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Sample records for reactive iron wall

  1. RCRA corrective measures using a permeable reactive iron wall US Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmithors, W.L.; Vardy, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A chromic acid release was discovered at a former electroplating shop at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Initial investigative activities indicated that chromic acid had migrated into the subsurface soils and groundwater. In addition, trichloroethylene (TCE) was also discovered in groundwater during subsequent investigations of the hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) plume. Corrective measures were required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The in-situ remediation method, proposed under RCRA Interim Measures to passively treat the groundwater contaminants, uses reactive zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate the chlorinated compounds and to mineralize the hexavalent chromium. A 47 meter by 0.6 meter subsurface permeable iron wall was installed downgradient of the source area to a depth of 7 meters using a direct trenching machine. The iron filings were placed in the ground as the soils were excavated from the subsurface. This is the first time that direct trenching was used to install reactive zero-valent iron filings. Over 250 metric tons of iron filings were used as the reactive material in the barrier wall. Installation of the iron filings took one full day. Extensive negotiations with regulatory agencies were required to use this technology under the current facility Hazardous Waste Management Permit. All waste soils generated during the excavation activities were contained and treated on site. Once contaminant concentrations were reduced the waste soils were used as fill material

  2. In-situ porous reactive wall for treatment of Cr(VI) and trichloroethylene in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowes, D.W.; Bennett, T.A.; Gillham, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable reactive wall for treating groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and trichloroethylene (TCE) was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, NC in June, 1996. The porous reactive wall is 46 m long, 0.6 m wide, and 7.3 m deep. The reactive wall was installed in less then six hours using a continuous trenching technique which simultaneously removed the aquifer material and replaced it with reactive material. The wall is composed of 100% elemental iron in the form of iron filings. Preliminary laboratory experiments, with site groundwater and reactive materials similar to the full-scale wall components, were successful in decreasing 11 mg/L Cr(VI) to < 0.01 mg/L and 1700 μg/L TCE to < 1 μg/L. Detailed field monitoring commenced in November, 1996. The monitoring program includes groundwater sampling upgradient, downgradient and within the reactive wall, and collection of core samples for mineralogical and microbiological study. Preliminary results from the monitoring program indicate that the wall successfully removes Cr(VI) from influent concentrations of 6 mg/L to < 0.01 mg/L, and TCE from 5600 μg/L to 5.3 μg/L within the wall

  3. Extending hydraulic lifetime of iron walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, P.D.; Sivavec, T.M.; Horney, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Iron walls for control of groundwaters contaminated with chlorinated solvents and reducible metals are becoming much more widely used and field studies of this technology have proven successful to date. However, there is still much uncertainty in predicting long-term performance. This work focuses on two factors affecting the lifetime of the iron media: plugging at the treatment zone entrance and precipitation in the bulk iron media. Plugging at the system entrance is due principally to dissolved oxygen in the incoming water and is an issue in aerobic aquifers or in ex-situ canister tests. In an in-situ treatment system, plugging would result in a dramatic reduction in flow through the iron zone. Designs to minimize plugging in field applications include use of larger iron particles and admixing sand of comparable size with the iron particles. Mineral precipitation in the bulk iron media can lead to porosity losses in the media, again reducing flow through the treatment zone. Decreases in reactivity of the iron media may also occur. The nature of the mineral precipitation and the factors that affect extent of mineral precipitation are examined by a variety of tools, including tracer tests, aqueous inorganic profiles, and surface analysis techniques. At short treatment times, measured porosity losses are due mainly to entrapment of a film of H 2 gas on the iron surfaces and also to Fe(OH) 2 precipitation. Over longer treatment times precipitation of Fe(OH) 2 and FeCO 3 in low carbonate waters and of Fe(OH) 2 , FeCO 3 and CaCO 3 in higher carbonate waters will begin to dominate porosity losses. Preliminary results of an on-going study to control pH in an iron zone by admixing iron sulfide with iron show no difference in extent of carbonate precipitation versus a 100% iron system, suggesting that these systems are supersaturated with respect to carbonate precipitation

  4. Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, F. Grant

    2002-01-01

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) play an important role in regulating the aqueous geochemistry of iron and other metals in anaerobic, non-sulfidogenic groundwater environments; however, little work has directly assessed the cell surface electrochemistry of DIRB, or the nature of the interfacial environment around individual cells. The electrochemical properties of particulate solids are often inferred from titrations in which net surface charge is determined, assuming electroneutrality, as the difference between known added amounts of acid and base and measured proton concentration. The resultant titration curve can then be fit to a speciation model for the system to determine pKa values and site densities of reactive surface sites. Moreover, with the development of non-contact electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), it is now possible to directly inspect and quantify charge development on surfaces. A combination of acid-base titrations and EFM are being used to assess the electrochemical surface properties of the groundwater DIRB, Shewanella putrefaciens. The pKa spectra and EFM data show together that a high degree of electrochemical heterogeneity exists within the cell wall and at the cell surface of S. putrefaciens. Recognition of variations in the nature and spatial distribution of reactive sites that contribute to charge development on these bacteria implies further that the cell surface of these Fe(III)-reducing bacteria functions as a highly differentiated interfacial system capable of supporting multiple intermolecular interactions with both solutes and solids. These include surface complexation reactions involving dissolved metals, as well as adherence to mineral substrates such as hydrous ferric oxide through longer-range electrostatic interactions, and surface precipitation of secondary reduced-iron minerals

  5. Review of Abiotic Degradation of Chlorinated Solvents by Reactive Iron Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiotic degradation of chlorinated solvents by reactive iron minerals such as iron sulfides, magnetite, green rust, and other Fe(II)-containing minerals has been observed in both laboratory and field conditions. These reactive iron minerals typically form under iron and sulfate ...

  6. A full-scale porous reactive wall for prevention of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, S.G.; Blowes, D.W.; Ptacek, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The generation and release of acidic drainage containing high concentrations of dissolved metals from decommissioned mine wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. A potential solution to many acid drainage problems is the installation of permeable reactive walls into aquifers affected by drainage water derived from mine waste materials. A permeable reactive wall installed into an aquifer impacted by low-quality mine drainage waters was installed in August 1995 at the Nickel Rim mine site near Sudbury, Ontario. The reactive mixture, containing organic matter, was designed to promote bacterially mediated sulfate reduction and subsequent metal sulfide precipitation. The reactive wall is installed to an average depth of 12 feet (3.6 m) and is 49 feet (15 m) long perpendicular to ground water flow. The wall thickness (flow path length) is 13 feet (4 m). Initial results, collected nine months after installation, indicate that sulfate reduction and metal sulfide precipitation is occurring. The reactive wall has effectively removed the capacity of the ground water to generate acidity on discharge to the surface. Calculations based on comparison to previously run laboratory column experiments indicate that the reactive wall has potential to remain effective for at least 15 years

  7. Reactivity of Uranium and Ferrous Iron with Natural Iron Oxyhydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandy D; Cismasu, A Cristina; Williams, Kenneth H; Peyton, Brent M; Nico, Peter S

    2015-09-01

    Determining key reaction pathways involving uranium and iron oxyhydroxides under oxic and anoxic conditions is essential for understanding uranium mobility as well as other iron oxyhydroxide mediated processes, particularly near redox boundaries where redox conditions change rapidly in time and space. Here we examine the reactivity of a ferrihydrite-rich sediment from a surface seep adjacent to a redox boundary at the Rifle, Colorado field site. Iron(II)-sediment incubation experiments indicate that the natural ferrihydrite fraction of the sediment is not susceptible to reductive transformation under conditions that trigger significant mineralogical transformations of synthetic ferrihydrite. No measurable Fe(II)-promoted transformation was observed when the Rifle sediment was exposed to 30 mM Fe(II) for up to 2 weeks. Incubation of the Rifle sediment with 3 mM Fe(II) and 0.2 mM U(VI) for 15 days shows no measurable incorporation of U(VI) into the mineral structure or reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). Results indicate a significantly decreased reactivity of naturally occurring Fe oxyhydroxides as compared to synthetic minerals, likely due to the association of impurities (e.g., Si, organic matter), with implications for the mobility and bioavailability of uranium and other associated species in field environments.

  8. Transformation of Reactive Iron Minerals in a Permeable Reactive Barrier (Biowall) Used to Treat TCE in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Iron and sulfur reducing conditions are generally created in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) systems constructed for groundwater treatment, which usually leads to formation of iron sulfide phases. Iron sulfides have been shown to play an important role in degrading ch...

  9. Accessible reactive surface area and abiotic redox reactivity of iron oxyhydroxides in acidic brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlau, Jennifer H.; Toner, Brandy M.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in low pH and high ionic strength solutions was quantified to assess abiotic contributions to oxidation-reduction chemistry in acidic brine environments, such as mine groundwater seepage, lakes in Western Australia, and acid mine drainage settings, which are of global interest for their environmental impacts and unique geomicrobiology. Factors expected to influence accessible and reactive surface area, including Fe(II) adsorption and aggregate size, were measured as a function of pH and CaCl2 concentration and related to the kinetics of redox reactions in aqueous suspensions of synthetic goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), and ferrihydrite (Fe10O14(OH)2) nanoparticles. Aqueous conditions and iron oxyhydroxides were chosen based on characterization of natural iron-rich mine microbial mats located in Soudan Underground Mine State Park, Minnesota, USA. Quinone species were used as redox sensors because they are well-defined probes and are present in natural organic matter. Fe(II) adsorption to the iron oxyhydroxide mineral surfaces from aqueous solution was measurable only at pH values above 4 and either decreased or was not affected by CaCl2 concentration. Concentrations at or above 0.020 M CaCl2 in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) induced particle aggregation. Assessment of Fe(II) adsorption and particle aggregation in acidic brine suggested that accessible reactive surface area may be limited in acidic brines. This was supported by observations of decreasing benzoquinone reduction rate by adsorbed Fe(II) at high CaCl2 concentration. In contrast, the hydroquinone oxidation rate increased at high CaCl2 concentrations, which may be due to suppressed adsorption of Fe(II) generated by the reaction. Results suggest that iron geochemical cycling in acidic brine environments will be substantially different than for iron oxyhydroxides in low-saline waters with circumneutral pH. These findings have implications for acidic

  10. Reactive oxygen species-related activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haohao; Yin, Jun-Jie; Wamer, Wayne G; Zeng, Mingyong; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-03-01

    Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase), and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Numerical modelling of solidification of thin walled hypereutectic ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Hattel, Jesper; Tiedje, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulation of solidification of ductile cast iron is normally based on a model where graphite nodules are surrounded by an austenite shell. The two phases are then growing as two concentric spheres governed by diffusion of carbon through the austenite shell. Experiments have however shown...... simulation of thin-walled ductile iron castings. Simulations have been performed with a 1-D numerical solidi¬fication model that includes the precipitation of non-eutectic austenite during the eutectic stage. Results from the simulations have been compared with experimental castings with wall thick...

  12. The Shrinkage Cracking Behavior in Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Al-Mashhadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reduced scale wall models were used (they are believed to resemble as much as possible the field conditions to study the shrinkage behavior of reactive powder concrete (RPC base restrained walls. Six base restrained RPC walls were casted in different length/height ratios of two ratios of steel fiber by volume in Summer. These walls were restrained by reinforced concrete bases to provide the continuous base restraint to the walls. The mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete investigated were; compressive strength between (75.3 – 140.1 MPa, splitting tensile strength between (5.7 – 13.9 MPa, flexural tensile strength (7.7 – 24.5 MPa, and static modulus of elasticity (32.7 – 47.1GPa. Based on the observations of this work, it was found that the cracks did not develop in the reduced scale of the reactive powder concrete (RPC walls restrained from movement at their bases for different L/H ratios (2, 5, and 10 and for two ratio of steel fiber (1% & 2% during 90 days period of drying conditions. Moreover, the shrinkage values increase toward the edges. Based on the results of this work, the increase in the maximum shrinkage values of walls with 1% steel fiber were (29%, 28%, 28% of the maximum shrinkage values of walls with 2% steel fiber of length/height ratios of (2, 5, and 10 respectively. The experimental observation in beam specimens showed that the free shrinkage, tensile strain capacity and elastic tensile strain capacity (at date of cracking of beams with 1% steel fiber were higher than the beams with 2% steel fiber by about (24%, (45% and (42% respectively

  13. Reactive oxygen species and associated reactivity of peroxymonosulfate activated by soluble iron species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard J.; Yu, Miao; Teel, Amy L.

    2017-10-01

    The activation of peroxymonosulfate by iron (II), iron (III), and iron (III)-EDTA for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) was compared using nitrobenzene as a hydroxyl radical probe, anisole as a hydroxyl radical + sulfate radical probe, and hexachloroethane as a reductant + nucleophile probe. In addition, activated peroxymonosulfate was investigated for the treatment of the model groundwater contaminants perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). The relative activities of hydroxyl radical and sulfate radical in the degradation of the probe compounds and PCE and TCE were isolated using the radical scavengers tert-butanol and isopropanol. Iron (II), iron (III), and iron (III)-EDTA effectively activated peroxymonosulfate to generate hydroxyl radical and sulfate radical, but only a minimal flux of reductants or nucleophiles. Iron (III)-EDTA was a more effective activator than iron (II) and iron (III), and also provided a non-hydroxyl radical, non-sulfate radical degradation pathway. The contribution of sulfate radical relative to hydroxyl radical followed the order of anisole > > TCE > PCE > > nitrobenzene; i.e., sulfate radical was less dominant in the oxidation of more oxidized target compounds. Sulfate radical is often assumed to be the primary oxidant in activated peroxymonosulfate and persulfate systems, but the results of this research demonstrate that the reactivity of sulfate radical with the target compound must be considered before drawing such a conclusion.

  14. Reactive oxygen species and associated reactivity of peroxymonosulfate activated by soluble iron species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard J; Yu, Miao; Teel, Amy L

    2017-10-01

    The activation of peroxymonosulfate by iron (II), iron (III), and iron (III)-EDTA for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) was compared using nitrobenzene as a hydroxyl radical probe, anisole as a hydroxyl radical+sulfate radical probe, and hexachloroethane as a reductant+nucleophile probe. In addition, activated peroxymonosulfate was investigated for the treatment of the model groundwater contaminants perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). The relative activities of hydroxyl radical and sulfate radical in the degradation of the probe compounds and PCE and TCE were isolated using the radical scavengers tert-butanol and isopropanol. Iron (II), iron (III), and iron (III)-EDTA effectively activated peroxymonosulfate to generate hydroxyl radical and sulfate radical, but only a minimal flux of reductants or nucleophiles. Iron (III)-EDTA was a more effective activator than iron (II) and iron (III), and also provided a non-hydroxyl radical, non-sulfate radical degradation pathway. The contribution of sulfate radical relative to hydroxyl radical followed the order of anisole>TCE>PCE >nitrobenzene; i.e., sulfate radical was less dominant in the oxidation of more oxidized target compounds. Sulfate radical is often assumed to be the primary oxidant in activated peroxymonosulfate and persulfate systems, but the results of this research demonstrate that the reactivity of sulfate radical with the target compound must be considered before drawing such a conclusion. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Chemical environment of iron atoms in iron oxynitride films synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafoute, M.; Petitjean, C.; Rousselot, C.; Pierson, J.F.; Greneche, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    An iron oxynitride film was deposited on silicon and glass substrates by magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N 2 -O 2 reactive mixture. Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry was used to determine the film composition (Fe 1.06 O 0.35 N 0.65 ). X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of a face-centred cubic (fcc) structure with a lattice parameter close to that of γ'''-FeN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the occurrence of Fe-N and Fe-O bonds in the film. The local environment of iron atoms studied by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectrometry at both 300 and 77 K gives clear evidence that the Fe 1.06 O 0.35 N 0.65 is not a mixture of iron oxide and iron nitride phases. Despite a small amount of an iron nitride phase, the main sample consists of an iron oxynitride phase with an NaCl-type structure where oxygen atoms partially substitute for nitrogen atoms, thus indicating the formation of a iron oxynitride with an fcc structure

  16. Permeable treatment wall design and cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manz, C.; Quinn, K.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable treatment wall utilizing the funnel and gate technology has been chosen as the final remedial solution for one industrial site, and is being considered at other contaminated sites, such as a closed municipal landfill. Reactive iron gates will be utilized for treatment of chlorinated VOCs identified in the groundwater. Alternatives for the final remedial solution at each site were evaluated to achieve site closure in the most cost effective manner. This paper presents the remedial alternatives and cost analyses for each site. Several options are available at most sites for the design of a permeable treatment wall. Our analysis demonstrates that the major cost factor's for this technology are the design concept, length, thickness, location and construction methods for the reactive wall. Minimizing the amount of iron by placement in the most effective area and construction by the lowest cost method is critical to achieving a low cost alternative. These costs dictate the design of a permeable treatment wall, including selection of a variety of alternatives (e.g., a continuous wall versus a funnel and gate system, fully penetrating gates versus partially penetrating gates, etc.). Selection of the appropriate construction methods and materials for the site can reduce the overall cost of the wall

  17. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haibing [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Wei, Hui [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Ma, Guojie [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Antunes, Mauricio S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Vogt, Stefan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Cox, Joseph [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Zhang, Xiao [Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Liu, Xiping [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Bu, Lintao [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Gleber, S. Charlotte [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Carpita, Nicholas C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Makowski, Lee [Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Himmel, Michael E. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; McCann, Maureen C. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Murphy, Angus S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Peer, Wendy A. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA

    2016-04-07

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  18. Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers: A Review of Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, NE

    2001-01-01

    This report briefly reviews issues regarding the implementation of the zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology at sites managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Initially, the PRB technology, using zero-valent iron for the reactive media, was received with great enthusiasm, and DOE invested millions of dollars testing and implementing PRBs. Recently, a negative perception of the technology has been building. This perception is based on the failure of some deployments to satisfy goals for treatment and operating expenses. The purpose of this report, therefore, is to suggest reasons for the problems that have been encountered and to recommend whether DOE should invest in additional research and deployments. The principal conclusion of this review is that the most significant problems have been the result of insufficient characterization, which resulted in poor engineering implementation. Although there are legitimate concerns regarding the longevity of the reactive media, the ability of zero-valent iron to reduce certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and to immobilize certain metals and radionuclides is well documented. The primary problem encountered at some DOE full-scale deployments has been an inadequate assessment of site hydrology, which resulted in misapplication of the technology. The result is PRBs with higher than expected flow velocities and/or incomplete plume capture

  19. Numerical modelling of thin-walled hypereutectic ductile cast iron parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2006-01-01

    Solidification of hypereutectic thin-walled ductile cast iron has been modelled in one dimension taking into account the precipitation of off-eutectic austenite dendrites during solidification. The simulations have been compared with casting experiments on plate geometries with plate thicknesses...

  20. Removal of chromate in a permeable reactive barrier using zero-valent iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Locht, T

    2002-01-01

    Chromate is a commonly found groundwater contaminant. Permeable reactive barriers containing zero-valent iron as iron filings are able to remove the chromate by a combined reduction/precipitation reaction. However, due to the passivation of the reduction capability of the iron surfaces by the pre......). Mixing in sand had no significant enhancing effect on the removal capacity, in contrast to a pH adjustment of the groundwater to pH 4, which significantly increased the removal capacity....

  1. Manufacturing of thin walled near net shape iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per Leif

    2003-01-01

    The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed...

  2. A contribution to the study of the structure, reactivity and bioinorganic chemistry of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The research work on inorganic and biological chemistry of iron developed at the University of Sao Paulo (SP, Brazil) is reviewed. Considerations are made about: π interactions, electronic structure and spectroscopy of cyanoferrates; solvation studies and kinetics of substitution reactions involving iron complexes; reactivity of coordinating ligands and iron interactions with biomolecules. (C.L.B.) [pt

  3. Graphite nodule count and size distribution in thin-walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count as these ar......Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count...... as these are inclusions and micro porosities that do not influence the solidification morphology. If there are many small graphite nodules as in thin walled castings only 3D nodule count calculated by FDM will give reliable results. 2D nodule count and 3D nodule count calculated by simple equations will give too low...

  4. Redox-active media for permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivavec, T.M.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.; Baghel, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, three classes of redox-active media are described and evaluated in terms of their long-term effectiveness in treating TCE-contaminated groundwater in permeable reactive zones. Zero-valent iron, in the form of recycled cast iron filings, the first class, has received considerable attention as a reactive media and has been used in about a dozen pilot- and full-scale subsurface wall installations. Criteria used in selecting commercial sources of granular iron, will be discussed. Two other classes of redox-active media that have not yet seen wide use in pilot- or full-scale installations will also be described: Fe(II) minerals and bimetallic systems. Fe(II) minerals, including magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrous sulfide (troilite, FeS), are redox-active and afford TCE reduction rates and product distributions that suggest that they react via a reductive mechanism similar to that which operates in the FeO system. Fe(II) species within the passive oxide layer coating the iron metal may act as electron transfer mediators, with FeO serving as the bulk reductant. Bimetallic systems, the third class of redox-active media, are commonly prepared by plating a second metal onto zero-valent iron (e.g., Ni/Fe and Pd/Fe) and have been shown to accelerate solvent degradation rates relative to untreated iron metal. The long-term effectiveness of this approach, however, has not yet been determined in groundwater treatability tests. The results of a Ni-plated iron column study using site groundwater indicate that a change in reduction mechanism (to catalytic dehydrohalogenation/hydrogenation) accounts for the observed rate enhancement. A significant loss in media reactivity was observed over time, attributable to Ni catalyst deactivation or poisoning. Zero-valent iron systems have not shown similar losses in reactivity in long-term laboratory, pilot or field investigations

  5. Biogeochemical reactive transport of carbon, nitrogen and iron in the hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Newcomer, M. E.; Arora, B.; Spycher, N.; Hammond, G. E.; Moulton, J. D.; Fox, P. M.; Nico, P. S.; Williams, K. H.; Dafflon, B.; Carroll, R. W. H.

    2017-12-01

    To understand how biogeochemical processes in the hyporheic zone influence carbon and nitrogen cycling as well as stream biogeochemistry, we developed a biotic and abiotic reaction network and integrated it into a reactive transport simulator - PFLOTRAN. Three-dimensional reactive flow and transport simulations were performed to describe the hyporheic exchange of fluxes from and within an intra-meander region encompassing two meanders of East River in the East Taylor watershed, Colorado. The objectives of this study were to quantify (1) the effect of transience on the export of carbon, nitrogen, and iron; and (2) the biogeochemical transformation of nitrogen and carbon species as a function of the residence time. The model was able to capture reasonably well the observed trends of nitrate and dissolved oxygen values that decreased as well as iron (Fe (II)) values that increased along the meander centerline away from the stream. Hyporheic flow paths create lateral redox zonation within intra-meander regions, which considerably impact nitrogen export into the stream system. Simulation results further demonstrated that low water conditions lead to higher levels of dissolved iron in groundwater, which (Fe (II)> 80%) is exported to the stream on the downstream side during high water conditions. An important conclusion from this study is that reactive transport models representing spatial and temporal heterogeneities are required to identify important factors that contribute to the redox gradients at riverine scales.

  6. Method of fabricating thin-walled articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for fabricating thin-walled high-density structures oftungsten-nickel-iron alloys. A powdered blend of the selected alloy constituents is plasma sprayed onto a mandrel having the desired article configuration. The sprayed deposit is removed from the mandrel and subjected to liquid phase sintering to provide the alloyed structure. The formation of the thin-walled structure by plasma spraying significantly reduces shrinkage, and cracking while increasing physical properties of the structure over that obtainable by employing previously known powder metallurgical procedures.

  7. Nucleation and solidification of thin walled ductile iron - Experiments and numerical simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of solidification of thin walled ductile cast iron has been performed based on experiments and numerical simulation. The experiments were based on temperature and microstructure examination. Results of the experiments have been compared with a 1-D numerical solidification model...

  8. Chemistry of Iron N -heterocyclic carbene complexes: Syntheses, structures, reactivities, and catalytic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Riener, Korbinian

    2014-05-28

    Iron is the most abundant transition metal in Earth\\'s crust. It is relatively inexpensive, not very toxic, and environmentally benign. Undoubtedly, due to the involvement in a multitude of biological processes, which heavily rely on the rich functionalities of iron-containing enzymes, iron is one of the most important elements in nature. Additionally, three-coordinate iron complexes have been reported during the past several years. In this review, the mentioned iron NHC complexes are categorized by their main structure and reactivity attributes. Thus, monocarbene and bis-monocarbene complexes are presented first. This class is subdivided into carbonyl, nitrosyl, and halide compounds followed by a brief section on other, more unconventional iron NHC motifs. Subsequently, donor-substituted complexes bearing bi-, tri-, tetra-, or even pentadentate ligands and further pincer as well as scorpionato motifs are described.

  9. Temperature measurement during solidification of thin wall ductile cast iron. Part 1: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    cooing curves in thin wall ductile iron castings. The experiments show how TC’s of different design interact with the melt and how TC design and surface quality affect the results of the data acquisition. It is discussed which precautions should be taken to ensure reliable acquisition of cooling curves....... Measurement error depending on TC design and cooling conditions is shown. A method is presented that allows acquisition of cooling curves in thin walled ductile iron castings down to thickness of at least 2.8 mm. The obtained cooling curves can be used to compare nucleation and growth during solidification...

  10. Thin wall ductile iron casting as a substitute for aluminum alloy casting in automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górny

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper it is presented thin wall ductile iron casting (TWDI as a substitute of aluminium alloy casting. Upper control arm made of ductile iron with wall thickness ranging from 2 – 3.7 mm was produced by inmold process. Structure, mechanical properties and computer simulations were investigated. Structural analysis of TWDI shows pearlitic-ferritic matrix free from chills and porosity. Mechanical testing disclose superior ultimate tensile strength (Rm, yield strength (Rp0,2 and slightly lower elongation (E of TWDI in comparison with forged control arm made of aluminium alloy (6061-T6. Moreover results of computer simulation of static loading for tested control arms are presented. Analysis show that the light-weight ductile iron casting can be loaded to similar working conditions as the forged Al alloy without any potential failures.

  11. Characterising the reactivity of metallic iron in Fe 0 /As-rock/H 2 O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrinsic reactivity of 4 metallic iron materials (Fe0) was investigated in batch and column experiments. The Fe0 reactivity was characterised by the extent of aqueous fixation of in-situ leached arsenic (As). Air-homogenised batch experiments were conducted for 1 month with 10.0 g/. of an As-bearing rock (ore material) ...

  12. Modelling of Eutectic Saturation Influence on Microstructure in Thin Wall Ductile Iron Casting Using Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbelko A.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration. Calculation of eutectic saturation influence (Sc = 0.9 - 1.1 on microstructure (austenite and graphite fraction, density of austenite and graphite grains and temperature curves in 2 mm wall ductile iron casting has been done.

  13. Porous reactive wall for prevention of acid mine drainage: Results of a full-scale field demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, S.G.; Blowes, D.W.; Ptacek, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    A porous reactive wall was installed in August, 1995, to treat mine drainage flowing within an aquifer at the Nickel Rim mine site, near Sudbury, Ontario. The reactive mixture was designed to maximize removal of metals and acid generating capacity from the groundwater by enhancing sulfate reduction and metal sulfide precipitation. The installed structure, composed of a mixed organic substrate, is 15 meters long, 3.6 meters deep and the flow path length (wall width) is 4 meters. Results of sampling nine months after installation, indicate that sulfate reduction and metal sulfide precipitation is occurring. Comparing the chemistry of water entering the wall to treated water exiting the wall nine months after installation: SO 4 concentrations decrease by >50% (from 2400-4800 mg/L to 60-3600 mg/L), Fe concentrations decrease by >95% (from 260-1300 mg/L to 1.0-40 mg/L), pH increased from 5.8 to 7.0 and alkalinity increased from 0-60 mg/L to 700-3200 mg/L as CaCO 3 . After passing through the reactive wall, the net acid generating potential of the aquifer water was converted from acid producing to acid consuming

  14. Iron and Reactive Oxygen Species: Friends or Foes of Cancer Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: In this review, the dual nature of both iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) will be explored in normal and cancer cell metabolism. Although iron and ROS play important roles in cellular homeostasis, they may also contribute to carcinogenesis. On the other hand, many studies have indicated that abrogation of iron metabolism, elevation of ROS, or modification of redox regulatory mechanisms in cancer cells, should be considered as therapeutic approaches for cancer. Recent Advances: Drugs that target different aspects of iron metabolism may be promising therapeutics for cancer. The ability of iron chelators to cause iron depletion and/or elevate ROS levels indicates that these types of compounds have more potential as antitumor medicines than originally expected. Other natural and synthetic compounds that target pathways involved in ROS homeostasis also have potential value alone or in combination with current chemotherapeutics. Critical Issues: Although ROS induction and iron depletion may be targets for cancer therapies, the optimal therapeutic strategies have yet to be identified. This review highlights some of the research that strives to identify such therapeutics. Future Directions: More studies are needed to better understand the role of iron and ROS in carcinogenesis not only as cancer promoters, but also as cytotoxic agents to cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Moreover, the structure–activity effects of iron chelators and other compounds that increase ROS and/or disrupt iron metabolism need to be further evaluated to assess the effectiveness and selectivity of these compounds against both cancer and CSCs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1917–1924. PMID:23198911

  15. The Role of Reactive Iron in Organic Carbon Burial of the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, T. S.; Shields, M. R.; Gelinas, Y.; Allison, M. A.; Twilley, R.

    2016-02-01

    Deltaic systems are responsible for 41% of the total organic carbon buried on continental shelves (Smith et al., 2015). Furthermore, 21.5 ± 8.6% of the organic carbon in marine sediments is reported to be associated to reactive iron phases (Lalonde et al., 2012). Here, we examine the role of reactive iron in preserving organic carbon across a chronosequence in deltaic soils/sediments of the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana. This prograding delta is part of the youngest subdelta of the Mississippi River Delta and serves as a model for deltas in an active progradational stage. We report the proportion, δ13C, lignin phenol content, and fatty acid content of organic carbon associated to iron in three unique environments along the delta topset. We found that over 15 % of the organic carbon in the top 0.5 meters was associated to reactive iron phases at our sampling locations. However, this amount varied between the mudflat, meadow, and canopy dominated sites. Moreover, the type of binding shifts from 1:1 sorption in the sediment dominated (mudflat) region to chelation/co-precipitation in the more soil-dominated regions. Acidic lignin phenols are preferentially sorbed in the mudflat region, which likely occurs pre-depositionally. These results add to our knowledge of the carbon burial processes in young deltas and present new questions about the selective preservation of organic compounds in deltaic sediments.

  16. Cellular automaton modelling of ductile iron microstructure in the thin wall casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbelko, A A; Gurgul, D; Kapturkiewicz, W; Górny, M

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD) calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration.

  17. Peroxide Activation for Electrophilic Reactivity by the Binuclear Non-heme Iron Enzyme AurF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kiyoung; Li, Ning; Kwak, Yeonju; Srnec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Binuclear non-heme iron enzymes activate O 2 for diverse chemistries that include oxygenation of organic substrates and hydrogen atom abstraction. This process often involves the formation of peroxo-bridged biferric intermediates, only some of which can perform electrophilic reactions. To elucidate the geometric and electronic structural requirements to activate peroxo reactivity, the active peroxo intermediate in 4-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) has been characterized spectroscopically and computationally. A magnetic circular dichroism study of reduced AurF shows that its electronic and geometric structures are poised to react rapidly with O 2 . Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic definition of the peroxo intermediate formed in this reaction shows that the active intermediate has a protonated peroxo bridge. Density functional theory computations on the structure established here show that the protonation activates peroxide for electrophilic/single-electron-transfer reactivity. As a result, this activation of peroxide by protonation is likely also relevant to the reactive peroxo intermediates in other binuclear non-heme iron enzymes.

  18. Formation of iron nanoparticles and increase in iron reactivity in mineral dust during simulated cloud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D; Bonneville, Steeve; Baker, Alex R; Jickells, Timothy D; Benning, Liane G

    2009-09-01

    The formation of iron (Fe) nanoperticles and increase in Fe reactivity in mineral dust during simulated cloud processing was investigated using high-resolution microscopy and chemical extraction methods. Cloud processing of dust was experimentally simulated via an alternation of acidic (pH 2) and circumneutral conditions (pH 5-6) over periods of 24 h each on presieved (formation of Fe-rich nanoparticle aggregates, which were not found initially. Similar Fe-rich nanoparticles were also observed in wet-deposited Saharen dusts from the western Mediterranean but not in dry-deposited dust from the eastern Mediterranean. Sequential Fe extraction of the soil samples indicated an increase in the proportion of chemically reactive Fe extractable by an ascorbate solution after simulated cloud processing. In addition, the sequential extractions on the Mediterranean dust samples revealed a higher content of reactive Fe in the wet-deposited dust compared to that of the dry-deposited dust These results suggestthat large variations of pH commonly reported in aerosol and cloud waters can trigger neo-formation of nanosize Fe particles and an increase in Fe reactivity in the dust

  19. Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

  20. Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkings, Jon R; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Statham, Peter J; Tedstone, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Telling, Jon

    2014-05-21

    The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting.

  1. Hybridized reactive iron-containing nano-materials for water purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.

    Groundwater is an important source for drinking water in all corners of the globe, and in places like Denmark, it is the primary source for drinking water. Climate change and population growth will only lead to further dependence on groundwater as the supply for drinking water. However...... the applicability of nZVI is paramount to its future success as a remediation technique. This PhD project has investigated various materials aimed at solving the reactivity loss of reactive iron to create a robust treatment system capable of treating polluted waters. This PhD project also investigated and developed......, the expanding population and industrialization of human civilization also leads to environmental consequences affecting groundwater sources. Storm-water and agricultural runoff, industrial spillage and dumping, acid mine drainage, and leakage from landfills are a few prime examples of routes of contamination...

  2. Iron-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and glutathione depletion after accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by oligodendroglial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C.; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are currently used for various neurobiological applications. To investigate the consequences of a treatment of brain cells with such particles, we have applied dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA)-coated IONP that had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 60 nm to oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells. After exposure to 4 mM iron applied as DMSA–IONP, these cells increased their total specific iron content within 8 h 600-fold from 7 to 4,200 nmol/mg cellular protein. The strong iron accumulation was accompanied by a change in cell morphology, although the cell viability was not compromized. DMSA–IONP treatment caused a concentration-dependent increase in the iron-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in the specific content of the cellular antioxidative tripeptide glutathione. During a 16 h recovery phase in IONP-free culture medium following exposure to DMSA–IONP, OLN-93 cells maintained their high iron content and replenished their cellular glutathione content. These data demonstrate that viable OLN-93 cells have a remarkable potential to deal successfully with the consequences of an accumulation of large amounts of iron after exposure to DMSA–IONP.

  3. Iron melt flow in thin-walled sections using vertically parted moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    gating systems are used small changes in the casting conditions can change the flow patterns radically. Flow in thin walled sections is not only important in thin walled part. This is illustrated with a brake disc as example. 3 different layouts have been made. The filling sequences have been recorded...... sizes of the dynamic and braking forces in the gating system.......Reducing the fuel consumption of vehicles can be done in many ways. A general way of doing it, is to reduce the weight as it is applicable together with all other means of saving fuel. Even though iron castings have been used in cars from the first car ever build, a big potential still exist...

  4. Cellular automaton modeling of ductile iron microstructure in the thin wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Burbelko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the solidification of the ductile iron with different carbon equivalent in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration. Solidification of the DI with different carbon equivalents was analyzed. Obtained results were compared with the solidification path calculated by CALPHAD method.

  5. Termination of nanoscale zero-valent iron reactivity by addition of bromate as a reducing reactivity competitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mines, Paul D.; Kaarsholm, Kamilla M. S.; Droumpali, Ariadni; Andersen, Henrik R.; Lee, Wontae; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2017-09-01

    Remediation of contaminated groundwater by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is widely becoming a leading environmentally friendly solution throughout the globe. Since a wide range of various nZVI-containing materials have been developed for effective remediation, it is necessary to determine an appropriate way to terminate the reactivity of any nZVI-containing material for a practical experimental procedure. In this study, bimetallic Ni/Fe-NPs were prepared to enhance overall reduction kinetics owing to the catalytic reactivity of nickel on the surface of nZVI. We have tested several chemical strategies in order to terminate nZVI reactivity without altering the concentration of volatile compounds in the solution. The strategies include surface passivation in alkaline conditions by addition of carbonate, and consumption of nZVI by a reaction competitor. Four halogenated chemicals, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, atrazine, and 4-chlorophenol, were selected and tested as model groundwater contaminants. Addition of carbonate to passivate the nZVI surface was not effective for trichloroethylene. Nitrate and then bromate were applied to competitively consume nZVI by their faster reduction kinetics. Bromate proved to be more effective than nitrate, subsequently terminating nZVI reactivity for all four of the tested halogenated compounds. Furthermore, the suggested termination method using bromate was successfully applied to obtain trichloroethylene reduction kinetics. Herein, we report the simple and effective method to terminate the reactivity of nZVI by addition of a reducing reactivity competitor.

  6. Experimental validation of error in temperature measurements in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    An experimental analysis has been performed to validate the measurement error of cooling curves measured in thin walled ductile cast iron. Specially designed thermocouples with Ø0.2 mm thermocouple wire in Ø1.6 mm ceramic tube was used for the experiments. Temperatures were measured in plates...

  7. Adsorption of Cadmium Ions from Water on Double-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Iron Oxide Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Seffah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new material (DWCNT/iron oxide for heavy metals removal was developed by combining the adsorption features of double-walled carbon nanotubes with the magnetic properties of iron oxides. Batch experiments were applied in order to evaluate adsorption capacity of the DWCNT/iron oxide composite for cadmium ions. The influence of operating parameters such as pH value, amount of adsorbent, initial adsorbate concentration and agitation speed was studied. The adsorption capacity of the DWCNT/iron oxide adsorbent for Cd2+ ions was 20.8 mg g-1, which is at the state of the art. The obtained results revealed that DWCNT/iron oxide composite is a very promising adsorbent for removal of Cd2+ ions from water under natural conditions. The advantage of the magnetic composite is that it can be used as adsorbent for contaminants in water and can be subsequently controlled and removed from the medium by a simple magnetic process.

  8. Influence of Iron Speciation on Redox Cycling and Reactivity with Persistent Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of past studies have been aimed at characterizing iron's redox properties in aqueous systems and its contribution to natural attenuation processes of groundwater contaminants, many questions remain. It is especially important to understand the molecular properties that control the reactivity of both Fe[superscript II] and…

  9. Long-term Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers Using Zero-valent Iron: An Evaluation at Two Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkin, Richard T; Puls, Robert W; Sewell, Guy W

    2002-01-01

    Research described in this research brief explores the geochemical and microbiological processes occurring within zero-valent iron treatment zones in permeable reactive barriers that may contribute...

  10. Impact of Microcystis aeruginosa Exudate on the Formation and Reactivity of Iron Oxide Particles Following Fe(II) and Fe(III) Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shikha; Wang, Kai; Waite, T David

    2017-05-16

    Impact of the organic exudate secreted by a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa on the formation, aggregation, and reactivity of iron oxides that are formed on addition of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts to a solution of the exudate is investigated in this study. The exudate has a stabilizing effect on the particles formed with decreased aggregation rate and increased critical coagulant concentration required for diffusion-limited aggregation to occur. These results suggest that the presence of algal exudates from Microcystis aeruginosa may significantly influence particle aggregation both in natural water bodies where Fe(II) oxidation results in oxide formation and in water treatment where Fe(III) salts are commonly added to aid particle growth and contaminant capture. The exudate also affects the reactivity of iron oxide particles formed with exudate coated particles undergoing faster dissolution than bare iron oxide particles. This has implications to iron availability, especially where algae procure iron via dissolution of iron oxide particles as a result of either reaction with reducing moieties, light-mediated ligand to metal charge transfer and/or reaction with siderophores. The increased reactivity of exudate coated particles is attributed, for the most part, to the smaller size of these particles, higher surface area and increased accessibility of surface sites.

  11. Reactive adsorption of SO2 on activated carbons with deposited iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcibar-Orozco, Javier A; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2013-02-15

    The effect of iron particle size anchored on the surface of commercial activated carbon on the removal of SO(2) from a gas phase was studied. Nanosize iron particles were deposited using forced hydrolysis of FeCl(3) with or without H(3)PO(4) as a capping agent. Dynamic adsorption experiments were carried out on either dry or pre-humidified materials and the adsorption capacities were calculated. The surface of the initial and exhausted materials was extensively characterized by microscopic, porosity, thermogravimetric and surface chemistry. The results indicate that the SO(2) adsorption capacity increased two and half times after the prehumidification process owing to the formation of H(2)SO(4) in the porous system. Iron species enhance the SO(2) adsorption capacity only when very small nanoparticles are deposited on the pore walls as a thin layer. Large iron nanoparticles block the ultramicropores decreasing the accessibility of the active sites and consuming oxygen that rest adsorption centers for SO(2) molecules. Iron nanoparticles of about 3-4 nm provide highly dispersed adsorption sites for SO(2) molecules and thus increase the adsorption capacity of about 80%. Fe(2)(SO(4))(3) was detected on the surface of exhausted samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel process integration for biodiesel blend in membrane reactive divided wall (MRDW column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhre Vandana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a novel process integration for biodiesel blend in the Membrane assisted Reactive Divided Wall Distillation (MRDW column. Biodiesel is a green fuel and grade of biodiesel blend is B20 (% which consist of 20% biodiesel and rest 80% commercial diesel. Instead of commercial diesel, Tertiary Amyl Ethyl Ether (TAEE was used as an environment friendly fuel for blending biodiesel. Biodiesel and TAEE were synthesized in a pilot scale reactive distillation column. Dual reactive distillation and MRDW were simulated using aspen plus. B20 (% limit calculation was performed using feed flow rates of both TAEE and biodiesel. MRDW was compared with dual reactive distillation column and it was observed that MRDW is comparatively cost effective and suitable in terms of improved heat integration and flow pattern.

  13. Simple colorimetric assay for dehalogenation reactivity of nanoscale zero-valent iron using 4-chlorophenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Mines, Paul D.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wide application of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) for the treatment of a plethora of pollutants through reductive reactions, reactivity evaluation of nZVI towards dehalogenation has not been standardized. In this light, it was desired to develop a simple colorimetric assay...

  14. Electrolytic Manipulation of Persulfate Reactivity by Iron Electrodes for TCE Degradation in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Liao, Peng; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2014-01-01

    Activated persulfate oxidation is an effective in situ chemical oxidation process for groundwater remediation. However, reactivity of persulfate is difficult to manipulate or control in the subsurface causing activation before reaching the contaminated zone and leading to a loss of chemicals. Furthermore, mobilization of heavy metals by the process is a potential risk. An effective approach using iron electrodes is thus developed to manipulate the reactivity of persulfate in situ for trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation in groundwater, and to limit heavy metals mobilization. TCE degradation is quantitatively accelerated or inhibited by adjusting the current applied to the iron electrode, following k1 = 0.00053•Iv + 0.059 (−122 A/m3 ≤ Iv ≤ 244 A/m3) where k1 and Iv are the pseudo first-order rate constant (min−1) and volume normalized current (A/m3), respectively. Persulfate is mainly decomposed by Fe2+ produced from the electrochemical and chemical corrosion of iron followed by the regeneration via Fe3+ reduction on the cathode. SO4•− and •OH co-contribute to TCE degradation, but •OH contribution is more significant. Groundwater pH and oxidation-reduction potential can be restored to natural levels by the continuation of electrolysis after the disappearance of contaminants and persulfate, thus decreasing adverse impacts such as the mobility of heavy metals in the subsurface. PMID:24328192

  15. Quantification of body iron and iron absorption in the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Joseph E; Birch, Rebecca J; Steele, Whitney R; Wright, David J; Cable, Ritchard G

    2017-07-01

    Repeated blood donation alters the iron balance of blood donors. We quantified these effects by analyzing changes in body iron as well as calculating iron absorbed per day for donors enrolled in a prospective study. For 1308 donors who completed a final study visit, we calculated total body iron at the enrollment and final visits and the change in total body iron over the course of the study. Taking into account iron lost from blood donations during the study and obligate losses, we also calculated the average amount of iron absorbed per day. First-time/reactivated donors at enrollment had iron stores comparable to previous general population estimates. Repeat donors had greater donation intensity and greater mean iron losses than first-time/reactivated donors, yet they had little change in total body iron over the study period, whereas first-time/reactivated donors had an average 35% drop. There was higher estimated iron absorption in the repeat donors (men: 4.49 mg/day [95% confidence interval [CI], 4.41-4.58 mg/day]; women: 3.75 mg/day [95% CI, 3.67-3.84 mg/day]) compared with estimated iron absorption in first-time/reactivated donors (men: 2.89 mg/day [95% CI, 2.75-3.04 mg/day]; women: 2.76 mg/day [95% CI, 2.64-2.87 mg/day]). The threshold for negative estimated iron stores (below "0" mg/kg stores) was correlated with the development of anemia at a plasma ferritin value of 10 ng/mL. These analyses provide quantitative data on changes in estimated total body iron for a broad spectrum of blood donors. In contrast to using ferritin alone, this model allows assessment of the iron content of red blood cells and the degree of both iron surplus and depletion over time. © 2017 AABB.

  16. Iron from nanocompounds containing iron and zinc is highly bioavailable in rats without tissue accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, Florentine M; Arnold, Myrtha; Hilbe, Monika; Teleki, Alexandra; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Ehrensperger, Felix; Hurrell, Richard F; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Langhans, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-05-01

    Effective iron fortification of foods is difficult, because water-soluble compounds that are well absorbed, such as ferrous sulphate (FeSO(4)), often cause unacceptable changes in the colour or taste of foods. Poorly water-soluble compounds, on the other hand, cause fewer sensory changes, but are not well absorbed. Here, we show that poorly water-soluble nanosized Fe and Fe/Zn compounds (specific surface area approximately 190 m(2) g(-1)) made by scalable flame aerosol technology have in vivo iron bioavailability in rats comparable to FeSO(4) and cause less colour change in reactive food matrices than conventional iron fortificants. The addition of Zn to FePO(4) and Mg to Fe/Zn oxide increases Fe absorption from the compounds, and doping with Mg also improves their colour. After feeding rats with nanostructured iron-containing compounds, no stainable Fe was detected in their gut wall, gut-associated lymphatics or other tissues, suggesting no adverse effects. Nanosizing of poorly water-soluble Fe compounds sharply increases their absorption and nutritional value.

  17. Interplay of domain walls and magnetization rotation on dynamic magnetization process in iron/polymer–matrix soft magnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobák, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.dobak@student.upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Fáberová, Mária; Bureš, Radovan [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-03-15

    This study sheds light on the dynamic magnetization process in iron/resin soft magnetic composites from the viewpoint of quantitative decomposition of their complex permeability spectra into the viscous domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. We present a comprehensive view on this phenomenon over the broad family of samples with different average particles dimension and dielectric matrix content. The results reveal the pure relaxation nature of magnetization processes without observation of spin resonance. The smaller particles and higher amount of insulating resin result in the prevalence of rotations over domain wall movement. The findings are elucidated in terms of demagnetizing effects rising from the heterogeneity of composite materials. - Highlights: • A first decomposition of complex permeability into domain wall and rotation parts in soft magnetic composites. • A pure relaxation nature of dynamic magnetization processes. • A complete loss separation in soft magnetic composites. • The domain walls activity is considerably suppressed in composites with smaller iron particles and higher matrix content. • The demagnetizing field acts as a significant factor at the dynamic magnetization process.

  18. The role of the iron catalyst in the toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Facciolà, Alessio; Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Pistone, Alessandro; Di Pietro, Angela

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of iron, used as a catalyst, in the biological response to pristine and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p/fMWCNTs) with an iron content of 2.5-2.8%. Preliminarily, we assessed the pro-oxidant activity of MWCNTs-associated iron by an abiotic test. To evaluate iron bioavailability, we measured intracellular redox-active iron in A549 cells exposed to both MWCNT suspensions and to the cell medium preconditioned by MWCNTs, in order to assess the iron dissolution rate under physiological conditions. Moreover, in exposed cells, we detected ROS levels, 8-oxo-dG and mitochondrial function. The results clearly highlighted that MWCNTs- associated iron was not redox-active and that iron leakage did not occur under physiological conditions, including the oxidative burst of specialized cells. Despite this, in MWCNTs exposed cells, higher level of intracellular redox-active iron was measured in comparison to control and a significant time-dependent ROS increase was observed (P<0.01). Higher levels of 8-oxo-dG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and decreased mitochondrial function, confirmed the oxidative stress induced by MWCNTs. Based on the results we believe that oxidative damage could be attributable to the release of endogenous redox-active iron. This was due to the damage of acidic vacuolar compartment caused by endocytosis-mediated MWCNT internalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Versatile and biomass synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon matrix with high iron content and tunable reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongmao; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Pittman, Charles U.; Jiang Dongping; Che Wen; Gai Zheng; Howe, Jane Y.; More, Karren L.; Antonyraj, Arockiasamy

    2012-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon (FeNPs-C) have enormous potential for environmental applications. Reported is a biomass-based method for FeNP-C synthesis that involves pyrolysis of bleached wood fiber pre-mixed with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. This method allows synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with tunable chemical reactivity by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The FeNP-C synthesized at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C (FeNP-C-500) reacts violently (pyrophoric) when exposed to air, while FeNP-C prepared at 800 °C (FeNP-C-800) remains stable in ambient condition for at least 3 months. The FeNPs in FeNP-C-800 are mostly below 50 nm in diameter and are surrounded by carbon. The immediate carbon layer (within 5–15 nm radius) on the FeNPs is graphitized. Proof-of-concept environmental applications of FeNPs-C-800 were demonstrated by Rhodamine 6G and arsenate (V) removal from water. This biomass-based method provides an effective way for iron-based nanoparticle fabrication and biomass utilization.

