BaCuO2 + CuO + Y2O3 precursor with the Sm123 seed causes dissolution of the seed at maximum melting temperature 1045 °C. Experiments with low weight Y211 pellet confirmed that the low concentration of Y in the infiltration melt is responsible for this effect. The most effective way suppressing the seed dissolution was shown to be the insertion of Y123 + Y211 buffer layer between the seed and the Y211 pellet. This buffer layer possesses the melt which is saturated with yttrium what prevents dissolution of the seed.

  15. The reactive Mg-liquid infiltration to obtain long superconducting MgB$_{2}$ cables

    Giunchi, G


    An alternative “in situ” process to the MgB2 wire manufacturing is represented by the Reactive Mg-Liquid Infiltration (Mg-RLI) process [1], in which the precursor wire is constituted by a metallic sheath encasing a central Mg rod, surrounded by the B powders. We demonstrated that this peculiar “internal Mg” assembly is able to produce very dense superconducting material of high critical current density, with an acceptable fill factor, up to 0.28. Furthermore the Mg-RLI allows also to easily dope the MgBB2 material either by carbon or nanoSiC powders. In order to realize long cables with this technique, two different approaches may be applied. The first one relies on the assembly of thin wires, fine enough that the liquid Mg cannot freely percolate along the wire during the reaction, and the second one relies on the assembly of thick hollow wires, reacted with a continuous supply of Mg to avoid deficiency of Mg in some part of the precursor wire. Both techniques have been demonstrated feasible and the ...

  16. Multiphase Reactive Transport modeling of Stable Isotope Fractionation of Infiltrating Unsaturated Zone Pore Water and Vapor Using TOUGHREACT

    Singleton, Michael J.; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.


    Numerical simulations of transport and isotope fractionation provide a method to quantitatively interpret vadose zone pore water stable isotope depth profiles based on soil properties, climatic conditions, and infiltration. We incorporate the temperature-dependent equilibration of stable isotopic species between water and water vapor, and their differing diffusive transport properties into the thermodynamic database of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. These simulations are used to illustrate the evolution of stable isotope profiles in semiarid regions where recharge during wet seasons disturbs the drying profile traditionally associated with vadose zone pore waters. Alternating wet and dry seasons lead to annual fluctuations in moisture content, capillary pressure, and stable isotope compositions in the vadose zone. Periodic infiltration models capture the effects of seasonal increases in precipitation and predict stable isotope profiles that are distinct from those observed under drying (zero infiltration) conditions. After infiltration, evaporation causes a shift to higher 18O and D values, which are preserved in the deeper pore waters. The magnitude of the isotopic composition shift preserved in deep vadose zone pore waters varies inversely with the rate of infiltration.

  17. Study of Reactive Melt Processing Behavior of Externally Plasticized Cellulose Acetate in Presence of Isocyanate

    Rafael Erdmann


    Full Text Available Two types of externally plasticized cellulose acetate (CA were chemically modified using 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI as crosslinking agent. Crosslinking was performed in the molten state by means of melt mixing in an internal mixer. The viscoelastic properties of the non-crosslinked, externally plasticized CA show typical temperature dependence, similar to conventional thermoplastics. A strong increase in storage modulus is observed with increasing crosslink density indicating that the crosslinked compounds exhibit predominately elastic response. The complex viscosity also increases considerably with increasing crosslink density and does not reach the typical Newtonian plateau at low radial frequencies any more. The viscoelastic properties correlate well with the data recorded online during reactive melt processing in the internal mixer. In comparison to the non-crosslinked CA, the crosslinked compounds show higher glass transition temperature, higher VICAT softening temperatures, improved thermal stability and lower plasticizer evaporation at evaluated temperatures.

  18. PD-1 identifies the patient-specific CD8⁺ tumor-reactive repertoire infiltrating human tumors.

    Gros, Alena; Robbins, Paul F; Yao, Xin; Li, Yong F; Turcotte, Simon; Tran, Eric; Wunderlich, John R; Mixon, Arnold; Farid, Shawn; Dudley, Mark E; Hanada, Ken-Ichi; Almeida, Jorge R; Darko, Sam; Douek, Daniel C; Yang, James C; Rosenberg, Steven A


    Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate regression of metastatic melanoma; however, TILs are a heterogeneous population, and there are no effective markers to specifically identify and select the repertoire of tumor-reactive and mutation-specific CD8⁺ lymphocytes. The lack of biomarkers limits the ability to study these cells and develop strategies to enhance clinical efficacy and extend this therapy to other malignancies. Here, we evaluated unique phenotypic traits of CD8⁺ TILs and TCR β chain (TCRβ) clonotypic frequency in melanoma tumors to identify patient-specific repertoires of tumor-reactive CD8⁺ lymphocytes. In all 6 tumors studied, expression of the inhibitory receptors programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as CD279), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; also known as CD223), and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) on CD8⁺ TILs identified the autologous tumor-reactive repertoire, including mutated neoantigen-specific CD8⁺ lymphocytes, whereas only a fraction of the tumor-reactive population expressed the costimulatory receptor 4-1BB (also known as CD137). TCRβ deep sequencing revealed oligoclonal expansion of specific TCRβ clonotypes in CD8⁺PD-1⁺ compared with CD8⁺PD-1- TIL populations. Furthermore, the most highly expanded TCRβ clonotypes in the CD8⁺ and the CD8⁺PD-1⁺ populations recognized the autologous tumor and included clonotypes targeting mutated antigens. Thus, in addition to the well-documented negative regulatory role of PD-1 in T cells, our findings demonstrate that PD-1 expression on CD8⁺ TILs also accurately identifies the repertoire of clonally expanded tumor-reactive cells and reveal a dual importance of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment.

  19. Infiltration of Refractory Melts into the Sub-Oceanic Mantle: Evidence from Major and Minor Element Compositions of Minerals from the 53° E Amagmatic Segment Abyssal Peridotites at the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Gao, C.; Dick, H. J.; Zhou, H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.


    Elevated sodium and titanium in pyroxene and spinel with high TiO2 (> 0.2 wt%) are suggested as the geochemical characteristic for the MORB-like melt infiltration of peridotites. The petrological and geochemical results of melt infiltrating in mantle peridotites are controlled by not only the melt composition but also the melt/rock ratio. Large discordant dunite bodies in the mantle transition zone are the direct observation of large volume melt (high melt/rock ratio) infiltrating by channeled porous flow in the shallow mantle (1). In addition to dunites, melt infiltrating results in a large variety of vein lithologies in mantle, and the occurrence of plagioclases are considered as a petrological signal of melt-reaction at shallow depth (2, 3) with a medium melt/rock ratio. Because the lacking of obviously petrological and geochemical variation of peridotites, melt infiltration of peridotites with a low melt/rock ratio are rarely reported. Peridotites in this study are from the 53° E amagmatic segment at the Southwest Indian Ridge. These peridotites are suggested as highly depleted buoyant mantle drawn up from the asthenosphere beneath southern Africa during the breakup of Gondwanaland (4) and are residues of multi-stage melt extracting in both spinel and garnet field. We present a detailed analysis of mineral compositions by both the EMPA and LA-ICPMS. Mineral phases in 53°E peridotites have mantle major element compositions, although minerals show variations with the crystal size and the location from cores to rims (Fig.1). In conjunction with the profile analysis of large clinopyroxene crystals, our results document the melt infiltration occurred at the ultraslow-spreading environment. At least two kinds of percolation melts are distinguished. They are normally MORB-like melt and ultra-depleted melt. Reference1.P. B. Kelemen, H. J. B. Dick, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 100, 423 (Jan, 1995). 2.J. M. Warren, N. Shimizu, Journal of Petrology 51


    Qiang Shi; Lian-chao Zhu; Chuan-lun Cai; Jing-hua Yin


    The kinetics of melt grafting acrylic acid (AA) onto linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) by using reactive extrusion was investigated. The polymeric peroxides (POOP and POOH) generated by electron beam irradiation were used to initiate the graft reaction. The samples taken out from the barrel at five ports along screw axis were analyzed by FTIR. The spectra show that both the graft copolymerization and homopolymerization proceed in two stages: the graft degree (or mass of homopolymer) increases linearly with the reaction time in the initial stage, and then gradually in the second stage. The rate of graft copolymerization Rg is always faster than that of homopolymerization Rh in the present system and the activation interpreted in terms of solubility and diffusion of monomer, as well as the reactivity and the concentration of reactive species.The relationships between reaction rate and monomer concentration and peroxide concentration were found to be. Rg ∝ [M]1.46[POOP+POOH]0.53 and Rh ∝ [M]1.08[POOH]0.51, which indicate that the addition of monomer to polymeric radicals is a slow step for the graft copolymerization.

  1. Direct Preparation of Strontium Aluminate Phosphor Plate by Reactive Infiltration Method

    Watari, T [Ceramic Research Laboratory, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Ikeue, K; Torikai, T; Yada, M, E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Hojo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)


    Sr-aluminate phosphor plates were prepared by the infiltration-reaction method. The mixture of SrCO{sub 3}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were mixed and coated on the porous alumina plate, followed by heating at 1300deg. C for 4h under 10%H{sub 2}+90%N{sub 2} gas atmosphere. After processing, the surface part of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} plate became dense, {approx}20{mu}m thickness. SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} phases were observed as the product. The coated mixture powder changed to a liquid state and infiltrated into the pores of the alumina plate. During processing, the following reactions occurred; SrCO{sub 3{yields}}SrO+CO{sub 2}, SrO+Al{sub 2}O{sub 3{yields}}SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3SrO+Al{sub 2}O{sub 3{yields}}Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}. According to the Sr distribution analysis at the dense layer, Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} and SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases were mainly formed in the surface-side and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-side layers, respectively. This plate emits green luminescence by the irradiation of the 'black-light'. The wave length of the emitted light was in the range of 450-650nm, and the maximum intensity appeared at 520nm. Also, this plate showed green afterglow. The best mixing ratio was Sr/Eu/Dy = 5/1/1. This afterglow intensity decreased from 0.14cdm{sup -2} (0sec.) to 0.01cdm{sup -2} (30sec.). We observed the green afterglow for 3 hours in the dark.

  2. Gene Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TCR Confers Both High Avidity and Tumor Reactivity to Nonreactive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes1

    Johnson, Laura A.; Heemskerk, Bianca; Powell, Daniel J.; Cohen, Cyrille J.; Morgan, Richard A.; Dudley, Mark E.; Robbins, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Steven A.


    Cell-based antitumor immunity is driven by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells bearing TCR that recognize specific tumor-associated peptides bound to class I MHC molecules. Of several cellular proteins involved in T cell:target-cell interaction, the TCR determines specificity of binding; however, the relative amount of its contribution to cellular avidity remains unknown. To study the relationship between TCR affinity and cellular avidity, with the intent of identifying optimal TCR for gene therapy, we derived 24 MART-1:27–35 (MART-1) melanoma Ag-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) clones from the tumors of five patients. These MART-1-reactive clones displayed a wide variety of cellular avidities. α and β TCR genes were isolated from these clones, and TCR RNA was electroporated into the same non-MART-1-reactive allogeneic donor PBMC and TIL. TCR recipient cells gained the ability to recognize both MART-1 peptide and MART-1-expressing tumors in vitro, with avidities that closely corresponded to the original TCR clones (p = 0.018–0.0003). Clone DMF5, from a TIL infusion that mediated tumor regression clinically, showed the highest avidity against MART-1 expressing tumors in vitro, both endogenously in the TIL clone, and after RNA electroporation into donor T cells. Thus, we demonstrated that the TCR appeared to be the core determinant of MART-1 Ag-specific cellular avidity in these activated T cells and that nonreactive PBMC or TIL could be made tumor-reactive with a specific and predetermined avidity. We propose that inducing expression of this highly avid TCR in patient PBMC has the potential to induce tumor regression, as an “off-the-shelf” reagent for allogeneic melanoma patient gene therapy. PMID:17056587


    A. V. Mordyk


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to assess the endogenous intoxication degree and reactivity condition of an organism by calculation the blood leukocyte indexes and their influence assessment for the outcome of first time diagnosed infiltrative lung tuberculosis for the revealed socially safe patients. Case-records of 260 patients were analysed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria were: first time diagnosed and confirmed diagnosis of infiltrative lungs tuberculosis; age at least 18 years; socially adopted patients (the patients taking official or informal work place, the constant income in a family, a residence, a registration. Exception criteria were: extra pulmonary or other forms of lung tuberculosis at the patient; existence of a serious somatic illness; HIV infection; existence of malignant new growths; mental diseases; the social disadaptation (homeless persons who aren’t working, released from jails or being under examination, abusing alcohol in the form of hard drinkings and accepting drugs. All patients included in research were divided into two groups: first (main — patients with a failure in quantity the 66, second (group of comparison — patients with a favourable outcome of infiltrative tuberculosis of lungs, in number of 194. Failure criterion was the existence (preservation of a disintegration lung cavity confirmed by the last X-ray picture. According patients blood test results the intoxication leukocyte index (ILI, with Kalf-Kalif formula, an blood leukocytes shift index (BLSI, an organism resistance index (ORI, a Dashtayants nuclear index was carried out. Followly the Spirmen correlation analysis with Statistica 6.0 software package was estimated. As a result of research the following data were obtained. The Dashtayants nuclear index high level at primary blood test has the strongest impact on development of infiltrative lungs tuberculosis failure in patients; the ILI and BLSI high levels at the time of the beginning of

  4. Control of Y-211 content in bulk YBCO superconductors fabricated by a buffer-aided, top seeded infiltration and growth melt process

    Namburi, Devendra K.; Shi, Yunhua; Palmer, Kysen G.; Dennis, Anthony R.; Durrell, John H.; Cardwell, David A.


    Bulk (RE)-Ba-Cu-O ((RE)BCO, where RE stands for rare-earth), single grain superconductors can trap magnetic fields of several tesla at low temperatures and therefore can function potentially as high field magnets. Although top seeded melt growth (TSMG) is an established process for fabricating relatively high quality single grains of (RE)BCO for high field applications, this technique suffers from inherent problems such as sample shrinkage, a large intrinsic porosity and the presence of (RE)2BaCuO5 (RE-211)-free regions in the single grain microstructure. Seeded infiltration and growth (SIG), therefore, has emerged as a practical alternative to TSMG that overcomes many of these problems. Until now, however, the superconducting properties of bulk materials processed by SIG have been inferior to those fabricated using the TSMG technique. In this study, we identify that the inferior properties of SIG processed bulk superconductors are related to the presence of a relatively large Y-211 content (˜41.8%) in the single grain microstructure. Controlling the RE-211 content in SIG bulk samples is particularly challenging because it is difficult to regulate the entry of the liquid phase into the solid RE-211 preform during the infiltration process. In an attempt to solve this issue, we have investigated the effect of careful control of both the infiltration temperature and the quantity of liquid phase powder present in the sample preforms prior to processing. We conclude that careful control of the infiltration temperature is the most promising of these two process variables. Using this knowledge, we have fabricated successfully a YBCO bulk single grain using the SIG process of diameter 25 mm that exhibits a trapped field of 0.69 T at 77 K, which is the largest value reported to date for a sample fabricated by the SIG technique.

  5. Reactive transport modelling of a high-pH infiltration test in concrete

    Chaparro, M. Carme; Soler, Josep M.; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Mäder, Urs K.


    A laboratory-scale tracer test was carried out to characterize the transport properties of concrete from the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at El Cabril (Spain). A hyperalkaline solution (K-Ca-OH, pH = 13.2) was injected into a concrete sample under a high entry pressure in order to perform the experiment within a reasonable time span, obtaining a decrease of permeability by a factor of 1000. The concentrations of the tracers, major elements (Ca2+, SO4 2 - , K+ and Na+) and pH were measured at the outlet of the concrete sample. A reactive transport model was built based on a double porosity conceptual model, which considers diffusion between a mobile zone, where water can flow, and an immobile zone without any advective transport. The numerical model assumed that all reactions took place in the immobile zone. The cement paste consists of C-S-H gel, portlandite, ettringite, calcite and gypsum, together with residual alite and belite. Two different models were compared, one with portlandite in equilibrium (high initial surface area) and another one with portlandite reaction controlled by kinetics (low initial surface area). Overall the results show dissolution of alite, belite, gypsum, quartz, C-S-H gel and ettringite and precipitation of portlandite and calcite. Permeability could have decreased due to mineral precipitation.

  6. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    J. Cailloux


    Full Text Available One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same processing conditions, PD,L-LA with the lower D enantiomer molar content revealed a higher reactivity towards the reactive agent, induced by its higher thermal sensitivity. REXCalendering process seemed to minimize the degradations reactions during processing, although a competition between degradation and chain extension/branching reactions took place in both processes. Finally, the rheological characterization revealed a higher degree of modification in the melt rheological behaviour for REX-Calendered samples.

  7. First Kinetic Reactive-Flow and Melting Calculations for Entropy Budget and Major Elements in Heterogeneous Mantle Lithologies (Invited)

    Asimow, P. D.


    The consequences of source heterogeneity and reactive flow during melt transport in the mantle can be classified by scale. At the smallest spatial and longest temporal scales, we can assume complete equilibrium and use batch melting of homogenized sources or equilibrium porous flow treatments. At large enough spatial scale or short enough temporal scale to prevent any thermal or chemical interaction between heterogeneities or between melt and matrix, we can assume perfectly fractional melting and transport and apply simple melt-mixing calculations. At a somewhat smaller spatial or longer temporal scale, thermal but not chemical interactions are significant and various lithologies and channel/matrix systems must follow common pressure-temperature paths, with energy flows between them. All these cases are tractable to model with current tools, whether we are interested in the energy budget, major elements, trace elements, or isotopes. There remains, however, the very important range of scales where none of these simple theories applies because of partial chemical interaction among lithologies or along the flow path. Such disequilibrium or kinetic cases have only been modeled, in the case of mantle minerals and melts, for trace elements and isotopes, with fixed melting rates instead of complete energy budgets. In order to interpret volumes of magma production and major element basalt and residue compositions that might emerge from a heterogeneous mantle in this last range of scales, we must develop tools that can combine a kinetic formulation with a major element and energy-constrained thermodynamic calculation. The kinetics can be handled either with a chemical kinetic approach with rate constants for various net transfer and exchange reactions, or with a physical diffusion-limited approach. A physical diffusion-limited approach can be built with the following elements. At grain scale, spherical grains of an arbitrary number of solid phases can evolve zoning profiles

  8. Melt focusing and CO2 extraction at mid-ocean ridges: simulations of reactive two-phase flow

    Keller, T.; Katz, R. F.; Hirschmann, M. M.


    The deep CO2 cycle is the result of fluxes between near-surface and mantle reservoirs. Outgassing from mid-ocean ridges is one of the primary fluxes of CO2 from the asthenosphere into the ocean-atmosphere reservoir. Focusing of partial melt to the ridge axis crucially controls this flux. However, the role of volatiles, in particular CO2 and H2O, on melt transport processes beneath ridges remains poorly understood. We investigate this transport using numerical simulations of two-phase, multi-component magma/mantle dynamics. The phases are solid mantle and liquid magma; the components are dunite, MORB, hydrated basalt, and carbonated basalt. These effective components capture accepted features of mantle melting with volatiles. The fluid-dynamical model is McKenzie's formulation [1], while melting and reactive transport use the R_DMC method [2,3]. Our results indicate that volatiles cause channelized melt transport, which leads to significant variability in volume and composition of focused melt. The volatile-induced expansion of the melting regime at depth, however, has no influence on melt focusing; distal volatile-rich melts are not focused to the axis. Up to 50% of these melts are instead emplaced along the oceanic LAB. There, crystallization of accumulated melt leads to enrichment of CO2 and H2O in the deep lithosphere, which has implications for LAB rheology and volatile recycling by subduction. Results from a suite of simulations, constrained by catalogued observational data [4,5,6] enable predictions of global MOR CO2 output. By combining observational constraints with self-consistent numerical simulations we obtain a range of CO2 output from the global ridge system of 28-110 Mt CO2/yr, corresponding to mean CO2 contents of 50-200 ppm in the mantle. REFERENCES[1] McKenzie (1984), doi:10.1093/petrology/25.3.713.[2] Rudge, Bercovici & Spiegelman (2011), doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04870.x.[3] Keller & Katz (2016), doi:10.1093/petrology/egw030.[4] Dalton

  9. Evaluation of the Reactive T-Cell Infiltrate in Uveitis and Intraocular Lymphoma with Flow Cytometry of Vitreous Fluid (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Davis, Janet L.; Ruiz, Philip; Shah, Milan; Mandelcorn, Efrem D.


    Purpose: To describe the reactive T-cell infiltrate in uveitis and intraocular lymphoma using flow cytometry of clinical intraocular specimens acquired during diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective review of diagnostic vitreous specimens (1992–2011) obtained at a university-based, tertiary care center. Seventy-eight patients with uveitis or lymphoma undergoing pars plana vitrectomy were selected for intraocular testing based on clinical diagnostic uncertainty. Pars plana vitrectomy with flow cytometry, gene rearrangement studies, and cytology was performed. Results: T-cell infiltrates were found in all diagnostic categories with limited power to discriminate between uveitis and T-lymphocyte reactive infiltrates in response to intraocular lymphoma. Statistically significant differences by two-sample test of means between group means were found between 35 uveitis and 35 B-cell lymphoma cases for T-cell markers CD2, 3, 4, 5, and 7, but not for CD8. The CD4:CD8 ratio had a higher mean value in the uveitis group (P=.0113), and 8 T-cell lymphomas had a statistically greater number of CD3+ lymphocytes compared to uveitis (P=.0199) by two-sample test of means. Likelihood ratios were highest for CD2, CD5, CD7, CD4:CD8 ratio, CD20, and CD22. Conclusions: Discrimination between uveitis and lymphoma based on cell identification by flow cytometry was limited because of the prevalence of T lymphocytes in all diagnostic categories, emphasizing the importance of a reactive T-cell infiltrate in B-cell lymphomas, which may impede diagnosis. Flow cytometry may allow identification of more cases of T-cell lymphoma than reported when it is combined with gene rearrangement and cytology. PMID:23818738

  10. InSitu SEM Investigation of Microstructural Damage Evolution and Strain Relaxation in a Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composite

    Sevener, Kathy; Chen, Zhe; Daly, Sam; Tracy, Jared; Kiser, Doug


    With CMC components poised to complete flight certification in turbine engines on commercial aircraft within the near future, there are many efforts within the aerospace community to model the mechanical and environmental degradation of CMCs. Direct observations of damage evolution are needed to support these modeling efforts and provide quantitative measures of damage parameters used in the various models. This study was performed to characterize the damage evolution during tensile loading of a melt infiltrated (MI) silicon carbide reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composite. A SiC/SiC tensile coupon was loaded to a maximum global stress of 30 ksi in a tensile fixture within an SEM while observations were made at 5 ksi increments. Both traditional image analysis and DIC (digital image correlation) were used to quantify damage evolution. With the DIC analysis, microscale damage was observed at the fiber-matrix interfaces at stresses as low as 5 ksi. First matrix cracking took place between 20 and 25 ksi, accompanied by an observable relaxation in strain near matrix cracks. Matrix crack opening measurements at the maximum load ranged from 200 nm to 1.5 m. Crack opening along the fiber-matrix interface was also characterized as a function of load and angular position relative to the loading axis. This characterization was funded by NASA GRC and was performed to support NASA GRC modeling of SiC/SiC environmental degradation

  11. Plutonic xenoliths from Martinique, Lesser Antilles: evidence for open system processes and reactive melt flow in island arc crust

    Cooper, George F.; Davidson, Jon P.; Blundy, Jon D.


    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc is remarkable for the abundance and variety of erupted plutonic xenoliths. These samples provide a window into the deeper crust and record a more protracted crystallisation history than is observed from lavas alone. We present a detailed petrological and in situ geochemical study of xenoliths from Martinique in order to establish their petrogenesis, pre-eruptive storage conditions and their contribution to construction of the sub-volcanic arc crust. The lavas from Martinique are controlled by crystal-liquid differentiation. Amphibole is rarely present in the erupted lavas, but it is a very common component in plutonic xenoliths, allowing us to directly test the involvement of amphibole in the petrogenesis of arc magmas. The plutonic xenoliths provide both textural and geochemical evidence of open system processes and crystal `cargos'. All xenoliths are plagioclase-bearing, with variable proportions of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and amphibole, commonly with interstitial melt. In Martinique, the sequence of crystallisation varies in sample type and differs from other islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. The compositional offset between plagioclase (~An90) and olivine (~Fo75), suggests crystallisation under high water contents and low pressures from an already fractionated liquid. Texturally, amphibole is either equant (crystallising early in the sequence) or interstitial (crystallising late). Interstitial amphibole is enriched in Ba and LREE compared with early crystallised amphibole and does not follow typical fractionation trends. Modelling of melt compositions indicates that a water-rich, plagioclase-undersaturated reactive melt or fluid percolated through a crystal mush, accompanied by the breakdown of clinopyroxene, and the crystallisation of amphibole. Geothermobarometry estimates and comparisons with experimental studies imply the majority of xenoliths formed in the mid-crust. Martinique cumulate xenoliths are

  12. Reactive Melt Extrusion To Improve the Dissolution Performance and Physical Stability of Naproxen Amorphous Solid Dispersions.

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Feng


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reaction between naproxen (NPX) and meglumine (MEG) at elevated temperature and to study the effect of this reaction on the physical stabilities and in vitro drug-release properties of melt-extruded naproxen amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). Differential scanning calorimetry, hot-stage polarized light microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that in situ salt formation with proton transfer between NPX and MEG occurred at elevated temperature during the melt extrusion process. The amorphous NPX-MEG salt was physically most stable when two components were present at a 1:1 molar ratio. Polymeric carriers, including povidone, copovidone, and SOLUPLUS, did not interfere with the reaction between NPX and MEG during melt extrusion. Compared to the traditional NPX ASDs consisting of NPX and polymer only, NPX-MEG ASDs were physically more stable and remained amorphous following four months storage at 40 °C and 75% RH (relative humidity). Based on nonsink dissolution testing and polarized light microscopy analyses, we concluded that the conventional NPX ASDs composed of NPX and polymers failed to improve the NPX dissolution rate due to the rapid recrystallization of NPX in contact with aqueous medium. The dissolution rate of NPX-MEG ASDs was two times greater than the corresponding physical mixtures and conventional NPX ASDs. This study demonstrated that the acid-base reaction between NPX and MEG during melt extrusion significantly improved the physical stability and the dissolution rate of NPX ASDs.

  13. Tensile Creep and Fatigue of Sylramic-iBN Melt-Infiltrated SiC Matrix Composites: Retained Properties, Damage Development, and Failure Mechanisms

    Morscher, Greg; Gowayed, yasser; Miller, Robert; Ojard, Greg; Ahmad, Jalees; Santhosh, Unni; John, Reji


    An understanding of the elevated temperature tensile creep, fatigue, rupture, and retained properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) envisioned for use in gas turbine engine applications are essential for component design and life-prediction. In order to quantify the effect of stress, time, temperature, and oxidation for a state-of-the-art composite system, a wide variety of tensile creep, dwell fatigue, and cyclic fatigue experiments were performed in air at 1204 C for the SiC/SiC CMC system consisting of Sylramic-iBN SiC fibers, BN fiber interphase coating, and slurry-cast melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC-based matrix. Tests were either taken to failure or interrupted. Interrupted tests were then mechanically tested at room temperature to determine the residual properties. The retained properties of most of the composites subjected to tensile creep or fatigue were usually within 20% of the as-produced strength and 10% of the as-produced elastic modulus. It was observed that during creep, residual stresses in the composite are altered to some extent which results in an increased compressive stress in the matrix upon cooling and a subsequent increased stress required to form matrix cracks. Microscopy of polished sections and the fracture surfaces of specimens which failed during stressed-oxidation or after the room-temperature retained property test was performed on some of the specimens in order to quantify the nature and extent of damage accumulation that occurred during the test. It was discovered that the distribution of stress-dependent matrix cracking at 1204 C was similar to the as-produced composites at room temperature; however, matrix crack growth occurred over time and typically did not appear to propagate through thickness except at final failure crack. Failure of the composites was due to either oxidation-induced unbridged crack growth, which dominated the higher stress regime (> 179 MPa) or controlled by degradation of the fibers, probably caused by

  14. A complex immune response in halo nevi correlates with immune reactivity on infiltrated melanocytes, adjacent hair follicles and blood vessels

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez


    Full Text Available Introduction: A clinical “halo nevus” is a benign melanocytic-neoplasm, often exhibiting spontaneous involution. A characteristic clinical feature is depigmentation of the surrounding skin, and a centripetal progression of the tumor regression phenomenon. Case Report: An 18 year old male consulted the dermatologist for changes in color of an asymptomatic mole. Materials and Methods: A clinical evaluation was performed, and skin biopsies were obtained for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E review, and for immunohistochemical (IHC studies including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, CD99, myeloid/histiocyte antigen, S-100, PNL2 and SOX-10. Results: A neoplastic process was identified on H&E examination, located along the dermal/epidermal junction and within the dermis. The neoplasm was composed of nests, cords and strands of benign melanocytes, with infiltrating lymphocytes. IHC staining demonstrated a strong pattern of positivity with all of the IHC antibodies within, infiltrating and surrounding the primary neoplastic process. In addition, evidence of the primary tumor immune response was noted around surrounding blood vessels and hair follicles, and on adjacent epidermal melanocytes. Conclusions: In the present study, we demonstrate by histopathologic and immunologic evidence that lymphocytes are primarily responsible for halo nevus tumor regression. Moreover, the immune response involves not only CD8 positive T lymphocytes, but a larger spectrum of B and T lineage lymphocytes. Thus, the immunologic foundations of halo nevus regression are likely of greater complexity than previously determined..

  15. Reactive nanophase oxide additions to melt-processed high-T(sub c) superconductors

    Goretta, K. C.; Brandel, B. P.; Lanagan, M. T.; Hu, J.; Miller, D. J.; Sengupta, S.; Parker, J. C.; Ali, M. N.; Chen, Nan


    Nanophase TiO2 and Al2O3 powders were synthesized by a vapor-phase process and mechanically mixed with stoichiometric YBa2Cu3O(x) and TlBa2Ca2Cu3O(x) powders in 20 mole % concentrations. Pellets produced from powders with and without nanophase oxides were heated in air or O2 above the peritectic melt temperature and slow-cooled. At 4.2 K, the intragranular critical current density J(sub c)) increased dramatically with the oxide additions. At 35-50 K, effects of the oxide additions were positive, but less pronounced. At 77 K, the additions decreased J(sub c), probably because of inducing a depression of the transition temperature.

  16. Reactive nanophase oxide additions to melt-processed high-{Tc} superconductors

    Goretta, K.C.; Brandel, B.P.; Lanagan, M.T.; Hu, J.; Miller, D.J.; Sengupta, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Parker, J.C.; Ali, M.N. [Nanophase Technologies Corp., Darien, IL (United States); Chen, Nan [Illinois Superconductor Corp., Evanston, IL (United States)


    Nanophase TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were synthesized by a vapor-phase process and mechanically mixed with stoichiometric YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and TlBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} powders in 20 mole % concentrations. Pellets produced from powders with and without nanophase oxides were heated in air or O{sub 2} above the peritectic melt temperature and slow-cooled. At 4.2 K, the intragranular critical current density (J{sub c}) increased dramatically with the oxide additions. At 35--50 K, effects of the oxide additions were positive, but less pronounced. At 77 K, the additions decreased J{sub c}, probably because of inducing a depresion of the transition temperature.

  17. Melting Alpine glaciers enrich high-elevation lakes with reactive nitrogen.

    Saros, Jasmine E; Rose, Kevin C; Clow, David W; Stephens, Verlin C; Nurse, Andrea B; Arnett, Heather A; Stone, Jeffery R; Williamson, Craig E; Wolfe, Alexander P


    Alpine glaciers have receded substantially over the last century in many regions of the world. Resulting changes in glacial runoff not only affect the hydrological cycle, but can also alter the physical (i.e., turbidity from glacial flour) and biogeochemical properties of downstream ecosystems. Here we compare nutrient concentrations, transparency gradients, algal biomass, and fossil diatom species richness in two sets of high-elevation lakes: those fed by snowpack melt alone (SF lakes) and those fed by both glacial and snowpack meltwaters (GSF lakes). We found that nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations in the GSF lakes were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in SF lakes. Although nitrogen (N) limitation is common in alpine lakes, algal biomass was lower in highly N-enriched GSF lakes than in the N-poor SF lakes. Contrary to expectations, GSF lakes were more transparent than SF lakes to ultraviolet and equally transparent to photosynthetically active radiation. Sediment diatom assemblages had lower taxonomic richness in the GSF lakes, a feature that has persisted over the last century. Our results demonstrate that the presence of glaciers on alpine watersheds more strongly influences NO(3)(-)concentrations in high-elevation lake ecosystems than any other geomorphic or biogeographic characteristic.

  18. Nanoporous gyroid TiO2 and SnO2 by melt infiltration of block copolymer templates

    Li, Tao; Schulte, Lars; Hansen, Ole


    Abstract Fabrication of meso-porous metal oxide thin films with high surface area is a crucial requirement for numerous applications, such as catalysis, photovoltaics and electronics. Despite considerable progress in fabrication of three-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures, it is still quite...... challenging to manufacture highly ordered structures over a large area in a controlled way. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate fabrication of interconnected, crack-free and highly ordered ceramic films using a nano-porous polymer with gyroid morphology as template. Titanium tetraisopropoxide...... and tin chloride dihydrate are used as precursors for nanostructured TiO2 and SnO2, respectively. Complete precursor infiltration into the template and successful transformation into metal oxides can be achieved by rational tuning of the template chemistry. As a result, thin films of nanostructured metal...

  19. Computational-Experimental Processing of Boride/Carbide Composites by Reactive Infusion of Hf Alloy Melts into B4C


    elements from the Hf family (i.e., Hf, Ti and Zr ) into a capillary to understand the effects of surface tension and viscosity during processing of melts...project primarily investigated computationally the infusion of liquid elements from the Hf family (i.e., Hf, Ti and Zr ) into a capillary to understand the... effects of surface tension and viscosity during processing of melts with a packed bed of B4C to form boride-carbide precipitates. Although the

  20. Pre-metamorphic melt infiltration in metasediments: geochemical, isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb), and field evidence from Serie dei Laghi (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Pinarelli, L.; Bergomi, M. A.; Boriani, A.; Giobbi, E.


    Gradual transitions from K-feldspar free gneisses to K-feldspar bearing augengneisses are sometimes observed in metamorphic terranes. They have been explained with metasomatic porphyroblastic growth connected with regional metamorphism, or with pre-metamorphic presence of magmatic megacrysts. A transition of this kind can be observed in the Serie dei Laghi (Southern Alps, Italy), where coarse-grained meta-arenites ( Cenerigneiss) grade into Ceneri augengneisses with large K-feldspar porphyroclasts, and banded amphibolites of the “Strona Ceneri Border Zone” grade into Hbl augengneisses rich in K-feldspar. The Ceneri augengneisses are chemically indistinguishable from the Cenerigneiss, but have higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.7256 0.7258 vs. 0.7215 0.7233), similar to those of the Ordovician granites that were intruded, before the regional metamorphism, into the protoliths of both Cenerigneiss and amphibolites. The Cenerigneiss contains two types of zircons: (1) highly luminescent, rounded grains or fragments, yielding U Pb SHRIMP ages from 0.43 to 1.0 Ga; (2) euhedral grains with oscillatory zoning (magmatic), with U Pb SHRIMP concordant ages of 466 ± 13 Ma. This age coincides with the Rb Sr whole rock emplacement age of the Ordovician granitoids (466 ± 5 Ma). The Hbl augengneisses form three groups with distinct geochemical patterns, whose distributions on inter-element diagrams trend towards the Ordovician metagranites and meta-aplites. In addition, the Hbl augengneisses have higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.7132 0.7147 vs. 0.7031 0.7046) and lower 143Nd/144Nd (0.51214 0.51219 vs. 0.51273 0.51297) than the amphibolites, suggesting the addition of an isotopically evolved component. The observed chemical and isotope patterns, as well as the vicinity of the augen gneisses to the Ordovician intrusions, lead us to conclude that the Ceneri augengneisses and Hbl augengneisses are the result of infiltration of residual hydrous magmas into the protolith of both the Cenerigneiss and the

  1. Melting and reactive flow of a volatilized mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges: theory and numerical models

    Keller, Tobias; Katz, Richard F.


    Laboratory experiments indicate that even small concentrations volatiles (H2O or CO2) in the upper mantle significantly affect the silicate melting behavior [HK96,DH06]. The presence of volatiles stabilizes volatile-rich melt at high pressure, thus vastly increasing the volume of the upper mantle expected to be partially molten [H10,DH10]. These small-degree melts have important consequences for chemical differentiation and could affect the dynamics of mantle flow. We have developed theory and numerical implementation to simulate thermo-chemically coupled magma/mantle dynamics in terms of a two-phase (rock+melt), three component (dunite+MORB+volatilized MORB) physical model. The fluid dynamics is based on McKenzie's equations [McK84], while the thermo-chemical formulation of the system is represented by a novel disequilibrium multi-component melting model based on thermo-dynamic theory [RBS11]. This physical model is implemented as a parallel, two-dimensional, finite-volume code that leverages tools from the PETSc toolkit. Application of this simulation code to a mid-ocean ridge system suggests that the methodology captures the leading-order features of both hydrated and carbonated mantle melting, including deep, low-degree, volatile-rich melt formation. Melt segregation leads to continuous dynamic thermo-chemical dis-equilibration, while phenomenological reaction rates are applied to continually move the system towards re-equilibration. The simulations will be used first to characterize volatile extraction from the MOR system assuming a chemically homogeneous mantle. Subsequently, simulations will be extended to investigate the consequences of heterogeneity in lithology [KW12] and volatile content. These studies will advance our understanding of the role of volatiles in the dynamic and chemical evolution of the upper mantle. Moreover, they will help to gauge the significance of the coupling between the deep carbon cycle and the ocean/atmosphere system. REFERENCES

  2. Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies

    Bejar, David; Colombo, Paolo C; Latif, Farhana; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana


    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies can result from a wide spectrum of both inherited and acquired conditions with varying systemic manifestations. They portend an adverse prognosis, with only a few exceptions (ie, glycogen storage disease), where early diagnosis can result in potentially curative treatment. The extent of cardiac abnormalities varies based on the degree of infiltration and results in increased ventricular wall thickness, chamber dilatation, and disruption of the conduction system. These changes often lead to the development of heart failure, atrioventricular (AV) block, and ventricular arrhythmia. Because these diseases are relatively rare, a high degree of clinical suspicion is important for diagnosis. Electrocardiography and echocardiography are helpful, but advanced techniques including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear imaging are increasingly preferred. Treatment is dependent on the etiology and extent of the disease and involves medications, device therapy, and, in some cases, organ transplantation. Cardiac amyloid is the archetype of the infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is discussed in great detail in this review. PMID:26244036

  3. Microstructural evolution of SiC/Cu-Si composites obtained through reactive infiltration; Evolucion microestructural de composites SiC/aleaciones CuSi obtenidos a traves de infiltracion ractiva

    Cornejo, J.; Ordonez, S.; Iturriza, I.


    The microstructural evolution of composites of SiC/Cu-Si alloys obtained through process of reactive infiltration to 1400 degree centigrade was studied. Three zones were detected in the obtained composites: the reaction zone, the transition zone and the infiltrated zone. In the reaction zone and transition zone the resulting microstructure was composed of a metallic phase, graphite laminae and SiC particles. It was found that SiC decomposes into these areas because of the alloy Cu-Si, so the available Si forms a liquid solution that a room temperature consisted of a a solid solution and a {gamma} phase (Cu{sub 5}Si). The carbon resulting from the decomposition of SiC precipitated as graphite laminae. In addition, the SiC decomposition was decreasing as the initial amount of Si in the alloy increased. (Author) 37 refs.

  4. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    Cailloux, J.; Santana, O.O.; E. Franco-Urquiza; Bou, J. J.; F. Carrasco; J. Gamez-Perez; M. L. Maspoch


    One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering) was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same pro...

  5. Reactive Flash Simulation of the Continuous Melt Transesterification Process of Polycarbonate%聚碳酸酯连续熔融酯交换过程的反应闪蒸模拟

    秦吉臣; 谢小莉; 曹贤武; 瞿金平


    A model of the continuous melt transesterification process of bisphenol-A and diphenyl carbonate in a continuous stirred tank reactor to produce polycarbonate is presented. The model is developed by using the molecular species model of polycarbonate melt polycondensation and the modeling method of reactive flash. Liquid phase is treated as perfect mixed flow and the vapor phase is assumed following the ideal gas law. With this model,the continuous melt transesterification process of bisphenol-A and diphenyl carbonate is examined with respect to different process parameters.