  20. Evaluation of five strategies to limit the impact of fouling in permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Benson, Craig H.

    2010-01-01

    Ground water flow and geochemical reactive transport models were used to assess the effectiveness of five strategies used to limit fouling and to enhance the long-term hydraulic behavior of continuous-wall permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) employing granular zero valent iron (ZVI). The flow model accounted for geological heterogeneity and the reactive transport model included a geochemical algorithm for simulating iron corrosion and mineral precipitation reactions that have been observed in ZVI PRBs. The five strategies that were evaluated are pea gravel equalization zones, a sacrificial pre-treatment zone, pH adjustment, large ZVI particles, and mechanical treatment. Results of simulations show that installation of pea gravel equalization zones results in flow equalization and a more uniform distribution of residence times within the PRB. Residence times within the PRB are less affected by mineral precipitation when a pre-treatment zone is employed. pH adjustment limits the total amount of hydroxide ions in ground water to reduce porosity reduction and to retain larger residence times. Larger ZVI particles reduce porosity reduction as a result of the smaller iron surface area for iron corrosion, and retain longer residence time. Mechanical treatment redistributes the porosity uniformly throughout the PRB over time, which is effective in maintaining residence time.

  1. Iron-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes for terahertz applications: effects of interfacial polarization, screening and anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedelnikova, O. V.; Korovin, E. Yu; Dorozhkin, K. V.; Kanygin, M. A.; Arkhipov, V. E.; Shubin, Yu V.; Zhuravlev, V. A.; Suslyaev, V. I.; Bulusheva, L. G.; Okotrub, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Interface interactions in multicomponent nanoparticles can affect electromagnetic properties of an absorbing system. In this work, we investigate the electromagnetic response of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) filled with iron-containing nanoparticles (ICNs) in the terahertz frequency range. MWCNTs with different iron content have been synthesized by aerosol-assisted catalytic chemical vapour deposition method from toluene containing a certain quantity of ferrocene used as a catalyst. According to the x-ray diffraction analysis, encapsulated ICNs were mainly in the form of iron carbide. Thin composite films were prepared from the iron-filled MWCNTs and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) by casting and stretching methods. The composites showed an enhanced permittivity and anisotropy in the transmittance spectra when iron content increased. This behaviour was related to the mechanism based on electrical conductivity and polarization of ICNs and ICN/MWCNT interfaces. Since terahertz field penetrates inside MWCNTs, the filling of their cavities can be a way of varying the electromagnetic properties of MWCNT-containing composites.

  2. Uranium Removal from Groundwater by Permeable Reactive Barrier with Zero-Valent Iron and Organic Carbon Mixtures: Laboratory and Field Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Kornilovych

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhovty Vody city, located in south-central Ukraine, has long been an important center for the Ukrainian uranium and iron industries. Uranium and iron mining and processing activities during the Cold War resulted in poorly managed sources of radionuclides and heavy metals. Widespread groundwater and surface water contamination has occurred, which creates a significant risk to drinking water supplies. Hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions near large uranium mine tailings storage facility (TSF were characterized to provide data to locate, design and install a permeable reactive barrier (PRB to treat groundwater contaminated by leachate infiltrating from the TSF. The effectiveness of three different permeable reactive materials was investigated: zero-valent iron (ZVI for reduction, sorption, and precipitation of redox-sensitive oxyanions; phosphate material to transform dissolved metals to less soluble phases; and organic carbon substrates to promote bioremediation processes. Batch and column experiments with Zhovty Vody site groundwater were conducted to evaluate reactivity of the materials. Reaction rates, residence time and comparison with site-specific clean-up standards were determined. Results of the study demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of the PRB for ground water protection near uranium mine TSF. The greatest decrease was obtained using ZVI-based reactive media and the combined media of ZVI/phosphate/organic carbon combinations.

  3. Reactivity of iron-rich phyllosilicates with uranium and chromium through redox transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgos, William D.

    2016-01-01

    This project performed thermodynamic, kinetic, and mineral structural studies on the reactivity of phyllosilicate Fe(II/III) with metal-reducing bacteria, and with two important poly-valent DOE contaminants (chromium and uranium) that show high mobility in their oxidized state. We focused on Fe-bearing phyllosilicates because these are important components of the reactive, fines fraction of Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Idaho National Laboratory sediments. Iron-bearing phyllosilicates strongly influence the redox state and mobility of Cr and U because of their limited hydraulic conductivity, high specific surface area, and redox reactivity. This was a collaborative project between Penn State (W.D. Burgos - PI), Miami University (H. Dong - Co-PI), and Argonne National Laboratory (K. Kemner and M. Boyanov - Co-PIs). Penn State and Miami University were funded together but separately from ANL. This report summarizes research findings and publications produced by Penn State and Miami University.

  4. Reactivity of iron-rich phyllosilicates with uranium and chromium through redox transition zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, William D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This project performed thermodynamic, kinetic, and mineral structural studies on the reactivity of phyllosilicate Fe(II/III) with metal-reducing bacteria, and with two important poly-valent DOE contaminants (chromium and uranium) that show high mobility in their oxidized state. We focused on Fe-bearing phyllosilicates because these are important components of the reactive, fines fraction of Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Idaho National Laboratory sediments. Iron-bearing phyllosilicates strongly influence the redox state and mobility of Cr and U because of their limited hydraulic conductivity, high specific surface area, and redox reactivity. This was a collaborative project between Penn State (W.D. Burgos – PI), Miami University (H. Dong – Co-PI), and Argonne National Laboratory (K. Kemner and M. Boyanov – Co-PIs). Penn State and Miami University were funded together but separately from ANL. This report summarizes research findings and publications produced by Penn State and Miami University.

  5. Enhanced terrestrial carbon preservation promoted by reactive iron in deltaic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Michael R.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Gélinas, Yves; Allison, Mead A.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2016-02-01

    We examined the role of reactive iron (FeR) in preserving organic carbon (OC) across a subaerial chronosequence of the Wax Lake Delta, a prograding delta within the Mississippi River Delta complex. We found that ~15.0% of the OC was bound to FeR, and the dominant binding mechanisms varied from adsorption in the youngest subaerial region to coprecipitation at the older, vegetated sites. The δ13C of the iron-associated OC was more negative than the total OC (mean = -2.6‰), indicating greater preference for terrestrial material and/or compounds with more negative δ13C values. However, only the adsorbed OC displayed preferential binding of lignin phenols. We estimate that ~8% of the OC initially deposited in deltaic systems is bound to FeR (equivalent to 6 × 1012 gC yr-1), and this percentage increases postdepositionally, as coprecipitation of FeR and OC allows for an even greater amount of OC to be bound to FeR.

  6. Iron-clay reactivity in radioactive waste disposal - Impacts of bacterial activities and heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the interactions between two materials that may be introduced in a geological disposal of radioactive waste: metallic materials such as the high-level waste overpack, and clay materials such as the clay host rock. Indeed, the interactions between these two materials in such conditions could induce a change of their initial confinement properties. This work aimed at determining the influence of heterogeneities (technological gaps and fractures) and bacterial activities on these interactions, in terms of evolution of chemical and hydraulic properties of clayey materials. To this end, two percolation cells have been conducted during 13 months: the first one with two bacteria (SRB, IRB), the second one without bacteria. These experiments, carried out at 60 C, involved circulating synthetic water representative of the Tournemire pore water through iron powder and through Toarcian artificially cracked argillite from Tournemire. An iron rod was also placed into the argillite. Thus, solid characterizations (SEM, SEM/EDS, Raman, XRD, X-ray tomography) allowed the study of both interfaces: the iron powder/argillite interface and the iron rod/argillite interface. The water probably circulated into the crack during the entire test, which was confirmed by reactive transport modeling with the HYTEC reactive transport code. However, no secondary phase was identified in the crack. In addition, bacteria survival in the biotic cell was confirmed during the experiment by monitoring their population and by analyzing their genetic diversity at the end of the experiment. A strong decrease in sulfate concentration was measured in the output, which confirms the SRB activity. Solid characterization conducted at the end of the experiments have highlighted, with and without bacteria, the occurrence of magnetite and chukanovite in the iron powder, the latter being mainly located close to the argillite interface. In the argillite, a Fe-enriched zone (10 μm) was

  7. Synthesis of Highly Reactive Subnano-sized Zero-valent Iron using Smectite Clay Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Jia, Hanzhang; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J.; Boyd, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel method was developed for synthesizing subnano-sized zero-valent iron (ZVI) using smectite clay layers as templates. Exchangeable Fe(III) cations compensating the structural negative charges of smectites were reduced with NaBH4, resulting in the formation of ZVI. The unique structure of smectite clay, in which isolated exchangeable Fe(III) cations reside near the sites of structural negative charges, inhibited the agglomeration of ZVI resulting in the formation of discrete regions of subnanoscale ZVI particles in the smectite interlayer regions. X-ray diffraction revealed an interlayer spacing of ~ 5 Å. The non-structural iron content of this clay yields a calculated ratio of two atoms of ZVI per three cation exchange sites, in full agreement with the XRD results since the diameter of elemental Fe is 2.5 Å. The clay-templated ZVI showed superior reactivity and efficiency compared to other previously reported forms of ZVI as indicated by the reduction of nitrobenzene; structural Fe within the aluminosilicate layers was nonreactive. At a 1:3 molar ratio of nitrobenzene:non-structural Fe, a reaction efficiency of 83% was achieved, and over 80% of the nitrobenzene was reduced within one minute. These results confirm that non-structural Fe from Fe(III)-smectite was reduced predominantly to ZVI which was responsible for the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline. This new form of subnano-scale ZVI may find utility in the development of remediation technologies for persistent environmental contaminants, e.g. as components of constructed reactive domains such as reactive caps for contaminated sediments. PMID:20446730

  8. Synthesis of highly reactive subnano-sized zero-valent iron using smectite clay templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Jia, Hanzhong; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    A novel method was developed for synthesizing subnano-sized zero-valent iron (ZVI) using smectite clay layers as templates. Exchangeable Fe(III) cations compensating the structural negative charges of smectites were reduced with NaBH(4), resulting in the formation of ZVI. The unique structure of smectite clay, in which isolated exchangeable Fe(III) cations reside near the sites of structural negative charges, inhibited the agglomeration of ZVI resulting in the formation of subnanoscale ZVI particles in the smectite interlayer regions. X-ray diffraction revealed an interlayer spacing of approximately 5 A. The non-structural iron content of this clay yields a calculated ratio of two atoms of ZVI per three cation exchange sites, in full agreement with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results since the diameter of elemental Fe is 2.5 A. The clay-templated ZVI showed superior reactivity and efficiency compared to other previously reported forms of ZVI as indicated by the reduction of nitrobenzene; structural Fe within the aluminosilicate layers was nonreactive. At a 1:3 molar ratio of nitrobenzene/non-structural Fe, a reaction efficiency of 83% was achieved, and over 80% of the nitrobenzene was reduced within one minute. These results confirm that non-structural Fe from Fe(III)-smectite was reduced predominantly to ZVI which was responsible for the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline. This new form of subnanoscale ZVI may find utility in the development of remediation technologies for persistent environmental contaminants, for example, as components of constructed reactive domains such as reactive caps for contaminated sediments.

  9. Functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with iron phthalocyanine via a liquid chemical reaction for oxygen reduction in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Xu, Xiao; Liu, Qin; Guo, Jia; Kang, Longtian; Yao, Jiannian

    2018-06-01

    Iron single-atom catalyst in form of iron-nitrogen-carbon structure possesses the excellent catalytic activity in various chemical reactions. However, exploring a sustainable and stable single-atom metal catalyst still faces a great challenge due to low yield and complicated synthesis. Here, we report a functional multi-wall carbon nanotubes modified with iron phthalocyanine molecules via a liquid chemical reaction and realize the performance of similar single-atom catalysis for oxygen reduction reaction. A serial of characterizations strongly imply the structure change of iron phthalocyanine molecule and its close recombination with multi-wall carbon nanotubes, which are in favor of ORR catalysis. Compared to commercial platinum-carbon catalyst, composites exhibit superior activity for oxygen reduction reaction with higher half-wave potential (0.86 V), lower Tafel slope (38 mV dec-1), higher limiting current density and excellent electrochemical stability. The corresponding Zinc-air battery also presents higher maximum power density and discharge stability. Therefore, these findings provide a facile route to synthesize a highly efficient non-precious metal carbon-based catalyst.

  10. Bacteria attenuation by iron electrocoagulation governed by interactions between bacterial phosphate groups and Fe(III) precipitates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaire, Caroline; van Genuchten, Case M.; Amrose, Susan E.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2016-01-01

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) is a low-cost process in which Fe(II) generated from an Fe(0) anode reacts with dissolved O2 to form (1) Fe(III) precipitates with an affinity for bacterial cell walls and (2) bactericidal reactive oxidants. Previous work suggests that Fe-EC is a promising treatment

  11. Differences and Comparisons of the Properties and Reactivities of Iron(III)–hydroperoxo Complexes with Saturated Coordination Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faponle, Abayomi S; Quesne, Matthew G; Sastri, Chivukula V; Banse, Frédéric; de Visser, Sam P

    2015-01-01

    Heme and nonheme monoxygenases and dioxygenases catalyze important oxygen atom transfer reactions to substrates in the body. It is now well established that the cytochrome P450 enzymes react through the formation of a high-valent iron(IV)–oxo heme cation radical. Its precursor in the catalytic cycle, the iron(III)–hydroperoxo complex, was tested for catalytic activity and found to be a sluggish oxidant of hydroxylation, epoxidation and sulfoxidation reactions. In a recent twist of events, evidence has emerged of several nonheme iron(III)–hydroperoxo complexes that appear to react with substrates via oxygen atom transfer processes. Although it was not clear from these studies whether the iron(III)–hydroperoxo reacted directly with substrates or that an initial O–O bond cleavage preceded the reaction. Clearly, the catalytic activity of heme and nonheme iron(III)–hydroperoxo complexes is substantially different, but the origins of this are still poorly understood and warrant a detailed analysis. In this work, an extensive computational analysis of aromatic hydroxylation by biomimetic nonheme and heme iron systems is presented, starting from an iron(III)–hydroperoxo complex with pentadentate ligand system (L52). Direct C–O bond formation by an iron(III)–hydroperoxo complex is investigated, as well as the initial heterolytic and homolytic bond cleavage of the hydroperoxo group. The calculations show that [(L52)FeIII(OOH)]2+ should be able to initiate an aromatic hydroxylation process, although a low-energy homolytic cleavage pathway is only slightly higher in energy. A detailed valence bond and thermochemical analysis rationalizes the differences in chemical reactivity of heme and nonheme iron(III)–hydroperoxo and show that the main reason for this particular nonheme complex to be reactive comes from the fact that they homolytically split the O–O bond, whereas a heterolytic O–O bond breaking in heme iron(III)–hydroperoxo is found. PMID:25399782

  12. Geo-microbiological reactivity of iron materials: impact on geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnault, L.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis sought to describe the dynamic concept of a viable and sustainable microbiological activity under deep geological disposal conditions and to assess its impact on containment properties and storage components. Thus, in this study, a model based on the bacterial ferric reduction was chosen for its sustainability criteria in the system and its ability to alter the materials in storage conditions. The main results of this work demonstrated the capability of the environment to stand the iron-reducing bacterial activity and the conditions of its development in the deep clay environments. The bio-availability of structural Fe (III) in clay minerals and iron oxides produced during the process of metal corrosion was clearly demonstrated. In this system, the corrosion appears to be a positive factor on bacterial activities by producing an energy source, hydrogen. The iron-reducing bacterial activities can lead to a resumption of metallic corrosion through the consumption of iron oxides in the passive film. The direct consequence would be a reduction of the lifetime of metal containers. In the case of ferric clay minerals, the consequences of such an activity are such that they can have an impact on the overall porous structure both in terms of chemical reactivity of the materials or physical behavior of the clayey barrier. One of the most significant results is the crystallization of new clay phases at very low temperatures, below 40 C, highlighting the influence of the anaerobic microbial activity in the mineralogical transformations of clay minerals. Furthermore, these experiments also allowed to visualize, for the first time, a mechanism of bacterial respiration at distance, this increases the field of the availability of essential elements as Fe 3+ for bacterial growth in extreme environment. In conclusion, these results clearly showed the impact of the microbiological factor on the reactivity of clay and metal minerals, while relying on control parameters on

  13. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanowires Formed by Reactive Dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger A; Etman, Haitham A; Hicks, Hannah; Richards, Leah; Wu, Chen; Castell, Martin R; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Maccherozzi, Francesco

    2018-04-11

    The growth and reactive dewetting of ultrathin films of iron oxides supported on Re(0001) surfaces have been imaged in situ in real time. Initial growth forms a nonmagnetic stable FeO (wüstite like) layer in a commensurate network upon which high aspect ratio nanowires of several microns in length but less than 40 nm in width can be fabricated. The nanowires are closely aligned with the substrate crystallography and imaging by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism shows that each contain a single magnetic domain. The driving force for dewetting appears to be the minimization of strain energy of the Fe 3 O 4 crystallites and follows the Tersoff and Tromp model in which strain is minimized at constant height by extending in one epitaxially matched direction. Such wires are promising in spintronic applications and we predict that the growth will also occur on other hexagonal substrates.

  14. LONG-TERM GEOCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF A ZEROVALENT IRON PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive, in-situ reactive barriers have proven to be viable, cost-effective systems for the remediation of Cr-contaminated groundwater at some sites. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are installed in the flow-path of groundwater, most typically as vertical treatment walls. Re...

  15. Degradação de corantes reativos pelo sistema ferro metálico/peróxido de hidrogênio Degradation of reactive dyes by the metallic iron/ hydrogen peroxide system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Roberto Lima de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the degradation of aqueous solutions of reactive azo-dyes is reported using a combined reductive/advanced oxidative process based in the H2O2/zero-valent iron system. At optimized experimental conditions (pH 7, H2O2 100 mg L-1, iron 7 g L-1 and using a continuous system containing commercial iron wool, the process afforded almost total discolorization of aqueous solutions of three reactive azo-dyes (reactive orange 16, reactive black 5 and brilliant yellow 3G-P at a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 min. At these conditions the hydrogen peroxide is almost totally consumed while the released total soluble iron reaches a concentration compatible with the current Brazilian legislation (15 mg L-1.

  16. Removal of Cr(VI from Water Using a New Reactive Material: Magnesium Oxide Supported Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Siciliano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The chromium pollution of water is an important environmental and health issue. Cr(VI removal by means of metallic iron is an attractive method. Specifically, nanoscopic zero valent iron (NZVI shows great reactivity, however, its applicability needs to be further investigated. In the present paper, NZVI was supported on MgO grains to facilitate the treatments for remediation of chromium-contaminated waters. The performances and mechanisms of the developed composite, in the removal of hexavalent chromium, were investigated by means of batch and continuous tests. Kinetic studies, under different operating conditions, showed that reduction of Cr(VI could be expressed by a pseudo second-order reaction kinetic. The reaction rate increased with the square of Fe(0 amount, while it was inversely proportional to the initial chromium concentration. The process performance was satisfactory also under uncontrolled pH, and a limited influence of temperature was observed. The reactive material was efficiently reusable for many cycles without any regeneration treatment. The performances in continuous tests were close to 97% for about 80 pore volume of reactive material.

  17. Corrosion resistance and electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of some iron-base hardfacing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-01-01

    Hardfacing alloys are weld deposited on a base material to provide a wear resistant surface. Commercially available iron-base hardfacing alloys are being evaluated for replacement of cobalt-base alloys to reduce nuclear plant activation levels. Corrosion testing was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of several iron-base hardfacing alloys in highly oxygenated environments. The corrosion test results indicate that iron-base hardfacing alloys in the as-deposited condition have acceptable corrosion resistance when the chromium to carbon ratio is greater than 4. Tristelle 5183, with a high niobium (stabilizer) content, did not follow this trend due to precipitation of niobium-rich carbides instead of chromium-rich carbides. This result indicates that iron-base hardfacing alloys containing high stabilizer contents may possess good corrosion resistance with Cr:C < 4. NOREM 02, NOREM 01, and NoCo-M2 hardfacing alloys had acceptable corrosion resistance in the as-deposited and 885 C/4 hour heat treated condition, but rusting from sensitization was observed in the 621 C/6 hour heat treated condition. The feasibility of using an Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) test method, such as used for stainless steel, to detect sensitization in iron-base hardfacing alloys was evaluated. A single loop-EPR method was found to provide a more consistent measurement of sensitization than a double loop-EPR method. The high carbon content that is needed for a wear resistant hardfacing alloy produces a high volume fraction of chromium-rich carbides that are attacked during EPR testing. This results in inherently lower sensitivity for detection of a sensitized iron-base hardfacing alloy than stainless steel using conventional EPR test methods

  18. Transient debris freezing and potential wall melting during a severe reactivity initiated accident experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Moore, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    It is important to light water reactor (LWR) safety analysis to understand the transient freezing of molten core debris on cold structures following a hypothetical core meltdown accident. The purpose of this paper is to (a) present the results of a severe reactivity initiated accident (RIA) in-pile experiment with regard to molten debris distribution and freezing following test fuel rod failure, (b) analyze the transient freezing of molten debris (primarily a mixture of UO/sub 2/ fuel and Zircaloy cladding) deposited on the inner surface of the test shroud wall upon rod failure, and (c) assess the potential for wall melting upon being contacted by the molten debris. 26 refs

  19. Effects of reactive oxygen species on cellular wall disassembly of banana fruit during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guiping; Duan, Xuewu; Shi, John; Lu, Wangjin; Luo, Yunbo; Jiang, Weibo; Jiang, Yueming

    2008-07-15

    Fruit softening is generally attributed to cell wall disassembly. Experiments were conducted to investigate effects of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) on in vitro cellular wall disassembly of harvested banana fruit. The alcohol-extracted insoluble residue (AEIR) was obtained from the pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages and then used to examine the disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides in the presence of superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or hydroxyl radical (OH) and their scavengers. The presence of OH accelerated significantly disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides in terms of the increase in contents of total sugars released and uronic acid, and the decrease in molecular mass of soluble polysaccharides, using gel permeation chromatography. However, the treatment with H2O2 or O2(-) showed no significant effect on the disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides. Furthermore, the degradation of the de-esterified AEIR was more susceptible to OH attack than the esterified AEIR. In addition, the effect of OH could be inhibited in the presence of OH scavenger. This study suggests that disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides could be initiated by OH as the solublisation of the polysaccharides increased, which, in turn, accelerated fruit softening. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce human microvascular endothelial cell permeability through reactive oxygen species production and microtubule remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xianglin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered iron nanoparticles are being explored for the development of biomedical applications and many other industry purposes. However, to date little is known concerning the precise mechanisms of translocation of iron nanoparticles into targeted tissues and organs from blood circulation, as well as the underlying implications of potential harmful health effects in human. Results The confocal microscopy imaging analysis demonstrates that exposure to engineered iron nanoparticles induces an increase in cell permeability in human microvascular endothelial cells. Our studies further reveal iron nanoparticles enhance the permeability through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the stabilization of microtubules. We also showed Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathways are involved in iron nanoparticle-induced cell permeability. The inhibition of ROS demonstrate ROS play a major role in regulating Akt/GSK-3β – mediated cell permeability upon iron nanoparticle exposure. These results provide new insights into the bioreactivity of engineered iron nanoparticles which can inform potential applications in medical imaging or drug delivery. Conclusion Our results indicate that exposure to iron nanoparticles induces an increase in endothelial cell permeability through ROS oxidative stress-modulated microtubule remodeling. The findings from this study provide new understandings on the effects of nanoparticles on vascular transport of macromolecules and drugs.

  1. Impact of vessel wall lesions and vascular stenoses on cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with intracranial stenotic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cogswell, Petrice M; Davis, Taylor L; Strother, Megan K; Faraco, Carlos C; Scott, Allison O; Jordan, Lori C; Fusco, Matthew R; Frederick, Blaise deB; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Donahue, Manus J

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and CVR lagtimes in flow territories perfused by vessels with vs. without proximal arterial wall disease and/or stenosis, separately in patients with atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic (moyamoya) intracranial stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

  2. On some perculiarities of microstructure formation and the mechanical properties in thick-walled pieces of cast iron and their application as reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janakiev, N.

    1975-01-01

    The following problems are dealt with in the present work: Microstructure formation and mechanical properties of thick-walled cast pieces, influence of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties, manufacture of thick-walled castings for reactor construction, application of cast iron as reactor structural material. It is shown that graphite formation plays an extremely important role regarding the mechanical properties. A new construction for vertically stressed pressure vessels is given. These vessels can be fabricated mainly of cast iron with graphite spheres, cast steel, or a combination of both depending on the operational pressure. (GSCH) [de

  3. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.J.; Blowes, D.W.; Placek, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO 4 -P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified

  5. Oxygen Atom Transfer Using an Iron(IV)-Oxo Embedded in a Tetracyclic N-Heterocyclic Carbene System: How Does the Reactivity Compare to Cytochrome P450 Compound I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú Reinhard, Fabián G; de Visser, Sam P

    2017-02-24

    N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are commonly featured as ligands in transition metal catalysis. Recently, a cyclic system containing four NHC groups with a central iron atom was synthesized and its iron(IV)-oxo species, [Fe IV (O)(cNHC 4 )] 2+ , was characterized. This tetracyclic NHC ligand system may give the iron(IV)-oxo species unique catalytic properties as compared to traditional non-heme and heme iron ligand systems. Therefore, we performed a computational study on the structure and reactivity of the [Fe IV (O)(cNHC 4 )] 2+ complex in substrate hydroxylation and epoxidation reactions. The reactivity patterns are compared with cytochrome P450 Compound I and non-heme iron(IV)-oxo models and it is shown that the [Fe IV (O)(cNHC 4 )] 2+ system is an effective oxidant with oxidative power analogous to P450 Compound I. Unfortunately, in polar solvents, a solvent molecule will bind to the sixth ligand position and decrease the catalytic activity of the oxidant. A molecular orbital and valence bond analysis provides insight into the origin of the reactivity differences and makes predictions of how to further exploit these systems in chemical catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. REACTIVITY OF (η3-ALLYL)DICARBONYLNITROSYL IRON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metal complexes can be synthesized from various organic precursors. Iron allyl ... iron complexes to develop a green chemistry approach [7]. Catalysis ...... Akermark, B.; Jutand, A. Addition of ketone enolates to π-allylpalladlum compounds.

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in toxicity of cell wall stress to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Li, Jianrong; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Honggang; Li, Mingchun

    2016-10-01

    The cell wall is an important cell structure in both fungi and bacteria, and hence becomes a common antimicrobial target. The cell wall-perturbing agents disrupt synthesis and function of cell wall components, leading to cell wall stress and consequent cell death. However, little is known about the detailed mechanisms by which cell wall stress renders fungal cell death. In this study, we found that ROS scavengers drastically attenuated the antifungal effect of cell wall-perturbing agents to the model fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and these agents caused remarkable ROS accumulation and activation of oxidative stress response (OSR) in this fungus. Interestingly, cell wall stress did not cause mitochondrial dysfunction and elevation of mitochondrial superoxide levels. Furthermore, the iron chelator 2,2'-bipyridyl (BIP) and the hydroxyl radical scavengers could not attenuate cell wall stress-caused growth inhibition and ROS accumulation. However, cell wall stress up-regulated expression of unfold protein response (UPR) genes, enhanced protein secretion and promoted protein folding-related oxidation of Ero1, an important source of ROS production. These results indicated that oxidation of Ero1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), rather than mitochondrial electron transport and Fenton reaction, contributed to cell wall stress-related ROS accumulation and consequent growth inhibition. Our findings uncover a novel link between cell wall integrity (CWI), ER function and ROS production in fungal cells, and shed novel light on development of strategies promoting the antifungal efficacy of cell wall-perturbing agents against fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Iron (II) tetrakis(diaquaplatinum) octacarboxyphthalocyanine supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as effective electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mamuru, SA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium at iron (II) tetrakis (diaquaplatinum) octacarboxyphthalocyanine (PtFeOCPc) catalyst supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been described. The ORR followed the direct 4-electron...

  9. Long-term performance monitoring for a permeable reactive barrier at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, R W; Blowes, D W; Gillham, R W

    1999-08-12

    A continuous hanging iron wall was installed in June, 1996, at the U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC, United States, to treat overlapping plumes of chromate and chlorinated solvent compounds. The wall was emplaced using a continuous trenching machine whereby native soil and aquifer sediment was removed and the iron simultaneously emplaced in one continuous excavation and fill operation. To date, there have been seven rounds (November 1996, March 1997, June 1997, September 1997, December 1997, March 1998, and June 1998) of performance monitoring of the wall. At this time, this is the only full-scale continuous 'hanging' wall installed as a permeable reactive barrier to remediate both chlorinated solvent compounds and chromate in groundwater. Performance monitoring entails the following: sampling of 10-5 cm PVC compliance wells and 15 multi-level samplers for the following constituents: TCE, cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), vinyl chloride, ethane, ethene, acetylene, methane, major anions, metals, Cr(VI), Fe(II), total sulfides, dissolved H(2), Eh, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, alkalinity, and turbidity. Electrical conductivity profiles have been conducted using a Geoprobe to verify emplacement of the continuous wall as designed and to locate upgradient and downgradient wall interfaces for coring purposes. Coring has been conducted in November, 1996, in June and September, 1997, and March, 1998, to evaluate the rate of corrosion on the iron surfaces, precipitate buildup (particularly at the upgradient interface), and permeability changes due to wall emplacement. In addition to several continuous vertical cores, angled cores through the 0.6-m thick wall have been collected to capture upgradient and downgradient wall interfaces along approximate horizontal flow paths for mineralogic analyses.

  10. Effects on nano zero-valent iron reactivity of interactions between hardness, alkalinity, and natural organic matter in reverse osmosis concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    , the influence of hardness, alkalinity, and organic matter on NZVI reactivity was evaluated by the response surface method (RSM). Hardness (Ca2 ) had a positive effect on NZVI reactivity by accelerating iron corrosion. In contrast, alkalinity (bicarbonate; HCO3-) and organic matter (humic acid; HA) had negative...... effects on NZVI reactivity due to morphological change to carbonate green rust, and to competitive adsorption of HA, respectively. The validity of the statistical prediction model derived from RSM was confirmed by an additional confirmation experiment, and the experimental result was within the 95......% confidential interval. Therefore, it can be said that the RSM model produced results that were statistically significant....

  11. C-reactive (CRP) protein in transfusion dependent thalassaemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, R.; Mughal, Z.U.N.

    2009-01-01

    In thalassaemic patients iron overload, secondary to blood transfusion, results toxic effects by producing reactive radicals. Iron overload can be studied using serum ferritin level which has a direct correlation with the body's iron status. While oxidative damage can be studied using biomarker of inflammation like hsC-reactive proteins. Blood samples of 55 thalassaemic patients (39 males, 16 females) were collected from Fatmid Foundation (Hyderabad). The samples were analyzed for CBC, serum ferritin level and hsC-reactive proteins. High mean serum ferritin levels was found in all the patients regardless of the frequency of blood transfusion (4774.2135+-3143.3040 mu g/L), indicating the iron overload. High mean hsC-reactive protein was found (2.5151+-1.3712) with a positive correlation with ferritin (r= 0.8371198, p= 0.0000) and platelets (r= 0.43293443, p=0.000962175). C-reactive proteins serve as biomarker of various inflammatory conditions, progression of cardiovascular diseases and as indicator of morbidity and mortality. High C-reactive proteins in these patients indicate ongoing iron overload toxicity related damage in these patients. The estimation of hsC-reactive proteins and other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation may help in better management of these patients. (author)

  12. Development of EEM based silicon–water and silica–water wall potentials for non-reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junghan; Iype, Eldhose; Frijns, Arjan J.H.; Nedea, Silvia V.; Steenhoven, Anton A. van

    2014-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of heat transfer in gases are computationally expensive when the wall molecules are explicitly modeled. To save computational time, an implicit boundary function is often used. Steele's potential has been used in studies of fluid–solid interface for a long time. In this work, the conceptual idea of Steele's potential was extended in order to simulate water–silicon and water–silica interfaces. A new wall potential model is developed by using the electronegativity-equalization method (EEM), a ReaxFF empirical force field and a non-reactive molecular dynamics package PumMa. Contact angle simulations were performed in order to validate the wall potential model. Contact angle simulations with the resulting tabulated wall potentials gave a silicon–water contact angle of 129°, a quartz–water contact angle of 0°, and a cristobalite–water contact angle of 40°, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental values.

  13. Influence of reactive oxygen species during deposition of iron oxide films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranak, V.; Hubicka, Z.; Cada, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Wulff, H.; Helm, C. A.; Hippler, R.

    2018-03-01

    Iron oxide films were deposited using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of an iron cathode in an argon/oxygen gas mixture at different gas pressures (0.5 Pa, 1.5 Pa, and 5.0 Pa). The HiPIMS system was operated at a repetition frequency f  =  100 Hz with a duty cycle of 1%. A main goal is a comparison of film growth during conventional and electron cyclotron wave resonance-assisted HiPIMS. The deposition plasma was investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy and energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Active oxygen species were detected and their kinetic energy was found to depend on the gas pressure. Deposited films were characterized by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. Optical properties and crystallinity of as-deposited films were found to depend on the deposition conditions. Deposition of hematite iron oxide films with the HiPIMS-ECWR discharge is attributed to the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species.

  14. Reactive bonding mediated high mass loading of individualized single-walled carbon nanotubes in an elastomeric polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Li, Yongjin; Qiu, Jishan; You, Jichun; Dong, Wenyong; Cao, Xiaojun

    2012-09-01

    A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance.A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Conductivity test of the SEBS-SWCNTs film, transmission spectra and sheet resistance for the spin-coated SEBS-SWCNTs thin films on PET slides. See DOI: 10

  15. Fatigue strength of nodular cast iron with regard to heavy-wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleicher, Christoph; Wagener, Rainer; Kaufmann, Heinz [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); Melz, Tobias [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); TU Darmstadt (Germany). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-11-01

    For a proper estimation of the fatigue life of a heavy-walled cast component made of nodular cast iron, sufficient knowledge regarding the cyclic properties of the material is necessary. Based on the material parameters at hand for component design, different fatigue analysis procedures can be used. Elastic and elastic-plastic approaches can be adopted, with the latter being reserved only for local approaches. The present publication summarizes the cyclic material parameters gained during a research project by extensive material tests under stress and strain controlled cyclic loading at different load ratios for three nodular cast iron grades. In addition to an improved knowledge of the cyclic material behavior, the notch, the size effects and the mean stress sensitivity were of special concern during the investigations in order to provide an entire overview of the tested materials and thus input information for both stress and strain based design approaches. Tests were performed for specimens taken from large cast blocks of the nodular cast iron grades EN-GJS-400-18U-LT and EN-GJS-450-18, both with ferritic matrices, and EN-GJS-700-2 with a pearlitic matrix. For some of these materials, mean stress sensitivities above 0.5 were obtained during the investigations. These values are not covered by the common standards, which calculate lower values for the mean stress sensitivity. Cyclic material parameters for stress and strain controlled tests are given in this paper as well as values for the size effect, based on the concept of the highly stressed volume. The effect of different specimen sizes could be shown not only by stress but also by strain controlled tests.

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure and reactivity studies of iron complexes with pybox ligands

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Limin; Gong, Dirong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Iron(II) complexes, [Fe(2,6-bis(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine)Cl2] ((Fe(Me2-pybox)Cl2), 3) and [Fe(2,6-bis(4,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine)Cl2] ((Fe(Ph2-pybox)Cl2), 4), have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Upon treatment of complex 3 with silver triflate and 4 with acetonitrile, [Fe(Me2-pybox)(CH3CN)OTf2] (5) and [Fe(Ph2-pybox)(CH3CN)2Cl][FeCl3] (6) were obtained, respectively. The bulkier phenyl substitutes were found not only to cause the elongation of the N-Fe bonds but also influence the reactivity of the Fe center.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and reactivity studies of iron complexes with pybox ligands

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Iron(II) complexes, [Fe(2,6-bis(4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine)Cl2] ((Fe(Me2-pybox)Cl2), 3) and [Fe(2,6-bis(4,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine)Cl2] ((Fe(Ph2-pybox)Cl2), 4), have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Upon treatment of complex 3 with silver triflate and 4 with acetonitrile, [Fe(Me2-pybox)(CH3CN)OTf2] (5) and [Fe(Ph2-pybox)(CH3CN)2Cl][FeCl3] (6) were obtained, respectively. The bulkier phenyl substitutes were found not only to cause the elongation of the N-Fe bonds but also influence the reactivity of the Fe center.

  18. A ReaxFF-based molecular dynamics study of the mechanisms of interactions between reactive oxygen plasma species and the Candida albicans cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Shi, L.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zou, L.; Zhang, L.

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas have attracted significant attention and have been widely used to inactivate pathogens, yet the mechanisms underlying the interactions between plasma-generated species and bio-organisms have not been elucidated clearly. In this paper, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate the mechanisms of interactions between reactive oxygen plasma species (O, OH, and O2) and β-1,6-glucan (a model for the C. albicans cell wall) from a microscopic point of view. Our simulations show that O and OH species can break structurally important C-C and C-O bonds, while O2 molecules exhibit only weak, non-bonded interactions with β-1,6-glucan. Hydrogen abstraction from hydroxyl or CH groups occurs first in all bond cleavage mechanisms. This is followed by a cascade of bond cleavage and double bond formation events. These lead to the destruction of the fungal cell wall. O and OH have similar effects related to their bond cleavage mechanisms. Our simulation results provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms underlying the interactions between reactive oxygen plasma species and the fungal cell wall of C. albicans at the atomic level.

  19. Iron-Coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane Performed by a Mixed Bacterial-Archaeal Community Based on Poorly Reactive Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Itay; Elvert, Marcus; Eckert, Werner; Kushmaro, Ariel; Vigderovich, Hanni; Zhu, Qingzeng; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Sivan, Orit

    2017-11-07

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was shown to reduce methane emissions by over 50% in freshwater systems, its main natural contributor to the atmosphere. In these environments iron oxides can become main agents for AOM, but the underlying mechanism for this process has remained enigmatic. By conducting anoxic slurry incubations with lake sediments amended with 13 C-labeled methane and naturally abundant iron oxides the process was evidenced by significant 13 C-enrichment of the dissolved inorganic carbon pool and most pronounced when poorly reactive iron minerals such as magnetite and hematite were applied. Methane incorporation into biomass was apparent by strong uptake of 13 C into fatty acids indicative of methanotrophic bacteria, associated with increasing copy numbers of the functional methane monooxygenase pmoA gene. Archaea were not directly involved in full methane oxidation, but their crucial participation, likely being mediators in electron transfer, was indicated by specific inhibition of their activity that fully stopped iron-coupled AOM. By contrast, inhibition of sulfur cycling increased 13 C-methane turnover, pointing to sulfur species involvement in a competing process. Our findings suggest that the mechanism of iron-coupled AOM is accomplished by a complex microbe-mineral reaction network, being likely representative of many similar but hidden interactions sustaining life under highly reducing low energy conditions.

  20. Hypoadiponectinemia, elevated iron and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and their relation with prostate size in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandeesha, H; Eldhose, A; Dorairajan, L N; Anandhi, B

    2017-09-01

    Elevated iron, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and hypoadiponectinemia are known to initiate tumour development. There is paucity of data regarding the above-mentioned parameters and their relation with prostate size in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The present study was designed to assess the levels of iron, hs-CRP and adiponectin levels and their association with prostate size in BPH patients. A total of 37 BPH cases and 36 controls were enrolled in the study. Iron, hs-CRP and adiponectin were estimated in both the groups. Iron and hs-CRP were significantly increased and adiponectin was significantly reduced in BPH cases when compared with controls. Iron (r = .397, p = .015), hs-CRP (r = .341, p = .039) and adiponectin (r = -.464, p = .004) were significantly associated with prostate size in BPH cases. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that iron acts as predictor of prostate size in BPH (R 2  = 0.395, β = 0.526, p = .001). We conclude that iron and hs-CRP are elevated and adiponectin is reduced in BPH cases and associated with prostate size. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Using iron-loaded sepiolite obtained by adsorption as a catalyst in the electro-Fenton oxidation of Reactive Black 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, O; Fernández de Dios, M A; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the possibility of using iron-loaded sepiolite, obtained by recovering iron from polluted water, as a catalyst in the electro-Fenton oxidation of organic pollutants in textile effluents. The removal of iron ions from aqueous solution by adsorption on sepiolite was studied in batch tests at iron concentrations between 100 and 1,000 ppm. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an electrochemical cell with a working volume of 0.15 L, an air flow of 1 L/min, and 3 g of iron-loaded sepiolite. An electric field was applied using a boron-doped diamond anode and a graphite sheet cathode connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. Reactive Black 5 (100 mg/L) was selected as the model dye. The adsorption isotherms proved the ability of the used adsorbent. The removal of the iron ion by adsorption on sepiolite was in the range of 80-100 % for the studied concentration range. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were found to be applicable in terms of the relatively high regression values. Iron-loaded sepiolite could be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process. Successive batch processes were performed at optimal working conditions (5 V and pH 2). The results indicate the suitability of the proposed combined process, adsorption to iron remediation followed by the application of the obtained iron-loaded sepiolite to the electro-Fenton technique, to oxidize polluted effluents.

  2. Decolorization of reactive dye using a photo-ferrioxalate system with brick grain-supported iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hui-Pin; Huang, Yao-Hui; Lee, Changha

    2011-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of a brick grain-supported iron oxide (denoted as B1) was tested for its activity to degrade Reactive Black 5 (RB5) in the presence of oxalic acid. B1 was obtained as a solid waste from a wastewater treatment plant, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherm analyses. The decolorization experiments were performed in a fluidized bed reactor with aeration under UV-A irradiation (λ = 365 nm). The effects of various factors such as solution pH, concentration of oxalic acid and dissolved oxygen on the decolorization of RB5 were evaluated considering the contributions of adsorption and photo-catalytic degradation. The role of dissolved iron in the removal of RB5 and the stability of B1 were also examined. In addition, the removal of TOC during the photo-catalytic reaction was monitored.

  3. Decolorization of reactive dye using a photo-ferrioxalate system with brick grain-supported iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Pin; Huang, Yao-Hui; Lee, Changha

    2011-04-15

    The photocatalytic activity of a brick grain-supported iron oxide (denoted as B1) was tested for its activity to degrade Reactive Black 5 (RB5) in the presence of oxalic acid. B1 was obtained as a solid waste from a wastewater treatment plant, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherm analyses. The decolorization experiments were performed in a fluidized bed reactor with aeration under UV-A irradiation (λ = 365 nm). The effects of various factors such as solution pH, concentration of oxalic acid and dissolved oxygen on the decolorization of RB5 were evaluated considering the contributions of adsorption and photo-catalytic degradation. The role of dissolved iron in the removal of RB5 and the stability of B1 were also examined. In addition, the removal of TOC during the photo-catalytic reaction was monitored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Decolorization of reactive dye using a photo-ferrioxalate system with brick grain-supported iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hui-Pin [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yao-Hui, E-mail: yhhuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Lee, Changha, E-mail: clee@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 698-805 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    The photocatalytic activity of a brick grain-supported iron oxide (denoted as B1) was tested for its activity to degrade Reactive Black 5 (RB5) in the presence of oxalic acid. B1 was obtained as a solid waste from a wastewater treatment plant, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm analyses. The decolorization experiments were performed in a fluidized bed reactor with aeration under UV-A irradiation ({lambda} = 365 nm). The effects of various factors such as solution pH, concentration of oxalic acid and dissolved oxygen on the decolorization of RB5 were evaluated considering the contributions of adsorption and photo-catalytic degradation. The role of dissolved iron in the removal of RB5 and the stability of B1 were also examined. In addition, the removal of TOC during the photo-catalytic reaction was monitored.

  5. Graduated characterization method using a multi-well microplate for reducing reactivity of nanoscale zero valent iron materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Salatas, Apostolos; Mines, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Even though nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been intensively studied for the treatment of a plethora of pollutants through reductive reaction, quantification of nZVI reactivity has not yet been standardized. Here, we adapted colorimetric assays for determining reductive activity of n...... with different compounds, combined with the use of a multi-well microplate based color assay, promises to be a useful and simple tool in various nZVI related research topics....

  6. Performance of a Zerovalent Iron Reactive Barrier for the Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater: Part 2. Geochemical Modeling and Solid Phase Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic uptake processes were evaluated in a zerovalent iron reactive barrier installed at a lead smelting facility using geochemical modeling, solid-phase analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. Aqueous speciation of arsenic plays a key role in directing arsenic...

  7. Electrochemical characterization of mixed self-assembled films of water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotube-poly(m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) and Iron(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Agboola, BO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The redox activities of water-soluble iron(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine (FeTSPc) and single-walled carbon nanotube-poly(m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) (SWCNT-PABS) adsorbed on a gold surface precoated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 2...

  8. Structure Distribution in Precise Cast Iron Moulded on Meltable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrbek B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Topic of this work is to compare metalurgy of cast irons poured into sand moulds and into shell molds at IEG Jihlava company and from it following differencies in structures of thin- and thick-walled castings. This work is dealing with investigation and experimental measurement on surfaces and sections suitable thin- and thick-walled investment castings at IEG Jihlava. Cast irons with flake graphite (grey cast iron and cast irons with spheroidal graphite (ductile cast iron. Both mechanical and physical properties are determined using calculations from as measured values of wall thicknesses L and Lu, Vickers hardness and remanent magnetism. Measurement results are discussed, findings are formulated and methods for castings metallurgical quality improvement are recommended finally.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of PAH oxidation by magnesium peroxides and iron oxides mixtures as reactive material for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valderrama, C.; Gamisans, X.; Cortina, J.L.; Farran, A.; Marti, V.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. They represent the largest group of compounds that are mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic and are included in the priority pollutants lists. In recent years, increasing attention has been drawn to PAH contamination in aquatic sediments. Biological aerobic degradation was earlier the promoted option to degrade PAH in soils and sediments; however this could be extended for decades. In this direction, addition of oxygen has been proposed as an effective way to speed up their degradation in contaminated soil or groundwater. This objective could be achieved either by adding oxygen releasing compounds or by using an oxygen pump. The latter option is not economically defensible due to the enormous power needed. The use of ex-situ technologies to treat contaminated soils is in general not effective due to the high costs and work efforts demanded to remove big quantities of soil. For that reason, the use of in-situ technologies based on degradation processes has been identified as a suitable approach. These technologies would reduce costs and environmental impacts due to reduction of soil transportations and digging activities. In-situ degradation of recalcitrant contaminants could be achieved by using strong oxidant agents by soil injection or by using permeable treatment wall or zones. Oxidants typically used have been hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and ozone. In situ chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and iron(II) mixtures) has been evaluated for BTEX and poly-aromatic compounds. The successful application of in situ Fenton's reagent chemical oxidation is based on an understanding of oxidant chemistry and the geology, hydrogeology and chemistry of the contaminant site. Choosing the proper conditions requires the determination of 1) the better way to promote the formation of the OH radicals that react with the

  10. Subcellular Iron Localization Mechanisms in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Aksoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic micro-nutrient element iron (Fe is present as a cofactor in the active sites of many metalloproteins with important roles in the plant. On the other hand, since it is excessively reactive, excess accumulation in the cell triggers the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to cell death. Therefore, iron homeostasis in the cell is very important for plant growth. Once uptake into the roots, iron is distributed to the subcellular compartments. Subcellular iron transport and hence cellular iron homeostasis is carried out through synchronous control of different membrane protein families. It has been discovered that expression levels of these membrane proteins increase under iron deficiency. Examination of the tasks and regulations of these carriers is very important in terms of understanding the iron intake and distribution mechanisms in plants. Therefore, in this review, the transporters responsible for the uptake of iron into the cell and its subcellular distribution between organelles will be discussed with an emphasis on the current developments about these transporters.

  11. Catalyst Design Using Nanoporous Iron for the Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Abdel-Fattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs have been synthesized via a novel chemical vapor deposition (CVD approach utilizing nanoporous, iron-supported catalysts. Stable aqueous dispersions of the CVD-grown nanotubes using an anionic surfactant were also obtained. The properties of the as-produced SWNTs were characterized through atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy and compared with purified SWNTs produced via the high-pressure CO (HiPCO method as a reference, and the nanotubes were observed with greater lengths than those of similarly processed HiPCO SWNTs.

  12. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  13. Preconcentration of ultra-trace amounts of iron and antimony using ion pair solid phase extraction with modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazelirad, Hamid; Taher, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Ion pair solid phase extraction was applied to the simultaneous preconcentration of iron and antimony. The ion pairs consisting of FeCl 4 − or SbCl 4 − anions and the benzyldimethyltetradecyl ammonium cation were formed on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, then eluted with nitric acid, and the elements finally quantified by ETAAS. The adsorption capacities of the impregnated MWCNTs are 9.2 mg g −1 for iron and 27.5 mg g −1 for antimony. The following analytical figures of merit were determined for iron and antimony, respectively: Enrichment factors of 210 and 230, assay precisions of ±5.3 % and ±4.8 %, linear calibration plots from 0.7 to 9.4 and 13.0 to 190 ng L −1 , and detection limits of 0.17 and 3.5 ng L −1 . The method was applied to the determination of iron and antimony in human hair, synthetic sample, and to the certified reference materials gold ore (MA-1b) and trace elements in water (SRM 1643d). (author)

  14. Microbial analysis of Zetaproteobacteria and co-colonizers of iron mats in the Troll Wall Vent Field, Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vander Roost

    Full Text Available Over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that Zetaproteobacteria are widespread in hydrothermal systems and that they contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of iron in these environments. However, how chemical factors control the distribution of Zetaproteobacteria and their co-occurring taxa remains elusive. Here we analysed iron mats from the Troll Wall Vent Field (TWVF located at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The samples were taken at increasing distances from high-temperature venting chimneys towards areas with ultraslow low-temperature venting, encompassing a large variety in geochemical settings. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of biogenic iron stalks in all samples. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling we found that relative abundances of Zetaproteobacteria in the iron mats varied from 0.2 to 37.9%. Biogeographic analyses of Zetaproteobacteria, using the ZetaHunter software, revealed the presence of ZetaOtus 1, 2 and 9, supporting the view that they are cosmopolitan. Relative abundances of co-occurring taxa, including Thaumarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Proteobacteria, also varied substantially. From our results, combined with results from previous microbiological and geochemical analyses of the TWVF, we infer that the distribution of Zetaproteobacteria is connected to fluid-flow patterns and, ultimately, variations in chemical energy landscapes. Moreover, we provide evidence for iron-oxidizing members of Gallionellaceae being widespread in TWVF iron mats, albeit at low relative abundances.

  15. Dirt in the Wound: Evaluating the Role of Iron in Antibacterial Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, K. D.; Williams, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    The recent discovery of antibacterial clay deposits which are effective in killing antibiotic resistant bacteria may lead to the discovery of mineral based antibacterial mechanisms. These antibacterial clays have been shown to prevent the growth of a broad spectrum of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli (antibiotic resistant strains) when tested in vitro. This study investigates the first antibacterial mineral deposit identified in the United States, the Oregon Mineral Technologies (OMT) mine, which formed from the hydrothermal alteration of porphyry andesites. Our hypothesis is that mixed-layered clay minerals containing nano-iron sulfides can release soluble transition metals at low pH which are antibacterial due to the rapid influx and precipitation of intracellular metal-oxides while generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damaging bacterial membranes. To test this hypothesis, E. coli (ATCC 25922) was reacted with clay suspensions and clay leachates (solutions equilibrated with clays for 24 hrs). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure the soluble transition metals that are leaching from the clays. Bioimaging using scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) were used to investigate the precipitation of intracellular mineral particles and redox state of the soluble metals reacting with the bacteria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using a spectrophotometric hydrogen peroxide assay (H2O2) assay. Aldehydes were measured using HPLC-UV-Vis (high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible). Antibacterial susceptibility testing and ICP-MS elemental analysis of the leachates reveals that low pH (2.5-3.1) samples containing mM levels of soluble Fe, Al and Ca are antibacterial. All other potential toxins are below the

  16. Reactivity of catecholamine-driven Fenton reaction and its relationships with iron(III) speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Victoria; Henríquez, Adolfo; Freer, Juanita; Contreras, David

    2015-03-01

    Fenton reaction is the main source of free radicals in biological systems. The reactivity of this reaction can be modified by several factors, among these iron ligands are important. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) are able to form Fe(III) complexes whose extension in the coordination number depends upon the pH. Fe(III)-catecholamine complexes have been related with the development of several pathologies. In this work, the ability of catecholamines to enhance the oxidative degradation of an organic substrate (veratryl alcohol, VA) through Fenton and Fenton-like reactions was studied. The initial VA degradation rate at different pH values and its relationship to the different iron species present in solution were determined. Furthermore, the oxidative degradation of VA after 24 hours of reaction and its main oxidation products were also determined. The catecholamine-driven Fenton and Fenton-like systems showed higher VA degradation compared to unmodified Fenton or Fenton-like systems, which also showed an increase in the oxidation state of the VA degradation product. All of this oxidative degradation takes place at pH values lower than 5.50, where the primarily responsible species would be the Fe(III) mono-complex. The presence of Fe(III) mono-complex is essential in the ability of catecholamines to increase the oxidative capacity of Fenton systems.

  17. Reactivity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Reaction: Distortion-Interaction Analysis along the Reaction Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzi; Osuna, Sílvia; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Qi, Xiaotian; Liu, Song; Houk, Kendall N; Lan, Yu

    2016-08-26

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition is one of the most powerful tools for the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Density functional theory at the B3-LYP level of theory has been used to investigate the reactivity of different-diameter SWCNTs (4-9,5) in Diels-Alder reactions with 1,3-butadiene; the reactivity was found to decrease with increasing SWCNT diameter. Distortion/interaction analysis along the whole reaction pathway was found to be a better way to explore the reactivity of this type of reaction. The difference in interaction energy along the reaction pathway is larger than that of the corresponding distortion energy. However, the distortion energy plots for these reactions show the same trend. Therefore, the formation of the transition state can be determined from the interaction energy. A lower interaction energy leads to an earlier transition state, which indicates a lower activation energy. The computational results also indicate that the original distortion of the SWCNTs leads to an increase in the reactivity of the SWCNTs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  19. KBS-3H. Reactive transport modelling of iron-bentonite interactions, an update for the Olkiluoto case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, M.; Wersin, P.

    2014-03-01

    According to the KBS-3H concept, each copper canister containing spent nuclear fuel will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer and a perforated cylinder. The originally planned material for the perforated steel cylinder shell has been carbon steel. After emplacement, the steel material will corrode anaerobically in contact with water and generate hydrogen, iron species and hydroxyl ions. Iron corrosion products will be formed at the steel surface, but in addition, the released species may interact with the clay and lead to undesirable effects, such as montmorillonite transformation and cementation. The impact of corrosion and iron-bentonite interactions has been assessed for Olkiluoto-specific conditions by reactive transport modelling using the CrunchFlow code. The main focus of this modelling exercise was to update the previous modelling study of Wersin et al. (2007). by accounting for new thermodynamic data on clays and uncertainties in precipitation rates of iron reaction products. The modelling strategy was first to select appropriate thermodynamic and kinetic mineral by review of current data, in particular of the THERMODDEM database, and by chemical equilibrium modelling. Second, a 1D reactive transport model which includes a corroding iron source from which solutes can diffuse into the buffer and interact with the clay and accessory minerals was set up in a similar way as that applied in Wersin et al. (2007). A number of test cases were defined, including a Base Case and various less likely as well as bounding cases. The modelling results largely confirmed previous findings in that the zone of alteration was predicted to remain spatially limited for very long times. However, they highlighted that under unfavourable conditions during the initial corrosion phase (before complete corrosion of the shell), pronounced increase in pH might occur, which would lead to enhanced dissolution of the montmorillonite clay. Factors favouring pH increase were found to be slow

  20. KBS-3H. Reactive transport modelling of iron-bentonite interactions, an update for the Olkiluoto case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, M. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Wersin, P. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    According to the KBS-3H concept, each copper canister containing spent nuclear fuel will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer and a perforated cylinder. The originally planned material for the perforated steel cylinder shell has been carbon steel. After emplacement, the steel material will corrode anaerobically in contact with water and generate hydrogen, iron species and hydroxyl ions. Iron corrosion products will be formed at the steel surface, but in addition, the released species may interact with the clay and lead to undesirable effects, such as montmorillonite transformation and cementation. The impact of corrosion and iron-bentonite interactions has been assessed for Olkiluoto-specific conditions by reactive transport modelling using the CrunchFlow code. The main focus of this modelling exercise was to update the previous modelling study of Wersin et al. (2007). by accounting for new thermodynamic data on clays and uncertainties in precipitation rates of iron reaction products. The modelling strategy was first to select appropriate thermodynamic and kinetic mineral by review of current data, in particular of the THERMODDEM database, and by chemical equilibrium modelling. Second, a 1D reactive transport model which includes a corroding iron source from which solutes can diffuse into the buffer and interact with the clay and accessory minerals was set up in a similar way as that applied in Wersin et al. (2007). A number of test cases were defined, including a Base Case and various less likely as well as bounding cases. The modelling results largely confirmed previous findings in that the zone of alteration was predicted to remain spatially limited for very long times. However, they highlighted that under unfavourable conditions during the initial corrosion phase (before complete corrosion of the shell), pronounced increase in pH might occur, which would lead to enhanced dissolution of the montmorillonite clay. Factors favouring pH increase were found to be slow

  1. Enhanced graphitization of c-CVD grown multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays assisted by removal of encapsulated iron-based phases under thermal treatment in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncel, Slawomir; Koziol, Krzysztof K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Annealing of the c-CVD MWCNT arrays toward complete removal of iron nanoparticles. • The ICP-AES protocol established for quantitative analysis of Fe-content in MWCNTs. • The vertical alignment from the as-grown MWCNT arrays found intact after annealing. • A route to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the MWCNT graphene walls. • A foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs. - Abstract: The effect of annealing on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays grown via catalytic Chemical Vapour Deposition (c-CVD) was studied. The treatment enabled to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the graphene walls of MWCNTs’, which was reflected in Raman spectroscopy by reduction of the I D /I G ratio by 27%. Moreover, the vertical alignment from the as-synthesized nanotube arrays was found intact after annealing. Not only graphitization of the nanotube walls occurred under annealing, but the amount of metal iron-based catalyst residues (interfering with numerous physicochemical properties, and hence applications of MWCNTs) was reduced from 9.00 wt.% (for pristine MWCNTs) to 0.02 wt.% as detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This value, established by a new analytical protocol, is the lowest recorded by now for purified c-CVD MWCNTs and, due to operating under atmospheric pressure, medium temperature regime (as for annealing processes), reasonable time-scale and metal residue non-specificity, it could lay the foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs

  2. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Marcus; Gibson, Timothy M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Bui, Thi Hao; Carozza, David A.; Sperling, Erik A.; Poirier, André; Cox, Grant M.; Wing, Boswell A.

    2017-07-01

    Iron isotopes have been widely applied to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's surface environments. However, it is still unclear whether iron cycling in the water column or during diagenesis represents the major control on the iron isotope composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Interpretation of isotopic data in terms of oceanic redox conditions is only possible if water column processes dominate the isotopic composition, whereas redox interpretations are less straightforward if diagenetic iron cycling controls the isotopic composition. In the latter scenario, iron isotope data is more directly related to microbial processes such as dissimilatory iron reduction. Here we present bulk rock iron isotope data from late Proterozoic marine shales from Svalbard, northwestern Canada, and Siberia, to better understand the controls on iron isotope fractionation in late Proterozoic marine environments. Bulk shales span a δ 56Fe range from -0.45 ‰ to +1.04 ‰ . Although δ 56Fe values show significant variation within individual stratigraphic units, their mean value is closer to that of bulk crust and hydrothermal iron in samples post-dating the ca. 717-660 Ma Sturtian glaciation compared to older samples. After correcting for the highly reactive iron content in our samples based on iron speciation data, more than 90% of the calculated δ 56Fe compositions of highly reactive iron falls in the range from ca. -0.8 ‰ to +3 ‰ . An isotope mass-balance model indicates that diagenetic iron cycling can only change the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron by control the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron. Considering a long-term decrease in the isotopic composition of the iron source to the dissolved seawater Fe(II) reservoir to be unlikely, we offer two possible explanations for the Neoproterozoic δ 56Fe trend. First, a decreasing supply of Fe(II) to the ferrous seawater iron reservoir could have caused the reservoir to decrease in size

  3. Heterojunction nanowires having high activity and stability for the reduction of oxygen: Formation by self-assembly of iron phthalocyanine with single walled carbon nanotubes (FePc/SWNTs)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia; Jia, Nana; Yang, Lijun; Su, Dong; Park, Jinseong; Choi, YongMan; Gong, Kuanping

    2014-01-01

    A self-assembly approach to preparing iron phthalocyanine/single-walled carbon nanotube (FePc/SWNT) heterojunction nanowires as a new oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst has been developed by virtue of water-adjusted dispersing in 1

  4. The effect of FR enhancement in reactive ion beam sputtered Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron- garnets: Bi2O3 nanocomposite films

    OpenAIRE

    Berzhansky, V.; Shaposhnikov, A.; Karavainikov, A.; Prokopov, A.; Mikhailova, T.; Lukienko, I.; Kharchenko, Yu.; Miloslavskaya, O.; Kharchenko, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of considerable Faraday rotation (FR) and figure of merit (Q) enhancement in Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron garnets: Bi2O3 nano-composite films produced by separate reactive ion beam sputtered Bi:YIG and Bi2O3 films was found. It reached threefold enhancement of the FR and twofold of the Q one on GGG substrates.

  5. A facile approach to the synthesis of hydrophobic iron tetrasulfophthalocyanine (FeTSPc) nano-aggregates on multi-walled carbon nanotubes: A potential electrocatalyst for the detection of dopamine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fashedemi, OO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A facile method has been utilized to synthesize ahydrophobic form of nano-scaled iron (II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine (nanoFeTSPc), integrated with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNT-nanoFeTSPc). The nanocomposite was characterized...

  6. The role of iron and reactive oxygen species in the production of CO2 in arctic soil waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Adrianna; Treibergs, Lija A.; Kling, George W.; Cory, Rose M.

    2018-03-01

    Hydroxyl radical (radOH) is a highly reactive oxidant of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the environment. radOH production in the dark was observed through iron and DOC mediated Fenton reactions in natural environments. Specifically, when dissolved oxygen (O2) was added to low oxygen and anoxic soil waters in arctic Alaska, radOH was produced in proportion to the concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) and DOC. Here we demonstrate that Fe(II) was the main electron donor to O2 to produce radOH. In addition to quantifying radOH production, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was detected in soil waters as a likely intermediate in radOH production from oxidation of Fe(II). For the first time in natural systems we detected carbon dioxide (CO2) production from radOH oxidation of DOC. More than half of the arctic soil waters tested showed production of CO2 under conditions conducive for production of radOH. Findings from this study strongly suggest that DOC is the main sink for radOH, and that radOH can oxidize DOC to yield CO2. Thus, this iron-mediated, dark chemical oxidation of DOC may be an important component of the arctic carbon cycle.

  7. Enhanced graphitization of c-CVD grown multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays assisted by removal of encapsulated iron-based phases under thermal treatment in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncel, Slawomir, E-mail: slawomir.boncel@polsl.pl [Department of Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 4, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koziol, Krzysztof K.K., E-mail: kk292@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Annealing of the c-CVD MWCNT arrays toward complete removal of iron nanoparticles. • The ICP-AES protocol established for quantitative analysis of Fe-content in MWCNTs. • The vertical alignment from the as-grown MWCNT arrays found intact after annealing. • A route to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the MWCNT graphene walls. • A foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs. - Abstract: The effect of annealing on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays grown via catalytic Chemical Vapour Deposition (c-CVD) was studied. The treatment enabled to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the graphene walls of MWCNTs’, which was reflected in Raman spectroscopy by reduction of the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio by 27%. Moreover, the vertical alignment from the as-synthesized nanotube arrays was found intact after annealing. Not only graphitization of the nanotube walls occurred under annealing, but the amount of metal iron-based catalyst residues (interfering with numerous physicochemical properties, and hence applications of MWCNTs) was reduced from 9.00 wt.% (for pristine MWCNTs) to 0.02 wt.% as detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This value, established by a new analytical protocol, is the lowest recorded by now for purified c-CVD MWCNTs and, due to operating under atmospheric pressure, medium temperature regime (as for annealing processes), reasonable time-scale and metal residue non-specificity, it could lay the foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs.

  8. Thermally stimulated iron oxide transformations and magnetic behaviour of cerium dioxide/iron oxide reactive sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luňáček, J., E-mail: jiri.lunacek@vsb.cz [Department of Physics, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Department 606, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Životský, O. [Department of Physics, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Department 606, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Jirásková, Y. [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Buršík, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Janoš, P. [Faculty of the Environment, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2016-10-15

    The present paper is devoted to detailed study of the magnetically separable sorbents based on a cerium dioxide/iron oxide composite annealed at temperatures T{sub a} = 773 K, 873 K, and 973 K. The X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy are used to determine the phase composition and microstructure morphology. Mössbauer spectroscopy at room (300 K) and low (5 K) temperatures has contributed to more exact identification of iron oxides and their transformations Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} → γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) → α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in dependence on calcination temperature. Different iron oxide phase compositions and grain size distributions influence the magnetic characteristics determined from the room- and low-temperature hysteresis loop measurements. The results are supported by zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization measurements allowing a quantitative estimation of the grain size distribution and its effect on the iron oxide transformations. - Highlights: •Magnetically separable sorbents based on a CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite were investigated. •Microstructure of sorbents was determined by XRD, TEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. •Magnetic properties were studied by hysteresis loops at room- and low-temperatures. •Phase transitions of iron oxides with increasing annealing temperature are observed.

  9. Structural and optical properties of amorphous oxygenated iron boron nitride thin films produced by reactive co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essafti, A.; Abouelaoualim, A.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Ech-chamikh, E.

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous oxygenated iron boron nitride (a-FeBN:O) thin films were prepared by reactive radio-frequency (RF) sputtering, from hexagonal boron nitride chips placed on iron target, under a total pressure of a gas mixture of argon and oxygen maintained at 1 Pa. The films were deposited onto silicon and glass substrates, at room temperature. The power of the generator RF was varied from 150 to 350 W. The chemical and structural analyses were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive of X-ray and X-ray reflectometry (XRR). The optical properties of the films were obtained from the optical transmittance and reflectance measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared wavelengths range. XPS reveals the presence of boron, nitrogen, iron and oxygen atoms and also the formation of different chemical bonds such as Fe-O, B-N, B-O and the ternary BNO phase. This latter phase is predominant in the deposited films as observed in the B 1s and N 1s core level spectra. As the RF power increases, the contribution of N-B bonds in the as-deposited films decreases. The XRR results show that the mass density of a-FeBN:O thin films increases from 2.6 to 4.12 g/cm 3 with increasing the RF power from 150 to 350 W. This behavior is more important for films deposited at RF power higher than 150 W, and has been associated with the enhancement of iron atoms in the film structure. The optical band gap decreases from 3.74 to 3.12 eV with increasing the RF power from 150 to 350 W.

  10. Effect of reaction environments on the reactivity of PCB (2-chlorobiphenyl) over activated carbon impregnated with palladized iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeok [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, 416 Yates Drive, Arlington, TX 76019-0308 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R., E-mail: al-abed.souhail@epa.gov [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles has been developed to treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated the effects of various reaction environments on the adsorption-mediated dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-ClBP) in the RAC system. The results were discussed in close connection to the implementation issue of the RAC system for the remediation of contaminated sites with PCBs. Adsorption event of 2-ClBP onto RAC limited the overall performance under condition with a 2-ClBP/RAC mass ratio of less than 1.0 x 10{sup -4} above which dechlorination of 2-ClBP adsorbed to RAC was the reaction rate-determining step. Acidic and basic conditions were harmful to 2-ClBP adsorption and iron stability while neutral pH showed the highest adsorption-promoted dechlorination of 2-ClBP and negligible metal leaching. Coexisting natural organic matter (NOM) slightly inhibited 2-ClBP adsorption onto RAC due to the partial partitioning of 2-ClBP into NOM in the liquid phase while the 2-ClBP absorbed into NOM, which also tended to adsorb onto RAC, was less available for the dechlorination reaction. Common anions slowed down 2-ClBP adsorption but adsorbed 2-ClBP was almost simultaneously dechlorinated. Some exceptions included strong inhibitory effect of carbonate species on 2-ClBP adsorption and severe detrimental effect of sulfite on 2-ClBP dechlorination. Results on treatment of 2-ClBP spiked to actual sediment supernatants implied site-specific reactivity of RAC.

  11. Assessment of solid reactive mixtures for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Mainelli, Sara; Toro, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Solid reactive mixtures were tested as filling material for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers for the treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters. Mixture selection was performed by taking into account the different mechanisms operating in sulphate and cadmium removal with particular attention to bioprecipitation and sorption onto the organic matrices in the mixtures. Suspensions of eight reactive mixtures were tested for sulphate removal (initial concentration 3 g L -1 ). Each mixture was made up of four main functional components: a mix of organic sources for bacterial growth, a neutralizing agent, a porous medium and zero-valent iron. The best mixture among the tested ones (M8: 6% leaves, 9% compost, 3% zero-valent iron, 30% silica sand, 30% perlite, 22% limestone) presented optimal conditions for SRB growth (pH 7.8 ± 0.1; E h = -410 ± 5 mV) and 83% sulphate removal in 22 days (25% due to bioreduction, 32% due to sorption onto compost and 20% onto leaves). M8 mixture allowed the complete abatement of cadmium with a significant contribution of sorption over bioprecipitation (6% Cd removal due to SRB activity). Sorption properties, characterised by potentiometric titrations and related modelling, were mainly due to carboxylic sites of organic components used in reactive mixtures.

  12. Development of a reactive force field for iron-oxyhydroxide systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, Masoud; van Duin, Adri C T; Kubicki, James D

    2010-06-03

    We adopt a classical force field methodology, ReaxFF, which is able to reproduce chemical reactions, and train its parameters for the thermodynamics of iron oxides as well as energetics of a few iron redox reactions. Two parametrizations are developed, and their results are compared with quantum calculations or experimental measurements. In addition to training, two test cases are considered: the lattice parameters of a selected set of iron minerals, and the molecular dynamics simulation of a model for alpha-FeOOH (goethite)-water interaction. Reliability and limitations of the developed force fields in predicting structure and energetics are discussed.

  13. Metallorganic routes to nanoscale iron and titanium oxide particles encapsulated in mesoporous alumina: formation, physical properties, and chemical reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J J; Czap, N; Hagen, J; Engstler, J; Ensling, J; Gütlich, P; Reinoehl, U; Bertagnolli, H; Luis, F; de Jongh, L J; Wark, M; Grubert, G; Hornyak, G L; Zanoni, R

    2000-12-01

    Iron and titanium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized in parallel mesopores of alumina by a novel organometallic "chimie douce" approach that uses bis(toluene)iron(0) (1) and bis(toluene)titanium(0) (2) as precursors. These complexes are molecular sources of iron and titanium in a zerovalent atomic state. In the case of 1, core shell iron/iron oxide particles with a strong magnetic coupling between both components, as revealed by magnetic measurements, are formed. Mössbauer data reveal superparamagnetic particle behavior with a distinct particle size distribution that confirms the magnetic measurements. The dependence of the Mössbauer spectra on temperature and particle size is explained by the influence of superparamagnetic relaxation effects. The coexistence of a paramagnetic doublet and a magnetically split component in the spectra is further explained by a distribution in particle size. From Mössbauer parameters the oxide phase can be identified as low-crystallinity ferrihydrite oxide. In agreement with quantum size effects observed in UV-visible studies, TEM measurements determine the size of the particles in the range 5-8 nm. The particles are mainly arranged alongside the pore walls of the alumina template. TiO2 nanoparticles are formed by depositing 2 in mesoporous alumina template. This produces metallic Ti, which is subsequently oxidized to TiO2 (anatase) within the alumina pores. UV-visible studies show a strong quantum confinement effect for these particles. From UV-visible investigations the particle size is determined to be around 2 nm. XPS analysis of the iron- and titania- embedded nanoparticles reveal the presence of Fe2O3 and TiO2 according to experimental binding energies and the experimental line shapes. Ti4+ and Fe3+ are the only oxidation states of the particles which can be determined by this technique. Hydrogen reduction of the iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles at 500 degrees C under flowing H2/N2 produces a catalyst, which is active

  14. Dietary Factors Modulate Iron Uptake in Caco-2 Cells from an Iron Ingot Used as a Home Fortificant to Prevent Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Rodriguez-Ramiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is a major public health concern and nutritional approaches are required to reduce its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the iron bioavailability of a novel home fortificant, the “Lucky Iron Fish™” (LIF (www.luckyironfish.com/shop, Guelph, Canada and the impact of dietary factors and a food matrix on iron uptake from LIF in Caco-2 cells. LIF released a substantial quantity of iron (about 1.2 mM at pH 2 but this iron was only slightly soluble at pH 7 and not taken up by cells. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA maintained the solubility of iron released from LIF (LIF-iron at pH 7 and facilitated iron uptake by the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In vitro digestion of LIF-iron in the presence of peas increased iron uptake 10-fold. However, the addition of tannic acid to the digestion reduced the cellular iron uptake 7.5-fold. Additionally, LIF-iron induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, similar to ferrous sulfate, but this effect was counteracted by the addition of AA. Overall, our data illustrate the major influence of dietary factors on iron solubility and bioavailability from LIF, and demonstrate that the addition of AA enhances iron uptake and reduces ROS in the intestinal lumen.

  15. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN THE SINGLE, BINARY, AND TERNARY SYSTEMS OF COTTON BURR COMPOST, ZEROVALENT IRON, AND SEDIMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and ...

  16. Development of Vmax III. Magnetic wall climbing robot with holonomic and omni-directional mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Kiyoshi; Hirose, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    Wall-climbing robots having holonomic and omni-directional mobility would enhance the manipulation performance of the mounted arm and enable it to execute various tasks on the surface of large structures. This study focuses on the wall-climbing robots having permanent magnet attractive units to stick to the surface of iron structure such as atomic reactors and discuss the development of a specific holonomic and omni-directional wall-climbing mechanisms. Basic driving mechanism of the wall-climbing robot is based on our former invention named Omni Disk which consists of multiple rollers attached to one side of a rotating disk and having a mechanism to direct the rollers to the same direction. We firstly discuss about the mechanical improvements of the Omni Disk to make it lightweight and low cost. We next discusses about four types of methods to attach permanent magnets to the wall-climbing robot and generates attractive force on the iron wall and select the best type based on the motion experiments about the constructed models. As the result of these considerations, we developed a holonomic and omni-directional wall-climbing robot named Vmax III which consists of three Omni Disks having permanent magnet at their center having the function to change the magnetic attractive force. By using the Vmax III, we studied about the relation among the magnetic attractive force of three Omni Disks, posture of the Vmax III and inclination angle of the iron wall and clarified the optimized distribution of the magnetic attractive force of the Omni Disks in different inclination of the iron wall. (author)

  17. On the structure and reactivity of small iron clusters with benzene, [Fe{sub n}–C{sub 6}H{sub 6}]{sup 0,+,−}, n ⩽ 7: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, Israel, E-mail: israelv@unam.mx

    2016-09-12

    Highlights: • Optimized structures of iron clusters capped with one benzene molecule. • Adsorption of benzene molecules quenches the magnetic moment of Fe clusters. • Adsorption of benzene on iron clusters leads to activation of non IR active vibrations of benzene. • Adsorption of benzene in small Fe{sub n} clusters is explained by the charge transfer model. • Relation between Fe{sub n}–benzene electron affinity and reactivity is observed. - Abstract: The structural, energetic, electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties of iron–benzene clusters, Fe{sub n}–C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, n ⩽ 7, were calculated using an all-electron density functional theory, DFT, with the generalized gradient approximation and the 6−311++G(2d,2p) basis set. A proposal regarding the mechanism of the adsorption of benzene on iron clusters related to the charge transfer model is described. A direct relation between the calculated electron affinity, EA, of the Fe{sub n}–C{sub 6}H{sub 6} clusters and their reactivity were also determined.

  18. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangiri-Rad Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  19. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  20. Reductive precipitation of neptunium on iron surfaces under anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Cui, D.; Grolimund, D.; Rondinella, V. V.; Brütsch, R.; Amme, M.; Kutahyali, C.; Wiss, A. T.; Puranen, A.; Spahiu, K.

    2017-12-01

    Reductive precipitation of the radiotoxic nuclide 237Np from nuclear waste on the surface of iron canister material at simulated deep repository conditions was investigated. Pristine polished as well as pre-corroded iron specimens were interacted in a deoxygenated solution containing 10-100 μM Np(V), with 10 mM NaCl and 2 mM NaHCO3 as background electrolytes. The reactivity of each of the two different systems was investigated by analyzing the temporal evolution of the Np concentration in the reservoir. It was observed that pre-oxidized iron specimen with a 40 μm Fe3O4 corrosion layer are considerably more reactive regarding the reduction and immobilization of aqueous Np(V) as compared to pristine polished Fe(0) surfaces. 237Np immobilized by the reactive iron surfaces was characterized by scanning electron microscopy as well as synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. At the end of experiments, a 5-8 μm thick Np-rich layer was observed to be formed ontop of the Fe3O4 corrosion layer on the iron specimen. The findings from this work are significant in the context of performance assessments of deep geologic repositories using iron as high level radioactive waste (HLW) canister material and are of relevance regarding removing pollutants from contaminated soil or groundwater aquifer systems.

  1. Design of in-situ reactive wall systems - a combined hydraulical-geochemical-economical simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, G.; Tolksdorff, J.; Schad, H.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a coupled hydraulical-geochemical-economical simulation model for the design of in-situ reactive wall systems. More specific, the model is used for cost-optimization and sensitivity analysis of a funnel-and-gate system with an in-situ sorption reactor. The groundwater flow and advective transport are simulated under steady-state conditions using a finite-difference numerical model. This model is coupled to an analytical solution describing the sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds within the reactor (gate). The third part of the model system is an economical model which calculates (a) the investment costs for the funnel-and-gate construction and (b) the operation cost based on the number of reactor refills, which depends on the breakthrough time for a given contaminant and the anticipated total operation time. For practical applications a simplified approximation of the cost-function is derived and tested

  2. Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Le, Huong; Brouwer, Inge D; Burema, Jan; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

    2006-12-05

    The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children in six primary schools in Tam Nong district of Phu Tho province were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing two groups receiving iron fortified instant noodles or iron supplementation for 6 months and a control group, with children in all groups having been dewormed. Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for haemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haemoglobinopathies analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on haemoglobin concentration, SF, TfR, body iron, and anaemic status as outcome variables. The improvement of haemoglobin, SF, and body iron level in the group receiving iron fortification was 42% (2.6 g/L versus 6.2 g/L), 20% (23.5 microg/L versus 117.3 microg/L), and 31.3% (1.4 mg/kg versus 4.4 mg/kg) of that in the iron supplementation group. The prevalence of anaemia dropped to 15.1% in the control group, with an additional reduction of anaemia of 8.5% in the iron supplementation group. The additional reduction due to iron fortification was 5.4%, which amounts to well over 50% of the impact of supplementation. In conclusion, the efficacy of iron fortification based on reduction of prevalence of anaemia, and on the change in haemoglobin level, is about half of the maximum impact of supplementation in case of optimal compliance. Thus, in a population of anaemic children with mild iron deficiency, iron fortification should be the preferred strategy to combat anaemia.

  3. Examining an underappreciated control on lignin decomposition in soils? Effects of reactive manganese species on intact plant cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, M.; Bougoure, J.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Lignin comprises a dominant proportion of carbon fluxes into the soil (representing up to 50% of plant litter and roots). Two lines of evidence suggest that manganese (Mn) acts as a strong controlling factor on the residence time of lignin in soil ecosystems. First, Mn content is highly correlated with litter decomposition in temperate and boreal forest soil ecosystems and, second, microbial agents of lignin degradation have been reported to rely on reactive Mn(III)-complexes to specifically oxidize lignin. However, few attempts have been made to isolate the mechanisms responsible for the apparent Mn-dependence of lignin decomposition in soils. Here we tested the hypothesis that Mn(III)-oxalate complexes may act as a perforating 'pretreatment' for structurally intact plant cell walls. We propose that these diffusible oxidizers are small enough to penetrate and react with non-porous ligno-cellulose in cell walls. This process was investigated by reacting single Zinnia elegans tracheary elements with Mn(III)-oxalate complexes in a continuous flow-through microreactor. The uniformity of cultured tracheary elements allowed us to examine Mn(III)-induced changes in cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure on the micro-scale using fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as synchrotron-based infrared and X-ray spectromicroscopy. Our results show that Mn(III)-complexes substantially oxidize specific lignin components of the cell wall, solubilize decomposition products, severely undermine the cell wall integrity, and cause cell lysis. We conclude that Mn(III)-complexes induce oxidative damage in plant cell walls that renders ligno-cellulose substrates more accessible for microbial lignin- and cellulose-decomposing enzymes. Implications of our results for the rate limiting impact of soil Mn speciation and availability on litter decomposition in forest soils will be discussed.

  4. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic studies of iron-containing biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takehiro; Seto, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we report recent nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic (NRVS) studies of iron-containing biomolecules and their model complexes. The NRVS is synchrotron-based element-specific vibrational spectroscopic methods. Unlike Raman and infrared spectroscopy, the NRVS can investigate all iron motions without selection rules, which provide atomic level insights into the structure/reactivity correlation of biologically relevant iron complexes. (author)

  5. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B; Heap, Michael J; Damby, David E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-01-12

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called 'vitrified forts'. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  6. Optimization of Reactive Blue 21 removal by Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Reza Sohrabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Reactive Blue 21 (RB21 is one of the dye compounds which is harmful to human life, a simple and sensitive method to remove this pollutant from wastewater is using Nano Zero-Valent Iron (NZVI catalyst. In this paper, a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD was employed for response surface modeling to optimize experimental conditions of the RB21 removal from aqueous solution. The significance and adequacy of the model were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Four independent variables—including catalyst amount (0.1–0.9 g, pH (3.5–9.5, removal time (30–150 s and dye concentration (10–50 mg/L—were transformed to coded values and consequently second order quadratic model was built to predict the responses. The result showed that under optimized experimental conditions the removal of RB21 was over 95%.

  7. Characterization of iron speciation in urban and rural single particles using XANES spectroscopy and micro X-ray fluorescence measurements: investigating the relationship between speciation and fractional iron solubility

    OpenAIRE

    Oakes, M.; Weber, R. J.; Lai, B.; Russell, A.; Ingall, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    Soluble iron in fine atmospheric particles has been identified as a public health concern by participating in reactions that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The mineralogy and oxidation state (speciation) of iron have been shown to influence fractional iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron). In this study, iron speciation was determined in single particles at urban and rural sites in Georgia USA using synchrotron-based techniques, such as X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES...

  8. Investigation on reactivity of iron nickel oxides in chemical looping dry reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen; He, Fang; Chen, Dezhen; Zhao, Kun; Wei, Guoqiang; Zheng, Anqing; Zhao, Zengli; Li, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    Iron nickel oxides as oxygen carriers were investigated to clarify the reaction mechanism of NiFe_2O_4 material during the chemical looping dry reforming (CLDR) process. The thermodynamic analysis showed that metallic Fe can be oxidized into Fe_3O_4 by CO_2, but metallic Ni cannot. The oxidizability of the four oxygen carriers was in the order of NiO > synthetic NiFe_2O_4 spinel > NiO-Fe_2O_3 mixed oxides > Fe_2O_3, and the reducibility sequence of their reduced products was synthetic NiFe_2O_4 spinel > NiO-Fe_2O_3 mixed oxides > Fe_2O_3 > NiO. The NiO showed the best oxidizability but it was easy to cause CH_4 cracking and its reduced product (Ni) did not recover lattice oxygen under CO_2 atmosphere. It only produced 74 mL CO for 1 g Fe_2O_3 during the CO_2 reforming because of its weak oxidizability. The Redox ability of synthetic NiFe_2O_4 was obvious higher than that of NiO-Fe_2O_3 mixed oxides due to the synergistic effect of metallic Fe-Ni in the spinel structure. 1 g synthetic NiFe_2O_4 can produce 238 mL CO, which was twice higher than that of 1 g NiO-Fe_2O_3 mixed oxides (111 mL). A part of Fe element was divorced from the NiFe_2O_4 spinel structure after one cycle, which was the major reason for degradation of reactivity of NiFe_2O_4 oxygen carrier. - Highlights: • A synergistic effect of Fe/Ni can improve the reactivity of oxygen carrier (OC). • The oxidizability sequence of four OCs is NiO > NiFe_2O_4 > mixed NiO + Fe_2O_3 > Fe_2O_3. • The reducibility sequence of four OCs is NiFe_2O_4 > mixed NiO + Fe_2O_3 > Fe_2O_3 > NiO. • The formation of Fe (Ni) alloy phase facilitates more CO_2 reduced into CO. • Part of Fe is divorced from the spinel structure, leading to the degeneration of OC reactivity.

  9. Walker-type velocity oscillations of magnetic domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella-Coleiro, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    We report stroboscopic observations of the radial motion of a magnetic bubble domain wall in an epitaxial LuGdAl iron garnet film. At high drive fields, initial velocities up to 9500 cm/sec were measured, and the domain wall was observed to move backwards during the field pulse, in agreement with calculations based on the Walker model

  10. ARSENIC INTERACTION WITH IRON (II, III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARSENIC REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerovalent iron is being used in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate groundwater arsenic contamination. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron under anaerobic conditions. The interaction between arsenic and this green...

  11. A Novel Method for the Filterless Preconcentration of Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2005-01-01

    A novel method of analysis of iron by filterless preconcentration is presented. This is the first example of efficient preconcentration of a refractory transition metal where coprecipitation and columns were omitted. The method applies a manifold of flow injection analysis (FIA) to iron species...... that are preconcentrated on the inner walls of a tubular reactor. It was found that the adsorption of iron species to the walls was particularly pronounced in reactors of nylon material and enrichment factors of 30-35 could be attained, as dependent on the length of the reactor and on the time of preconcentration....... In the preconcentration step of the FIA accessory, the optimum efficacy was obtained when the acidity of the samples were adjusted by HCl to pH = 2.5 whereas the ammonia preconcentration buffer should be kept alkaline at pH = 9.8. After being preconcentrated on the tubular reactor, the iron species were eluted...

  12. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) synthesis in a Mg-aminoclay solution exhibits increased stability and reactivity for reductive decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Lee, Young-Chul; Mines, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has often been explored as a reductant for detoxification of pollutants in environmental clean-ups. Despite the large surface area and superior reactivity of nZVI, its limited stability is a major obstacle in applying nZVI for in situ subsurface remediation, e......ZVI particles with higher crystallinity were produced. Stability of nZVI particles were evaluated using a sedimentation test and a dynamic light scattering technique. The characteristic time increased from 6.71 to 83.8 min, and particle (aggregate diameter) size decreased from 5132 to 186 nm with increasing...

  13. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ji, E-mail: yangji@ecust.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  14. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ji; Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m 2 g -1 , the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  15. Effect of cation exchange on the subsequent reactivity of lignite chars to steam. [108 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippo, E. J.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the role which cations in coal play in the subsequent reactivity of chars. It is hoped that this investigation will aid in an understanding of the catalytic nature of inorganic constituents in coal during its gasification. It was found that increased heat treatment temperature decreased reactivity. The decrease in reactivity was shown to be due, at least in part, to the changes in the nature of the cation with increased heat treatment temperature. Reactivity was found to be a linear function of the amount of Ca(++) exchange on the demineralized coal. The constant utilization factor over the wide range of loadings employed indicated that below 800/sup 0/C the calcium did not markedly sinter. Potassium, sodium, and calcium-containing chars were found to be much more reactive than the iron and magnesium-containing chars. However, the iron and magnesium containing chars were more reactive than chars produced from the demineralized coal. The iron char was highly active at first but the iron phase was quickly oxidized to a comparatively unreactive ..gamma..Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ phase. The state of magnesium was found to be MgO. Sodium and calcium were equally active as catalysts but not as active as potassium.

  16. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2 expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wilton Vasconcelos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene's expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg and Mo, pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu and Ni, leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni and Mg and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni. Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and

  17. Environmental life cycle assessment of permeable reactive barriers: effects of construction methods, reactive materials and groundwater constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Mark S H; Lo, Irene M C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of the construction methods, materials of reactive media and groundwater constituents on the environmental impacts of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The PRB is assumed to be installed at a simulated site contaminated by either Cr(VI) alone or Cr(VI) and As(V). Results show that the trench-based construction method can reduce the environmental impacts of the remediation remarkably compared to the caisson-based method due to less construction material consumption by the funnel. Compared to using the zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and quartz sand mixture, the use of the Fe(0) and iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) mixture can reduce the environmental impacts. In the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) in groundwater, the environmental impacts generated by the reactive media were significantly increased because of the higher usage of Fe(0). The environmental impacts are lower by using the Fe(0) and IOCS mixture in the groundwater with NOM, compared with using the Fe(0) and quartz sand mixture. Since IOCS can enhance the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) and As(V), the usage of the Fe(0) can be reduced, which in turn reduces the impacts induced by the reactive media.

  18. Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Khan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children in six primary schools in Tam Nong district of Phu Tho province were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing two groups receiving iron fortified instant noodles or iron supplementation for 6 months and a control group, with children in all groups having been dewormed. Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for haemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF, serum transferrin receptor (TfR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and haemoglobinopathies analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on haemoglobin concentration, SF, TfR, body iron, and anaemic status as outcome variables. The improvement of haemoglobin, SF, and body iron level in the group receiving iron fortification was 42% (2.6 g/L versus 6.2 g/L, 20% (23.5 μg/L versus 117.3 μg/L, and 31.3% (1.4 mg/kg versus 4.4 mg/kg of that in the iron supplementation group. The prevalence of anaemia dropped to 15.1% in the control group, with an additional reduction of anaemia of 8.5% in the iron supplementation group. The additional reduction due to iron fortification was 5.4%, which amounts to well over 50% of the impact of supplementation. In conclusion, the efficacy of iron fortification based on reduction of prevalence of anaemia, and on the change in haemoglobin level, is about half of the maximum impact of supplementation in case of optimal compliance. Thus, in a population of anaemic children with mild iron deficiency, iron fortification should be the preferred strategy to combat anaemia.

  19. Electronic properties and surface reactivity of SrO-terminated SrTiO3 and SrO-terminated iron-doped SrTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staykov, Aleksandar; Tellez, Helena; Druce, John; Wu, Ji; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Kilner, John

    2018-01-01

    Surface reactivity and near-surface electronic properties of SrO-terminated SrTiO 3 and iron doped SrTiO 3 were studied with first principle methods. We have investigated the density of states (DOS) of bulk SrTiO 3 and compared it to DOS of iron-doped SrTiO 3 with different oxidation states of iron corresponding to varying oxygen vacancy content within the bulk material. The obtained bulk DOS was compared to near-surface DOS, i.e. surface states, for both SrO-terminated surface of SrTiO 3 and iron-doped SrTiO 3 . Electron density plots and electron density distribution through the entire slab models were investigated in order to understand the origin of surface electrons that can participate in oxygen reduction reaction. Furthermore, we have compared oxygen reduction reactions at elevated temperatures for SrO surfaces with and without oxygen vacancies. Our calculations demonstrate that the conduction band, which is formed mainly by the d-states of Ti, and Fe-induced states within the band gap of SrTiO 3 , are accessible only on TiO 2 terminated SrTiO 3 surface while the SrO-terminated surface introduces a tunneling barrier for the electrons populating the conductance band. First principle molecular dynamics demonstrated that at elevated temperatures the surface oxygen vacancies are essential for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  20. Bacteria attenuation by iron electrocoagulation governed by interactions between bacterial phosphate groups and Fe(III) precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaire, Caroline; van Genuchten, Case M; Amrose, Susan E; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-10-15

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) is a low-cost process in which Fe(II) generated from an Fe(0) anode reacts with dissolved O2 to form (1) Fe(III) precipitates with an affinity for bacterial cell walls and (2) bactericidal reactive oxidants. Previous work suggests that Fe-EC is a promising treatment option for groundwater containing arsenic and bacterial contamination. However, the mechanisms of bacteria attenuation and the impact of major groundwater ions are not well understood. In this work, using the model indicator Escherichia coli (E. coli), we show that physical removal via enmeshment in EC precipitate flocs is the primary process of bacteria attenuation in the presence of HCO3(-), which significantly inhibits inactivation, possibly due to a reduction in the lifetime of reactive oxidants. We demonstrate that the adhesion of EC precipitates to cell walls, which results in bacteria encapsulation in flocs, is driven primarily by interactions between EC precipitates and phosphate functional groups on bacteria surfaces. In single solute electrolytes, both P (0.4 mM) and Ca/Mg (1-13 mM) inhibited the adhesion of EC precipitates to bacterial cell walls, whereas Si (0.4 mM) and ionic strength (2-200 mM) did not impact E. coli attenuation. Interestingly, P (0.4 mM) did not affect E. coli attenuation in electrolytes containing Ca/Mg, consistent with bivalent cation bridging between bacterial phosphate groups and inorganic P sorbed to EC precipitates. Finally, we found that EC precipitate adhesion is largely independent of cell wall composition, consistent with comparable densities of phosphate functional groups on Gram-positive and Gram-negative cells. Our results are critical to predict the performance of Fe-EC to eliminate bacterial contaminants from waters with diverse chemical compositions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MCNP modelling of the wall effects observed in tissue-equivalent proportional counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J L; Townsend, L W

    2002-01-01

    Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) utilise tissue-equivalent materials to depict homogeneous microscopic volumes of human tissue. Although both the walls and gas simulate the same medium, they respond to radiation differently. Density differences between the two materials cause distortions, or wall effects, in measurements, with the most dominant effect caused by delta rays. This study uses a Monte Carlo transport code, MCNP, to simulate the transport of secondary electrons within a TEPC. The Rudd model, a singly differential cross section with no dependence on electron direction, is used to describe the energy spectrum obtained by the impact of two iron beams on water. Based on the models used in this study, a wall-less TEPC had a higher lineal energy (keV.micron-1) as a function of impact parameter than a solid-wall TEPC for the iron beams under consideration. An important conclusion of this study is that MCNP has the ability to model the wall effects observed in TEPCs.

  2. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-02-26

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a

  3. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe 0 ) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe 0 and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu 2+ ) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe 0 barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a factor of three when

  4. Process for the manufacture of a shielding or container wall assembled from components in plants with radioactive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The shielding or container wall is assembled from cast iron components. Liquid lead at a temperature of 500 0 C is introduced into the gaps between the cast iron components by means of a lead pump and a heated lance. The casting can be done at several positions of the container wall. To increase the flow paths of the lead, the walls with gaps are provided with a ground cork layer. (DG) [de

  5. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Cao, Limei; Guo, Rui; Jia, Jinping

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m(2)g(-1), the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) Studies of Single Iron Nanoparticle Carburization in Synthesis Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Zhang, Chenghua; Li, Yongwang

    2017-01-01

    Structuralevolution of iron nanoparticles involving the formationand growth of iron carbide nuclei in the iron nanoparticle was directlyvisualized at the atomic level, using environmental transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) under reactive conditions mimicking Fischer–Tropschsynthesis. Formation...... and electronenergy-loss spectra provides a detailed picture from initial activationto final degradation of iron under synthesis gas....

  7. Efficiency of Electrocoagulation for Removal of Reactive Yellow 14 from Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yaria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Discharge of textile industry colored wastewater without enough treatment into natural water resources cause serious pollution. Most of the conventional wastewater treatment methods are not effective enough to remove these dyes from wastewater. In this study, efficiency of electrocoagulation process with iron electrodes for treatment of Reactive Yellow 14 dye from synthetic solution has been studied and concluded. Materials & Methods: This experiment was conducted in a batch system with a volume of 2 L that had been equipped with 4 iron electrodes. The effect of operating parameters, such as voltage, time of reaction, initial dye concentration, and interelectrode distance on the dye removal efficiency was investigated. Results: In optimum condition (pH 2, voltage 40 V, electrolysis time 25 min, and interelectrode distance 1 cm, electrocoagulation method was able to remove 99.27% of Reactive Yellow 14 from synthetic solution. Conclusions: Electrocoagulation process by iron electrode is an efficient method for removal of reactive dyes from colored solution.

  8. Multifunctional carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles embedded in their walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattia, D; Korneva, G; Sabur, A; Friedman, G; Gogotsi, Y

    2007-01-01

    Controlled amounts of nanoparticles ranging in size and composition were embedded in the walls of carbon nanotubes during a template-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. The encapsulation of gold nanoparticles enabled surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of glycine inside the cavity of the nanotubes. Iron oxide particles are partially reduced to metallic iron during the CVD process giving the nanotubes ferromagnetic behaviour. At high nanoparticle concentrations, particle agglomerates can form. These agglomerates or larger particles, which are only partially embedded in the walls of the nanotubes, are covered by additional carbon layers inside the hollow cavity of the tube producing hillocks inside the nanotubes, with sizes comparable to the bore of the tube

  9. Adsorption of Reactive Red M-2BE dye from water solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fernando M; Bergmann, Carlos P; Fernandes, Thais H M; Lima, Eder C; Royer, Betina; Calvete, Tatiana; Fagan, Solange B

    2011-09-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and powdered activated carbon were used as adsorbents for the successful removal of Reactive Red M-2BE textile dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised by infrared spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of pH, shaking time and temperature on adsorption capacity were studied. In the acidic pH region (pH 2.0), the adsorption of the dye was favourable using both adsorbents. The contact time to obtain equilibrium at 298K was fixed at 1h for both adsorbents. The activation energy of the adsorption process was evaluated from 298 to 323K for both adsorbents. The Avrami fractional-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data compared with pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order kinetic adsorption models. For Reactive Red M-2BE dye, the equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. Simulated dyehouse effluents were used to check the applicability of the proposed adsorbents for effluent treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ARSENATE AND ARSENITE SORPTION AND ARSENITE OXIDATION BY IRON (II, III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron that is being used in permeable reactive barriers to remediate groundwater arsenic contamination. To optimize the design of iron barriers, it is important to evaluate the influence of geoch...

  11. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, S; Zimmermann, M B

    2010-05-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration or =4.5 (functional iron deficiency). After excluding subjects with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, iron overload was defined as PF >200 microg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (Pmarathon runners. Median PF among males was 104 microg/l, and the upper limit of the PF distribution in males was 628 microg/l. Iron overload was found in 19 out of 127 (15.0%) men but only 2 out of 43 in women (4.7%). Gender (male sex), but not age, was a predictor of higher PF (Pperformance, our findings indicate excess body iron may be common in male recreational runners and suggest supplements should only be used if tests of iron status indicate deficiency.

  12. Synthesis by reactive grinding of molybdenum iron bimetallic nitride; Sintesis por molienda reactiva del nitruro bimetalico Mo-Fe: Mo{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldan, M. A.; Ortega, A.; Palencia, I.; Real, C.