  6. Research on the melt flow of aluminum alloy in the process of AlSiC infiltration%基于铝基碳化硅材料压力浸渍过程中的铝液流动性研究

    邓星; 杨尔卫; 高永昌


    针对铝基碳化硅压力浸渍过程中铝液的流动性问题,采用ANSYS软件对铝合金熔液的注入和冷却过程进行了分析,计算表明将400 g铝合金熔液注入模腔中,铝液在注入后6.8 s内处于流动性较好的状态,随后流动性逐渐减弱。设计相同尺寸工装进行压力浸渍试验,结果表明铝液在注入6.8s内呈现比较好的流动状态,与计算结果相符;此时采用活塞加压实现了碳化硅基材的浸渍,获得了性能良好的铝基碳化硅复合材料。%Aiming at the problem of melt flow in the process of pressure infiltration for the preparation of AlSiC composite materials , it simulates the pouring and cooling process of aluminum alloy melt based on APDL program of ANSYS software.The numerical results show that the melt flow performance is excellent within 6.8seconds af-ter 400 g aluminum alloy poured to mould cavity , and then the flow performance become weak with time subse-quently .It designs the same size tooling for pressure infiltration experiment .The experiment results show that the melt flow performance is excellent with 7 seconds after aluminum alloy melt poured to mould cavity , the numerical experimental results agree with each other .It obtains AlSiC composite materials with excellent performance from the piston pressure infiltration of SiC base .

  7. In-Plane Cracking Behavior and Ultimate Strength for 2D Woven and Braided Melt-Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composites Tensile Loaded in Off-Axis Fiber Directions

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Yun, Hee Mann; DiCarlo, James A.


    The tensile mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in directions off the primary axes of the reinforcing fibers are important for architectural design of CMC components that are subjected to multi-axial stress states. In this study, 2D-woven melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/SiC composite panels with balanced fiber content in the 0 degree and 90 degree directions were tensile loaded in-plane in the 0 degree direction and at 45 degree to this direction. In addition, a 2D triaxially-braided MI composite panel with balanced fiber content in the plus or minus 67 degree bias directions and reduced fiber content in the axial direction was tensile loaded perpendicular to the axial direction tows (i.e., 23 degrees from the bias fibers). Stress-strain behavior, acoustic emission, and optical microscopy were used to quantify stress-dependent matrix cracking and ultimate strength in the panels. It was observed that both off-axis loaded panels displayed higher composite onset stresses for through-thickness matrix cracking than the 2D-woven 0/90 panels loaded in the primary 0 degree direction. These improvements for off-axis cracking strength can in part be attributed to higher effective fiber fractions in the loading direction, which in turn reduces internal stresses on critical matrix flaws for a given composite stress. Also for the 0/90 panel loaded in the 45 degree direction, an improved distribution of matrix flaws existed due to the absence of fiber tows perpendicular to the loading direction. In addition, for the +67/0/-67 braided panel, the axial tows perpendicular to the loading direction were not only low in volume fraction, but were also were well separated from one another. Both off-axis oriented panels also showed relatively good ultimate tensile strength when compared to other off-axis oriented composites in the literature, both on an absolute strength basis as well as when normalized by the average fiber strength within the composites. Initial

  8. Compositional variability in mafic arc magmas over short spatial and temporal scales: Evidence for the signature of mantle reactive melt channels

    Rawson, Harriet; Keller, Tobias; Fontijn, Karen; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Smith, Victoria C.; Naranjo, José A.


    Understanding arc magma genesis is critical to deciphering the construction of continental crust, understanding the relationship between plutonic and volcanic rocks, and for assessing volcanic hazards. Arc magma genesis is complex. Interpreting the underlying causes of major and trace element diversity in erupted magmas is challenging and often non-unique. To navigate this complexity mafic magma diversity is investigated using sample suites that span short temporal and spatial scales. These constraints allow us to evaluate models of arc magma genesis and their geochemical implications based on physical arguments and recent model results. Young volcanic deposits (≲18 kyr) are analysed from the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), Chile, in particular suites of scoria cones on the flanks of arc stratovolcanoes that have erupted relatively primitive magmas of diverse compositions. Our study is centred on the high-resolution post-glacial tephrochronological record for Mocho-Choshuenco volcano where tight age constraints and a high density of scoria cones provide a spatially well-resolved mafic magma dataset. Two compositional trends emerge from the data. Firstly, magmas from cones on the flanks of the main edifice become more mafic with distance from the central vent. This is attributed to fractional crystallisation processes within the crust, with distal cones sampling less differentiated magmas. Secondly, there is a set of cones with distinct major and trace element compositions that are more primitive but enriched in incompatible elements relative to the central system and other 'normal SVZ' magmas. This distinct signature - termed the 'Kangechi' signature - is observed at three further clusters of cones within the SVZ. This is attributed to greater preservation of the enriched melt signature arising from reactive melt transport within the mantle wedge. Our model has important implications for arc magma genesis in general, and in particular for the spatial and temporal

  9. Inhibition of reactive astrocytosis in established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis favors infiltration by myeloid cells over T cells and enhances severity of disease

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Füchtbauer, Laila; Owens, Trevor


    encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. We made use of transgenic mice, which express herpes simplex virus-derived thymidine kinase under control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein promotor (GFAP HSV-TK mice). Treatment of these mice with ganciclovir leads to inhibition of reactive......-associated molecules TNFα, MMP-12 and TIMP-1 was elevated in spinal cord of GFAP HSV-TK mice treated with ganciclovir. Relative expression of CD3ε was downregulated, and expression levels of IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, and Foxp3 were not significantly changed. mRNA expression of CCL2 was upregulated, and CXL10...

  10. Simulation of capillary infiltration into packing structures for the optimization of ceramic materials using the lattice Boltzmann method

    Danilo Sergi


    Full Text Available This study uses the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM to simulate in 2D the capillary infiltration into porous structures obtained from the packing of particles. The experimental problem motivating the work is the densification of carbon preforms by reactive melt infiltration. The aim is to determine the optimization principles for the manufacturing of high-performance ceramics. Simulations are performed for packings with varying structural properties. The results suggest that the observed slow infiltrations can be ascribed to interface dynamics. Pinning represents the primary factor retarding fluid penetration. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is analyzed in detail. When surface growth is allowed, it is found that the phenomenon of pinning becomes stronger. Systems trying to reproduce typical experimental conditions are also investigated. It turns out that the standard for accurate simulations is challenging. The primary obstacle to overcome for enhanced accuracy seems to be the over-occurrence of pinning.

  11. Limited infiltration due to reactive sintering of nano-Sm2O3 with preforms—its effect on (Y, Sm)Ba2Cu3O7-δ superconductors

    Naik, S. Pavan Kumar; Missak Swarup Raju, P.; Rajasekharan, T.; Bai, V. Seshu


    Preform optimized infiltration growth process (POIGP) is employed to fabricate mixed rare earth (Y, Sm)Ba2Cu3O7-δ superconductors of high performance. POIGP creates wide range of pinning centres and also enables nano-particle additions to stable Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) preforms. Nano-Sm2O3 particles (30-50 nm) were introduced in 0, 10, 20 and 30 wt.%, homogenously and without agglomeration, into the Y-211 preforms and the corresponding composites YBCO-Ar, YSm-10, YSm-20 and YSm-30 are fabricated. Though all the samples were processed in argon atmosphere to suppress the formation of solid solutions with Sm at Ba site, the effort was successful only in the YSm-20 sample, as seen from sharp diamagnetic transition and XRD studies. Magnetic property measurements were carried out on samples which showed strong (00l) texture, but were not necessarily single crystalline since no seed was used in the experiments. The calculated critical current densities (J c) are thus reflective of the values in the basal plane, in the most favourable direction. The final composites revealed YSm-20 to exhibit better J c with substantial flux pinning up to 9 T, at 77 K. Detailed examination of microstructures and field dependence of J c reveal that the addition of nano-particles is not always rewarding and can lead to reactive sintering of Y-211 and limit the extent of liquid phase inflow into preforms. This not only can lead to incomplete reaction leaving larger 211 particles in the matrix, but can also shift the composition of liquid phase such that it promotes the formation of undesired solid solutions in IG processed REBCO as seen in YSm-30. The effect of various factors like open porosity in the preform, the ease of liquid phase infiltration and the liquid phase composition on the residual 211 size in the composites, suppression of RE/Ba solid solutions, and the resultant J c versus H curves is discussed.

  12. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)


    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  13. 不同钠吸附比的咸水结冰融水入渗后滨海盐土的水盐分布%Water and salt distribution in coastal saline soil after infiltration of melt-water of saline water ice with different sodium adsorption ratio

    郭凯; 陈丽娜; 张秀梅; 刘小京


    在室内利用相同矿化度(10 g·L-1)、不同钠吸附比(5、10和30)的咸水进行咸水结冰融水模拟试验、结冰融水入渗和咸水直接入渗的土柱试验,以淡水处理为对照,分析不同钠吸附比咸水结冰融水入渗下滨海盐土水盐分布特征.结果表明:咸水冰融化过程中,融出水的矿化度和钠吸附比均呈由高到低的变化趋势.咸水结冰融水入渗速度和入渗深度均快于和深于淡水.咸水钠吸附比越小,结冰融水入渗速率越快、深度越深.水盐分布也表现为低钠吸附比咸水结冰处理的表层土壤含水量较低,水分向深层迁移,这种水分分布也使盐分向深层运移,表现为表层土壤含盐量低,深层土壤含盐量大.土层含水量低钠吸附比咸水处理高于高钠吸附比处理,10~45 cm土层则表现出相反的趋势;表层土含盐量低钠吸附比处理高于高钠吸附比处理,且咸水处理下土壤脱盐的深度大于淡水处理.钠吸附比5的咸水结冰处理,0~10 cm土壤平均含水量和含盐量分别为30.3%和1.1 g·kg-1,显著低于其他处理.为比较咸水结冰灌溉和咸水直接灌溉的效果,室内利用含盐量为10 g.L-1、钠吸附比10的咸水进行直接入渗的土柱(土壤含盐量为213 g·kg-1)模拟试验,结果表明:与咸水直接入渗处理相比,咸水结冰融水处理盐分淋洗效果更好,该处理0~25 cm土层平均土壤含盐量为2.9g·kg-1,显著低于咸水直接入渗的10.6 g·kg-1.%A laboratory soil column experiment was conducted to investigate water and salt distribution in coastal saline soil after saline ice melt-water infiltration. A salinity of 10 g·L-1 was designed with three variants of saline sodium adsorption ratios (SAR, i. e,5, 10 and 30) as source water in the experiment, with fresh water as the control. The results showed that both the salinity and SAR levels of melt-water were extremely higher in the initial melt-water than in subsequent melt

  14. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.


    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  15. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)


    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  16. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi


    water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably......In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... shows the impact of urban stormwater infiltration on the groundwater flux in an area in the south of the Netherlands. To relate the different results from the three studies an analogy is introduced with the human body. The combination of problems results in a so-called urban hang-over. It is shown...

  17. Infiltration and extravasation.

    Hadaway, Lynn


    The Infusion Nurses Society's national standards of practice require that a nurse who administers IV medication or fluid know its adverse effects and appropriate interventions to take before starting the infusion. A serious complication is the inadvertent administration of a solution or medication into the tissue surrounding the IV catheter--when it is a nonvesicant solution or medication, it is called infiltration; when it is a vesicant medication, it is called extravasation. Both infiltration and extravasation can have serious consequences: the patient may need surgical intervention resulting in large scars, experience limitation of function, or even require amputation. Another long-term effect is complex regional pain syndrome, a neurologic syndrome that requires long-term pain management. These outcomes can be prevented by using appropriate nursing interventions during IV catheter insertion and early recognition and intervention upon the first signs and symptoms of infiltration and extravasation. Nursing interventions include early recognition, prevention, and treatment (including the controversial use of antidotes, and heat and cold therapy). Steps to manage infiltration and extravasation are presented.

  18. Nanocasting of 3D Porous Materials by Melt Infiltration

    Li, Tao; Ndoni, Sokol

    Nano-porous cross-linked polybutadiene has been used as the template which has good wetting properties with various inorganic precursors. A novel and facile nanocasting process has been developed to fabricate of a thin film with 10-nm wide titania and Tin Dioxide network which is compact, inter...

  19. Approach to cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates: When to consider lymphoma?

    Yann Vincent Charli-Joseph


    Full Text Available Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1 Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2 superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3 pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4 panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5 small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6 large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs.

  20. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth


    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs.

  1. 不同粉液比对GI-Ⅱ型渗透陶瓷相关性能的影响%Influence of powder/liquid ratio on the viscosity of alumina slurry, shrinkage and strength of melt-infiltrated ceramic

    王航; 巢永烈; 廖运茂; 梁星; 罗云


    Objective: To investigate the influence of different ratio of alumina powder to liquid on slurry viscosity and relative properties of final composite. Methods:Two groups of slurry of alumina were prepared with powder/liquid ratio of 4: 1, 5: 1,6: 1, 7: 1 and 8: 1 respectively. The slurry in one group prepared with each ratio was mixed with plasticizer. After ultrasonic vibrating, the slurry viscosity values were measured on LVDV- Ⅲ Brookfield Rheometer. Beam-like adobes slip-cast with the slurry with those powder/liquid ratios were sintered at 1 125 ℃ for 2 hours to fabricate preforms. The preforms were then infiltrated by melt glass at 1 125 ℃ for 6 hours. The beam strength was obtained according to three-point flexural test. Length of the beams before sintering and after infiltration were measured to evaluate shrinkage. Results:The viscosity was significantly lowered with the decrease of powder/liquid ratio, addition of plasticizer to slurry obviously reduced the viscosity, especially with ratio 7~8 : 1. Although the strength values of the slurry with powder/liquid ratios of 4~8: 1 indicated no statistical difference, the mean strength value of slurry with the powder/liquid of 8 : 1 was relatively low while that in other groups reached 376.7 MPa to 397.6 MPa. The shrinkage rate of the composite ranged from 0.26% to 0.34% and the mean of all groups was (0.31%± 0.11) %. Conclusion: Powder/liquid ratio of 4~7:1 does not significantly influence slurry viscosity, shrinkage and strength of the composite. It's advisable to avoid high viscosity of slurry resulting from powder/liquid ratio of 8: 1.%目的:研究用于制作复合体骨架的氧化铝粉浆的粉液比对渗透陶瓷复合体相关性能的影响。方法:配制粉液质量比4:1、5:1、6:1、7:1、8:1的氧化铝粉浆两份,其中一份加入增塑剂,据旋转法测试粉浆粘度。制作氧化铝坯体,在1 125 ℃下烧结2 h形成

  2. Numerical Studies of Infiltration Dynamics of Liquid-Copper and Silicon/Solid-Carbon System

    Iqbal, K.; Sha, J. J.; Lei, Zhen-Kun; Maqsood, A.; Mujahid, M.


    Mathematical modeling of infiltration dynamics of liquid Cu-Si alloy into porous carbon is presented. Two-dimensional infiltration equations are developed using the Washburn equation in the limit of both interface and diffusion control, for situations where the capillary radius decreases either linear or parabolic, and the contact angles are assumed to exponentially decrease with time during infiltration. One major manufacturing process for the Cu-Si/C composites is liquid melt infiltration. This article focuses on nonequilibrium wetting effects and offers a fundamental approach to these complex kinetic phenomena.

  3. [Lung infiltrations in Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Ciurea-Löchel, A; Ciurea, A; Stey, C; Pestalozzi, B


    We report the case of a young patient presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy and interstitial pulmonary infiltrates due to Hodgkin's Disease. Although lung involvement regressed under chemotherapy, we observed new alveolar infiltrates during treatment. Steroid administration after exclusion of an infectious cause was followed by rapid clinical and radiological improvement, indicating the probable presence of pulmonary bleomycine toxicity.

  4. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.


    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...... operating in the soil and groundwater are described. The paper also discusses how the environmental risk of urban stormwater infiltration can be assessed, and outlines the possibilities for designing environmentally safe infiltration systems....

  5. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.


    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  6. Lithosphere destabilization by melt percolation during pre-oceanic rifting: Evidence from Alpine-Apennine ophiolitic peridotites

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Ranalli, Giorgio


    Orogenic peridotites from Alpine-Apennine ophiolite Massifs (Lanzo, Voltri, External and Internal Ligurides, - NW Italy, and Mt. Maggiore - Corsica) derive from the mantle lithosphere of the Ligurian Tethys. Field/structural and petrologic/geochemical studies provide constraints on the evolution of the lithospheric mantle during pre-oceanic passive rifting of the late Jurassic Ligurian Tethys ocean. Continental rifting by far-field tectonic forces induced extension of the lithosphere by means of km-scale extensional shear zones that developed before infiltration of melts from the asthenosphere (Piccardo and Vissers, 2007). After significant thinning of the lithosphere, the passively upwelling asthenosphere underwent spinel-facies decompression melting along the axial zone of the extensional system. Silica-undersaturated melt fractions percolated through the lithospheric mantle via diffuse/focused porous flow and interacted with the host peridotite through pyroxenes-dissolving/olivine-precipitating melt/rock reactions. Pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation modified the composition of the primary silica-undersaturated melts into derivative silica-saturated melts, while the host lithospheric spinel lherzolites were transformed into pyroxene-depleted/olivine-enriched reactive spinel harzburgites and dunites. The derivative liquids interacted through olivine-dissolving/orthopyroxene+plagioclase-crystallizing reactions with the host peridotites that were impregnated and refertilized (Piccardo et al., 2015). The saturated melts stagnated and crystallized in the shallow mantle lithosphere (as testified by diffuse interstitial crystallization of euhedral orthopyroxene and anhedral plagioclase) and locally ponded, forming orthopyroxene-rich/olivine-free gabbro-norite pods (Piccardo and Guarnieri, 2011). Reactive and impregnated peridotites are characterized by high equilibration temperatures (up to 1250 °C) even at low pressure, plagioclase-peridotite facies

  7. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.



    The infiltration kinetics of the metal melt into a fibrous preform in centrifugal accelerating field is analyzed on the basis of Da rcy's law and the assumption that the fibrous preform is treated as “bundle of capillaries”. The critical rotating speed is analyzed with the established mo del. The influences of the metal melt mass,the rotating speed of the equipmen t,the casting height, the original outer radius of the metal melt and the fibrou s volume fraction in fibrous preform on infilatration are studied. The results show that the critical rotating speed is dependent on critical pressure, castin g height, metal melt mass and the character of fibrous preform. With the incr ease in the metal melt mass, rotating speed of the equipment and original outer radius of the metal melt, or the decrease in casting height and fibrous volume f raction in fibrous of the metal melt,or the decrease in casting height and fibro us volume fraction in fibrous preform,infiltration of metal melt for fibrous pre form becomes easier.

  9. Evaluation of Melt Behavior with initial Melt Velocity under SFR Severe Accidents

    Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In the current Korean sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) program, early dispersion of the molten metallic fuel within a subchannel is suggested as one of the inherent safety strategies for the initiating phase of hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA). The safety strategy provides negative reactivity driven by the melt dispersal, so it could reduce the possibility of the recriticality event under a severe triple or more fault scenario for SFR. Since the behavior of the melt dispersion is unpredictable, it depends on the accident condition, particularly core region. While the voided coolant channel region is usually developed in the inner core, the unvoided coolant channel region is formed in the outer core. It is important to confirm the fuel dispersion with the core region, but there are not sufficient existing studies for them. From the existing studies, the coolant vapor pressure is considered as one of driving force to move the melt towards outside of the core. There is a complexity of the phenomena during intermixing of the melt with the coolant after the horizontal melt injections. It is too difficult to understand the several combined mechanisms related to the melt dispersion and the fragmentation. Thus, it could be worthwhile to study the horizontal melt injections at lower temperature as a preliminary study in order to identify the melt dispersion phenomena. For this reason, it is required to clarify whether the coolant vapor pressure is the driving force of the melt dispersion with the core region. The specific conditions to be well dispersed for the molten metallic fuel were discussed in the experiments with the simulant materials. The each melt behavior was compared to evaluate the melt dispersion under the coolant void condition and the boiling condition. As the results, the following results are remarked: 1. The upward melt dispersion did not occur for a given melt and coolant temperature in the nonboiling range. Over current range of conditions

  10. Evidence for melt channelization in Galapagos plume-ridge interaction

    Mittal, T.; Richards, M. A.


    Many present-day hot spots are located within ~ 1000 km of a mid-ocean ridge, either currently or in the geologic past, leading to frequent interaction between these two magmatic regimes. The consequent plume-ridge interactions provide a unique opportunity to test models for asthenosphere-lithosphere dynamics, with the plume acting as a tracer fluid in the problem, and excess magmatism reflecting otherwise unsampled sub-surface phenomena. Galapagos is an off-ridge hotspot with the mantle plume located ~150-250 km south of the plate boundary. Plume-ridge interaction in Galapagos is expressed by the formation of volcanic lineaments of islands and seamounts - e.g., the Wolf-Darwin lineament (WDL) - providing a direct probe of the plume-ridge interaction process, especially in regards to geochemical data. Although several models have been proposed to explain plume-ridge interaction in Galapagos, none adequately explain the observed characteristics, especially the WDL. In particular, predicted lithospheric fault orientations and melt density considerations appear at odds with observations, suggesting that lithospheric extension is not the primary process for formation of these islands. Other off-ridge hotspots interacting with nearby spreading ridges, such as Reunion and Louisville, also exhibit volcanic lineaments linking the plume and the ridge. Thus these lineament-type features are a common outcome of plume-ridge interaction that are indicative of the underlying physics. We propose that the lineaments are surface expressions of narrow sub-lithospheric melt channels focused towards the spreading ridge. These channels should form naturally due to the reactive infiltration instability in a two-phase flow of magma and solid mantle as demonstrated in two-phase flow simulations (e.g., Katz & Weatherley 2012). For Galapagos, we show that melt channels can persist thermodynamically over sufficient length-scales to link the plume and nearby ridge segments. We also show that

  11. Gene Rearrangement Analysis of Orbital Lymphoid Infiltrating Disorders

    Jianhua Yan; Zhongyao Wu; Shuqi Huang; Yongping Li


    Purpose: To determine whether the use of polymerase chain reaction for B-cell gene rearrangement in patients with orbital lymphoid infiltrate disorders could be useful in the diagnosis of lymphoma, especially, in differentiating benign lesion from malignant one. Methods: In addition to clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical evaluations,48 cases of orbital lymphoid infiltrate disorders were examined for immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) gene rearrangement by means of PCR to amplify the FR3 region with formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Results: Gene rearrangement in the third frame-work of the IgH region was detected in specimens obtained from 15 cases of malignant lymphoma, 4 of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 3 of orbital pseudotumor. All of these patients showed a discrete band (100bp) which reflected monoclonal proliferation of B lymphocytes. 5 cases of malignant lymphoma, 6 of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 15 of orbital pseudotumor did not show a discrete band on PCR. Conclusions: The FR3 region gene rearrangement of Ig heavy in patients with orbital lymphoid infiltrate disorders may be an additional diagnostic tool in differentiating benign from malignant lymphoid diseases and in offering a useful adjunct for diagnosis in difficult or unclear cases. It is a reliable and practical method of gene diagnosis in orbital lymphoid infiltrate disorders and helps to identify the molecular mechanism of malignant lymphoma. Eye Science 2000; 16:15 ~ 21.

  12. Study of multi-carbide B4C-SiC/(Al, Si) reaction infiltrated composites by SEM with EBSD

    Almeida, B. A.; Ferro, M. C.; Ravanan, A.; Grave, P. M. F.; Wu, H.-Y.; Gao, M.-X.; Pan, Y.; Oliveira, F. J.; Lopes, A. B.; Vieira, J. M.


    In the definition of conceptual developments and design of new materials with singular or unique properties, characterisation takes a key role in clarifying the relationships of composition, properties and processing that define the new material. B4C has a rare combination of properties that makes it suitable for a wide range of applications in engineering: high refractoriness, thermal stability, high hardness and abrasion resistance coupled to low density. However, the low self-diffusion coefficient of B4C limits full densification by sintering. A way to overturn this constraint is by using an alloy, for example Al-Si, forming composites with B4C. Multi-carbide B4C-SiC/(Al, Si) composites were produced by the reactive melt infiltration technique at 1200 - 1350 °C with up to 1 hour of isothermal temperature holds. Pressed preforms made from C-containing B4C were spontaneously infiltrated with Al-Si alloys of composition varying from 25 to 50 wt% Si. The present study involves the characterisation of the microstructure and crystalline phases in the alloys and in the composites by X-ray diffraction and SEM/EDS with EBSD. Electron backscatter diffraction is used in detail to look for segregation and spatial distribution of Si and Al containing phases during solidification of the metallic infiltrate inside the channels of the ceramic matrix when the composite cools down to the eutectic temperature (577 °C). It complements elemental maps of the SEM/EDS. The production of a flat surface by polishing is intrinsically difficult and the problems inherent to the preparation of EBSD qualified finishing in polished samples of such type of composites are further discussed.

  13. Melting of Transition Metals

    Ross, M; Japel, S; Boehler, R


    We review the transition melting studies carried out at Mainz, and describe a recently developed model used to explain that the relatively low melting slopes are due to the partially filled d-bands, and the persistence of the pressure induced s-d transition. The basic tenets of the model have now been reconfirmed by new measurements for Cu and Ni. The measurements show that Cu which has a filled 3d-band, has a melt slope that is about 2.5 greater than its neighbor Ni. In the case of Mo, the apparent discrepancy of DAC melting measurements with shock melting can be explained by accounting for the change in melt slope due to the bcc-cp transition observed in the shock studies. The Fe melt curve is revisited. The possible relevance of the Jahn-Teller effect and recently observed transition metal melts with Icosahedral Short-Range Order (ISRO) is discussed.

  14. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J


    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment.


    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  16. Diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients

    Fijen, JW; van der Werf, TS; Ligtenberg, JJM; Tulleken, JE; Zijlstra, JG


    The differential diagnosis of bilateral interstitial pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients is very extensive. We describe two immunocompromised patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrative changes. Bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage after orotracheal intubation using topical anaesthe

  17. Can geotextiles modify the transfer of heavy metals transported by stormwater in infiltration basins?

    Lassabatère, L; Winiarski, T; Galvez-Cloutier, R


    Geotextiles are fibrous materials increasingly employed for the design of infiltration basins. However, their influence on the transfer of contaminants carried by stormwater has not been fully investigated. This study, based on column leaching experiments, aims at showing the effect of geotextiles on the transfer of three heavy metals (Zn, Pb and Cd) in a reactive soil (simulating an infiltration basin at laboratory scale). This effect depends on several factors, such as type of geotextile, hydric conditions (geotextile water content), hydraulic conditions (flow-rates) and the number of geotextiles installed. In all cases, geotextiles influence heavy metal retention by modifying flow and thus regulating contact between these metals and the reactive soil.

  18. Effect of Carbon Properties on Melting Behavior of Mold Fluxes for Continuous Casting of Steels


    During continuous casting of steel, the properties of mold fluxes strongly affect the casting performance,steel quality and environment of casting operation. The high temperature microscopy technique was used to investigate the melting behaviour of mold fluxes, and drip test method was used to determine their melting rate. The results showed that free carbon is a dominant factor in governing the melting behaviour of fluxes, and the melting rate is increased with increasing carbon reactivity and decreasing carbon content.

  19. Ordered nanoscale domains by infiltration of block copolymers

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing


    A method of preparing tunable inorganic patterned nanofeatures by infiltration of a block copolymer scaffold having a plurality of self-assembled periodic polymer microdomains. The method may be used sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), related to atomic layer deposition (ALD). The method includes selecting a metal precursor that is configured to selectively react with the copolymer unit defining the microdomain but is substantially non-reactive with another polymer unit of the copolymer. A tunable inorganic features is selectively formed on the microdomain to form a hybrid organic/inorganic composite material of the metal precursor and a co-reactant. The organic component may be optionally removed to obtain an inorganic features with patterned nanostructures defined by the configuration of the microdomain.

  20. Processes and timescales of melt metasomatism in the continental lower crust of West Greenland

    Smit, Matthijs; Waight, Tod; Nielsen, Troels


    The lower continental crust is infiltrated by mantle-derived melts that are at extreme chemical disequilibrium with this reservoir. The chemical effect, and the degree and extent of melt infiltration within the lower crust are important parameters to investigating the role of this process in modifying local and regional crustal composition. However, in spite of ground-breaking contributions in this field, the processes of melt metasomatism within the lower crust are not entirely clear. Challenges lie in obtaining primary petrological, geochemical and chronological information from deep crustal rocks that are difficult to sample and are often repeatedly recrystallized and chemically modified. In this study, we investigated mafic granulite xenoliths from the crustal root of the Archean North Atlantic Craton (Sarfartôq location) and the adjoining Paleoproterozoic Nagssugtôqidian Orogen (Sisimiut location), West Greenland. These rocks were chosen because: 1) they are xenolith and hence are unaffected by tectonic overprinting, 2) they show a rich petrological record of melt infiltration formed in the run up to their scavenging by the host aillikite magmas, 3) they represent two locations with similar crustal composition and architecture, but different underlying lithospheric mantle enabling teasing-out of the role of melt-mantle interaction. We used various imaging techniques and in-situ chemical analysis by electron-probe micro-analyzer to characterize the different melt pockets within the samples, their textural relationships, as well as their composition. In addition, we performed thermometry and multi-method speedometry (Fe-in-rutile, majors-in-garnet) to assess the conditions and duration of melt infiltration for melts of different texture and composition. The primary granular assemblage of the xenoliths has been infiltrated by three different types of melts, each of which is found in grain boundaries, melt-corroded cracks, and voids formed by melt

  1. Reactivity of NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} toward LaCl{sub 3} in LiCl-KCl Melt Flux. Step by Step Formation of Monazite-Like LaPO{sub 4}

    Hudry, D.; Jobic, St.; Deniard, Ph. [Univ Nantes, CNRS, Inst Mat Jean Rouxel, F-44322 Nantes 3 (France); Hudry, D.; Bardez, I.; Bart, F. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM LDMC, 30 (France); Rakhmatullin, A.; Bessada, C. [CNRS, CEM HTI, F-45071 Orleans 2 (France); Rakhmatullin, A.; Bessada, C. [Univ Orleans, Fac Sci, F-45067 Orleans 2 (France)


    The synthesis of lanthanum phosphates in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was chosen to address the preliminary treatment of chlorinated wastes containing fission products that are already present in a Li/Cl eutectic. The obtained monazite compound shows interesting properties to be considered as a good candidate to trap lanthanum for a long-time. The synthesis route based on LaCl{sub 3} reaction with NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} in a stoichiometric amount is a key point to obtain monazite as a pure phase. Hence, the salt composition is not modified during the synthesis reaction. The chemical reactivity of ammonium dihydrogenphosphate (NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, hereafter abbreviated ADP) toward lanthanum chloride (LaCl{sub 3}) in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic is probed by NMR spectroscopy to follow the formation of LaPO{sub 4}. Formally, a direct transformation of the two aforementioned precursors into LaPO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}Cl and HCl can be discarded on the basis of the low thermal stability of ADP. To shed some light on the formation of LaPO{sub 4}, in situ and ex situ NMR experiments were carried out on LiCl-KCl/LaCl{sub 3}/ADP, as well as LiCl-KCl/ADP, KCl/ADP, and LiCl/ADP mixtures. First, the reactivity of the precursors in contact with the eutectic was studied from room temperature to 600 degrees C by means of {sup 31}P, {sup 35}Cl, and {sup 139}La high temperature NMR. Second, ex situ room temperature magic angle spinning (MAS) and Radiofrequency driven recoupling (RFDR) {sup 31}P solid-state NMR experiments were carried out on solid samples prepared in different conditions (i.e., temperature and atmosphere) and quenched at room temperature to identify frozen intermediate species in their metastable state. On the basis of this approach, we propose a model for the LaPO{sub 4} formation based on a multistep mechanism which highlights the strong reactivity of ADP toward the alkaline salts but without final change in the composition of the solvent. (authors)

  2. Reactivity of NH4H2PO4 toward LaCl3 in LiCl-KCl melt flux. Step by step formation of monazite-like LaPO4.

    Hudry, Damien; Rakhmatullin, Aydar; Bessada, Catherine; Bardez, Isabelle; Bart, Florence; Jobic, Stéphane; Deniard, Philippe


    The synthesis of lanthanum phosphates in molten LiCl-KCL eutectic was chosen to address the preliminary treatment of chlorinated wastes containing fission products that are already present in a Li/Cl eutectic. The obtained monazite compound shows interesting properties to be considered as a good candidate to trap lanthanum for a long-time. The synthesis route based on LaCl(3) reaction with NH(4)H(2)PO(4) in a stoichiometric amount is a key point to obtain monazite as a pure phase. Hence, the salt composition is not modified during the synthesis reaction. The chemical reactivity of ammonium dihydrogenphosphate (NH(4)H(2)PO(4), hereafter abbreviated ADP) toward lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3)) in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic is probed by NMR spectroscopy to follow the formation of LaPO(4). Formally, a direct transformation of the two aforementioned precursors into LaPO(4), NH(4)Cl and HCl can be discarded on the basis of the low thermal stability of ADP. To shed some light on the formation of LaPO(4), in situ and ex situ NMR experiments were carried out on LiCl-KCl/LaCl(3)/ADP, as well as LiCl-KCl/ADP, KCl/ADP, and LiCl/ADP mixtures. First, the reactivity of the precursors in contact with the eutectic was studied from room temperature to 600 degrees C by means of (31)P, (35)Cl, and (139)La high temperature NMR. Second, ex situ room temperature magic angle spinning (MAS) and RadioFrequency driven recoupling (RFDR) (31)P solid-state NMR experiments were carried out on solid samples prepared in different conditions (i.e., temperature and atmosphere) and quenched at room temperature to identify frozen intermediate species in their metastable state. On the basis of this approach, we propose a model for the LaPO(4) formation based on a multistep mechanism which highlights the strong reactivity of ADP toward the alkaline salts but without final change in the composition of the solvent.

  3. Modelling of snowmelt infiltration in heterogeneous seasonally-frozen soil monitored by electrical resistivity measurements

    French, H. K.; Binley, A. M.; Voss, C.


    Infiltration during snowmelt can be highly heterogeneous due to the formation of ice on the ground surface below the snow cover. In situations where snow is contaminated, such as along highways and airports due to de-icing agents, it is important to predict the zone of infiltration, because this will determine the retention time and potential for degradation in the unsaturated zone. In 2001, infiltration during snowmelt was monitored over a small area (4m2) using time-lapse electrical resistivity monitoring at Gardermoen, Norway. Data revealed a spatio-temporal variable infiltration pattern related to micro topography of the ground surface (French and Binley, 2004). In this study, we want to test the suitability of a newly developed numerical model for water and heat transport including phase change in a variably saturated soil against field observations. Monitored weather and snow data defined the boundary conditions of a simulated unsaturated profile with seasonal freezing. The dependency of capillary pressure and permeability on water saturation is taken from van Genuchten equation with the addition of a scaling parameter, to account for the heterogeneity of the hydraulic permeability. Soil physical data and heterogeneity (variance and correlation structure of the permeability) was based on local soil measurements. The available amount of meltwater for infiltration over the area was based on average snowmelt measurements at the site. Different infiltration scenarios were tested. Soil temperatures, TDR measurements of soil moisture, a tracer experiment conducted at an adjacent site and changes in electrical resistivity were used to validate the model of infiltration and thawing. The model was successful in reproducing the thawing and soil moisture patterns observed in the soil, and hence looks like a promising tool for predicting snowmelt infiltration and melting of ground frost in a sandy unsaturated soil. ReferencesFrench, H.K. and Binley, A. (2004) Snowmelt

  4. Infiltration kinetics of pressureless infiltration in SiCp/Al composites

    QIN Zhen-kai; YU Jia-kang; ZHANG Xiao-yu


    The pressureless infiltration kinetics was investigated by plotting the infiltration distance as function of the infiltration time. The effects of key process parameters such as time, temperature, Mg content on the pressureless infiltration of silicon carbide particle compacts were studied and quantified. The preform with high volume fraction SiC was obtained by mixing SiC particles with bimodal size distribution, whose diameters are 5 and 50 μm, respectively. The results show that an incubation period exists before infiltration, the influence of temperature on the incubation time exceeds that of Mg content, infiltration rate increases with the increasing temperature and Mg content, infiltration rate decreases as Mg consumes. A model of macroscopical infiltration and microscopical infiltration of liquid alloy in porous SiC preform was proposed.

  5. Signatures of nonthermal melting

    Tobias Zier


    Full Text Available Intense ultrashort laser pulses can melt crystals in less than a picosecond but, in spite of over thirty years of active research, for many materials it is not known to what extent thermal and nonthermal microscopic processes cause this ultrafast phenomenon. Here, we perform ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations of silicon on a laser-excited potential-energy surface, exclusively revealing nonthermal signatures of laser-induced melting. From our simulated atomic trajectories, we compute the decay of five structure factors and the time-dependent structure function. We demonstrate how these quantities provide criteria to distinguish predominantly nonthermal from thermal melting.

  6. Storm-water management through Infiltration trenches

    Chahar, Bhagu Ram; Graillot, Didier; Gaur, Shishir


    International audience; With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration can occur is reducing. This is resulting in much less ground-water recharge and greatly increased surface run-off. Infiltration devices, which redirect run-off waters from the surface to the sub-surface environments, are commonly adopted to mitigate the negative hydrologic effects associated with urbanization. An infiltration trench alone or in combination with other storm water m...

  7. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Stanisław Cudziło


    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  8. Melting of sodium clusters

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K


    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  9. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Mohammad Zakwan


    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  10. Force induced DNA melting

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K [Center for Condensed Matter Theory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-12 (India)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f{sub m}, at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  11. Melt-Enhanced Rejuvenation of Lithospheric Mantle: Insights from the Colorado Plateau

    Roy, Mousumi; Holtzman, Ben; Gaherty, James


    The stability of the lithospheric mantle beneath the ancient cratonic cores of continents is primarily a function of chemical modification during the process of melt extraction. Processes by which stable continental lithosphere may be destabilized are not well-understood, although destabilization by thickening and removal of negatively-buoyant lithospheric mantle in "delamination" events has been proposed in a number of tectonic settings. In this paper we explore an alternative process for destabilizing continents, namely, thermal and chemical modification during infiltration of metasomatic fluids and melts into the lithospheric column. We consider observations pertinent to the structure and evolution of the Colorado Plateau within the western United States to argue that the physical and chemical state of the margins of the plateau have been variably modified and destabilized by interaction with melts. In the melt-infiltration process explored here, the primary mechanism for weakening and rejuvenating the pla...

  12. Pirfenidone inhibits macrophage infiltration in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    Chen, Jun-Feng; Ni, Hai-Feng; Pan, Ming-Ming; Liu, Hong; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Bi-Cheng


    Tubulointerstitial macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease involved in the progression of renal fibrosis. Pirfenidone is a newly identified antifibrotic drug, the potential mechanism of which remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pirfenidone on M1/M2 macrophage infiltration in nephrectomized rats. Nephrectomized rats were treated with pirfenidone by gavage for 12 wk. Twenty-four hour urinary protein, N-acetyl-β-D-glycosaminidase (NAG) activity, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein were determined. Paraffin-embedded sections were stained for CD68, CCR7, and CD163 macrophages. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), as well as M1 and M2 macrophages secretory markers, were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. Pirfenidone significantly improved the elevated proteinuria and NAG activity from week 2 onward after surgery. Pirfenidone attenuated interstitial fibrosis and decreased expression of fibrotic markers including transforming growth factor-β(1), connective tissue growth factor, α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and fibroblast-specific protein-1. Pirfenidone significantly decreased the infiltrating macrophages. The number of M1 and M2 macrophages was significantly lower after pirfenidone treatment. MCP-1 and MIP-1α were increased in nephrectomized rats at mRNA and protein levels. Pirfenidone treatment significantly inhibited their expression. The TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide synthases-2 expressed by M1 macrophages were increased in nephrectomized rats, and pirfenidone significantly attenuated their expression. Pirfenidone treatment also significantly decreased arginase-1, dectin-1, CD206, and CD86 expressed by M2 macrophages. Thus pirfenidone inhibits M1 and M2 macrophage infiltration in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, which suggests its efficacy in the early and late periods of renal fibrosis.