    2008-07-01

    The transition metal nitride ternary show similar properties to the binary nitride and some times this behaviour are improved. In the present work, the molybdenum-iron nitride has been prepared by reactive grinding form the two metals under nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 11 bar. The characterization of the compounds is presented and it is also shown a study of the stability of the nitride under several atmospheres. (Author) 42 refs.

  13. Draft ASME code case on ductile cast iron for transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, T.; Arai, T.; Hirose, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Tezuka, Y.; Urabe, N.; Hueggenberg, R.

    2004-01-01

    The current Rules for Construction of ''Containment Systems for Storage and Transport Packagings of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Material and Waste'' of Division 3 in Section III of ASME Code (2001 Edition) does not include ductile cast iron in its list of materials permitted for use. The Rules specify required fracture toughness values of ferritic steel material for nominal wall thickness 5/8 to 12 inches (16 to 305 mm). New rule for ductile cast iron for transport packaging of which wall thickness is greater than 12 inches (305mm) is required

  14. Reactive oxygen species in health and disease : Finding the right balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijst, Monique

    2016-01-01

    When oxygen takes up an electron, reactive oxygen species are formed. These free radicals can react with important molecules in our body (DNA, proteins), just like iron rusts (oxidation). Too many reactive oxygen species, called oxidative stress, result in cellular damage causing either cell death

  15. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  16. Long-term performance of elemental iron and hydroxyapatite for uranium retention in permeable reactive barriers used for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, V.

    2007-01-01

    Elemental iron (Fe 0 ) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were evaluated as reactive mate-rials for use in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove uranium from conta-minated groundwater. Special attention was given to the long-term performance of the materials, which was investigated by means of column tests with a duration of up to 30 months using two different artificial groundwaters (AGW) with varying composition and uranium concentration. The interaction of the materials with AGW was studied in column tests using 237 U as a radiotracer to monitor the movement of the contamination front through the columns. The tested materials were shredded cast iron (granulated grey cast iron, 0.3 - 1.3 mm) supplied by Gotthard Mayer, Rheinfelden, Germany, and food quality grade hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, 99 % 0 (AGW with 9.6 mg U/L and low bicarbonate content of 120 mg/L). No breakthrough was observed for the Fe 0 columns with effluent uranium con-centrations being below the detection limit of 10 μg/L after treating more than 2,000 pore volumes (PV) and no uranium could be leached from loaded Fe 0 columns with 200 PV of uranium free AGW. However, columns with high Fe 0 content (≥ 50%) suffered from severe loss of permeability when AGW with ≥ 320 mg/L bicarbonate was used. In the HAP columns a breakthrough occurred with effluent uranium concentrations > 15 μg/l after treating 1,240 PV (10% and 50% breakthrough after 1,460 PV and 2,140 PV respectively). 12.2% of the accu-mulated uranium could be desorbed again with 840 PV of uranium free AGW. Adsorption was found to be the dominant reaction mechanism for uranium and HAP. Image analysis of high uranium content samples showed uranium and phosphate bearing crystals growing from HAP surfaces. The uranium phases chernikovite and meta-ankoleite of the autunite group were identified by x-ray diffraction. The existence of these mineral phases proves that surface precipitation also occurs under favourable conditions. No uranium

  17. Whey Peptide-Iron Complexes Increase the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions in Comparison to Iron Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano-Silva, Maria Elisa; Barros Mariutti, Lilian Regina; Bragagnolo, Neura; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2018-02-28

    Food fortification with iron may favor lipid oxidation in both food matrices and the human body. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of peptide-iron complexation on lipid oxidation catalyzed by iron, using oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions as a model system. The extent of lipid oxidation of emulsions containing iron salts (FeSO 4 or FeCl 2 ) or iron complexes (peptide-iron complexes or ferrous bisglycinate) was evaluated during 7 days, measured as primary (peroxide value) and secondary products (TBARS and volatile compounds). Both salts catalyzed lipid oxidation, leading to peroxide values 2.6- to 4.6-fold higher than the values found for the peptide-iron complexes. The addition of the peptide-iron complexes resulted in the formation of lower amounts of secondary volatiles of lipid oxidation (up to 78-fold) than those of iron salts, possibly due to the antioxidant activity of the peptides and their capacity to keep iron apart from the lipid phase, since the iron atom is coordinated and takes part in a stable structure. The peptide-iron complexes showed potential to reduce the undesirable sensory changes in food products and to decrease the side effects related to free iron and the lipid damage of cell membranes in the organism, due to the lower reactivity of iron in the complexed form.

  18. Freeze-quench (57)Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy: trapping reactive intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J Martin

    2009-01-01

    (57)Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy is a method that probes transitions between the nuclear ground state (I=1/2) and the first nuclear excited state (I=3/2). This technique provides detailed information about the chemical environment and electronic structure of iron. Therefore, it has played an important role in studies of the numerous iron-containing proteins and enzymes. In conjunction with the freeze-quench method, (57)Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy allows for monitoring changes of the iron site(s) during a biochemical reaction. This approach is particularly powerful for detection and characterization of reactive intermediates. Comparison of experimentally determined Mössbauer parameters to those predicted by density functional theory for hypothetical model structures can then provide detailed insight into the structures of reactive intermediates. We have recently used this methodology to study the reactions of various mononuclear non-heme-iron enzymes by trapping and characterizing several Fe(IV)-oxo reaction intermediates. In this article, we summarize these findings and demonstrate the potential of the method. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

  19. Reactivity of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron in Unbuffered Systems: Effect of pH and Fe(II) Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sungjun; Hanna, Khalil

    2015-09-01

    While most published studies used buffers to maintain the pH, there is limited knowledge regarding the reactivity of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) in poorly buffered pH systems to date. In this work, the effect of pH and Fe(II) dissolution on the reactivity of NZVI was investigated during the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in unbuffered pH systems. The reduction rate increased exponentially with respect to the NZVI concentration, and the ratio of dissolved Fe(II)/initial NZVI was related proportionally to the initial pH values, suggesting that lower pH (6-7) with low NZVI loading may slow the 4-NP reduction through acceleration of the dissolution of NZVI particles. Additional experiments using buffered pH systems confirmed that high pH values (8-9) can preserve the NZVI particles against dissolution, thereby enhancing the reduction kinetics of 4-NP. Furthermore, reduction tests using ferrous ion in suspensions of magnetite and maghemite showed that surface-bound Fe(II) on oxide coatings can play an important role in enhancing 4-NP reduction by NZVI at pH 8. These unexpected results highlight the importance of pH and Fe(II) dissolution when NZVI technology is applied to poorly buffered systems, particularly at a low amount of NZVI (i.e., <0.075 g/L).

  20. Removal of Reactive Red 198 by Nanoparticle Zero Valent Iron in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Shojaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although dyes are widely used in textile industries, they are carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic. Industries discharge their wastewater containing a variety of colors into water resources and make harmful effect on the environment. The present study aims to Evaluate removal of reactive red 198 by nanoparticle zero valent iron (NZVI in the presence of hydrogen peroxide from aqueous solution. The effective parameters on the removal of dye such as the hydrogen peroxide concentration of NZVI, contact time, pH and dye concentration were investigated and optimized. According to the results, the combination of NZVI with hydrogen peroxide is more effective than single hydrogen peroxide. At pH = 4, contact time= 40 min, 200 M of hydrogen peroxide, dye concentration= 75 mg/L and concentration of NZVI 2g/L, color removal was achieved 91% approximately. Based on the results of experiments, using hydrogen peroxide- NZVI has high efficiency in removal of azo dye type.

  1. Persistence of commercial nanoscaled zero-valent iron (nZVI) and by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Keller, Arturo A.; Miller, Robert J.; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for in situ remediation of a wide scale of environmental pollutants is increasing. Bench and field pilot studies have recorded successful cleanup of many pollutants using nZVI and other iron-mediated nanoparticles. However, a major question remains unanswered: what is the long-term environmental fate of the iron nanoparticles used for remediation? We aged three types of commercial nZVI in different aqueous media, including a groundwater sample, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 28 days, and found that the bulk of the nZVI injected into polluted sites will end up in the sediment phase of the aquifer. This is mainly due to aggregation-induced sedimentation of the nZVI and the insoluble iron oxides formed when nZVI undergoes corrosion. Iron concentrations >500 g/kg were detected in sediment, a loading level of iron that may potentially affect some organisms and also reduce the permeability of aquifers. Dissolved and suspended iron concentrations initially surged when nZVI was applied, but iron decreased steadily in the supernatant and suspended sediment as the bulk of the iron partitioned into the sediment. Solution and surface chemistry of the iron species showed that nZVI remains reactive for more than 1 month, and that the reactivity of iron and its transformations are governed by environmental factors, including the presence of different ions, ionic strength, natural organic matter, and pH.

  2. CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS OF ARSENATE, ARSENITE, PHOSPHATE, AND SILICATE WITH IRON (II, III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granular zerovalent iron has been proposed to be used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust (carbonate green rust, or CGR) is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron under ...

  3. Immunity to plant pathogens and iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thomine, Sebastien; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-11-01

    Iron is essential for metabolic processes in most living organisms. Pathogens and their hosts often compete for the acquisition of this nutrient. However, iron can catalyze the formation of deleterious reactive oxygen species. Hosts may use iron to increase local oxidative stress in defense responses against pathogens. Due to this duality, iron plays a complex role in plant-pathogen interactions. Plant defenses against pathogens and plant response to iron deficiency share several features, such as secretion of phenolic compounds, and use common hormone signaling pathways. Moreover, fine tuning of iron localization during infection involves genes coding iron transport and iron storage proteins, which have been shown to contribute to immunity. The influence of the plant iron status on the outcome of a given pathogen attack is strongly dependent on the nature of the pathogen infection strategy and on the host species. Microbial siderophores emerged as important factors as they have the ability to trigger plant defense responses. Depending on the plant species, siderophore perception can be mediated by their strong iron scavenging capacity or possibly via specific recognition as pathogen associated molecular patterns. This review highlights that iron has a key role in several plant-pathogen interactions by modulating immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reactive Fe(II) layers in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Iris; Haeckel, Matthias; Drodt, Matthias; Suess, Erwin; Trautwein, Alfred X.

    1999-05-01

    The percentage of the structural Fe(II) in clay minerals that is readily oxidized to Fe(III) upon contact with atmospheric oxygen was determined across the downcore tan-green color change in Peru Basin sediments. This latent fraction of reactive Fe(II) was only found in the green strata, where it proved to be large enough to constitute a deep reaction layer with respect to the pore water O 2 and NO 3-. Large variations were detected in the proportion of the reactive Fe(II) concentration to the organic matter content along core profiles. Hence, the commonly observed tan-green color change in marine sediments marks the top of a reactive Fe(II) layer, which may represent the major barrier to the movement of oxidation fronts in pelagic subsurface sediments. This is also demonstrated by numerical model simulations. The findings imply that geochemical barriers to pore water oxidation fronts form diagenetically in the sea floor wherever the stage of iron reduction is reached, provided that the sediments contain a significant amount of structural iron in clay minerals.

  5. Oxidative Stress and the Homeodynamics of Iron Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresgen, Nikolaus; Eckl, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Iron and oxygen share a delicate partnership since both are indispensable for survival, but if the partnership becomes inadequate, this may rapidly terminate life. Virtually all cell components are directly or indirectly affected by cellular iron metabolism, which represents a complex, redox-based machinery that is controlled by, and essential to, metabolic requirements. Under conditions of increased oxidative stress—i.e., enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)—however, this machinery may turn into a potential threat, the continued requirement for iron promoting adverse reactions such as the iron/H2O2-based formation of hydroxyl radicals, which exacerbate the initial pro-oxidant condition. This review will discuss the multifaceted homeodynamics of cellular iron management under normal conditions as well as in the context of oxidative stress. PMID:25970586

  6. Metal-porphyrin interactions. VI. The reactivities of several ferric porphyrin monomers with cyanide compared with ligand reactions of iron and cobalt porphyrins reconstituted with proteins. [25/sup 0/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambright, P. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC); Chock, P.B.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the hydrolysis and kinetics and equilibrium behavior of cyanide addition to the monomeric iron(III) complexes of meso, proto and deuteroporphyrin-IX in 2 percent sodium lauryl sulfate--0.1 M tetramethyl ammonium bromide, 25/sup 0/ is reported. The reactivity parameters are compared to reactions of the same Co(II) and Fe(II) porphyrin types reconstituted to myoglobins and hemoglobins.

  7. The iron-responsive microsomal proteome of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Nicola M; Owens, Rebecca A; Meleady, Paula; Henry, Michael; Dolan, Stephen K; Mulvihill, Eoin; Clynes, Martin; Doyle, Sean

    2016-03-16

    siderophore as a 'Trojan horse' to potentiate the efficacy of anti-fungal drugs. Finally, in addition to revealing the Aspergillus-specific IgG reactivity in normal human sera against microsomal proteins, there appears to be a significantly increased reactivity against microsomal proteins obtained following iron-restricted growth. We hypothesise that iron-limiting environment in humans, which has evolved to nutritionally limit pathogen growth in vivo, may also alter the fungal microsomal proteome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C. Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850 were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C, there was

  9. Iron acquisition mechanisms of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jeannette Dan; Ellis, A.E.; Barnes, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    strains and was lacking from negative strains. While a weak catechol reaction was detectable in CAS+ culture supernatants, the CAS reaction was, to some extent, heat sensitive, questioning whether the positive reaction was caused only by siderophores. The ability to grow in vitro under iron......-restricted conditions did not correlate with the CAS reactivity, as growth of both CAS+ and CAS- strains was similarly impaired under iron restriction induced by 2,2 dipyridyl. Suppressed growth under these conditions was restored by addition of FeCl3, haemoglobin and transferrin for both CAS+ and CAS- strains...

  10. Respiratory Effects of Inhaled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Particle Morphology and Iron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy Kathleen

    Nanotechnology provides promise for significant advancements in a number of different fields including imaging, electronics, and therapeutics. With worldwide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exceeding over 500 metric tons annually and industry growth expecting to double over the next 5 yr, there are concerns our understanding of the hazards of these nanomaterials may not be keeping pace with market demand. The physicochemical properties of CNTs may delineate the key features that determine either toxicity or biocompatibility and assist in evaluating the potential health risks posed in industrial and consumer product settings. We hypothesized that the iron content and morphology of inhaled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) influences the extent of cellular injury and alters homeostasis in the lung. To address this hypothesis, (1) an aerosol system was developed to deliver carbon-based nanomaterials in a manner of exposure that is physiologically and environmentally relevant (e.g., inhalation), (2) acute (1 d) and subacute (10 d) nose-only inhalation studies to a well-characterized aerosol of iron-containing (FeSWCNT) versus cleaned (iron removed, cSWCNTs) SWCNTs were conducted to evaluate the time-course patterns of possible injury through measurement of markers of cytotoxicity, inflammation, and cellular remodeling/homeostasis, and (3) the effects of SWCNTs were compared to other well-studied materials (e.g. non-fibrous, low-iron content ultrafine carbon black and fibrous, high-iron content, highly persistent, durable and potent carcinogen crocidolite) to offer insights into the relative toxicity of these nanomaterials as well as the possible mechanisms by which the effects occur. Rats (SD) were exposed to either aerosolized SWCNTs (raw FeSWCNT or purified cSWCNT), carbon black (CB), crocidolite, or fresh air via nose-only inhalation. Markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity in lung lavage, mucin in different airway generations, and collagen in the

  11. Interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Yang, Xiaofang; Men, Bin; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous Fenton reaction can generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) from reactions between recyclable solid catalysts and H2O2 at acidic or even circumneutral pH. Hence, it can effectively oxidize refractory organics in water or soils and has become a promising environmentally friendly treatment technology. Due to the complex reaction system, the mechanism behind heterogeneous Fenton reactions remains unresolved but fascinating, and is crucial for understanding Fenton chemistry and the development and application of efficient heterogeneous Fenton technologies. Iron-based materials usually possess high catalytic activity, low cost, negligible toxicity and easy recovery, and are a superior type of heterogeneous Fenton catalysts. Therefore, this article reviews the fundamental but important interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials. OH, hydroperoxyl radicals/superoxide anions (HO2/O2(-)) and high-valent iron are the three main types of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with different oxidation reactivity and selectivity. Based on the mechanisms of ROS generation, the interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton systems can be classified as the homogeneous Fenton mechanism induced by surface-leached iron, the heterogeneous catalysis mechanism, and the heterogeneous reaction-induced homogeneous mechanism. Different heterogeneous Fenton systems catalyzed by characteristic iron-based materials are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, related future research directions are also suggested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Biotemplate synthesis of monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Feng; Li Dongxu

    2010-01-01

    Monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres with a high degree of crystallization were prepared through a facile in situ deposition method using rape pollen grains as a biotemplate. The functional group on the surface of the pollen grains could adsorb Fe 3+ , which provided the nucleation sites for growth of iron phosphate nanoparticles. After being sintered at 600 deg. C for 10 h, the pollen grains were removed and iron phosphate hollow microspheres were obtained. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize the morphology and crystalline structure of the pollen grains, iron phosphate-coated pollen grains and iron phosphate hollow microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravity analyses were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the iron phosphate-coated pollen grains during the calcinations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interaction between the pollen grains and iron phosphate. The effect of the pollen wall on the surface morphology of these iron phosphate hollow microspheres was also proven in this work.

  13. Biotemplate synthesis of monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Feng; Li Dongxu, E-mail: dongxuli@njut.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Jiangsu Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres with a high degree of crystallization were prepared through a facile in situ deposition method using rape pollen grains as a biotemplate. The functional group on the surface of the pollen grains could adsorb Fe{sup 3+}, which provided the nucleation sites for growth of iron phosphate nanoparticles. After being sintered at 600 deg. C for 10 h, the pollen grains were removed and iron phosphate hollow microspheres were obtained. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize the morphology and crystalline structure of the pollen grains, iron phosphate-coated pollen grains and iron phosphate hollow microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravity analyses were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the iron phosphate-coated pollen grains during the calcinations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interaction between the pollen grains and iron phosphate. The effect of the pollen wall on the surface morphology of these iron phosphate hollow microspheres was also proven in this work.

  14. Local C-Reactive Protein Expression in Obliterative Lesions and the Bronchial Wall in Posttransplant Obliterative Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi E. Päiväniemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The local immunoreactivity of C-reactive protein (CRP was studied in a heterotopic porcine model of posttranplant obliterative bronchiolitis (OB. Bronchial allografts and control autografts were examined serially 2–28 days after subcutaneous transplantation. The autografts stayed patent. In the allografts, proliferation of inflammatory cells (P<.0001 and fibroblasts (P=.02 resulted in occlusion of the bronchial lumens (P<.01. Influx of CD4+ (P<.001 and CD8+ (P<.0001 cells demonstrated allograft immune response. CRP positivity simultaneously increased in the bronchial walls (P<.01, in macrophages, myofibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Local CRP was predictive of features characteristic of OB (R=0.456–0.879, P< .05−P<.0001. Early obliterative lesions also showed CRP positivity, but not mature, collagen-rich obliterative plugs (P<.05. During OB development, CRP is localized in inflammatory cells, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells probably as a part of the local inflammatory response.

  15. Nitrogen Atom Transfer From High Valent Iron Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael D. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Smith, Jeremy M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-10-14

    This report describes the synthesis and reactions of high valent iron nitrides. Organonitrogen compounds such as aziridines are useful species for organic synthesis, but there are few efficient methods for their synthesis. Using iron nitrides to catalytically access these species may allow for their synthesis in an energy-and atom-efficient manner. We have developed a new ligand framework to achieve these goals as well as providing a method for inducing previously unknown reactivity.

  16. On iron radionuclide interactions and in situ measurement of iron corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranen, A.; Jonsson, M.; Cui, D.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Wersin, P.; Spahiu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In performance assessments of hard rock repositories, it is conservatively assumed that waste canisters are breached and that the spent fuel will get into contact with groundwater after 1000 years. When the canister eventually fails to protect HLW from groundwater, dissolved radionuclides from HLW will react with iron canister materials. The reactivity will depend on the conditions in solution and at the iron-water interface. To improve our understanding on the redox chemistry at near field conditions, batch experiments are conducted by contacting polished iron foils with a synthetic groundwater solution containing 10 mM NaCl, 2 mM NaHCO 3 and 5 ppm Se(IV), Se(VI), Tc(VII) and U(VI) in a glove box filled with Ar + 0.03% CO 2 gas mixture. The reaction rates are measured by analysing Se, Tc and U concentrations by ICP-MS. Iron corrosion products formed during the reaction(s) is monitored in-situ by a Layer Raman spectrometer through an optical window. The corrosion potential of the iron foil as well as the Eh and pH values of the bulk solution are recorded continuously during the experiment. The reacted iron foil is embedded with EPOXY resin, and the cross section will be analysed by SEM-EDS and XAS. The preliminary experimental results shows that with the formation of iron green rust FeII 4 FeIII 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 on iron foil, the rates of redox reactions between iron and the negatively charged radionuclides species are increased. The observation is explained by the fact that radionuclide anionic species can be first adsorbed then reduced on the positively charged outer surface of iron green rust. The positive charge is a result of the electrical balance of the negative charges of carbonate contained between the layered iron hydroxides in the green rust. Reduced forms of radionuclides are identified in the iron corrosion products. The results suggest that the formation of iron green rust as a corrosion product on the surface of iron

  17. Sulfur-binding in recent environments: II. Speciation of sulfur and iron and implications for the occurrence of organo-sulfur compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgers, Walter A.; Lòpez, Jordi F.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reiss, Christine; Maxwell, James R.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    1997-11-01

    Speciation of iron and sulfur species was determined for two recent sediments (La Trinitat and Lake Cisó) which were deposited in environments with a high biological productivity and sulfate-reducing activity. In sediments from calcite ponds of La Trinitat an excess of reactive iron species (iron monosulfides, iron hydroxides) results in a depletion of reactive sulfur which is accompanied by a virtual absence of organo-sulfur compounds, both in low (LMW) and high molecular-weight (HMW) fractions. Small amounts of phytanyl and highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) thiophenes in the extract demonstrate that these molecules exhibit a higher reactivity towards reduced sulfur species as compared to detrital iron. Euxinic sediments from Lake Cisó are characterised by an excess of reduced sulfur species which can rapidly trap reactive iron. High concentrations of H 2S results in the formation of organo-sulfur compounds which were encountered in both LMW and HMW fractions. The major part of the organic sulfur is bound to the carbohydrate portion of woody tissues, whose presence was revealed by a specific alkylthiophene distribution in the flash pyrolysate and by Li/EtNH 2 desulfurisation of the kerogen which resulted in the solubilisation of the sulfur-enriched hemicellulose fraction. Relatively high amounts of sulfurised C 25 HBI compounds in the sediment extract of Lake Cisó reflect the incorporation of sulfur into algal derived organic matter upon early diagenesis. The combined approach of the speciation of iron and sulfur species and the molecular analysis of sedimentary fractions demonstrates that abiotic sulfur binding to organic matter occurs at the earliest stages of diagenesis under specific depositional conditions (anoxic, stratified water column) in which an excess of reduced sulfur species relative to the amount of reactive iron is a controlling factor.

  18. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  19. The effect of gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal on iron status in women with low iron stores: A 16 week randomised controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coad Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary treatment is often recommended as the first line of treatment for women with mild iron deficiency. Although it is well established that ascorbic acid enhances iron absorption, it is less clear whether the consumption of ascorbic acid rich foods (such as kiwifruit with meals fortified with iron improves iron status. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the consumption of ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit (a fruit high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal increases iron status in women with low iron stores. Methods/Design Eighty nine healthy women aged 18-44 years with low iron stores (serum ferritin (SF ≤ 25 μg/L, haemoglobin (Hb ≥ 115 g/L living in Auckland, New Zealand were randomised to receive an iron fortified breakfast cereal (16 mg iron per serve and either two ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit or a banana (low ascorbic acid and carotenoid content to eat at breakfast time every day for 16 weeks. Iron status (SF, Hb, C-reactive protein (CRP and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, ascorbic acid and carotenoid status were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. Anthropometric measures, dietary intake, physical activity and blood loss were measured before and after the 16 week intervention. Discussion This randomised controlled intervention study will be the first study to investigate the effect of a dietary based intervention of an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal combined with an ascorbic acid and carotenoid rich fruit on improving iron status in women with low iron stores. Trial registration ACTRN12608000360314

  20. Mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)-1,10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)–1,10- phenanthroline complex have been studied in perchloric acid medium. The reaction is first order each in iron(III) and methionine. Increase in [phenanthroline] increases the rate while increase in [HClO4] decreases it. While the reactive species ...

  1. The convenient preparation of stable aryl-coated zerovalent iron nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Guselnikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for the in situ synthesis of zerovalent aryl-coated iron nanoparticles (NPs based on diazonium salt chemistry is proposed. Surface-modified zerovalent iron NPs (ZVI NPs were prepared by simple chemical reduction of iron(III chloride aqueous solution followed by in situ modification using water soluble arenediazonium tosylate. The resulting NPs, with average iron core diameter of 21 nm, were coated with a 10 nm thick organic layer to provide long-term protection in air for the highly reactive zerovalent iron core up to 180 °C. The surface-modified iron NPs possess a high grafting density of the aryl group on the NPs surface of 1.23 mmol/g. FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, HRTEM, TGA/DTA, and elemental analysis were performed in order to characterize the resulting material.

  2. Nitric oxide maintains cell survival of Trichomonas vaginalis upon iron depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Hsu, Jo-Hsuan; Fang, Yi-Kai; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Petrus

    2015-07-25

    Iron plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of highly prevalent human trichomoniasis. T. vaginalis resides in the vaginal region, where the iron concentration is constantly changing. Hence, T. vaginalis must adapt to variations in iron availability to establish and maintain an infection. The free radical signaling molecules reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been proven to participate in iron deficiency in eukaryotes. However, little is known about the roles of these molecules in iron-deficient T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis cultured in iron-rich and -deficient conditions were collected for all experiments in this study. Next generation RNA sequencing was conducted to investigate the impact of iron on transcriptome of T. vaginalis. The cell viabilities were monitored after the trophozoites treated with the inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (L-NG-monomethyl arginine, L-NMMA) and proteasome (MG132). Hydrogenosomal membrane potential was measured using JC-1 staining. We demonstrated that NO rather than ROS accumulates in iron-deficient T. vaginalis. The level of NO was blocked by MG132 and L-NMMA, indicating that NO production is through a proteasome and arginine dependent pathway. We found that the inhibition of proteasome activity shortened the survival of iron-deficient cells compared with untreated iron-deficient cells. Surprisingly, the addition of arginine restored both NO level and the survival of proteasome-inhibited cells, suggesting that proteasome-derived NO is crucial for cell survival under iron-limited conditions. Additionally, NO maintains the hydrogenosomal membrane potential, a determinant for cell survival, emphasizing the cytoprotective effect of NO on iron-deficient T. vaginalis. Collectively, we determined that NO produced by the proteasome prolonged the survival of iron-deficient T. vaginalis via maintenance of the hydrogenosomal functions. The findings in this

  3. Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Shea, Patrick J.; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2007-01-01

    Zerovalent iron (Fe 0 , ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe 0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl - and Br - was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br - was present in solution. - The addition of halide ions promotes the degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

  4. Growth of uniform thin-walled carbon nanotubes with spin-coated Fe catalyst and the correlation between the pre-growth catalyst size and the nanotube diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seah, Choon-Ming; Chai, Siang-Piao; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and double-walled CNTs with a selectivity of 93 % were obtained by means of the novel homemade iron catalysts which were spin coated on silicon wafer. The average diameters of the iron particles prepared from the colloidal solutions containing 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mmol/L of iron nitrate were 8.2, 5.1, 20.8, 32.2, and 34.7 nm, respectively, and growing thin-walled CNTs with the average diameters of 4.1, 2.2, 9.2, 11.1, and 18.1 nm, respectively. The diameters of the CNTs were correlated with the geometric sizes of the pre-growth catalyst particles. Thin-walled CNTs were found to have a catalyst mean diameter-to-CNT average diameter ratio of 2.31. Iron carbide was formed after the growth of CNTs, and it is believed that during the growth of CNTs, carbon source decomposed and deposited on the surface of catalyst, followed by the diffusion of surface carbon into the iron catalyst particles, resulting in carbon supersaturation state before the growth of CNTs.

  5. Characterising the reactivity of metallic iron in Fe0/As-rock/H O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-03

    Jun 3, 2011 ... commercial iron for other purposes (e.g. construction steel, iron nails, steel wool), ... materials is to stress them in systems where building of a protective film at .... A stable flow rate was maintained throughout the experiment. .... parameters from such systems could help to develop more reliable models to.

  6. Thermochemically active iron titanium oxide materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas; Miller, James E.

    2018-01-16

    A thermal oxidation-reduction cycle is disclosed that uses iron titanium oxide as the reactive material. The cycle may be used for the thermal splitting of water and/or carbon dioxide to form hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide. The formed compounds may be used as syngas precursors to form fuels.

  7. Metagenomic Study of Iron Homeostasis in Iron Depositing Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Franklin H.; Tringe, S. G.; Klatt, C. G.; Bryant, D. A.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to cyanobacteria, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, metagenomic study of cyanobacterial community in iron-depositing hot springs may help elucidate how oxygenic prokaryotes can withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe2+ and O2. Method: Anchor proteins from various species of cyanobacteria and some anoxygenic phototrophs were selected on the basis of their hypothetical role in Fe homeostasis and the suppression of oxidative stress and were BLASTed against the metagenomes of iron-depositing Chocolate Pots and freshwater Mushroom hot springs. Results: BLASTing proteins hypothesized to be involved in Fe homeostasis against the microbiomes from the two springs revealed that iron-depositing hot spring has a greater abundance of defensive proteins such as bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp) and DNA-binding Ferritin like protein (Dps) than a fresh-water hot spring. One may speculate that the abundance of Bcp and Dps in an iron-depositing hot spring is connected to the need to suppress oxidative stress in bacteria inhabiting environments with high Fe2+ concnetration. In both springs, Bcp and Dps are concentrated within the cyanobacterial fractions of the microbial community (regardless of abundance). Fe3+ siderophore transport (from the transport system permease protein query) may be less essential to the microbial community of CP because of the high [Fe]. Conclusion: Further research is needed to confirm that these proteins are unique to photoautotrophs such as those living in iron-depositing hot spring.

  8. Electrocatalytic Detection of Amitrole on the Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube – Iron (II tetra-aminophthalocyanine Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello Nyokong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that iron(II tetra-aminophthalocyanine complex electropolymerized onto a multi-walled carbon nanotube-modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode greatly enhanced the electrocatalytic detetion of amitrole (a toxic herbicide, resulting in a very low detection limit (0.5 nM and excellent sensitivity of 8.80±0.44 μA/nM, compared to any known work reported so far. The electrocatalytic detection of amitrole at this electrode occurred at less positive potential (~0.3 V vs Ag|ACl and also revealed a typical coupled chemical reaction. The mechanism for this response is proposed. The electrode gave satisfactory selectivity to amitrole in the presence of other potential interfering pesticides in aqueous solutions.

  9. Serum Iron Protects from Renal Postischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugier, Céline; Amano, Mariane T; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Dussiot, Michael; Berrou, Claire; Matignon, Marie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Wang, Pamella H M; Fricot, Aurélie; Maciel, Thiago T; Grapton, Damien; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Beaumont, Carole; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Peyssonnaux, Carole; Mesnard, Laurent; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Monteiro, Renato C; Hermine, Olivier; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Benhamou, Marc; Camara, Niels O S; Flamant, Martin; Moura, Ivan C

    2017-12-01

    Renal transplants remain a medical challenge, because the parameters governing allograft outcome are incompletely identified. Here, we investigated the role of serum iron in the sterile inflammation that follows kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a retrospective cohort study of renal allograft recipients ( n =169), increased baseline levels of serum ferritin reliably predicted a positive outcome for allografts, particularly in elderly patients. In mice, systemic iron overload protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury-associated sterile inflammation. Furthermore, chronic iron injection in mice prevented macrophage recruitment after inflammatory stimuli. Macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions had reduced responses to Toll-like receptor-2, -3, and -4 agonists, which associated with decreased reactive oxygen species production, increased nuclear localization of the NRF2 transcription factor, increased expression of the NRF2-related antioxidant response genes, and limited NF- κ B and proinflammatory signaling. In macrophage-depleted animals, the infusion of macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions did not reconstitute AKI after ischemia-reperfusion, whereas macrophages cultured in physiologic iron conditions did. These findings identify serum iron as a critical protective factor in renal allograft outcome. Increasing serum iron levels in patients may thus improve prognosis of renal transplants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Effect of Iron-Containing Intermetallic Particles on the Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the corrosion behaviour of binary Al-Fe alloys containing iron at levels between 0.04 and 0.42 wt.% was investigated by electrochemical measurements in both acidic and alkaline chloride solutions. Comparing solution heat-treated and quenched materials with samples...... with {100} facets, and are observed to contain numerous intermetallic particles. Fine facetted filaments also radiate out from the periphery of pits. The results demonstrate that the corrosion of "pure" 99.96% Al is thus dominated by the role of iron, which is the main impurity, and its electrochemical...... that had been subsequently annealed to promote precipitation of Al3Fe intermetallic particles, it was found that annealing increases both the cathodic and anodic reactivity. The increased cathodic reactivity is believed to be directly related to the increased available surface area of the iron...

  11. Laboratory and field scale demonstration of reactive barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.; Cantrell, K.; Stewart, W.

    1996-10-01

    In an effort to devise a cost efficient technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater, the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (DOE-UMTRA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) fabricated a pilot scale research project utilizing reactive subsurface barriers at an UMTRA site in Durango, Colorado. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by placing a reactant material (in this experiment, metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. The reactive media then removes and/or transforms the contaminant(s) to regulatory acceptable levels. Experimental design and results are discussed with regard to other potential applications of reactive barrier remediation strategies at other sites with contaminated groundwater problems

  12. Aqueous corrosion of phosphide minerals from iron meteorites: a highly reactive source of prebiotic phosphorus on the surface of the early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A; Lauretta, Dante S

    2005-08-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of aqueous corrosion of Fe-phosphide under conditions relevant to the early Earth. The results strongly suggest that iron meteorites were an important source of reactive phosphorus (P), a requirement for the formation of P-based life. We further demonstrate that iron meteorites were an abundant source of phosphide minerals early in Earth history. Phosphide corrosion was studied in five different solutions: deionized water, deionized water buffered with sodium bicarbonate, deionized water with dissolved magnesium and calcium chlorides, deionized water containing ethanol and acetic acid, and deionized water containing the chlorides, ethanol, and acetic acid. Experiments were performed in the presence of both air and pure Ar gas to evaluate the effect of atmospheric chemistry. Phosphide corrosion in deionized water results in a metastable mixture of mixed-valence, P-bearing ions including pyrophosphate and triphosphate, key components for metabolism in modern life. In a pH-buffered solution of NaHCO(3), the condensed and reduced species diphosphonate is an abundant corrosion product. Corrosion in ethanol- and acetic acid-containing solutions yields additional P-bearing organic molecules, including acetyl phosphonate and a cyclic triphosphorus molecule. Phosphonate is a major corrosion product of all experiments and is the only P-bearing molecule that persists in solutions with high concentrations of magnesium and calcium chlorides, which suggests that phosphonate may have been a primitive oceanic source of P. The stability and reactivity of phosphonate and hypophosphite in solution were investigated to elucidate reaction mechanisms and the role of mineral catalysts on P-solution chemistry. Phosphonate oxidation is rapid in the presence of Fe metal but negligible in the presence of magnetite and in the control sample. The rate of hypophosphite oxidation is independent of reaction substrate.

  13. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage as an ecosystem service for Brussels, Belgium: investigating iron (hydr)oxide precipitation with reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Possemiers, Mathias; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    In an evolving energy system it is important that urbanized areas contribute to their own energy demands. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions sustainable energy systems with a high efficiency are required, e.g. using urban aquifers as an ecosystem service. Here the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery (ATES) for the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium is investigated. An important shallow geologic formation in the Brussels Capital Region is the Brussels Sand formation, a 20-60 m thick phreatic aquifer. The Brussels Sand Formation is known for its potential for ATES systems, but also for its varying redox and hydraulic conditions. Important limiting factors for ATES systems in the Brussels Sand Formation therefore are the hydraulic conductivity and the geochemical composition of the groundwater. Near the redox boundary iron hydroxide precipitation can negatively influence ATES well performance due to clogging. The interactions between physical processes (e.g. particle transport and clogging in the wider proximity of the ATES well) and chemical processes (e.g. influence of the operation temperatures on precipitation processes) during ATES operation are complex but not well understood. Therefore we constructed numerical groundwater flow models in MODFLOW to estimate maximum pumping and injection rates of different hydraulic conditions and competing water uses in the Brussels Sand Formation. In further steps the thermal potential for ATES was quantified using MT3DMS and the reactive transport model PHT3D was applied to assess the effects of operating ATES systems near the redox boundary. Results show that initial mixing plays an important role in the development of iron(hydr)oxide precipitation around the ATES wells, with the highest concentrations around the cold wells. This behavior is enhanced by the temperature effect; temperature differences of ΔT≈10°C already influence the iron (hydr)oxide concentration. The initial injection into the

  14. Variation in photoreactivity of iron hydroxides taken from an acidic mountain stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrncir, D.C.; McKnight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The photoreduction of iron hydroxides is known to exert significant influence over many biogeochemical processes in streams impacted by acid main drainage. Using laboratory and in-stream measurements, the variation in reactivity of iron hydroxides taken from a stream receiving acid mine drainage (AMD) was studied. The reactivity decreased for material collected at sites progressively downstream from the AMD inflow. In the presence of two simple organic ligands, photoreduction increased for the fresher iron hydroxides but remained unchanged for the older hydroxides. The importance of ligand coordination to the enhancement of photoreduction in natural waters was further demonstrated in experiments using two types of fulvic acids. In-stream measurements of hydrogen peroxide concentration are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the batch experiments. Iron hydroxides were observed to age over time, becoming less photoreactive. This aging was accompanied by an increase in crystallinity. The loss of photoreactivity for the older material can be explained by a decrease in the number of active surface sites, a change in the nature of the surface sites, or a combination of both

  15. Moessbauer study of iron uptake in cucumber root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, K.; Kuzmann, E., E-mail: kuzmann@para.chem.elte.hu [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Fodor, F. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Department of Plant Physiology and Molecular Plant Biology (Hungary); Vertes, A. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Kamnev, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the uptake and distribution of iron in the root of cucumber plants grown in iron-deficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution and put into iron-containing solution with 10 {mu}M Fe citrate enriched with {sup 57}Fe (90%) only before harvesting. The Moessbauer spectra of the frozen roots exhibited two Fe{sup 3+} components with typical average Moessbauer parameters of {delta} = 0.5 mm s{sup -1}, {Delta} = 0.46 mm s{sup -1} and {delta} = 0.5 mm s{sup -1}, {Delta} = 1.2 mm s{sup -1} at 78 K and the presence of an Fe{sup 2+} doublet, assigned to the ferrous hexaaqua complex. This finding gives a direct evidence for the existence of Fe{sup 2+} ions produced via root-associated reduction according to the mechanism proposed for iron uptake for dicotyledonous plants. Monotonous changes in the relative content of the components were found with the time period of iron supply. The Moessbauer results are interpreted in terms of iron uptake and transport through the cell wall and membranes.

  16. SirR, a Novel Iron-Dependent Repressor in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Philip J.; Cockayne, Alan; Landers, Patrick; Morrissey, Julie A.; Sims, Catriona M.; Williams, Paul

    1998-01-01

    In Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, a number of cell wall- and cytoplasmic membrane-associated lipoproteins are induced in response to iron starvation. To gain insights into the molecular basis of iron-dependent gene regulation in the staphylococci, we sequenced the DNA upstream of the 3-kb S. epidermidis sitABC operon, which Northern blot analysis indicates is transcriptionally regulated by the growth medium iron content. We identified two DNA sequences which are homologous to elements of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae DtxR regulon, which controls, in response to iron stress, for example, production of diphtheria toxin, siderophore, and a heme oxygenase. Upstream of the sitABC operon and divergently transcribed lies a 645-bp open reading frame (ORF), which codes for a polypeptide of approximately 25 kDa with homology to the DtxR family of metal-dependent repressor proteins. This ORF has been designated SirR (staphylococcal iron regulator repressor). Within the sitABC promoter/operator region, we also located a region of dyad symmetry overlapping the transcriptional start of sitABC which shows high homology to the DtxR operator consensus sequence, suggesting that this region, termed the Sir box, is the SirR-binding site. The SirR protein was overexpressed, purified, and used in DNA mobility shift assays; SirR retarded the migration of a synthetic oligonucleotide based on the Sir box in a metal (Fe2+ or Mn2+)-dependent manner, providing confirmatory evidence that this motif is the SirR-binding site. Furthermore, Southern blot analysis of staphylococcal chromosomal DNA with the synthetic Sir box as a probe confirmed that there are at least five Sir boxes in the S. epidermidis genome and at least three in the genome of S. aureus, suggesting that SirR controls the expression of multiple target genes. Using a monospecific polyclonal antibody raised against SirR to probe Western blots of whole-cell lysates of S. aureus, S. carnosus, S. epidermidis

  17. Thermal distortion of disc-shaped ductile iron castings in vertically parted moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Rasmussen, Jakob; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2015-01-01

    A disc-shaped casting with an inner boss and an outer rim, separated by a thin walled section, was examined. This measurable deformation varied with the feeding modulus. The influence of alloy composition, particularly Si content, was examined with a pearlitic ductile iron (EN-GJS-500-7) and a fu......A disc-shaped casting with an inner boss and an outer rim, separated by a thin walled section, was examined. This measurable deformation varied with the feeding modulus. The influence of alloy composition, particularly Si content, was examined with a pearlitic ductile iron (EN-GJS-500......-7) and a fully ferritic ductile iron (EN-GJS-450-10). The experiment showed that both the alloy composition and choice of feeder influenced the degreeof deformation measured in the finished casting. It was found that the deformation of the pearlitic alloy was influenced controllably by changing the feeder...

  18. Performance Monitoring of the Permeable Reactive Barrier at Dover AFB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    Based on column tests conducted between February and June 1997, NERL recommended that in terms of effectiveness in achieving cleanup standards and kinetics, a pyrite-iron combination ranked as the best reactive medium (EPA, 1997...

  19. Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Barriers to Remediate Dissolved Chlorinated Solvents,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    fill slurry composed of a reactive medium, such as iron powder and guar gum , can then be injected into the fracture to form a reactive treatment zone...slurry (Owaidat, 1996). The slurry, which is composed of powdered guar bean, acts to maintain the integrity of the trench walls during installation of...the cell. The guar gum will later biodegrade to mostly water after wall completion, and will have minimal effect on the permeability of the trench

  20. Salinomycin kills cancer stem cells by sequestering iron in lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Trang Thi; Hamaï, Ahmed; Hienzsch, Antje; Cañeque, Tatiana; Müller, Sebastian; Wicinski, Julien; Cabaud, Olivier; Leroy, Christine; David, Amandine; Acevedo, Verónica; Ryo, Akihide; Ginestier, Christophe; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Codogno, Patrice; Mehrpour, Maryam; Rodriguez, Raphaël

    2017-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subset of cells within tumours that exhibit self-renewal properties and the capacity to seed tumours. CSCs are typically refractory to conventional treatments and have been associated to metastasis and relapse. Salinomycin operates as a selective agent against CSCs through mechanisms that remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that a synthetic derivative of salinomycin, which we named ironomycin (AM5), exhibits a more potent and selective activity against breast CSCs in vitro and in vivo, by accumulating and sequestering iron in lysosomes. In response to the ensuing cytoplasmic depletion of iron, cells triggered the degradation of ferritin in lysosomes, leading to further iron loading in this organelle. Iron-mediated production of reactive oxygen species promoted lysosomal membrane permeabilization, activating a cell death pathway consistent with ferroptosis. These findings reveal the prevalence of iron homeostasis in breast CSCs, pointing towards iron and iron-mediated processes as potential targets against these cells.

  1. Iron-Induced Damage in Cardiomyopathy: Oxidative-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gammella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of cardiomyopathy in patients with hemosiderosis, particularly in transfusional iron overload, strongly indicates that iron accumulation in the heart plays a major role in the process leading to heart failure. In this context, iron-mediated generation of noxious reactive oxygen species is believed to be the most important pathogenetic mechanism determining cardiomyocyte damage, the initiating event of a pathologic progression involving apoptosis, fibrosis, and ultimately cardiac dysfunction. However, recent findings suggest that additional mechanisms involving subcellular organelles and inflammatory mediators are important factors in the development of this disease. Moreover, excess iron can amplify the cardiotoxic effect of other agents or events. Finally, subcellular misdistribution of iron within cardiomyocytes may represent an additional pathway leading to cardiac injury. Recent advances in imaging techniques and chelators development remarkably improved cardiac iron overload detection and treatment, respectively. However, increased understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of iron overload cardiomyopathy is needed to pave the way for the development of improved therapeutic strategies.

  2. An investigation of the possible influence of particles on the corrosion of iron in a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polley, M.V.

    1975-11-01

    At the present time it is not possible to explain why the observed corrosion of iron in sodium loop experiments is so small if currently recommended values of the solubility of iron in sodium are accepted. One possible explanation investigated is that the concentration of dissolved iron in the sodium may be held very close to saturation by the presence of a large number of particles in the sodium. A model for pipe wall and particle mass transfer is presented and a computer programme, which calculates mass transfer rates whilst following the sodium around an iron loop, is described. Dissolved iron is assumed to condense on and dissolve from foreign parent particles present in the sodium since it is shown that homogeneous nucleation of pure iron particles is most unlikely to occur. Mass transfer, to both particles and pipe walls, is assumed to be diffusion controlled. Computed corrosion rates are presented as a function of particle size and number density, showing that corrosion of iron cannot be sufficiently inhibited by the presence of particles to reconcile calculations of iron corrosion rates, based on recommended solubility values, with observed corrosion rates. Alternative explanations of observed iron corrosion phenomena are discussed. (author)

  3. Iron Coordination and Halogen-Bonding Assisted Iodosylbenzene Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegeberg, Christina; Poulsen de Sousa, David; McKenzie, Christine

    catalytic mixtures using soluble terminal oxygen transfer agents. Isolation of a reactive iron-terminal oxidant adduct, an unique Fe(III)-OIPh complex, is facilitated by strong stabilizing supramolecular halogen-bonding. L3-edge XANES suggests +1.6 for the average oxidation state for the iodine atom3......The iron complex of the hexadentate ligand N,N,N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylendiamine-N'-acetate (tpena) efficiently catalyzes selective oxidations of electron-rich olefins and sulfides by insoluble iodosylbenzene (PhIO). Surprisingly, these reactions are faster and more selective than homogenous...... in the iron(III)-coordinated PhIO. This represents a reduction of iodine relative to the original “hypervalent” (+3) PhIO. The equivalent of electron density must be removed from the {(tpena)Fe(III)O} moiety, however Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that the iron atom is not high valent....

  4. Directed plant cell-wall accumulation of iron: embedding co-catalyst for efficient biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Yuan Lin; Joseph E. Jakes; Bryon S. Donohoe; Peter N. Ciesielski; Haibing Yang; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Shi-You Ding; Wendy A. Peer; Angus S. Murphy; Maureen C. McCann; Michael E. Himmel; Melvin P. Tucker; Hui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock for the production of biobased fuels and chemicals. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a co-catalyst to improve the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, directly adding iron catalysts into biomass prior to pretreatment is diffusion limited,...

  5. Methods of preparation and modification of advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles, their properties and application in water treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Jan; Kašlík, Josef; Medřík, Ivo; Petala, Eleni; Zbořil, Radek; Slunský, Jan; Černík, Miroslav; Stavělová, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles are commonly used in modern water treatment technologies. Compared to conventionally-used macroscopic iron or iron microparticles, the using of nanoparticles has the advantages given mainly by their generally large specific surface area (it drives their high reactivity and/or sorption capacity), small dimensions (it allows their migration e.g. in ground water), and particular physical and chemical properties. Following the applications of zero-valent iron particles in various pilot tests, there arose several critical suggestions for improvements of used nanomaterials and for development of new generation of reactive nanomaterials. In the presentation, the methods of zero-valent iron nanoparticles synthesis will be summarized with a special attention paid to the thermally-induced solid-state reaction allowing preparation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in an industrial scale. Moreover, the method of thermal reduction of iron-oxide precursors enables to finely tune the critical parameters (mainly particle size and morphology, specific surface area, surface chemistry of nanoparticles etc.) of resulting zero-valet iron nanoparticles. The most important trends of advanced nanoparticles development will be discussed: (i) surface modification of nanomaterilas, (ii) development of nanocomposites and (iii) development of materials for combined reductive-sorption technologies. Laboratory testing of zero-valent iron nanoparticles reactivity and migration will be presented and compared with the field observations: the advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles were used for groundwater treatment at the locality contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons (VC, DCE, TCE and PCE) and reacted nanoparticles were extracted from the sediments for their fate assessment. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic "Competence Centres" (project No. TE01020218) and the EU FP7 (project NANOREM).

  6. Application of sorption method on hydroxides for purification of some reactive from iron(III) markings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmonberdiev, A.D.; Khamidov, B.O.

    1986-01-01

    The method of purification of solutions of citric acid, tartaric acid and their salts, potassium hydroxide, potassium nitrate and chloride, sodium perchlorate from iron (III) impurities by means of sorption method on zirconium hydroxide is elaborated. The control of iron(III) content in solutions is conducted by inversion voltammetry method with mercury-graphite electrode. It is defined that complete sorption of iron (III) ions achieves at ph =4÷14.

  7. Iron deficiency alters megakaryopoiesis and platelet phenotype independent of thrombopoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstatiev, Rayko; Bukaty, Adam; Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie; Surman, Lidia; Schmid, Werner; Eferl, Robert; Lippert, Kathrin; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Khare, Vineeta; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Iron deficiency is a common cause of reactive thrombocytosis, however, the exact pathways have not been revealed. Here we aimed to study the mechanisms behind iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis. Within few weeks, iron-depleted diet caused iron deficiency in young Sprague-Dawley rats, as reflected by a drop in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hepatic iron content and hepcidin mRNA in the liver. Thrombocytosis established in parallel. Moreover, platelets produced in iron deficient animals displayed a higher mean platelet volume and increased aggregation. Bone marrow studies revealed subtle alterations that are suggestive of expansion of megakaryocyte progenitors, an increase in megakaryocyte ploidy and accelerated megakaryocyte differentiation. Iron deficiency did not alter the production of hematopoietic growth factors such as thrombopoietin, interleukin 6 or interleukin 11. Megakaryocytic cell lines grown in iron-depleted conditions exhibited reduced proliferation but increased ploidy and cell size. Our data suggest that iron deficiency increases megakaryopoietic differentiation and alters platelet phenotype without changes in megakaryocyte growth factors, specifically TPO. Iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis may have evolved to maintain or increase the coagulation capacity in conditions with chronic bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Leishmania and its quest for iron: An update and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Amir; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Ali, Vahab

    2017-01-01

    Parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of complex neglected diseases called leishmaniasis and continue to be a significant health concern globally. Iron is a vital nutritional requirement for virtually all organisms, including pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites, and plays a crucial role in many facets of cellular metabolism as a cofactor of several enzymes. Iron acquisition is essential for the survival of parasites. Yet parasites are also vulnerable to the toxicity of iron and reactive oxygen species. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge about iron acquisition and usage by Leishmania species. We have also discussed about host strategy to modulate iron availability and the strategies deployed by Leishmania parasites to overcome iron withholding defences and thus favour parasite growth within host macrophages. Since iron plays central roles in the host's response and parasite metabolism, a comprehensive understanding of the iron metabolism is beneficial to identify potential viable therapeutic opportunities against leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  10. Iron and genome stability: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prá, Daniel; Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Fenech, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient which is required in a relatively narrow range for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and genome stability. Iron participates in oxygen transport and mitochondrial respiration as well as in antioxidant and nucleic acid metabolism. Iron deficiency impairs these biological pathways, leading to oxidative stress and possibly carcinogenesis. Iron overload has been linked to genome instability as well as to cancer risk increase, as seen in hereditary hemochromatosis. Iron is an extremely reactive transition metal that can interact with hydrogen peroxide to generate hydroxyl radicals that form the 8-hydroxy-guanine adduct, cause point mutations as well as DNA single and double strand breaks. Iron overload also induces DNA hypermethylation and can reduce telomere length. The current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for iron, according with Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), is based in the concept of preventing anemia, and ranges from 7 mg/day to 18 mg/day depending on life stage and gender. Pregnant women need 27 mg/day. The maximum safety level for iron intake, the Upper Level (UL), is 40–45 mg/day, based on the prevention of gastrointestinal distress associated to high iron intakes. Preliminary evidence indicates that 20 mg/day iron, an intake slightly higher than the RDA, may reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in the elderly as well as increasing genome stability in lymphocytes of children and adolescents. Current dietary recommendations do not consider the concept of genome stability which is of concern because damage to the genome has been linked to the origin and progression of many diseases and is the most fundamental pathology. Given the importance of iron for homeostasis and its potential influence over genome stability and cancer it is recommended to conduct further studies that conclusively define these relationships.

  11. Iron and genome stability: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pra, Daniel, E-mail: daniel_pra@yahoo.com [PPG em Promocao da Saude, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC), Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); PPG em Saude e Comportamento, Universidade Catolica de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech [PPG em Promocao da Saude, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC), Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Henriques, Joao Antonio Pegas [Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient which is required in a relatively narrow range for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and genome stability. Iron participates in oxygen transport and mitochondrial respiration as well as in antioxidant and nucleic acid metabolism. Iron deficiency impairs these biological pathways, leading to oxidative stress and possibly carcinogenesis. Iron overload has been linked to genome instability as well as to cancer risk increase, as seen in hereditary hemochromatosis. Iron is an extremely reactive transition metal that can interact with hydrogen peroxide to generate hydroxyl radicals that form the 8-hydroxy-guanine adduct, cause point mutations as well as DNA single and double strand breaks. Iron overload also induces DNA hypermethylation and can reduce telomere length. The current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for iron, according with Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), is based in the concept of preventing anemia, and ranges from 7 mg/day to 18 mg/day depending on life stage and gender. Pregnant women need 27 mg/day. The maximum safety level for iron intake, the Upper Level (UL), is 40-45 mg/day, based on the prevention of gastrointestinal distress associated to high iron intakes. Preliminary evidence indicates that 20 mg/day iron, an intake slightly higher than the RDA, may reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in the elderly as well as increasing genome stability in lymphocytes of children and adolescents. Current dietary recommendations do not consider the concept of genome stability which is of concern because damage to the genome has been linked to the origin and progression of many diseases and is the most fundamental pathology. Given the importance of iron for homeostasis and its potential influence over genome stability and cancer it is recommended to conduct further studies that conclusively define these relationships.

  12. Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Epoxides Efficiently Catalyzed by Thioether-Triphenolate Bimetallic Iron(III) Complexes: Catalyst Structure-Reactivity Relationship and Mechanistic DFT Study

    KAUST Repository

    Della Monica, Francesco; Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Buonerba, Antonio; Nisi, Assunta De; Monari, Magda; Milione, Stefano; Grassi, Alfonso; Cavallo, Luigi; Capacchione, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    A series of dinuclear iron(III)I complexes supported by thioether-triphenolate ligands have been prepared to attain highly Lewis acidic catalysts. In combination with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) they are highly active catalysts in the synthesis of cyclic organic carbonates through the coupling of carbon dioxide to epoxides with the highest initial turnover frequencies reported to date for the conversion of propylene oxide to propylene carbonate for iron-based catalysts (5200h-1; 120°C, 2MPa, 1h). In particular, these complexes are shown to be highly selective catalysts for the coupling of carbon dioxide to internal oxiranes affording the corresponding cyclic carbonates in good yield and with retention of the initial stereochemical configuration. A density functional theory (DFT) investigation provides a rational for the relative high activity found for these Fe(III) complexes, showing the fundamental role of the hemilabile sulfur atom in the ligand skeleton to promote reactivity. Notably, in spite of the dinuclear nature of the catalyst precursor only one metal center is involved in the catalytic cycle. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Epoxides Efficiently Catalyzed by Thioether-Triphenolate Bimetallic Iron(III) Complexes: Catalyst Structure-Reactivity Relationship and Mechanistic DFT Study

    KAUST Repository

    Della Monica, Francesco

    2016-08-25

    A series of dinuclear iron(III)I complexes supported by thioether-triphenolate ligands have been prepared to attain highly Lewis acidic catalysts. In combination with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) they are highly active catalysts in the synthesis of cyclic organic carbonates through the coupling of carbon dioxide to epoxides with the highest initial turnover frequencies reported to date for the conversion of propylene oxide to propylene carbonate for iron-based catalysts (5200h-1; 120°C, 2MPa, 1h). In particular, these complexes are shown to be highly selective catalysts for the coupling of carbon dioxide to internal oxiranes affording the corresponding cyclic carbonates in good yield and with retention of the initial stereochemical configuration. A density functional theory (DFT) investigation provides a rational for the relative high activity found for these Fe(III) complexes, showing the fundamental role of the hemilabile sulfur atom in the ligand skeleton to promote reactivity. Notably, in spite of the dinuclear nature of the catalyst precursor only one metal center is involved in the catalytic cycle. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Evaluation of a permeable reactive barrier technology for use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, Brian P.

    2000-01-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated at laboratory scale to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The contaminants of concern (COCS) are uranium, TCE, PCE, carbon tetrachloride, americium, and vinyl chloride. The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a peculiar humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site however, the iron filings were determined to be the least expensive media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the fill-scale demonstration of the reactive barrier technology. Additional design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were also determined and provided to the design team in support of the final design. The final design was completed by the Corps of Engineers in 1997 and the system was constructed in the summer of 1998. The treatment system began fill operation in December, 1998 and despite a few problems has been operational since. Results to date are consistent with the lab and pilot scale findings, i.e., complete removal of the contaminants of concern (COCs) prior to discharge to meet RFETS cleanup requirements. Furthermore, it is fair to say at this point in time that laboratory developed design parameters for the reactive barrier technology are sufficient for fuel scale design; however,the treatment system longevity and the long-term fate of the contaminants are questions that remain unanswered. This

  15. Plummer-Vinson Syndrome with Improvement After Iron Repletion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient presented with long-standing dysphagia and symptomatic anemia. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an upper esophageal web arising from the anterior wall. She was started on iron therapy daily and after 2 months both the dysphagia and anemia had improved significantly. Therefore, though this is a ...

  16. Permeable reactive barriers for pollutant removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, F.G.; Meggyes, T.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from the groundwater using permeable reactive barriers is a novel in-situ groundwater remediation technology. The most relevant decontamination processes used are chemical reduction, oxidation, precipitation and sorption, for which examples are given. Some common organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds which can be treated in reactive barriers successfully. Lead, chromium and, in particular, uranium are dealt with in great detail among inorganic pollutants because of their occurrence in many European countries. Construction methods for cut-off walls and reactive barriers exhibit similar features. Apart from conventional methods, drilling, deep soil mixing, jet technology, arrays of wells, injected systems and biobarriers are applied to construct permeable reactive barriers. Permeable reactive barriers bear great potential for the future in remediation engineering. (orig.)

  17. Mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phenanthroline complex have been studied in perchloric acid medium. The reaction is first order each in iron(III) and methionine. Increase in [phenanthroline] increases the rate while increase in [HClO4] decreases it. While the reactive species of the ...

  18. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  19. Iron status determination in pregnancy using the Thomas plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, R; Coetzee, M J; Nel, M

    2016-04-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy affect routine tests for iron deficiency. The reticulocyte haemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) and serum-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) assay are newer diagnostic parameters for the detection of iron deficiency, combined in the Thomas diagnostic plot. We used this plot to determine the iron status of pregnant women presenting for their first visit to an antenatal clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Routine laboratory tests (serum ferritin, full blood count and C-reactive protein) and RET-He and sTfR were performed. The iron status was determined using the Thomas plot. For this study, 103 pregnant women were recruited. According to the Thomas plot, 72.8% of the participants had normal iron stores and erythropoiesis. Iron-deficient erythropoiesis was detected in 12.6%. A third of participants were anaemic. Serum ferritin showed excellent sensitivity but poor specificity for detecting depleted iron stores. HIV status had no influence on the iron status of the participants. Our findings reiterate that causes other than iron deficiency should be considered in anaemic individuals. When compared with the Thomas plot, a low serum ferritin is a sensitive but nonspecific indicator of iron deficiency. The Thomas plot may provide useful information to identify pregnant individuals in whom haematologic parameters indicate limited iron availability for erythropoiesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  1. Pentachlorophenol dechlorination with zero valent iron: a Raman and GCMS study of the complex role of surficial iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Buddhika; Swedlund, Peter J; Singhal, Naresh; Nieuwoudt, Michel K

    2018-04-20

    The dechlorination of chlorinated organic pollutants by zero valent iron (ZVI) is an important water treatment process with a complex dependence on many variables. This complexity means that there are reported inconsistencies in terms of dechlorination with ZVI and the effect of ZVI acid treatment, which are significant and are as yet unexplained. This study aims to decipher some of this complexity by combining Raman spectroscopy with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the influence of the mineralogy of the iron oxide phases on the surface of ZVI on the reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP). Two electrolytic iron samples (ZVI-T and ZVI-H) were found to have quite different PCP dechlorination reactivity in batch reactors under anoxic conditions. Raman analysis of the "as-received" ZVI-T indicated the iron was mainly covered with the ferrous oxide (FeO) wustite, which is non-conducting and led to a low rate of PCP dechlorination. In contrast, the dominant oxide on the "as-received" ZVI-H was magnetite which is conducting and, compared to ZVI-T, the ZVI-H rate of PCP dechlorination was four times faster. Treating the ZVI-H sample with 1 N H 2 SO 4 made small change to the composition of the oxide layers and also minute change to the rate of PCP dechlorination. However, treating the ZVI-T sample with H 2 SO 4 led to the loss of wustite so that magnetite became the dominant oxide and the rate of PCP dechlorination increased to that of the ZVI-H material. In conclusion, this study clearly shows that iron oxide mineralogy can be a contributing factor to apparent inconsistencies in the literature related to ZVI performance towards dechlorination and the effect of acid treatment on ZVI reactivity.

  2. Effects of carbon wall on the behavior of Heliotron-E plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, N; Mizuuchi, T; Akaishi, K; Senju, T; Kondo, K; Kaneko, H; Motojima, O; Baba, T; Besshou, S; Sato, M

    1989-04-01

    Carbonization was successfully applied to Heliotron-E. Iron-inpurity radiations were strongly reduced with the carbonized wall. Main impacts of the metal reduction on plasma behaviors are sustainment of stored energy during high power, long pulse heating by NBI, achievement of a quasi-steady discharge with a low helical field and high beta, and highest electron density with pellet injection in a quasi-steady state. Hydrogen recycling was very high with the carbonized wall and low density operation was impossible. Helium glow discharge was found to be effective to control the hydrogen recycling with a carbon-tiled wall. (orig.).

  3. AN IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUNDWATER:VOLUME 2 PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable subsurface reactive wall was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center, near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in June 1996. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contaminated ground ...

  4. A technique for computing bowing reactivity feedback in LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    During normal or accidental transients occurring in a LMFBR core, the assemblies and their support structure are subjected to important thermal gradients which induce differential thermal expansions of the walls of the hexcans and differential displacement of the assembly support structure. These displacements, combined with the creep and swelling of structural materials, remain quite small, but the resulting reactivity changes constitute a significant component of the reactivity feedback coefficients used in safety analyses. It would be prohibitive to compute the reactivity changes due to all transients. Thus, the usual practice is to generate reactivity gradient tables. The purpose of the work presented here is twofold: develop and validate an efficient and accurate scheme for computing these reactivity tables; and to qualify this scheme

  5. Ammonia adsorption properties and its mechanism of deodorant filter made of iron ascorbate on porous iron frame; Tetsu takotai, asukorubin san dasshu filter no ammonia dasshu kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Kanamaru, T.; Maeda, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    A deodorant filter was made by treating porous metallic iron with an L-ascorbic acid aqueous solutions depositing the iron ascorbate on it. The ammonia adsorption capacity of the deodorant filter was studied with repetitive runs of adsorption tests. The results show that the ammonia adsorption capacity of the iron ascorbate is nearly equal to conventions: granular activated carbon at the beginning, but unlike the letter, the iron ascorbate perfectly recovers the capacity via reversible desorption. ESR and Mossbauer spectroscopy reveal that ammonia goes into the inner coordination sphere of Fe(II) and Fe(III), capable of reversible adsorption and desorption, and that the reactivity of iron is attributable to the formation of the ascorbate complex, which is formed in the specific manufacturing process of the deodorant filter. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Sulphur-binding in recent environments. II. Speciation of sulphur and iron and implications for the occurrence of organo-sulphur compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Lopez, J.F.; Reiss, C.; Maxwell, J.R.; Grimalt, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    Speciation of iron and sulfur species was determined for two recent sediments (La Trinitat and Lake Cisó) which were deposited in environments with a high biological productivity and sulfate-reducing activity. In sediments from calcite ponds of La Trinitat an excess of reactive iron species (iron

  7. Heterogeneous kinetics of the reduction of chromium (VI) by elemental iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiuza, Antonio; Silva, Aurora; Carvalho, Goreti; Fuente, Antonio V. de la; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Zero valent iron (ZVI) has been extensively used as a reactive medium for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in reactive permeable barriers. The kinetic rate depends strongly on the superficial oxidation of the iron particles used and the preliminary washing of ZVI increases the rate. The reaction has been primarily modelled using a pseudo-first-order kinetics which is inappropriate for a heterogeneous reaction. We assumed a shrinking particle type model where the kinetic rate is proportional to the available iron surface area, to the initial volume of solution and to the chromium concentration raised to a power α which is the order of the chemical reaction occurring at surface. We assumed α = 2/3 based on the likeness to the shrinking particle models with spherical symmetry. Kinetics studies were performed in order to evaluate the suitability of this approach. The influence of the following parameters was experimentally studied: initial available surface area, chromium concentration, temperature and pH. The assumed order for the reaction was confirmed. In addition, the rate constant was calculated from data obtained in different operating conditions. Digital pictures of iron balls were periodically taken and the image treatment allowed for establishing the time evolution of their size distribution.

  8. Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX-single-wall carbon nanotubes modified electrodes for hydrogen peroxide and nitrite detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turdean, Graziella L.; Popescu, Ionel Catalin; Curulli, Antonella; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)P), adsorbed either on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) or on hydroxyl-functionalized SWCNT (SWCNT-OH), was incorporated within a Nafion matrix immobilized on the surface of a graphite electrode. From cyclic voltammetric measurements, performed under different experimental conditions (pH and potential scan rate), it was established that the Fe(III)P/Fe(II)P redox couple involves 1e - /1H + . The heterogeneous electron transfer process occurred faster when Fe(III)P was adsorbed on SWCNT-OH (∼11 s -1 ) than on SWCNT (∼4.9 s -1 ). Both the SWCNT-Fe(III)P- and SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P-modified graphite electrodes exhibit electrocatalytic activity for H 2 O 2 and nitrite reduction. The modified electrodes sensitivities were found varying in the following sequences: S SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P = 2.45 mA/M ∼ S SWCNT-Fe(III)P = 2.95 mA/M > S Fe(III)P = 1.34 mA/M for H 2 O 2 , and S SWCNT-Fe(III)P = 3.54 mA/M > S Fe(III)P 1.44 mA/M > S SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P = 0.81 mA/M for NO 2 -

  9. Iron- and ferritin-dependent reactive oxygen species distribution: impact on Arabidopsis root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Guilhem; Boudouf, Soukaina; Boucherez, Jossia; Gaymard, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Iron (Fe) homeostasis is integrated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and distribution at the root tip participates in the control of root growth. Excess Fe increases ferritin abundance, enabling the storage of Fe, which contributes to protection of plants against Fe-induced oxidative stress. AtFer1 and AtFer3 are the two ferritin genes expressed in the meristematic zone, pericycle and endodermis of the Arabidopsis thaliana root, and it is in these regions that we observe Fe stained dots. This staining disappears in the triple fer1-3-4 ferritin mutant. Fe excess decreases primary root length in the same way in wild-type and in fer1-3-4 mutant. In contrast, the Fe-mediated decrease of lateral root (LR) length and density is enhanced in fer1-3-4 plants due to a defect in LR emergence. We observe that this interaction between excess Fe, ferritin, and root system architecture (RSA) is in part mediated by the H2O2/O2·- balance between the root cell proliferation and differentiation zones regulated by the UPB1 transcription factor. Meristem size is also decreased in response to Fe excess in ferritin mutant plants, implicating cell cycle arrest mediated by the ROS-activated SMR5/SMR7 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors pathway in the interaction between Fe and RSA. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Undercooling, nodule count and carbides in thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Ductile cast iron has been cast in plate thicknesses between 2 to 8 mm. The temperature has been measured during the solidification and the graphite nodule count and size distribution together with the type and amount of carbides have been analysed afterwards. Low nodule count gives higher...

  11. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of anemia and thrombocytopenia as a result of uterine fibroid and adenomyosis, complicated by immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP. Symptoms were presented as menorrhagia and metrorrhagia in a 34-year-old African American woman, who was later treated with blood and platelet transfusion and iron therapy with steroids. Uterine fibroids are commonly found to cause hematologic disturbances such as anemia and reactive thrombocytosis and, less commonly, thrombocytopenia. Moreover, such hematologic disturbances are secondary to heavy and irregular uterine bleeding, which is typically presented. A previous uterine fibroid diagnosis was made and reconfirmed by pelvic and transvaginal ultrasound to exclude other locoregional pathologies. ITP was suggested by Coombs test and several other serologies, leading to confirmation via bone marrow biopsy. In a previous case study, we reported positive responses in hemotecrit and platelet count after the introduction of iron therapy to an iron-depleted middle-aged female presenting severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. 1

  12. Coprecipitation of arsenate with metal oxides. 3. Nature, mineralogy, and reactivity of iron(III)-aluminum precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Antonio; Pigna, Massimo; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Cozzolino, Vincenza; Banerjee, Dipanjan

    2009-03-01

    Coprecipitation involving arsenic with aluminum or iron has been studied because this technique is considered particularly efficient for removal of this toxic element from polluted waters. Coprecipitation of arsenic with mixed iron-aluminum solutions has received scant attention. In this work we studied (i)the mineralogy, surface properties, and chemical composition of mixed iron-aluminum oxides formed at initial Fe/Al molar ratio of 1.0 in the absence or presence of arsenate [As/ Fe+Al molar ratio (R) of 0, 0.01, or 0.1] and at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 10.0 and aged for 30 and 210 days at 50 degrees C and (ii) the removal of arsenate from the coprecipitates after addition of phosphate. The amounts of short-range ordered precipitates (ferrihydrite, aluminous ferrihydrite and/or poorly crystalline boehmite) were greater than those found in iron and aluminum systems (studied in previous works), due to the capacity of both aluminum and arsenate to retard or inhibitthe transformation of the initially formed precipitates into well-crystallized oxides (gibbsite, bayerite, and hematite). As a consequence, the surface areas of the iron-aluminum oxides formed in the absence or presence of arsenate were usually much larger than those of aluminum or iron oxides formed under the same conditions. Arsenate was found to be associated mainly into short-range ordered materials. Chemical composition of all samples was affected by pH, initial R, and aging. Phosphate sorption was facilitated by the presence of short-range ordered materials, mainly those richer in aluminum, but was inhibited by arsenate present in the samples. The quantities of arsenate replaced by phosphate, expressed as percentages of its total amount present in the samples, were particularly low, ranging from 10% to 26%. A comparison of the desorption of arsenate by phosphate from aluminum-arsenate and iron-arsenate (studied in previous works) and iron-aluminum-arsenate coprecipitates evidenced that phosphate has a greater

  13. The Role of Iron in the Skin & Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Anne Wright

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review article we discuss current knowledge about iron in the skin and the cutaneous wound healing process. Iron plays a key role in both oxidative stress and photo-induced skin damage. The main causes of oxidative stress in the skin include reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in the skin by ultraviolet (UVA 320-400 nm portion of the ultraviolet spectrum and biologically available iron. We also discuss the relationships between iron deficiency, anaemia and cutaneous wound healing. Studies looking at this fall into two distinct groups. Early studies investigated the effect of anaemia on wound healing using a variety of experimental methodology to establish anaemia or iron deficiency and focused on wound-strength rather than effect on macroscopic healing or re-epithelialisation. More recent animal studies have investigated novel treatments aimed at correcting the effects of systemic iron deficiency and localised iron overload. Iron overload is associated with local cutaneous iron deposition, which has numerous deleterious effects in chronic venous disease and hereditary haemochromatosis. Iron plays a key role in chronic ulceration and conditions such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and Lupus Erythematosus are associated with both anaemia of chronic disease and dysregulation of local cutaneous iron haemostasis. Iron is a potential therapeutic target in the skin by application of topical iron chelators and novel pharmacological agents, and in delayed cutaneous wound healing by treatment of iron deficiency or underlying systemic inflammation.

  14. Behavior of nine selected emerging trace organic contaminants in an artificial recharge system supplemented with a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Barbieri, Manuela; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Huerta, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Artificial recharge improves several water quality parameters, but has only minor effects on recalcitrant pollutants. To improve the removal of these pollutants, we added a reactive barrier at the bottom of an infiltration basin. This barrier contained aquifer sand, vegetable compost, and clay and was covered with iron oxide dust. The goal of the compost was to sorb neutral compounds and release dissolved organic carbon. The release of dissolved organic carbon should generate a broad range of redox conditions to promote the transformation of emerging trace organic contaminants (EOCs). Iron oxides and clay increase the range of sorption site types. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of this barrier by analyzing the fate of nine EOCs. Water quality was monitored before and after constructing the reactive barrier. Installation of the reactive barrier led to nitrate-, iron-, and manganese-reducing conditions in the unsaturated zone below the basin and within the first few meters of the saturated zone. Thus, the behavior of most EOCs changed after installing the reactive barrier. The reactive barrier enhanced the removal of some EOCs, either markedly (sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, benzoylecgonine) or slightly (trimethoprim) and decreased the removal rates of compounds that are easily degradable under aerobic conditions (ibuprofen, paracetamol). The barrier had no remarkable effect on 1H-benzotriazole and tolyltriazole.

  15. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  16. Ultrastructural changes of cell walls under intense mechanical treatment of selective plant raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Aleksey L.; Ryabchikova, E.I.; Korolev, K.G.; Lomovsky, O.I.

    2012-01-01

    Structural changes of cell walls under intense mechanical treatment of corn straw and oil-palm fibers were studied by electron and light microscopy. Differences in the character of destruction of plant biomass were revealed, and the dependence of destruction mechanisms on the structure of cell walls and lignin content was demonstrated. We suggest that the high reactivity of the particles of corn straw (about 18% of lignin) after intense mechanical treatment is related to disordering of cell walls and an increase of the surface area, while in the case of oil palm (10% of lignin) the major contribution into an increase in the reactivity is made by an increase of surface area. -- Highlights: ► Structure of cell walls determines the processes of plant materials' destruction. ► Ultrastructure of highly lignified materials strongly disordering by mechanical action. ► Ultrastructure of low-lignified materials is not disordering by mechanical action.

  17. Microbial Oxidation of Iron Sulfides in Anaerobic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaclavkova, Sarka

    Abstract (shortened): Iron sulfides (FeSx), representing 0.04-10 % of Danish dry soil weight, oxidize in a presence of oxygen, releasing sulfuric acid and free iron. Environmental impact of FeSx oxidation is commonly seen on agricultural sites cultivated by drainage as acid sulfate soil formation....... MISON was found to count for about 1/3 of the net NO3- reduction in MISON active environments, despite the presence of alternative electron donor, organic carbon. The rate of MISON was found to be dependent on the available reactive surface area of FeSx and on the microorganism involved. The findings...

  18. Phenol-formaldehyde reactivity with lignin in the wood cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Latewood from Pinus taeda was reacted with alkaline phenol–formaldehyde (PF) adhesive and characterised using two-dimensional 1H–13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy so that chemical modification of the wood cell wall polymers, after PF resol curing, could be elucidated. The...

  19. Parvalbumin-expressing ependymal cells in rostral lateral ventricle wall adhesions contribute to aging-related ventricle stenosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filice, Federica; Celio, Marco R; Babalian, Alexandre; Blum, Walter; Szabolcsi, Viktoria

    2017-10-15

    Aging-associated ependymal-cell pathologies can manifest as ventricular gliosis, ventricle enlargement, or ventricle stenosis. Ventricle stenosis and fusion of the lateral ventricle (LV) walls is associated with a massive decline of the proliferative capacities of the stem cell niche in the affected subventricular zone (SVZ) in aging mice. We examined the brains of adult C57BL/6 mice and found that ependymal cells located in the adhesions of the medial and lateral walls of the rostral LVs upregulated parvalbumin (PV) and displayed reactive phenotype, similarly to injury-reactive ependymal cells. However, PV+ ependymal cells in the LV-wall adhesions, unlike injury-reactive ones, did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. S100B+/PV+ ependymal cells found in younger mice diminished in the LV-wall adhesions throughout aging. We found that periventricular PV-immunofluorescence showed positive correlation to the grade of LV stenosis in nonaged mice (wall adhesions and LV stenosis was significantly lower in mid-aged (>10-month-old) PV-knock out (PV-KO) mice. This suggests an involvement of PV+ ependymal cells in aging-associated ventricle stenosis. Additionally, we observed a time-shift in microglial activation in the LV-wall adhesions between age-grouped PV-KO and wild-type mice, suggesting a delay in microglial activation when PV is absent from ependymal cells. Our findings implicate that compromised ependymal cells of the adhering ependymal layers upregulate PV and display phenotype shift to "reactive" ependymal cells in aging-related ventricle stenosis; moreover, they also contribute to the progression of LV-wall fusion associated with a decline of the affected SVZ-stem cell niche in aged mice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects Of Aging And Oxidation Of Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On The Dechlorination Of 2-Chlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron has been developed to effectively treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment by coupling adsorption and dechlorination of PCBs. In this study, we addressed the dechlorination reactivity and capacity ...

  1. Bioactive surface modifications on inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene tubes using dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Ki [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering R and D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Daewon; Kim, Hoonbae [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyerim; Park, Heonyong [Department of Molecular Biology, Dankook University, Yongin 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Ja [Department of Internal Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Donggeun, E-mail: djung@skku.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts. • Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment using micro plasma discharge. - Abstract: Bioactive surface modification can be used in a variety of medical polymeric materials in the fields of biochips and biosensors, artificial membranes, and vascular grafts. In this study, the surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts, which are made of biocompatible material for the human body in the medical field. Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment on the PFTE surface using micro plasma discharge. Micro plasma was generated by a medium-frequency alternating current high-voltage generator. The preliminary modification of PTFE was conducted by a plasma of hydrogen and argon gases. The hydrocarbon thin film was deposited on modified PTFE with a mixture of acetylene and argon gases. The reactive plasma treatment using oxygen plasma was done to give biocompatible functionality to the inner wall surface. The hydrophobic surface of bare PTFE is made hydrophilic by the reactive plasma treatment due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface. The reactive treatment could lead to improved attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on the modified PTFE tubing. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurement were used for the analysis of the surface modification. The SMC-attached PTFE tube developed will be applicable to in vitro human vasculature

  2. Bioactive surface modifications on inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene tubes using dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Ki; Park, Daewon; Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Hyerim; Park, Heonyong; Kim, Hong Ja; Jung, Donggeun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts. • Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment using micro plasma discharge. - Abstract: Bioactive surface modification can be used in a variety of medical polymeric materials in the fields of biochips and biosensors, artificial membranes, and vascular grafts. In this study, the surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts, which are made of biocompatible material for the human body in the medical field. Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment on the PFTE surface using micro plasma discharge. Micro plasma was generated by a medium-frequency alternating current high-voltage generator. The preliminary modification of PTFE was conducted by a plasma of hydrogen and argon gases. The hydrocarbon thin film was deposited on modified PTFE with a mixture of acetylene and argon gases. The reactive plasma treatment using oxygen plasma was done to give biocompatible functionality to the inner wall surface. The hydrophobic surface of bare PTFE is made hydrophilic by the reactive plasma treatment due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface. The reactive treatment could lead to improved attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on the modified PTFE tubing. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurement were used for the analysis of the surface modification. The SMC-attached PTFE tube developed will be applicable to in vitro human vasculature

  3. A natural antioxidant, tannic acid mitigates iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice through ROS regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tapasree; Panja, Sourav; Shendge, Anil Khushalrao; Das, Abhishek; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2018-05-01

    Tannic acid (TA), a water soluble natural polyphenol with 8 gallic acids groups, is abundantly present in various medicinal plants. Previously TA has been investigated for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Being a large polyphenol, TA chelates more than 1 metal. Hence TA has been explored for potent antioxidant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and as iron chelator in vitro thereby mitigating iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Iron dextran was injected intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice to induce iron-overload triggered hepatotoxicity, followed by oral administration of TA for remediation. After treatment, liver, spleen, and blood samples were processed from sacrificed animals. The liver iron, serum ferritin, serum markers, ROS, liver antioxidant status, and liver damage parameters were assessed, followed by histopathology and protein expression studies. Our results show that TA is a prominent ROS and RNS scavenger as well as iron chelator in vitro. It also reversed the ROS levels in vivo and restricted the liver damage parameters as compared to the standard drug, desirox. Moreover, this natural polyphenol exclusively ameliorates the histopathological and fibrotic changes in liver sections reducing the iron-overload, along with chelation of liver iron and normalization of serum ferritin. The protective role of TA against iron-overload induced apoptosis in liver was further supported by changed levels of caspase 3, PARP as well as Bax/BCl-2 ratio. Thus, TA can be envisaged as a better orally administrable iron chelator to reduce iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity through ROS regulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Decolourisation and degradation of reactive blue 2 by sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was performed to determine the influence of heat treatment on sewage sludge and addition of zero valent iron (ZVI) on the degradation and decolourisation of an anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 2 (RB 2). A consortium of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor with biodigester ...

  5. Effects of Selected Dietary Secondary Metabolites on Reactive Oxygen Species Production Caused by Iron(II Autoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Chobot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential co-factor for many enzymes that catalyze electron transfer reactions. It is well known that so-called “poorly liganded” iron can increase ROS concentrations and trigger oxidative stress that is capable of initiating apoptosis. Conversely, controlled ROS production has been recognized as an integral part of cellular signaling. Elevated ROS concentrations are associated with aging, inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Anti-aging properties have been attributed especially to antioxidant phenolic plant metabolites that represent food additives in our diet. Consequently, this study explores the effects of flavonoids (quercetin and rutin, several phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, and protocatechuic acid, and the alkaloid caffeine on iron(II autoxidation and ROS production in comparison to the standard antioxidants ascorbic acid and Trolox. The iron(II autoxidation assay was carried out in pH 6.0 (plant apoplast and inflamed human tissue and 7.4 (cell cytoplasm and human blood plasma. The obtained results accentuate phenolic acids as the more specific antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid and Trolox. Flavonoid redox chemistry depends more on the chemical milieu, specifically on pH. In vivo, the presence of iron cannot be ruled out and “wrongly” or “poorly” complexed iron has been pointed out as causative agent of various age-related diseases.

  6. A model for the biological precipitation of Precambrian iron-formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A biological model for the precipitation of Precambrian iron formations is presented. Assuming an oxygen deficient atmosphere and water column to allow sufficient Fe solubility, it is proposed that local oxidizing environments, produced biologically, led to precipitation of iron formations. It is further suggested that spheroidal structures about 30 mm in diameter, which are widespread in low grade cherty rion formations, are relict forms of the organic walled microfossil Eosphaera tylerii. The presence of these structures suggests that the organism may have had a siliceous test, which allowed sufficient rigidity for accumulation and preservation. The model involves precipitation of ferric hydrates by oxidation of iron in the photic zone by a variety of photosynthetic organisms. Silica may have formed in the frustules of silica secreting organisms, including Eosphaera tylerii. Iron formates formed, therefore, by a sediment rain of biologically produced ferric hydrates and silica and other organic material. Siderite and hematite formed diagenetically on basin floors, and subsequent metamorphism produced magnetite and iron silicates.

  7. Identification of genes expressed by Cryptococcus gattii during iron deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphine Ariadne Jesus de Paula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic yeasts that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually every organism as it functions as a cofactor in numerous essential enzymatic reactions. In the literature, the competition for iron between microbes and mammalian hosts during infection is well documented. In this study, we used representational difference analysis (RDA in order to gain a better understanding of how C. gattii responds to iron starvation. A total of 15 and 29 genes were identified as having altered expression levels due to iron depletion after 3 h and 12 h, respectively. Of these, eight genes were identified in both libraries. The transcripts were related to many biological processes, such as cell cycle, ergosterol metabolism, cell wall organization, transportation, translation, cell respiration and the stress response. These data suggest a remodeling of C. gattii metabolism during conditions of iron deprivation.

  8. Wetting of Liquid Iron in Carbon Nanotubes and on Graphene Sheets: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yu-Feng; Yang Yang; Sun De-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the wetting of liquid iron in a carbon nanotube and on a graphene sheet. It is found that the contact angle of a droplet in a carbon nanotube increases linearly with the increase of wall curvature but is independent of the length of the filled liquid. The contact angle for a droplet on a graphene sheet decreases with the increasing droplet size. The line tension of a droplet on a graphene sheet is also obtained. Detailed studies show that liquid iron near the carbon walls exhibits the ordering tendencies in both the normal and tangential directions. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  9. Reactivity of Fe3(CO)12 with Alkynes R-C≡-C-R':Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Substituted Cyclic Ketones and Carbonyl Iron Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Quan-Ling; WU Le; SU Qian; ZHU Ning; GAO Yuan-Yuan; HONG Hai-Long; XIE Rui-Jun; HAN Li-Min

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of carbonyl iron cluster with alkynes has been studied by the thermal reaction of Fe3(CO)12 with R-C≡C-R'(R =Fc (Ferrocenyl);R'=Ph (Phenyl),Fc,H).The hexacarbonyldiiron cluster with ferracyclopentadiene ring (μ2,η4-C4Ph4)Fe2(CO)6 (1) and one tetraphenyl substituted cyclopentadienone (Ph4C4CO) (2) were simultaneously obtained by the reaction of Fe3(CO)12 with alkyne (Ph-C≡C-Ph).Only one ferrole cluster (μ2,η4-C4Fc2H2)Fe2(CO)6 (3) was separated by using Fc-C≡C-H as alkyne.One tri-carbonyl iron complex (η4-C4Fc4CO)Fe(CO)3 (4) and an unexpected new cyclic ketone compound 2,2,4,5-tetraferrocenylcyclopenta-4-en-l,3-di-one [Fc4C3(CO)2] (5) were obtained by using Fc-C≡C-Fc as alkyne.A new complex (η4-2,4-diphenyl-3,5-diferrocenylcyclopenta-2,4-dien-l-one)-tricarbonyl iron (η4-C4Ph2Fc2CO)Fe(CO)3 (6)was synthesized by the reaction of Fe3(CO)12 with Fc-C≡C-Ph.The structures of compounds 1~6 were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and spectroscopic characterization.The crystal structures of two new compounds 5 and 6 were analyzed.Our experimental results reveal the structural models of the reaction products are affected by the kinds of substituents from alkynes R-C≡C-R'.

  10. The effects of metamorphism on iron mineralogy and the iron speciation redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Eiler, John M.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2018-03-01

    utilized. The presence of diagenetic iron carbonates in many samples severely affected the proxy even at low grade, engendering an interpretation of ferruginous conditions in all lithologies, but particularly in carbonate-bearing rocks. Increasing metamorphic grades transformed iron in carbonates into iron in silicate minerals, which when combined with a slight increase in the amount of pyrrhotite, drove the proxy toward more oxic and more euxinic conditions. Broad-classes of metamorphic reactions (e.g. decarbonation, silicate formation) occurred at distinct temperatures-pressures in carbonates versus siliciclastics, and could be either abrupt between metamorphic facies or more gradual in nature. Notably, these analyses highlighted the importance of trace iron in phases like calcite, which otherwise might not be included in iron-focused research i.e. ore-system petrogenesis, metamorphic evolution, or normative calculations of mineral abundance. The observations show that iron is mobile and reactive during diagenesis and metamorphism, and these post-depositional processes can readily overprint primary redox information held by iron speciation. However, in principle, additional mineralogical and petrographic approaches can be combined with iron speciation data to help untangle many of these post-depositional processes and arrive at more accurate estimates of paleoenvironmental redox conditions and processes, even for metamorphosed samples.

  11. Iron: a versatile element to produce materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Araujo, Maria H.; Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Moura, Flavia C.C.; Lago, Rochel M., E-mail: rochel@ufmg.br, E-mail: anapct@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tristao, Juliana C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Florestal, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada; Amorim, Camila C., E-mail: juliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Iron is a versatile element forming several phases with different oxidation states and {sup s}tructures, such as Fe{sup 0}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. All these phases have unique physicochemical properties which can be used for different applications. In this work, it is described the use of different iron compounds, synthetic and also from natural and waste sources, in environmental and technological applications. Two main research areas are described. The first one is related to strategies to increase the reactivity of Fe phases, mainly by the formation of Fe{sup 0}/iron oxide composites and by the introduction of new metals in the iron oxide structure to promote new surface reactions. The second area is the use of the magnetic properties of some iron phases to produce versatile magnetic materials with focus in adsorption, catalysis and emulsions. (author)

  12. Hybrid composites of nano-sized zero valent iron and covalent organic polymers for groundwater contaminant degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Byun, J.; Hwang, Yuhoon

    Zero valent iron is commonly used in a variety of treatment technologies (e.g. permeable reactive barriers), though recently a heavier focus has been placed on nano-sized zero valent iron (nZVI). Having superior reductive properties and large surface areas, nZVI is ideal for the degradation of ch...

  13. Arsenate and Arsenite Sorption on Magnetite: Relations to Groundwater Arsenic Treatment Using Zerovalent Iron and Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a zerovalent iron corrosion product; it is also formed in natural soil and sediment. Sorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on magnetite is an important process of arsenic removal from groundwater using zerovalent iron-based permeable reactive ba...

  14. Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of active metals, catalyst supports, and metal loading percentage on the formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were studied. In particular, iron, cobalt, and nickel were investigated for SWNTs synthesis. Iron was found to grow better-quality SWNTs compared to cobalt and nickel. To study the effect of catalyst supports, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and aluminium oxide were chosen for iron. Among the studied supports, MgO was identified to be a suitable support for iron as it produced SWNTs with better graphitisation determined by Raman analysis. Increasing the iron loading decreased the quality of SWNTs due to extensive agglomeration of the iron particles. Thus, lower metal loading percentage is preferred to grow better-quality SWNTs with uniform diameters.

  15. A relay network of extracellular heme-binding proteins drives C. albicans iron acquisition from hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, Galit; Vigonsky, Elena; Weissman, Ziva; Lalli, Daniela; Gildor, Tsvia; Kauffman, Sarah J; Turano, Paola; Becker, Jeffrey; Lewinson, Oded; Kornitzer, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Iron scavenging constitutes a crucial challenge for survival of pathogenic microorganisms in the iron-poor host environment. Candida albicans, like many microbial pathogens, is able to utilize iron from hemoglobin, the largest iron pool in the host's body. Rbt5 is an extracellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored heme-binding protein of the CFEM family that facilitates heme-iron uptake by an unknown mechanism. Here, we characterize an additional C. albicans CFEM protein gene, PGA7, deletion of which elicits a more severe heme-iron utilization phenotype than deletion of RBT5. The virulence of the pga7-/- mutant is reduced in a mouse model of systemic infection, consistent with a requirement for heme-iron utilization for C. albicans pathogenicity. The Pga7 and Rbt5 proteins exhibit distinct cell wall attachment, and discrete localization within the cell envelope, with Rbt5 being more exposed than Pga7. Both proteins are shown here to efficiently extract heme from hemoglobin. Surprisingly, while Pga7 has a higher affinity for heme in vitro, we find that heme transfer can occur bi-directionally between Pga7 and Rbt5, supporting a model in which they cooperate in a heme-acquisition relay. Together, our data delineate the roles of Pga7 and Rbt5 in a cell surface protein network that transfers heme from extracellular hemoglobin to the endocytic pathway, and provide a paradigm for how receptors embedded in the cell wall matrix can mediate nutrient uptake across the fungal cell envelope.

  16. AN IN-SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUND WATER: VOLUME 1 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable subsurface reactive wall was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center, near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in June 1996. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contaminated ground ...

  17. Key Roles of Size and Crystallinity of Nanosized Iron Hydr(oxides) Stabilized by Humic Substances in Iron Bioavailability to Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A; Polyakov, Alexander Yu; Lebedev, Vasily A; Abroskin, Dmitry P; Volkov, Dmitry S; Pankratov, Denis A; Klein, Olga I; Senik, Svetlana V; Sorkina, Tatiana A; Garshev, Alexey V; Veligzhanin, Alexey A; Garcia Mina, Jose M; Perminova, Irina V

    2017-12-27

    Availability of Fe in soil to plants is closely related to the presence of humic substances (HS). Still, the systematic data on applicability of iron-based nanomaterials stabilized with HS as a source for plant nutrition are missing. The goal of our study was to establish a connection between properties of iron-based materials stabilized by HS and their bioavailability to plants. We have prepared two samples of leonardite HS-stabilized iron-based materials with substantially different properties using the reported protocols and studied their physical chemical state in relation to iron uptake and other biological effects. We used Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, SAXS, and TEM to conclude on iron speciation, size, and crystallinity. One material (Fe-HA) consisted of polynuclear iron(III) (hydr)oxide complexes, so-called ferric polymers, distributed in HS matrix. These complexes are composed of predominantly amorphous small-size components (Bioavailability studies were conducted on wheat plants under conditions of iron deficiency. The uptake studies have shown that small and amorphous ferric polymers were readily translocated into the leaves on the level of Fe-EDTA, whereas relatively large and crystalline feroxyhyte NPs were mostly sorbed on the roots. The obtained data are consistent with the size exclusion limits of cell wall pores (5-20 nm). Both samples demonstrated distinct beneficial effects with respect to photosynthetic activity and lipid biosynthesis. The obtained results might be of use for production of iron-based nanomaterials stabilized by HS with the tailored iron availability to plants. They can be applied as the only source for iron nutrition as well as in combination with the other elements, for example, for industrial production of "nanofortified" macrofertilizers (NPK).

  18. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  19. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, W.D.

    2009-09-02

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  20. Mechanical strength parameters of cast iron with lamellar graphite and their significance for the design of pressure-carrying reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janakiev, N.

    1977-01-01

    The tensile strength of thick-walled components in cast iron with lamellar graphite is lower by about 50 to 65% than that stated in DIN 1691. The usable compressive strength of this material under uni-axial load is about twice as high as its tensile strength. The graphite lamellae are not bonded into the metallic matrix. The width of the gaps between the graphite lamellae and the matrix increases with increasing wall thickness of the casting. In stress calculations for design purposes it is advisable to rely only on the permissible tensile stresses. It is shown that cast iron can be used as structural material for shieldings but is unsuitable for thick-walled reactor components carrying compressive and tensile stresses because its mechanical strength parameters decrease rapidly with increasing wall thickness. (orig.) [de

  1. Sorption of samarium in iron (II) and (III) phosphates in aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz F, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive residues that are stored in the radioactive confinements its need to stay isolated of the environment while the radioactivity levels be noxious. An important mechanism by which the radioactive residues can to reach the environment, it is the migration of these through the underground water. That it makes necessary the investigation of reactive materials that interacting with those radionuclides and that its are able to remove them from the watery resources. The synthesis and characterization of materials that can be useful in Environmental Chemistry are very important because its characteristics are exposed and its behavior in chemical phenomena as the sorption watery medium is necessary to use it in the environmental protection. In this work it was carried out the sorption study of the samarium III ion in the iron (II) and (III) phosphate; obtaining the sorption isotherms in function of pH, of the phosphate mass and of the concentration of the samarium ion using UV-visible spectroscopy to determine the removal percentage. The developed experiments show that as much the ferrous phosphate as the ferric phosphate present a great affinity by the samarium III, for what it use like reactive material in contention walls can be very viable because it sorption capacity has overcome 90% to pH values similar to those of the underground and also mentioning that the form to obtain these materials is very economic and simple. (Author)

  2. Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. > 9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and δ13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched δ13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, δ13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity.

  3. Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. >9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and delta13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched delta13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, delta13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity.

  4. Iron-Catalyzed C-O Bond Activation: Opportunity for Sustainable Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisz, Elwira; Szostak, Michal

    2017-10-23

    Oxygen-based electrophiles have emerged as some of the most valuable cross-coupling partners in organic synthesis due to several major strategic and environmental benefits, such as abundance and potential to avoid toxic halide waste. In this context, iron-catalyzed C-O activation/cross-coupling holds particular promise to achieve sustainable catalytic protocols due to its natural abundance, inherent low toxicity, and excellent economic and ecological profile. Recently, tremendous progress has been achieved in the development of new methods for functional-group-tolerant iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions by selective C-O cleavage. These methods establish highly attractive alternatives to traditional cross-coupling reactions by using halides as electrophilic partners. In particular, new easily accessible oxygen-based electrophiles have emerged as substrates in iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, which significantly broaden the scope of this catalysis platform. New mechanistic manifolds involving iron catalysis have been established; thus opening up vistas for the development of a wide range of unprecedented reactions. The synthetic potential of this sustainable mode of reactivity has been highlighted by the development of new strategies in the construction of complex motifs, including in target synthesis. The most recent advances in sustainable iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of C-O-based electrophiles are reviewed, with a focus on both mechanistic aspects and synthetic utility. It should be noted that this catalytic manifold provides access to motifs that are often not easily available by other methods, such as the assembly of stereodefined dienes or C(sp 2 )-C(sp 3 ) cross-couplings, thus emphasizing the synthetic importance of this mode of reactivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Heterogeneous biomimetic catalysis using iron porphyrin for cyclohexane oxidation promoted by chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan; Liu, Yao; Cai, Jing Li; Chen, Xiang Feng; Zhao, Shu Kai; Guo, Yong An; Wei, Su Juan; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates how ligands modulate metalloporphyrin activity with the goal of producing a practical biomimetic catalyst for use in the chemical industry. We immobilized iron porphyrinate [iron-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin; Fe(III) (TPPS)] on powdered chitosan (pd-CTS) to form an immobilized catalyst Fe(III) (TPPS)/pd-CTS, which was characterized using modern spectroscopic techniques and used for catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane with O2. Amino coordination to iron porphyrin in Fe(III) (TPPS)/pd-CTS altered the electron cloud density around the iron cation, probably by reducing the activation energy of Fe(III) (TPPS) and raising the reactivity of the iron ion catalytic center, thereby improving the catalytic efficiency. One milligram of Fe(III) (TPPS) catalyst can be reused three times for the oxidation reaction to yield an average of 22.9 mol% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol.

  6. Iron chelating activity, phenol and flavonoid content of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... require regular blood transfusions in order to improve both quality of ... fused red blood cells and the excess iron is deposited as ... potentiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and .... The percentage inhibition of ferrozine–Fe2+ complex formation was ... estimation of the chelating activity of the coexisting.