    L. V. Golubeva


    Full Text Available Summary. Melted butter is made from dairy butter by rendering the fat phase. It has specific taste and aroma, high-calorie content and good assimilability. Defects of butter which appeared during the storage causes by the development of microbiological processes or by the chemical oxidation. On the development of these processes influence quality and composition of fresh butter, its physical structure, content of the increased amount of gas phase and content of heavy metals, storage conditions. Microbiological spoilage of butter occurs generally due to damage of plasma which is good environment for the development of microorganisms. Defects of microbiological origin include: unclean, sour, moldy, yeasty, cheesy, bitter taste. Defects of test and smell chemical origin are formed due to hydrolytic digestion of lipids. It's prevailed at long storage of butter in the conditions of freezing temperatures. It's picked out the following main processes of spoiling: souring, acidifying and sallowness. Often these processes take place simultaneously.It has been investigated melted butter with lactated additive. The latter improves the microbiological and toxicological safety, prolongs the storage condition of the products. Technological efficiency of the additives is achieved by a multilayer products formation from the inactive bound water, preventing microorganisms growth and by the barrier layer with lactate inhibiting hydrolytic reactions. Oil samples were obtained with the batch-type butter maker application, then they were melted and after that lactated additive were supplemented. It has been studied organoleptic and physico-chemical indices of the melted butter samples. The fatty-acid composition of melted butter were studied. Comparative analysis of fatty-acid composition of cow's milk fat and produced melted butter has shown their similarity. Also in the last sample there is increased weight fraction of linoleic and linolenic acids. The obtained

  14. Modeling the infiltration kinetics of molten aluminum into porous titanium carbide

    Muscat, Daniel; Drew, Robin A. L.


    Capillary-induced melt infiltration is an attractive method of fabricating metal/ceramic composites, as it offers the advantage of producing material with a high ceramic content and near-net-shape fabrication, without the use of an external force. In this work, the kinetics of infiltration of molten Al in TiC preforms, having a pore size of approximately 1 µm and porosity ranging from 20 to 40 pct, were investigated. The rate of infiltration was continuously monitored using a Thermo-Gravimetric analyzer (TGA), which measured the weight change of the preform as the metal intruded the sample. Infiltration profiles where generated over a temperature range of 860 °C to 1085 °C. At lower temperatures, an incubation period was evident in the profiles. The average activation energy for the different preforms was 90 kJ/mol, indicating that some form of mass-transfer mechanism was involved in driving the process. Furthermore, sessile drop tests showed an unstable wetting angle over a long period of time. Such wetting kinetics were responsible for the incubation period during the infiltration. The infiltration rate was also seen to be slower as the preform density increased. This was due to the tortuous nature of the channels and was characterized using curves obtained for liquids infiltrating the same preforms at room temperature. Both the tortuosity and the unstable contact angle have to be considered when modeling the infiltration kinetics of such a system. The existing model was therefore modified by incorporating terms to describe the process more accurately. A good correlation with the experimental data was seen to exist.

  15. Infiltration into soils: Conceptual approaches and solutions

    Assouline, Shmuel


    Infiltration is a key process in aspects of hydrology, agricultural and civil engineering, irrigation design, and soil and water conservation. It is complex, depending on soil and rainfall properties and initial and boundary conditions within the flow domain. During the last century, a great deal of effort has been invested to understand the physics of infiltration and to develop quantitative predictors of infiltration dynamics. Jean-Yves Parlange and Wilfried Brutsaert have made seminal contributions, especially in the area of infiltration theory and related analytical solutions to the flow equations. This review retraces the landmark discoveries and the evolution of the conceptual approaches and the mathematical solutions applied to the problem of infiltration into porous media, highlighting the pivotal contributions of Parlange and Brutsaert. A historical retrospective of physical models of infiltration is followed by the presentation of mathematical methods leading to analytical solutions of the flow equations. This review then addresses the time compression approximation developed to estimate infiltration at the transition between preponding and postponding conditions. Finally, the effects of special conditions, such as the presence of air and heterogeneity in soil properties, on infiltration are considered.

  16. Liquid crystal infiltration of complex dielectrics

    Gottardo, Stefano; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Vos, Willem L.


    Liquid crystal infiltration is becoming an important tool to control the optical properties of complex dielectric systems like photonic crystals and disordered dielectrics. We discuss the technical aspects of liquid crystal infiltration in meso-porous structures, give some details of the sample

  17. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    sections of sloping terraces on water infiltration and subsequent runoff on a Haplic ... Infiltration measurements, done by a tension infiltrometer, were conducted under 3-year old tree .... head first avoid hysteresis (Reynolds and Elrick, ..... terrace (60%), perhaps reflecting the influence of ..... Water Resources Research 14:.

  18. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  19. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander


    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  20. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Iverson, Richard M.


    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep


    Němec L.


    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  2. Silicic Arc Magmas And Silicic Slab Melts: The Melt-Rock Reaction Link

    Straub, S. M.; Gomez-Tuena, A.; Bolge, L. L.; Espinasa-Perena, R.; Bindeman, I. N.; Stuart, F. M.; Zellmer, G. F.


    While a genetic link between silicic arc magmas and silicic melts from the subducted slab has long been proposed, this hypothesis is commonly refuted because most arc magmas lack a 'garnet-signature' which such slab melts must have. A comprehensive geochemical study of high-Mg# arc magmas from the Quaternary central Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), however, shows that this conflict can be reconciled if melt-rock reaction processes in the mantle wedge were essential to arc magma formation. In the central MVB, monogenetic and composite volcanoes erupt high-Mg# basalts to andesites with highly variable trace element patterns. These magmas contain high-Ni olivines (olivine Ni higher than permissible for olivines in partial peridotite melts) with high 3He/4He = 7-8 Ra that provide strong evidence for silicic slab components that infiltrate the subarc mantle to produce olivine-free segregations of 'reaction pyroxenite' in the sources of individual volcanoes. Melting of silica-excess and silica-deficient reaction pyroxenites can then produce high-Mg# basaltic and dacitic primary melts that mix during ascent through mantle and crust to form high-Mg# andesites. Mass balance requires that reaction pyroxenites contain at least >15-18 wt%, and likely more, of slab component. However, because the HREE of the slab component are efficiently retained in the eclogitic slab, elements Ho to Lu in partial melts from reaction pyroxenites remain controlled by the mantle and maintain MORB-normalized Ho/Lun ˜1.15 close to unity. In contrast, the MREE to LREE and fluid mobile LILE of the arc magmas are either controlled, or strongly influenced, by slab-contributions. The origin from hybrid sources also shows in the major elements that are blends of mantle-derived elements (Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ti) and elements augmented by slab contributions (Si, Na, K, P, and possibly Al). Moreover, strong correlations between bulk rock SiO2, 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O (olivines) can be interpreted as mixtures of subarc

  3. Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt

    Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.


    The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.

  4. Thermoacoustic Streaming and Ultrasonic Processing of Low Melting Melts

    Trinh, E. H.


    Ultrasonic levitation allows the processing of low melting materials both in 1 G as well as in microgravity. The free suspension of the melts also facilitates undercooling, permitting the measurements of the physical properties of the metastable liquids.

  5. Reactive Hypoglycemia

    ... from low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) that occurs while fasting. Signs and symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia may include ... and very important. It's also important to include physical activity in your daily routine. Your doctor can help ...

  6. Reactive Arthritis

    Eren Erken


    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  7. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  8. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.


    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  9. Cardiac Arrest After Submucosal Infiltration With Lignocaine


    following submucosal infiltration of lignocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:200,000 combination. ... The surgeon packed the right nasal cavity with ... alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. ... numbness of the mouth and tongue, followed by tinnitus,.


    Dilek KUMLUTAŞ


    Full Text Available Infiltration or in other words the air leakage in buildings has an important role on heat load calculations. The rate of this loss has been estimated as 20 to 30 % of the total load. The indicated important effect of infiltration on the load calculations needs a reliable method for the determination of air leakeage level in buildings. Meantime, the rate of infiltration has an additional importance at the area of thermal comfort studies which deals with the air quality of enclosed volumes. During this research study, first the mechanism of infiltration and the major components of the phenomena (wind pressure, temperature difference was discussed together with the theoretical considerations. Later, several conventional engineering approachs and emprical methods was reviewed and compared among each others. At the last part of the paper, the modified DIN 4701 method which is presently used in Turkey, and some other algorithms was applied to some pilot buildings and the predictions was compared with experimental results.

  11. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.


    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration...-to-ceiling and wall-to-floor connections shall be caulked or otherwise sealed. When walls...

  12. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.


    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls.

  13. Stormwater infiltration trenches: a conceptual modelling approach.

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare


    In recent years, limitations linked to traditional urban drainage schemes have been pointed out and new approaches are developing introducing more natural methods for retaining and/or disposing of stormwater. These mitigation measures are generally called Best Management Practices or Sustainable Urban Drainage System and they include practices such as infiltration and storage tanks in order to reduce the peak flow and retain part of the polluting components. The introduction of such practices in urban drainage systems entails an upgrade of existing modelling frameworks in order to evaluate their efficiency in mitigating the impact of urban drainage systems on receiving water bodies. While storage tank modelling approaches are quite well documented in literature, some gaps are still present about infiltration facilities mainly dependent on the complexity of the involved physical processes. In this study, a simplified conceptual modelling approach for the simulation of the infiltration trenches is presented. The model enables to assess the performance of infiltration trenches. The main goal is to develop a model that can be employed for the assessment of the mitigation efficiency of infiltration trenches in an integrated urban drainage context. Particular care was given to the simulation of infiltration structures considering the performance reduction due to clogging phenomena. The proposed model has been compared with other simplified modelling approaches and with a physically based model adopted as benchmark. The model performed better compared to other approaches considering both unclogged facilities and the effect of clogging. On the basis of a long-term simulation of six years of rain data, the performance and the effectiveness of an infiltration trench measure are assessed. The study confirmed the important role played by the clogging phenomenon on such infiltration structures.

  14. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Richard E. Zartman


    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.

  15. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.


    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  16. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.


    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  17. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.


    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find th

  18. Pavement Snow Melting

    Lund, John W.


    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  19. Modeling soil moisture processes and recharge under a melting snowpack

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Dettinger, M.D.


    Recharge into granitic bedrock under a melting snowpack is being investigated as part of a study designed to understand hydrologic processes involving snow at Yosemite National Park in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Snowpack measurements, accompanied by water content and matric potential measurements of the soil under the snowpack, allowed for estimates of infiltration into the soil during snowmelt and percolation into the bedrock. During portions of the snowmelt period, infiltration rates into the soil exceeded the permeability of the bedrock and caused ponding to be sustained at the soil-bedrock interface. During a 5-d period with little measured snowmelt, drainage of the ponded water into the underlying fractured granitic bedrock was estimated to be 1.6 cm d?1, which is used as an estimate of bedrock permeability. The numerical simulator TOUGH2 was used to reproduce the field data and evaluate the potential for vertical flow into the fractured bedrock or lateral flow at the bedrock-soil interface. During most of the snowmelt season, the snowmelt rates were near or below the bedrock permeability. The field data and model results support the notion that snowmelt on the shallow soil overlying low permeability bedrock becomes direct infiltration unless the snowmelt rate greatly exceeds the bedrock permeability. Late in the season, melt rates are double that of the bedrock permeability (although only for a few days) and may tend to move laterally at the soil-bedrock interface downgradient and contribute directly to streamflow. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  20. Modeling Contamination of Shallow Unconfined Aquifers Through Infiltration Beds

    Ostendorf, D. W.


    We model the transport of a simply reactive contaminant through an infiltration bed and underlying shallow, one-dimensional, unconfined aquifer with a plane, steeply sloping bottom in the assumed absence of dispersion and downgradient dilution. The effluent discharge and ambient groundwater flow under the infiltration beds are presumed to form a vertically mixed plume marked by an appreciable radial velocity component in the near field flow region. The near field analysis routes effluent contamination as a single linear reservoir whose output forms a source plane for the one-dimensional, far field flow region downgradient of the facility; the location and width of the source plane reflect the relative strengths of ambient flow and effluent discharge. We model far field contaminant transport, using an existing method of characteristics solution with frame speeds modified by recharge, bottom slope, and linear adsorption, and concentrations reflecting first-order reaction kinetics. The near and far field models simulate transport of synthetic detergents, chloride, total nitrogen, and boron in a contaminant plume at the Otis Air Force Base sewage treatment plant in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Solutions to Overland Flow Incorporating Infiltration

    Boyraz, Uǧur; Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyılmaz-Alhan, Cevza


    Overland flow is represented by flood wave propagation and plays an important role in hydrology and hydraulics. Flood wave propagation concerns many disciplines and thus, scientists such as hydrologists, city planners, irrigation practitioners and hydraulic and environmental engineers are studying on developing accurate solutions for flood wave equations. The dynamic wave equations consist of continuity and momentum equations and describe unsteady and non-uniform flow conditions. Diffusion wave equations can be derived from the dynamic wave equations by neglecting the local and convective acceleration terms in the momentum equation. The kinematic wave model obtained by ignoring both inertial and pressure terms is the simplest routing method which substitutes a steady uniform flow relationship in the momentum equation. In order to calculate the overland flow, these three types of flood wave equations are solved with many different numerical techniques. Nevertheless, the dynamic interaction between surface flow and infiltration is not sufficiently investigated. In this study, the effect of infiltration on overland flow is explored by incorporating the integrated Horton equation into the flood wave equations. Integrated Horton method calculates infiltration under variable rainfall intensity. MacCormack explicit finite difference method is employed in solving the coupled infiltration-overland flow problem. Hydrographs for overland flow with and without infiltration effects are obtained under different rainfall intensities and soil conditions and compared. It is found that infiltration affects both the peak and the shape of hydrographs considerably. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall intensity and soil conditions on overland flow is also observed. Keywords: Overland flow; MacCormack; infiltration; Integrated Horton Method; Kinematic waves, Diffusion waves, Dynamic waves.

  2. Flux-assisted infiltration of molten 6063-Al into TiC beds

    Lopez, V.H.; Kennedy, A.R. [Advanced Materials Group, School of Mechanical, Materials, Mfg. Engineering and Management, Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom)


    This study details trials to produce aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with TiC particles by means of a flux-assisted infiltration technique. TiC and mixtures of TiC/flux powders were packed into 6063-aluminium tubes and heated to temperatures between 680 C and 1100 C in an Ar atmosphere. No infiltration of pure TiC beds occurred but the effect of using a K-Al-F flux was dramatic. Full infiltration occurred in less than 15 minutes and at low temperatures, 680 C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments indicate that only two significant thermal events take place in the process, melting of the flux at approximately 545 C and melting of the aluminium alloy at 630 C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed TiC-free regions, slight reaction of the TiC to form TiAl{sub 3}, and in some cases Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}, and a random distribution of flux trapped in the aluminum matrix. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of an Infiltration Model with Microchannels

    Garcia-Serrana, M.; Gulliver, J. S.; Nieber, J. L.


    This research goal is to develop and demonstrate the means by which roadside drainage ditches and filter strips can be assigned the appropriate volume reduction credits by infiltration. These vegetated surfaces convey stormwater, infiltrate runoff, and filter and/or settle solids, and are often placed along roads and other impermeable surfaces. Infiltration rates are typically calculated by assuming that water flows as sheet flow over the slope. However, for most intensities water flow occurs in narrow and shallow micro-channels and concentrates in depressions. This channelization reduces the fraction of the soil surface covered with the water coming from the road. The non-uniform distribution of water along a hillslope directly affects infiltration. First, laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to characterize the spatial pattern of flow for stormwater runoff entering onto the surface of a sloped surface in a drainage ditch. In the laboratory experiments different micro-topographies were tested over bare sandy loam soil: a smooth surface, and three and five parallel rills. All the surfaces experienced erosion; the initially smooth surface developed a system of channels over time that increased runoff generation. On average, the initially smooth surfaces infiltrated 10% more volume than the initially rilled surfaces. The field experiments were performed in the side slope of established roadside drainage ditches. Three rates of runoff from a road surface into the swale slope were tested, representing runoff from 1, 2, and 10-year storm events. The average percentage of input runoff water infiltrated in the 32 experiments was 67%, with a 21% standard deviation. Multiple measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity were conducted to account for its spatial variability. Second, a rate-based coupled infiltration and overland model has been designed that calculates stormwater infiltration efficiency of swales. The Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson assumptions were

  4. Incorporating infiltration modelling in urban flood management

    A. S. Jumadar


    Full Text Available Increasing frequency and intensity of flood events in urban areas can be linked to increase in impervious area due to urbanization, exacerbated by climate change. The established approach of conveying storm water by conventional drainage systems has contributed to magnification of runoff volume and peak flows beyond those of undeveloped catchments. Furthermore, the continuous upgrading of such conventional systems is costly and unsustainable in the long term. Sustainable drainage systems aim at addressing the adverse effects associated with conventional systems, by mimicking the natural drainage processes, encouraging infiltration and storage of storm water. In this study we model one of the key components of SuDS, the infiltration basins, in order to assert the benefits of the approach. Infiltration modelling was incorporated in the detention storage unit within the one-dimensional urban storm water management model, EPA-SWMM 5.0. By introduction of infiltration modelling in the storage, the flow attenuation performance of the unit was considerably improved. The study also examines the catchment scale impact of both source and regional control storage/infiltration systems. Based on the findings of two case study areas modelled with the proposed options, it was observed that source control systems have a greater and much more natural impact at a catchment level, with respect to flow attenuation, compared to regional control systems of which capacity is equivalent to the sum of source control capacity at the catchment.

  5. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    HU HePing; YANG ZhiYong; TIAN FuQiang


    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial heterogeneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overestimate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hydrological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  6. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil


    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial hetero- geneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overes- timate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hy- drological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  7. Sorptivity and liquid infiltration into dry soil

    Culligan, Patricia J.; Ivanov, Vladimir; Germaine, John T.


    The sorptivity S quantifies the effect of capillarity on liquid movement in a porous material. For liquid infiltration into an initially dry material, S is a parameter that is contingent on both liquid and material properties as well as the maximum liquid content behind the infiltrating front, θm. Scaling analyses are used to derive a dimensionless, intrinsic sorptivity S∗ that is constant for different liquids, Miller-similar materials and different values of θm. The analyses confirm that S is dependent on β1/2, where β = cos ϕ is a measure of the wettability of the liquid. They also indicate a power law relationship between S and Se(av), the average liquid saturation behind the infiltrating front. Seventeen water and eleven Soltrol 220 horizontal infiltration experiments are reported in uniform, dry sand. Test results show that water is partially wetting in the sand. They also confirm that S∝Se(av)d, where d = 3.2 for the experimental conditions. The usefulness of a general, dimensionless Boltzmann variable is demonstrated to normalize infiltration profiles for the different liquids. An approximate method for sorptivity calculation is shown to provide an accurate estimate of S∗.

  8. Electron Percolation In Copper Infiltrated Carbon

    Krcho, Stanislav


    The work describes the dependence of the electrical conductivity of carbon materials infiltrated with copper in a vacuum-pressure autoclave on copper concentration and on the effective pore radius of the carbon skeleton. In comparison with non-infiltrated material the electrical conductivity of copper infiltrated composite increased almost 500 times. If the composite contained less than 7.2 vol% of Cu, a linear dependence of the electrical conductivity upon cupper content was observed. If infiltrated carbon contained more than 7.2 vol% of Cu, the dependence was nonlinear - the curve could be described by a power formula (x - xc)t. This is a typical formula describing the electron percolation process in regions containing higher Cu fraction than the critical one. The maximum measured electrical conductivity was 396 × 104 Ω-1 m-1 for copper concentration 27.6 vol%. Experiments and analysis of the electrical conductivity showed that electron percolation occurred in carbon materials infiltrated by copper when the copper volume exceeded the critical concentration. The analysis also showed a sharp increase of electrical conductivity in composites with copper concentration higher than the threshold, where the effective radius of carbon skeleton pores decreased to 350 nanometres.

  9. The Preparation of Carbon-Supported Magnesium Nanoparticles using Melt Infiltration

    de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; Wagemans, R.W.P.; Eggenhuisen, T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959498; Dauvillier, B.S.; Radstake, P.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829587; Meeldijk, J.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323921647; Geus, J.W.; de Jong, K.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X


    Magnesium dihydride contains 7.7 wt % hydrogen. However, its application for hydrogen storage is impeded by its high stability and slow kinetics. Bringing the size of Mg(H2) into the nanometer range will not only enhance the reaction rates but has also been theoretically predicted to change the

  10. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith


    This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

  11. Durable, High Thermal Conductivity Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites for Turbine Engine Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Durable, creep-resistant ceramic composites are necessary to meet the increased operating temperatures targeted for advanced turbine engines. Higher operating...

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena


    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  13. Analysis of in situ Reaction and Pressureless Infiltration Process in Fabricating TiC/Mg Composites

    Qun DONG; Liqing CHEN; Mingjiu ZHAO; Jing BI


    An innovative processing route, in situ reaction combined with pressureless infiltration, was adopted to fabricate magnesium matrix composites, where the reinforcement TiC formed in situ from elemental Ti and C powders and molten Mg spontaneously infiltrated the preform of Ti and C. The influences of primarily elemental particle sizes,synthesizing temperature, holding time etc on in situ reactive infiltration for Mg-Ti-C system were systematically investigated in order to explore the mechanism of this process. In fabricating TiC/Mg composites, Mg can not only spontaneously infiltrate the preform of reinforcement and thus densify the as fabricated composites as matrix metal, but also it can accelerate the in situ reaction process and lower the synthesizing temperature of Ti and C as well. In situ reaction of Ti and C and Mg infiltration processes are essentially overlapping and interacting during fabrication of TiC/Mg composites. The mechanism proposed in this paper can be used to explain the formation and morphologies of the reinforcement phase TiC.

  14. Physical simulation of urban rainfall infiltration

    LI Jie; ZENG Bing; WANG Yan-xia; SHEN Lei


    To meet the demand of urban rainwater integrated management, we designed and complemented a physical simulation experimental system of urban rainfall infiltration regulation parameters. We discuss the feasibility of quantitative regulations of urban underlying surface rainfall infiltration conditions and a practical application of a simulated experimental system. In a comprehensive analysis of the composition of an effective rainwater harvesting system and selection of water storage material, we simulated the major parameters of an experimental area rainfall, soil moisture and water storage capacity by providing an effective regulation of the experimental area runoff coefficient, obtained from basic data.

  15. Articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltration anesthesia.

    Vähätalo, K.; Antila, H.; Lehtinen, R.


    This study was undertaken to compare the anesthetic properties of articaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Ultracain DS) and lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Xylocain-Adrenalin) for maxillary infiltration anesthesia. Twenty healthy dental student volunteers were included in this double-blind study. Each subject received 0.6 mL of each test solution at different times. Infiltration anesthesia was performed on the upper lateral incisor. The onset and duration of anesthesia were monitored using an electric pulp tester. No statistically significant differences were seen in the onset and duration of anesthesia between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. PMID:7943919

  16. On the occurrence and implications of Jurassic primary continental boninite-like melts in the Zagros orogen

    Esna-Ashari, A.; Tiepolo, M.; Hassanzadeh, J.


    Ultramafic rocks, ranging from pyroxenites to hornblendites, are associated with granitoids of the Aligoodarz intrusive complex in the central Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, representing the Mesozoic continental arc segment of the Zagros orogen. As inferred from the ultramafic whole rock composition and the most primitive clinopyroxene composition in pyroxenites, the geochemical signature of primary melt is significantly different from that of the continental arc basalts. In particular, primary melt is characterized by extremely low concentrations of incompatible elements and high concentrations of Mg and refractory elements typical of boninites. Amphibole is a late crystallizing mineral in these rocks and is in textural and chemical disequilibrium with olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene. Amphibole crystallized from a liquid underwent differentiation through a process of melt-rock reaction. In particular, early differentiated boninitic cumulates reacted with later melts with a strong crustal signature similar to Aligoodarz granodiorite. Usbnd Pb zircon geochronology from ultramafic rocks and surrounding quartz-diorite yield similar ages and indicate that they are coeval with Aligoodarz granitoids (ca. 165-170 Ma). However, the occurrence of a marked negative Eu anomaly in zircon from the ultramafic rocks, which is absent in the boninitic primary melt, indicates that zircons crystallized from the infiltrating melt and in turn date the timing of melt infiltration. The interaction between ultramafic cumulates and infiltrated melt has generated a new liquid compositionally similar to high-Mg andesites and to the quartz-diorites hosting the ultramafic cumulates. The scenario that better account for the genesis of boninitic melts in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone is partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge in response to the onset of NeoTethys subduction. According to this hypothesis, middle Jurassic calc-alkaline magmatism in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone represents the mature stage

  17. Microstructure and stopped growth mechanism of Y123 bulk fabricated by directional infiltration and growth

    DONG Hao; HU Rui; LI Jin-shan; KOU Hong-chao; XUE Xiang-yi; CHANG Hui; CAO Hai-tao; ZHOU Lian


    The infiltration-growth process was used as an alternative to conventional melt processing techniques for the preparation of bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x(Y123) with freely dispersed small size Y2BaCuO5(Y211) particles. Bulk YBCO superconductors with uniformly distributed particles of micron-sized Y211 were prepared by the directional infiltration and growth(DIG). The microstructure changes of the Y211 particles at various stages of processing were studied. About 70% of Y211 particles are under 1μn in the final sample. The different stopped growth mechanism of this material along the c axis and ab plane was discussed.Undercooling and viscosity lead to tanglesome thick boundary layer. So the Y123 growth along c axis is stopped. Yttrium lack in front of the ab plane is the main reason why the growth stops at this direction.

  18. Reactive Systems

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  19. Melting of Ice under Pressure

    Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G


    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

  20. Multi-stage melt-rock interaction in the Mt. Maggiore (Corsica, France) ophiolitic peridotites: microstructural and geochemical evidence

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Piccardo, Giovanni B.; Hofmann, Albrecht W.


    Spinel and plagioclase peridotites from the Mt.Maggiore (Corsica, France) ophiolitic massif record a composite asthenosphere-lithosphere history of partial melting and subsequent multi-stage melt-rock interaction. Cpx-poor spinel lherzolites are consistent with mantle residues after low-degree fractional melting ( F = 5-10%). Opx + spinel symplectites at the rims of orthopyroxene porphyroclasts indicate post-melting lithospheric cooling ( T = 970-1,100°C); this was followed by formation of olivine embayments within pyroxene porphyroclasts by melt-rock interaction. Enrichment in modal olivine (up to 85 wt%) at constant bulk Mg values, and variable absolute REE contents (at constant LREE/HREE) indicate olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution during reactive porous melt flow. This stage occurred at spinel-facies depths, after incorporation of the peridotites in the thermal lithosphere. Plagioclase-enriched peridotites show melt impregnation microtextures, like opx + plag intergrowths replacing exsolved cpx porphyroclasts and interstitial gabbronoritic veinlets. This second melt-rock interaction stage caused systematic chemical changes in clinopyroxene (e.g. Ti, REE, Zr, Y increase), related to the concomitant effects of local melt-rock interaction at decreasing melt mass, and crystallization of small (<3%) trapped melt fractions. LREE depletion in minerals of the gabbronoritic veinlets indicates that the impregnating melts were more depleted than normal MORB. Preserved microtextural evidence of previous melt-rock interaction in the impregnated peridotites suggests that they were progressively uplifted in response to lithosphere extension and thinning. Migrating melts were likely produced by mantle upwelling and melting related to extension; they were modified from olivine-saturated to opx-saturated compositions, and caused different styles of melt-rock interaction (reactive spinel harzburgites, vs. impregnated plagioclase peridotites) depending on the

  1. Obesity, Intrapancreatic Fatty Infiltration, and Pancreatic Cancer.

    Wang, Hua; Maitra, Anirban; Wang, Huamin


    Obesity and intrapancreatic fatty infiltration are associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions. The interplay among obesity, inflammation, and oncogenic Kras signaling promotes pancreatic tumorigenesis. Targeting the interaction between obesity-associated inflammation and Kras signaling may provide new strategies for prevention and therapy of pancreatic cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  3. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.


    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  4. Novel titanium particles reinforced Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites prepared by infiltration casting

    Cuimei Zhang; Xidong Hui; Meiling Wang; Guoliang Chen


    A novel Ti/Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 composite was successfully prepared by infiltrating the melt into sintered Ti preform. It shows that the introduction of Ti particles into the composite results in an increase in elastic strain to 3% and an enhancement of the strength up to 2.1 GPa. High specific strength has been obtained because of the decrease in density of the composite. It is suggested that an improvement in the mechanical properties of the composite may be attributed to the generation of multiple shear bands and some deformation in the Ti particles.

  5. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration


    FU Shuren; CHEN Taoyung


    Multiple melting behavior of nylon 1010 has been investigated by using DSC instrument. Effects of partial scanning, partial scanning and annealing, heating rate, cooling rate and stepwise annealing on the melting curve were studied. Experimental results indicate that the sample undergoes a process of continuous melting and recrystallization during DSC scanning. Nylon 1010 contains a distribution of crystallites of different degrees of perfection which is strongly dependent on its previous thermal history. From the structural reorganization point of view, the origin of double and multiple peaks of the melting curve is explained.

  7. Melt electrospinning and its technologization in tissue engineering.

    Muerza-Cascante, M Lourdes; Haylock, David; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Dalton, Paul D


    Melt electrospinning is an emerging fiber-based manufacturing technique that can be used to design and build scaffolds suitable for many tissue engineering (TE) applications. Contrary to the widely used solution electrospinning, the melt process is solvent-free and therefore volatility and toxicity issues associated with solvents can be avoided. Furthermore, molten polymers are often viscous and nonconductive, making them candidates for generating electrospinning jets without electrical instabilities. This in turn permits a precise and predictable fiber deposition in the combination with moving collectors, termed melt electrospinning writing (MEW), allows the layer-by-layer fabrication of small to large volume scaffolds with specific designs, shapes and thicknesses. In vitro studies have demonstrated that scaffolds designed and fabricated via MEW can support cell attachment, proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, as well as cell infiltration throughout the thickness of the scaffold facilitated by the large pores and pore interconnectivity. Moreover, in vivo studies show that scaffolds designed for specific tissue regeneration strategies performed superbly. This review describes the state-of-the-art and unique perspectives of melt electrospinning and its writing applied to scaffold-based TE.

  8. Melt pool dynamics during selective electron beam melting

    Scharowsky, T.; Osmanlic, F.; Singer, R. F.; Körner, C.


    Electron beam melting is a promising additive manufacturing technique for metal parts. Nevertheless, the process is still poorly understood making further investigations indispensable to allow a prediction of the part's quality. To improve the understanding of the process especially the beam powder interaction, process observation at the relevant time scale is necessary. Due to the difficult accessibility of the building area, the high temperatures, radiation and the very high scanning speeds during the melting process the observation requires an augmented effort in the observation equipment. A high speed camera in combination with an illumination laser, band pass filter and mirror system is suitable for the observation of the electron beam melting process. The equipment allows to observe the melting process with a high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper the adjustment of the equipment and results of the lifetime and the oscillation frequencies of the melt pool for a simple geometry are presented.

  9. What Is Reactive Arthritis?

    ... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 69 KB November 2014 What is Reactive Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Information About Reactive Arthritis and Other Related Conditions What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set ...

  10. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim


    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  11. Estimating Infiltration Parameters from Basic Soil Properties

    van de Genachte, G.; Mallants, D.; Ramos, J.; Deckers, J. A.; Feyen, J.


    Infiltration data were collected on two rectangular grids with 25 sampling points each. Both experimental grids were located in tropical rain forest (Guyana), the first in an Arenosol area and the second in a Ferralsol field. Four different infiltration models were evaluated based on their performance in describing the infiltration data. The model parameters were estimated using non-linear optimization techniques. The infiltration behaviour in the Ferralsol was equally well described by the equations of Philip, Green-Ampt, Kostiakov and Horton. For the Arenosol, the equations of Philip, Green-Ampt and Horton were significantly better than the Kostiakov model. Basic soil properties such as textural composition (percentage sand, silt and clay), organic carbon content, dry bulk density, porosity, initial soil water content and root content were also determined for each sampling point of the two grids. The fitted infiltration parameters were then estimated based on other soil properties using multiple regression. Prior to the regression analysis, all predictor variables were transformed to normality. The regression analysis was performed using two information levels. The first information level contained only three texture fractions for the Ferralsol (sand, silt and clay) and four fractions for the Arenosol (coarse, medium and fine sand, and silt and clay). At the first information level the regression models explained up to 60% of the variability of some of the infiltration parameters for the Ferralsol field plot. At the second information level the complete textural analysis was used (nine fractions for the Ferralsol and six for the Arenosol). At the second information level a principal components analysis (PCA) was performed prior to the regression analysis to overcome the problem of multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Regression analysis was then carried out using the orthogonally transformed soil properties as the independent variables. Results for

  12. Beyond the Melting Pot Reconsidered.

    Anderson, Elijah


    Discusses the 1963 book, "Beyond the Melting Pot," which suggested that eventually the problem of different ethnicities in the U.S. would be resolved and society would become one melting pot. Examines how changes in immigration and economic structures have affected the issue, noting the devastating effect of the dominant culture's…

  13. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B


    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics.

  14. Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Scolari, Lara


    A simulation scheme for the transmission spectrum of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal and subject to an external bias is presented. The alignment of the biased liquid crystal is simulated using the finite element method to solve the relevant system of coupled...... partial differential equations. From the liquid crystal alignment the full tensorial dielectric permittivity in the capillaries is derived. The transmission spectrum for the photonic crystal fiber is obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem deriving from Maxwell’s equations using a vector...... element based finite element method. We demonstrate results for a splay aligned liquid crystal infiltrated into the capillaries of a four-ring photonic crystal fiber and compare them to corresponding experiments....

  15. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing


    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  16. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Kase S


    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  17. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A. (eds.)


    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team


    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  19. Invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma infiltrating trachea

    Filipović Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Introduction. Although follicular thyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, up to 20% of the patients are threatened by potential complications resulting from infiltrating tumor growth into surrounding tissues. Case report. A 66- year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic examination showed a 8 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a cold nodule. CT scan and tracheoscopy showed tracheal infiltration without tracheal obstruction. An extended total thyroidectomy was done, with the left jugular vein, strap muscles and tracheal 2 cm long circular resection. The pathologist confirmed invasive follicular thyroid cancer. After the surgery the patient was treated with radioiodine therapy and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of the thyroid hormone and serum thyroglobulin level every six months, as well as the further tests (chest xray, ultrasound of the neck and a whole body scintigraphy were done. After more than three years the patient had no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of the tracheal infiltrating thyroid cancer with circular tracheal resection and terminoterminal anastomosis followed by radioiodine therapy should be considered the treatment of choice.

  20. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives

    Comet, M; Siegert, B; Pichot, V; Gibot, P; Spitzer, D [Laboratoire ISL/CNRS ' Nanomateriaux pour les Systemes Sous Sollicitations Extremes' (NS3E), FRE 3026, French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL), 5 rue du General Cassagnou, 68301 Saint-Louis (France)], E-mail:


    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode-i.e. combustion versus detonation.

  1. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives

    Comet, M.; Siegert, B.; Pichot, V.; Gibot, P.; Spitzer, D.


    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr2O3 matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr2O3/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr2O3 matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr2O3 matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr2O3 matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode—i.e. combustion versus detonation.




    Full Text Available mbalance of the natural dynamic equilibrium between the processes of percolation, evaporation and surface runoff is caused because of urbanization of the previously natural areas which are transformed by humans now. More and more rainwater flows over the surface of the catchment area. Infiltration facilities are devices designed for fluent and natural infiltration of rainwater from the roofs of buildings and paved surfaces. Facilities for infiltration as one of source control measures are permeable paved areas, unpaved areas for infiltration, vegetated swales, vegetated buffer strips, bioretention, detention ponds, dry well, infiltration basins and infiltration gallery and many more. Rainwater drainage from the bridge object in Sarisske Luky in Presov district (Slovakia, using infiltration gallery is presented in the paper. Its capacity is not efficient now, so the reconstruction or other supplement solution is needed. From the wide possibilities of solutions, one of them which full fills all criterions about the rainwater infiltration in selected building object is presented and discussed.

  3. 40 CFR 35.2120 - Infiltration/Inflow.


    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2120 Infiltration/Inflow. (a... portion of its sewer system is subject to excessive infiltration, the applicant may confirm its belief...

  4. Vacuum Arc Melting Processes for Biomedical Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

    Tsai De-Chang


    Full Text Available This study primarily involved using a vacuum arc remelting (VAR process to prepare a nitinol shape-memory alloy with distinct ratios of alloy components (nitinol: 54.5 wt% to 57 wt%. An advantage of using the VAR process is the adoption of a water-cooled copper crucible, which effectively prevents crucible pollution and impurity infiltration. Optimising the melting production process enables control of the alloy component and facilitates a uniformly mixed compound during subsequent processing. This study involved purifying nickel and titanium and examining the characteristics of nitinol alloy after alloy melt, including its microstructure, mechanical properties, phase transition temperature, and chemical components.

  5. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo


    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  6. Evaluation of some infiltration models and hydraulic parameters

    Haghighi, F.; Gorji, M.; Shorafa, M.; Sarmadian, F.; Mohammadi, M. H.


    The evaluation of infiltration characteristics and some parameters of infiltration models such as sorptivity and final steady infiltration rate in soils are important in agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the most common models used to estimate final soil infiltration rate. The equality of final infiltration rate with saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was also tested. Moreover, values of the estimated sorptivity from the Philips model were compared to estimates by selected pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The infiltration experiments used the doublering method on soils with two different land uses in the Taleghan watershed of Tehran province, Iran, from September to October, 2007. The infiltration models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Philip two-term and Horton were fitted to observed infiltration data. Some parameters of the models and the coefficient of determination goodness of fit were estimated using MATLAB software. The results showed that, based on comparing measured and model-estimated infiltration rate using root mean squared error (RMSE), Hortons model gave the best prediction of final infiltration rate in the experimental area. Laboratory measured Ks values gave significant differences and higher values than estimated final infiltration rates from the selected models. The estimated final infiltration rate was not equal to laboratory measured Ks values in the study area. Moreover, the estimated sorptivity factor by Philips model was significantly different to those estimated by selected PTFs. It is suggested that the applicability of PTFs is limited to specific, similar conditions. (Author) 37 refs.

  7. Electrical Conductivity of Cryolite Melts

    Fellner, P.; Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.


    This paper proposes an equation for the electrical conductivity of multicomponent cryolite-based mixtures. The equation is based on a physical model which assumes that the conductivity is proportional to the number density of the effective electric charges in the melt. The various authors in the available literature show a great discrepancy in conductivity data of cryolite-based melts. The equation based on the physical model enables determination of which set of data is preferable. Special consideration in this respect is given to the influence of magnesium flouride and lithium flouride additions to the melt.

  8. Revealing the mechanisms and significance of frozen soil infiltration

    Stähli, Manfred; Hayashi, Masaki


    Frozen soil is one of the most characteristic features of Nordic hydrology. Depending on climate, snow cover and soil properties it can slow down or even inhibit the water's journey from the soil surface to the stream, or it can speed up the journey by generating overland flow. When Harald Grip's and Allan Rhode's book came out in the mid-eighties, state-of-the-art knowledge on frozen soil hydrology was based on numerous cold-chamber experiments and only few field measurements, especially from Alaska. It was already then recognized that frozen soil is not impermeable per se, but its permeability depends on the amount and connectivity of air-filled pores, which in turn depends on ice content. How has our understanding of frozen soil hydrology further developed since then? One important innovation was the application of dye tracers to frozen field plots and soil columns uncovering the flow paths of infiltrating water. A second crucial advance was the development of numerical models to calculate water transfer from the snow cover into soil profiles. These models made researchers aware of the high sensitivity of frozen soil infiltration to boundary conditions (e.g. depth to groundwater) and winter history (e.g. evolution of snow cover, number of mid-winter melt events). A further important insight was that local effects of frozen ground on water flow may vanish at the scale of catchments due to the highly variable topography, vegetation and soil of a landscape. Nevertheless, studies showing the impact of frozen soil on large scale ground-water recharge or stream runoff are still scarce. A recent analysis of long-term runoff data from Switzerland sheds new light on the response of small catchments to frozen ground. Finally, it can be concluded that the Nordic lessons on frozen soil hydrology have been noted by the worldwide research community and are receiving increased attention in the context of climate change and its impacts on seasonally and permanently frozen soil.