  7. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-25

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Iron persistence in a distal hydrothermal plume supported by dissolved-particulate exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; John, Seth G.; Marsay, Christopher M.; Hoffman, Colleen L.; Nicholas, Sarah L.; Toner, Brandy M.; German, Christopher R.; Sherrell, Robert M.

    2017-02-01

    Hydrothermally sourced dissolved metals have been recorded in all ocean basins. In the oceans' largest known hydrothermal plume, extending westwards across the Pacific from the Southern East Pacific Rise, dissolved iron and manganese were shown by the GEOTRACES program to be transported halfway across the Pacific. Here, we report that particulate iron and manganese in the same plume also exceed background concentrations, even 4,000 km from the vent source. Both dissolved and particulate iron deepen by more than 350 m relative to 3He--a non-reactive tracer of hydrothermal input--crossing isopycnals. Manganese shows no similar descent. Individual plume particle analyses indicate that particulate iron occurs within low-density organic matrices, consistent with its slow sinking rate of 5-10 m yr-1. Chemical speciation and isotopic composition analyses reveal that particulate iron consists of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, whereas dissolved iron consists of nanoparticulate Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and an organically complexed iron phase. The descent of plume-dissolved iron is best explained by reversible exchange onto slowly sinking particles, probably mediated by organic compounds binding iron. We suggest that in ocean regimes with high particulate iron loadings, dissolved iron fluxes may depend on the balance between stabilization in the dissolved phase and the reversibility of exchange onto sinking particles.

  9. Sulfur Cycling in an Iron Oxide-Dominated, Dynamic Marine Depositional System: The Argentine Continental Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Riedinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between sediment deposition patterns, organic matter type and the quantity and quality of reactive mineral phases determines the accumulation, speciation, and isotope composition of pore water and solid phase sulfur constituents in marine sediments. Here, we present the sulfur geochemistry of siliciclastic sediments from two sites along the Argentine continental slope—a system characterized by dynamic deposition and reworking, which result in non-steady state conditions. The two investigated sites have different depositional histories but have in common that reactive iron phases are abundant and that organic matter is refractory—conditions that result in low organoclastic sulfate reduction rates (SRR. Deposition of reworked, isotopically light pyrite and sulfurized organic matter appear to be important contributors to the sulfur inventory, with only minor addition of pyrite from organoclastic sulfate reduction above the sulfate-methane transition (SMT. Pore-water sulfide is limited to a narrow zone at the SMT. The core of that zone is dominated by pyrite accumulation. Iron monosulfide and elemental sulfur accumulate above and below this zone. Iron monosulfide precipitation is driven by the reaction of low amounts of hydrogen sulfide with ferrous iron and is in competition with the oxidation of sulfide by iron (oxyhydroxides to form elemental sulfur. The intervals marked by precipitation of intermediate sulfur phases at the margin of the zone with free sulfide are bordered by two distinct peaks in total organic sulfur (TOS. Organic matter sulfurization appears to precede pyrite formation in the iron-dominated margins of the sulfide zone, potentially linked to the presence of polysulfides formed by reaction between dissolved sulfide and elemental sulfur. Thus, SMTs can be hotspots for organic matter sulfurization in sulfide-limited, reactive iron-rich marine sedimentary systems. Furthermore, existence of elemental sulfur and iron

  10. Effect of bicarbonate on iron-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hirofumi; Berlett, Barbara S.; Chock, P. Boon; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2005-07-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of bicarbonate/CO2 and phosphate buffer systems on metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to malondialdehyde (MDA) and to protein carbonyl and MetO derivatives. Our results revealed that LDL oxidation in mixtures containing free iron or heme derivatives was much greater in bicarbonate/CO2 compared with phosphate buffer. However, when copper was substituted for iron in these mixtures, the rate of LDL oxidation in both buffers was similar. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL was highly sensitive to inhibition by phosphate. Presence of 0.3-0.5 mM phosphate, characteristic of human serum, led to 30-40% inhibition of LDL oxidation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to MDA in phosphate buffer was inhibited by increasing concentrations of albumin (10-200 μM), whereas MDA formation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was stimulated by 10-50 μM albumin but inhibited by higher concentrations. However, albumin stimulated the oxidation of LDL proteins to carbonyl derivatives at all concentrations examined in both buffers. Conversion of LDL to MDA in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was greatly stimulated by ADP, ATP, and EDTA but only when EDTA was added at a concentration equal to that of iron. At higher than stoichiometric concentrations, EDTA prevented oxidation of LDL. Results of these studies suggest that interactions between bicarbonate and iron or heme derivatives leads to complexes with redox potentials that favor the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or to the generation of highly reactive CO2 anion or bicarbonate radical that facilitates LDL oxidation. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.Abbreviations: LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MDA, malondialdehyde; MetO, methionine sulfoxide.

  11. Removal of remazol yellow with modified clays with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Gomez T, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Clays have the ability to absorb water and to retain in its structure both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, therefore, it is possible to use them in the sorption of dyes from waste water, in order to avoid affecting water bodies or storm drains when they are discharged. In this paper the montmorillonite KSF and a sodium bentonite from the Morelos State, Mexico were studied for the sorption of an azo dye used in textiles knows as remazol yellow. These clays were modified with iron, the dye sorption behaviors and their regeneration processes for their reuse were determined. It was difficult to separate the sodium bentonite after being in contact with aqueous solutions; therefore it was nor a candidate dor the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. The montmorillonite KSF was characterized before and after the iron modification, and after its regeneration by scanning electron microscopy (elemental analysis), infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and the specific areas of the materials were determined by Bet analysis. The adsorption equilibrium time and the adsorption rate for remazol yellow were determined from the fitting of the experimental results to mathematical models for the unmodified and iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The adsorption capacity was determined from the adsorption isotherms and mathematical models. The influence of the ph in the sorption processes was determined as well, and it was found that, ph values between 2 and 12 do not have any influence on the adsorption processes for iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The montmorillonite KSF and the iron modified montmorillonite KSF are adequate adsorbents for the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. Although, the sorption capacity for the unmodified montmorillonite KSF is higher (about 10%) than the capacity for the iron modified montmorillonite KSF and the stability of the last one increased. The saturated clays with remazol yellow were treated with Fenton reactive

  12. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balla, Wafaa; Essadki, A.H.; Gourich, B.; Dassaa, A.; Chenik, H.; Azzi, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm -2 and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E dye ) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg dye was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg dye for disperse and 50 kWh/kg dye for the mixture.

  13. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, Wafaa [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@est-uh2c.ac.ma [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Dassaa, A. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Chenik, H. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Azzi, M. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2010-12-15

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm{sup -2} and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E{sub dye}) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg{sub dye} was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg{sub dye} for disperse and 50 kWh/kg{sub dye} for the mixture.

  14. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  15. Characterization and H2-O2 reactivity of noble nano-metal tailored single wall nano-carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K Kaneko; T Itoh; E Bekyarova; H Kanoh; S Utsumi; H Tanaka; M Yudasaka; S Iijima; S Iijima

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Single wall carbon nano-tube (SWNT) and single wall carbon nano-horn (SWNH) have nano-spaces in their particles and the nano-spaces become open by oxidation. In particular, SWNH forms a unique colloidal structure which has micropores and meso-pores between the SWNH particles. Although non-treated SWNH colloids have quasi-one dimensional nano-pores [1], oxidized SWNH colloids have both of interstitial and internal nano-pores [2-5]. SWNH colloids show excellent supercritical methane storage ability [6], molecular sieving effect [7], and unique hydrogen adsorption characteristic [8]. Selective adsorptivity of SWNH colloids for H 2 and D 2 due to uncertainty principle of those molecules was shown [9-10]. As SWNH has no metallic impurities, we can study the effect of tailoring of metallic nano-particles on the surface activities of SWNH [11]. We tailored Pd or Pt nano-particles on SWNH and SWNH oxidized at 823 K (ox-SWNH) using poly[(2-oxo-pyrrolidine-1-yl)ethylene]. The oxidation of SWNH donates nano-scale windows to the single wall. The tailored metal amount was determined by TG analysis. TEM showed uniform dispersion of nano-metal particles of 2-3 nm in the diameter on SWNH. The nitrogen adsorption amount of SWNH oxidized decreases by tailoring, indicating that nano-particles are attached to the nano-scale windows. The electronic states of tailored metals were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface activities of Pd tailored SWNH and ox-SWNH were examined for the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen near room temperature. The catalytic reactivities of Pd tailored SWNH and ox-SWNH were 4 times greater than that of Pd-dispersed activated carbon. The temperature dependence of the surface activity will be discussed with the relevance to the tube porosity. References [1] T. Ohba et al, J. Phys. Chem. In press. [2] S. Utsumi et al, J. Phys. Chem. In press. [3] C.- Min Yang, et al. Adv. Mater. In press. [4]C.M. Yang, J

  16. Redox properties of iron in porous ferrisilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, K.; Pal-Borbely, G.; Szegedi, A.; Fejes, P.; Martinez, F.

    2006-01-01

    Insertion of iron into porous ferrisilicates may result in changes of the original structures. For example, this insertion enables the structure to take part in reversible Fe 2+ ↔ Fe 3+ redox process. This process may play an important role e.g. in catalytic procedures. The structure of the host may provide different locations for the iron. In microporous systems (analogous with zeolites, with characteristic pore sizes of 0.5 nm) the framework vs. extra-framework distinction is obvious, since these structures are strictly crystalline (in three dimensions). In contrast, mesoporous structures of 3 - 5 nm characteristic pore dimension, exhibit crystallinity uppermost in two dimensions, since their pore walls are partly amorphous. The appearance of the Fe 2+ ↔ Fe 3+ redox behaviour of iron in micro- and mesoporous systems, its correlation with coordination changes strongly depend on the structure. In general, crystallinity stabilizes the Fe 3+ state, and the Fe 3+ ↔ Fe 2+ change may be correlated with change of the position occupied in the structure. For demonstration, some examples are to be presented by comparing the behaviour of iron located in in microporous (MFI, FER, MCM-22) and mesoporous (MCM-41 and SBA-15) structures. (authors)

  17. Studies on the optimum conditions using acid-washed zero-valent iron/aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weijiang; Fu, Fenglian; Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing; Wu, Shijiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Acid-washed zero-valent iron and zero-valent aluminum were used in PRBs. • The time that removal efficiencies of heavy metal were above 99.5% can keep 300 h. • Removal mechanism of Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ was discussed. • Heavy metal ions were removed by reduction, adsorption, and co-precipitation. - Abstract: The method of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is considered as one of the most practicable approaches in treating heavy metals contaminated surface and groundwater. The mixture of acid-washed zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) as reactive medium in PRBs to treat heavy metal wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ was investigated. The performance of column filled with the mixture of acid-washed ZVI and ZVAl was much better than the column filled with ZVI or ZVAl alone. At initial pH 5.4 and flow rates of 1.0 mL/min, the time that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ were all above 99.5% can keep about 300 h using 80 g/40 g acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl when treating wastewater containing each heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) concentration of 20.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize ZVI/ZVAl before and after reaction and the reaction mechanism of the heavy metal ions with ZVI/ZVAl was discussed.

  18. Pinning of 1800 Bloch walls at etched nuclear tracks in LPE-grown iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumme, J.; Bartels, I.; Strocka, B.; Witter, K.; Schmelzer, C.; Spohr, R.

    1977-01-01

    For increasing the magnetic-wall coercivity H/sup w//sub c/ in liquid-phase epitaxial (LPE) ferrimagnetic garnet films of composition (Gd,Bi) 3 (Fe,Al,Ga) 5 O 12 , magnetic-wall ''traps'' are formed via bombardment by xenon ions with 180-MeV/ion energy and doses between 10 6 and 10 8 cm -2 . For efficient wall pinning, the width of the nuclear damage tracks associated with the ion trajectories in the film have been enlarged to about the wall width by using a selective (chemical) etchant that makes use of the drastically increased etching rate in the damaged track volume. Therefore, channels of cylindrical or prismatic cross section are created having a width of a few 10 2 to about 10 3 A and a length of more than 10 μm at the given etching conditions. The pinning capability of such channels can be further enhanced in films that are grown under planar compressive or tensile misfit strain. Then, strain relaxation occurs in the vicinity of these channels which results in steep gradients of the magnetic-wall energy via magnetostriction. These strain halos extend sufficiently beyond the channels so that efficient wall pinning is observed, even if the channel cross section is small compared with the wall width. Thermomagnetic compensation-point writing in LPE garnet film, that were treated accordingly, yield a pattern of stable magnetic domains of down to 8 μm in diameter in 3-μm-thick layers. The effect of etched nuclear tracks on the magnetic-wall coercivity can be interpreted satisfactorily with present models on H/sup w//sub c/

  19. Statistical analysis of the velocity and scalar fields in reacting turbulent wall-jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouransari, Z.; Biferale, L.; Johansson, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The concept of local isotropy in a chemically reacting turbulent wall-jet flow is addressed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Different DNS databases with isothermal and exothermic reactions are examined. The chemical reaction and heat release effects on the turbulent velocity, passive scalar, and reactive species fields are studied using their probability density functions (PDFs) and higher order moments for velocities and scalar fields, as well as their gradients. With the aid of the anisotropy invariant maps for the Reynolds stress tensor, the heat release effects on the anisotropy level at different wall-normal locations are evaluated and found to be most accentuated in the near-wall region. It is observed that the small-scale anisotropies are persistent both in the near-wall region and inside the jet flame. Two exothermic cases with different Damköhler numbers are examined and the comparison revealed that the Damköhler number effects are most dominant in the near-wall region, where the wall cooling effects are influential. In addition, with the aid of PDFs conditioned on the mixture fraction, the significance of the reactive scalar characteristics in the reaction zone is illustrated. We argue that the combined effects of strong intermittency and strong persistency of anisotropy at the small scales in the entire domain can affect mixing and ultimately the combustion characteristics of the reacting flow.

  20. Effects of iron content on microstructure and crevice corrosion of titanium Grade-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.; Noel, J.J.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of iron content on microstructure and crevice corrosion of titanium Grade-2 (Ti-2) were studied using a galvanic coupling technique combined with optical microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging. The study reveals that iron content has a significant effect on the microstructure and crevice corrosion behavior of Ti-2. The grain size decreases significantly with the increasing iron content. For Ti-2 material of medium iron content, crevice corrosion was readily initiated and exhibited extensive intergranular attack which could be associated with the more reactive iron-stabilized β-phase within the α-phase matrix as revealed by SIMS imaging. By contrast, Ti-2 materials with low and high iron content showed suppressed crevice attack. The small surface area of available grain boundaries in Ti-2 of low iron content accounted for this limited attack. For the material with high iron content, SIMS imaging suggest that some Ti x Fe intermetallic particles were formed. These particles may act as proton reduction catalysts and enhance crevice corrosion resistance. (author)

  1. Concept of a Prestressed Cast Iron Pressure Vessel for a Modular High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, Wolfgang; Bounin, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature Reactors (HTR) are representing one of the most interesting solutions for the upcoming generation of nuclear technology, especially with view to their inherent safety characteristics. To complete the safety concept of such plants already in the first phase of the technical development, Prestressed Cast Iron Pressure Vessels (PCIV) instead of the established forged steel reactor pressure vessels have been considered under the aspect of safety against bursting. A longterm research and development work, mainly performed in Germany, showed the excellent features of this technical solution. Diverse prototypic vessels were tested and officially proven. Design studies confirmed the feasibility of such a vessel concept also for Light Water Reactor types, too. The main concept elements of such a burst-proof vessel are: Strength and tightness functions are structurally separated. The tensile forces are carried by the prestressing systems consisting of a large number of independent wires. Compressive forces are applied to the vessel walls and heads. These are segmented into blocks of ductile cast iron. All cast iron blocks are prestressed to high levels of compression. The sealing function is assigned to a steel liner fixed to the cast iron blocks. The prestressing system is designed for an ultimate pressure of 2.3 times the design pressure. The prestress of the lids is designed for gapping at a much smaller pressure. Therefore, a drop of pressure will always occur before loss of strength (“leakage before failure”). In addition to these safety features further technical as well as economic aspects generate favorable assessment criteria: high design flexibility, feasibility of large vessel diameters; advantageous conditions for transport, assembly and decommissioning due to the segmented construction; advantage of workshop manufacturing; high-level quality control of components. Nowadays, considering the globally newly standardized safety requirements

  2. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 ). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ 0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ 0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ 0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  3. Iron Status and Inflammation in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Łukaszyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: One of the most common causes of anemia of chronic disease (ACD is chronic kidney disease. The main pathomechanism responsible for ACD is subclinical inflammation. The key element involved in iron metabolism is hepcidin, however, studies on new indices of iron status are in progress.The aim of the study was to assess the iron status in patients in early stages of chronic kidney disease, iron correlation with inflammation parameters and novel biomarkers of iron metabolism. Methods: The study included 69 patients. Standard laboratory measurements were used to measure the iron status, complete blood count, fibrinogen, prothrombin index, C-reactive protein concentration (CRP, creatinine, urea, uric acid. Commercially available kits were used to measure high-sensitivity CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, hepcidin-25, hemojuvelin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 and zonulin. Results: Absolute iron deficiency was present in 17% of the patients, functional iron deficiency was present in 12% of the patients. Functional iron deficiency was associated with significantly higher serum levels of fibrinogen, ferritin, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, hepcidin and older age relative to patients with absolute iron deficiency. In comparison with patients without iron deficiency, patients with functional iron deficiency were older, with lower prothrombin index, higher fibrinogen, CRP, hsCRP, sTfR, GDF-15, urea and lower eGFR. Hepcidin was predicted by markers of inflammation:ferritin, fibrinogen and IL-6. Conclusion: Inflammation is correlated with iron status. Novel biomarkers of iron metabolism might be useful to distinguish iron deficiency anemia connected with inflammation and absolute iron deficiency.

  4. Induction of interleukin-6 by coal containing bioavailable iron is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal mining causes health problems, such as pneumoconiosis. We have previously shown that prevalence of pneumoconiosis in workers from various coalmine regions positively correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that region. In the present study, the nature of reactive oxygen species formed ...

  5. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF HALOMETHANES IN IRON- AND SULFATE-REDUCING SEDIMENTS. 1. REACTIVITY PATTERN ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incorporation of reductive transformations into environmental fate models requires the characterization of natural reductants in well-characterized sediments and aquifer materials. For this purpose, reactivity patterns (i.e., the range and relative order of reactivity) for a...

  6. The synthesis, structure and reactivity of iron-bismuth complexes : Potential Molecular Precursors for Multiferroic BiFeO3

    OpenAIRE

    Wójcik, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The thesis presented here is focused on the synthesis of iron-bismuth alkoxides and siloxides as precursors for multiferroic BiFeO3 systems. Spectrum of novel cyclopentadienyl substituted iron-bismuth complexes of the general type [{Cpy(CO)2Fe}BiX2], as potential precursors for cyclopentadienyl iron-bismuth alkoxides or siloxides [{Cpy(CO)2Fe}Bi(OR)2] (R-OtBu, OSiMe2tBu), were obtained and characterised. The use of wide range of cyclopentadienyl rings in the iron carbonyl compounds allowed fo...

  7. Longevity of granular iron in groundwater treatment processes: solution composition effects on reduction of organohalides and nitroaromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Jörg; Vikesland, Peter J; Kohn, Tamar; Burris, David R; Ball, William P; Roberts, A Lynn

    2003-03-15

    Although granular iron permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are increasingly employed to contain subsurface contaminants, information pertaining to system longevity is sparse. The present investigation redresses this situation by examining the long-term effects of carbonate, silica, chloride, and natural organic matter (NOM) on reactivity of Master Builders iron toward organohalides and nitroaromatic contaminants. Six columns were operated for 1100 days (approximately 4500 pore volumes) and five others for 407 days (approximately 1800 pore volumes). Nine were continuously exposed to mixtures of contaminant species, while the other two were only intermittently exposed in order to differentiate deactivation induced by water (and inorganic cosolutes) from that resulting from contaminant reduction. Contaminants investigated were trichloroethylene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,1-dichloroethane, 2-nitrotoluene, 4-nitroacetophenone, and 4-nitroanisole. Column reactivity declined substantially over the first 300 days and was dependent on the feed solution chemistry. High carbonate concentrations enhanced reactivity slightly within the first 90 days but produced poorer performance over the long term. Both silica and NOM adversely affected reactivity, while chloride evinced a somewhat mixed effect. Observed contrasts in relative reactivities suggest that trichloroethylene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, and nitroaromatic compounds all react at different types of reactive sites. Our results indicate that differences in groundwater chemistry should be considered in the PRB design process.

  8. Iron Store of Pregnant Women with Hemoglobin SS and SC in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reactive protein (CRP) was also assayed to rule out ... KEY WORDS: Benin City, iron status, pregnancy, sickle‑cell hemoglobin. Access this article online .... the determination of the hematological indices, and also put into a universal bottle for the ...

  9. Modelling the solidification of ductile cast iron parts with varying wall thicknesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Mathias Karsten; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Thorborg, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    ] with a 2D FE solution of the heat conduction equation is developed in an in-house code and model parameters are calibrated using experimental data from representative castings made of ductile cast iron. The main focus is on the influence of casting thickness and resulting local cooling conditions...

  10. Acetylcholinesterase-independent protective effects of huperzine A against iron overload-induced oxidative damage and aberrant iron metabolism signaling in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling-Xue; Huang, Xiao-Tian; Chen, Yu-Ting; Tang, Xi-Can; Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Iron dyshomeostasis is one of the primary causes of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Huperzine A (HupA), a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and a nutraceutical in the United Sates. Here, we investigated the protective effects of HupA against iron overload-induced injury in neurons. Rat cortical neurons were treated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), and cell viability was assessed with MTT assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were performed to assess mitochondrial function. The labile iron pool (LIP) level, cytosolic-aconitase (c-aconitase) activity and iron uptake protein expression were measured to determine iron metabolism changes. The modified Ellman's method was used to evaluate AChE activity. HupA significantly attenuated the iron overload-induced decrease in neuronal cell viability. This neuroprotective effect of HupA occurred concurrently with a decrease in ROS and an increase in ATP. Moreover, HupA treatment significantly blocked the upregulation of the LIP level and other aberrant iron metabolism changes induced by iron overload. Additionally, another specific AChE inhibitor, donepezil (Don), at a concentration that caused AChE inhibition equivalent to that of HupA negatively, influenced the aberrant changes in ROS, ATP or LIP that were induced by excessive iron. We provide the first demonstration of the protective effects of HupA against iron overload-induced neuronal damage. This beneficial role of HupA may be attributed to its attenuation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and elevation of LIP, and these effects are not associated with its AChE-inhibiting effect.

  11. Passivation of bimetallic catalysts used in water treatment: prevention and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianming; Gillham, Robert W; Gui, Lai

    2013-01-01

    With respect to degradation rates and the range in contaminants treated, bimetals such as Ni-Fe or Pd-Fe generally outperform unamended granular iron. However, the catalytic enhancement is generally short-lived, lasting from a few days to months. To take advantage of the significant benefits of bimetals, this study aims at developing an effective method for the rejuvenation of passivated bimetals and alternatively, the prevention of rapid reactivity loss of bimetals. Because the most likely cause of Ni-Fe and Pd-Fe passivation is the deposition of iron oxide films over the catalyst sites, it is hypothesized that removal of the iron oxide films will restore the lost reactivity or avoiding the deposition of iron oxide films will prevent passivation. Two organic ligands (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and [s,s]-ethylenediaminedisuccinate acid ([s,s]-EDDS)) and two acids (citric acid and sulphuric acid) were tested as possible chemical reagents for both passivation rejuvenation and prevention. Trichloroethene (TCE) and Ni-Fe were chosen as probes for chlorinated solvents and bimetals respectively. The test was carried out using small glass columns packed with Ni-Fe. TCE solution containing a single reagent at various concentrations was pumped through the Ni-Fe columns with a residence time in the Ni-Fe of about 6.6 min. TCE concentrations in the influent and effluent were measured to evaluate the performance of each chemical reagent. The results show that (i) for passivated Ni-Fe, flushing with a low concentration of acid or ligand solution without mechanical mixing can fully restore the lost reactivity; and (ii) for passivation prevention, adding a small amount of a ligand or an acid to the feed solution can successfully prevent or at least substantially reduce Ni-Fe passivation. All four chemicals tested are effective in both rejuvenation and prevention, but sulphuric acid and citric acid are considered to be the most practical reagents due to their

  12. Oxidant production from corrosion of nano- and microparticulate zero-valent iron in the presence of oxygen: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hongshin; Lee, Hye-jin; Kim, Hyung-Eun; Kweon, Jihyang; Lee, Byeong-Dae; Lee, Changha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidants from zero-valent iron were quantified in the presence of oxygen and EDTA. • The oxidant yields of nano- and microparticulate zero-valent iron were compared. • Microparticulate zero-valent iron produced higher oxidant yields. • The factors affecting the oxidant production from zero-valent iron were discussed. -- Abstract: In aqueous solution, zero-valent iron (ZVI, Fe 0 ) is known to activate oxygen (O 2 ) into reactive oxidants such as hydroxyl radical and ferryl ion capable of oxidizing contaminants. However, little is known about the effect of the particle size of ZVI on the yield of reactive oxidants. In this study, the production of reactive oxidants from nanoparticulate and microparticulate ZVIs (denoted as nZVI and mZVI, respectively) was comparatively investigated in the presence of O 2 and EDTA. To quantify the oxidant yield, excess amount of methanol was employed, and the formation of its oxidation product, formaldehyde (HCHO), was monitored. The concentration of HCHO in the nZVI/O 2 system rapidly reached the saturation value, whereas that in the mZVI/O 2 system gradually increased throughout the entire reaction time. The mZVI/O 2 system exhibited higher yields of HCHO than the nZVI/O 2 system under both acidic and neutral pH conditions. The higher oxidant yields in the mZVI/O 2 system are mainly attributed to the less reactivity of the mZVI surface with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) relative to the surface of nZVI, which minimize the loss of H 2 O 2 by ZVI (i.e., the two-electron reduction of H 2 O 2 into water). In addition, the slow dissolution of Fe(II) from mZVI was found to be partially responsible for the higher oxidant yields at neutral pH

  13. Response of anaerobic granular sludge to iron oxide nanoparticles and multi-wall carbon nanotubes during beet sugar industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambuchi, John J; Zhang, Zhaohan; Shan, Lili; Liang, Dandan; Zhang, Peng; Feng, Yujie

    2017-06-15

    The accelerated use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the consumer and industrial sectors has triggered the need to understand their potential environmental impact. The response of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) to IONPs and MWCNTs during the anaerobic digestion of beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) was investigated in this study. The IONPs increased the biogas and subsequent CH 4 production rates in comparison with MWCNTs and the control samples. This might be due to the utilization of IONPs and MWCNTs as conduits for electron transfer toward methanogens. The MWCNTs majorly enriched the bacterial growth, while IONP enrichment mostly benefitted the archaea population. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that AGS produced extracellular polymeric substances, which interacted with the IONPs and MWCNTs. This provided cell protection and prevented the nanoparticles from piercing through the membranes and thus cytotoxicity. The results provide useful information and insights on the adjustment of anaerobic microorganisms to the natural complex environment based on nanoparticles infiltration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of extracellular superoxide on iron redox chemistry and bioavailability to aquatic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eRose

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide, the one-electron reduced form of dioxygen, is produced in the extracellular milieu of aquatic microbes through a range of abiotic chemical processes and also by microbes themselves. Due to its ability to promote both oxidative and reductive reactions, superoxide may have a profound impact on the redox state of iron, potentially influencing iron solubility, complex speciation and bioavailability. The interplay between iron, superoxide and oxygen may also produce a cascade of other highly reactive transients in oxygenated natural waters. For microbes, the overall effect of reactions between superoxide and iron may be deleterious or beneficial, depending on the organism and its chemical environment. Here I critically discuss recent advances in understanding: (i sources of extracellular superoxide in natural waters, with a particular emphasis on microbial generation; (ii the chemistry of reactions between superoxide and iron; and (iii the influence of these processes on iron bioavailability and microbial iron nutrition.

  15. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  16. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  17. Optimization and application of blasting parameters based on the "pushing-wall" mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feng-yu; Sow, Thierno Amadou Mouctar; He, Rong-xing; Liu, Xin-rui

    2012-10-01

    The large structure parameter of a sublevel caving method was used in Beiminghe iron mine. The ores were generally lower than the medium hardness and easy to be drilled and blasted. However, the questions of boulder yield, "pushing-wall" accident rate, and brow damage rate were not effectively controlled in practical blasting. The model test of a similar material shows that the charge concentration of bottom blastholes in the sector is too high; the pushing wall is the fundamental reason for the poor blasting effect. One of the main methods to adjust the explosive distribution is to increase the length of charged blastholes. Therefore, the field tests with respect to increasing the length of uncharged blastholes were made in 12# stope of -95 subsection and 6# stope of Beiminghe iron mine. This paper took the test result of 12# stope as an example to analyze the impact of charge structure on blasting effect and design an appropriate blasting parameter that is to similar to No.12 stope.

  18. Hyperglycemia Does Not Affect Iron Mediated Toxicity of Cultured Endothelial and Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells : Influence of L-Carnosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shiqi; Ntasis, Emmanouil; Kabtni, Sarah; van den Born, Jaap; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Kraemer, Bernhard K.; Yard, Benito A.; Hauske, Sibylle J.

    2016-01-01

    Iron has been suggested to affect the clinical course of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as accompanying increased intracellular iron accumulation may provide an alternative source for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although carnosine has proven its therapeutic efficacy in rodent models of T2DM, little is

  19. Iron traps terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter at redox interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Thomas; Zak, Dominik; Biester, Harald; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Reactive iron and organic carbon are intimately associated in soils and sediments. However, to date, the organic compounds involved are uncharacterized on the molecular level. At redox interfaces in peatlands, where the biogeochemical cycles of iron and dissolved organic matter (DOM) are coupled, this issue can readily be studied. We found that precipitation of iron hydroxides at the oxic surface layer of two rewetted fens removed a large fraction of DOM via coagulation. On aeration of anoxic fen pore waters, >90% of dissolved iron and 27 ± 7% (mean ± SD) of dissolved organic carbon were rapidly (within 24 h) removed. Using ultra-high-resolution MS, we show that vascular plant-derived aromatic and pyrogenic compounds were preferentially retained, whereas the majority of carboxyl-rich aliphatic acids remained in solution. We propose that redox interfaces, which are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial settings, are selective yet intermediate barriers that limit the flux of land-derived DOM to oceanic waters. PMID:23733946

  20. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7∘C. Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.

  1. Environmental transformations and ecological effects of iron-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lin, Daohui

    2018-01-01

    The increasing application of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), especially high concentrations of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), has raised concerns regarding their environmental behavior and potential ecological effects. In the environment, iron-based NPs undergo physical, chemical, and/or biological transformations as influenced by environmental factors such as pH, ions, dissolved oxygen, natural organic matter (NOM), and biotas. This review presents recent research advances on environmental transformations of iron-based NPs, and articulates their relationships with the observed toxicities. The type and extent of physical, chemical, and biological transformations, including aggregation, oxidation, and bio-reduction, depend on the properties of NPs and the receiving environment. Toxicities of iron-based NPs to bacteria, algae, fish, and plants are increasingly observed, which are evaluated with a particular focus on the underlying mechanisms. The toxicity of iron-based NPs is a function of their properties, tolerance of test organisms, and environmental conditions. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species is considered as the primary toxic mechanism of iron-based NPs. Factors influencing the toxicity of iron-based NPs are addressed and environmental transformations play a significant role, for example, surface oxidation or coating by NOM generally lowers the toxicity of nZVI. Research gaps and future directions are suggested with an aim to boost concerted research efforts on environmental transformations and toxicity of iron-based NPs, e.g., toxicity studies of transformed NPs in field, expansion of toxicity endpoints, and roles of laden contaminants and surface coating. This review will enhance our understanding of potential risks of iron-based NPs and proper uses of environmentally benign NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron regulation of the major virulence factors in the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload is known to exacerbate many infectious diseases, and conversely, iron withholding is an important defense strategy for mammalian hosts. Iron is a critical cue for Cryptococcus neoformans because the fungus senses iron to regulate elaboration of the polysaccharide capsule that is the major virulence factor during infection. Excess iron exacerbates experimental cryptococcosis and the prevalence of this disease in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with nutritional and genetic aspects of iron loading in the background of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We demonstrate that the iron-responsive transcription factor Cir1 in Cr. neoformans controls the regulon of genes for iron acquisition such that cir1 mutants are "blind" to changes in external iron levels. Cir1 also controls the known major virulence factors of the pathogen including the capsule, the formation of the anti-oxidant melanin in the cell wall, and the ability to grow at host body temperature. Thus, the fungus is remarkably tuned to perceive iron as part of the disease process, as confirmed by the avirulence of the cir1 mutant; this characteristic of the pathogen may provide opportunities for antifungal treatment.

  3. Iron distribution in cancer cells following doxorubicin exposure using proton and X-ray synchrotron radiation microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, R.; Deves, G.; Bohic, S.; Simionovici, A.; Menez, B.; Bonnin-Mosbah, M.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical studies have shown that doxorubicin, a well-established anticancer agent, is a powerful iron chelator and the resultant iron-drug complex is an efficient catalyst of the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. However, the intracellular complexation of doxorubicin with iron is still debated. Using nuclear microprobe analysis (NMPA), we previously observed in human ovarian cancer cells exposed to 20 μM iodo-doxorubicin (IDX) that iodine and iron cellular distributions were spatially correlated, suggesting a mechanism of intracellular iron chelation by the anthracycline compound. Because maximal plasma drug concentrations in patients are expected to be around 5 μM, NMPA and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) experiments for iron speciation analysis were performed on cultured cells exposed to pharmacological doses of 2 μM IDX or doxorubicin

  4. Consuming Iron Biofortified Beans Increases Iron Status in Rwandan Women after 128 Days in a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jere D; Luna, Sarah V; Lung'aho, Mercy G; Wenger, Michael J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Beebe, Stephen; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Egli, Ines M

    2016-08-01

    Food-based strategies to reduce nutritional iron deficiency have not been universally successful. Biofortification has the potential to become a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective solution. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) to improve iron status in Rwandan women. A total of 195 women (aged 18-27 y) with serum ferritin Beans, with 86 mg Fe/kg, or standard unfortified beans (Control-Beans), with 50 mg Fe/kg, 2 times/d for 128 d in Huye, Rwanda. Iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI); inflammation was assessed by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and at end line. Random weekly serial sampling was used to collect blood during the middle 8 wk of the feeding trial. Mixed-effects regression analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of Fe-Beans compared with Control-Beans on iron biomarkers throughout the course of the study. At baseline, 86% of subjects were iron-deficient (serum ferritin beans/d. The Fe-Beans group consumed 14.5 ± 1.6 mg Fe/d from biofortified beans, whereas the Control-Beans group consumed 8.6 ± 0.8 mg Fe/d from standard beans (P Beans group had significantly greater increases in hemoglobin (3.8 g/L), log serum ferritin (0.1 log μg/L), and BI (0.5 mg/kg) than did controls after 128 d. For every 1 g Fe consumed from beans over the 128 study days, there was a significant 4.2-g/L increase in hemoglobin (P beans significantly improved iron status in Rwandan women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  6. Rate and extent of aqueous perchlorate removal by iron surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angela M; De Leon, Corinne H; Young, Thomas M

    2003-07-15

    The rate and extent of perchlorate reduction on several types of iron metal was studied in batch and column reactors. Mass balances performed on the batch experiments indicate that perchlorate is initially sorbed to the iron surface, followed by a reduction to chloride. Perchlorate removal was proportional to the iron dosage in the batch reactors, with up to 66% removal in 336 h in the highest dosage system (1.25 g mL(-1)). Surface-normalized reaction rates among three commercial sources of iron filings were similar for acid-washed samples. The most significant perchlorate removal occurred in solutions with slightly acidic or near-neutral initial pH values. Surface mediation of the reaction is supported by the absence of reduction in batch experiments with soluble Fe2+ and also by the similarity in specific reaction rate constants (kSA) determined for three different iron types. Elevated soluble chloride concentrations significantly inhibited perchlorate reduction, and lower removal rates were observed for iron samples with higher amounts of background chloride contamination. Perchlorate reduction was not observed on electrolytic sources of iron or on a mixed-phase oxide (Fe3O4), suggesting that the reactive iron phase is neither pure zerovalent iron nor the mixed oxide alone. A mixed valence iron hydr(oxide) coating or a sorbed Fe2+ surface complex represent the most likely sites for the reaction. The observed reaction rates are too slow for immediate use in remediation system design, but the findings may provide a basis for future development of cost-effective abiotic perchlorate removal techniques.

  7. Influence of reaction chamber shape on cast-iron spheroidization process in-mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a results concerning the influence of reaction chamber shape on cast – iron spheroidization process in form. The volume of the tested reaction chambers was about 118000mm3. Reaction chambers in the shape of: rectangular, cylinder and spherical cap were examined. It has been shown that the best graphite spheroidizing process was provided by spherical cap chamber shape. The reaction of cast – iron with magnesium in reaction chamber depends on the flow of cast – iron in the chamber. In rectangular and cylinder shape chambers proceed the impact of diphase stream on flat bottom wall. It causes the creation on its surface film, called: cast – iron “film”, where single grains of magnesium master alloy exist. The largest part of master alloy is drifted by liquid cast – iron to the top and only there graphite spheroidization process proceed. In the spherical cap shape reaction chamber, as a result of rotation movement of liquid cast – iron throughout its volume, graphite spheroidization process proceed. Apart from the reaction chamber shape, applying of mixing chamber ensure full cast – iron spheroidization process.

  8. Tailoring the properties of a zero-valent iron-based composite by mechanochemistry for nitrophenols degradation in wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnetta, Giovanni; Huang, Jun; Lomovskiy, Igor O; Yu, Gang

    2017-11-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is a valuable material for environmental remediation, because of its safeness, large availability, and inexpensiveness. Moreover, its reactivity can be improved by addition of (nano-) particles of other elements such as noble metals. However, common preparation methods for this kind of iron-based composites involve wet precipitation of noble metal salt precursors, so they are often expensive and not green. Mechanochemical procedures can provide a solvent-free alternative, even at a large scale. The present study demonstrates that it is possible to tailor functional properties of ZVI-based materials, utilizing high-energy ball milling. All main preparation parameters are investigated and discussed. Specifically, a copper-carbon-iron ternary composite was prepared for fast degradation of 4-nitrophenol (utilized as model pollutant) to 4-aminophenol and other phenolic compounds. Copper and carbon are purposely chosen to insert specific properties to the composite: Copper acts as efficient nano-cathode that enhances electron transfer from iron to 4-nitrophenol, while carbon protects the iron surface from fast oxidation in open air. In this way, the reactive material can rapidly reduce high concentration of nitrophenols in water, it does not require acid washing to be activated, and can be stored in open air for one week without any significant activity loss.

  9. Studies on the optimum conditions using acid-washed zero-valent iron/aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Weijiang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); South China Institute of Environmental Science, MEP, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Fu, Fenglian, E-mail: fufenglian2006@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing; Wu, Shijiao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Acid-washed zero-valent iron and zero-valent aluminum were used in PRBs. • The time that removal efficiencies of heavy metal were above 99.5% can keep 300 h. • Removal mechanism of Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} was discussed. • Heavy metal ions were removed by reduction, adsorption, and co-precipitation. - Abstract: The method of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is considered as one of the most practicable approaches in treating heavy metals contaminated surface and groundwater. The mixture of acid-washed zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) as reactive medium in PRBs to treat heavy metal wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} was investigated. The performance of column filled with the mixture of acid-washed ZVI and ZVAl was much better than the column filled with ZVI or ZVAl alone. At initial pH 5.4 and flow rates of 1.0 mL/min, the time that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} were all above 99.5% can keep about 300 h using 80 g/40 g acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl when treating wastewater containing each heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}) concentration of 20.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize ZVI/ZVAl before and after reaction and the reaction mechanism of the heavy metal ions with ZVI/ZVAl was discussed.

  10. Integrated evaluation of the performance of a more than seven year old permeable reactive barrier at a site contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchitsch, Nanna; Nooten, Thomas Van; Bastiaens, Leen

    2011-01-01

    An important issue of concern for permeable reactive iron barriers is the long-term efficiency of the barriers due to the long operational periods required. Mineral precipitation resulting from the anaerobic corrosion of the iron filings and bacteria present in the barrier may play an important...... performed equally well as virgin granular iron of the same type based on determined degradation rates despite that parts of the cored iron material were covered by mineral precipitates (especially iron sulfides, carbonate green rust and aragonite). The PCR analysis performed on the iron core samples...

  11. PCBP1 and NCOA4 regulate erythroid iron storage and heme biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Zhang, Deliang; Protchenko, Olga; Shakoury-Elizeh, Minoo; Philpott, Caroline C

    2017-05-01

    Developing erythrocytes take up exceptionally large amounts of iron, which must be transferred to mitochondria for incorporation into heme. This massive iron flux must be precisely controlled to permit the coordinated synthesis of heme and hemoglobin while avoiding the toxic effects of chemically reactive iron. In cultured animal cells, iron chaperones poly rC-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) and PCBP2 deliver iron to ferritin, the sole cytosolic iron storage protein, and nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) mediates the autophagic turnover of ferritin. The roles of PCBP, ferritin, and NCOA4 in erythroid development remain unclear. Here, we show that PCBP1, NCOA4, and ferritin are critical for murine red cell development. Using a cultured cell model of erythroid differentiation, depletion of PCBP1 or NCOA4 impaired iron trafficking through ferritin, which resulted in reduced heme synthesis, reduced hemoglobin formation, and perturbation of erythroid regulatory systems. Mice lacking Pcbp1 exhibited microcytic anemia and activation of compensatory erythropoiesis via the regulators erythropoietin and erythroferrone. Ex vivo differentiation of erythroid precursors from Pcbp1-deficient mice confirmed defects in ferritin iron flux and heme synthesis. These studies demonstrate the importance of ferritin for the vectorial transfer of imported iron to mitochondria in developing red cells and of PCBP1 and NCOA4 in mediating iron flux through ferritin.

  12. Vascular endothelial dysfunction in β-thalassemia occurs despite increased eNOS expression and preserved vascular smooth muscle cell reactivity to NO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekatherina Stoyanova

    Full Text Available The hereditary β-thalassemia major condition requires regular lifelong blood transfusions. Transfusion-related iron overloading has been associated with the onset of cardiovascular complications, including cardiac dysfunction and vascular anomalies. By using an untransfused murine model of β-thalassemia major, we tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial dysfunction, alterations of arterial structure and of its mechanical properties would occur despite the absence of treatments.Vascular function and structure were evaluated ex vivo. Compared to the controls, endothelium-dependent vasodilation with acetylcholine was blunted in mesenteric resistance arteries of β-thalassemic mice while the endothelium-independent vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside produced comparable vessel dilation, indicating endothelial cell impairment with preserved smooth muscle cell reactivity to nitric oxide (NO. While these findings suggest a decrease in NO bioavailability, Western blotting showed heightened expression of aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in β-thalassemia. Vascular remodeling of the common carotid arteries revealed increased medial elastin content. Under isobaric conditions, the carotid arteries of β-thalassemic mice exhibited decreased wall stress and softening due to structural changes of the vessel wall.A complex vasculopathy was identified in untransfused β-thalassemic mice characterized by altered carotid artery structure and endothelial dysfunction of resistance arterioles, likely attributable to reduced NO bioavailability despite enhanced vascular eNOS expression.

  13. Chemistry of Iron N -heterocyclic carbene complexes: Syntheses, structures, reactivities, and catalytic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Riener, Korbinian; Haslinger, Stefan; Raba, Andreas; Hogerl, Manuel Peter; Cokoja, Mirza; Herrmann, Wolfgang A.; Kü hn, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Iron is the most abundant transition metal in Earth's crust. It is relatively inexpensive, not very toxic, and environmentally benign. Undoubtedly, due to the involvement in a multitude of biological processes, which heavily rely on the rich

  14. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zboril, Radek; Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek; Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek; Sharma, Virender K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10 −2 s −1 ) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10 −8 –10 −6 s −1 ). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  15. Ductile cast iron obtaining by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of manufacturing of ductile cast iron castings by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process was presented in this work. The spheroidization was carried out by magnesium master alloy in amounts of 1% casting mass. Nodulizer was located in the reactive chamber in the gating system made of foamed polystyrene. Pretests showed, that there are technical possibilities of manufacturing of casts from ductile cast iron in the LOST FOAM process with use of spheroidization in mould.

  16. Graphite nodules in fatigue-tested cast iron characterized in 2D and 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Fæster, Søren; Hansen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Thick-walled ductile iron casts have been studied by applying (i) cooling rate calculations by FVM, (ii) microstructural characterization by 2D SEM and 3D X-ray tomography techniques and (iii) fatigue testing of samples drawn from components cast in sand molds and metal molds. An analysis has shown...... correlations between cooling rate, structure and fatigue strengths demonstrating the benefit of 3D structural characterization to identify possible causes of premature fatigue failure of ductile cast iron....

  17. TLR Stimulation Dynamically Regulates Heme and Iron Export Gene Expression in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms to capture iron or iron-containing heme from host tissues or blood. In response, organisms have developed defense mechanisms to keep iron from pathogens. Very little of the body’s iron store is available as free heme; rather nearly all body iron is complexed with heme or other proteins. The feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FeLV-C receptor, FLVCR, exports heme from cells. It was unknown whether FLVCR regulates heme-iron availability after infection, but given that other heme regulatory proteins are upregulated in macrophages in response to bacterial infection, we hypothesized that macrophages dynamically regulate FLVCR. We stimulated murine primary macrophages or macrophage cell lines with LPS and found that Flvcr is rapidly downregulated in a TLR4/MD2-dependent manner; TLR1/2 and TLR3 stimulation also decreased Flvcr expression. We identified several candidate TLR-activated transcription factors that can bind to the Flvcr promoter. Macrophages must balance the need to sequester iron from systemic circulating or intracellular pathogens with the macrophage requirement for heme and iron to produce reactive oxygen species. Our findings underscore the complexity of this regulation and point to a new role for FLVCR and heme export in macrophages responses to infection and inflammation.

  18. Genome-Wide Search for Genes Required for Bifidobacterial Growth under Iron-Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Noreen; Bottacini, Francesca; Casey, Pat G.; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria evolved over millennia in the presence of the vital micronutrient iron. Iron is involved in numerous processes within the cell and is essential for nearly all living organisms. The importance of iron to the survival of bacteria is obvious from the large variety of mechanisms by which iron may be acquired from the environment. Random mutagenesis and global gene expression profiling led to the identification of a number of genes, which are essential for Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 survival under iron-restrictive conditions. These genes encode, among others, Fe-S cluster-associated proteins, a possible ferric iron reductase, a number of cell wall-associated proteins, and various DNA replication and repair proteins. In addition, our study identified several presumed iron uptake systems which were shown to be essential for B. breve UCC2003 growth under conditions of either ferric and/or ferrous iron chelation. Of these, two gene clusters encoding putative iron-uptake systems, bfeUO and sifABCDE, were further characterised, indicating that sifABCDE is involved in ferrous iron transport, while the bfeUO-encoded transport system imports both ferrous and ferric iron. Transcription studies showed that bfeUO and sifABCDE constitute two separate transcriptional units that are induced upon dipyridyl-mediated iron limitation. In the anaerobic gastrointestinal environment ferrous iron is presumed to be of most relevance, though a mutation in the sifABCDE cluster does not affect B. breve UCC2003's ability to colonise the gut of a murine model. PMID:28620359

  19. Genome-Wide Search for Genes Required for Bifidobacterial Growth under Iron-Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Lanigan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria evolved over millennia in the presence of the vital micronutrient iron. Iron is involved in numerous processes within the cell and is essential for nearly all living organisms. The importance of iron to the survival of bacteria is obvious from the large variety of mechanisms by which iron may be acquired from the environment. Random mutagenesis and global gene expression profiling led to the identification of a number of genes, which are essential for Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 survival under iron-restrictive conditions. These genes encode, among others, Fe-S cluster-associated proteins, a possible ferric iron reductase, a number of cell wall-associated proteins, and various DNA replication and repair proteins. In addition, our study identified several presumed iron uptake systems which were shown to be essential for B. breve UCC2003 growth under conditions of either ferric and/or ferrous iron chelation. Of these, two gene clusters encoding putative iron-uptake systems, bfeUO and sifABCDE, were further characterised, indicating that sifABCDE is involved in ferrous iron transport, while the bfeUO-encoded transport system imports both ferrous and ferric iron. Transcription studies showed that bfeUO and sifABCDE constitute two separate transcriptional units that are induced upon dipyridyl-mediated iron limitation. In the anaerobic gastrointestinal environment ferrous iron is presumed to be of most relevance, though a mutation in the sifABCDE cluster does not affect B. breve UCC2003's ability to colonise the gut of a murine model.