  9. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Wan, Chen


    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  10. Structure-Properties of PPE Alloy by Reactive Blending

    Furuta, Motonobu; Koyama, Yoshio; Inoue, Takashi

    Poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) is a high temperature polymer (Tg=210°C). Neat PPE is hardly melt-processed below its thermal decomposition temperature. It is believed that the melt-processability is only achieved by blending with polystyrene as a polymeric plasticizer. The polymeric plasticizer sacrifices the heat resistance; the Tg decreases almost linearly with polystyrene content. We found that PPE can react with poly(ethylene-co-glycidylmethacrylate) (EGMA) by melt mixing. Reactive blending of PPE with EGMA yielded an excellent engineering plastic with nice melt-processability, even when a small amount of EGMA (e.g., 5 wt%) was incorporated. The injection molded parts showed high impact strength, high temperature resistance, high tensile strength, and low dielectric loss. It can be classified as a super-engineering plastics. The computer simulation based on a particle-slip model revealed why the melt-processability is attained by the incorporation of polyolefin in pure PPE matrix.

  11. Infiltration under snow cover: Modeling approaches and predictive uncertainty

    Meeks, Jessica; Moeck, Christian; Brunner, Philip; Hunkeler, Daniel


    Groundwater recharge from snowmelt represents a temporal redistribution of precipitation. This is extremely important because the rate and timing of snowpack drainage has substantial consequences to aquifer recharge patterns, which in turn affect groundwater availability throughout the rest of the year. The modeling methods developed to estimate drainage from a snowpack, which typically rely on temporally-dense point-measurements or temporally-limited spatially-dispersed calibration data, range in complexity from the simple degree-day method to more complex and physically-based energy balance approaches. While the gamut of snowmelt models are routinely used to aid in water resource management, a comparison of snowmelt models' predictive uncertainties had previously not been done. Therefore, we established a snowmelt model calibration dataset that is both temporally dense and represents the integrated snowmelt infiltration signal for the Vers Chez le Brandt research catchment, which functions as a rather unique natural lysimeter. We then evaluated the uncertainty associated with the degree-day, a modified degree-day and energy balance snowmelt model predictions using the null-space Monte Carlo approach. All three melt models underestimate total snowpack drainage, underestimate the rate of early and midwinter drainage and overestimate spring snowmelt rates. The actual rate of snowpack water loss is more constant over the course of the entire winter season than the snowmelt models would imply, indicating that mid-winter melt can contribute as significantly as springtime snowmelt to groundwater recharge in low alpine settings. Further, actual groundwater recharge could be between 2 and 31% greater than snowmelt models suggest, over the total winter season. This study shows that snowmelt model predictions can have considerable uncertainty, which may be reduced by the inclusion of more data that allows for the use of more complex approaches such as the energy balance

  12. Nitrogen Control in VIM Melts

    Jablonski, P. D.; Hawk, J. A.

    NETL has developed a design and control philosophy for the addition of nitrogen to austenitic and ferritic steels. The design approach uses CALPHAD as the centerpiece to predict the level to which nitrogen is soluble in both the melt and the solid. Applications of this technique have revealed regions of "exclusion" in which the alloy, while within specification limits of prescribed, cannot be made by conventional melt processing. Furthermore, other investigations have found that substantial retrograde solubility of nitrogen exists, which can become problematic during subsequent melt processing and/or other finishing operations such as welding. Additionally, the CALPHAD method has been used to adjust primary melt conditions. To that end, nitrogen additions have been made using chrome nitride, silicon nitride, high-nitrogen ferrochrome as well as nitrogen gas. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed and NETL experience in this area will be summarized with respect to steel structure.

  13. Hydrogeophysical monitoring of water infiltration processes

    Bevilacqua, Ivan; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio


    Non-invasive subsurface monitoring is growing in the last years. Techniques like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be useful in soil water content monitoring (e.g., Vereecken et al., 2006). Some problems remain (e.g. spatial resolution), but the scale is consistent with many applications and hydrological models. The research has to to provide even more quantitative tools, without remaining in the qualitative realm. This is a very crucial step in the way to provide data useful for hydrological modeling. In this work a controlled field infiltration experiment has been done in August 2009 in the experimental site of Grugliasco, close to the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Torino, Italy. The infiltration has been monitored in time lapse by ERT, GPR, and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). The sandy soil characteristics of the site has been already described in another experiment [Cassiani et al. 2009a].The ERT was èperformed in dipole-dipole configuration, while the GPR had 100 MHz and 500 MHz antennas in WARR configuration. The TDR gages had different lengths. The amount of water which was sprinkled was also monitored in time.Irrigation intensity has been always smaller than infiltration capacity, in order not toh ave any surface ponding. Spectral induced polarization has been used to infer constitutive parameters from soil samples [Cassiani et al. 2009b]. 2D Richards equation model (Manzini and Ferraris, 2004) has been then calibrated with the measurements. References. Cassiani, G., S. Ferraris, M. Giustiniani, R. Deiana and C.Strobbia, 2009a, Time-lapse surface-to-surface GPR measurements to monitor a controlled infiltration experiment, in press, Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 50, 2 Marzo 2009, pp. 209-226. Cassiani, G., A. Kemna, A.Villa, and E. Zimmermann, 2009b, Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination in sediments with low clay content

  14. Laser melting of uranium carbides

    Utton, C. A.; De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Jardin, R.; Noel, H.; Guéneau, C.; Manara, D.


    In the context of the material research aimed at supporting the development of nuclear plants of the fourth Generation, renewed interest has recently arisen in carbide fuels. A profound understanding of the behaviour of nuclear materials in extreme conditions is of prime importance for the analysis of the operation limits of nuclear fuels, and prediction of possible nuclear reactor accidents. In this context, the main goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of laser induced melting experiments on stoichiometric uranium carbides; UC, UC1.5 and UC2. Measurements were performed, at temperatures around 3000 K, under a few bars of inert gas in order to minimise vaporisation and oxidation effects, which may occur at these temperatures. Moreover, a recently developed investigation method has been employed, based on in situ analysis of the sample surface reflectivity evolution during melting. Current results, 2781 K for the melting point of UC, 2665 K for the solidus and 2681 K for the liquidus of U2C3, 2754 K for the solidus and 2770 K for the liquidus of UC2, are in fair agreement with early publications where the melting behaviour of uranium carbides was investigated by traditional furnace melting methods. Further information has been obtained in the current research about the non-congruent (solidus-liquidus) melting of certain carbides, which suggest that a solidus-liquidus scheme is followed by higher ratio carbides, possibly even for UC2.

  15. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)


    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  16. Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration

    Amanda J. Wheeler


    Full Text Available Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.

  17. Exploring variation and predictors of residential fine particulate matter infiltration.

    Clark, Nina A; Allen, Ryan W; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J


    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.

  18. Surface composites fabricated by vacuum infiltration casting technique

    Guirong Yang; Yuan Hao; Wenming Song; Jinjun Lü; Ying Ma


    Alumina (Al2O3) particles reinforced copper matrix surface composites were fabricated on the bronze substrate using the vacuum infiltration casting technique. Three cases were obtained in the vacuum infiltration casting technique: no infiltration, partial infiltration and full infiltration (the thickness of preforms do not exceed 3.5 mm). The reason of no infiltration is that the vacuum degree is not enough so that the force acting on the liquid metal is lower than the resistance due to the surface tension. Partial infiltration is because of somewhat lower vacuum degree and pouring temperature. Full desired infiltration is on account of suitable infiltration casting conditions, such as vacuum degree, pouring temperature, grain size and preheating temperature of the preform. The most important factor of affecting formation of surface composites is the vacuum degree, then pouring temperature and particle size.The infiltration mechanism was discussed on the bases of different processing conditions. The surface composite up to 3.5 mm in thickness with uniformly distributed Al2O3 particles could be fabricated via the vacuum infiltration casting technique.

  19. Investigation on multiple-melting behavior of nano-CaCO3/polypropylene composites

    LIN Zhidan; ZENG Chunlian; MAI Kancheng


    The multiple melting-peak behavior of polypropylene (PP) in nano-CaCO3/PP composites and modified nano-CaCO3/PP composites were investigated under the condition of isothermal crystallization and nonisothermal crystallization.The result indicated that the addition ofnano-CaCO3 markedly increased the crystallization temperatures of PP and induced the formation of the p-crystal of PP.The crystallization temperatures of nano-CaCO3/PP composites modified by reactive monomers were further increased,but the melting-peak intensity of the 13-crystal of PP was not greatly influenced.While in the presence of dicumyl peroxide,nanoCaCO3/PP composites modified by reactive monomers led to the significant increase in the melting-peak intensity of the β-crystal of PP.The double melting-peak of PP was observed,which was attributed to the formation of two kinds of different crystallization forms of or-crystal or β-crystal during the crystallization of PP.With the increase of crystallization temperatures,the double melting-peak moved toward the hightemperature side.The intensity of high-temperature melting peak was higher than that of low-temperature melting peak in nano-CaCO3/PP composites.While in modified nano-CaCO3/PP composites crystallized at higher temperature,the intensity of high-temperature melting peak was lower than that of low-temperature melting peak.The isothermal crystallization time had little effect on the melting temperatures.

  20. Method to measure soil matrix infiltration in forest soil

    Zhang, Jing; Lei, Tingwu; Qu, Liqin; Chen, Ping; Gao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Chao; Yuan, Lili; Zhang, Manliang; Su, Guangxu


    Infiltration of water into forest soil commonly involves infiltration through the matrix body and preferential passages. Determining the matrix infiltration process is important in partitioning water infiltrating into the soil through the soil body and macropores to evaluate the effects of soil and water conservation practices on hillslope hydrology and watershed sedimentation. A new method that employs a double-ring infiltrometer was applied in this study to determine the matrix infiltration process in forest soil. Field experiments were conducted in a forest field on the Loess Plateau at Tianshui Soil and Water Conservation Experimental Station. Nylon cloth was placed on the soil surface in the inner ring and between the inner and outer rings of infiltrometers. A thin layer of fine sands were placed onto the nylon cloth to shelter the macropores and ensure that water infiltrates the soil through the matrix only. Brilliant Blue tracers were applied to examine the exclusion of preferential flow occurrences in the measured soil body. The infiltration process was measured, computed, and recorded through procedures similar to those of conventional methods. Horizontal and vertical soil profiles were excavated to check the success of the experiment and ensure that preferential flow did not occur in the measured soil column and that infiltration was only through the soil matrix. The infiltration processes of the replicates of five plots were roughly the same, thereby indicating the feasibility of the methodology to measure soil matrix infiltration. The measured infiltration curves effectively explained the transient process of soil matrix infiltration. Philip and Kostiakov models fitted the measured data well, and all the coefficients of determination were greater than 0.9. The wetted soil bodies through excavations did not present evidence of preferential flow. Therefore, the proposed method can determine the infiltration process through the forest soil matrix. This

  1. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive.

  2. Clinical characteristics that distinguish eosinophilic organ infiltration from metastatic nodule development in cancer patients with eosinophilia


    Background When new space-occupying lesions are observed together with peripheral blood eosinophilia in patients diagnosed with cancer, the possibility of eosinophilic organ involvement should be differentiated from metastasis of primary cancer, since a misdiagnosis could lead to unnecessary chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to identify the clinical characteristics of eosinophilic organ involvement that distinguish it from distant metastasis in patients with primary cancer. Methods The medical records of 43 cancer patients who developed hepatic or pulmonary nodules with peripheral blood eosinophilia between January 2005 and February 2010 in the Asan Medical Center (Seoul) were reviewed. Eosinophilic infiltration and distant metastasis were identified on the basis of pathological findings and radiological features. Fisher’s exact test, χ2 test or Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results In total, 33 patients (76%) were diagnosed with eosinophilic infiltration, 5 (12%) with cancer metastasis and 5 (12%) had undetermined diagnoses. Compared to the patients with metastases, the patients with eosinophilic infiltration were significantly more likely to have serology indicating a parasitic infection, a history of eating raw food, high serum levels of total IgE, normal liver function, normal C-reactive protein levels, a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and fewer and smaller nodules. The most common underlying malignancy in the eosinophilic organ infiltration group was stomach cancer. Physicians tended to neglect the eosinophilia in patients with a history of cancer. Conclusions Several clinical characteristics of eosinophilic organ infiltration distinguish it from cancer metastasis. Physicians should make greater efforts to determine the causes of organ involvement with peripheral blood eosinophilia, especially in cancer patients. PMID:22929225

  3. Introducing a high gravity field to enhance infiltration of small molecules into polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Liu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yue; Shao, Lei; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng


    Loading functional small molecules into nano-thin films is fundamental to various research fields such as membrane separation, molecular imprinting, interfacial reaction, drug delivery etc. Currently, a general demand for enhancing the loading rate without affecting the film structures exists in most infiltration phenomena. To handle this issue, we have introduced a process intensification method of a high gravity technique, which is a versatile energy form of mechanical field well-established in industry, into the investigations on diffusion/infiltration at the molecular level. By taking a polyelectrolyte multilayer as a model thin film and a photo-reactive molecule, 4,4'-diazostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt (DAS), as a model small functional molecule, we have demonstrated remarkably accelerated adsorption/infiltration of DAS into a poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) multilayer by as high as 20-fold; meanwhile, both the film property of the multilayer and photoresponsive-crosslinking function of DAS were not disturbed. Furthermore, the infiltration of DAS and the surface morphology of the multilayer could be tuned based on their high dependence on the intensity of the high gravity field regarding different rotating speeds. The mechanism of the accelerated adsorption/infiltration under the high gravity field was interpreted by the increased turbulence of the diffusing layer with the thinned laminar boundary layer and the stepwise delivery of the local concentration gradient from the solution to the interior of the multilayer. The introduction of mechanical field provides a simple and versatile strategy to address the paradox of the contradictory loading amount and loading rate, and thus to promote applications of various membrane processes.

  4. Intralesional Infiltration with Meglumine Antimoniate for the Treatment of Leishmaniasis Recidiva Cutis in Ecuador.

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Paredes, Yolanda; Puebla, Edison; Flores, Jessica; Loor, Richard; Padilla, José


    Meglumine Antimoniate (MA), administered intramuscularly for 21 continuous days is the recommended treatment of leishmaniases in Ecuador. However, because of its toxicity and requirement for intramuscular injections, treatment is frequently abandoned before completion. In addition, therapeutic failure and reactivation are not uncommon. Here we evaluate the efficacy and safety of MA administered intralesionally (IL) in leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC). LRC is a special clinical variant of cutaneous leishmaniasis, characterized by reactivation at the edges of a primary cured lesion, presenting with active papules around the scar. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. All were diagnosed parasitologically by one of three diagnostic methods (smear, culture, and Leishmanin skin test). Each patient received MA intralesionally weekly for 4 weeks. Each papule was infiltrated until complete saturation. On average, patients received 1 mL of MA per administration. The criterion of cure was the complete resolution of the papules. Follow up was performed at 30, 90, and 180 days after treatment. At day 30 after treatment, 19 (90.5%) of 21 patients were clinically cured. The two patients, who did not heal by the fourth application, were cured on the seventh and eighth dose, achieving a clinical cure of 100% without subsequent reactivation. Mild to moderate local pain during infiltration was the only adverse reaction experienced by 81% of patients. In one case, subsequent infiltrations were discontinued because of a local allergic reaction. Complete compliance of patients to treatment and the small volume of drug administered make this method of administering MA an effective, safe, and inexpensive alternative. Consequently, IL could replace intramuscular administration in the treatment of LRC in Ecuador.

  5. Quantifying melting and mobilistaion of interstitial melts in crystal mushes

    Veksler, Ilya; Dobson, Katherine; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Humphreys, Madeleine


    The deformation of crystals mushes and separation of melts and crystals in is critical to understanding the development of physical and chemical heterogeneity in magma chambers and has been invoked as an eruption trigger mechanism. Here we investigate the behaviour of the melt in the well characterised, classic crystal mush system of the Skaergaard intrusion by combining experimental petrology and the non-destructive 3D imaging methods. Starting materials for partial melting experiments were four samples from the upper Middle Zone of the Layered Series. Cylinders, 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, were drilled out of the rock samples, placed in alumina crucibles and held for 5 days in electric furnaces at atmospheric pressure and 1050-1100 °C. Redox conditions set by the CO-CO2 gas mixture were kept close to those of the FMQ buffer. We then use spatially registered 3D x-ray computed tomography images, collected before and after the experiment, to determine the volume and distribution of the crystal framework and interstitial phases, and the volume, distribution and connectivity the interstitial phases that undergo melting and extraction while at elevated temperature. Image analysis has allowed us to quantify these physical changes with high spatial resolution. Our work is a first step towards quantitative understanding of the melt mobilisation and migration processes operating in notionally locked crystal rich magmatic systems.

  6. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  7. An X-Ray Tomography Based Modeling Solution For Chemical Vapor Infiltration Of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Ros, William; Vignoles, Gérard L.; Germain, Christian


    A numerical tool for the simulation of Chemical Vapor Infiltration of carbon/carbon composites is introduced. The structure of the fibrous medium can be studied by high resolution X-Ray Computed Micro Tomography. Gas transport in various regimes is simulated by a random walk technique whilst the morphological evolution of the fluid/solid interface is handled by a Marching Cube technique. The program can be used to evaluate effective diffusivity and first order reaction rate. The numerical tool is validated by comparing computed effective properties of a straight slit pore with reactive walls to their analytical expression. Simulation of CVI processing of a real complex media is then presented.

  8. The Combustion Synthesis Process of Al-Ti-C System in an Elevated-temperature Al-melt


    One of the main disadvantages of combustion synthesis of ceramic/metal composite materials is the relatively high level of porosity present in the products.To synthesize TiC/Al composites with a dense structure,this paper proposes a novel application of an elevated-temperature Al-melt to directly ignite and simultaneously infiltrate Al-Ti-C preform dipped in the melt.The emphasis was placed on the combustion synthesis process and microstructural evalution of the preform in the melt,by a liquid quenching test combined with the measurement of the temperature history of the dipped preform.The results show that the combustion synthesis process of the preform in the elevated-temperature melt involves a series of reactions,and that higher temperature of the melt is favourable for the formation of TiC.The synthesized TiC/Al composites exhibit a dense structure,which is attributed to the infiltration of the melt into the preform.

  9. Melting of superheated molecular crystals

    Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad


    Melting dynamics of micrometer scale, polycrystalline samples of isobutane, dimethyl ether, methyl benzene, and 2-propanol were investigated by fast scanning calorimetry. When films are superheated with rates in excess of 105 K s-1, the melting process follows zero-order, Arrhenius-like kinetics until approximately half of the sample has transformed. Such kinetics strongly imply that melting progresses into the bulk via a rapidly moving solid-liquid interface that is likely to originate at the sample's surface. Remarkably, the apparent activation energies for the phase transformation are large; all exceed the enthalpy of vaporization of each compound and some exceed it by an order of magnitude. In fact, we find that the crystalline melting kinetics are comparable to the kinetics of dielectric α-relaxation in deeply supercooled liquids. Based on these observations, we conclude that the rate of non-isothermal melting for superheated, low-molecular-weight crystals is limited by constituent diffusion into an abnormally dense, glass-like, non-crystalline phase.

  10. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Hudáková Gabriela


    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  11. Possible Involvement of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

    Mika Hori; Michihiro Mutoh; Toshio Imai; Hitoshi Nakagama; Mami Takahashi


    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Thus, it is important to clarify its major risk factors, predictive factors and etiology. Here, we focus on fatty infiltration of the pancreas and suggest that it could be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is observed as ectopic adipocytes infiltrating the pancreatic tissue and is positively correlated with obesity and the prevalence of diabetes mell...

  12. Measurements of infiltration and water repellency on different soils

    Lavrač, Rožle


    Infiltration is a process of water entering soil from its surface. Field measurements of infiltration are performed with infiltrometers. Calculation of hydraulic conductivity can be done by different equations. Infiltration exhibits large spatial and temporal variability due to many affecting factors. One of those effects is soil water repellency (hydrophobicity). Water-repellent soils do not wet up spontaneously. The intensity and persistence of water repellency vary widely due to variabilit...

  13. Bone marrow granulomas in infiltrating lobular breast cancer.

    Kettle, P.; Allen, D C


    A 50 year old woman with a history of infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma presented with back pain. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging were not conclusive. A bone marrow aspirate appeared normal. A routine trephine biopsy specimen showed granulomas but no obvious infiltration by carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with epithelial markers demonstrated carcinoma cells in the trephine specimen. This case illustrates the difficulty of detecting infiltrating lobular carcinoma in bone m...

  14. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard


    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...... considered. First a general introduction to the basic principles used throughout the work is given. It is then shown how infiltrated waveguides can be used for manipulating dispersive and diffractive properties of light propagartion....

  15. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.


    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  16. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.


    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  17. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Matlin, W.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  18. Magnetic Biocomposites for Remote Melting.

    Zhou, Mengbo; Liebert, Tim; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Andrea; Gräfe, Christine; Clement, Joachim H; Heinze, Thomas


    A new approach toward the fabrication of biocompatible composites suitable for remote melting is presented. It is shown that magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) can be embedded into a matrix of biocompatible thermoplastic dextran esters. For that purpose, fatty acid esters of dextran with adjustable melting points in the range of 30-140 °C were synthesized. Esterification of the polysaccharide by activation of the acid as iminium chlorides guaranteed mild reaction conditions leading to high quality products as confirmed by FTIR- and NMR spectroscopy as well as by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). A method for the preparation of magnetically responsive bionanocomposites was developed consisting of combined dissolution/suspension of the dextran ester and hydrophobized MNPs in an organic solvent followed by homogenization with ultrasonication, casting of the solution, drying and melting of the composite for a defined shaping. This process leads to a uniform distribution of MNPs in nanocomposite as revealed by scanning electron microscope. Samples of different geometries were exposed to high frequency alternating magnetic field. It could be shown that defined remote melting of such biocompatible nanocomposites is possible for the first time. This may lead to a new class of magnetic remote control systems, which are suitable for controlled release applications or self-healing materials.



    Sep 1, 2015 ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, ... at initial time of melting process where the layer of liquid PCM near hot ... They carried out the simulation at different Rayleigh numbers ranging from 10 .... An enthalpy-porosity technique [28] is used in FLUENT for modeling the.

  20. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas


    phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio...

  1. Evidences of Cold-Melting Mechanism and Cold-Dissolving-Melting Mechanism for Low-heating Solid-state Reaction%低热固相反应冷融熔机理和冷溶熔机理的证据

    唐新村; 黄伯云; 贺跃辉


    The cold-melting mechanism and the cold-dissolving-melting mechanism were further studied by TG/DTA and in situ micro-photographs techniques with the mixture of dimethylglyoxime and Ni(Ac)2·4H2O, and the mixture of dimethylglyoxime and anhydrous Ni(Ac)2 as the modeled reactive examples. The endothermic peaks on the DTA curves at about 38℃ revealed the formation process of the cold-melting layer and cold-dissolving-melting layer on the surface of reactant particles. Further, the cold-melting state and the cold-dissolving-melting state were observed by the micrographs. These results provided the direct evidences for the theories of cold-melting mechanism and the cold-dissolving-melting mechanism.

  2. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Floris Boogaard


    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  3. Possible Involvement of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

    Mika Hori


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Thus, it is important to clarify its major risk factors, predictive factors and etiology. Here, we focus on fatty infiltration of the pancreas and suggest that it could be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is observed as ectopic adipocytes infiltrating the pancreatic tissue and is positively correlated with obesity and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, whether fatty infiltration is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer has not been established. Recent clinical studies show there is a positive correlation between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas. Animal experimental studies also show an association between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Syrian golden hamsters, which are sensitive to chemical carcinogens in the pancreas, develop fatty infiltration of the pancreas with age. The combination of a high-fat diet and a chemical carcinogen that induces a K-ras mutation increases the severity of fatty infiltration of the pancreas. Thus, fatty infiltration of the pancreas is suggested to promote pancreatic carcinogenesis via a K-ras activating mutation. It is assumed that increased expression of adipokines and of inflammatory and proliferation-associated factors elicited by fatty infiltration of the pancreas may contribute to pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Accumulating evidence suggests that in addition to suppression of Ras activation, methods to modulate fatty infiltration in the pancreas can be considered as a strategy for preventing pancreatic cancer.

  4. Reprogramming of Melanoma Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Hidehito Saito


    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs derived from somatic cells of patients hold great promise for autologous cell therapies. One of the possible applications of iPSCs is to use them as a cell source for producing autologous lymphocytes for cell-based therapy against cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs that express programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1 are tumor-reactive T cells, and adoptive cell therapy with autologous TILs has been found to achieve durable complete response in selected patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, we describe the derivation of human iPSCs from melanoma TILs expressing high level of PD-1 by Sendai virus-mediated transduction of the four transcription factors, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. TIL-derived iPSCs display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, have normal karyotype, express stem cell-specific surface antigens and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. A wide variety of T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in TIL-derived iPSCs confirmed the heterogeneity of T cells infiltrating melanomas. The ability to reprogram TILs containing patient-specific tumor-reactive repertoire might allow the generation of patient- and tumor-specific polyclonal T cells for cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Particles control in selective laser melting in-situ oxide dispersion strengthened method

    Zhou, Xin; An, Zhibin; Shen, Zhijian; Liu, Wei; Yao, Chenguang


    Stainless steel selective laser melting (SLM) can be considered as a new possible approach for in-situ formation of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels because of the dispersion of amorphous oxide nano-particles due to the trace amounts of laser chamber oxygen and in-situ internal oxidation of reactive elements. In this paper it is demonstrated that the particle sizes and distributions can be adjusted by choosing different chamber oxygen level through controlling the quantity of initial reactive cores and the available reactive solutes of each core.

  6. Tumor-infiltrating T cells correlate with NY-ESO-1-specific autoantibodies in ovarian cancer.

    Katy Milne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells are correlated with prolonged progression-free and overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. A significant fraction of EOC patients mount autoantibody responses to various tumor antigens, however the relationship between autoantibodies and tumor-infiltrating T cells has not been investigated in EOC or any other human cancer. We hypothesized that autoantibody and T cell responses may be correlated in EOC and directed toward the same antigens. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained matched serum and tumor tissue from 35 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Serum samples were assessed by ELISA for autoantibodies to the common tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. Tumor tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry for expression of NY-ESO-1, various T cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, FoxP3, TIA-1 and Granzyme B and other immunological markers (CD20, MHC class I and MHC class II. Lymphocytic infiltrates varied widely among tumors and included cells positive for CD3, CD8, TIA-1, CD25, FoxP3 and CD4. Twenty-six percent (9/35 of patients demonstrated serum IgG autoantibodies to NY-ESO-1, which were positively correlated with expression of NY-ESO-1 antigen by tumor cells (r = 0.57, p = 0.0004. Autoantibodies to NY-ESO-1 were associated with increased tumor-infiltrating CD8+, CD4+ and FoxP3+ cells. In an individual HLA-A2+ patient with autoantibodies to NY-ESO-1, CD8+ T cells isolated from solid tumor and ascites were reactive to NY-ESO-1 by IFN-gamma ELISPOT and MHC class I pentamer staining. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that tumor-specific autoantibodies and tumor-infiltrating T cells are correlated in human cancer and can be directed against the same target antigen. This implies that autoantibodies may collaborate with tumor-infiltrating T cells to influence clinical outcomes in EOC. Furthermore, serological screening methods may prove useful for identifying clinically relevant

  7. Tumor-infiltrating B lymphocytes as an efficient source of highly specific immunoglobulins recognizing tumor cells

    Pelliccia Angela


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is much evidence that tumor cells elicit a humoral immune response in patients. In most cases, the presence of antibodies in peripheral blood is detected only in small proportion of patients with tumors overexpressing the corresponding antigen. In the present study, we analyzed the significance of local humoral response provided by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer patients. Methods The ability of a patient's immune system to produce specific antibodies inside tumor tissue, capable of recognizing tumor cells, was explored through analysis of the oligoclonality of antibodies derived from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and construction of a series of recombinant antibody libraries in scFv format, derived from breast tumor-infiltrating B lymphocytes. These libraries and one from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a single breast cancer patient were panned against three purified surface tumor antigens, such as CEA, MUC1 and ED-B domain, and against intact MCF7 breast carcinoma cells. Results Application of novel display vector, pKM19, allowed isolation of a large panel of breast cancer-specific antibodies against known tumor antigens, as well as against breast carcinoma cells. Reactivity of novel scFvs was confirmed by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence staining and flow cytometry. We demonstrated that seven of ten primary breast tumor specimens, obtained using discarded surgical material, could be exploited as an appropriate source for generation of phage display libraries, giving highly specific antitumor antibodies which recognize heterologous tumor cells. Conclusion Local humoral immune response within tumor tissue in breast cancer patients frequently has an oligoclonal character. Efficient selection of specific antitumor antibodies from recombinant antibody libraries, derived from such oligoclonal tumor-infiltrated B lymphocytes, indicates the presence of natural immune response against tumor antigens

  8. Mullite/SiAlON/alumina composites by infiltration processing

    Albano, M.P.; Scian, A.N. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    The formation of mullite/SiAlON/alumina composites was studied by infiltrating a SiAlON/alumina-base composite with two different solutions, followed by thermal treatment. The base composite was prepared from a mixture of tabular Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains, fume SiO{sub 2}, and aluminum powders. The mixture was pressed into test bars and nitrided in a nitrogen-gas (N{sub 2}) atmosphere at 1,480 C. The infiltrants were prehydrolyzed ethyl polysilicate solution and ethyl polysilicate-aluminum nitrate solution. The composites were infiltrated under vacuum, cured at 100 C, and precalcined in air at 700 C. This infiltration process was repeated several times to produce bars that had been subjected to multiple infiltrations, then the bars were calcined in a N{sub 2} atmosphere at 1,480 C to obtain mullite/SiAlON/alumina composites. The infiltration process increased the percentage of nitrogenous crystalline and mullite phases in the matrix; therefore, a decrease of the composite microporosity was observed. The infiltration increased the mechanical strength of the composites. Of the two composites, the one produced using prehydrolyzed ethyl polysilicate as the infiltrant had a higher mechanical strength, before and after being subjected to a severe thermal shock.

  9. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Dohnal Michal


    Full Text Available Ponded infiltration experiment is a simple test used for in-situ determination of soil hydraulic properties, particularly saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. It is known that infiltration process in natural soils is strongly affected by presence of macropores, soil layering, initial and experimental conditions etc. As a result, infiltration record encompasses a complex of mutually compensating effects that are difficult to separate from each other. Determination of sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity from such infiltration data is complicated. In the present study we use numerical simulation to examine the impact of selected experimental conditions and soil profile properties on the ponded infiltration experiment results, specifically in terms of the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity evaluation. The effect of following factors was considered: depth of ponding, ring insertion depth, initial soil water content, presence of preferential pathways, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, soil layering, surface layer retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and presence of soil pipes or stones under the infiltration ring. Results were compared with a large database of infiltration curves measured at the experimental site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Reasonably good agreement between simulated and observed infiltration curves was achieved by combining several of factors tested. Moreover, the ring insertion effect was recognized as one of the major causes of uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  10. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  11. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R. [Foothill Engineering, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)


    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN {number_sign}85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper.

  12. Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma

    Kamel A. Gharaibeh


    Full Text Available Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations.

  13. Basal terraces on melting ice shelves

    Dutrieux, Pierre; Stewart, Craig; Jenkins, Adrian; Nicholls, Keith W; Corr, Hugh F. J; Rignot, Eric; Steffen, Konrad


    Ocean waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers, and individual glaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on the spatial distribution of melt...

  14. Muscle biopsy findings predictive of malignancy in rare infiltrative dermatomyositis.

    Uchino, Makoto; Yamashita, Satoshi; Uchino, Katsuhisa; Mori, Akira; Hara, Akio; Suga, Tomohiro; Hirahara, Tomoo; Koide, Tatsuya; Kimura, En; Yamashita, Taro; Ueda, Akihiko; Kurisaki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Junko; Honda, Shoji; Maeda, Yasushi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ando, Yukio


    The characteristic pathological muscular findings of polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) have been shown to reflect their different pathogeneses. Here, we characterized the muscle biopsy findings of PM and DM patients with or without malignancy. We evaluated the muscle biopsy findings of 215 consecutive PM and DM patients admitted to our hospital between 1970 and 2009. Pathology of the lesion biopsy sections was classified into 3 types: endomysial infiltration-type, perivascular infiltration-type, and rare-infiltrative-type. There was no difference between the muscle pathology of PM patients with and without malignancy. However, the incidence of rare-infiltrative type muscle pathology in DM patients with malignancy was significantly higher than in those without such tumors (p=0.0345). The incidence of rare-infiltrative type muscle pathology may be a predictive marker of DM with malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Late infiltration of post-orthodontic white spot lesions.

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Graf, Martina; Lussi, Adrian; Katsaros, Christos


    White spot lesion (WSL) infiltration has been recommended immediately after debonding of orthodontic brackets. It is however not clear if established inactive WSLs can also be masked through infiltration. Orthodontic treatment of a 19-year-old patient had to be terminated prematurely due to development of multiple WSLs of varying severity. Three months after debonding, the patient presented for lesion infiltration. After etching with 15% HCl gel and re-wetting of the dried surfaces it seemed that a good outcome could be expected. Lesion infiltration led to complete masking of less severe WSLs. The visual appearance of moderate and severe WSLs was improved but they were still visible after treatment. Inactive WSLs may not represent an increased caries risk, but patients are often bothered esthetically. Infiltration by repeated etching might be a viable approach even for inactive WSLs. Controlled clinical trials are needed to investigate the long-term performance of this technique.

  16. Reactive Kripke semantics

    Gabbay, Dov M


    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  17. Magnesium melt protection by covering gas

    M. Holtzer


    Full Text Available Thc protcclion of liquid light metals Cmm oxidation is a major issue in recycling and mclting proccsscs in rhc light mctal industry. Thcprorcction of liquid magncsirrm surfacc was carried out by using salts. alloying clemcnts, incrt gascs or rcactivc gas mixture. Snlt bnscdprorcction is still ~hcm ost widely uscd technology in the recycling of magnesium, but gases arc more frcqucntly uscd in magnesiumc;lszing industry. Protcczing thc mottcn mctal undcr a blanket of an inert gas such as argon or helium is dangerous. bccausc no protcctivctaycr is hrrnorl on thc mctr surface and mctal is frcc to cvaporatc, resulting in safcty hazards when furnace ambicncc is cxposcd to air ducto a violcnt rcaction. Thc disadvantagcs of t hcse methods have been partially ovcrcomc by using reactive gas systcrn, in which n chcmicnlrcaction hctwccn a gas and thc moltcn mctal produces a fhin protective film on the surface of the melt. Rcaclive gascs likc SFI, or SOz donot mccr cnvironmcnral standards due to their cxtrcrnely high global warming ptentiat or toxicity. Thcreforc thc altcrnativc covcringgascs ror magncsium mclrbng arc ol big intcrcst. Gas mixturcs containing HE%-1 34a, Novec 6 12. BF3 (Magshictd systcrn and solid C02have hccn succcssfi~lyl ~cstcdin I he world.

  18. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc


    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff.

  19. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.


    subsurface area. However, the use of real-time surface and cross-borehole geophysics can be used to track the infiltrating Ca-citrate-PO4 front so some adjustments can be made in the infiltration rate to precipitate apatite in desired zones. In addition, the reactive transport code used in this study with field scale physical parameters for sediments can be used to evaluate infiltration strategies along with preliminary water infiltration tests at field scale.

  20. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz


    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  1. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz


    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  2. Thermodynamic study and modelling of iron-based melts for adequate prediction of modern ladle metallurgy processes

    Zaitsev, A. I.; Rodionova, I. G.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.; Zemlyanko, O. A.; Karamisheva, N. A.


    The representation of iron-based melts as associated liquids have been developed basing on the detail experimental investigation and analysis of available data on their thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. It has allowed, for the first time, to interpret adequately the reactivity of the earth metals in the iron-based melts and to predict with high precision the reactions of metal refinement and non-metallic inclusions modifying in modern ladle metallurgy.


    Veit, S.; Albert, D; Mergen, R.


    The wear properties of aluminium base alloys are relatively poor. Laser surface melting and alloying has proved successful in many alloy systems as a means of significantly improving the surface properties. The present work describes experiments designed to establish the scope of laser treatment of aluminium alloys. Aluminium does not absorb CO2 laser light as well as other metals which necessitated first a general study of absorption caotings. Aluminium alloys offer fewer opportunities than ...

  4. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  5. Reactive perforating collagenosis

    Yadav Mukesh


    Full Text Available Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.

  6. Melting Behaviour of Ferronickel Slags

    Sagadin, Christoph; Luidold, Stefan; Wagner, Christoph; Wenzl, Christine


    The industrial manufacturing of ferronickel in electric furnaces produces large amounts of slag with strong acidic character and high melting points, which seriously stresses the furnace refractory lining. In this study, the melting behavior of synthetically produced ferronickel slags on magnesia as refractory material was determined by means of a hot stage microscope. Therefore, slags comprising the main oxides SiO2 (35-70 wt.%), MgO (15-45 wt.%) and Fe2O3 (5-35 wt.%) were melted in a graphite crucible and afterwards analyzed by a hot stage microscope. The design of experiments, which was created by the statistic software MODDE®, included 20 experiments with varying slag compositions as well as atmospheres. The evaluation of the test results occurred at three different characteristic states of the samples like the softening point according to DIN 51730 and the temperatures at which the area of residual cross-section of the samples amounted to 30% and 40%, respectively, of the original value depending of their SiO2/MgO ratio and iron oxide content. Additionally, the thickness of the zone influenced by the slag was measured and evaluated.

  7. Optimization of the Brass Melting

    Biernat S.


    Full Text Available The article describes the optimization of the melting brass. Brasses, as one of the most popular alloys of copper, deserve special attention in the context of the processes of melting, which in turn would provide not only products of better quality, but also reduce the cost of their production or refining. For this purpose, several studies carried out deriatographic (DTA and thermogravimetric (TG using derivatograph. The results were confronted with the program SLAG - PROP used to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the coatings extraction. Based on the survey and analysis of the program can identify the most favorable physico - chemical properties, which should be carried out treatments. This allows for slag mixtures referred configurations oxide matrix containing specific stimulators of the reaction. Conducted empirical studies indicate a convergence of the areas proposed by the application. It should also be noted that the program also indicates additional areas in which to carry out these processes would get even better, to optimize the melting process, the results.

  8. Percolation blockage: A process that enables melt pond formation on first year Arctic sea ice

    Polashenski, Chris; Golden, Kenneth M.; Perovich, Donald K.; Skyllingstad, Eric; Arnsten, Alexandra; Stwertka, Carolyn; Wright, Nicholas


    Melt pond formation atop Arctic sea ice is a primary control of shortwave energy balance in the Arctic Ocean. During late spring and summer, the ponds determine sea ice albedo and how much solar radiation is transmitted into the upper ocean through the sea ice. The initial formation of ponds requires that melt water be retained above sea level on the ice surface. Both theory and observations, however, show that first year sea ice is so highly porous prior to the formation of melt ponds that multiday retention of water above hydraulic equilibrium should not be possible. Here we present results of percolation experiments that identify and directly demonstrate a mechanism allowing melt pond formation. The infiltration of fresh water into the pore structure of sea ice is responsible for blocking percolation pathways with ice, sealing the ice against water percolation, and allowing water to pool above sea level. We demonstrate that this mechanism is dependent on fresh water availability, known to be predominantly from snowmelt, and ice temperature at melt onset. We argue that the blockage process has the potential to exert significant control over interannual variability in ice albedo. Finally, we suggest that incorporating the mechanism into models would enhance their physical realism. Full treatment would be complex. We provide a simple temperature threshold-based scheme that may be used to incorporate percolation blockage behavior into existing model frameworks.

  9. Monadic Functional Reactive Programming

    Ploeg, A.J. van der; Shan, C


    Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a monadic computatio

  10. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    Borman, V. D., E-mail:; Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation); Lisichkin, G. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation)


    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  11. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  12. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh


    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flow...... and novel model set-up, which simulates the interaction between groundwater and sewer flow. The study area has a separate waste water sewer system, but the discharged volumes from the system are approximately twice the volumes from a tight system without infiltration. The model set-up makes use of two...

  13. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael


    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  14. Acoustic location of infiltration openings in buildings. Final report

    Keast, D.N.


    Unnecessary air infiltration (''draftiness'') in buildings can be a major cause for excessive energy consumption. A method for using sound to locate, for subsequent sealing, the openings of air infiltration leakage paths in buildings has been investigated. The results of pertinent analytical studies, laboratory experiments, and field applications of this acoustic-location method are reported; and a plan is provided to encourage national implementation of the method. Low-cost, readily available equipment and procedures are described whereby the average building contractor or homeowner can use acoustic leak location to pinpoint many of the air infiltration openings in a building.

  15. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.


    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  16. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C


    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  17. Rotation of melting ice disks due to melt fluid flow.

    Dorbolo, S; Adami, N; Dubois, C; Caps, H; Vandewalle, N; Darbois-Texier, B


    We report experiments concerning the melting of ice disks (85 mm in diameter and 14 mm in height) at the surface of a thermalized water bath. During the melting, the ice disks undergo translational and rotational motions. In particular, the disks rotate. The rotation speed has been found to increase with the bath temperature. We investigated the flow under the bottom face of the ice disks by a particle image velocimetry technique. We find that the flow goes downwards and also rotates horizontally, so that a vertical vortex is generated under the ice disk. The proposed mechanism is the following. In the vicinity of the bottom face of the disk, the water eventually reaches the temperature of 4 °C for which the water density is maximum. The 4 °C water sinks and generates a downwards plume. The observed vertical vorticity results from the flow in the plume. Finally, by viscous entrainment, the horizontal rotation of the flow induces the solid rotation of the ice block. This mechanism seems generic: any vertical flow that generates a vortex will induce the rotation of a floating object.

  18. Infiltrated microstructured fibers as tunable and nonlinear optical devices

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    We study the light guiding properties of microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with nonlinear liquids and demonstrate their applicability for spatial beam control in novel type tunable and nonlinear optical devices....

  19. Tunable nonlinear beam defocusing in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H; Neshev, Dragomir N.;


    We demonstrate a novel experimental platform for discrete nonlinear optics based on infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We observe tunable discrete diffraction and nonlinear self-defocusing, and apply the effects to realize a compact all-optical power limiter....

  20. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater ... Correlation analysis between rainfall and observed WLF data at daily scale and ... data are more realistic than those for daily data, when using long time series.

  1. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    of nonlinear beam reshaping occurring on a short time scale before the establishment of a steady state regime. In experiment, a 532nm laser beam can be injected into a single hole of an infiltrated PCF cladding structure, and the temporal dynamics of the nonlinear response is measured by monitoring......Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer a new way of studying light propagation in periodic and discrete systems. A wide range of available fiber structures combined with the ease of infiltration opens up a range of novel experimental opportunities for optical detection and bio......-sensing as well as active devices for all-optical switching at low (mW) laser powers. Commercially available PCFs infiltrated with liquids also provide a versatile and compact tool for exploration of the fundamentals of nonlinear beam propagation in periodic photonic structures. To explore the full scientific...

  2. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  3. Trajectory Networks and Their Topological Changes Induced by Geographical Infiltration

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura


    In this article we investigate the topological changes undergone by trajectory networks as a consequence of progressive geographical infiltration. Trajectory networks, a type of knitted network, are obtained by establishing paths between geographically distributed nodes while following an associated vector field. For instance, the nodes could correspond to neurons along the cortical surface and the vector field could correspond to the gradient of neurotrophic factors, or the nodes could represent towns while the vector fields would be given by economical and/or geographical gradients. Therefore trajectory networks are natural models of a large number of geographical structures. The geographical infiltrations correspond to the addition of new local connections between nearby existing nodes. As such, these infiltrations could be related to several real-world processes such as contaminations, diseases, attacks, parasites, etc. The way in which progressive geographical infiltrations affect trajectory networks is ...

  4. Infiltration and runoff losses under fallowing and conservation ...


    Feb 16, 2011 ... sustainable cropping practices that reduce soil and water loss and increase water use ..... can have immediate benefits of increasing infiltration rates ..... Impact of tillage and crop rotation on aggregate-associated carbon.


    Juan José Martínez Villanueva


    Full Text Available Soil compaction is regarded as the most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture. Few studies are concerned with the assessment of soil compaction using infiltration speed, specifically in the Vertisol soil characteristic of the main maize producing area of the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley in central Mexico. The aim of this research was to examine the effect on infiltration speed and penetration resistance of a Vertisol soil when compacted by wheeled agricultural traffic in three different types of tillage systems: zero, minimal and conventional. Penetration resistance was measured on the wheel track with a portable digital penetrometer, and the mean infiltration speed was determined according to the double cylinder infiltrometer method. The pressure exerted by the number of wheeled traffic passes increased Vertisol soil compaction at 30 cm depth. Even though the benefits of zero tillage were similar to those showed by minimum tillage during the experimental period, minimum tillage reported the highest infiltration speed.

  6. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.


    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of /sup 3/H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells (/sup 3/H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the /sup 3/H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The /sup 3/H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the /sup 3/H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas.

  7. Effects of rainfall infiltration on deep slope failure


    With the finite element method and the limit equilibrium method, a numerical model has been established for examining the effects of rainfall infiltration on the stability of slopes. This model is able to availably reflect the variations in pore pressure field in slopes, dead weight of soil, and the softening of soil strength caused by rainfall infiltration. As a case study, an actual landslide located at the Nongji Jixiao in Chongqing is studied to analyze the effects of rainfall infiltration on the seepage field and the slope stability. The simulated results show that a deep slope failure is prone to occur when rainfall infiltration will lead to a remarkable variation in the seepage field, in particular, for large range pore water pressure increase in slopes.

  8. Effects of rainfall infiltration on deep slope failure

    SUN JianPing; LIU QingQuan; LI JiaChun; AN Yi


    With the finite element method and the limit equilibrium method, a numerical model has been estab-lished for examining the effects of rainfall infiltration on the stability of slopes. This model is able to availably reflect the variations in pore pressure field in slopes, dead weight of soil, and the softening of soil strength caused by rainfall infiltration. As a case study, an actual landslide located at the Nongji Jixiao in Chongqing is studied to analyze the effects of rainfall infiltration on the seepage field and the slope stability. The simulated results show that a deep slope failure is prone to occur when rainfall infiltration will lead to a remarkable variation in the seepage field, in particular, for large range pore water pressure increase in slopes.

  9. Expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from human pancreatic tumors.

    Hall, MacLean; Liu, Hao; Malafa, Mokenge; Centeno, Barbara; Hodul, Pamela J; Pimiento, José; Pilon-Thomas, Shari; Sarnaik, Amod A


    We evaluated whether tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) could be expanded from surgically resected tumors from pancreatic cancer patients. Tumors were resected from pancreatic cancer patients. Tumors were minced into fragments and cultured in media containing high dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) for up to 6 weeks. T cell phenotype, activation markers, and reactivity were measured. TIL expansion was measured in 19 patient samples. The majority of these TIL were CD4(+) T cells and were highly activated. Purified CD8(+) T cells produced IFN-γ in response to HLA-matched pancreatic tumor targets. PD-1 blockade and 4-1BB stimulation were demonstrated as effective strategies to improve effective TIL yield, including the production of tumor-reactive pancreatic TIL. TIL expanded from pancreatic tumors are functional and able to respond to pancreatic tumor associated antigens. PD-1 blockade, 41BB stimulation, and CD8(+) T cell enrichment are effective strategies to improve TIL yield and tumor reactivity. These results support the development of adoptive cell therapy strategies using TIL for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis following local radiation therapy of prostate cancer.

    Thomas, Persis; Foley, Raymond; Kosowicz, Lynn


    In this report, we describe the case of an 81-year-old male with reactivation tuberculosis following local radiation therapy for prostate cancer. The patient was asymptomatic except for an unintentional 20-pound weight loss and was incidentally found to have a pulmonary infiltrate in the right upper lobe on imaging for shoulder pain. The medical history was not able for recently treated prostate cancer. After further investigation, the patient was determined to have Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. It is important to have a high level of suspicion for reactivation tuberculosis in patients with a pulmonary infiltrate following radiation therapy due to the impact of radiation on the host's immune system. We will review the literature on reactivation tuberculosis following radiation therapy and explore the mechanism of immunosuppression in this process. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of tuberculosis reactivation following local radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  11. Effect of melting conditions on striae in iron-bearing silicate melts

    Jensen, Martin; Yue, Yuanzheng


    Chemical striae are present in a broad range of glass products, but due to their negative impact on e.g., the optical and mechanical properties, elimination of striae from melts is a key issue in glass technology. By varying melting temperatures, retentions times and redox conditions of an iron......-bearing calciumaluminosilicate melt, we quantify the effect of each of the three melting parameters on the stria content in the melt. The quantification of the stria content in the melt is conducted by means of image analysis on casted melt samples. We find that in comparison to an extension of retention time an increase...... factors such as compositional fluctuation of melts and bubbling due to iron reduction on the stria content. During the melting process, striae with a chemical gradient in a more mobile species equilibrate faster than striae caused by a chemical gradient in a less mobile species. The temperature and time...

  12. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Infiltration and Cyclic Degradations of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Thermal Gradients

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Smialek, Jim; Miller, Robert A.


    In a continuing effort to develop higher temperature capable turbine thermal barrier and environmental barrier coating systems, Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) resistance of the advanced coating systems needs to be evaluated and improved. This paper highlights some of NASA past high heat flux testing approaches for turbine thermal and environmental barrier coatings assessments in CMAS environments. One of our current emphases has been focused on the thermal barrier - environmental barrier coating composition and testing developments. The effort has included the CMAS infiltrations in high temperature and high heat flux turbine engine like conditions using advanced laser high heat flux rigs, and subsequently degradation studies in laser heat flux thermal gradient cyclic and isothermal furnace cyclic testing conditions. These heat flux CMAS infiltration and related coating durability testing are essential where appropriate CMAS melting, infiltration and coating-substrate temperature exposure temperature controls can be achieved, thus helping quantify the CMAS-coating interaction and degradation mechanisms. The CMAS work is also playing a critical role in advanced coating developments, by developing laboratory coating durability assessment methodologies in simulated turbine engine conditions and helping establish CMAS test standards in laboratory environments.

  13. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  14. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.


    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  15. Measurements of water repellency and infiltration of the soil

    Žnidaršič, Petra


    Soil water repellency is a reduction in the rate of wetting caused by the presence of hydrophobic coatings on soil particles. The occurrence of the absorption of water from the surface of the ground in its interior is called infiltration. Water resistance and infiltration are dependent on a number of influences. All measurements were done on three different soil types at each at the ground level and in the trench. Water repellency measurements were performed by two methods, namely with wat...

  16. Comparative assessment of infiltration, runoff and erosion sprinkler irrigated soils

    Santos, Francisco Lúcio; Reis, João; Martins, Olga; Castanheira, Nádia; Serralheiro, Ricardo


    Abstract The impacts of sprinkler irrigation on infiltration, runoff and sediment loss of ten representative soils of Southern Portugal were assessed by laboratory sprinkler irrigation simulation tests. All soils showed very low permeability to applied water. The mechanical impact of water droplets enhanced soil dispersion and further lowered their infiltration capacity, particularly for high clay plus silt content soils that showed the poorest results. As a consequence, high runoff and se...

  17. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G


    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  18. Tumor infiltrating immune cells in gliomas and meningiomas.

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Miranda, David; Ruiz, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Ciudad, Juana; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores


    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are part of a complex microenvironment that promotes and/or regulates tumor development and growth. Depending on the type of cells and their functional interactions, immune cells may play a key role in suppressing the tumor or in providing support for tumor growth, with relevant effects on patient behavior. In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the characterization of immune cell infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but their role in tumorigenesis and patient behavior still remain poorly understood. Overall, these studies have shown significant but variable levels of infiltration of CNS tumors by macrophage/microglial cells (TAM) and to a less extent also lymphocytes (particularly T-cells and NK cells, and less frequently also B-cells). Of note, TAM infiltrate gliomas at moderate numbers where they frequently show an immune suppressive phenotype and functional behavior; in contrast, infiltration by TAM may be very pronounced in meningiomas, particularly in cases that carry isolated monosomy 22, where the immune infiltrates also contain greater numbers of cytotoxic T and NK-cells associated with an enhanced anti-tumoral immune response. In line with this, the presence of regulatory T cells, is usually limited to a small fraction of all meningiomas, while frequently found in gliomas. Despite these differences between gliomas and meningiomas, both tumors show heterogeneous levels of infiltration by immune cells with variable functionality. In this review we summarize current knowledge about tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the two most common types of CNS tumors-gliomas and meningiomas-, as well as the role that such immune cells may play in the tumor microenvironment in controlling and/or promoting tumor development, growth and control.

  19. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils

    B. Lange


    Full Text Available It is generally believed that roots have an effect on infiltration. In this study we analysed the influence of tree roots from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst, silver fir (Abies alba Miller and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the northern pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation experiments (1 m2 and recorded water content variations with time domain reflectrometry (TDR. A rivulet approach was applied to characterise preferential infiltration. Roots were sampled down to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m at the same position where the TDR-probes had been inserted and digitally measured. The basic properties of preferential infiltration, film thickness of mobile water and the contact length between soil and mobile water in the horizontal plane are closely related to fine root densities. An increase in root density resulted in an increase in contact length, but a decrease in film thickness. We modelled water content waves based on fine root densities and identified a range of root densities that lead to a maximum volume flux density and infiltration capacity. These findings provide convincing evidence that tree roots improve soil structure and thus infiltration.

  20. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los


    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  1. The Oceanic Lithosphere as Reactive Filter: Implications for MORB and Abyssal Peridotite Compositions

    Luffi, P. I.; Lee, C.; Antoshechkina, P. M.


    Melt-rock reaction in the lithosphere is, as suggested by textural observations and compositional data, a ubiquitous phenomenon capable of generating locally diverse peridotite series, such as those observed at oceanic spreading centers and transform faults, and may represent an important mechanism of creating compositional diversity in MORBs [1]. Whereas our understanding of the principles governing reactive melt transport is supported by basic theories and models, studies that attempt to quantify the physical conditions and mechanisms creating heterogeneities in the oceanic lithosphere are still limited in number [e.g. 2]. Using Adiabat_1ph 3.0 [3] in combination with the pMELTS algorithm [4], we have previously shown that reactive percolation of basaltic melts through depleted harzburgites can generate the dunite-(wehrlite)-harzburgite-lherzolite spectrum observed in the abyssal mantle and ophiolites, and that the amplitude of transformations is a function of thermal boundary layer thickness and amount of available melt [5]. To gain further insight into how melt-rock reactions shape the oceanic lithosphere, here we extend our study to show that the major and trace element variability in the oceanic mantle and rising melts are also significantly influenced by the mechanism of melt transport. If associated with cooling, distributed porous melt percolation (simulated by incremental addition of the same amount of melt) more efficiently converts harzburgites into fertile lherzolites and creates more pronounced compositional gradients in the abyssal mantle than imparted during channelized melt influx (simulated as batch addition of large amounts of melt) under otherwise identical circumstances. To remain within the tholeiitic trend observed in MORB, reacted melts must be released before clinopyroxene precipitation peaks. Further reaction with harzburgite causes liquids to evolve toward boninite-like compositions. As reaction progresses with decreasing temperature, the

  2. Rheology of Melt-bearing Crustal Rocks

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Medvedev, S.; Handy, M. R.


    A review and reinterpretation of previous experimental data on the deformation of melt-bearing crustal rocks (Rosenberg and Handy, 2005) revealed that the relationship of aggregate strength to melt fraction is non-linear, even if plotted on a linear ordinate and abscissa. At melt fractions, Φ 0.07, the dependence of aggregate strength on Φ is significantly greater than at Φ > 0.07. This melt fraction (Φ= 0.07) marks the transition from a significant increase in the proportion of melt-bearing grain boundaries up to this point to a minor increase thereafter. Therefore, we suggest that the increase of melt-interconnectivity causes the dramatic strength drop between the solidus and a melt fraction of 0.07. A second strength drop occurs at higher melt fractions and corresponds to the breakdown of the solid (crystal) framework, corresponding to the well-known "rheologically critical melt percentage" (RCMP; Arzi, 1978). Although the strength drop at the RCMP is about 4 orders of magnitude, the absolute value of this drop is small compared to the absolute strength of the unmelted aggregate, rendering the RCMP invisible in a linear aggregate strength vs. melt fraction diagram. Predicting the rheological properties and thresholds of melt-bearing crust on the basis of the results and interpretations above is very difficult, because the rheological data base was obtained from experiments performed at undrained conditions in the brittle field. These conditions are unlikely to represent the flow of partially melted crust. The measured strength of most of the experimentally deformed, partially-melted samples corresponds to their maximum differential stress, before the onset of brittle failure, not to their viscous strength during "ductile" (viscous) flow. To overcome these problems, we extrapolated a theoretically-derived flow law for partially melted granite deforming by diffusion-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (Paterson, 2001) and an experimentally-derived flow law for

  3. LiBH4/SBA-15 Nanocomposites Prepared by Melt Infiltration under Hydrogen Pressure: Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption Properties

    Ngene, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314121684; Adelhelm, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313907854; Beale, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325802068; de Jong, K.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372


    Lithium borohydride (LiBH4) is a promising material for hydrogen storage, with a gravimetric hydrogen content of 18.5%. However, the thermodynamics and kinetics of its hydrogen release and uptake need to be improved before it can meet the requirements for mobile applications. In this study, we

  4. Viscosity model for aluminosilicate melt

    Zhang G.H.


    Full Text Available The structurally based viscosity model proposed in our previous study is extended to include more components, e.g. SiO2, Al2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O and K2O. A simple method is proposed to calculate the numbers of different types of oxygen ions classified by the different cations they bonded with, which is used to characterize the influence of composition on viscosity. When dealing with the aluminosilicate melts containing several basic oxides, the priority order is established for different cations for charge compensating Al3+ ions, according to the coulombic force between cation and oxygen anion. It is indicated that basic oxides have two paradox influences on viscosity: basic oxide with a higher basicity decreases viscosity more greatly by forming weaker non-bridging oxygen bond; while it increases viscosity more greatly by forming stronger bridging oxygen bond in tetrahedron after charge compensating Al3+ ion. The present model can extrapolate its application range to the system without SiO2. Furthermore, it could also give a satisfy interpretation to the abnormal phenomenon that viscosity increases when adding K2O to CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melt within a certain composition range.

  5. Snow Melting and Freezing on Older Townhouses

    Nielsen, Anker; Claesson, Johan


    The snowy winter of 2009/2010 in Scandinavia prompted many newspaper articles on icicles falling from buildings and the risk this presented for people walking below. The problem starts with snow melting on the roof due to heat loss from the building. Melt water runs down the roof and some...... of it will freeze on the overhang. The rest of the water will either run off or freeze in gutters and downpipes or turn into icicles. This paper describes use of a model for the melting and freezing of snow on roofs. Important parameters are roof length, overhang length, heat resistance of roof and overhang......, outdoor and indoor temperature, snow thickness and thermal conductivity. If the snow thickness is above a specific limit value – the snow melting limit- some of the snow will melt. Another interesting limit value is the dripping limit. All the melt water will freeze on the overhang, if the snow thickness...


    C.J. Sun; H.R. Geng; Y.S. Shen; X.Y. Teng; Z.X. Yang


    The rheology feature of Sb, Bi melt and alloys was studied using coaxial cylinder high-temperature viscometer. The results showed that the curve of torsion-rotational speed for Sb melt presents a linear relation in all measured temperature ranges, whereas for the Bi melt, the curve presents obvious non-Newtonian feature within the low temperature range and at relative high shear stress. The rheology feature of Sb80Bi20 and Sb20Bi80, alloy melts was well correlated with that of Sb and Bi, respectively. It is considered that the rheology behavior of Sb melt plays a crucial role in Sb80Bi20, alloy and that of Bi melt plays a crucial role in Sb20Bi80 alloy.

  7. Peritoneal macrophage infiltration is correlated with baseline peritoneal solute transport rate in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Sawai, Akiho; Ito, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Toda, Susumu; Ito, Isao; Hattori, Ryohei; Matsukawa, Yoshihisa; Gotoh, Momokazu; Takei, Yoshifumi; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi


    High baseline peritoneal solute transport rate is reportedly associated with reduced patient and technique survival in continuous peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, the determinants of baseline peritoneal solute transport rate remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between peritoneal local inflammation, angiogenesis and systemic inflammation and baseline peritoneal permeability. Peritoneal biopsy specimens from 42 pre-dialysis uraemic patients and 11 control individuals were investigated. Immunohistochemistry for CD68-positive macrophages, chymase- and tryptase-positive mast cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-positive cells, CD3-positive T cells, CD20-positive B cells, neutrophils and CD31- and pathologische anatomie Leiden-endothelium (PAL-E)-positive blood vessels in the peritoneum was performed. Baseline dialysate-to-plasma ratio for creatinine (D/P Cr) was determined within 6 months of PD induction. Clinical and laboratory parameters were measured at the time of peritoneal biopsy. Factors associated with peritoneal permeability were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis. Pre-dialysis uraemic peritoneum showed infiltration by CD68-positive macrophages, and mast cells, as compared with controls. Baseline D/P Cr was correlated with density of CD68-positive macrophages (P permeability was not correlated with infiltration by mast cells, B cells, T cells, neutrophils, serum C-reactive protein or other clinical factors. On multiple linear regression analysis, the number of CD68-positive macrophages in peritoneum was an independent predictor for baseline peritoneal permeability (P = 0.009). Peritoneal macrophage infiltration is predominant in uraemic patients and is an important factor in predicting baseline peritoneal permeability.

  8. The interplay and effects of deformation and crystallized melt on the rheology of the lower continental crust, Fiordland, New Zealand

    Miranda, Elena A.; Klepeis, Keith A.


    Microstructural, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and misorientation analyses of a migmatitic granulite-facies orthogneiss from the exhumed lower crust of a Cretaceous continental arc in Fiordland, New Zealand show how deformation was accommodated during and after episodes of melt infiltration and high-grade metamorphism. Microstructures in garnet, omphacite, plagioclase, and K-feldspar suggest that an early stage of deformation was achieved by dislocation creep of omphacite and plagioclase, with subsequent deformation becoming partitioned into plagioclase. Continued deformation after melt infiltration resulted in strain localization in the leucosome of the migmatite, where a change of plagioclase deformation mechanism promoted the onset of grain boundary sliding, most likely accommodated by diffusion creep, in fine recrystallized plagioclase grains. Our results suggest three distinctive transitions in the rheology of the lower crust of this continental arc, where initial weakening was primarily achieved by deformation of both omphacite and plagioclase. Subsequent strain localization in plagioclase of the leucosome indicates that the zones of former melt are weaker than the restite, and that changes in deformation mechanisms within plagioclase, and an evolution of its strength, primarily control the rheology of the lower crust during and after episodes of melting and magma addition.

  9. Reactive Programming in Java

    CERN. Geneva


    Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.

  10. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice


    1 Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice Kenneth M. Golden University of Utah, Department of Mathematics phone: (801) has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding the evolution of melt ponds and sea...Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  11. Combustion synthesis of advanced materials. [using in-situ infiltration technique

    Moore, J. J.; Feng, H. J.; Perkins, N.; Readey, D. W.


    The combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composites using an in-situ liquid infiltration technique is described. The effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e. solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g. thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized products is also described. Alternatively, conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment is also discussed, in which advantages can be gained from the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport. In each case, the effect of the presence or absence of gravity (density) driven fluid flow and vapor transport is discussed as is the potential for producing new and perhaps unique materials by conducting these SHS reactions under microgravity conditions.

  12. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip John

    Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream......, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short......, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using...

  13. Atmospheric pressure synthesis of photoluminescent hybrid materials by sequential organometallic vapor infiltration into polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    Akyildiz, Halil I. [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Mousa, Moataz Bellah M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Jur, Jesse S., E-mail: [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)


    Exposing a polymer to sequential organometallic vapor infiltration (SVI) under low pressure conditions can significantly modify the polymer's chemical, mechanical, and optical properties. We demonstrate that SVI of trimethylaluminum into polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can also proceed readily at atmospheric pressure, and at 60 °C the extent of reaction determined by mass uptake is independent of pressure between 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr. At 120 °C, however, the mass gain is 50% larger at 2.5 Torr relative to that at 760 Torr, indicating that the precursor diffusion in the chamber and fiber matrix decreases at higher source pressure. Mass gain decreases, in general, as the SVI process temperature increases both at 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr attributed to the faster reaction kinetics forming a barrier layer, which prevents further diffusion of the reactive species. The resulting PET/Al-O{sub x} product shows high photoluminescence compared to untreated fibers. A physical mask on the polymer during infiltration at 760 Torr is replicated in the underlying polymer, producing an image in the polymer that is visible under UV illumination. Because of the reduced precursor diffusivity during exposure at 760 Torr, the image shows improved resolution compared to SVI performed under typical 2.5 Torr conditions.

  14. Presence of adenovirus species C in infiltrating lymphocytes of human sarcoma.

    Karin Kosulin

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses are known to persist in T-lymphocytes of tonsils, adenoids and intestinal tract. The oncogenic potential of different adenovirus types has been widely studied in rodents, in which adenovirus inoculation can induce multiple tumors such as undifferentiated sarcomas, adenocarcinomas and neuroectodermal tumors. However, the oncogenic potential of this virus has never been proven in human subjects. Using a highly sensitive broad-spectrum qRT-PCR, we have screened a set of different human sarcomas including leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and gastro intestinal stroma tumors. Primers binding the viral oncogene E1A and the capsid-coding gene Hexon were used to detect the presence of adenovirus DNA in tumor samples. We found that 18% of the tested leiomyosarcomas and 35% of the liposarcomas were positive for the presence of adenovirus DNA, being species C types the most frequently detected adenoviruses. However, only in one sample of the gastro intestinal stroma tumors the virus DNA could be detected. The occurrence of adenovirus in the tumor sections was confirmed by subsequent fluorescence in-situ-hybridization analysis and co-staining with the transcription factor Bcl11b gives evidence for the presence of the virus in infiltrating T-lymphocytes within the tumors. Together these data underline, for the first time, the persistence of adenovirus in T-lymphocytes infiltrated in muscular and fatty tissue tumor samples. If an impaired immune system leads to the viral persistence and reactivation of the virus is involved in additional diseases needs further investigation.

  15. Impact Melt in Small Lunar Highlands Craters

    Plescia, J. B.; Cintala, M. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Barnouin, O.; Hawke, B. R.


    Impact-melt deposits are a typical characteristic of complex impact craters, occurring as thick pools on the crater floor, ponds on wall terraces, veneers on the walls, and flows outside and inside the rim. Studies of the distribution of impact melt suggested that such deposits are rare to absent in and around small (km to sub-km), simple impact craters. noted that the smallest lunar crater observed with impact melt was approximately 750 m in diameter. Similarly, theoretical models suggest that the amount of melt formed is a tiny fraction (crater volume and thus significant deposits would not be expected for small lunar craters. LRO LROC images show that impact-melt deposits can be recognized associated with many simple craters to diameters down to approximately 200 m. The melt forms pools on the crater floor, veneer on the crater walls or ejecta outside the crater. Such melt deposits are relatively rare, and can be recognized only in some fresh craters. These observations indicate that identifiable quantities of impact melt can be produced in small impacts and the presence of such deposits shows that the material can be aggregated into recognizable deposits. Further, the present of such melt indicates that small craters could be reliably radiometrically dated helping to constrain the recent impact flux.

  16. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan


    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  17. Solute Redistribution in Directional Melting Process


    @@The solute redistribution in directional melting process is theoretically studied. Based on quantitative evaluations, uniform solute distribution in liquid and a quasi-steady solute distribution in solid are supposed. The discussion on the solute balance comes to a simple model for the solute redistribution in directional melting process. As an example, the variation of liquid composition during melting process of carbon steel is quantitatively evaluated using the model. Results show that the melting of an alloy starts at solidus temperature, but approaches the liquidus temperature after a very short transient process.

  18. Partial melting of deeply subducted continental crust and the formation of quartzofeldspathic polyphase inclusions in the Sulu UHP eclogites

    ZENG LingSen; LIANG FengHua; ASIMOW Paul; CHEN FangYuan; CHEN Jing


    Two types of quartzofeldspathic inclusions hosted by omphacite and garnet were identified in the Sulu UHP eclogites.The first consists of albite,quartz,and various amounts of K-feldspar.In contrast,the second consists predominantly of K-feldspar and quartz without any albite.The presence of quartzofeldspathic inclusions within the UHP mafic eclogites indicates that partial melting occurred in deeply subducted continental crust via mica dehydration melting reactions at an early stage of rapid exhumation.Such a melting event generated hydrous Na-K-Al-Si melts.These melts infiltrated into the mafic eclogite and were captured by recrystallizing garnet or omphacite,which together followed by dehydration and crystallization to form feldspar-bearing polyphase inclusions.Formation of silicate melts within the deeply subducted continental slab not only provides an excellent medium to transport both mobile (LILE) and immobile (HFSE) elements over a large distance,but also induces effective changes in the physical properties of the UHP slab.This process could be a major factor that enhances rapid exhumation of a deeply subducted continental slab.

  19. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Deletic, Ana; Roldin, Maria; Binning, Philip John


    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration is not widely available, and is important because many municipalities are considering infiltration as an alternative to traditional stormwater systems. This study analyzes groundwater level observations from an urban catchment located in Perth, Western Australia. The groundwater observation data cover approximately a 40-year-long period where land use changes (particularly due to urbanization) occurred; moreover, the monitored area contains both undeveloped and urbanized areas where stormwater infiltration is common practice via soakwells (shallow vertical infiltration wells). The data is analyzed using a distributed and dynamic hydrological model to simulate the groundwater response. The model explicitly couples a soakwell model with a groundwater model so that the performance of the soakwells is reduced by the increase of groundwater levels. The groundwater observation data is used to setup, calibrate and validate a coupled MIKE SHE-MIKE URBAN groundwater model and the model is used to quantify the extent of groundwater rise as a result of the urbanization process. The modeled urbanization processes included the irrigation of new established private and public gardens, the reduction of evapotranspiration due to a decrease in green areas, and the development of artificial stormwater infiltration. The study demonstrates that urbanization with stormwater infiltration affects the whole catchment water balance, increasing recharge and decreasing evapotranspiration. These changes lead to a rise in the groundwater table and an increase in the probability of groundwater seepage above terrain.

  20. Applying Reactive Barrier Technology to Enhance Microbially-mediated Denitrification during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Beganskas, S.; Weir, W. B.; Harmon, R. E.; Gorski, G.; Fisher, A. T.; Saltikov, C.; Young, K. S.; Runneals, D.; Teo, E. K.; Stoneburner, B.; Hernandez, J.


    We are running field experiments to observe and quantify microbially-mediated water quality improvement via denitrification during infiltration in the shallow subsurface. Nitrate is a pervasive groundwater contaminant, and nitrate removal through denitrification can occur during infiltration in natural and anthropogenic systems, including during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The rate of denitrification can vary depending on factors such as infiltration rate; previous work suggests that denitrification rates can increase monotonically with infiltration rates until reaching a critical threshold. We are performing controlled field tests of variables that affect denitrification rate, including sampling to link water chemistry changes to microbial ecology and activity. This study explores how microbial activity and denitrification rates respond to different infiltration rates and the presence or absence of a reactive material (wood chips, a carbon source). We are conducting four two-week-long tests, each under different conditions. For each test, we measure bulk infiltration rate (the sum of lateral and vertical infiltration), vertical infiltration rate using heat as a tracer, and water level. We collect surface and subsurface water samples daily, and we collect soil samples at the start and end of each test. For each water sample, we are measuring NO3-, NO2-, NH3, DOC, and N and O isotopes in nitrate. Soil samples will be tested for grain size, total C/N, and the presence of microbiological genes associated with denitrification. These results will expand our knowledge of the conditions under which denitrification occurs by implicating specific microorganisms and physical infiltration parameters. Our design has the potential for additional experimentation with variables that impact water chemistry during infiltration. This study has broad applications for designing MAR systems that effectively improve water supply and water quality.

  1. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug


    The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction...... of melt in the investigated ashes has been determined as a function of temperature. Ash fusion results have been correlated to the chemical and mineralogical composition of the ashes, to results from a standard ash fusion test and to results from sintering experiments. Furthermore, the ash fusion results......-firing, the model only had a qualitative agreement with the measured ash deposit formation rates.Sintering measurements were carried out by means of compression strength testing of ash pellets. This method showed to not be applicable for the salt rich fly ash derived from straw combustion. For the fly ashes...

  2. Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.


    In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of

  3. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling


    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  4. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others


    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per


    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp......, varied as: LSC (0.062Ωcm2)cathode was found to depend on the infiltrate firing temperature and is suggested to originate...... of the infiltrate but also from a better surface exchange property. A 450h test of an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode showed an Rp with final degradation rate of only 11mΩcm2kh-1. An SOFC with an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode tested for 1,500h at 700°C and 0.5Acm-2 (60% fuel, 20% air utilization) revealed no measurable...

  6. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi


    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale ( 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  7. The effectiveness of articaine in mandibular facial infiltrations

    Flanagan DF


    Full Text Available Dennis F Flanagan Windham Dental Group, Willimantic, CT, USA Abstract: Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures. This study involved only several tooth sites and found that 1.8 cc of 4% articaine facial infiltration in the mandible may be effective when the facial mandibular cortex is <2.0–3.0 mm. A waiting time of 5–10 minutes may be required for effective anesthesia. An additional 1.8 cc of dose may be required to attain anesthesia if an initial 1.8 cc of dose fails. The need for additional anesthetic may be predicted by a measurement of the facial cortex using cone beam computerized tomography. A study of mandibular sites is needed to delineate the anatomical dimensions, density of cortical bone, and apical neural location for ensuring successful local anesthetic infiltration. Keywords: articaine, local anesthesia, infiltration, dental implant, dental restoration

  8. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Physical Aging and Fracture Behaviour

    Cailloux, Jonathan; Santana Pérez, Orlando Onofre; FRANCO URQUIZA, EDGAR ADRIAN; Bou Serra, Jordi; Carrasco Alonso, Félix Ángel; Maspoch Rulduà, Mª Lluïsa


    The architectural modifications of a linear poly(D,L-Lactide) acid (PD,L-LA) commercial grade were induced by a one-step reactive extrusion-calendering process using a styrene-glycidyl acrylate copolymer as reactive agent. The melt degradation was counteracted by chain extension and branching reactions, leading to a stabilization of the melt properties and an increase in the molecular weight. For such modified samples [poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-reactive extrusion (REX)], the rate of physical ag...

  9. A benchmark initiative on mantle convection with melting and melt segregation

    Schmeling, Harro; Dannberg, Juliane; Dohmen, Janik; Kalousova, Klara; Maurice, Maxim; Noack, Lena; Plesa, Ana; Soucek, Ondrej; Spiegelman, Marc; Thieulot, Cedric; Tosi, Nicola; Wallner, Herbert


    In recent years a number of mantle convection models have been developed which include partial melting within the asthenosphere, estimation of melt volumes, as well as melt extraction with and without redistribution at the surface or within the lithosphere. All these approaches use various simplifying modelling assumptions whose effects on the dynamics of convection including the feedback on melting have not been explored in sufficient detail. To better assess the significance of such assumptions and to provide test cases for the modelling community we carry out a benchmark comparison. The reference model is taken from the mantle convection benchmark, cases 1a to 1c (Blankenbach et al., 1989), assuming a square box with free slip boundary conditions, the Boussinesq approximation, constant viscosity and Rayleigh numbers of 104 to 10^6. Melting is modelled using a simplified binary solid solution with linearly depth dependent solidus and liquidus temperatures, as well as a solidus temperature depending linearly on depletion. Starting from a plume free initial temperature condition (to avoid melting at the onset time) five cases are investigated: Case 1 includes melting, but without thermal or dynamic feedback on the convection flow. This case provides a total melt generation rate (qm) in a steady state. Case 2 is identical to case 1 except that latent heat is switched on. Case 3 includes batch melting, melt buoyancy (melt Rayleigh number Rm) and depletion buoyancy, but no melt percolation. Output quantities are the Nusselt number (Nu), root mean square velocity (vrms), the maximum and the total melt volume and qm approaching a statistical steady state. Case 4 includes two-phase flow, i.e. melt percolation, assuming a constant shear and bulk viscosity of the matrix and various melt retention numbers (Rt). These cases are carried out using the Compaction Boussinseq Approximation (Schmeling, 2000) or the full compaction formulation. For cases 1 - 3 very good agreement

  10. A hydrologic analysis for the infiltration basins planned on Jeju Island, Korea

    Lee, S.; Kang, T.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.


    Urban development is a cause of expansion of impervious area. It reduces infiltration of rain water and may increase runoff volume from storms. Infiltration basins can be a method to receive storm water and to let the water move into the soil. The contents of the study include a hydrologic analysis on a site and an evaluation of the capacity of infiltration basins planned on the site. Most region of Jeju Island, Korea is highly pervious. Three infiltration basins were designed on the area of the Jeju English Education City. To evaluate adequacy of the capacities of the infiltration basins, infiltration rates were measured and storm water runoff was simulated. Infiltration rates on the surface of the reserved land for infiltration basins were measured by a standard double ring infiltrometer or a small infiltrometer. A FORTRAN version of SWMM was modified to incorporate the infiltration basin and the basic equations of the infiltration basin are same as those of the infiltration trench used in MIDUSS. The code modified was used to simulate storm runoff from watersheds, infiltration from the infiltration basins, and reservoir routing of the infiltration basins. The saturated hydraulic conductivities on the reserved sites were measured by 0.0068, 0.0038, and 0.00017 cm/sec. The return period of the design rainfall is fifty years. The following results were obtained from a hydrologic analysis on the watersheds and the infiltration basins to be built. The two infiltration basins with higher infiltration rates have adequate capacities to infiltrate the total water inflow to the basins. Some water, however releases from the other infiltration basin and the capacity of the basin is not sufficient to infiltrate the total runoff after the land use change. A channel is needed in which the water released from the less pervious basin flows. The hydrologic analysis method of the study can be used for capacity evaluation of future infiltration basins on highly pervious areas in

  11. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubble...

  12. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubbles...

  13. Disordering and Melting of Aluminum Surfaces

    Stoltze, Per; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Landman, U.


    We report on a molecular-dynamics simulation of an Al(110) surface using the effective-medium theory to describe the interatomic interactions. The surface region is found to start melting ≅200 K below the bulk melting temperature with a gradual increase in the thickness of the disordered layer as...

  14. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole


    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...

  15. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole


    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational viscos...

  16. Stability of foams in silicate melts

    Proussevitch, Alexander A.; Sahagian, Dork L.; Kutolin, Vladislav A.


    Bubble coalescence and the spontaneous disruption of high-porosity foams in silicate melts are the result of physical expulsion of interpore melt (syneresis) leading to bubble coalescence, and diffusive gas exchange between bubbles. Melt expulsion can be achieved either along films between pairs of bubbles, or along Plateau borders which represent the contacts between 3 or more bubbles. Theoretical evaluation of these mechanisms is confirmed by experimental results, enabling us to quantify the relevant parameters and determine stable bubble size and critical film thickness in a foam as a function of melt viscosity, surface tension, and time. Foam stability is controlled primarily by melt viscosity and time. Melt transport leading to coalescence of bubbles proceeds along inter-bubble films for smaller bubbles, and along Plateau borders for larger bubbles. Thus the average bubble size accelerates with time. In silicate melts, the diffusive gas expulsion out of a region of foam is effective only for water (and even then, only at small length scales), as the diffusion of CO 2 is negligible. The results of our analyses are applicable to studies of vesicularity of lavas, melt degassing, and eruption mechanisms.

  17. Purification of Niobium by Electron Beam Melting

    Sankar, M.; Mirji, K. V.; Prasad, V. V. Satya; Baligidad, R. G.; Gokhale, A. A.


    Pure niobium metal, produced by alumino-thermic reduction of niobium oxide, contains various impurities which need to be reduced to acceptable levels to obtain aerospace grade purity. In the present work, an attempt has been made to refine niobium metals by electron beam drip melting technique to achieve purity confirming to the ASTM standard. Input power to the electron gun and melt rate were varied to observe their combined effect on extend of refining and loss of niobium. Electron beam (EB) melting is shown to reduce alkali metals, trace elements and interstitial impurities well below the specified limits. The reduction in the impurities during EB melting is attributed to evaporation and degassing due to the combined effect of high vacuum and high melt surface temperature. The % removal of interstitial impurities is essentially a function of melt rate and input power. As the melt rate decreases or input power increases, the impurity levels in the solidified niobium ingot decrease. The EB refining process is also accompanied by considerable amount of niobium loss, which is attributed to evaporation of pure niobium and niobium sub-oxide. Like other impurities, Nb loss increases with decreasing melt rate or increase in input power.

  18. Shock-induced melting and rapid solidification

    Nellis, W.J.; Gourdin, W.H.; Maple, M.B.


    Model calculations are presented to estimate that approx.50 GPa is required to completely shock melt metal powders with quenching at rates up to 10/sup 8/ K/s. Experiments are discussed for powders of a Cu-Zr alloy compacted in the usual way at 16 GPa and melted by shocking to 60 GPa. 12 refs.