  20. Increased iron sequestration in alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Philippot

    Full Text Available Free iron in lung can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, an important factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD pathogenesis. Iron accumulation has been implicated in oxidative stress in other diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, but little is known about iron accumulation in COPD. We sought to determine if iron content and the expression of iron transport and/or storage genes in lung differ between controls and COPD subjects, and whether changes in these correlate with airway obstruction. Explanted lung tissue was obtained from transplant donors, GOLD 2-3 COPD subjects, and GOLD 4 lung transplant recipients, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells were obtained from non-smokers, healthy smokers, and GOLD 1-3 COPD subjects. Iron-positive cells were quantified histologically, and the expression of iron uptake (transferrin and transferrin receptor, storage (ferritin and export (ferroportin genes was examined by real-time RT-PCR assay. Percentage of iron-positive cells and expression levels of iron metabolism genes were examined for correlations with airflow limitation indices (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 and the ratio between FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC. The alveolar macrophage was identified as the predominant iron-positive cell type in lung tissues. Furthermore, the quantity of iron deposit and the percentage of iron positive macrophages were increased with COPD and emphysema severity. The mRNA expression of iron uptake and storage genes transferrin and ferritin were significantly increased in GOLD 4 COPD lungs compared to donors (6.9 and 3.22 fold increase, respectively. In BAL cells, the mRNA expression of transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin correlated with airway obstruction. These results support activation of an iron sequestration mechanism by alveolar macrophages in COPD, which we postulate is a protective mechanism against iron induced oxidative

  1. In situ formation of magnetite reactive barriers in soil for waste stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Reactive barriers containing magnetite and methods for making magnetite reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil contaminants including actinides and heavy metals, organic materials, iodine and technetium are disclosed. According to one embodiment, a two-step reagent introduction into soil takes place. In the first step, free oxygen is removed from the soil by separately injecting into the soil aqueous solutions of iron (II) salt, for example FeCl.sub.2, and base, for example NaOH or NH.sub.3 in about a 1:1 volume ratio. Then, in the second step, similar reagents are injected a second time (however, according to about a 1:2 volume ratio, iron to salt) to form magnetite. The magnetite formation is facilitated, in part, due to slow intrusion of oxygen into the soil from the surface. The invention techniques are suited to injection of reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source allowing in situ formation of the reactive barrier at the location of waste or hazardous material. Mixing of reagents to form. precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  2. Zero-valent iron particles embedded on the mesoporous silica–carbon for chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Kun, E-mail: kunxiong312@gmail.com; Gao, Yuan [Chongqing Technology and Business University, Engineering Research Center for Waste Oil Recovery Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Catalysis & Environmental New Materials (China); Zhou, Lin [Chengdu Radio and TV University (China); Zhang, Xianming [Chongqing Technology and Business University, Engineering Research Center for Waste Oil Recovery Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Catalysis & Environmental New Materials (China)

    2016-09-15

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles were embedded on the walls of mesoporous silica–carbon (MSC) under the conditions of high-temperature carbonization and reduction and used to remove chromium (VI) from aqueous solution. The structure and textural properties of nZVI–MSC were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption and desorption. The results show that nZVI–MSC has highly ordered mesoporous structure and large surface area, indistinguishable with that of MSC. Compared with the support MSC and iron particles supported on the activated carbon (nZVI/AC), nZVI–MSC exhibited much higher Cr(VI) removal efficiency with about 98 %. The removal process obeys a pseudo first-order model. Such excellent performance of nZVI–MSC could be ascribed to the large surface and iron particles embedded on the walls of the MSC, forming an intimate contact with the MSC. It is proposed that this feature might create certain micro-electrode on the interface of iron particles and MSC, which prevented the formation of metal oxide on the surface and provided fresh Fe surface for Cr(VI) removal.

  3. Examination and Elimination of Defects in Cone Casting Made of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of existing cooperation with the Foundry of Cast Iron ZM “WSK Rzeszów” Ltd. there was carried out research work of microstructure and mechanical properties in the walls of a cone casting made of ductile cast iron. The particular attention was being put to the search of the potential brittle phases which have deleterious effect on ductility and dynamic properties of highly strained use of the casting prone to the potential risk of cracks during the highly strained use.

  4. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy characterization and microwave absorption of iron-filled carbon-nitrogen nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Renchao; Liang Chongyun; Shi Honglong; Zhou Xingui; Yang Xinan

    2007-01-01

    Iron-filled carbon-nitrogen (Fe/CN x ) nanotubes and iron-filled carbon (Fe/C) nanotubes were synthesized at 900 deg. C through a pyrolysis reaction of ferrocene/acetonitrile and ferrocene/xylene, respectively. The differences of structure and composition between the Fe/CN x nanotubes and Fe/C nanotubes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). It was found that the morphology of Fe/CN x nanotubes is more corrugated than that of the Fe/C nanotubes due to the incorporation of nitrogen. By comparing the Fe L 2,3 electron energy-loss spectra of Fe/CN x nanotubes to those of the Fe/C nanotubes, the electron states at the interface between Fe and the tubular wall of both Fe/CN x nanotubes and Fe/C nanotubes were investigated. At the boundary between Fe and the wall of a CN x nanotube, the additional electrons contributed from the doped 'pyridinic-like' nitrogen might transfer to the empty 3d orbital of the encapsulated iron, therefore leading to an intensity suppression of the iron L 2,3 edge and an intensity enhancement of the carbon K edge. However, such an effect could not be found in Fe/C nanotubes. Microwave absorption properties of both Fe/CN x and Fe/C nanocomposites at 2-18 GHz band were studied

  5. Dual Role of ROS as Signal and Stress Agents: Iron Tips the Balance in favor of Toxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gammella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for life, while also being potentially harmful. Therefore, its level is strictly monitored and complex pathways have evolved to keep iron safely bound to transport or storage proteins, thereby maintaining homeostasis at the cellular and systemic levels. These sequestration mechanisms ensure that mildly reactive oxygen species like anion superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which are continuously generated in cells living under aerobic conditions, keep their physiologic role in cell signaling while escaping iron-catalyzed transformation in the highly toxic hydroxyl radical. In this review, we describe the multifaceted systems regulating cellular and body iron homeostasis and discuss how altered iron balance may lead to oxidative damage in some pathophysiological settings.

  6. Examinations for the determination of the flux density of sputtered iron using laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweer, H.B.

    1983-11-01

    In this work investigations are described to measure the flux density of sputtered iron atoms by means of laser induced fluorescence. In a laboratory experiment an iron target (stainless steel 316, Inconel 600), was bombarded with 10 keV Ar + and 2.5 keV H + and the population distribution of the energy levels of the ground state a 5 D and the metastable state a 5 F was measured. In the plasma wall region in the ISX-B tokamak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) neutral iron atoms were measured the first time by laser induced fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 6 atoms/cm 3 was found and sputtered iron atoms were observed in the first 15 ms of the discharge. (orig./BRB)

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leading to Transient Ischemic Attacks due to Intraluminal Carotid Artery Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Batur Caglayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive thrombocytosis secondary to iron-deficiency anemia (IDA is a rare but recognized cause of stroke. We report the case of a patient with iron-deficiency anemia presenting with multiple transient ischemic attacks (TIA due to intraluminal thrombus of an internal carotid artery. The putative mechanisms underlying anemia and stroke syndromes are not completely understood, and it is believed that iron deficiency may cause ischemic stroke by several potential mechanisms. Thrombocytosis is often associated with iron deficiency, and microcytosis produces a reduction in the red cell deformability and could produce a hypercoagulable state. The platelet count and function observed in iron-deficiency anemia could act synergistically to promote thrombus formation, especially in the setting of an underlying atherosclerotic disease. The presence of floating thrombus in a patient with clinical and MRI evidence of stroke represents a significant therapeutic dilemma and requires immediate decision about treatment.

  8. Investigation of Iron Oxide Morphology in a Cyclic Redox Water Splitting Process for Hydrogen Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Bobek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar fuels generation research program is focused on hydrogen production by means of reactive metal water splitting in a cyclic iron-based redox process. Iron-based oxides are explored as an intermediary reactive material to dissociate water molecules at significantly reduced thermal energies. With a goal of studying the resulting oxide chemistry and morphology, chemical assistance via CO is used to complete the redox cycle. In order to exploit the unique characteristics of highly reactive materials at the solar reactor scale, a monolithic laboratory scale reactor has been designed to explore the redox cycle at temperatures ranging from 675 to 875 K. Using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, the oxide morphology and the oxide state are quantified, including spatial distributions. These images show the change of the oxide layers directly after oxidation and after reduction. The findings show a significant non-stoichiometric O/Fe gradient in the atomic ratio following oxidation, which is consistent with a previous kinetics model, and a relatively constant, non-stoichiometric O/Fe atomic ratio following reduction.

  9. Effect of iron catalyst thickness on vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest straightness for CNT-MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulton, Kellen; Jensen, Brian D; Morrill, Nicholas B; Konneker, Adam M; Vanfleet, Richard R; Allred, David D; Davis, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of iron catalyst thickness on the straightness of growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for microelectromechanical systems fabricated using the CNT-templated-microfabrication (CNT-M) process. SEM images of samples grown using various iron catalyst thicknesses show that both straight sidewalls and good edge definition are achieved using an iron thickness between 7 and 8 nm. Below this thickness, individual CNTs are well aligned, but the sidewalls of CNT forests formed into posts and long walls are not always straight. Above this thickness, the CNT forest sidewalls are relatively straight, but edge definition is poor, with significantly increased sidewall roughness. The proximity of a device or feature to other regions of iron catalyst also affects CNT growth. By using an iron catalyst thickness appropriate for straight growth, and by adding borders of iron around features or devices, a designer can greatly improve straightness of growth for CNT-MEMS. (paper)

  10. Enhanced Cr(VI) removal from groundwater by Fe0-H2O system with bio-amended iron corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao; Li, Yongtao; Wu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A one-pot bio-iron system was established to investigate synergetic abiotic and biotic effects between iron and microorganisms on Cr(VI) removal. More diverse iron corrosion and reactive solids, such as green rusts, lepidocrocite and magnetite were found in the bio-iron system than...... transfer on the solid phase. The results also showed that the reduction of Cr(VI) by microorganisms was insignificant, indicating the adsorption/co-precipitation of Cr by iron oxides on iron surface was responsible for the overall Cr(VI) removal. Our study demonstrated that the bio-amended iron corrosion...... in the Fe0-H2O system, leading to 4.3 times higher Cr(VI) removal efficiency in the bio-iron system than in the Fe0-H2O system. The cycling experiment also showed that the Cr(VI) removal capacity of Fe0 in the bio-iron system was 12.4 times higher than that in the Fe0-H2O system. A 62 days of life...

  11. A Discovery-Based Experiment Illustrating How Iron Metal Is Used to Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, Barbara A.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2001-12-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for undergraduate general chemistry in which students investigate the chemistry behind iron-permeable reactive barriers (iron PRBs), a new technology that is widely used to remediate contaminated groundwater. Contaminant remediation involving iron PRBs is a redox process: the iron metal undergoes oxidative dissolution while the contaminant is reduced. The reaction is complicated, however, by the fact that it involves a surface that changes owing to the development of a layer of rust (iron oxide) on the iron. In this experiment, students examine the iron PRB-contaminant reaction by characterizing the kinetics of the degradation of a dye (the model contaminant) in the presence of granular iron under various experimental conditions. Students can be asked to design their own experiments to investigate aspects of the degradation reaction that are of particular interest to them. The material covered in the lab includes oxidation-reduction reactions, pseudo first-order kinetics, spectrophotometry, and the application of chemistry to solving environmental problems. The experiment can also be used as a vehicle to introduce more advanced topics in chemistry such as heterogeneous reactions, corrosion, passive film growth, and mass transport.

  12. The Surface Reactivities of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Related Toxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lei

    After 20 years of extensive exploration, people are more and more convinced on the great potentials of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the applications of many different areas. On the other hand, the properties and toxicities have also been closely watched for the safe utilization. In this dissertation I focus on the surface properties of SWCNTs and their related toxicities. In chapter 2, we revealed the generation of peroxyl radical by the unmodified SWCNT and the poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized SWCNT in aqueous solution with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicator, 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (H2DCF). According to the results, we identified peroxyl radical, ROO• as the major ROS in our system. Peroxyl radical could be produced from the adsorption of oxygen on the SWCNT surface. In chapter 3, we studied oxidation of several biologically relevant reducing agents in the presence of SWCNTs in aqueous solutions. H2DCF and several small antioxidants (vitamin C, Trolox, and cysteine), and a high-molecular-weight ROS scavenger (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) were selected as reductants. We revealed that the unmodified or carboxylated SWCNT played duplex roles by acting as both oxidants and catalysts in the reaction. In chapter 4, we confirmed that SWCNTs bind to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at a site proximate to the enzyme's activity center and participating in the ET process, enhancing the activity of (HRP) in the solution-based redox reaction. The capability of SWCNT in receiving electrons and the direct attachment of HRP to the surface of SWCNT strongly affected the enzyme activity due to the direct involvement of SWCNT in ET. In chapter 5, the toxicity of SWCNTs coated with different concentrations of BSA to a human fibroblast cell line was explored. The result indicates that the toxicity of SWCNTs decrease with the higher coating degree as assumed. Then we choose mitochondrion to study the interactions between

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of furan- and thiophene-functionalized bis(n-heterocyclic carbene) complexes of iron(II)

    KAUST Repository

    Rieb, Julia

    2014-09-15

    The synthesis of iron(II) complexes bearing new heteroatom-functionalized methylene-bridged bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) ligands is reported. All complexes are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Tetrakis(acetonitrile)-cis-[bis(o-imidazol-2-ylidenefuran)methane]iron(II) hexafluorophosphate (2a) and tetrakis(acetonitrile)-cis-[bis(o-imidazol-2-ylidenethiophene)methane]iron(II) hexafluorophosphate (2b) were obtained by aminolysis of [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2(THF)] with furan- and thiophene-functionalized bis(imidazolium) salts 1a and 1b in acetonitrile. The SC-XRD structures of 2a and 2b show coordination of the bis(carbene) ligand in a bidentate fashion instead of a possible tetradentate coordination. The four other coordination sites of these distorted octahedral complexes are occupied by acetonitrile ligands. Crystallization of 2a in an acetone solution by the slow diffusion of Et2O led to the formation of cisdiacetonitriledi[ bis(o-imidazol-2-ylidenefuran)methane]iron(II) hexafluorophosphate (3a) with two bis(carbene) ligands coordinated in a bidentate manner and two cis-positioned acetonitrile molecules. Compounds 2a and 2b are the first reported iron(II) carbene complexes with four coordination sites occupied by solvent molecules, and it was demonstrated that those solvent ligands can undergo ligand-exchange reactions.

  14. The Capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis To Survive Iron Starvation Might Enable It To Persist in Iron-Deprived Microenvironments of Human Granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurthkoti, Krishna; Amin, Hamel; Marakalala, Mohlopheni J; Ghanny, Saleena; Subbian, Selvakumar; Sakatos, Alexandra; Livny, Jonathan; Fortune, Sarah M; Berney, Michael; Rodriguez, G Marcela

    2017-08-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of iron deprivation in the persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis We present evidence of iron restriction in human necrotic granulomas and demonstrate that under iron starvation M. tuberculosis persists, refractive to antibiotics and capable of restarting replication when iron is made available. Transcriptomics and metabolomic analyses indicated that the persistence of M. tuberculosis under iron starvation is dependent on strict control of endogenous Fe utilization and is associated with upregulation of pathogenicity and intrinsic antibiotic resistance determinants. M. tuberculosis mutants compromised in their ability to survive Fe starvation were identified. The findings of this study advance the understanding of the physiological settings that may underpin the chronicity of human tuberculosis (TB) and are relevant to the design of effective antitubercular therapies. IMPORTANCE One-third of the world population may harbor persistent M. tuberculosis , causing an asymptomatic infection that is refractory to treatment and can reactivate to become potentially lethal tuberculosis disease. However, little is known about the factors that trigger and maintain M. tuberculosis persistence in infected individuals. Iron is an essential nutrient for M. tuberculosis growth. In this study, we show, first, that in human granulomas the immune defense creates microenvironments in which M. tuberculosis likely experiences drastic Fe deprivation and, second, that Fe-starved M. tuberculosis is capable of long-term persistence without growth. Together, these observations suggest that Fe deprivation in the lung might trigger a state of persistence in M. tuberculosis and promote chronic TB. We also identified vulnerabilities of iron-restricted persistent M. tuberculosis , which can be exploited for the design of new antitubercular therapies. Copyright © 2017 Kurthkoti et al.

  15. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  16. Branched-chain amino acids reduce hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in hepatitis C virus polyprotein-expressing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Masaaki; Nishina, Sohji; Korenaga, Keiko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Yoshioka, Naoko; Hara, Yuichi; Sasaki, Yusuke; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Hino, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. However, the mechanisms that underlie these effects remain unknown. Previously, we reported that oxidative stress in male transgenic mice that expressed hepatitis C virus polyprotein (HCVTgM) caused hepatic iron accumulation by reducing hepcidin transcription, thereby leading to HCC development. This study investigated whether long-term treatment with BCAA reduced hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in iron-overloaded HCVTgM and in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. Methods Male HCVTgM were fed an excess-iron diet that comprised either casein or 3.0% BCAA, or a control diet, for 6 months. Results For HCVTgM, BCAA supplementation increased the serum hepcidin-25 levels and antioxidant status [ratio of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) relative to derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM)], decreased the hepatic iron contents, attenuated reactive oxygen species generation, and restored mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression and mitochondrial complex I activity in the liver compared with mice fed the control diet. After 48 weeks of BCAA supplementation in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis, BAP/dROM and serum hepcidin-25 increased and serum ferritin decreased compared with the pretreatment levels. Conclusions BCAA supplementation reduced oxidative stress by restoring mitochondrial function and improved iron metabolism by increasing hepcidin-25 in both iron-overloaded HCVTgM and patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. These activities of BCAA may partially account for their inhibitory effects on HCC development in cirrhosis patients. PMID:25156780

  17. Heterogeneous biomimetic catalysis using iron porphyrin for cyclohexane oxidation promoted by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Guan, E-mail: huangg66@126.com; Liu, Yao; Cai, Jing Li; Chen, Xiang Feng; Zhao, Shu Kai; Guo, Yong An; Wei, Su Juan; Li, Xu

    2017-04-30

    Graphical abstract: A biomimetic catalyst of iron-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin immobilized on powdered chitosan achieves efficient cyclohexane oxidation with high ketone and alcohol yields. - Highlights: • Fe (TPPS)/pd-CTS is an excellent catalyst for cyclohexane oxidation. • Amino ligation alters the electron cloud density around the iron cation. • Amino coordination likely reduces the activation energy of Fe (TPPS). • The catalyst achieved 22.9 mol% yields of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. - Abstract: This study investigates how ligands modulate metalloporphyrin activity with the goal of producing a practical biomimetic catalyst for use in the chemical industry. We immobilized iron porphyrinate [iron-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin; Fe(III) (TPPS)] on powdered chitosan (pd-CTS) to form an immobilized catalyst Fe(III) (TPPS)/pd-CTS, which was characterized using modern spectroscopic techniques and used for catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane with O{sub 2}. Amino coordination to iron porphyrin in Fe(III) (TPPS)/pd-CTS altered the electron cloud density around the iron cation, probably by reducing the activation energy of Fe(III) (TPPS) and raising the reactivity of the iron ion catalytic center, thereby improving the catalytic efficiency. One milligram of Fe(III) (TPPS) catalyst can be reused three times for the oxidation reaction to yield an average of 22.9 mol% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol.

  18. Ferromagnetic nuclear resonance investigation of the surface magnetization in iron sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, L.; Tompa, K.

    1977-09-01

    The role of the domain structure and domain properties in ferromagnetic nuclear resonance (FNR) experiments is reconsidered. Using the FNR signal intensity as a measure of surface domain wall volume, it is found that the behaviour of the surface magnetization differs from that of the bulk magnetization of iron sheets. Namely, a critical field below which the FNR signal remains unchanqed is observed in the surface magnetization. This lag of surface domain wall annihilation is sensitive to the given surface conditions and in particular to the rolling deformation. Considering the small skin depth, FNR as a surface testing method is discussed. (D.P.)

  19. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zboril, Radek, E-mail: zboril@prfnw.upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek [Military Institute VOP-026 Sternberk, Division in Brno, Rybkova 8, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Sharma, Virender K., E-mail: vsharma@fit.edu [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Center of Ferrate Excellence, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3 Prime -imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants ({approx}10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} s{sup -1}). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  20. Final Report: The Impact of Carbonate on Surface Protonation, Electron Transfer and Crystallization Reactions in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama

    2013-07-02

    This project addresses key issues of importance in the geochemical behavior of iron oxides and in the geochemical cycling of carbon and iron. For Fe, we are specifically studying the influence of carbonate on electron transfer reactions, solid phase transformations, and the binding of carbonate to reactive sites on the edges of particles. The emphasis on carbonate arises because it is widely present in the natural environment, is known to bind strongly to oxide surfaces, is reactive on the time scales of interest, and has a speciation driven by acid-base reactions. The geochemical behavior of carbonate strongly influences global climate change and CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies. Our goal is to answer key questions with regards to specific site binding, electron transfer reactions, and crystallization reactions of iron oxides that impact both the geochemical cycling of iron and CO{sub 2} species. Our work is focused on the molecular level description of carbonate chemistry in solution including the prediction of isotope fractionation factors. We have also done work on critical atmospheric species.

  1. Agar agar-stabilized milled zerovalent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Micić, Vesna; Kammer, Frank von der; Hofmann, Thilo, E-mail: thilo.hofmann@univie.ac.at

    2016-09-01

    Submicron-scale milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles produced by grinding macroscopic raw materials could provide a cost-effective alternative to nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. However, the aggregation and settling of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension presents a significant obstacle to their in situ application for groundwater remediation. In our investigations we reduced the rapid aggregation and settling rate of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension by stabilization with a “green” agar agar polymer. The transport potential of stabilized milled ZVI particle suspensions in a diverse array of natural heterogeneous porous media was evaluated in a series of well-controlled laboratory column experiments. The impact of agar agar on trichloroethene (TCE) removal by milled ZVI particles was assessed in laboratory-scale batch reactors. The use of agar agar significantly enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in all of the investigated porous media. Reactivity tests showed that the agar agar-stabilized milled ZVI particles were reactive towards TCE, but that their reactivity was an order of magnitude less than that of bare, non-stabilized milled ZVI particles. Our results suggest that milled ZVI particles could be used as an alternative to nZVI particles as their potential for emplacement into contaminated zone, their reactivity, and expected longevity are beneficial for in situ groundwater remediation. - Highlights: • Rapid aggregation and sedimentation were observed in bare milled ZVI particles. • Agar agar improved the stability of milled ZVI particle suspensions. • Agar agar enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in heterogeneous sands. • Agar agar reduced the reactivity of milled ZVI particles towards TCE.

  2. Agar agar-stabilized milled zerovalent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Micić, Vesna; Kammer, Frank von der; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Submicron-scale milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles produced by grinding macroscopic raw materials could provide a cost-effective alternative to nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. However, the aggregation and settling of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension presents a significant obstacle to their in situ application for groundwater remediation. In our investigations we reduced the rapid aggregation and settling rate of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension by stabilization with a “green” agar agar polymer. The transport potential of stabilized milled ZVI particle suspensions in a diverse array of natural heterogeneous porous media was evaluated in a series of well-controlled laboratory column experiments. The impact of agar agar on trichloroethene (TCE) removal by milled ZVI particles was assessed in laboratory-scale batch reactors. The use of agar agar significantly enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in all of the investigated porous media. Reactivity tests showed that the agar agar-stabilized milled ZVI particles were reactive towards TCE, but that their reactivity was an order of magnitude less than that of bare, non-stabilized milled ZVI particles. Our results suggest that milled ZVI particles could be used as an alternative to nZVI particles as their potential for emplacement into contaminated zone, their reactivity, and expected longevity are beneficial for in situ groundwater remediation. - Highlights: • Rapid aggregation and sedimentation were observed in bare milled ZVI particles. • Agar agar improved the stability of milled ZVI particle suspensions. • Agar agar enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in heterogeneous sands. • Agar agar reduced the reactivity of milled ZVI particles towards TCE.

  3. On Degradation of Cast Iron Surface-Protective Paint Coat Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tupaj M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a presentation of a study on issues concerning degradation of protective paint coat having an adverse impact on aesthetic qualities of thin-walled cast-iron castings fabricated in furan resin sand. Microscopic examination and microanalyses of chemistry indicated that under the coat of paint covering the surface of a thin-walled casting, layers of oxides could be found presence of which can be most probably attributed to careless cleaning of the casting surface before the paint application process, as well as corrosion pits evidencing existence of damp residues under the paint layers contributing to creation of corrosion micro-cells

  4. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  5. Different arsenate and phosphate incorporation effects on the nucleation and growth of iron(III) (Hydr)oxides on quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Chelsea W; Lee, Byeongdu; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-10-21

    Iron(III) (hydr)oxides play an important role in the geochemical cycling of contaminants in natural and engineered aquatic systems. The ability of iron(III) (hydr)oxides to immobilize contaminants can be related to whether the precipitates form heterogeneously (e.g., at mineral surfaces) or homogeneously in solution. Utilizing grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), we studied heterogeneous iron(III) (hydr)oxide nucleation and growth on quartz substrates for systems containing arsenate and phosphate anions. For the iron(III) only system, the radius of gyration (Rg) of heterogeneously formed precipitates grew from 1.5 to 2.5 (± 1.0) nm within 1 h. For the system containing 10(-5) M arsenate, Rg grew from 3.6 to 6.1 (± 0.5) nm, and for the system containing 10(-5) M phosphate, Rg grew from 2.0 to 4.0 (± 0.2) nm. While the systems containing these oxyanions had more growth, the system containing only iron(III) had the most nucleation events on substrates. Ex situ analyses of homogeneously and heterogeneously formed precipitates indicated that precipitates in the arsenate system had the highest water content and that oxyanions may bridge iron(III) hydroxide polymeric embryos to form a structure similar to ferric arsenate or ferric phosphate. These new findings are important because differences in nucleation and growth rates and particle sizes will impact the number of available reactive sites and the reactivity of newly formed particles toward aqueous contaminants.

  6. Evaluation of residual iron in carbon nanotubes purified by acid treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, E.R., E-mail: eliltonedwards@hotmail.com [Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, CEP: 12.516-410 CP:20, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Antunes, E.F. [National Institute for Space Research - INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP: 12.254-97, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Aeronautical Institute of Technology - ITA, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, CEP: 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Botelho, E.C. [Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, CEP: 12.516-410 CP:20, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Baldan, M.R.; Corat, E.J. [National Institute for Space Research - INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP: 12.254-97, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-01

    A detailed analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surfaces after non-oxidative and oxidative purification treatments in liquid-phase. The MWCNT were produced by pyrolysis of camphor and ferrocene, that provides a high yield but with high iron contamination ({approx}15% wt). The elimination and/or oxidation of iron nanoparticles were monitored by Fe2p and O1s core level. Oxygen-based functional groups attachment was also investigated by C1s fitting. The effectiveness of each treatment in iron removal was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The integrity of the MWCNT structure was verified by Raman spectroscopy (RS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A purity degree higher than 98% was achieved only with non-oxidative treatments using sonification process.

  7. A novel role of the ferric reductase Cfl1 in cell wall integrity, mitochondrial function, and invasion to host cells in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qilin; Dong, Yijie; Xu, Ning; Qian, Kefan; Chen, Yulu; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2014-11-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, causing both superficial mucosal infections and life-threatening systemic diseases. Iron acquisition is an important factor for pathogen-host interaction and also a significant element for the pathogenicity of this organism. Ferric reductases, which convert ferric iron into ferrous iron, are important components of the high-affinity iron uptake system. Sequence analyses have identified at least 17 putative ferric reductase genes in C. albicans genome. CFL1 was the first ferric reductase identified in C. albicans. However, little is known about its roles in C. albicans physiology and pathogenicity. In this study, we found that disruption of CFL1 led to hypersensitivity to chemical and physical cell wall stresses, activation of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, abnormal cell wall composition, and enhanced secretion, indicating a defect in CWI in this mutant. Moreover, this mutant showed abnormal mitochondrial activity and morphology, suggesting a link between ferric reductases and mitochondrial function. In addition, this mutant displayed decreased ability of adhesion to both the polystyrene microplates and buccal epithelial cells and invasion of host epithelial cells. These findings revealed a novel role of C. albicans Cfl1 in maintenance of CWI, mitochondrial function, and interaction between this pathogen and the host. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of rare earths on shrinkage porosity in thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2009-01-01

    Ductile cast iron has been cast in test bars with thickness from 2 to 10 mm. The rare earth elements La and Ce have been added to some of the castings to evaluate their influence on microstructure and shrinkage tendency. Both La and Ce increased the graphite nodule count, especially for thickness...

  9. The application of fracture mechanics on nodular cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Blind, D.; Kockelmann, H.; Roos, E.; Eisele, U.

    1987-01-01

    A series of studies on predominantly thick-walled castings was the first attempt at a characterization of the material of ferritization-annealed ductile cast iron under aspects of fracture mechanics according to today's state of fracture-mechanics research and testing. As in static and dynamic tensile testing, ferritic cast iron meeting specifications was found to be tough down -40 0 C and below in fracture mechanical testing without substantial reduction of the corresponding characteristics at room temperature; this is true for a temperature range where the lowest point of impact notch work has been reached already. Impact-type stresses with and without notching resulted in enhanced deformation resistance and deformability in the longitudinal samples taken from tubes. (orig./DG) [de

  10. Termination of nanoscale zero-valent iron reactivity by addition of bromate as a reducing reactivity competitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht; Droumpali, Ariadni

    2017-01-01

    , trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, atrazine, and 4-chlorophenol, were selected and tested as model groundwater contaminants. Addition of carbonate to passivate the nZVI surface was not effective for trichloroethylene. Nitrate and then bromate were applied to competitively consume nZVI by their faster...... reduction kinetics. Bromate proved to be more effective than nitrate, subsequently terminating nZVI reactivity for all four of the tested halogenated compounds. Furthermore, the suggested termination method using bromate was successfully applied to obtain trichloroethylene reduction kinetics. Herein, we...

  11. Formation, reactivity and aging of amorphous ferric oxides in the presence of model and membrane bioreactor derived organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, Mark W; Maheshwari, Pradeep; David Waite, T

    2017-11-01

    Iron salts are routinely dosed in wastewater treatment as a means of achieving effluent phosphorous concentration goals. The iron oxides that result from addition of iron salts partake in various reactions, including reductive dissolution and phosphate adsorption. The reactivity of these oxides is controlled by the conditions of formation and the processes, such as aggregation, that lead to a reduction in accessible surface sites following formation. The presence of organic compounds is expected to significantly impact these processes in a number of ways. In this study, amorphous ferric oxide (AFO) reactivity and aging was investigated following the addition of ferric iron (Fe(III)) to three solution systems: two synthetic buffered systems, either containing no organic or containing alginate, and a supernatant system containing soluble microbial products (SMPs) sourced from a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Reactivity of the Fe(III) phases in these systems at various times (1-60 min) following Fe(III) addition was quantified by determining the rate constants for ascorbate-mediated reductive dissolution over short (5 min) and long (60 min) dissolution periods and for a range (0.5-10 mM) of ascorbate concentrations. AFO particle size was monitored using dynamic light scattering during the aging and dissolution periods. In the presence of alginate, AFO particles appeared to be stabilized against aggregation. However, aging in the alginate system was remarkably similar to the inorganic system where aging is associated with aggregation. An aging mechanism involving restructuring within the alginate-AFO assemblage was proposed. In the presence of SMPs, a greater diversity of Fe(III) phases was evident with both a small labile pool of organically complexed Fe(III) and a polydisperse population of stabilized AFO particles present. The prevalence of low molecular weight organic molecules facilitated stabilization of the Fe(III) oxyhydroxides formed but subsequent aging

  12. Persulfate activation by iron oxide-immobilized MnO2 composite: identification of iron oxide and the optimum pH for degradations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Hoon; Do, Si-Hyun; Kong, Sung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide-immobilized manganese oxide (MnO2) composite was prepared and the reactivity of persulfate (PS) with the composite as activator was investigated for degradation of carbon tetrachloride and benzene at various pH levels. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the composite was similar to that of pure MnO2 while the pore volume and diameter of composite was larger than those of MnO2. Scanning electron microscopy couples with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed that Fe and Mn were detected on the surface of the composite, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the possibilities of the existence of various iron oxides on the composite surface. Furthermore, the analyses of X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectra revealed that the oxidation state of iron was identified as 1.74. In PS/composite system, the same pH for the highest degradation rates of both carbon tetrachloride and benzene were observed and the value of pH was 9. Scavenger test was suggested that both oxidants (i.e. hydroxyl radical, sulfate radical) and reductant (i.e. superoxide anion) were effectively produced when PS was activated with the iron-immobilized MnO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geometrical size effect in high cycle fatigue strength of heavy-walled Ductile Cast Iron GJS400: Weakest link vs. defect-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cova Matteo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue strength is known to decrease with increasing dimension of the component. This is due to a technological size effect, related to the production process, and to a geometrical size effect, due to a higher probability of finding a large defect. To investigate the latter, an heavy-walled component made of Ductile Cast Iron (DCI has been trepanned and a fatigue test plan has been carried out using 4 different specimen geometries. An attempt has been made to relate the resulting fatigue strength using a weakest-link approach based on the effective volumes and surfaces. This approach seems to work well only in cases of different specimen's lengths. Some of the fracture surfaces were analyzed by means of SEM and the initiating defects were identified and measured. An approach in which the defects population can be randomly distributed in the specimen has been tried. Virtual fatigue tests have been carried out by considering pure propagation of the worst defect. The resulting fatigue curves showed that this approach is promising but needs further description of the initiation phase.

  14. Demonstration and Validation of Reactive Vitreous Coatings to Prevent Corrosion of Steel Fixtures Attached to Masonry Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    these ties degrades bonding between the mortar and the steel, , and this can cause the loss of structural continuity within the wall . Failures in...for replacement on these buildings displayed visible evidence of failure in the form of cracking, bro- ken bricks, displaced mortar, and wall ties... retained a contractor to refurbish the failing brick veneers. This contractor was also responsible for providing the enamel-coated wall ties. All

  15. Effects of intracellular iron overload on cell death and identification of potent cell death inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shenglin; Yu, Xiaonan; Ding, Haoxuan; Han, Jianan; Feng, Jie

    2018-06-11

    Iron overload causes many diseases, while the underlying etiologies of these diseases are unclear. Cell death processes including apoptosis, necroptosis, cyclophilin D-(CypD)-dependent necrosis and a recently described additional form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis, are dependent on iron or iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether the accumulation of intracellular iron itself induces ferroptosis or other forms of cell death is largely elusive. In present study, we study the role of intracellular iron overload itself-induced cell death mechanisms by using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and a membrane-permeable Ferric 8-hydroxyquinoline complex (Fe-8HQ) respectively. We show that FAC-induced intracellular iron overload causes ferroptosis. We also identify 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) inhibitor GSK2334470 as a potent ferroptosis inhibitor. Whereas, Fe-8HQ-induced intracellular iron overload causes unregulated necrosis, but partially activates PARP-1 dependent parthanatos. Interestingly, we identify many phenolic compounds as potent inhibitors of Fe-8HQ-induced cell death. In conclusion, intracellular iron overload-induced cell death form might be dependent on the intracellular iron accumulation rate, newly identified cell death inhibitors in our study that target ferroptosis and unregulated oxidative cell death represent potential therapeutic strategies against iron overload related diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron oxyhydroxide nanorods with high electrochemical reactivity as a sensitive and rapid determination platform for 4-chlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [Key Laboratory for Material Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics at Wuhan, National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics & Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Systems Biology Theme, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheng, Qin; Zheng, Meng [Key Laboratory for Material Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Xin [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics at Wuhan, National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics & Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Systems Biology Theme, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Kangbing, E-mail: kbwu@hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Material Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Prepared FeOOH nanorods exhibited high reactivity toward the oxidation of 4-CP. • Response signals and detection sensitivity of 4-CP increased greatly by FeOOH. • Highly-sensitive and rapid determination platform was developed for 4-CP. • Practical application in water samples was studied, and the accuracy was good. - Abstract: Iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) nanorods were prepared through solvothermal reaction, and characterized using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thereafter, the prepared FeOOH nanorods were used as sensing material to construct a novel detection platform for 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The electrochemical behaviors of 4-CP were studied, and the oxidation peak currents increased greatly on the surface of FeOOH nanorods. The signal enhancement mechanism was studied for 4-CP, and it was found that the prepared FeOOH nanorods remarkably improved the electron transfer ability and surface adsorption efficiency of 4-CP. The influences of pH value, amount of FeOOH nanorods and accumulation time were examined. As a result, a highly-sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the rapid determination of 4-CP. The linear range was from 10 to 500 nM, and the detection limit was 3.2 nM. It was used in different water samples, and the results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  17. Intensified process for aromatics separation powered by Kaibel and dividing-wall columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Ignat, R.M.; Flores Landaeta, S.J.; Haan, de A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation led to major developments, such as reactive distillation, heat-integrated distillation, cyclic distillation, as well as Kaibel and dividing-wall column. Still, the separation of aromatics at industrial scale is carried out typically in a series of conventional

  18. Risk of iron overload is decreased in beating heart coronary artery surgery compared to conventional bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, S; Koh, T W; Pepper, J R; Gutteridge, J M

    2001-11-29

    Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CCPB) increases the iron loading of plasma transferrin often to a state of plasma iron overload, with the presence of low molecular mass iron. Such iron is a potential risk factor for oxidative stress and microbial virulence. Here we assess 'off-pump' coronary artery surgery on the beating heart for changes in plasma iron chemistry. Seventeen patients undergoing cardiac surgery using the 'Octopus' myocardial wall stabilisation device were monitored at five time points for changes in plasma iron chemistry. This group was further divided into those (n=9) who had one- or two- (n=8) vessel grafts, and compared with eight patients undergoing conventional coronary artery surgery. Patients undergoing beating heart surgery had significantly lower levels of total plasma non-haem iron, and a decreased percentage saturation of their transferrin at all time points compared to conventional bypass patients. Plasma iron overload occurred in only one patient undergoing CCPB. Beating heart surgery appears to decrease red blood cell haemolysis, and tissue damage during the operative procedures and thereby significantly decreases the risk of plasma iron overload associated with conventional bypass.

  19. Emplacement of zero-valent metal for remediation of deep contaminant plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubble, D.W.; Gillham, R.W.; Cherry, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Some groundwater plumes containing chlorinated solvent contaminants are found to be so deep that current in situ remediation technologies cannot be economically applied. Also, source zones are often found to be too deep for removal or inaccessible due to surface features. Plumes emanating from these sources require containment or treatment. Containment technologies are available for shallow sites (< 15 m) and are being developed for greater depths. However, it is important to advance the science of reactive treatment - both for cut off of plumes and to contain and treat source zones. Zero-valent metal technology has been used for remediation of solvent plumes at sites in Canada, the UK and at several industrial and military sites in the USA. To date, all of the plumes treated with zero-valent metal (granular iron) have been at depths less than 15 m. This paper gives preliminary results of research into methods to emplace granular iron at depths in the range of 15 to 60 m. The study included review of available and emerging methods of installing barrier or reactive material and the selection, preliminary design and costing of several methods. The design of a treatment system for a 122 m wide PCE plume that, immediately down gradient from its source, extends from a depth of 24 to 37 m below the ground surface is used as a demonstration site. Both Permeable Reactive Wall and Funnel-and-Gate trademark systems were considered. The emplacement methods selected for preliminary design and costing were slurry wall, driven/vibrated beam, deep soil mixing and hydrofracturing injection. For each of these methods, the iron must be slurried for ease of pumping and placement using biodegradable polymer viscosifiers that leave the iron reactive

  20. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilismara Sousa

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1, iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5% than in women and was associated with an increase (446% in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and an increase (327% in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132% in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels.

  1. Fifteen-year Assessment of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for Treatment of Chromate and Trichloroethylene in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fifteen-year performance of a granular iron, permeable reactive barrier (PRB; Elizabeth City, North Carolina) is reviewed with respect to contaminant treatment (hexavalent chromium and trichloroethylene) and hydraulic performance. Due to in-situ treatment of the chromium sou...

  2. Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic ß cell fate in response to cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1ß induces...... knockout islets is defective, highlighting a physiological role of iron and ROS in the regulation of insulin secretion. Dmt1 knockout mice are protected against multiple low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, ß cells...

  3. Heterojunction nanowires having high activity and stability for the reduction of oxygen: Formation by self-assembly of iron phthalocyanine with single walled carbon nanotubes (FePc/SWNTs)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2014-04-01

    A self-assembly approach to preparing iron phthalocyanine/single-walled carbon nanotube (FePc/SWNT) heterojunction nanowires as a new oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst has been developed by virtue of water-adjusted dispersing in 1-cyclohexyl-pyrrolidone (CHP) of the two components. The FePc/SWNT nanowires have a higher Fermi level compared to pure FePc (d-band center, DFT. =. -0.69. eV versus -0.87. eV, respectively). Consequently, an efficient channel for transferring electron to the FePc surface is readily created, facilitating the interaction between FePc and oxygen, so enhancing the ORR kinetics. This heterojunction-determined activity in ORR illustrates a new stratagem to preparing non-noble ORR electrocatalysts of significant importance in constructing real-world fuel cells. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  4. In-depth study of the mechanical properties for Fe_3Al based iron aluminide fabricated using the wire-arc additive manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Chen; Pan, Zengxi; Cuiuri, Dominic; Dong, Bosheng; Li, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    An innovative wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is used to fabricate iron aluminide alloy in-situ, through separate feeding of pure Fe and Al wires into a molten pool that is generated by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. This paper investigates the morphologies, chemical compositions and mechanical properties of the as-fabricated 30 at% Al iron aluminide wall components, and how these properties vary at different locations within the buildup wall. The tensile properties are also measured in different loading orientations; as epitaxial growth of large columnar grains is observed in the microstructures. Fe_3Al is the only phase detected in the middle buildup section of the wall structure, which constitutes the majority of the deposited material. The bottom section of the structure contains a dilution affected region where some acicular Fe_3AlC_0_._5 precipitates can be observed, induced by carbon from the steel substrate that was used for fabrication. The microhardness and chemical composition indicate relatively homogeneous material properties throughout the buildup wall. However, the tensile properties are very different in the longitudinal direction and normal directions, due to epitaxial growth of large columnar grains. In general, the results have demonstrated that the WAAM process is capable of producing full density in-situ-alloyed iron aluminide components with tensile properties that are comparable to powder metallurgy methods.

  5. Determination of total iron-reactive phenolics, anthocyanins and tannins in wine grapes of skins and seeds based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Liu, Xu; Jin, Xiaoduo; Li, Chen; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Shuqin; Ning, Jifeng; Yanne, Paul

    2017-12-15

    Phenolics contents in wine grapes are key indicators for assessing ripeness. Near-infrared hyperspectral images during ripening have been explored to achieve an effective method for predicting phenolics contents. Principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) models were built, respectively. The results show that SVR behaves globally better than PLSR and PCR, except in predicting tannins content of seeds. For the best prediction results, the squared correlation coefficient and root mean square error reached 0.8960 and 0.1069g/L (+)-catechin equivalents (CE), respectively, for tannins in skins, 0.9065 and 0.1776 (g/L CE) for total iron-reactive phenolics (TIRP) in skins, 0.8789 and 0.1442 (g/L M3G) for anthocyanins in skins, 0.9243 and 0.2401 (g/L CE) for tannins in seeds, and 0.8790 and 0.5190 (g/L CE) for TIRP in seeds. Our results indicated that NIR hyperspectral imaging has good prospects for evaluation of phenolics in wine grapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 by zero-valent iron/activated carbon combined with microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Xu, Zhen; Li, Qing-Shan; Chen, Song; An, Shu-Qing; Zeng, Qing-Fu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 using zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC), microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite (MDEL/NaClO) and the combination of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO was conducted. The preliminary results showed the two steps method of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO had much higher degradation efficiency than both single steps. The final color removal percentage was nearly up to 100% and the chemical oxygen demand reduction percentage was up to approximately 82%. The effects of operational parameters, including initial pH value of simulated wastewater, ZVI/AC ratio and particle size of ZVI were also investigated. In addition, from the discussion of synergistic effect between ZVI/AC and MEDL/NaClO, we found that in the ZVI/AC-MEDL/NaClO process, ZVI/AC could break the azo bond firstly and then MEDL/NaClO degraded the aromatic amine products effectively. Reversing the order would reduce the degradation efficiency.

  7. Effects of Fe-chelate and iron oxide nanoparticles on some of the physiological characteristics of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Askary

    2018-06-01

    treated with 0 µM iron nanoparticles did not receive iron in 45day period. Ironoxide nanoparticles were prepared from Pishgaman Company located in Mashhad, Iran . After the final harvest of 45-day plants, leaf fresh weights were measured. Dry weight of leaf were obtained by drying samples in an oven for 24h at 75°C until constant weight. Chlorophylla, chlorophyllb, total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents by spectrophotometry method at 663 and 645 nm were determined. Contents of proline, activities of catalase(CAT, guaiacol peroxidase(GPOX and superoxide dismutase(SOD and 2,2diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity were measured. All data were analyzed by variance analysis using SPSS16. Mean comparisons were conducted using Duncan’s test. Results and discussion Iron treatment had a positive effect on the growth parameters and photosynthetic pigments. The highest and lowest values of leaf growth and photosynthetic pigments were obtained at 25μM and 0µM of Fe2O3 nanoparticles, respectively. Treatment of iron nanofertilizer at different concentrations (even at 5µM caused significant increase in leaf growth and photosynthetic pigments content compared to iron chelate. Nanoparticles have high reactivity because of more specific surface area, more density of reactive areas, or in creased reactivity of these areas on the particle surfaces. These features streamline the absorption of fertilizers , which are produced in nano scale. Iron nanofertilizer can be considered as an enriched source of bivalent iron for plant because of its high stability and gradual release of Fe in a wide pH range (pH 3–11. Iron is a necessary element for the formation of chlorophyll, therefore deficiency of iron in plants reduces chlorophyll content, so photosynthesis decreases The highest values of proline and antioxidants activity were measured in 0μM ironoxide nanoparticles. Thus, iron concentration of 0μM is considered stressful for alfalfa. Under abiotic stresses

  8. Cast iron for reactor technology - special structural and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janakiev, N.

    The graphitic phase, its formation and the effect on the mechanical properties of cast iron used for reactor shielding are described. Tensile strength, bending strength and Brinell hardness were studied. With the specimen wall thickness of 400 mm the average measured tensile strength was 180 N/mm 2 , which satisfies the given requirements as do the values of bending strength and material hardness. As against materials 200 mm in thickness, graphite was found by metallographic tests to be of a significantly coarser structure, which may be explained by slower cooling. Tensile strength was also tested for nodular cast irons and lamellar graphite cast irons. It was shown that compression increased with decreasing specimen diameter at constant pressure, at a constant diameter compression increased nearly in proportion to compressive stress. No significant differences were found if compressive stress was 80% of fracture stress. The modulus of elasticity was found to decrease with increasing graphite content while it was found to increase with fine graphite lamellae at the same carbon concentration. It also decreased with increasing straining. A Mo-alloyed cast iron was found to show slower creep rates at a compressive stress of up to 90 N/mm 2 (calculated to the same initial strengths) than Cu-alloyed cast iron. Upon increasing compressive stress to 140 N/mm 2 and creep time to more than 2000 hours, the creep behaviour of Cu-alloyed cast iron was better. Coarser perlite is likely to be more creep resistant than fine perlite. In neutron irradiation of cast iron a clear trend towards hardening was found due to the effect of neutrons on the cast iron structure. (J.B.)

  9. Eutectic cell and nodule count as the quality factors of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the predictions based on a theoretical analysis aimed at elucidating of eutectic cell count or nodule counts N wereexperimentally verified. The experimental work was focused on processing flake graphite and ductile iron under various inoculationconditions in order to achieve various physicochemical states of the experimental melts. In addition, plates of various wall thicknesses, s were cast and the resultant eutectic cell or nodule counts were established. Moreover, thermal analysis was used to find out the degree of maximum undercooling for the graphite eutectic, Tm. A relationship was found between the eutectic cell or nodule count and the maximum undercooling Tm.. In addition it was also found that N can be related to the wall thickness of plate shaped castings. Finally, the present work provides a rational for the effect of technological factors such as the melt chemistry, inoculation practice, and holding temperature and time on the resultant cell count or nodule count of cast iron. In particular, good agreement was found between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and the experimental data.

  10. Iron in neurodegenerative disorders: being in the wrong place at the wrong time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, Sotirios; Kypraiou, Anna-Maria

    2017-11-27

    Brain iron deposits have been reported consistently in imaging and histologic examinations of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. While the origins of this finding have not been clarified yet, it is speculated that impaired iron homeostasis or deficient transport mechanisms result in the accumulation of this highly toxic metal ultimately leading to formation of reactive oxygen species and cell death. On the other hand, there are also those who support that iron is just an incidental finding, a by product of neuronal loss. A literature review has been performed in order to present the key findings in support of the iron hypothesis of neurodegeneration, as well as to identify conditions causing or resulting from iron overload and compare and contrast their features with the most prominent neurodegenerative disorders. There is an abundance of experimental and observational findings in support of the hypothesis in question; however, as neurodegeneration is a rare incident of commonly encountered iron-associated disorders of the nervous system, and this metal is found in non-neurodegenerative disorders as well, it is possible that iron is the result or even an incidental finding in neurodegeneration. Understanding the underlying processes of iron metabolism in the brain and particularly its release during cell damage is expected to provide a deeper understanding of the origins of neurodegeneration in the years to come.

  11. Capture and storage of hydrogen gas by zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Eric J

    2014-02-01

    Granular Fe(o), used to reductively degrade a variety of contaminants in groundwater, corrodes in water to produce H2(g). A portion enters the Fe(o) lattice where it is stored in trapping sites such as lattice defects and microcracks. The balance is dissolved by the groundwater where it may exsolve as a gas if its solubility is exceeded. Gas exsolution can reduce the effectiveness of the Fe(o) treatment zone by reducing contact of the contaminant with iron surfaces or by diverting groundwater flow. It also represents a lost electron resource that otherwise could be involved in reductive degradation of contaminants. It is advantageous to select an iron for remediation purposes that captures a large proportion of the H2(g) it generates. This study examines various aspects of the H2(g) uptake process and has found 1) H2(g) does not have to be generated at the water/iron interface to enter the lattice. It can enter directly from the gas/water phases, 2) exposure of granular sponge iron to H2(g) reduces the dormant period for the onset of iron corrosion, 3) the large quantities of H2(g) generated by nano-Fe(o) injected into a reactive barrier of an appropriate granular iron can be captured in the lattice of that iron, and 4) lattice-bound hydrogen represents an additional electron resource to Fe(o) for remediation purposes and may be accessible using physical or chemical means. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION OF CHROMIUM USING ZERO-VALENT IRON IN A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed to elucidate the chromium transformation and precipitation reactions caused by the corrosion of zero-valent iron in water-based systems. Reaction rates were determined for chromate reduction in the presence of different types of ...