  19. Clonal expansion of renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating T lymphocytes

    Sittig, Simone; Køllgaard, Tania; Grønbæk, Kirsten


    T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions...... is an indication of ongoing HLA-restricted T cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple tumors, including renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), are often infiltrated by significant amounts of T cells, the so-called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In the present study, we analyzed RCC lesions (n = 13) for the presence...... of expanded T-cell clonotypes using T-cell receptor clonotype mapping. Surprisingly, we found that RCCs comprise relatively low numbers of distinct expanded T-cell clonotypes as compared with melanoma lesions. The numbers of different T-cell clonotypes detected among RCC-infiltrating lymphocytes were...

  20. Piperacillin-Associated Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia: A Case Report

    Olivia Ling-I Tseng


    Full Text Available A case of pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia attributed to piperacillin/tazobactam therapy is described. A 54-year-old woman was treated for a suspected severe urinary tract infection with piperacillin/tazobactam. Four days later, she developed fever, chills, shortness of breath and intermittent chest pains. Eosinophilia was noted in peripheral blood and, subsequently, on bronchoalveolar lavage. Transbronchial biopsy showed tissue infiltrates with eosinophilia. No evidence of bacterial, fungal and parasitic infection, or vasculitis was observed. Her symptoms and peripheral eosinophilia subsided after drug discontinuation and oral prednisone treatment. Piperacillin is an extended-spectrum penicillin antibiotic prescribed for moderate to severe infections. The common adverse reactions to piperacillin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and rash. Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia is a rare adverse reaction, but one that may result in significant morbidity. Physicians should be aware of this rare but important adverse reaction to piperacillin.

  1. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.


    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  2. On chemiluminescent emission from an infiltrated chiral sculptured thin film

    Jamaian, Siti S


    The theory describing the far-field emission from a dipole source embedded inside a chiral sculptured thin film (CSTF), based on a spectral Green function formalism, was further developed to allow for infiltration of the void regions of the CSTF by a fluid. In doing so, the extended Bruggeman homogenization formalism--which accommodates constituent particles that are small compared to wavelength but not vanishingly small--was used to estimate the relative permittivity parameters of the infiltrated CSTF. For a numerical example, we found that left circularly polarized (LCP) light was preferentially emitted through one face of the CSTF while right circularly polarized (RCP) light was preferentially emitted through the opposite face, at wavelengths within the Bragg regime. The centre wavelength for the preferential emission of LCP/RCP light was red shifted as the refractive index of the infiltrating fluid increased from unity, and this red shift was accentuated when the size of the constituent particles in our h...

  3. Performance Improvement of an Inhomogeneous Cathode by Infiltration

    Seyed-Vakili, S. V.; Graves, Christopher R.; Babaei, A.


    The performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is considerably influenced by the microstructure and chemical composition of cathode materials. Porous La0.85Sr0.15FeO3– Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 composite electrodes were infiltrated by La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 and La0.6Sr0.4FeO3. The effects of infiltration loading...... performance of the electrodes. The electrochemical results revealed that the polarization resistance of the cathodes significantly was decreased by infiltration from 2.59 to 0.034 Ω cm2 measured at 670 °C. The best electrode performance was achieved at a calcination temperature of 770 °C. It was also found...

  4. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent


    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode......-supported SOFC. The cathodes are obtained by infiltrating LSM into a sintered either thick (300 μm) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) backbone or a thin YSZ backbone (10-15 μm) integrated onto a thick (300 μm) porous strontium substituted lanthanum manganite (LSM) and YSZ composite. Fabrication challenges...... printed symmetrical cells. Samples with LSM/YSZ composite and YSZ backbones made with graphite+PMMA as pore formers exhibited comparable Rp values to the screen printed LSM/YSZ cathode. This route was chosen as the best to fabricate the cathode supported cells. SEM micrograph of a cathode supported cell...

  5. Size-dependent melting of Bi nanoparticles

    Olson, E. A.; Efremov, M. Yu.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Allen, L. H.


    Nanocalorimetry was used to investigate the melting of Bi nanoparticles. The particles were formed by evaporating Bi onto a silicon nitride substrate, which was then heated. The particles self-assemble into truncated spherical particles. Below 5-nm average film thickness, mean particle sizes increased linearly with deposition thickness but increased rapidly for 10-nm-thick films. As expected, small particles were found to exhibit size-dependent melting temperatures less than the bulk melting temperature (e.g., ΔT =67K for a 3-nm radius particle). The measured melting temperatures for particles below ˜7nm in radius, however, were ˜50K above the value predicted by the homogeneous melting model. We discuss this discrepancy in terms of a possible size-dependent crystal structure change and the superheating of the solid phase.

  6. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)


    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  7. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Recharge in Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico

    Moore, Stephanie J.


    Infiltration events in channels that flow only sporadically produce focused recharge to the Tesuque aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin. The current study examined the quantity and timing of streamflow and associated infiltration in Arroyo Hondo, an unregulated mountain-front stream that enters the basin from the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Traditional methods of stream gaging were combined with environmental-tracer based methods to provide the estimates. The study was conducted during a three-year period, October 1999?October 2002. The period was characterized by generally low precipitation and runoff. Summer monsoonal rains produced four brief periods of streamflow in water year 2000, only three of which extended beyond the mountain front, and negligible runoff in subsequent years. The largest peak flow during summer monsoon events was 0.59 cubic meters per second. Snowmelt was the main contributor to annual streamflow. Snowmelt produced more cumulative flow downstream from the mountain front during the study period than summer monsoonal rains. The presence or absence of streamflow downstream of the mountain front was determined by interpretation of streambed thermographs. Infiltration rates were estimated by numerical modeling of transient vertical streambed temperature profiles. Snowmelt extended throughout the instrumented reach during the spring of 2001. Flow was recorded at a station two kilometers downstream from the mountain front for six consecutive days in March. Inverse modeling of this event indicated an average infiltration rate of 1.4 meters per day at this location. For the entire study reach, the estimated total annual volume of infiltration ranged from 17,100 to 246,000 m3 during water years 2000 and 2001. During water year 2002, due to severe drought, streamflow and streambed infiltration in the study reach were both zero.

  8. Volatile diffusion in silicate melts and its effects on melt inclusions

    P. Scarlato


    Full Text Available A compendium of diffusion measurements and their Arrhenius equations for water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine in silicate melts similar in composition to natural igneous rocks is presented. Water diffusion in silicic melts is well studied and understood, however little data exists for melts of intermediate to basic compositions. The data demonstrate that both the water concentration and the anhydrous melt composition affect the diffusion coefficient of water. Carbon dioxide diffusion appears only weakly dependent, at most, on the volatilefree melt composition and no effect of carbon dioxide concentration has been observed, although few experiments have been performed. Based upon one study, the addition of water to rhyolitic melts increases carbon dioxide diffusion by orders of magnitude to values similar to that of 6 wt% water. Sulfur diffusion in intermediate to silicic melts depends upon the anhydrous melt composition and the water concentration. In water-bearing silicic melts sulfur diffuses 2 to 3 orders of magnitude slower than water. Chlorine diffusion is affected by both water concentration and anhydrous melt composition; its values are typically between those of water and sulfur. Information on fluorine diffusion is rare, but the volatile-free melt composition exerts a strong control on its diffusion. At the present time the diffusion of water, carbon dioxide, sulfur and chlorine can be estimated in silicic melts at magmatic temperatures. The diffusion of water and carbon dioxide in basic to intermediate melts is only known at a limited set of temperatures and compositions. The diffusion data for rhyolitic melts at 800°C together with a standard model for the enrichment of incompatible elements in front of growing crystals demonstrate that rapid crystal growth, greater than 10-10 ms-1, can significantly increase the volatile concentrations at the crystal-melt interface and that any of that melt trapped

  9. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Melt Rate Furnace Testing

    Stone, M.E.


    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would like to increase its canister production rate. The goal of this study is to improve the melt rate in DWPF specifically for Macrobatch 3. However, the knowledge gained may result in improved melting efficiencies translating to future DWPF macrobatches and in higher throughput for other Department of Energy's (DOE) melters. Increased melting efficiencies decrease overall operational costs by reducing the immobilization campaign time for a particular waste stream. For melt rate limited systems, a small increase in melting efficiency translates into significant hard dollar savings by reducing life cycle operational costs.

  10. Partitioning coefficients between olivine and silicate melts

    Bédard, J. H.


    Variation of Nernst partition coefficients ( D) between olivine and silicate melts cannot be neglected when modeling partial melting and fractional crystallization. Published natural and experimental olivine/liquidD data were examined for covariation with pressure, temperature, olivine forsterite content, and melt SiO 2, H 2O, MgO and MgO/MgO + FeO total. Values of olivine/liquidD generally increase with decreasing temperature and melt MgO content, and with increasing melt SiO 2 content, but generally show poor correlations with other variables. Multi-element olivine/liquidD profiles calculated from regressions of D REE-Sc-Y vs. melt MgO content are compared to results of the Lattice Strain Model to link melt MgO and: D0 (the strain compensated partition coefficient), EM3+ (Young's Modulus), and r0 (the size of the M site). Ln D0 varies linearly with Ln MgO in the melt; EM3+ varies linearly with melt MgO, with a dog-leg at ca. 1.5% MgO; and r0 remains constant at 0.807 Å. These equations are then used to calculate olivine/liquidD for these elements using the Lattice Strain Model. These empirical parameterizations of olivine/liquidD variations yield results comparable to experimental or natural partitioning data, and can easily be integrated into existing trace element modeling algorithms. The olivine/liquidD data suggest that basaltic melts in equilibrium with pure olivine may acquire small negative Ta-Hf-Zr-Ti anomalies, but that negative Nb anomalies are unlikely to develop. Misfits between results of the Lattice Strain Model and most light rare earth and large ion lithophile partitioning data suggest that kinetic effects may limit the lower value of D for extremely incompatible elements in natural situations characterized by high cooling/crystallization rates.


    J.A. Heveal


    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  12. Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Infiltrate-Complicated Calculous Cholecystitis

    Yu. A. Nesterenko


    Full Text Available Objective: to summarize the results of treatment in 442 patients of various ages with acute calculous cholecystitis complicated by a compact perivesical infiltrate.Materials and methods. Bile from all the patients was bacteriologically studied. The implication of various antibiotics in limiting perivesical fat inflammation was determined.Results. The importance of decompressive treatments for complicated calculous cholecystitis has been ascertained. The advantages of microcholecystostomy have been revealed. There is evidence that it is expedient to use third-forth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and dioxidine in the combined treatment of destructive calculous cholecystitis complicated by an infiltrate



    firing. The high temperature firing allows the Pr ions to diffuse into the CGO backbone. The resulting backbone would then have a co-doped subsurface exhibiting electronic conductivity having improved performance when used as electrode in, e.g. a fuel cell. Remaining particles of praseodymium oxide......The present invention relates to electrodes having Gd and Pr -doped cerium oxide (CGPO)backbones infiltrated with Sr -doped LaCoO3 (LSC) and a method to manufacture them. Pr ions have been introduced into a prefabricated CGO backbone by infiltrating Pr nitrate solution followed by high temperature...

  14. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bengisu, Ergin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yavuz, Ekrem [Department of Pathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  15. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)


    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  16. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen


    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid layer consisting of dug sand (76 cm) was used for the trial. Over a period of 18 h 3.9 x 1010 TCID50 VHSV was supplied to the column, where after normal tap water was supplied for the rest of the tri...


    Ildegardis Bertol


    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  18. Asymptomatic leukemic-cell infiltration of the pancreas: US findings.

    Collado, Laura; Dardanelli, Esteban; Sierre, Sergio; Moguillansky, Silvia; Lipsich, José


    Pancreatic infiltration of leukemic cells is a very rare manifestation at the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood. Pancreatic enlargement in this situation is unusual and pancreatic involvement is often associated with biliary obstruction, cholestasis and pancreatitis. We report a 3-month-old girl who presented with asymptomatic leukemic infiltration of the pancreas, demonstrated by US with heterogeneous pancreatic enlargement associated with multiple hypoechogenic lesions, without cholestasis. Although these manifestations are rare, ALL should be considered a cause of pancreatic enlargement.

  19. Infiltrating lipoma of the chin: Report of a rare case

    S. N. Santhosh Kumar


    Full Text Available Lipoma, also known as universal tumor or ubiquitous tumor, can occur anywhere in the body, its incidence being 0.1-5% of all head and neck neoplasms. They are benign neoplasms composed of mature adipocytes. There are various types of lipoma based on the constituent tissue type and location of the lipoma. Though lipomas are slow growing and seldom invade adjacent tissue, some variants do exhibit infiltrative behavior. Here, a case of infiltrating type of lipoma of the chin region is presented, which had suddenly increased size in the last 1 year, which led the patient to seek surgical treatment.

  20. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent


    A four-step infiltration method has been developed to infiltrate La0.75Sr0.25MnO3+δ (LSM25) nanoparticles into porous structures (YSZ or LSM-YSZ backbones). The pore size distribution in the backbones is obtained either by using PMMA and/or graphites as pore formers or by leaching treatment of sa...... of samples with Ni remained in the YSZ structure at high temperatures. All impregnated backbones, presented Rs comparable to a standard screen printed cathode, which proves that LSM nanoparticles forms a pathway for electron conduction....

  1. Oxidation processes and clogging in intermittent unsaturated infiltration.

    Bancolé, A; Brissaud, F; Gnagne, T


    Intermittent infiltration of wastewater through a non saturated sand bed is an extensive treatment process aimed at eliminating organic pollution, oxidizing ammonia and removing pathogens. A 1D numerical model, IPOX, has been worked out to simulate the transfer and oxidation of dissolved organic matter and nitrogen in unsaturated sand beds. IPOX was calibrated after real scale tests performed in Spain and Burkina Faso. Simulations allowed us to point out the influence of (i) kinetics on oxidation performances and (ii) biomass development on the process sustainability. These results brought a new light on the sizing and operation of infiltration percolation and soil aquifer treatment (SAT) plants.

  2. Direct demonstration of the infiltration of murine central nervous system by Pgp-1/CD44high CD45RB(low) CD4+ T cells that induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Zeine, R; Owens, T


    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), autoimmune T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and initiate demyelinating pathology. We have used flow cytometry to directly analyse the migration to the CNS of MBP-reactive CD4+ T cells labelled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye (...

  3. Reactive Power Compensation Method Considering Minimum Effective Reactive Power Reserve

    Gong, Yiyu; Zhang, Kai; Pu, Zhang; Li, Xuenan; Zuo, Xianghong; Zhen, Jiao; Sudan, Teng


    According to the calculation model of minimum generator reactive power reserve of power system voltage stability under the premise of the guarantee, the reactive power management system with reactive power compensation combined generator, the formation of a multi-objective optimization problem, propose a reactive power reserve is considered the minimum generator reactive power compensation optimization method. This method through the improvement of the objective function and constraint conditions, when the system load growth, relying solely on reactive power generation system can not meet the requirement of safe operation, increase the reactive power reserve to solve the problem of minimum generator reactive power compensation in the case of load node.

  4. Residuejams and their effect on Infiltration, Runoff and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in Furrow Irrigation Systems

    Mailapalli, D. R.; Wallender, W. W.; Horwath, W.; Ma, S.; Lazicki, P.


    Crop residue, which consists of small debris of different sizes, is an important resource in agricultural ecosystems. It plays a vital role in conservation tillage as a best management practice (BMP) for reducing runoff, sediment, nutrient and pesticide transport from irrigated fields. In furrow irrigation, the predominant irrigation method in the world, as irrigation or winter runoff water moves along a furrow, it lifts the unanchored residue and transports across the field. The complex interaction of multiple residue pieces (debris) with itself, the soil matrix, and the fluid cause jams to form along the furrow. The residuejams can be thought of logjams in fluvial rivers or channels which help in increasing channel roughness to reduce flow velocities and shear stress along eroding banks. The logjams also create a hydraulic shadow, a low-velocity zone for some distance upstream that allows sediment to settle out and stabilize. Similarly, the residuejams help in formation of catchments, which promote increased infiltration and settlement of sediments along the furrow. The infiltration and residue interaction with the soil-water influence the runoff, sediment, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export. The reduction of DOC export is critical to enhancing drinking water resources by reducing reactive sources of DOC that form carcinogenic by-products in the disinfection process. Hence, investigation of geomorphology of the residuejams is essential to understand their impact on infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration. This study focuses on the formation of residuejams and their effect on the infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration from 122 m long furrow plots with cover crop (CC), no-till (NT) and standard tillage (ST). These treatments (CC, NT and ST) were replicated three times using randomized complete block design and the plots initially, had 10, 32 and 42% of residue cover (sunflower residue on ST and NT; sunflower and wheat residue on CC plot

  5. Reactive standard deontic logic

    Gabbay, Dov M.; Straßer, Christian


    We introduce a reactive variant of SDL (standard deontic logic): SDLR1 (reactive standard deontic logic). Given a Kripkean view on the semantics of SDL in terms of directed graphs where arrows -> represent the accessibility relation between worlds, reactive models add two elements: arrows -> are labelled as 'active' or 'inactive', and double arrows a dagger connect arrows, e.g. (x(1) -> x(2)) a dagger (x(3) -> x(4)). The idea is that passing through x(1) -> x(2) activates a switch represented...

  6. Melt and Chemical Transport in the Mantle: Insights from Deglaciation-Induced Melting Perturbations in Iceland

    Eason, D. E.; Ito, G.; Sinton, J. M.


    Eruptive products represent a time-averaged view of the melting region and melt migration processes, making numerous fundamental parameters of the melt system difficult to constrain. Temporal and spatial variations in melting provide potential windows into this obscure region of the Earth by preferentially sampling melts from different regions of the mantle or mixing melts over different length-scales. We present a newly extended geochemical time series from the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) of Iceland, which experienced a short-lived melting perturbation due to glacial unloading during the last major deglaciation (~15-10 ka). Glacial unloading during this period led to increased degrees of melting particularly in the shallow mantle, which is manifest as an observed increase in volcanic production up to 30 times the steady-state value, decreased levels of highly to moderately incompatible element ratios (e.g., a 35-50% decrease in Nb/Y, with the greatest change occurring in the northernmost WVZ), and elevated SiO2 and CaO concentrations (~0.8 wt. % and ~1.9 wt. % increase in average oxide concentrations respectively) during and immediately following deglaciation. Although eruptive productivity returns to steady-state values within ~3000 yr following deglaciation, the incompatible element concentrations in erupted lavas gradually increase throughout the post-glacial period. We exploit this short-lived melting perturbation to examine and constrain knowledge of fundamental characteristics of melt generation and transport, including mantle permeability, melt ascent rates, depth-dependent melting functions (dF/dP), and the nature of chemical transport and melt mixing in the system. Using conservation equations describing the generation and porous flow of melt in a viscous matrix, we model melt migration in the mantle during and after ice sheet removal, as well as trace element transport for both equilibrium and disequilibrium transport end members. The predicted

  7. Computer simulations of homogeneous nucleation of benzene from the melt.

    Shah, Manas; Santiso, Erik E; Trout, Bernhardt L


    Nucleation is the key step in crystallization by which the molecules (or atoms or ions) aggregate together, find the right relative orientations, and start to grow to form the final crystal structure. Since nucleation is an activated step involving a large gap in time scales between molecular motions and the nucleation event itself, nucleation must be studied using rare events methods. We employ a technique developed previously in our group known as aimless shooting [Peters, B.; Trout, B. L. J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 125, 054108], which is based on transition path sampling, to generate reactive trajectories between the disordered and ordered phases of benzene. Using the likelihood maximization algorithm, we analyze the aimless shooting trajectories to identify the key order parameters or collective variables to describe the reaction coordinate for the nucleation of benzene from the melt. We find that the local bond orientation and local relative orientation order parameters are the most important collective variables in describing the reaction coordinate for homogeneous nucleation from the melt, as compared to cluster size and space-averaged order parameters. This study also demonstrates the utility of recently developed order parameters for molecular crystals [Santiso, E. E.; Trout, B. L. J. Chem. Phys., 2011, 134, 064109].

  8. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    Pasquino, Rossana


    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Effects of white grubs on soil water infiltration.

    Romero-López, A A; Rodríguez-Palacios, E; Alarcón-Gutiérrez, E; Geissert, D; Barois, I


    Water infiltration rates k were measured in mesocosms with soil and "white grubs" of Ancognatha falsa (Arrow) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Three third instars of A. falsa and three adult earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus were selected, weighted, and introduced into the mesocosms setting three treatments: soil + A. falsa, soil + P. corethrurus, and control (soil without any macroorganism). The experiment had a completely random design with four replicates per treatment (n = 4). The infiltration rates of soil matrix were assessed in each mesocosms with a minidisk tension infiltrometer. Six measurements were made along the experiment. Results showed that larvae of A. falsa promoted a higher water infiltration in the soil, compared to the control. On day 7, k values were similar among treatments, but k values after 28 days and up to 100 days were much higher in the A. falsa treatment (k = 0.00025 cm s(-1)) if compared to control (k = 0.00011 cm s(-1)) and P. corethrurus (k = 0.00008 cm s(-1)) treatments. The k values were significantly higher in the presence of larvae of A. falsa compared to the control and P. corethrurus treatments. The larvae of A. falsa are potential candidates for new assays on soil water infiltration with different tensions to evaluate the role of pores and holes created by the larvae on soils.

  10. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    Seo, Mookwon


    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration model and develop very fast serial and parallel implementations that are suitable for a computer with a graphical processing unit (GPU).

  11. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus;


    patients listed for elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. INTERVENTIONS: Preoperative and intraoperative infiltration anaesthesia by bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml (median dose 41 ml, range 30-84 ml), and sedation with midazolam intraoperatively (median dose 3 mg, range 0-10 mg). Lichtenstein tension-free technique...

  12. The antigen specific composition of melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes?

    Hadrup, Sine Reker


    Large numbers of tumor associated antigens has been characterized, but only a minor fraction of these are recognized by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of melanoma, although these have shown the ability to recognize tumor and provide tumor regression upon adoptive transfer. Thus the peptide...

  13. Water Infiltration in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite : Fast and Inconspicuous

    Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Plogmeyer, Marcel; Sendner, Michael; Doering, Sebastian; Bakulin, Artem A.; Brzuska, Carlo; Scheer, Roland; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Pucci, Annemarie; Lovrincic, Robert


    While the susceptibility of CH3NH3PbI3 to water is well-documented, the influence of water on device performance is not well-understood. Herein, we use infrared spectroscopy to show that water infiltration into CH3NH3PbI3 occurs much faster and at a humidity much lower than previously thought. We pr

  14. Sequential infiltration synthesis for enhancing multiple-patterning lithography

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih


    Simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.

  15. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger


    Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective of this st......Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective...... of this study was to characterize the variation of infiltration capacity, hydraulic conductivity and soil organoprofile development on forest sites with comparable geological substrate, soil type and climatic conditions, but different stand ages and tree species in terms of the effects of forest transformation...... from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. The water infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity (K) of the investigated sandy-textured soils are low and very few macropores exist. Additionally these pores are marked by poor connectivity and therefore do not have any...

  16. The effectiveness of articaine in mandibular facial infiltrations

    Flanagan, Dennis F


    Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures. This study involved only several tooth sites and found that 1.8 cc of 4% articaine facial infiltration in the mandible may be effective when the facial mandibular cortex is <2.0–3.0 mm. A waiting time of 5–10 minutes may be required for effective anesthesia. An additional 1.8 cc of dose may be required to attain anesthesia if an initial 1.8 cc of dose fails. The need for additional anesthetic may be predicted by a measurement of the facial cortex using cone beam computerized tomography. A study of mandibular sites is needed to delineate the anatomical dimensions, density of cortical bone, and apical neural location for ensuring successful local anesthetic infiltration. PMID:26730209

  17. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.


    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  18. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly

    Aydingoez, Uestuen; Karli-Oguz, Kader [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey); Emir, Suna; Bueyuekpamukcu, Muenevver [Department of Paediatrics, Hacettepe University Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey); Koese, Guelsen [Paediatric Clinic, SSK Ankara Training Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)


    An extremely rare case of congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF) associated with ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly is reported in a 3-month-old boy. MRI not only thoroughly evaluated the extent of the lesion, but also demonstrated the cerebral anomaly. MRI is indispensable in the evaluation of patients suspected of having CILF. (orig.)

  19. Diffuse Infiltrative Lesion of the Breast: Clinical and Radiologic Features

    An, Yeong Yi; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Yoon, Soo Kyung [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Eun Suk [Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Sook [St. Paul' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Suk [Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Whang, In Yong [Uijongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijongbu (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this paper is to show the clinical and radiologic features of a variety of diffuse, infiltrative breast lesions, as well to review the relevant literature. Radiologists must be familiar with the various conditions that can diffusely involve the breast, including normal physiologic changes, benign disease and malignant neoplasm

  20. Groundwater Infiltration Path of Road Deicing Agent and its Quantification

    Moroizumi, T.; Hada, J.; Sasaki, K.


    A deicing agent has been sprinkled on an expressway to prevent it from freezing in the hilly and mountainous area along the expressway having been used for more than 30 years. We investigated the infiltration, the river runoff, and the scattering of the de-icing agent quantitatively, observed the variation of water quality in river, and discussed the infiltration route and balance of the deicing agent in order to clarify the influence of the de-icing agent on the groundwater salinization. As a result, it turned out that 65% of the de-icing agent sprinkled on the road surface flowed into the waterway, the 25% infiltrated into underground through the crack of a road surface, and the remaining 10% dispersed out of an expressway. Next, for the rate of the de-icing agent outflowing to the river during a frozen snow term, it was estimated that the 39% of the sprinkled de-icing agent outflowed with surface water, and the 17% did with groundwater. Moreover, it was shown clearly that the 44% was probably stored in underground from the balance between the sprinkled de-icing agent and the outflowing one. In addition, the Cl- concentration of groundwater by the infiltrated deicing agent was simulated to clarify its extent and to predict its change in future when stopped sprinkling the deicing agent.

  1. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)


    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  2. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)


    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e. winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  3. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus


    patients listed for elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. INTERVENTIONS: Preoperative and intraoperative infiltration anaesthesia by bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml (median dose 41 ml, range 30-84 ml), and sedation with midazolam intraoperatively (median dose 3 mg, range 0-10 mg). Lichtenstein tension-free technique...

  4. Application of Ceramic Bond Coating for Reusable Melting Crucible of Metallic Fuel Slugs

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Ko, Young-Mo; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ki-Won [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Metal fuel slugs of the driver fuel assembly have been fabricated by injection casting of the fuel alloys under a vacuum state or an inert atmosphere. Traditionally, metal fuel such as a U-Zr alloy system for SFR has been melted in slurry-coated graphite crucibles and cast in slurry-coated quartz tube molds to prevent melt/material interactions. Reactive coatings and porous coatings can be a source of melt contaminations, and fuel losses, respectively. Ceramic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TaC coating materials showed no penetration in the protective layer after a melt dipping test. However, the ceramic coating materials showed separations in the coating interface between the substrate and coating layer, or between the coating layer and fuel melt after the dipping test. All plasma-spray coated methods maintained a sound coating state after a dipping test with U-10wt.%Zr melt. A single coating Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}(150) layer and double coating layer of TaC(50)-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100), showed a sound state or little penetration in the protective layer after a dipping test with U-10wt.%Zr-5wt.%RE melt. Injection casting experiments of U-10wt.%Zr and U-10wt.%Zr-5wt.%RE fuel slugs have been performed to investigate the feasibility of a reusable crucible of the metal fuel slugs. U–10wt.%Zr and U–10wt.%Zr–5wt.%RE fuel slugs have been soundly fabricated without significant interactions of the graphite crucibles. Thus, the ceramic plasma-spray coatings are thought to be promising candidate coating methods for a reusable graphite crucible to fabricate metal fuel slugs.

  5. Nonquaternary Cholinesterase Reactivators.


    1978, 34, 523. 30. Lehninger , A. L., " Biochemistry ," Worth Publ. Inc., New York, 1970, p. 161. 31. Green, A. L.; Smith, H. J.; Biochem. J., 1958, 68...nerve agent antidotes focuses on nonquaternary cholinesterase reactivators. In principle , it should be possible to find nonquaternary hydroximic acid...elicit pronounced physiological responses. In principle , it should be possible to develop nonquaternary AChE reactivators that would not only equal

  6. Reactive sputter deposition

    Mahieu, Stijn


    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  7. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    Zhu Wei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1 leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2 the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN, MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the

  8. Rapidly solidified titanium alloys by melt overflow

    Gaspar, Thomas A.; Bruce, Thomas J., Jr.; Hackman, Lloyd E.; Brasmer, Susan E.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Baeslack, William A., III


    A pilot plant scale furnace was designed and constructed for casting titanium alloy strips. The furnace combines plasma arc skull melting techniques with melt overflow rapid solidification technology. A mathematical model of the melting and casting process was developed. The furnace cast strip of a suitable length and width for use with honeycomb structures. Titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-14Al-21 Nb were successfully cast into strips. The strips were evaluated by optical metallography, microhardness measurements, chemical analysis, and cold rolling.

  9. Physics of the Lindemann melting rule

    Lawson, Andrew C [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We investigate the thermodynamics of melting for 74 distinct chemical elements including several actinides and rare earths. We find that the observed melting points are consistent with a linear relationship between the correlation entropy of the liquid and the Grueneisen constant of the solid, and that the Lindemann rule is well obeyed for the elements with simple structures and less well obeyed for the less symmetric more open structures. No special assumptions are required to explain the melting points of the rare earths or light actinides.

  10. Melt processed high-temperature superconductors


    The achievement of large critical currents is critical to the applications of high-temperature superconductors. Recent developments have shown that melt processing is suitable for producing high J c oxide superconductors. Using magnetic forces between such high J c oxide superconductors and magnets, a person could be levitated.This book has grown largely out of research works on melt processing of high-temperature superconductors conducted at ISTEC Superconductivity Research Laboratory. The chapters build on melt processing, microstructural characterization, fundamentals of flux pinning, criti

  11. Diffusive loss of argon in response to melt vein formation in polygenetic impact melt breccias

    Mercer, Cameron M.; Hodges, Kip V.


    Many planetary surfaces in the solar system have experienced prolonged bombardment. With each impact, new rocks can be assembled that incorporate freshly generated impact melts with fragments of older rocks. Some breccias can become polygenetic, containing multiple generations of impact melt products, and can potentially provide important insights into the extensive bombardment history of a region. However, the amount of chronological information that can be extracted from such samples depends on how well the mineral isotopic systems of geochronometers can preserve the ages of individual melt generations without being disturbed by younger events. We model the thermal evolution of impact melt veins and the resulting loss of Ar from K-bearing phases common in impact melt breccias to assess the potential for preserving the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual melt generations. Our model results demonstrate that millimeter-scale, clast-free melt veins cause significant heating of adjacent host rock minerals and can cause detectable Ar loss in contact zones that are generally thinner than, and at most about the same thickness as, the vein width. The incorporation of cold clasts in melt veins reduces the magnitudes of heating and Ar loss in the host rocks, and Ar loss can be virtually undetectable for sufficiently clast-rich veins. Quantitative evidence of the timing of impacts, as measured with the 40Ar/39Ar method, can be preserved in polygenetic impact melt breccias, particularly for those containing millimeter-scale bodies of clast-bearing melt products.

  12. A novel method combining additive manufacturing and alloy infiltration for NdFeB bonded magnet fabrication

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Conner, B. S.; Chi, Miaofang; Elliott, Amy M.; Rios, Orlando; Zhou, Haidong; Paranthaman, M. Parans


    In this paper, binder jetting additive manufacturing technique is employed to fabricate NdFeB isotropic bonded magnets, followed by an infiltration process with low-melting point eutectic alloys [i.e., Nd3Cu0.25Co0.75 (NdCuCo) and Pr3Cu0.25Co0.75 (PrCuCo)]. Densification and mechanical strength improvement are achieved for the as-printed porous part. Meanwhile, the intrinsic coercivity Hci is enhanced from 732 to 1345 kA/m and 1233 kA/m after diffusion of NdCuCo and PrCuCo, respectively. This study presents a novel method for fabricating complex-shaped bonded magnets with promising mechanical and magnetic properties.

  13. Simulation of Water Movement through Unsaturated Infiltration- Redistribution System

    T Bunsri


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the movement of water in a natural unsaturated zone, focusing on infiltration-redistribution system. Infiltration refers to the downward movement of water due to the gravitational force and redistribution defines the upward movement of water due to the capillary rise. Under natural conditions, the movement of water through an infiltrationredistribution depended upon the relations among water content, hydraulic conductivity and tension of soil pore. Various combinations of water balance concepts, Richards’ equation, soil-physics theory and capillary height concepts were applied to mathematically model the movement of water through infiltration-redistribution system. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the developed model were evaluated for the case study. Besides the laboratory scale sand/soil columns with the inner diameter of 10.4 cm were investigated in order to provide the supporting data for model calibration. Sand/soil layers were packed with a bulk density of 1.80 and 1.25 g/cm3, respectively. The infiltration was sprayed uniformly at the soil surface with the constant rate of 66.1 and 7.18 cm3/h for sand and soil columns, respectively. The redistribution process was developed by which water arriving at the column base enter to the sand/soil column due to capillary rise. The laboratory observations were simulated using the developed model. The results indicate that the developed model could well estimate the movement of water in the infiltration-redistribution system that observed in the case study and the experiments.

  14. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    A. Dolata-Grosz


    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  15. Dentin infiltration ability of different classes of adhesive systems.

    Langer, Alina; Ilie, Nicoleta


    This study evaluates the dentin infiltration ability of various types of adhesives and compares four classes of adhesive systems with regard to this property. The infiltration is determined quantitatively, characterized as tag length and ratio of infiltration, and qualitatively, characterized as homogeneity, regularity, and continuity of the resin tags. Flat dentin surfaces from 140 halves of caries-free molars were bonded with four classes of adhesive systems. The adhesives (n = 20) were labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate and applied on the occlusal dentin following the manufacturer's recommendations and were subsequently light cured, 20 s. Then a 2-mm thick composite layer was applied and light cured, 20 s. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C, 24 h. Two slices were sectioned mesio-distally from each sample and were investigated with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The measurements were done at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm from the enamel-dentin junction. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and the general linear model. The class of adhesive, the composition, and the dentin position were significant factors affecting the investigated parameters. The use of etch and rinse adhesives in comparison to self-etch adhesives provided the formation of longer, more homogeneous, very regularly distributed but mostly fractured tags. A comparison of adhesives confirmed that etch and rinse systems remain better in bond infiltration. While the importance of tags formation on bonding is still controversially discussed, adhesive systems with a high ratio of infiltration might better protect the tooth against microorganism contamination.

  16. The Reaction of Carbonates in Contact with Superheated Silicate Melts: New Insights from MEMIN Laser Melting Experiments

    Hamann, C.; Hecht, L.; Schäffer, S.; Deutsch, A.; Lexow, B.


    The reaction of carbonates in contact with silicate impact melts is discussed quite controversially in the impact community. Here, we discuss four MEMIN laser melting experiments involving carbonates in contact with superheated silicate melts.

  17. Cloud screening and melt water detection over melting sea ice using AATSR/SLSTR

    Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg


    With the onset of melt in the Arctic Ocean, the fraction of melt water on sea ice, the melt pond fraction, increases. The consequences are: the reduced albedo of sea ice, increased transmittance of sea ice and affected heat balance of the system with more heat passing through the ice into the ocean, which facilitates further melting. The onset of melt, duration of melt season and melt pond fraction are good indicators of the climate state of the Arctic and its change. In the absence of reliable sea ice thickness retrievals in summer, melt pond fraction retrieval from satellite is in demand as input for GCM as an indicator of melt state of the sea ice. The retrieval of melt pond fraction with a moderate resolution radiometer as AATSR is, however, a non-trivial task due to a variety of subpixel surface types with very different optical properties, which give non-unique combinations if mixed. In this work this has been solved by employing additional information on the surface and air temperature of the pixel. In the current work, a concept of melt pond detection on sea ice is presented. The basis of the retrieval is the sensitivity of AATSR reflectance channels 550nm and 860nm to the amount of melt water on sea ice. The retrieval features extensive usage of a database of in situ surface albedo spectra. A tree of decisions is employed to select the feasible family of in situ spectra for the retrieval, depending on the melt stage of the surface. Reanalysis air temperature at the surface and brightness temperature measured by the satellite sensor are analyzed in order to evaluate the melting status of the surface. Case studies for FYI and MYI show plausible retrieved melt pond fractions, characteristic for both of the ice types. The developed retrieval can be used to process the historical AATSR (2002-2012) dataset, as well as for the SLSTR sensor onboard the future Sentinel-3 mission (scheduled for launch in 2015), to keep the continuity and obtain longer time sequence

  18. A benchmark initiative on mantle convection with melting and melt segregation

    Schmeling, Harro; Dohmen, Janik; Wallner, Herbert; Noack, Lena; Tosi, Nicola; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Maurice, Maxime


    In recent years a number of mantle convection models have been developed which include partial melting within the asthenosphere, estimation of melt volumes, as well as melt extraction with and without redistribution at the surface or within the lithosphere. All these approaches use various simplifying modelling assumptions whose effects on the dynamics of convection including the feedback on melting have not been explored in sufficient detail. To better assess the significance of such assumptions and to provide test cases for the modelling community we initiate a benchmark comparison. In the initial phase of this endeavor we focus on the usefulness of the definitions of the test cases keeping the physics as sound as possible. The reference model is taken from the mantle convection benchmark, case 1b (Blanckenbach et al., 1989), assuming a square box with free slip boundary conditions, the Boussinesq approximation, constant viscosity and a Rayleigh number of 1e5. Melting is modelled assuming a simplified binary solid solution with linearly depth dependent solidus and liquidus temperatures, as well as a solidus temperature depending linearly on depletion. Starting from a plume free initial temperature condition (to avoid melting at the onset time) three cases are investigated: Case 1 includes melting, but without thermal or dynamic feedback on the convection flow. This case provides a total melt generation rate (qm) in a steady state. Case 2 includes batch melting, melt buoyancy (melt Rayleigh number Rm), depletion buoyancy and latent heat, but no melt percolation. Output quantities are the Nusselt number (Nu), root mean square velocity (vrms) and qm approaching a statistical steady state. Case 3 includes two-phase flow, i.e. melt percolation, assuming a constant shear and bulk viscosity of the matrix and various melt retention numbers (Rt). These cases should be carried out using the Compaction Boussinseq Approximation (Schmeling, 2000) or the full compaction

  19. Investigation of Melting Dynamics of Hafnium Clusters.

    Ng, Wei Chun; Lim, Thong Leng; Yoon, Tiem Leong


    Melting dynamics of hafnium clusters are investigated using a novel approach based on the idea of the chemical similarity index. Ground state configurations of small hafnium clusters are first derived using Basin-Hopping and Genetic Algorithm in the parallel tempering mode, employing the COMB potential in the energy calculator. These assumed ground state structures are verified by using the Low Lying Structures (LLS) method. The melting process is carried out either by using the direct heating method or prolonged simulated annealing. The melting point is identified by a caloric curve. However, it is found that the global similarity index is much more superior in locating premelting and total melting points of hafnium clusters.

  20. Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica

    Rignot, E; Jacobs, S; Mouginot, J; Scheuchl, B


    We compare the volume flux divergence of Antarctic ice shelves in 2007 and 2008 with 1979 to 2010 surface accumulation and 2003 to 2008 thinning to determine their rates of melting and mass balance...

  1. Energy-Efficient Glass Melting: Submerged Combustion



    Oxy-gas-fired submerged combustion melter offers simpler, improved performance. For the last 100 years, the domestic glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass on an industrial scale.

  2. Principle of Melt-glue Cloth

    陈人豪; 曹建达; 李济群; 张利梅; 何洋


    This paper advances a new concept of textile-meltglue cloth, and introduces the readers to the basic principle of melt-glue cloth. On the basis of melt spinning, the spinneret can be replaced by a spinning device that consists of an outer spinneret (a loop)and an inner spinneret ( a round plate), and between them there is an interval circle on which the centers of the holes are evenly distributed. When the machine is running, the outer spinneret (or the inner one) is fixed, the inner spinneret (or the outer one)is spinning, and a columnar net will be obtained.Then it will be excided with the help of a cutter in transporting it. Finally the once-forming melt-glue cloth will be produced. Compared with the traditional woven fabric, melt-glue cloth has a lot of special features and a bright future of application.

  3. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith


    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  4. Electrochemical Studies in Aluminum Chloride Melts


    Molten Salt Systems", Symposium on Molten Salts, Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , in press (1976). Manuscripts in Preparation--Related to...Fused Salt Technology, Electrochemical Society Meeting, Chicaao, May 8-13, 1973. R. A. Osteryoung, R. H. Abel, L. G. Boxall and B. H. Vassos, "An...aluminate Melts", Electrochemical Society , San Francisco, CA, May, 1974. R. A. Osteryoung, "Chemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts", Fifth International

  5. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.


    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  6. Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

    Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew; Anderson, Iver


    Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.

  7. Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

    Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew; Anderson, Iver


    Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.

  8. Carbon deposition behaviour in metal-infiltrated gadolinia doped ceria electrodes for simulated biogas upgrading in solid oxide electrolysis cells

    Duboviks, V.; Lomberg, M.; Maher, R. C.; Cohen, L. F.; Brandon, N. P.; Offer, G. J.


    One of the attractive applications for reversible Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) is to convert CO2 into CO via high temperature electrolysis, which is particularly important for biogas upgrading. To improve biogas utility, the CO2 component can be converted into fuel via electrolysis. A significant issue for SOC operation on biogas is carbon-induced catalyst deactivation. Nickel is widely used in SOC electrodes for reasons of cost and performance, but it has a low tolerance to carbon deposition. Two different modes of carbon formation on Ni-based electrodes are proposed in the present work based on ex-situ Raman measurements which are in agreement with previous studies. While copper is known to be resistant towards carbon formation, two significant issues have prevented its application in SOC electrodes - namely its relatively low melting temperature, inhibiting high temperature sintering, and low catalytic activity for hydrogen oxidation. In this study, the electrodes were prepared through a low temperature metal infiltration technique. Since the metal infiltration technique avoids high sintering temperatures, Cu-Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ (Cu-CGO) electrodes were fabricated and tested as an alternative to Ni-CGO electrodes. We demonstrate that the performance of Cu-CGO electrodes is equivalent to Ni-CGO electrodes, whilst carbon formation is fully suppressed when operated on biogas mixture.

  9. The melting and solidification of nanowires

    Florio, B. J.; Myers, T. G.


    A mathematical model is developed to describe the melting of nanowires. The first section of the paper deals with a standard theoretical situation, where the wire melts due to a fixed boundary temperature. This analysis allows us to compare with existing results for the phase change of nanospheres. The equivalent solidification problem is also examined. This shows that solidification is a faster process than melting; this is because the energy transfer occurs primarily through the solid rather than the liquid which is a poorer conductor of heat. This effect competes with the energy required to create new solid surface which acts to slow down the process, but overall conduction dominates. In the second section, we consider a more physically realistic boundary condition, where the phase change occurs due to a heat flux from surrounding material. This removes the singularity in initial melt velocity predicted in previous models of nanoparticle melting. It is shown that even with the highest possible flux the melting time is significantly slower than with a fixed boundary temperature condition.

  10. Melting behavior of large disordered sodium clusters

    Aguado, A


    The melting-like transition in disordered sodium clusters Na_N, with N=92 and 142 is studied by using a first-principles constant-energy molecular dynamics simulation method. Na_142, whose atoms are distributed in two (surface and inner) main shells with different radial distances to the center of mass of the cluster, melts in two steps: the first one, at approx. 130 K, is characterized by a high intrashell mobility of the atoms, and the second, homogeneous melting, at approx. 270 K, involves diffusive motion of all the atoms across the whole cluster volume (both intrashell and intershell displacements are allowed). On the contrary, the melting of Na_92 proceeds gradually over a very wide temperature interval, without any abrupt step visible in the thermal or structural melting indicators. The occurrence of well defined steps in the melting transition is then shown to be related to the existence of a distribution of the atoms in shells. Thereby we propose a necessary condition for a cluster to be considered r...

  11. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K


    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  12. Primary crustal melt compositions: Insights into the controls, mechanisms and timing of generation from kinetics experiments and melt inclusions

    Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; London, David; Morgan, George B.; Cesare, Bernardo; Buick, Ian; Hermann, Jörg; Bartoli, Omar


    We explore the controls, mechanisms and timing of generation of primary melts and their compositions, and show that the novel studies of melt inclusions in migmatites can provide important insights into the processes of crustal anatexis of a particular rock. Partial melting in the source region of granites is dependent on five main processes: (i) supply of heat; (ii) mineral-melt interface reactions associated with the detachment and supply of mineral components to the melt, (iii) diffusion in the melt, (iv) diffusion in minerals, and (v) recrystallization of minerals. As the kinetics of these several processes vary over several orders of magnitude, it is essential to evaluate in Nature which of these processes control the rate of melting, the composition of melts, and the extent to which residue-melt chemical equilibrium is attained under different circumstances. To shed light on these issues, we combine data from experimental and melt inclusion studies. First, data from an extensive experimental program on the kinetics of melting of crustal protoliths and diffusion in granite melt are used to set up the necessary framework that describes how primary melt compositions are established during crustal anatexis. Then, we use this reference frame and compare compositional trends from experiments with the composition of melt inclusions analyzed in particular migmatites. We show that, for the case of El Hoyazo anatectic enclaves in lavas, the composition of glassy melt inclusions provides important information on the nature and mechanisms of anatexis during the prograde suprasolidus history of these rocks, including melting temperatures and reactions, and extent of melt interconnection, melt homogenization and melt-residue equilibrium. Compositional trends in several of the rehomogenized melt inclusions in garnet from migmatites/granulites in anatectic terranes are consistent with diffusion in melt-controlled melting, though trace element compositions of melt inclusions

  13. [Low reactive laser therapy].

    Saeki, Shigeru


    The type, characteristics and effect of low reactive laser equipment used for pain treatment in Japan are described in this section. Currently, low reactive laser therapy equipments marketed and used in Japan include diode laser therapeutic device with semiconductor as a medium consisting of aluminum, gallium and arsenic. Low reactive laser equipment comes in three models, the first type has a capacity of generating 1,000 mW output, and the second type has a capacity of generating 10 W output. The third type has four channels of output, 60, 100, 140 and 180 mW and we can select one channel out of the four channels. This model is also used as a portable device because of its light weight, and we can carry it to wards and to the outside of the hospital. Semiconductor laser has the capacity of deepest penetration and the effect tends to increase proportionally to the increasing output. Low reactive laser therapy is less invasive and lower incidence of complications. Although low reactive laser therapy might be effective for various pain disorders, the effect is different depending on the type of pain. We should keep in mind that this therapy will not give good pain relief equally in all patients with pain.

  14. Recent changes in Arctic sea ice melt onset, freezeup, and melt season length

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey


    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freezeup, and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freezeup. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freezeup for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (0.4 d decade-1), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e., toward earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0 d decade-1 for the Bering Sea to -7.3 d decade-1 for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend toward later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort seas and Laptev/East Siberian seas observe the strongest trends with 7 d decade-1. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 10 d decade-1 are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea, the Laptev/East Siberian seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort seas. Those trends are statistically significant at the 99% level.

  15. Microstructure-reactivity relationship of Ti + C reactive nanomaterials

    Manukyan, Khachatur V.; Lin, Ya-Cheng; Rouvimov, Sergei; McGinn, Paul J.; Mukasyan, Alexander S.


    is observed (from 95 kcal/mol to ˜56 kcal/mol). It is explained by the fact that solely solid-state reactions are responsible for the ignition phenomenon in the produced structural energetic materials, whereas the dissolution of carbon in a melt is responsible for the reaction in non-mechanically treated mixtures. Analysis of the milling-induced microstructures and reaction kinetics of the Ti/C composite particles suggests that a combination of several factors is responsible for enhancement of their reactivity, with the carbon amophization on the first stage of HEBM playing a key role through formation of layers that provide intimate high surface area contacts between the reagents.

  16. Interactive chemical reactivity exploration.

    Haag, Moritz P; Vaucher, Alain C; Bosson, Maël; Redon, Stéphane; Reiher, Markus


    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the samson programming environment. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Interactive Chemical Reactivity Exploration

    Haag, Moritz P; Bosson, Mael; Redon, Stephane; Reiher, Markus


    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force-feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the Samson programming environment.

  18. Experimental characterization of cement-bentonite interaction using core infiltration techniques and 4D computed tomography

    Dolder, F.; Mäder, U.; Jenni, A.; Schwendener, N.

    Deep geological storage of radioactive waste foresees cementitious materials as reinforcement of tunnels and as backfill. Bentonite is proposed to enclose spent fuel drums, and as drift seals. The emplacement of cementitious material next to clay material generates an enormous chemical gradient in pore water composition that drives diffusive solute transport. Laboratory studies and reactive transport modeling predict significant mineral alteration at and near interfaces, mainly resulting in a decrease of porosity in bentonite. The goal of this project is to characterize and quantify the cement/bentonite skin effects spatially and temporally in laboratory experiments. A newly developed mobile X-ray transparent core infiltration device was used, which allows performing X-ray computed tomography (CT) periodically without interrupting a running experiment. A pre-saturated cylindrical MX-80 bentonite sample (1920 kg/m3 average wet density) is subjected to a confining pressure as a constant total pressure boundary condition. The infiltration of a hyperalkaline (pH 13.4), artificial OPC (ordinary Portland cement) pore water into the bentonite plug alters the mineral assemblage over time as an advancing reaction front. The related changes in X-ray attenuation values are related to changes in phase densities, porosity and local bulk density and are tracked over time periodically by non-destructive CT scans. Mineral precipitation is observed in the inflow filter. Mineral alteration in the first millimeters of the bentonite sample is clearly detected and the reaction front is presently progressing with an average linear velocity that is 8 times slower than that for anions. The reaction zone is characterized by a higher X-ray attenuation compared to the signal of the pre-existing mineralogy. Chemical analysis of the outflow fluid showed initially elevated anion and cation concentrations compared to the infiltration fluid due to anion exclusion effects related to compaction of

  19. Hepatic failure caused by plasma cell infiltration in multiple Myeloma

    Fadi E Rahhal; Robert R Schade; Asha Nayak; Teresa A Coleman


    Although plasma cell infiltration is not rare in autopsy of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), it is very rarely detected in living patients. This is because MM rarely causes significant liver dysfunction that requires further evaluation. A 49-year-old man presented with acute renal failure and was diagnosed with kappa light chain MM stage ?B. Thalidomide and dexamethasone were initiated. The patient developed a continuous increase in bilirubin that led to severe cholestasis. A liver biopsy revealed plasma cell infiltration. He then rapidly progressed to liver failure and died. Treatment options are limited in MM with significant liver dysfunction.Despite new drug therapies in MM, those patients with rapidly progressive liver failure appear to have a dismal outcome.

  20. Real Time Electrical Monittoring of the Soil Infiltration

    Losinno, B.; Sainato, C. M.


    Infiltration into the soil plays a key role in the agricultural field. Standard methodologies to determine basic infiltration rate are altered by the presence of preferential flow pathways in the soil. At intensive livestock farms, previous studies showed that in areas with high stocking rates and consequently high levels of trampling, both the basic infiltration rate measured in the field as a field such as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) measured in laboratory had values significantly lower than those obtained in the areas without animals. Therefore, the evaluation of the infiltration process as an entry of pollutants into the profile is of importance in determining indicators of vulnerability to groundwater contamination. Geoelectrical methodology was used in combination with tracers to study the movement of water flow. A salty solution was used as tracer as it progresses along the profile. It is assumed that the water flow rate is similar to that of the applied solution. Geolelctric surveys can measure the apparent electrical resistivity inverse of the ECa, apparent electrical conductivity) in real time and thus determine the direction and speed of water flow through the profile. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize potential preferential flow pathways, comparing sectors where the high trampling by animals has generated high compaction, with areas without animals. We chose two sites: one located under high trampling at path between the pens of a feedlot placed at a lower position which receives runoff from feedlots. The background site was chosen at a pasture plot, with sporadic presence of animals. The soil is silty-loamy. In each of the sites sprinkler irrigation was performed in a square of 4 m x 4 m with saline solution of potassium bromide (concentration 5 g / l). After the irrigation, dipole - dipole survey was done with a line of stainless steel electrodes spaced 20 cm. while the flow is penetrating into the ground. Two dimension

  1. Numerical study on rainfall infiltration in rock-soil slop

    LIU; Yuewu; LIU; Qingquan; CHEN; Huixin; GONG; Xin; ZHANG


    A mathematical model for the rain infiltration in the rock-soil slop has been established and solved by using the finite element method. The unsteady water infiltrating process has been simulated to get water content both in the homogeneous and heterogeneous media. The simulated results show that the rock blocks in the rock-soil slop can cause the wetting front moving fast. If the rain intensity is increased, the saturated region will be formed quickly while other conditions are the same. If the rain intensity keeps a constant, it is possible to accelerate the generation of the saturated region by properly increasing the vertical filtration rate of the rock-soil slop. However, if the vertical filtration rate is so far greater than the rain intensity, it will be difficult to form the saturated region in the rock-soil slop. The numerical method was verified by comparing the calculation results with the field test data.

  2. Hemimegalencephaly with Facial Congenital Infiltrating Lipomatosis in a Child.

    Santana-Ramirez, Adrián; Farias-Serratos, Felipe; Sanchez-Corona, José; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Farias-Serratos, Nadia M


    We report an unusual case of hemimegalencephaly (HMG) associated with ipsilateral congenital-infiltrating lipomatosis of the face in a five-month-old boy. Hemimegalencephaly is a rare but unique malformation characterized by enlargement of all or parts of a cerebral hemisphere. The affected hemisphere may have focal or diffuse neuronal migration defects, with areas of polymicrogyria, pachygyria and heterotopia. Our aim was to investigate morphologic abnormalities occurring on the affected hemisphere by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), but some MRI findings were also noted outside of the affected hemicerebrum. There are a few case reports that have described various other abnormalities accompanying this condition, such as enlargement of ipsilateral brainstem, cerebellum and left lateral ventricle. MRI may be the most useful method demonstrating features of hemimegalencephaly with infiltrating lipomatosis of the face. However, studies using electroencephalogram (EEG) and brain single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) can show distinct variants of discharges and brain-perfusion anomalies.

  3. Model for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes prepared by infiltration

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang


    A 1-dimensional model of a cathode has been developed in order to understand and predict the performance of cathodes prepared by infiltration of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC) into porous backbones of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO). The model accounts for the mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of LSC......, ionic conductivity of CGO, gas transport in the porous cathode, and the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of percolated LSC. Geometrical variations are applied to reflect a changing microstructure of LSC under varying firing temperatures. Using microstructural parameters obtained from detailed...... parameter variations are presented and discussed with the aim of presenting specific guidelines for optimizing the microstructure of cathodes prepared by infiltration....

  4. Reducing non-point source pollution with enhancing infiltration

    MU Huan-zhen; ZHENG Tao; HUANG Yan-chu; ZHANG Chun-ping; LIU Chen


    The rainfall system was set up on a slope land, which was used with some materials to enhance soil infiltration. The results showed that it was effective to enhance the infiltration of rainwater in soil and reduce the pollutants of surface runoff. After the soil meliorated by the lignin polymer and zeolite, runoff was delayed about 10 min and reduced by 44.40%-50.00%, synchronously, the pollutant loads, such as total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand by ditromate (CODCr), total nitroger (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were reduced on averages by 44.58%, 37.80%, 51.62% and 44.11%, respectively. It is an available technique to control the pollution of non-point source from sources.

  5. Impact of climate variations on Managed Aquifer Recharge infiltration basins.

    Barquero, Felix; Stefan, Catalin


    KEYWORDS: Managed Aquifer Recharge, field scale infiltration unit, climatic conditions, numerical model Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique that is gaining more attention as a sustainable alternative for areas where water scarcity is increasing. Main concept relies on facilitating the vertical infiltration of a source of fresh water (river water, rainwater, reclaimed water, etc). The groundwater acts as storage of water for further use in the future, for example in times of water scarcity. In some MAR types the soil itself can be used even as a filter for the removal of specific organic and inorganic compounds. In order to promote the benefits of MAR in different zones of the globe with variable climate conditions, including the effects of climate change, a numerical model (HYDRUS 2D/3D) is being set up. Coupled with the model a field-scale rapid infiltration unit (4m x 5m x 1.5m) was constructed with the capacity to log different MAR key parameters in the soil (tension, water content, temperature and electrical conductivity) in space and time. These data will feed the model for its calibration using specific hydrogeological characteristics of the packing material and hydraulic characteristics of the infiltrated fluid. The unit is located in the city of Pirna (German), 200 m north from the Elbe River where the groundwater level varies seasonally between 6 and 9 m below the ground surface. Together with the field scale rapid infiltration unit, a set of multi-parametric sensors (measuring in time: water stage, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature) in six monitoring wells, located on the basin surroundings, were installed. The purpose of these sensors is to estimate, via tracer experiments, the time that the infiltrated water needed to reach the groundwater and the flow speed in which it travelled once it reached the saturated zone. Once calibrated, the model will be able to estimate the flow behaviour under variable climate conditions

  6. Influence of spontaneous vegetation in stormwater infiltration system clogging.

    Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Barraud, Sylvie; Bedell, Jean-Philippe


    The paper presents the role of spontaneous vegetation on the hydraulic performance of an infiltration basin. The objective of the research was more particularly to study this role of different types of spontaneous vegetation found in situ in an infiltration basin near Lyon. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of three areas covered by Phalaris arundinacea, Polygonum mite, Rumex crispus and similar non-vegetated zones was compared. Eight field campaigns were carried out from July 2010 to May 2011 in order to compare the performance of each type of vegetation and its evolution over time. The results suggest a positive impact of vegetation on hydraulic performance in particular in summer during the growth of the plants. The hydraulic conductivity in this period was twice to four times higher than in bare areas or in vegetated zones during the plant rest periods. Some species were also found more appropriate to limit clogging (Phalaris arundinacea) likely due to its specific structure and growth process.

  7. The Western Cultural Infiltration of Hollywood Movies in China



    With the development of society, Hol ywood movies become more and more popular among Chinese audience; it is undoubted that movie has become a cultural carrier that spreads different culture in the world. This paper aims at analyzing some typical features of Hol ywood Movies in China, and then focuses on discussing the positive effect and the negative influence embodied in Hol ywood Movies; final y, the author puts forward corresponding suggestions and countermeasures when we are faced with the cultural infiltration.

  8. Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Aral Ferihan


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary. Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic. Whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom, patients can present with headaches, ophthalmoplegia and bilateral hemianopsia. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy presented with headaches, right oculomotor nerve palsy and diabetes insipidus. As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery. Her prolactin was 102.4 ng/ml, whereas her gonadotropic hormone levels were low. A low level of urine osmolality after overnight water deprivation, along with normal plasma osmolality suggested diabetes insipidus. Histological examination revealed that the mass had been the infiltration of a high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving respiratory system epithelial cells. Paranasal sinus computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and abdomen were performed. Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the sellar area were planned, but the patient died and her family did not permit an autopsy. Conclusion Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. To plan the

  9. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Huseyin Toprak


    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  10. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with hemimegalencephaly.

    Alkan, O; Yildirim, T; Seyhan, T; Erbay, G; Erol, I


    Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF) is a rare disorder, causing unilateral facial asymmetry characterized by enlargement of the cheek or chin. Hemimegalencephaly is a unique malformation characterized by enlargement of a cerebral hemisphere. The association of CILF and hemimegalencephaly has rarely been reported. We present a case of unilateral facial swelling in a 1.5-year-old boy in whom magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed CILF associated with unilateral megalencephaly.

  11. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Paulista School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio Jose da [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatrics, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  12. On chemiluminescent emission from an infiltrated chiral sculptured thin film

    Jamaian, Siti S.; Mackay, Tom G.


    The theory describing the far-field emission from a dipole source embedded inside a chiral sculptured thin film (CSTF), based on a spectral Green function formalism, was further developed to allow for infiltration of the void regions of the CSTF by a fluid. In doing so, the extended Bruggeman homogenization formalism--which accommodates constituent particles that are small compared to wavelength but not vanishingly small--was used to estimate the relative permittivity parameters of the infilt...

  13. Integral coolant channels supply made by melt-out method

    Escher, W. J. D.


    Melt-out method of constructing strong, pressure-tight fluid coolant channels for chambers is accomplished by cementing pins to the surface and by depositing a melt-out material on the surface followed by two layers of epoxy-resin impregnated glass fibers. The structure is heated to melt out the low-melting alloy.

  14. Field Study of Infiltration Capacity Reduction of Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda


    Full Text Available Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop a new methodology to quantify this reduction and to identify the hypothetical differences in permeability between zones within the same car park bay due to the influence of static loads in the parked vehicles. With this aim, nine different zones were selected in order to check this hypothesis (four points under the wheels of a standard vehicle and five points between wheels. This article presents the infiltration capacity reduction results, using the LCS permeameter, of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete (9 bays and Porous Asphalt (9 bays surfaces in the University of Cantabria Campus parking area (Spain 5 years after their construction. Statistical analysis methodology was proposed for assessing the results. Significant differences were observed in permeability and reduction in infiltration capacity in the case of porous concrete surfaces, while no differences were found for porous asphalt depending on the measurement zone.

  15. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  16. Genomic Correlates of Immune-Cell Infiltrates in Colorectal Carcinoma

    Marios Giannakis


    Full Text Available Large-scale genomic characterization of tumors from prospective cohort studies may yield new insights into cancer pathogenesis. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 619 incident colorectal cancers (CRCs and integrated the results with tumor immunity, pathology, and survival data. We identified recurrently mutated genes in CRC, such as BCL9L, RBM10, CTCF, and KLF5, that were not previously appreciated in this disease. Furthermore, we investigated the genomic correlates of immune-cell infiltration and found that higher neoantigen load was positively associated with overall lymphocytic infiltration, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, memory T cells, and CRC-specific survival. The association with TILs was evident even within microsatellite-stable tumors. We also found positive selection of mutations in HLA genes and other components of the antigen-processing machinery in TIL-rich tumors. These results may inform immunotherapeutic approaches in CRC. More generally, this study demonstrates a framework for future integrative molecular epidemiology research in colorectal and other malignancies.

  17. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen


    . In order to answer this question a small trial was set up. VHSV and NaCl was added to cell culture medium with 10% foetal bovine serum, in order to mimic a “dirty” environment, to obtain from 1.9% to 20.9% NaCl and kept in the dark at 4°C. Samples were titrated after 5 min, 1 h and 20 h. No reduction......At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  18. Reducing chemical vapour infiltration time for ceramic matrix composites.

    Timms, L. A.; Westby, W.; Prentice, C.; Jaglin, D.; Shatwell, R. A.; Binner, J. G. P.


    Conventional routes to producing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require the use of high temperatures to sinter the individual ceramic particles of the matrix together. Sintering temperatures are typically much higher than the upper temperature limits of the fibres. This paper details preliminary work carried out on producing a CMC via chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), a process that involves lower processing temperatures, thus avoiding fibre degradation. The CVI process has been modified and supplemented in an attempt to reduce the CVI process time and to lower the cost of this typically expensive process. To this end microwave-enhanced CVI (MECVI) has been chosen, along with two alternative pre-infiltration steps: electrophoretic infiltration and vacuum bagging. The system under investigation is based on silicon carbide fibres within a silicon carbide matrix (SiCf/SiC). The results demonstrate that both approaches result in an enhanced initial density and a consequent significant reduction in the time required for the MECVI processing step. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as a non-destructive, density evaluation technique. Initial results indicate that the presence of the SiC powder in the pre-form changes the deposition profile during the MECVI process.

  19. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J


    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

  20. Catch crops impact on soil water infiltration in vineyards

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Ferro, Vito; Keesstra, Saskia; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; García Diaz, Andrés; di Prima, Simone


    Infiltration is the key component of the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999; Bagarello et al.,, 2014; Zema et al., 2016). Infiltration determines the partitioning of rainfall into runoff and subsurface flow (Cerdà, 1996; Bagarello et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2016). In the Mediterranean, agriculture resulted in the degradation of the soil structure, reduction of the organic matter and increase in the soil losses (Cerdà et al., 2009; Laudicina et al., 2015; Iovino et al., 2016; Willaarts et al., 2016). There is an urgent need to restore the agriculture soils to avoid floods, reduce the carbon emissions and avoid reservoir siltation (Aksakal et al., 2016; Ben Slimane et al., 2016; Yagüe et al., 2016). Catch Crops are widespread used due to their impact on the soil fertility (Mwango et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016 ; Nawaz et al., 2016). Catch crops also increase the amount of organic matter but little is known about the effect on soil infiltration. Two paired plots were selected in Les Alcusses (Moixent municipality) in Eastern Iberian Peninsula to compare the infiltration rates between a 8-years catch crop (Vicia sp) with a control (plough) soil. The measurements were carried out by means of ring infiltrometer in August 2014 and December 2014 under dry and wet conditions (Cerdà, 2001; Di Prima et al., 2016). The results show that the steady-state infiltration rates were 1.8 higher during the summer period, and that the catch crops did not increase the infiltration rates. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Aksakal, E. L., Sari, S., & Angin, I. (2016). Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 983-995. doi:10.1002/ldr.2350

  1. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate.

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa


    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of (3)H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine.

  2. Autoimmune pancreatitis characterized by predominant CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration

    She-Yu Li; Xiang-Yang Huang; Yong-Tao Chen; Yi Liu; Sha Zhao


    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of pancreatitis characterized by prominent lymphocyte infiltration and pancreatic fibrosis resulting in organ dysfunction.The pathogenesis and pathology of AIP remain unknown. A 64-year-old Chinese man presented with symptoms and signs of bile duct obstruction diffuse enlargement of the head of pancreas, elevated IgG levels, and negative autoimmune antibody responses. A pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed and a pancreatic tumor was suspected. However,periductal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis were found in the head of pancreas and nearby organs instead of tumor cells. Four months after surgery, the patient was readmitted because of reoccurrence of severe jaundice and sustained abdominal distension. Prednisone 30 mg/d was administered orally as an AIP was suspected. One and a half months later, the symptoms of the patient disappeared, and globulin, aminotransferase and bilirubin levels decreased significantly. Over a 9-mo follow-up period, the dose of prednisone was gradually decreased to 10 mg/d and the patient remained in good condition. We further demonstrated dominant CD3+/CD8+ populations, CD20+ cells and a few CD4+ cells in the pancreatic parenchyma, duodenum and gallbladder wall by immunohistochemical assay. This AIP case presented with significant CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration in the pancreas and extra-pancreatic lesions, indicating that this cell population may be more important in mediating AIP pathogenesis than previously known and that AIP might be a poorly defined autoimmune disease with heterogeneous pathogenesis.

  3. Fully coupled chemical thermodynamics and geodynamics simulations of melting beneath spreading plates

    Tirone, M.


    to the different viscous models that has being tested. (4) Formation of either chemically reactive porous channels or magma solitons is controlled by the rheological properties of the residual mantle. (5) Temperature in the region where melting is taking place follows a gradient which is a combined effect of adiabatic heating and latent heat of melting. (6) Melt composition does not change with the spreading rate, but changes with depth. The fate of the ridge is essentially dominated by the temperature of the uprising mantle. The versatility of the model is dictated by the available petrological and geophysical experimental data used to constrain the thermodynamic and physical properties of the mineral phases entering in the system.

  4. A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty

    Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte Viebæk;


    There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion...

  5. Geochemical reactivity of subsurface sediments as potential buffer to anthropogenic inputs: A strategy for regional characterization in the Netherlands

    Gaans, P.F.M. van; Griffioen, J.; Mol, G.; Klaver, G.


    Purpose: Sedimentary aquifers are prone to anthropogenic disturbance. Measures aimed at mitigation or adaptation require sound information on the reactivity of soil/sediments towards the infiltrating water, as this determines the chemical quality of the groundwater and receiving surface waters. Here

  6. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R. [Foothill Engineering, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)


    One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to evaluate the results for a 60.5 h ponded infiltration experiment done around a 24 m deep, 0.15 m diameter, cased borehole at Yucca Mountain, NV. Nine distinct morphological horizons in the soil profile has been identified; physical and hydraulic properties had been measured for each horizon; and a porosity profile at the borehole had been measured. During the infiltration experiment, 10 cm of water was ponded in a 3.5 m diameter infiltrometer around the borehole, the volume of water applied was measured, and water content profiles were measured with a neutron moisture meter. The infiltrometer applied 86.9 cm of water during the first 60.5 h of infiltration, but only 52.8 cm of additional water was measured in the borehole profiles. Assuming a linear relationship between cumulative infiltration (I) and the square root of time (t{sup 0.5}), an experimental sorptivity of 11.5 cm h{sup {minus}1} was estimated for the first 4.5 h of infiltration. An assumed washout zone around the borehole casing accounted for the discrepancy between the measured water content profiles and the applied water. A uniform property, 1-D model with an applied flux upper boundary described by the sorptivity confirmed the probable washout zone, and indicated that significant lateral flow into the dry soil around the infiltrometer could occur. A 2-D radial flow model with the same properties and upper boundary demonstrated that significant lateral flow occurred. The upper boundary in this model caused the upper portion of the profile to drain. This suggested using a saturated upper boundary to keep the upper portion of the profile saturated. When the saturated upper boundary was used, the permeability of the soil was decreased from the measured value of 3.28 E-11 m{sup 2} to 1.5E-12 m{sup 2} so that the simulated wetting front at a similar depth as the observed wetting front after 60.5 h.

  7. Comparative Study on Two Melting Simulation Methods: Melting Curve of Gold

    Liu, Zhong-Li; Sun, Jun-Sheng; Li, Rui; Zhang, Xiu-Lu; Cai, Ling-Cang


    Melting simulation methods are of crucial importance to determining melting temperature of materials efficiently. A high-efficiency melting simulation method saves much simulation time and computational resources. To compare the efficiency of our newly developed shock melting (SM) method with that of the well-established two-phase (TP) method, we calculate the high-pressure melting curve of Au using the two methods based on the optimally selected interatomic potentials. Although we only use 640 atoms to determine the melting temperature of Au in the SM method, the resulting melting curve accords very well with the results from the TP method using much more atoms. Thus, this shows that a much smaller system size in SM method can still achieve a fully converged melting curve compared with the TP method, implying the robustness and efficiency of the SM method. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 41574076 and the NSAF of China under Grant No. U1230201/A06, and the Young Core Teacher Scheme of Henan Province under Grant No. 2014GGJS-108

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    David Schwam


    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  9. Reactive Turing machines

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, B.; Tilburg, P.J.A. van


    We propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system. We show that every computable transition system with a bounded branching degree is simulated modulo diverge

  10. A Universal Reactive Machine

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.


    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  11. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian


    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  12. Clojure reactive programming

    Borges, Leonardo


    If you are a Clojure developer who is interested in using Reactive Programming to build asynchronous and concurrent applications, this book is for you. Knowledge of Clojure and Leiningen is required. Basic understanding of ClojureScript will be helpful for the web chapters, although it is not strictly necessary.

  13. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  14. Origin of impact melt rocks in the Bununu howardite

    Klein, L. C.; Hewins, R. H.


    The Bununu howardite is a polymict regolith breccia which contains impact melt that is largely restricted to a 1-cm thick intrusion containing residual glass. As in Malvern, the melt rock contains melt with meteoritic Ni-Co contents. The cooling rate, interpreted for forming glass from this composition, is a few tenths of a degree per minute. The intrusive melts rock, which is a feature unique to Bununu, may indicate that Bununu was consolidated at the time of impact melting.

  15. Melting of the Earth's inner core.

    Gubbins, David; Sreenivasan, Binod; Mound, Jon; Rost, Sebastian


    The Earth's magnetic field is generated by a dynamo in the liquid iron core, which convects in response to cooling of the overlying rocky mantle. The core freezes from the innermost surface outward, growing the solid inner core and releasing light elements that drive compositional convection. Mantle convection extracts heat from the core at a rate that has enormous lateral variations. Here we use geodynamo simulations to show that these variations are transferred to the inner-core boundary and can be large enough to cause heat to flow into the inner core. If this were to occur in the Earth, it would cause localized melting. Melting releases heavy liquid that could form the variable-composition layer suggested by an anomaly in seismic velocity in the 150 kilometres immediately above the inner-core boundary. This provides a very simple explanation of the existence of this layer, which otherwise requires additional assumptions such as locking of the inner core to the mantle, translation from its geopotential centre or convection with temperature equal to the solidus but with composition varying from the outer to the inner core. The predominantly narrow downwellings associated with freezing and broad upwellings associated with melting mean that the area of melting could be quite large despite the average dominance of freezing necessary to keep the dynamo going. Localized melting and freezing also provides a strong mechanism for creating seismic anomalies in the inner core itself, much stronger than the effects of variations in heat flow so far considered.



    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the crystallization and melting of nylon 610. For nylon 610 crystallized from the melt state (260℃), the overall rate of bulk crystallization can be described by a simple Avrami equation with Avrami exponent n≈2, independent of crystallization temperature. With the experimentally obtained Tm0 (235℃~255℃) of nylon 610, the fold surface free energy σe was determined to be 35~38 erg/cm2. The effects of annealing temperature and time on the melting of quenched nylon 610 were also investigated. For nylon 610 quenched at room temperature there is only one DSC endotherm peak DSC scans on annealed samples exhibited an endotherm peak at approximately 10℃ above the annealing temperature. The size and position of the endothermic peak is strongly related to annealing temperature and time. An additional third melting was observed when quenched nylon 610 was annealed at high temperature for a sufficiently long residence time. The existence of the third melting peak suggests that more than one kind of distribution of lamella thickness may occur when quenched nylon610 is annealed. The implications of these results in terms of crystal thickening mechanism were discussed.

  17. Polyether Based Thermoplastic Polyurethane Melt Blown Nonwovens

    Terezie Zapletalova


    Full Text Available A series of melt blown samples were produced from three hardness grades of ether based thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU. The fabrics were tested to investigate their structure-property relationship in a melt blown process. Solution viscosities of the web were only 20-26% of there original values indicating a large loss in polymer molecular weight during melt blowing. Fiber diameter distributions measured on melt blown samples were found comparable to those made with more conventional polymers. The fiber orientation distribution functions (ODF suggest slight fiber orientation in machine direction. Tensile and elongation properties depended on die-to-collector distance (DCD, polymer hardness and fiber ODF. A strong relationship between the tensile strength and die-to-collector distance was identified and attributed to reduced interfiber adhesion in the web with increasing DCD. The reduction in adhesion was attributed to greater extents of solidification before reaching the forming belt for longer DCDs. This paper is the first in a series relating the influence of the melt blowing process parameters on the polymer properties and the nonwoven fabric properties for block thermoplastic elastomers.

  18. Melt electrospinning of biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds

    Karchin, Ari; Simonovsky, Felix I.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Sanders, Joan E.


    Electrospinning from the melt, in contrast to from solution, is an attractive tissue engineering scaffold manufacturing process as it allows for the formation of small diameter fibers while eliminating potentially cytotoxic solvents. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on scaffold formation via melt electrospinning. This is likely due to the technical challenges related to the need for a well-controlled high temperature setup and the difficulty in developing an appropriate polymer. In this paper, a biodegradable and thermally stable polyurethane (PU) is described specifically for use in melt electrospinning. Polymer formulations of aliphatic PUs based on (CH2)4-content diisocyanates, polycaprolactone (PCL), 1,4-butanediamine and 1,4-butanediol (BD) were evaluated for utility in the melt electrospinning process. The final polymer formulation, a catalyst-purified PU based on 1,4-butane diisocyanate, PCL and BD in a 4/1/3 molar ratio with a weight-average molecular weight of about 40 kDa, yielded a nontoxic polymer that could be readily electrospun from the melt. Scaffolds electrospun from this polymer contained point bonds between fibers and mechanical properties analogous to many in vivo soft tissues. PMID:21640853

  19. Atypical lymphohistiocytic infiltrate (pseudolymphoma) of the oral cavity.

    Kabani, S; Cataldo, E; Folkerth, R; Delellis, R A; Bhan, I; Farren, P; Neville, T


    In the oral cavity, differentiation between reactive and neoplastic lymphoproliferative lesions can, at times, be very difficult. We report an unusual case in which immunohistochemical findings were necessary to determine that the lesion was reactive despite the original interpretation of malignant lymphoma. The relationship of this lesion to atypical histiocytic granuloma, angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia, and traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia is discussed and possible pathogenetic mechanisms are proposed. The value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of extranodal lymphoproliferative lesions is emphasized.

  20. Spinal cord injury caused by direct damage by local anaesthetic infiltration needle

    Absalom, AR; Martinelli, G; Scott, NB


    We describe a case of spinal cord injury caused by direct trauma from a local anaesthetic infiltration needle. During local anaesthetic infiltration before placement of an epidural catheter, the patient suddenly rolled over onto her back, causing the infiltrating needle to advance all the way to its

  1. Transcriptional Landscape of Human Tissue Lymphocytes Unveils Uniqueness of Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells

    De Simone, M.; Arrigoni, A.; Rossetti, G.; Gruarin, P.; Ranzani, V.; Politano, C.; Bonnal, R.J.; Provasi, E.; Sarnicola, M.L.; Panzeri, I.; Moro, M.; Crosti, M.; Mazzara, S.; Vaira, V.; Bosari, S.; Palleschi, A.; Santambrogio, L.; Bovo, G.; Zucchini, N.; Totis, M.; Gianotti, L.; Cesana, G.; Perego, R.A.; Maroni, N.; Pisani Ceretti, A.; Opocher, E.; De Francesco, R.; Geginat, J.; Stunnenberg, H.; Abrignani, S.; Pagani, M.


    Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) can suppress effector T cells specific for tumor antigens. Deeper molecular definitions of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes could thus offer therapeutic opportunities. Transcriptomes of T helper 1 (Th1), Th17, and Treg cells infiltrating colorectal or

  2. Transcriptional Landscape of Human Tissue Lymphocytes Unveils Uniqueness of Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells

    De Simone, M.; Arrigoni, A.; Rossetti, G.; Gruarin, P.; Ranzani, V.; Politano, C.; Bonnal, R.J.; Provasi, E.; Sarnicola, M.L.; Panzeri, I.; Moro, M.; Crosti, M.; Mazzara, S.; Vaira, V.; Bosari, S.; Palleschi, A.; Santambrogio, L.; Bovo, G.; Zucchini, N.; Totis, M.; Gianotti, L.; Cesana, G.; Perego, R.A.; Maroni, N.; Pisani Ceretti, A.; Opocher, E.; De Francesco, R.; Geginat, J.; Stunnenberg, H.; Abrignani, S.; Pagani, M.


    Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) can suppress effector T cells specific for tumor antigens. Deeper molecular definitions of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes could thus offer therapeutic opportunities. Transcriptomes of T helper 1 (Th1), Th17, and Treg cells infiltrating colorectal or

  3. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    Loizeau Sébastien


    Full Text Available Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration cycles in an experimental basin of 11869 m2 in a pumping field at Crepieux-Charmy (Lyon, France. A first experiment, conducted in summer 2011, showed a strong increase in infiltration rate; which was linked to a potential increase in ground water temperature or a potential dissolution of air entrapped at the beginning of the infiltration. A second experiment was conducted in summer, to inject cold water instead of warm water, and also revealed an increase in infiltration rate. This increase was linked to air dissolution in the soil. A final experiment was conducted in spring with no temperature contrast and no entrapped air (soil initially water-saturated, revealing a constant infiltration rate. Modeling and analysis of experiments revealed that air entrapment and cold water temperature in the soil could substantially reduce infiltration rate over the first infiltration cycles, with respective effects of similar magnitude. Clearly, both water temperature change and air entrapment must be considered for an accurate assessment of the infiltration rate in basins.

  4. connecting the dots between Greenland ice sheet surface melting and ice flow dynamics (Invited)

    Box, J. E.; Colgan, W. T.; Fettweis, X.; Phillips, T. P.; Stober, M.


    This presentation is of a 'unified theory' in glaciology that first identifies surface albedo as a key factor explaining total ice sheet mass balance and then surveys a mechanistic self-reinforcing interaction between melt water and ice flow dynamics. The theory is applied in a near-real time total Greenland mass balance retrieval based on surface albedo, a powerful integrator of the competing effects of accumulation and ablation. New snowfall reduces sunlight absorption and increases meltwater retention. Melting amplifies absorbed sunlight through thermal metamorphism and bare ice expansion in space and time. By ';following the melt'; we reveal mechanisms linking existing science into a unified theory. Increasing meltwater softens the ice sheet in three ways: 1.) sensible heating given the water temperature exceeds that of the ice sheet interior; 2.) Some infiltrating water refreezes, transferring latent heat to the ice; 3.) Friction from water turbulence heats the ice. It has been shown that for a point on the ice sheet, basal lubrication increases ice flow speed to a time when an efficient sub-glacial drainage network develops that reduces this effect. Yet, with an increasing melt duration the point where the ice sheet glides on a wet bed increases inland to a larger area. This effect draws down the ice surface elevation, contributing to the ';elevation feedback'. In a perpetual warming scenario, the elevation feedback ultimately leads to ice sheet loss reversible only through much slower ice sheet growth in an ice age environment. As the inland ice sheet accelerates, the horizontal extension pulls cracks and crevasses open, trapping more sunlight, amplifying the effect of melt accelerated ice. As the bare ice area increases, the direct sun-exposed crevassed and infiltration area increases further allowing the ice warming process to occur more broadly. Considering hydrofracture [a.k.a. hydrofracking]; surface meltwater fills cracks, attacking the ice integrity

  5. Peridotitic lithosphere metasomatised by volatile-bearing melts, and its association with intraplate alkaline HIMU-like magmatism

    Scott, James; Brenna, Marco; Crase, Jordan;


    .4 and eHf 0 +5 to +8) indistinguishable from the host low-silica basalts and, except for 207Pb/204Pb, overlapping with the HIMU mantle reservoir. Laser line scans across grain boundaries in the xenoliths show, however, that the host magma contribution is restricted to minor degrees of melt infiltration...... along grain boundaries during ascent, with the distinctive peridotite isotopic compositions having been imparted earlier by mantle metasomatism. Two mantle metasomatic styles are distinguished from pyroxene trace element concentrations (in particular, rare earth elements, Ti, Zr and Hf......) and are interpreted to be the result of reaction of peridotite with CO2- bearing magmas. The occurrence of two subtly chemically different but isotopically indistinguishable styles of metasomatism in rocks with the same equilibrium temperatures within the same mantle column may be due to separate volatile-rich melts...

  6. Influence of snowpack internal structure on snow metamorphism and melting intensity on Hansbreen, Svalbard

    Laska Michał


    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed study of melting processes conducted on Hansbreen – a tidewater glacier terminating in the Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen. The fieldwork was carried out from April to July 2010. The study included observations of meltwater distribution within snow profiles in different locations and determination of its penetration time to the glacier ice surface. In addition, the variability of the snow temperature and heat transfer within the snow cover were measured. The main objective concerns the impact of meltwater on the diversity of physical characteristics of the snow cover and its melting dynamics. The obtained results indicate a time delay between the beginning of the melting processes and meltwater reaching the ice surface. The time necessary for meltwater to percolate through the entire snowpack in both, the ablation zone and the equilibrium line zone amounted to c. 12 days, despite a much greater snow depth at the upper site. An elongated retention of meltwater in the lower part of the glacier was caused by a higher amount of icy layers (ice formations and melt-freeze crusts, resulting from winter thaws, which delayed water penetration. For this reason, a reconstruction of rain-on-snow events was carried out. Such results give new insight into the processes of the reactivation of the glacier drainage system and the release of freshwater into the sea after the winter period.

  7. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.


    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm/sup -1/ and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm/sup -1/, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  8. Analysis of Picosecond Pulsed Laser Melted Graphite

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Bloembergen, N.


    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm{sup -1} and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm{sup -1}, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nanosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  9. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf


    We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements and into the t......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find...

  10. A model for melting of confined DNA

    Werner, E; Ambjörnsson, T; Mehlig, B


    When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce, and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behaviour and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.

  11. Scleral melt following Retisert intravitreal fluocinolone implant

    Georgalas I


    Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas,1 Chrysanthi Koutsandrea,1 Dimitrios Papaconstantinou,1 Dimitrios Mpouritis,1 Petros Petrou1,2 1Ophthalmology Department, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant (Retisert has a high potency, a low solubility, and a very short duration of action in the systemic circulation, enabling the steroid pellet to be small and reducing the risk of systemic side effects. Scleral melt has not been reported as a possible complication of Retisert implant. The authors describe the occurrence of scleral melt 18 months after the implantation of fluocinolone acetonide implant in a 42-year-old Caucasian woman. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of this possible complication.Keywords: Retisert, scleral melt, complication, surgical management

  12. Prograde infiltration of Cl-rich fluid into the granulitic continental crust from a collision zone in East Antarctica (Perlebandet, Sør Rondane Mountains)

    Kawakami, Tetsuo; Higashino, Fumiko; Skrzypek, Etienne; Satish-Kumar, M.; Grantham, Geoffrey; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi


    Utilizing microstructures of Cl-bearing biotite in pelitic and felsic metamorphic rocks, the timing of Cl-rich fluid infiltration is correlated with the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphic rocks from Perlebandet, Sør Rondane Mountains (SRM), East Antarctica. Microstructural observation indicates that the stable Al2SiO5 polymorph changed from sillimanite to kyanite + andalusite + sillimanite, and P-T estimates from geothermobarometry point to a counterclockwise P-T path characteristic of the SW terrane of the SRM. In situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for U-Pb dating of zircon inclusions in garnet yielded ca. 580 Ma, likely representing the age of garnet-forming metamorphism at Perlebandet. Inclusion-host relationships among garnet, sillimanite, and Cl-rich biotite (Cl > 0.4 wt%) reveal that formation of Cl-rich biotite took place during prograde metamorphism in the sillimanite stability field. This process probably predated partial melting consuming biotite (Cl = 0.1-0.3 wt%). This was followed by retrograde, moderately Cl-bearing biotite (Cl = 0.1-0.3 wt%) replacing garnet. Similar timings of Cl-rich biotite formation in different samples, and similar f(H2O)/f(HCl) values of coexisting fluid estimated for each stage can be best explained by prograde Cl-rich fluid infiltration. Fluid-present partial melting at the onset of prograde metamorphism probably contributed to elevate the Cl concentration (and possibly salinity) of the fluid, and consumption of the fluid resulted in the progress of dehydration melting. The retrograde fluid was released from crystallizing Cl-bearing partial melts or derived externally. The prograde Cl-rich fluid infiltration in Perlebandet presumably took place at the uppermost part of the footwall of the collision boundary. Localized distribution of Cl-rich biotite and hornblende along large-scale shear zones and detachments in the SRM supports external

  13. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso


    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  14. How to identify garnet lherzolite melts and distinguish them from pyroxenite melts

    Grove, T. L.; Holbig, E.; Barr, J. A.; Till, C.; Krawczynski, M. J.


    Liquids form in equilibrium with garnet lherzolite sources when the Earth's mantle melts at depths of greater than ~ 60 km. We present a phase equilibrium investigation of Tibetan plateau olivine leucitites from 2.2 to 2.8 GPa and 1380 to 1480 °C. The resulting liquids were multiply saturated with spinel and garnet lherzolite assemblages (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel +/-garnet) under nominally anhydrous conditions. These SiO2-undersaturated liquids and published experimental data have been used to develop a new model that parameterizes the major element compositions of garnet lherzolite partial melts, allowing the prediction of melt compositions from depleted to metasomatically enriched peridotite. The model is calibrated over the pressure range of 1.9 to 6 GPa. The model also predicts the suprasolidus pressure and temperature of the spinel to garnet lherzolite phase transition for natural peridotite compositions. Combined with the recent parameterization of melting in the plagioclase- and spinel- lherzolite facies (Till et al., 2012, JGR, 117, B06206), the new model distinguishes between melts of garnet vs. spinel vs. plagioclase lherzolites, but can also be used to distinguish between melts of lherzolitic vs. pyroxenitic source regions, allowing source lithology to be uniquely identified. Pyroxenite melts fall into two compositionally distinct groups; an olivine-normative, SiO2-undersaturated group and quartz-normative, SiO2-oversaturated group. Melts of plagioclase, spinel, and garnet lherzolite plot between these two types of pyroxenitic melts in mineral normative composition space. When our model is applied to high-K lavas erupted in the Tibetan plateau, we find that these magmas are derived from both pyroxenite and lherzolite source regions. Distinctive enrichments in compatible trace elements (Ni, Cr) are observed in the lherzolite-derived magmas. Applied to Hawaiian basalts, our model suggests the transitional and weakly alkaline pre

  15. Comparison of infiltration capacity of permanent grassland and arable land during the 2011 growing season

    Tomáš Mašíček


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the rate of infiltration and cumulative infiltration in permanent grassland (PG and in arable land over the course of the 2011 growing season. The measurement of water infiltration into soil was conducted via ponded infiltration method based on the use of two concentric cylinders in field conditions. Kostiakov equations were applied to evaluate the ponded infiltration. Based on field measurements, the dependence of infiltration rate (v on time (t was determined and also the dependence of cumulative infiltration (i on time (t. In order to determine physical properties of soil and carry out a grain size analysis, intact soil samples of plough layer from the depths of 10, 20 and 30 cm were collected using Kopecký cylinders along with individual infiltration attempt in each measurement carried out on experimental plots. In order to assess the infiltration capacity of soil on experimental plots, four measurements were conducted, each with three repetitions. Infiltration attempts were held on May 12, June 28, August 24 and October 6, 2011. On average, a faster water infiltration into soil and a higher cumulative infiltration during the 2011 growing period were detected in arable land. The soil’s initial water content has proven to be the crucial factor affecting the rate of water infiltration into soil in case of PG; in case of arable land, it was bulk density indicating the soil’s compaction. The PG showed a more balanced course of infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration values during the growing season. Arable land is characterized by a greater dispersion of measured values between individual measurement dates.

  16. Chemical reactions in solvents and melts

    Charlot, G


    Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts discusses the use of organic and inorganic compounds as well as of melts as solvents. This book examines the applications in organic and inorganic chemistry as well as in electrochemistry. Organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general properties and the different types of reactions, including acid-base reactions, complex formation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. This text then describes the properties of inert and active solvents. Other chapters consider the proton transfer reactions in

  17. Thermal melting studies of ligand DNA interactions.

    Guédin, Aurore; Lacroix, Laurent; Mergny, Jean-Louis


    A simple thermal melting experiment may be used to demonstrate the stabilization of a given structure by a ligand (usually a small molecule, sometimes a peptide). Preparation of the sample is straightforward, and the experiment itself requires an inexpensive apparatus. Furthermore, reasonably low amounts of sample are required. A qualitative analysis of the data is simple: An increase in the melting temperature (T(m)) indicates preferential binding to the folded form as compared to the unfolded form. However, it is perilous to derive an affinity constant from an increase in T(m) as other factors play a role.

  18. Experimental observation of Minkowski spacetime melting

    Smolyaninov, Igor I


    Cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid in the presence of an external magnetic field forms a self-assembled hyperbolic metamaterial, which may be described as an effective 3D Minkowski spacetime for extraordinary photons. If the magnetic field is not strong enough, this effective Minkowski spacetime gradually melts under the influence of thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, it may restore itself if the magnetic field is increased back to its original value. Here we present direct microscopic visualization of such a Minkowski spacetime melting/crystallization, which is somewhat similar to hypothesized formation of the Minkowski spacetime in loop quantum cosmology.

  19. Influence of Grain Boundary on Melting

    王暾; 周富信; 刘曰武


    The temperature behaviour of an Al bicrystal with surfaces consisting of (110) and (111) crystals is simulated using molecular dynamics. The result shows that the (110) crystal losses its crystalline order at 820K, whereas the disorder does not propagate through the (111) crystal at this temperature. Instead, some disordered atoms are recrystallized into the (111) crystal and the initial grain boundary changes into a stable order-disorder interface. Thus, it was discovered that at a temperature near its melting point, the (111) crystal grew and obstructed the propagation of disorder. Such an obstruction is helpfulfor understanding melting.

  20. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf


    and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...

  1. 3He melting pressure temperature scale

    Halperin, W.P.; Archie, C.N.; Richardson, R.C.;


    The latent heat for solidification of **3He has been measured along the **3He melting curve between 23 and 1 mK. A temperature scale is established which depends only on measurements of heat, pressure and volume, and on the condition that the entropy of solid **3He approaches R ln 2 at high...... temperatures. The A feature of the melting curve which suggests itself as a thermometric fixed point is found to be T//A equals 2. 75 plus or minus 0. 11 mK. The agreement between this value and independent measurements of T//A, based on nuclear or electronic paramagnetism, Johnson noise thermometry...

  2. Friction Melt Bonding: An innovative process for aluminium-steel lap joints

    Simar Aude


    Full Text Available A new process based on Friction Stir Welding has been developed to weld dissimilar metals, particularly steel and aluminum, in a lap-joint configuration. In this Friction Melt Bonding process, frictional heat generated by the rotating and translating tool brings about local and transient melting (Figure 1. Welding then occurs owing to controlled reactivity and solidification at the interface between the two plates. With an adequate choice of the welding parameters, low alloy steel and aluminium alloys have been successfully welded. Characterisation of the microstructure was systematically performed to highlight the influence of the process parameters, particularly the temperature cycle, on the steel-Al interface. The thickness of the intermetallic layer varies from a couple of micrometers to tens of micrometers depending on the advancing speed of the tool (Fig. 2. The lap shear properties of the joints were also investigated and analysed based on the morphology of the intermetallic layer.

  3. Challenges in Laser Sintering of Melt-Processable Thermoset Imide Resin

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Gornet, Timothy; Koerner, Hilmar


    Polymer Laser Sintering (LS) is an additive manufacturing technique that builds 3D models layer by layer using a laser to selectively melt cross sections in powdered polymeric materials, following sequential slices of the CAD model. LS generally uses thermoplastic polymeric powders, such as polyamides (i.e. Nylon), and the resultant 3D objects are often weaker in their strength compared to traditionally processed materials, due to the lack of polymer inter-chain connection in the z-direction. The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility of printing a melt-processable RTM370 imide resin powder terminated with reactive phenylethynyl groups by LS, followed by a postcure in order to promote additional crosslinking to achieve higher temperature (250-300 C) capability. A preliminary study to build tensile specimens by LS and the corresponding DSC and rheology study of RTM370 during LS process is presented.

  4. High-temperature-pressure Polymerized Resin-infiltrated Ceramic Networks

    Nguyen, J.F.; Ruse, D.; Phan, A.C.; Sadoun, M.J.


    The aim of this study was to produce composite blocks (CB) for CAD/CAM applications by high-temperature-pressure (HT/HP) polymerization of resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic networks. The effect of network sintering and the absence/presence of initiator was investigated. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with those of Paradigm MZ100 (3M ESPE) blocks and HT/HP polymerized experimental “classic” CB, in which the filler had been incorporated by conventional mixing. The networks were made   from glass-ceramic powder (VITA Zahnfabrik) formed by slip casting and were either sintered or not. They were silanized, infiltrated by urethane dimethacrylate, with or without initiator, and polymerized under HT/HP (300 MPa, 180°C) to obtain resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic network (RIGCN) CB. HT/HP polymerized CB were also made from an experimental “classic” composite. Flexural strength (σf), fracture toughness (KIC), and Vickers hardness were determined and analyzed by one- or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffé multiple-means comparisons (α = 0.05), and Weibull statistics (for σf). Fractured surfaces were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of RIGCN CB were significantly higher. Sintering induced significant increases in σf and hardness, while the initiator significantly decreased hardness. The results suggested that RIGCN and HT/HP polymerization could be used to obtain CB with superior mechanical properties, suitable for CAD/CAM applications. PMID:24186559

  5. Parallel germline infiltration of a lentivirus in two Malagasy lemurs.

    Clément Gilbert


    Full Text Available Retroviruses normally infect the somatic cells of their host and are transmitted horizontally, i.e., in an exogenous way. Occasionally, however, some retroviruses can also infect and integrate into the genome of germ cells, which may allow for their vertical inheritance and fixation in a given species; a process known as endogenization. Lentiviruses, a group of mammalian retroviruses that includes HIV, are known to infect primates, ruminants, horses, and cats. Unlike many other retroviruses, these viruses have not been demonstrably successful at germline infiltration. Here, we report on the discovery of endogenous lentiviral insertions in seven species of Malagasy lemurs from two different genera -- Cheirogaleus and Microcebus. Combining molecular clock analyses and cross-species screening of orthologous insertions, we show that the presence of this endogenous lentivirus in six species of Microcebus is the result of one endogenization event that occurred about 4.2 million years ago. In addition, we demonstrate that this lentivirus independently infiltrated the germline of Cheirogaleus and that the two endogenization events occurred quasi-simultaneously. Using multiple proviral copies, we derive and characterize an apparently full length and intact consensus for this lentivirus. These results provide evidence that lentiviruses have repeatedly infiltrated the germline of prosimian species and that primates have been exposed to lentiviruses for a much longer time than what can be inferred based on sequence comparison of circulating lentiviruses. The study sets the stage for an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct an ancestral primate lentivirus and thereby advance our knowledge of host-virus interactions.

  6. Evolution of melt-vapor surface tension in silicic volcanic systems: Experiments with hydrous melts

    Mangan, M.; Sisson, T.


    We evaluate the melt-vapor surface tension (??) of natural, water-saturated dacite melt at 200 MPa, 950-1055??C, and 4.8-5.7 wt % H2O. We experimentally determine the critical supersaturation pressure for bubble nucleation as a function of dissolved water and then solve for ?? at those conditions using classical nucleation theory. The solutions obtained give dacite melt-vapor surface tensions that vary inversely with dissolved water from 0.042 (??0.003) J m-2 at 5.7 wt% H2O to 0.060 (??0.007) J m-2 at 5.2 wt% H2O to 0.073 (??0.003) J m-2 at 4.8 wt% H2O. Combining our dacite results with data from published hydrous haplogranite and high-silica rhyolite experiments reveals that melt-vapor surface tension also varies inversely with the concentration of mafic melt components (e.g., CaO, FeOtotal, MgO). We develop a thermodynamic context for these observations in which melt-vapor surface tension is represented by a balance of work terms controlled by melt structure. Overall, our results suggest that cooling, crystallization, and vapor exsolution cause systematic changes in ?? that should be considered in dynamic modeling of magmatic processes.

  7. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.


    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.


    Abreu Velez Ana Maria


    Full Text Available Background: The clinical and histological presentation of spongiotic dermatitis and its inflammatory infiltrates warrant further investigation. In this case documentation of a patient with cutaneous spongiotic reactivity, we aim to characterize antigen presenting cells, as well as the skin-specific cutaneous lymphocyte antigen population by multiple techniques. Case report: A 30 year old Caucasian female presented with a two week history of blistering and erosions around the vaginal, rectal and axillary areas. Material and Methods: We utilized hematoxylin and eosin histology, direct immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy methods to evaluate the immune reaction patterns of the cutaneous inflammatory cells. Results: In the primary histologic areas of spongiotic dermatitis, a mixed population of B and T lymphocytes was seen. Ki-67 antigen proliferative index staining was accentuated in these areas, correlating with the presence of large numbers of epidermal and dermal antigen presenting cells. Among the antigen presenting cell population, we detected strong positivities with CD1a, Factor XIIIa, myeloid/hystoid antigen, S100, HAM-56, and CD68. Interestingly, immunoglobulins G, D and M and Complement factors C1q and C3 were also strongly expressed in antigen presenting cell areas, including positivity within the spongiotic epidermis and around dermal vessels. Conclusions: We document a heterogeneous population of B and T lymphocytes and the presence of multiple classes of antigen presenting cells, immunoglobulins and complement in and surrounding histologically spongiotic areas; these findings further correlated with increased levels of expression of Ki-67.

  9. Central nervous system fibrosis is associated with fibrocyte-like infiltrates.

    Aldrich, Amy; Kielian, Tammy


    Fibrotic wall formation is essential for limiting pathogen dissemination during brain abscess development. However, little is known about the regulation of fibrotic processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS injury responses are associated with hypertrophy of resident astrocytes, a process termed reactive gliosis. Studies of fibrosis outside the CNS have identified two bone marrow-derived cell types, fibrocytes and alternatively activated M2 macrophages, as key mediators of fibrosis. The current study used bone marrow chimeras generated from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice to evaluate the appearance of these cell types and whether bone marrow-derived cells were capable of acquiring fibrotic characteristics during brain abscess development. Immunofluorescence staining revealed partial overlap between green fluorescent protein, α-smooth muscle actin, and procollagen, suggesting that a population of cells forming the brain abscess capsule originate from a bone marrow precursor. In addition, the influx of fibrocyte-like cells into brain abscesses immediately preceded the onset of fibrotic encapsulation. Fibrotic wall formation was also associated with increased numbers of alternatively activated M2 microglia and macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that bone marrow-derived infiltrates are capable of expressing fibrotic molecules during CNS inflammation.

  10. Giant cell arteritis mimicking infiltrative leptomeningeal disease of the optic nerves.

    Kornberg, Michael D; Ratchford, John N; Subramaniam, Rathan M; Probasco, John C


    A 67-year-old man presented with several days of progressive, painless left eye vision loss. He reported mild jaw claudication but denied headache, scalp tenderness or constitutional symptoms. Examination revealed palpable temporal arteries, blurring of the left optic disc, and 20/100 vision in the left eye with mild relative afferent pupillary defect. Inflammatory markers were sent, and methylprednisolone was initiated for presumptive giant cell arteritis (GCA). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was normal, however, and C reactive protein was only mildly elevated, prompting further investigation. Orbital MRI revealed nodular enhancement of the optic nerve sheaths bilaterally from optic nerve head to chiasm, raising concern for an infiltrative leptomeningeal process such as sarcoidosis or lymphoma. Methylprednisolone was temporarily stopped while a broad work up for inflammatory and neoplastic causes was pursued. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ultimately revealed hypermetabolism in the temporal, ophthalmic and occipital arteries suggesting GCA, which was confirmed by temporal artery biopsy. Steroids were restarted, and the patient's vision stabilised.

  11. Lithospheric Architecture, Heterogenities, Instabilities, Melting - insight form numerical modelling

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Hobbs, Bruce; Ord, Alison; Gessner, Klaus; Gerya, Taras V.


    The seismological structure of the Earth's lithosphere is identified to be strongly heterogeneous in terms of thermal and rheological structures. Lithospheric discontinuities (sharp changes in the thermal and/or compositional structure) are thought to be long lived and are mostly correlated with major tectonic boundaries that commonly have been reactivated and which subsequently are the foci of magma intrusion and major mineralization. Resent studies have shown that mantle metasomatism is also controlled by such boundaries. This paper explores the control that lithospheric heterogeneity exerts on the thermal and chemical evolution during deformation subsequent to the development of the heterogeneity. We explore the behaviour of the rheological heterogeneous lithosphere in a compressional regime. The occurrence of such variations may be caused for instance by amalgamation of micro-continents such as is thought to be characteristic of the Yilgarn, Western Australia or South Africa. Theses micro-continents, due to diverse histories may be characterised by various thermal and rheological structures. The models are simplistic but illustrate the basic principles. The code used in this study is based on a conservative finite-difference, multi-grid, marker in cell method. Devolatilisation reactions and melting can affect the physical properties of rocks and are incorporated in a self-consistent manner. We use a petrological-thermomechanical modelling approach with all rock properties including mechanical properties calculated in the Lagrangian scheme for rock markers at every time step based on Gibbs free energy minimization as a function of the local pressure, temperature and rock composition. The results illustrate that initial structural complexity is necessary for and has a dramatic effect on fault and development, the growth of deep basins, core complex formation, melting and devolatilisation within the lithosphere. The horizontal and vertical variation in plastic




    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration

  13. Genomic Analysis of Immune Cell Infiltrates Across 11 Tumor Types.

    Iglesia, Michael D; Parker, Joel S; Hoadley, Katherine A; Serody, Jonathan S; Perou, Charles M; Vincent, Benjamin G


    Immune infiltration of the tumor microenvironment has been associated with improved survival for some patients with solid tumors. The precise makeup and prognostic relevance of immune infiltrates across a broad spectrum of tumors remain unclear. Using mRNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) from 11 tumor types representing 3485 tumors, we evaluated lymphocyte and macrophage gene expression by tissue type and by genomic subtypes defined within and across tumor tissue of origin (Cox proportional hazards, Pearson correlation). We investigated clonal diversity of B-cell infiltrates through calculating B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire sequence diversity. All statistical tests were two-sided. High expression of T-cell and B-cell signatures predicted improved overall survival across many tumor types including breast, lung, and melanoma (breast CD8_T_Cells hazard ratio [HR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16 to 0.81, P = .01; lung adenocarcinoma B_Cell_60gene HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.87, P = 7.80E-04; melanoma LCK HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94, P = 6.75E-04). Macrophage signatures predicted worse survival in GBM, as did B-cell signatures in renal tumors (Glioblastoma Multiforme [GBM]: macrophages HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.17 to 2.26, P = .004; renal: B_Cell_60gene HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.32, P = .009). BCR diversity was associated with survival beyond gene segment expression in melanoma (HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.32 to 5.40, P = .02) and renal cell carcinoma (HR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.87, P = .006). These data support existing studies suggesting that in diverse tissue types, heterogeneous immune infiltrates are present and typically portend an improved prognosis. In some tumor types, BCR diversity was also associated with survival. Quantitative genomic signatures of immune cells warrant further testing as prognostic markers and potential biomarkers of response to cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    Geukes Foppen, M H; Donia, M; Svane, I M


    five years, treatment with immunotherapy (anti CTLA-4, anti PD-1, or the combination of these antibodies) has shown very promising results and was able to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is yet another, but highly...... promising, immunotherapeutic strategy for patients with metastatic melanoma. This review will discuss the development of TIL as a treatment option for melanoma, its mode of action and simplification over time, and the possibilities to expand this therapy to other types of cancer. Also, the future directions...

  15. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  16. Morphine reduces local cytokine expression and neutrophil infiltration after incision

    Li Xiangqi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and nociceptive sensitization are hallmarks of tissue surrounding surgical incisions. Recent studies demonstrate that several cytokines may participate in the enhancement of nociception near these wounds. Since opioids like morphine interact with neutrophils and other immunocytes, it is possible that morphine exerts some of its antinociceptive action after surgical incision by altering the vigor of the inflammatory response. On the other hand, keratinocytes also express opioid receptors and have the capacity to produce cytokines after injury. Our studies were directed towards determining if opioids alter cytokine production near incisions and to identify cell populations responsible for producing these cytokines. Results A murine incisional model was used to measure the effects of acute morphine administration (0.1–10 mg/kg on nociceptive thresholds, neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production in hind paw skin 30 minutes and 2 hours after incision. Incised hind paws displayed profound allodynia which was reduced by morphine (0.1–10 mg/kg in the 2 hours following incision. Skin samples harvested from these mice showed enhanced levels of 5 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC. Morphine reduced these incision-stimulated levels. Separate analyses measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO and using immunohistochemistry demonstrated that morphine dose-dependently reduced the infiltration of neutrophils into the peri-incisional tissue. The dose of morphine required for reduction of cytokine accumulation, however, was below that required for inhibition of peri-incisional neutrophil infiltration. Additional immunohistochemical studies revealed wound edge keratinocytes as being an important source of cytokines in the acute phase after incision. Conclusion Acute morphine administration of doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg reduces

  17. Cellular infiltrative angiolipoma of cheek in an infant

    Shahi, Ajoy Kumar; Ash, Hiralal; Chatterji, Kabita; Singh, Revati


    Lipomas represent about 1 to 5% of all neoplasms of the oral cavity most commonly presenting as painless, mobile, soft, round mass. Angiolipoma, spindle cell lipoma, mylelolipoma, chondrolipoma and myxolipoma are histological variants of lipoma arising from fat tissues. Although the angiolipoma is the most common tumour in the trunk and the extrimities of young people, it occurs infrequently in the head and neck region. In this article we present clinical, radiological and histological features of a cellular infiltrative angiolipoma exicised from the buccal mucosa of a 9 months old female child. PMID:25937736

  18. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik;


    was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...... (range 2-7) days. Interpretation Intraoperative high-volume infiltration with 0.2% ropivacaine with repeated intraarticular injections postoperatively may not give a clinically relevant analgesic effect in THA when combined with a multimodal oral analgesic regimen with gabapentin, celecoxib...

  19. [Infiltrating tubo-ovarian abscess in IUD-associated actinomycosis].

    Franz, H B; Strohmaier, W L; Geppert, M; Wechsel, H


    We report on a case of a 55-year old patient with a great adnexal tumour (10 x 5 x 8 cm), on the left side with infiltration of the bladder and the pelvis with recurring urinary retention in the kidney. Histological examination revealed an intrauterine device-associated actinomycosis. Following a 6-month high dose penicillin therapy, the abdominal hysterectomy with adnexectomy and partial resection of the bladder with new implantation of the ureter (Boari) was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful, the urogram normal.

  20. Recent Changes in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Onset, Freeze-Up, and Melt Season Length

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey


    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freeze-up and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freeze-up. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freeze-up for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (O.4 days/decade), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e. towards earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0day/decade for the Bering Sea to -7.3 days/decade for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend towards later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Laptev/East Siberian Seas observe the strongest trends with 7 days/decade. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 1O days/decade are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea the Laptev/East Siberian Seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Those trends are statistically significant a1 the 99% level.

  1. Recent Changes in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Onset, Freeze-Up, and Melt Season Length

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey


    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freeze-up and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freeze-up. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freeze-up for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (O.4 days/decade), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e. towards earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0day/decade for the Bering Sea to -7.3 days/decade for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend towards later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Laptev/East Siberian Seas observe the strongest trends with 7 days/decade. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 1O days/decade are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea the Laptev/East Siberian Seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Those trends are statistically significant a1 the 99% level.

  2. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen;


    depth of less than 1.5-3. m in sandy loam, 6.5-8. m in silt loam and 11-12. m in silty clay loam. A correction factor that can be applied for infiltration trench design when there is a shallow groundwater table is presented. The analyses showed that below a certain value of unsaturated depth...... the dissipation capacity of the mound/groundwater becomes the dominant process determining the infiltration capacity from infiltration trenches. In these cases it is essential to consider the local groundwater conditions in the infiltration trench design process.......Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...

  3. Electrical conductivity measurements on silicate melts using the loop technique

    Waff, H. S.


    A new method is described for measurement of the electrical conductivity of silicate melts under controlled oxygen partial pressure at temperatures to 1550 C. The melt samples are suspended as droplets on platinum-rhodium loops, minimizing iron loss from the melt due to alloying with platinum, and providing maximum surface exposure of the melt to the oxygen-buffering gas atmosphere. The latter provides extremely rapid equilibration of the melt with the imposed oxygen partial pressure. The loop technique involves a minimum of setup time and cost, provides reproducible results to within + or - 5% and is well suited to electrical conductivity studies on silicate melts containing redox cations.

  4. Electrodepositions on Tantalum in alkali halide melts

    Barner, Jens H. Von; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Christensen, Erik


    in a single 4 electron step. By electrolyses at a constant potential of - 1.4 V vs. Pt in a NaCl-KCl-NaF-Na2CO3 melt at 800 °C coherent carbon containing surface layers could be obtained on tantalum substrates, when a CO2 atmosphere was applied. Copyright © 2012 by The Electrochemical Society....

  5. Catastrophic failure of polymer melts during extension

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    Numerical flow modeling has been applied to study the break of monodisperse polymer melts during extension. These continuum mechanical based computations are within the ideas of the microstructural ’interchain pressure’ theory. Calculated breaks, a result of small initial sample imperfections, ag...

  6. Record Summer Melt in Greenland in 2010

    Tedesco, M.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; van de Berg, W.J.; Serreze, M.C.; Box, J.E.


    As Arctic temperatures increase, there is growing concern about the melting of the Greenland ice sheet, which reached a new record during the summer of 2010. Understanding the changing surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet requires appreciation of the close links among changes in surface a

  7. Intracavity DNA melting analysis with optofluidic lasers.

    Lee, Wonsuk; Fan, Xudong


    DNA melting analysis holds great promise for simple and fast DNA sequence discrimination. However, conventional fluorescence-based methods suffer from a small differential signal and demanding melting curve analysis, both of which make it difficult to distinguish the target DNA from the mismatched one. Herein, we propose and demonstrate a highly specific intracavity DNA melting analysis scheme utilizing an optofluidic laser. The laser optically amplifies the small yet intrinsic thermal dynamic difference between the target and the single-base-mismatched DNA, resulting in a differential signal that is orders of magnitude greater than with fluorescence-based methods. In particular, the existence of a phase transition between the stimulated laser emission and fluorescence (i.e., spontaneous emission) enables accurate determination of the DNA transition temperature difference. Furthermore, the high differential signal in the intracavity detection allows for scanning of the laser excitation at a fixed temperature to distinguish two DNA sequences, which provides another means for rapid DNA analysis. In this paper, we first theoretically investigate DNA melting analysis using an optofluidic laser and then experimentally explore this scheme with a high-quality optofluidic ring resonator. Distinction of two DNA sequences of up to 100 bases long is demonstrated. The intracavity detection developed here will lead to novel optofluidic devices that enable rapid and simple analysis of DNAs with very long sequences.

  8. Glass forming ability of calcium aluminosilicate melts

    Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of...

  9. 3He melting pressure temperature scale

    Halperin, W.P.; Archie, C.N.; Richardson, R.C.


    The latent heat for solidification of **3He has been measured along the **3He melting curve between 23 and 1 mK. A temperature scale is established which depends only on measurements of heat, pressure and volume, and on the condition that the entropy of solid **3He approaches R ln 2 at high...

  10. Analysis of an EBeam melting process

    Schunk, P. R.

    Electron-Beam (EBeam) melting furnaces are routinely used to minimize the occurrence of second-phase particles in the processing of segregation-sensitive alloys. As one part of the process, a circulating electron beam impinges the surface of a crucible melt pool to help control the shape of the solidification front below. By modeling melt pool hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and the shape of solidification boundaries, we plan to optimize the dwell pattern of the beam so that the material solidifies with a composition as spatially homogeneous as possible. Both two-and three-dimensional models are being pursued with FIDAP 5.02, the former serving as a test bed for various degrees of model sophistication. A heat flux distribution is specified on the top of the domain to simulate the EBeam dwell pattern. In two dimensions it is found that an inertially-driven recirculation in the melt pool interacts with a counter-rotating buoyancy-driven recirculation, and that both recirculation influence heavily the shape of the solidification front. In three dimensions the inertial cell decays quickly with distance from the position of the inlet stream. Because the Rayleigh number can exceed 10(exp 7) for materials and operating conditions of interest, stability and the possibility of spontaneous transients are explored.


    V. I. Timoshpolskij


    Full Text Available The nonlinear mathematical model of calculation of temperature fields in the process of metal melting is formulated and solved using the method of equivalent source taking into account nonlinearity of thermophysical properties of material and variable terms of heat exchange.

  12. Hot-Melt Adhesive Attachment System

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzell, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St. Clair, T. L.; Gleason, J. R.


    Adhesive system is as effective on Earth as in space. Fiberglass cloth mounted in head assembly. When adhesive reaches melt temperature head is attached to metals composites, ceramics, and other materials. Once attached, head cooled rapidly for quick stick. Used to tether tools or attach temporary scaffolding to walls, buildings, or beams.

  13. Using Melting Ice to Teach Radiometric Dating.

    Wise, Donald Underkofler


    Presented is an activity in which a mystery setting is used to motivate students to construct their own decay curves of melting ice used as an analogy to radioactive decay. Procedures, materials, apparatus, discussion topics, presentation, and thermodynamics are discussed. (CW)

  14. Spontaneous Breakup of Extended Monodisperse Polymer Melts

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Yu, Kaijia


    We apply continuum mechanical based, numerical modeling to study the dynamics of extended monodisperse polymer melts during the relaxation. The computations are within the ideas of the microstructural ‘‘interchain pressure’’ theory. The computations show a delayed necking resulting in a rupture...

  15. Surface-Induced Melting of Metal Nanoclusters

    YANG Quan-Wen; ZHU Ru-Zeng; WEI Jiu-An; WEN Yu-Hua


    @@ We investigate the size effect on melting of metal nanoclusters by molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamic theory based on Kofman's melt model. By the minimization of the free energy of metal nanoclusters with respect to the thickness of the surface liquid layer, it has been found that the nanoclusters of the same metal have the same premelting temperature Tpre = T0 - T0(γsv -γlv -γst)/(ρLξ) (T0 is the melting point of bulk metal, γsv the solid-vapour interfacial free energy, γlv the liquid-vapour interfacial free energy, γsl the solid-liquid interfacial free energy, ρ the density of metal, L the latent heat of bulk metal, and ξ the characteristic length of surface-interface interaction) to be independent of the size of nanoclusters, so that the characteristic length ξ ofa metal can be obtained easily by Tpre, which can be obtained by experiments or molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The premelting temperature Tpre of Cu is obtained by MD simulations, then ξ is obtained.The melting point Tcm is further predicted by free energy analysis and is in good agreement with the result of our MD simulations. We also predict the maximum premelting-liquid width of Cu nanoclusters with various sizes and the critical size, below which there is no premelting.

  16. Melting Metal on a Playing Card

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.


    Many of us are familiar with the demonstration of boiling water in a paper cup held over a candle or a Bunsen burner; the ignition temperature of paper is above the temperature of 100°C at which water boils under standard conditions. A more dramatic demonstration is melting tin held in a playing card. This illustration is from Tissandier's book on…

  17. Geometry and Combinatorics of Crystal Melting

    Yamazaki, Masahito


    We survey geometrical and especially combinatorial aspects of generalized Donaldson-Thomas invariants (also called BPS invariants) for toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, emphasizing the role of plane partitions and their generalizations in the recently proposed crystal melting model. We also comment on equivalence with a vicious walker model and the matrix model representation of the partition function.

  18. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Wong, Tony; Binning, Philip John


    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using a 19 year rainfall time series from Copenhagen as input. The annual and single event stormwater runoff reduction from infiltration trenches was determined for 9 different scenarios that covered different soil conditions and infiltration trench dimensions. Monte Carlo simulations were used in order to quantify the impact of parameter variability for each scenario. Statistical analysis of the continuous long term model simulations was used to quantify the hydrological performance of infiltration trenches. Results show that infiltration trenches are affected by groundwater when there is an unsaturated depth of less than 1.5-3 m in sandy loam, 6.5-8 m in silt loam and 11-12 m in silty clay loam. A correction factor that can be applied for infiltration trench design when there is a shallow groundwater table is presented. The analyses showed that below a certain value of unsaturated depth the dissipation capacity of the mound/groundwater becomes the dominant process determining the infiltration capacity from infiltration trenches. In these cases it is essential to consider the local groundwater conditions in the infiltration trench design process.

  19. Chlorine and fluorine partition coefficients and abundances in sub-arc mantle xenoliths (Kamchatka, Russia): Implications for melt generation and volatile recycling processes in subduction zones

    Bénard, A.; Koga, K. T.; Shimizu, N.; Kendrick, M. A.; Ionov, D. A.; Nebel, O.; Arculus, R. J.


    of intra-oceanic arc sources can have extremely low Cl/F (0.002-0.007) before being overprinted by subduction-derived components. (ii) Chlorine has a higher percolation distance in the mantle than F. Even for small fluid or melt volumes, Cl and F signatures of partial melting are overprinted by those of pervasive percolation, which increases Cl/F in percolating agents and bulk peridotites during chromatographic interaction and/or amphibole-forming metasomatic reactions. These processes ultimately control the bulk Cl and F compositions of the residual mantle lithosphere beneath arcs, and likely in other tectonic settings. (iii) Fluxed melting models suggest that Cl enrichment in arc picrite and boninite melts in this study, and in many arc melt inclusions reported in the literature, could be related to the infiltration of high Cl/F fluids derived from subducted serpentinite or altered crust in mantle wedge sources. However, these high Cl/F signatures should be re-evaluated with new models in light of the possible overprint of pervasive percolation effects in the mantle. The breakdown of amphibole (and/or mica) in the deep metasomatised mantle at higher pressure and temperature conditions than in the slab may explain, at least in part, the positive correlations between F abundances and Cl/F in primitive arc melt inclusions and slab depth.

  20. Glacier melt on the Third Pole

    Yao, T.


    With an average elevation above 4,000 metres, the Third Pole (TP) is a unique region with many high mountains centered on the Tibetan Plateau stretching over 5 million square kilometers. Major environmental changes are taking place on the TP characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes. These processes are critical for the well-being of the three billion people inhabiting the plateau and the surrounding regions. Glacier melt is one of the most significant environmental changes observed on the TP. Over the past decade, most of the glaciers on the TP have undergone considerable melt. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) has focused on the causes of the glacier melt by conducting large-scale ground in-situ observation and monitoring, analyzing satellite images and remote sensing data, and applying numerical modeling to environmental research on the TP. The studies of long-term record of water stable isotopes in precipitation and ice core throughout the TP have revealed different features with regions, thus proposing significant influence of atmospheric circulations on spatial precipitation pattern over the TP. Validation of the result by isotope-equipped general circulation models confirms the spatial distribution of different atmospheric circulation dominances on the TP, with northern part dominated by the westerlies, southern part by the summer monsoon, and central part featuring the influences of both circulation systems. Such unique circulation patterns also bear directly on the status of glaciers and lakes over the TP and its surroundings. The studies therefore found the largest glacier melt in the monsoon-dominated southern part, moderate melt in the central part of transition, and the least melt, or even slight advance in the westerlies-dominated northern TP. It is clear that some mountains on the TP are undergoing rapid melt and the consequence of without ice and snow will be very soon. The