  13. The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandyo, R K; Henjum, S; Ulak, M; Thorne-Lyman, A L; Ulvik, R J; Shrestha, P S; Locks, L; Fawzi, W; Strand, T A

    2016-04-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal. In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly selected 500 mother-infant pairs from Bhaktapur municipality. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin receptors and C-reactive protein. The altitude-adjusted prevalence of anemia was 49% among infants 2-6-month-old (hemaglobin (Hb) Iron deficiency anemia, defined as anemia and serum ferritin anemia (Hb iron stores. Significant predictors of infant iron status and anemia were infant age, sex and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and maternal ferritin concentrations. Our findings suggest that iron supplementation in pregnancy is likely to have resulted in a low prevalence of postpartum anemia. The higher prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among breastfed infants compared with their mothers suggests calls for intervention targeting newborns and infants.

  14. Control Rod Driveline Reactivity Feedback Model for Liquid Metal Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Young-Min; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Cho, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Bum

    2008-01-01

    The thermal expansion of the control rod drivelines (CRDL) is one important passive mitigator under all unprotected accident conditions in the metal and oxide cores. When the CRDL are washed by hot sodium in the coolant outlet plenum, the CRDL thermally expands and causes the control rods to be inserted further down into the active core region, providing a negative reactivity feedback. Since the control rods are attached to the top of the vessel head and the core attaches to the bottom of the reactor vessel (RV), the expansion of the vessel wall as it heats will either lower the core or raise the control rods supports. This contrary thermal expansion of the reactor vessel wall pulls the control rods out of the core somewhat, providing a positive reactivity feedback. However this is not a safety factor early in a transient because its time constant is relatively large. The total elongated length is calculated by subtracting the vessel expansion from the CRDL expansion to determine the net control rod expansion into the core. The system-wide safety analysis code SSC-K includes the CRDL/RV reactivity feedback model in which control rod and vessel expansions are calculated using single-nod temperatures for the vessel and CRDL masses. The KALIMER design has the upper internal structures (UIS) in which the CRDLs are positioned outside the structure where they are exposed to the mixed sodium temperature exiting the core. A new method to determine the CRDL expansion is suggested. Two dimensional hot pool thermal hydraulic model (HP2D) originally developed for the analysis of the stratification phenomena in the hot pool is utilized for a detailed heat transfer between the CRDL mass and the hot pool coolant. However, the reactor vessel wall temperature is still calculated by a simple lumped model

  15. Magnetic and gravity gradiometry framework for Mesoproterozoic iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Phillips, Jeffrey; Driscoll, Rhonda L.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution airborne magnetic and gravity gradiometry data provide the geophysical framework for evaluating the exploration potential of hidden iron oxide deposits in Mesoproterozoic basement rocks of southeast Missouri. The data are used to calculate mineral prospectivity for iron oxide-apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element (REE) and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Results delineate the geophysical footprints of all known iron oxide deposits and reveal several previously unrecognized prospective areas. The airborne data are also inverted to three-dimensional density and magnetic susceptibility models over four concealed deposits at Pea Ridge (IOA ± REE), Boss (IOCG), Kratz Spring (IOA), and Bourbon (IOCG). The Pea Ridge susceptibility model shows a magnetic source that is vertically extensive and traceable to a depth of greater than 2 km. A smaller density source, located within the shallow Precambrian basement, is partly coincident with the magnetic source at Pea Ridge. In contrast, the Boss models show a large (625-m-wide), vertically extensive, and coincident dense and magnetic stock with shallower adjacent lobes that extend more than 2,600 m across the shallow Precambrian paleosurface. The Kratz Spring deposit appears to be a smaller volume of iron oxides and is characterized by lower density and less magnetic rock compared to the other iron deposits. A prospective area identified south of the Kratz Spring deposit shows the largest volume of coincident dense and nonmagnetic rock in the subsurface, and is interpreted as prospective for a hematite-dominant lithology that extends from the top of the Precambrian to depths exceeding 2 km. The Bourbon deposit displays a large bowl-shaped volume of coincident high density and high-magnetic susceptibility rock, and a geometry that suggests the iron mineralization is vertically restricted to the upper parts of the Precambrian basement. In order to underpin the evaluation of the prospectivity and three

  16. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  17. Uranium,Radium and Iron Absorption from Liquid Waste Uranium Ore Processing by Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wismawati, T; Sorot sudiro, A; Herjati, T

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine zeolites sorption capacity and the distribution coefficient of uranium, radium, and iron in zeolite-liquid waste system. Mineralogical composition of zeolite used in the experiment has been determine by examining the thin sections of zeolite grains under a microscope. Zeolite has ben activated by the dilute sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide solution. The results show that the use of 0.25 N sodium hydroxide solution could be optimizing the zeolite for uranium and iron ions sorption and that of 0.1 N sulfuric acid solution is for radium sorption. The re-activation process has been carried out in three hours. Under such a condition, the sorption efficiency of zeolite to those ions have been known to be 45.85% for uranium, 96.63 % for iron and 87.80 % for radium. The distribution coefficients of uranium, radium and iron ion in zeolite-liquid waste system have been calculated 0.85, 7.02, and 28.65 ml/g respectively

  18. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  19. Chloroplast Iron Transport Proteins - Function and Impact on Plant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Millán, Ana F; Duy, Daniela; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts originated about three billion years ago by endosymbiosis of an ancestor of today's cyanobacteria with a mitochondria-containing host cell. During evolution chloroplasts of higher plants established as the site for photosynthesis and thus became the basis for all life dependent on oxygen and carbohydrate supply. To fulfill this task, plastid organelles are loaded with the transition metals iron, copper, and manganese, which due to their redox properties are essential for photosynthetic electron transport. In consequence, chloroplasts for example represent the iron-richest system in plant cells. However, improvement of oxygenic photosynthesis in turn required adaptation of metal transport and homeostasis since metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes oxidative damage. This is most acute in chloroplasts, where radicals and transition metals are side by side and ROS-production is a usual feature of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, on the one hand when bound by proteins, chloroplast-intrinsic metals are a prerequisite for photoautotrophic life, but on the other hand become toxic when present in their highly reactive, radical generating, free ionic forms. In consequence, transport, storage and cofactor-assembly of metal ions in plastids have to be tightly controlled and are crucial throughout plant growth and development. In the recent years, proteins for iron transport have been isolated from chloroplast envelope membranes. Here, we discuss their putative functions and impact on cellular metal homeostasis as well as photosynthetic performance and plant metabolism. We further consider the potential of proteomic analyses to identify new players in the field.

  20. Interactions of iron, dopamine and neuromelanin pathways in brain aging and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Fabio A; Segura-Aguilar, Juan; Ferrari, Emanuele; Muñoz, Patricia; Paris, Irmgard; Sulzer, David; Sarna, Tadeusz; Casella, Luigi; Zecca, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    There are several interrelated mechanisms involving iron, dopamine, and neuromelanin in neurons. Neuromelanin accumulates during aging and is the catecholamine-derived pigment of the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and norepinephrine neurons of the locus coeruleus, the two neuronal populations most targeted in Parkinson's disease. Many cellular redox reactions rely on iron, however an altered distribution of reactive iron is cytotoxic. In fact, increased levels of iron in the brain of Parkinson's disease patients are present. Dopamine accumulation can induce neuronal death; however, excess dopamine can be removed by converting it into a stable compound like neuromelanin, and this process rescues the cell. Interestingly, the main iron compound in dopamine and norepinephrine neurons is the neuromelanin-iron complex, since neuromelanin is an effective metal chelator. Neuromelanin serves to trap iron and provide neuronal protection from oxidative stress. This equilibrium between iron, dopamine, and neuromelanin is crucial for cell homeostasis and in some cellular circumstances can be disrupted. Indeed, when neuromelanin-containing organelles accumulate high load of toxins and iron during aging a neurodegenerative process can be triggered. In addition, neuromelanin released by degenerating neurons activates microglia and the latter cause neurons death with further release of neuromelanin, then starting a self-propelling mechanism of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Considering the above issues, age-related accumulation of neuromelanin in dopamine neurons shows an interesting link between aging and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioactive surface modifications on inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene tubes using dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Ki; Park, Daewon; Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Hyerim; Park, Heonyong; Kim, Hong Ja; Jung, Donggeun

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive surface modification can be used in a variety of medical polymeric materials in the fields of biochips and biosensors, artificial membranes, and vascular grafts. In this study, the surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts, which are made of biocompatible material for the human body in the medical field. Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment on the PFTE surface using micro plasma discharge. Micro plasma was generated by a medium-frequency alternating current high-voltage generator. The preliminary modification of PTFE was conducted by a plasma of hydrogen and argon gases. The hydrocarbon thin film was deposited on modified PTFE with a mixture of acetylene and argon gases. The reactive plasma treatment using oxygen plasma was done to give biocompatible functionality to the inner wall surface. The hydrophobic surface of bare PTFE is made hydrophilic by the reactive plasma treatment due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface. The reactive treatment could lead to improved attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on the modified PTFE tubing. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurement were used for the analysis of the surface modification. The SMC-attached PTFE tube developed will be applicable to in vitro human vasculature-mimetic model systems, and to medical vascular grafts.

  2. In-depth study of the mechanical properties for Fe{sub 3}Al based iron aluminide fabricated using the wire-arc additive manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen; Pan, Zengxi, E-mail: zengxi@uow.edu.au; Cuiuri, Dominic; Dong, Bosheng; Li, Huijun

    2016-07-04

    An innovative wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is used to fabricate iron aluminide alloy in-situ, through separate feeding of pure Fe and Al wires into a molten pool that is generated by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. This paper investigates the morphologies, chemical compositions and mechanical properties of the as-fabricated 30 at% Al iron aluminide wall components, and how these properties vary at different locations within the buildup wall. The tensile properties are also measured in different loading orientations; as epitaxial growth of large columnar grains is observed in the microstructures. Fe{sub 3}Al is the only phase detected in the middle buildup section of the wall structure, which constitutes the majority of the deposited material. The bottom section of the structure contains a dilution affected region where some acicular Fe{sub 3}AlC{sub 0.5} precipitates can be observed, induced by carbon from the steel substrate that was used for fabrication. The microhardness and chemical composition indicate relatively homogeneous material properties throughout the buildup wall. However, the tensile properties are very different in the longitudinal direction and normal directions, due to epitaxial growth of large columnar grains. In general, the results have demonstrated that the WAAM process is capable of producing full density in-situ-alloyed iron aluminide components with tensile properties that are comparable to powder metallurgy methods.

  3. Inhibition of iron uptake is responsible for differential sensitivity to V-ATPase inhibitors in several cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Straud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many cell lines derived from tumors as well as transformed cell lines are far more sensitive to V-ATPase inhibitors than normal counterparts. The molecular mechanisms underlying these differences in sensitivity are not known. Using global gene expression data, we show that the most sensitive responses to HeLa cells to low doses of V-ATPase inhibitors involve genes responsive to decreasing intracellular iron or decreasing cholesterol and that sensitivity to iron uptake is an important determinant of V-ATPase sensitivity in several cancer cell lines. One of the most sensitive cell lines, melanoma derived SK-Mel-5, over-expresses the iron efflux transporter ferroportin and has decreased expression of proteins involved in iron uptake, suggesting that it actively suppresses cytoplasmic iron. SK-Mel-5 cells have increased production of reactive oxygen species and may be seeking to limit additional production of ROS by iron.

  4. Non-pumping reactive wells filled with mixing nano and micro zero-valent iron for nitrate removal from groundwater: Vertical, horizontal, and slanted wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seiyed Mossa; Tosco, Tiziana; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2018-03-01

    Non-pumping reactive wells (NPRWs) filled by zero-valent iron (ZVI) can be utilized for the remediation of groundwater contamination of deep aquifers. The efficiency of NPRWs mainly depends on the hydraulic contact time (HCT) of the pollutant with the reactive materials, the extent of the well capture zone (Wcz), and the relative hydraulic conductivity of aquifer and reactive material (Kr). We investigated nitrate removal from groundwater using NPRWs filled by ZVI (in nano and micro scales) and examined the effect of NPRWs orientations (i.e. vertical, slanted, and horizontal) on HCT and Wcz. The dependence of HCT on Wcz for different Kr values was derived theoretically for a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer, and verified using particle tracking simulations performed using the semi-analytical particle tracking and pathlines model (PMPATH). Nine batch experiments were then performed to investigate the impact of mixed nano-ZVI, NZVI (0 to 2 g l-1) and micro-ZVI, MZVI (0 to 4 g l-1) on the nitrate removal rate (with initial NO3-=132 mg l-1). The NPRWs system was tested in a bench-scale sand medium (60 cm length × 40 cm width × 25 cm height) for three orientations of NPRWs (vertical, horizontal, and slanted with inclination angle of 45°). A mixture of nano/micro ZVI, was used, applying constant conditions of pore water velocity (0.024 mm s-1) and initial nitrate concentration (128 mg l-1) for five pore volumes. The results of the batch tests showed that mixing nano and micro Fe0 outperforms these individual materials in nitrate removal rates. The final products of nitrate degradation in both batch and bench-scale experiments were NO2-, NH4+, and N2(gas). The results of sand-box experiments indicated that the slanted NPRWs have a higher nitrate reduction rate (57%) in comparison with vertical (38%) and horizontal (41%) configurations. The results also demonstrated that three factors have pivotal roles in expected HCT and Wcz, namely the contrast between the hydraulic

  5. Effect of excess iron on oxidative stress and gluconeogenesis through hepcidin during mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Choi, Joo Sun; Lee, Hye Ja; Kim, Won-Ho; Park, Sang Ick; Song, Jihyun

    2015-12-01

    Excessive tissue iron levels are a risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which are associated with alterations in iron metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study used human liver SK-HEP-1 cells to examine how excess iron induces mitochondrial dysfunction and how hepcidin controls gluconeogenesis. Excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulated iron due to iron overload induced mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate content and cytochrome c oxidase III expression, with an associated increase in gluconeogenesis. Disturbances in mitochondrial function caused excess iron deposition and unbalanced expression of iron metabolism-related proteins such as hepcidin, ferritin H and ferroportin during the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which are responsible for increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression. Desferoxamine and n-acetylcysteine ameliorated these deteriorations by inhibiting p38 MAPK and C/EBPα activity through iron chelation and ROS scavenging activity. Based on experiments using hepcidin shRNA and hepcidin overexpression, the activation of hepcidin affects ROS generation and iron deposition, which disturbs mitochondrial function and causes an imbalance in iron metabolism and increased gluconeogenesis. Repression of hepcidin activity can reverse these changes. Our results demonstrate that iron overload is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and that together they can cause abnormal hepatic gluconeogenesis. Hepcidin expression may modulate this disorder by regulating ROS generation and iron deposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Arabidopsis Glutaredoxin S17 Contributes to Vegetative Growth, Mineral Accumulation, and Redox Balance during Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential mineral nutrient and a metal cofactor required for many proteins and enzymes involved in the processes of DNA synthesis, respiration, and photosynthesis. Iron limitation can have detrimental effects on plant growth and development. Such effects are mediated, at least in part, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Thus, plants have evolved a complex regulatory network to respond to conditions of iron limitations. However, the mechanisms that couple iron deficiency and oxidative stress responses are not fully understood. Here, we report the discovery that an Arabidopsis thaliana monothiol glutaredoxin S17 (AtGRXS17 plays a critical role in the plants ability to respond to iron deficiency stress and maintain redox homeostasis. In a yeast expression assay, AtGRXS17 was able to suppress the iron accumulation in yeast ScGrx3/ScGrx4 mutant cells. Genetic analysis indicated that plants with reduced AtGRXS17 expression were hypersensitive to iron deficiency and showed increased iron concentrations in mature seeds. Disruption of AtGRXS17 caused plant sensitivity to exogenous oxidants and increased ROS production under iron deficiency. Addition of reduced glutathione rescued the growth and alleviates the sensitivity of atgrxs17 mutants to iron deficiency. These findings suggest AtGRXS17 helps integrate redox homeostasis and iron deficiency responses.

  7. The challenge of defining and treating anemia and iron deficiency in pregnancy: A study of New Zealand midwives' management of iron status in pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calje, Esther; Skinner, Joan

    2017-06-01

    Early recognition and management of low maternal iron status is associated with improved maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. However, existing international guidelines for the testing and management of maternal iron-deficiency anemia are variable, with no national guideline for New Zealand midwives. Clinical management is complicated by normal physiological hemodilution, and complicated further by the effects of inflammation on iron metabolism, especially in populations with a high prevalence of obesity or infection. This study describes how midwives in one New Zealand area diagnose and treat anemia and iron deficiency, in the absence of established guidelines. Data on demographics, laboratory results, and documented clinical management were retrospectively collected from midwives (n=21) and women (n=189), from September to December 2013. Analysis was predominantly descriptive. A secondary analysis of iron status and body mass index (BMI) was undertaken. A total of 46% of 186 women, with hemoglobin testing at booking, did not have ferritin tested; 86% (of 385) of ferritin tests were not concurrently tested with C-reactive protein. Despite midwives prescribing iron for 48.7% of second trimester women, 47.1% still had low iron status before birth. Only 22.8% of women had hemoglobin testing postpartum. There was a significant difference between third trimester median ferritin levels in women with BMI ≥25.00 (14 μg/L) and BMI iron status was difficult to categorize, because of inconsistent testing. This study indicates the need for an evidence-based clinical guideline for New Zealand midwives and maternity care providers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Production of low-silicon molten iron from high-silica hematite using biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qing Tang∗; Xiu-feng Fu; Yan-qi Qin; Shi-yu Zhao; Qing-guo Xue

    2017-01-01

    A new method of utilizing high-silica hematite to produce low-silicon molten iron was proposed.In this method, FASTMELT, which comprised direct reduction and melt separation processes, was applied, with highly reactive biochar as the reductant in the direct reduction stage.The proposed method was ex-perimentally investigated and the results show that the method is feasible.In the direct reduction stage, ore-char briquette could achieve a metallization rate of 84%-88% and residual carbon of 0.27-0.89 mass% at temperature of 1 373 K, biochar mixing ratio of 0.8-0.9, and reduction time of 15 min.Some silica particles remained embedded in the iron phase after the reduction.In the melting separation stage, molten iron with a carbon content of 0.02-0.03 mass% and silicon content of 0.02-0.18 mass% could be obtained from the metallic briquettes under the above-mentioned conditions; the iron recovery rate was 83%-91% and impurities in the obtained metal were negligible.

  9. Mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes with the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad: recent developments in enzymology and modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; van Koten, Gerard; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2008-12-01

    Iron-containing enzymes are one of Nature's main means of effecting key biological transformations. The mononuclear non-heme iron oxygenases and oxidases have received the most attention recently, primarily because of the recent availability of crystal structures of many different enzymes and the stunningly diverse oxidative transformations that these enzymes catalyze. The wealth of available structural data has furthermore established the so-called 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad as a new common structural motif for the activation of dioxygen. This superfamily of mononuclear iron(ii) enzymes catalyzes a wide range of oxidative transformations, ranging from the cis-dihydroxylation of arenes to the biosynthesis of antibiotics such as isopenicillin and fosfomycin. The remarkable scope of oxidative transformations seems to be even broader than that associated with oxidative heme enzymes. Not only are many of these oxidative transformations of key biological importance, many of these selective oxidations are also unprecedented in synthetic organic chemistry. In this critical review, we wish to provide a concise background on the chemistry of the mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes characterized by the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad and to discuss the many recent developments in the field. New examples of enzymes with unique reactivities belonging to the superfamily have been reported. Furthermore, key insights into the intricate mechanistic details and reactive intermediates have been obtained from both enzyme and modeling studies. Sections of this review are devoted to each of these subjects, i.e. the enzymes, biomimetic models, and reactive intermediates (225 references).

  10. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  11. Bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along pipe wall in chlorinated drinking water distribution system of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Ren, Hongxing; Ye, Xianbei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lou, Liping; Cheng, Dongqing; He, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Shangde; Fu, Liusong; Hu, Baolan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms in the pipe wall may lead to water quality deterioration and biological instability in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In this study, bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along the pipe wall in a chlorinated DWDS of East China was investigated. Three pipes of large diameter (300, 600, and 600 mm) were sampled in this DWDS, including a ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP) with pipe age of 11 years and two gray cast iron pipes (GCIP) with pipe ages of 17 and 19 years, and biofilms in the upper, middle, and lower parts of each pipe wall were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture-based method were used to quantify bacteria. 454 pyrosequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that the biofilm density and total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) contents increased gradually from the top to the bottom along the pipe wall. Microorganisms were concentrated in the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, together accounting for more than 80 % of the total biomass in the biofilms. The bacterial communities in biofilms were significantly different in different areas of the pipe wall and had no strong interaction. Compared with the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, the bacterial community in the middle of the pipe wall was distributed evenly and had the highest diversity. The 16S rRNA genes of various possible pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica, were detected in the biofilms, and the abundances of these possible pathogens were highest in the middle of the pipe wall among three areas. The detachment of the biofilms is the main reason for the deterioration of the water quality in DWDSs. The results of this study suggest that the biofilms in the middle of the pipe wall have highly potential risk for drinking water safety, which provides new ideas for the study of the microbial ecology in

  12. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  13. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  14. Neuroprotection of brain-permeable iron chelator VK-28 against intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wan, Jieru; Lan, Xi; Han, Xiaoning; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Iron overload plays a key role in the secondary brain damage that develops after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The significant increase in iron deposition is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to oxidative brain damage. In this study, we examined the protective effects of VK-28, a brain-permeable iron chelator, against hemoglobin toxicity in an ex vivo organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) model and in middle-aged mice subjected to an in vivo, collagenase-induced ICH model. We found that the effects of VK-28 were similar to those of deferoxamine (DFX), a well-studied iron chelator. Both decreased cell death and ROS production in OHSCs and in vivo, decreased iron-deposition and microglial activation around hematoma in vivo, and improved neurologic function. Moreover, compared with DFX, VK-28 polarized microglia to an M2-like phenotype, reduced brain water content, deceased white matter injury, improved neurobehavioral performance, and reduced overall death rate after ICH. The protection of VK-28 was confirmed in a blood-injection ICH model and in aged-male and young female mice. Our findings indicate that VK-28 is protective against iron toxicity after ICH and that, at the dosage tested, it has better efficacy and less toxicity than DFX does.

  15. Metallic iron for safe drinking water provision: Considering a lost knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakabona, Hezron T; Ndé-Tchoupé, Arnaud Igor; Njau, Karoli N; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Wydra, Kerstin D

    2017-06-15

    Around year 1890, the technology of using metallic iron (Fe 0 ) for safe drinking water provision was already established in Europe. The science and technology to manufacture suitable Fe 0 materials were known and further developed in this period. Scientists had then developed skills to (i) explore the suitability of individual Fe 0 materials (e.g. iron filling, sponge iron) for selected applications, and (ii) establish treatment processes for households and water treatment plants. The recent (1990) discovery of Fe 0 as reactive agent for environmental remediation and water treatment has not yet considered this ancient knowledge. In the present work, some key aspects of the ancient knowledge are presented together with some contemporised interpretations, in an attempt to demonstrate the scientific truth contained therein. It appears that the ancient knowledge is an independent validation of the scientific concept that in water treatment (Fe 0 /H 2 O system) Fe 0 materials are generators of contaminant collectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemically induced dual reactive barriers for transformation of TCE and mixture of contaminants in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuhui; Yuan, Songhu; Fallahpour, Noushin; Ciblak, Ali; Howard, Joniqua; Padilla, Ingrid; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2012-11-06

    A novel reactive electrochemical flow system consisting of an iron anode and a porous cathode is proposed for the remediation of mixture of contaminants in groundwater. The system consists of a series of sequentially arranged electrodes, a perforated iron anode, a porous copper cathode followed by a mesh-type mixed metal oxide anode. The iron anode generates ferrous species and a chemically reducing environment, the porous cathode provides a reactive electrochemically reducing barrier, and the inert anode provides protons and oxygen to neutralize the system. The redox conditions of the electrolyte flowing through this system can be regulated by controlling the distribution of the electric current. Column experiments are conducted to evaluate the process and study the variables. The electrochemical reduction on a copper foam cathode produced an electrode-based reductive potential capable of reducing TCE and nitrate. Rational electrodes arrangement, longer residence time of electrolytes and higher surface area of the foam electrode improve the reductive transformation of TCE. More than 82.2% TCE removal efficiency is achieved for the case of low influent concentration (45 mA). The ferrous species produced from the iron anode not only enhance the transformation of TCE on the cathode, but also facilitates transformation of other contaminants including dichromate, selenate and arsenite. Removal efficiencies greater than 80% are achieved for these contaminants in flowing contaminated water. The overall system, comprising the electrode-based and electrolyte-based barriers, can be engineered as a versatile and integrated remedial method for a relatively wide spectrum of contaminants and their mixtures.

  17. Environmental application of millimeter-scale sponge iron (s-Fe(0)) particles (II): the effect of surface copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yongming; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Runlong; Li, Guohua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yanyan; Wei, Dongyang; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-04-28

    To enhance the catalytic reactivity of millimeter-scale particles of sponge iron (s-Fe(0)), Cu(2+) ions were deposited on the surface of s-Fe(0) using a simple direct reduction reaction, and the catalytic properties of the bimetallic system was tested for removal of rhodamine B (RhB) from an aqueous solution. The influence of Cu(0) loading, catalyst dosage, particle size, initial RhB concentration, and initial pH were investigated, and the recyclability of the catalyst was also assessed. The results demonstrate that the 3∼5 millimeter s-Fe(0) particles (s-Fe(0)(3∼5mm)) with 5wt% Cu loading gave the best results. The removal of RhB followed two-step, pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Cu(0)-s-Fe(0) showed excellent stability after five reuse cycles. Cu(0)-s-Fe(0) possesses great advantages compared to nanoscale zero-valent iron, iron power, and iron flakes as well as its bimetals. The surface Cu(0) apparently catalyzes the production of reactive hydrogen atoms for indirect reaction and generates Fe-Cu galvanic cells that enhance electron transfer for direct reaction. This bimetallic catalyst shows great potential for the pre-treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Additionally, some oxides containing iron element are selected to simulate the adsorption process. The results prove that the adsorption process of FeOOH, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 played minor role for the removal of RhB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In situ treatment of cyanide-contaminated groundwater by iron cyanide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Smith, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater contamination with cyanide is common at many former or active industrial sites. Metal-cyanide complexes typically dominate aqueous speciation of cyanide in groundwater systems, with iron-cyanide complexes often most abundant. Typically, metal-cyanide complexes behave as nonadsorbing solutes in sand-gravel aquifer systems in the neutral pH range, rendering cyanide relatively mobile in groundwater systems. Groundwater pump-and-treat systems have often been used to manage cyanide contamination in groundwater. This study examined the feasibility of using in situ precipitation of iron cyanide in a reactive barrier to attenuate the movement of cyanide in groundwater. Laboratory column experiments were performed in which cyanide solutions were passed through mixtures of sand and elemental iron filings. Removal of dissolved cyanide was evaluated in a variety of cyanide-containing influents under various flow rates and sand-to-iron weight ratios. Long-term column tests performed with various cyanide-containing influents under both oxic and anoxic conditions, at neutral pH and at flow rates typical of sand-gravel porous media, yielded effluent concentrations of total cyanide as low as 0.5 mg/L. Effluent cyanide concentrations achieved were close to the solubilities of Turnbull's blue-hydrous ferric oxide solid solutions, indicating co-precipitation of the two solids. Maximum cyanide removal efficiency was achieved with approximately 10% by weight of iron in the sand-iron mixtures; higher iron contents did not increase removal efficiency significantly. Results obtained indicate that in situ precipitation is a promising passive treatment approach for cyanide in groundwater

  19. Effect of dietary iron source and iron status on iron bioavailability tests in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Hendricks, D.G.; Mahoney, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Weanling male rats were made anemic in 7 days by feeding a low iron diet and bleeding. Healthy rats were fed the low iron diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (29 ppm Fe). Each group was subdivided and fed for 10 days on test diets containing about 29 ppm iron that were formulated with meat:spinach mixtures or meat:soy mixtures to provided 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100% of the dietary iron from these sources or from a ferrous sulfate diet. After 3 days on the diets all rats were dosed orally with 2 or 5 micro curries of 59 Fe after a 18 hour fast and refeeding for 1.5 hours. Iron status influenced liver iron, carcass iron, liver radio activity and percent of radioactive dose retained. Diet influenced fecal iron and apparent absorption of iron. In iron bioavailability studies assessment methodology and iron status of the test subject greatly influences the estimates of the value of dietary sources of iron

  20. Sphaerotilus natans, a neutrophilic iron-related filamentous bacterium : mechanisms of uranium scavenging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seder-Colomina, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and radionuclides are present in some ecosystems worldwide due to natural contaminations or anthropogenic activities. The use of microorganisms to restore those polluted ecosystems, a process known as bioremediation, is of increasing interest, especially under near-neutral pH conditions. Iron minerals encrusting neutrophilic iron-related bacteria, especially Bacterio-genic Iron Oxides (BIOS), have a poorly crystalline structure, which in addition to their large surface area and reactivity make them excellent scavengers for inorganic pollutants. In this PhD work we studied the different mechanisms of uranium scavenging by the neutrophilic bacterium Sphaerotilus natans, chosen as a model bacterium for iron-related sheath-forming filamentous microorganisms. S. natans can grow as single cells and filaments. The latter were used to investigate U(VI) bio-sorption and U(VI) sorption onto BIOS. In addition, uranium sorption onto the abiotic analogues of such iron minerals was assessed. In order to use S. natans filaments for U(VI) scavenging, it was necessary to identify factors inducing S. natans filamentation. The influence of oxygen was ascertained by using molecular biology techniques and our results revealed that while saturated oxygen conditions resulted in single cell growth, a moderate oxygen depletion to ∼ 3 mg O 2 .L -1 led to the desired filamentous growth of S. natans. BIOS attached to S. natans filaments as well as the abiotic analogues were analysed by XAS at Fe K-edge. Both materials were identified as amorphous iron(III) phosphates with a small component of Fe(II), with a high reactivity towards scavenging of inorganic pollutants. In addition, EXAFS at the U LIII-edge revealed a common structure for the O shells, while those for P, Fe and C were different for each sorbent. An integrated approach combining experimental techniques and speciation calculations made it possible to describe U(VI) adsorption isotherms by using a surface complexation

  1. THESEUS 1, FERONIA and relatives: a family of cell wall-sensing receptor kinases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alice Y; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2011-12-01

    The plant cell wall provides form and integrity to the cell as well as a dynamic interface between a cell and its environment. Therefore mechanisms capable of policing changes in the cell wall, signaling cellular responses including those that would feedback regulate cell wall properties are expected to play important roles in facilitating growth and ensuring survival. Discoveries in the last few years that the Arabidopsis THESEUS 1 receptor-like kinase (RLK) may function as a sensor for cell wall defects to regulate growth and that its relatives FERONIA and ANXURs regulate pollen tube integrity imply strongly that they play key roles in cell wall-related processes. Furthermore, FERONIA acts as a cell surface regulator for RAC/ROP GTPases and activates production of reactive oxygen species which are, respectively, important molecular switches and mediators for diverse processes. These findings position the THESEUS 1/FERONIA family RLKs as surface regulators and potential cell wall sensors capable of broadly and profoundly impacting cellular pathways in response to diverse signals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stainable hepatic iron in 341 African American adults at coroner/medical examiner autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acton Ronald T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of previous autopsy studies indicate that increased hepatic iron stores or hepatic iron overload is common in African Americans dying in hospitals, but there are no reports of hepatic iron content in other cohorts of African Americans. Methods We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls' acid ferrocyanide-reactive iron in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of 341 consecutive African American adults who were autopsied in the coroner/medical examiner office. Heavy staining was defined as grade 3 or 4 hepatocyte iron or grade 3 Kupffer cell iron. Results There were 254 men and 85 women (mean age ± 1 SD: 44 ± 13 y vs. 48 ± 14 y, respectively; p = 0.0255; gender was unstated or unknown in two subjects. Approximately one-third of subjects died of natural causes. Heavy staining was observed in 10.2% of men and 4.7% of women. 23 subjects had heavy hepatocyte staining only, six had heavy Kupffer cell staining only, and one had a mixed pattern of heavy staining. 15 subjects had histories of chronic alcoholism; three had heavy staining confined to hepatocytes. We analyzed the relationships of three continuous variables (age at death in years, hepatocyte iron grade, Kupffer cell iron grade and two categorical variables (sex, cause of death (natural and non-natural causes in all 341 subjects using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. This revealed two positive correlations: hepatocyte with Kupffer cell iron grades (p Conclusions The present results confirm and extend previous observations that heavy liver iron staining is relatively common in African Americans. The pertinence of these observations to genetic and acquired causes of iron overload in African Americans is discussed.

  3. Iron deposition is independent of cellular inflammation in a cerebral model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Phil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perivenular inflammation is a common early pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS. A recent hypothesis stated that CNS inflammation is induced by perivenular iron deposits that occur in response to altered blood flow in MS subjects. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, an animal model was developed, called cerebral experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cEAE, which presents with CNS perivascular iron deposits. This model was used to investigate the relationship of iron deposition to inflammation. Methods In order to generate cEAE, mice were given an encephalitogen injection followed by a stereotactic intracerebral injection of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Control animals received encephalitogen followed by an intracerebral injection of saline, or no encephalitogen plus an intracerebral injection of saline or cytokines. Laser Doppler was used to measure cerebral blood flow. MRI and iron histochemistry were used to localize iron deposits. Additional histological procedures were used to localize inflammatory cell infiltrates, microgliosis and astrogliosis. Results Doppler analysis revealed that cEAE mice had a reduction in cerebral blood flow compared to controls. MRI revealed T2 hypointense areas in cEAE animals that spatially correlated with iron deposition around vessels and at some sites of inflammation as detected by iron histochemistry. Vessels with associated iron deposits were distributed across both hemispheres. Mice with cEAE had more iron-labeled vessels compared to controls, but these vessels were not commonly associated with inflammatory cell infiltrates. Some iron-laden vessels had associated microgliosis that was above the background microglial response, and iron deposits were observed within reactive microglia. Vessels with associated astrogliosis were more commonly observed without colocalization of iron deposits. Conclusion The findings indicate that iron deposition around vessels can occur independently of

  4. Measurement and modification of first-wall surface composition in the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.; Emerson, L.C.; Heatherly, L.; Colchin, R.J.; Twichell, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Impurities coming into the plasma from the walls of present-day toroidal plasma confinement devices modify plasma behavior substantially. Small fractions of high-Z ions in the plasma greatly decrease plasma temperatures and increase plasma energy losses. Impurities from the ''first-wall'' in ORMAK were studied. Auger electron spectroscopy, soft x-ray appearance potential spectroscopy, and other surface sensitive techniques were used to characterize the surface composition of the first wall and to develop methods to remove carbon and oxygen. Oxygen glow discharge cleaning has been shown, in the laboratory, to be an effective way of removing carbon from gold films (simulated ORMAK linear material) and the use of oxygen discharge cleaning in ORMAK has resulted in a decrease in plasma contamination, a 50 percent increase in plasma current and an accompanying increase in plasma temperature. In spite of these improvements the walls of ORMAK are far from clean. Substantial amounts of carbon, oxygen, iron and other elements remain. (auth)

  5. Efficiency of Electrocoagulation for Removal of Reactive Yellow 14 from Aqueous Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Yaria; Mostafa Alizadeh; Sara Hashemi; Hamed Biglari

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study: Discharge of textile industry colored wastewater without enough treatment into natural water resources cause serious pollution. Most of the conventional wastewater treatment methods are not effective enough to remove these dyes from wastewater. In this study, efficiency of electrocoagulation process with iron electrodes for treatment of Reactive Yellow 14 dye from synthetic solution has been studied and concluded. Materials & Methods: This exper...

  6. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  7. Acrolein, A Reactive Product of Lipid Peroxidation, Induces Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Hoon [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein (ACR) is a well-known carbonyl toxin produced by lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In Alzheimer's brain, ACR was found to be elevated in hippocampus and temporal cortex where oxidative stress is high. In this study, we evaluated oxidative modification of cytochrome c occurring after incubation with ACR. When cytochrome c was incubated with ACR, protein aggregation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The formation of carbonyl compounds and the release of iron were obtained in ACR-treated cytochrome c. Reactive oxygen species scavengers and iron specific chelator inhibited the ACR-mediated cytochrome c modification and carbonyl compound formation. Our data demonstrate that oxidative damage of cytochrome c by ACR might induce disruption of cyotochrome c structure and iron mishandling as a contributing factor to the pathology of AD.

  8. Acrolein, A Reactive Product of Lipid Peroxidation, Induces Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein (ACR) is a well-known carbonyl toxin produced by lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In Alzheimer's brain, ACR was found to be elevated in hippocampus and temporal cortex where oxidative stress is high. In this study, we evaluated oxidative modification of cytochrome c occurring after incubation with ACR. When cytochrome c was incubated with ACR, protein aggregation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The formation of carbonyl compounds and the release of iron were obtained in ACR-treated cytochrome c. Reactive oxygen species scavengers and iron specific chelator inhibited the ACR-mediated cytochrome c modification and carbonyl compound formation. Our data demonstrate that oxidative damage of cytochrome c by ACR might induce disruption of cyotochrome c structure and iron mishandling as a contributing factor to the pathology of AD

  9. Permeable Reactive Barriers: a multidisciplinary approach of a new emerging sustainable groundwater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diels, L.; Bastiaens, L. [Vito, Mol (BL); O' Hannessin, S. [EnviroMetal Technologies Inc., Ontario (Canada); Cortina, J.L. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Enginyeria Quimica; Alvarez, P.J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa-City (United States). Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing; Ebert, M. [Christian-Albrechts Univ. Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Schad, H. [I.M.E.S. GmbH, Amtzell (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Permeable reactive barriers or zones are becoming an interesting sustainable and cost-effective technology for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater. The technology is based on chemical processes as the dehalogenating activity of zerovalent iron, biological processes in bioscreens or reactive zones and on sorption technology (e.g. heavy metal adsorption or adsorption on granular activated carbon). Three technical sessions will be devoted to this nowadays becoming mature technology. This special session intends to pay attention to the discussion about some questions related to PRBs. These include the sustainability (e.g. life time and clogging) especially for zerovalent iron barriers, the need and quality of feasibility tests, drawbacks and restrictions of PRBs. Combined with long term performance monitoring os these systems will be discussed. Further attention will be paid to cost evaluation and the relationship between zerovalent barriers and bacterial growth. Also attention will be paid to new reactive materials (e.g. activated carbon for organics and inorganic materials for heavy metals) and consequences (e.g. environmental impact). Finally the session will combine al these approaches in a discussion about combined barriers or multibarriers for treatment of mixed pollution (e.g. landfill leachates contaminated groundwater). Specialists involved in these subjects will introduce these topics and allow for a large and intensive discussion to improve future applications of this technology. (orig.)

  10. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  11. Mechanism of the reduction of hexavalent chromium by organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pingxiao; Li, Shuzhen; Ju, Liting; Zhu, Nengwu; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Ping; Dang, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles were found to be more efficient in the removal of Cr(VI) than unsupported iron nanoparticles. ► The iron nanoparticles were accommodated by the sectional structure of the clay minerals which were helpful to protect the nanoparticles from aggregating. ► XPS and XANES provided some direct information about the reduction mechanisms. ► The structure of the supported iron nanoparticles was stable in the reaction with Cr(VI). - Abstract: Iron nanoparticles exhibit greater reactivity than micro-sized Fe 0 , and they impart advantages for groundwater remediation. In this paper, supported iron nanoparticles were synthesized to further enhance the speed and efficiency of remediation. Natural montmorillonite and organo-montmorillonite were chosen as supporting materials. The capacity of supported iron nanoparticles was evaluated, compared to unsupported iron nanoparticles, for the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI). The reduction of Cr(VI) was much greater with organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles and fitted the pseudo-second order equation better. With a dose at 0.47 g/L, a total removal capacity of 106 mg Cr/g Fe 0 was obtained. Other factors that affect the efficiency of Cr(VI) removal, such as pH values, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and storage time of nanoparticles were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) were used to figure out the mechanism of the removal of Cr(VI). XPS indicated that the Cr(VI) bound to the particle surface was completely reduced to Cr(III) under a range of conditions. XANES confirmed that the Cr(VI) reacted with iron nanoparticles was completely reduced to Cr(III).

  12. Iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis in aqueous and membrane systems for oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui Minghui; Smuleac, Vasile [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (United States); Ormsbee, Lindell E. [University of Kentucky, Department of Civil Engineering (United States); Sedlak, David L. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Bhattacharyya, Dibakar, E-mail: db@engr.uky.edu [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The potential for using hydroxyl radical (OH{sup Bullet }) reactions catalyzed by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to remediate toxic organic compounds was investigated. Iron oxide NPs were synthesized by controlled oxidation of iron NPs prior to their use for contaminant oxidation (by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition) at near-neutral pH values. Cross-linked polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes were prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid inside the membrane pores. Iron and iron oxide NPs (80-100 nm) were directly synthesized in the polymer matrix of PAA/PVDF membranes, which prevented the agglomeration of particles and controlled the particle size. The conversion of iron to iron oxide in aqueous solution with air oxidation was studied based on X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and BET surface area test methods. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was selected as the model contaminant because of its environmental importance. Degradations of TCE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by NP surface generated OH{sup Bullet} were investigated. Depending on the ratio of iron and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, TCE conversions as high as 100 % (with about 91 % dechlorination) were obtained. TCE dechlorination was also achieved in real groundwater samples with the reactive membranes.

  13. Iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis in aqueous and membrane systems for oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Minghui; Smuleac, Vasile; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Sedlak, David L.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2012-01-01

    The potential for using hydroxyl radical (OH • ) reactions catalyzed by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to remediate toxic organic compounds was investigated. Iron oxide NPs were synthesized by controlled oxidation of iron NPs prior to their use for contaminant oxidation (by H 2 O 2 addition) at near-neutral pH values. Cross-linked polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes were prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid inside the membrane pores. Iron and iron oxide NPs (80–100 nm) were directly synthesized in the polymer matrix of PAA/PVDF membranes, which prevented the agglomeration of particles and controlled the particle size. The conversion of iron to iron oxide in aqueous solution with air oxidation was studied based on X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and BET surface area test methods. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was selected as the model contaminant because of its environmental importance. Degradations of TCE and H 2 O 2 by NP surface generated OH • were investigated. Depending on the ratio of iron and H 2 O 2 , TCE conversions as high as 100 % (with about 91 % dechlorination) were obtained. TCE dechlorination was also achieved in real groundwater samples with the reactive membranes.

  14. An iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic study of titania-supported iron- and iron-iridium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Jobson, S.

    1992-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that titania-supported iron is reduced by treatment in hydrogen at significantly lower temperatures than corresponding silica- and alumina-supported catalysts. The metallic iron formed under hydrogen at 600deg C is partially converted to carbide by treatment in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In contrast to its alumina- and silica-supported counterparts, the remainder of the titania-supported iron is unchanged by this gaseous mixture. The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of EXAFS show that iron and iridium in the titania-supported iron-iridium catalysts are reduced in hydrogen at even lower temperatures and, after treatment at 600deg C, are predominantly present as the iron-iridium alloy. The treatment of these reduced catalysts in carbon monoxide and hydrogen is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy and EXAFS to induce the segregation of iron from the iron-iridium alloy and its conversion to iron oxide. (orig.)

  15. Mercury mobilization and speciation linked to bacterial iron oxide and sulfate reduction: A column study to mimic reactive transfer in an anoxic aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellal, Jennifer; Guédron, Stéphane; Huguet, Lucie; Schäfer, Jörg; Laperche, Valérie; Joulian, Catherine; Lanceleur, Laurent; Burnol, André; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe; Garrido, Francis; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne

    2015-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) mobility and speciation in subsurface aquifers is directly linked to its surrounding geochemical and microbial environment. The role of bacteria on Hg speciation (i.e., methylation, demethylation and reduction) is well documented, however little data is available on their impact on Hg mobility. The aim of this study was to test if (i) Hg mobility is due to either direct iron oxide reduction by iron reducing bacteria (IRB) or indirect iron reduction by sulfide produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), and (ii) to investigate its subsequent fate and speciation. Experiments were carried out in an original column setup combining geochemical and microbiological approaches that mimic an aquifer including an interface of iron-rich and iron depleted zones. Two identical glass columns containing iron oxides spiked with Hg(II) were submitted to (i) direct iron reduction by IRB and (ii) to indirect iron reduction by sulfides produced by SRB. Results show that in both columns Hg was leached and methylated during the height of bacterial activity. In the column where IRB are dominant, Hg methylation and leaching from the column was directly correlated to bacterial iron reduction (i.e., Fe(II) release). In opposition, when SRB are dominant, produced sulfide induced indirect iron oxide reduction and rapid adsorption of leached Hg (or produced methylmercury) on neoformed iron sulfides (e.g., Mackinawite) or its precipitation as HgS. At the end of the SRB column experiment, when iron-oxide reduction was complete, filtered Hg and Fe concentrations increased at the outlet suggesting a leaching of Hg bound to FeS colloids that may be a dominant mechanism of Hg transport in aquifer environments. These experimental results highlight different biogeochemical mechanisms that can occur in stratified sub-surface aquifers where bacterial activities play a major role on Hg mobility and changes in speciation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface carbon influences on the reductive transformation of TCE in the presence of granular iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, R; Devlin, J F

    2018-04-05

    To gain insight into the processes of transformations in zero-valent iron systems, electrolytic iron (EI) has been used as a surrogate for the commercial products actually used in barriers. This substitution facilitates mechanistic studies, but may not be fully representative of all the relevant processes at work in groundwater remediation. To address this concern, the kinetic iron model (KIM) was used to investigate sorption and reactivity differences between EI and Connelly brand GI, using TCE as a probe compound. It was observed that retardation factors (R app ) for GI varied non-linearly with influent concentrations to the columns (C o ), and declined significantly as GI aged. In contrast, R app values for EI were small and insensitive to C o , and changed minimally with iron aging. Moreover, although declines in the rate constants (k) and increases in the sorption coefficients were observed for both iron types, they were most pronounced in the case of EI. SEM scans of the EI surface before and after aging (90 days) established the appearance of carbon on the older surface. This work provides evidence that iron with a higher surface carbon content outperforms pure iron, suggesting that the carbon is actively involved in promoting TCE reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J.; Adams, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to open-quotes activateclose quotes the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers

  18. Iron-catalyzed oxidative biaryl cross-couplings via mixed diaryl titanates: significant influence of the order of combining aryl Grignard reagents with titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun Ming; Wei, Juan; Duan, Xin Fang

    2015-03-18

    The mixed diaryl titanates were used for the first time to modify the reactivity of two aryl Grignard reagents. Two titanate intermediates, Ar[Ar'Ti(OR)3]MgX and Ar'[ArTi(OR)3]MgX, formed via alternating the sequence of combining Grignard reagents with ClTi(OR)3 showed a significant reactivity difference. Taking advantage of such different reactivity, two highly structurally similar aryl groups could be facilely assembled through iron-catalyzed oxidative cross-couplings using oxygen as the oxidant.

  19. Arene activation by a nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex: pathways leading to phenol and ketone products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faponle, Abayomi S; Banse, Frédéric; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-07-01

    Iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes are found in various nonheme iron enzymes as catalytic cycle intermediates; however, little is known on their catalytic properties. The recent work of Banse and co-workers on a biomimetic nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex provided evidence of its involvement in reactivity with arenes. This contrasts the behavior of heme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes that are known to be sluggish oxidants. To gain insight into the reaction mechanism of the biomimetic iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex with arenes, we performed a computational (density functional theory) study. The calculations show that iron(III)-hydroperoxo reacts with substrates via low free energies of activation that should be accessible at room temperature. Moreover, a dominant ketone reaction product is observed as primary products rather than the thermodynamically more stable phenols. These product distributions are analyzed and the calculations show that charge interaction between the iron(III)-hydroxo group and the substrate in the intermediate state pushes the transferring proton to the meta-carbon atom of the substrate and guides the selectivity of ketone formation. These studies show that the relative ratio of ketone versus phenol as primary products can be affected by external interactions of the oxidant with the substrate. Moreover, iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes are shown to selectively give ketone products, whereas iron(IV)-oxo complexes will react with arenes to form phenols instead.

  20. Gold, iron and manganese in central Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Scarpelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Greenstone belts with deposits of gold, iron and manganese are common in the Paleoproterozoic Maroni-Itacaiunas Tectonic Province of the Guiana Shield. In Brazil, in the State of Amapá and northwest of Pará, they are represented by the Vila Nova Group, constituted by a basal unit of metabasalts, covered by metasediments of clastic and chemical origin. The basal metasediments, the Serra do Navio Formation, are made of a cyclothem with lenses of manganese marbles at the top of each cycle. Under the intense weathering of the Amazon, these lenses were oxidized to large deposits of high-grade manganese oxides. The exploitation of these oxides left behind the manganese carbonates and low-grade oxides. The overlaying Serra da Canga Formation presents a calcium and magnesium domain grading to an iron domain with banded silicate and oxide iron formations, mined for iron ores. Overlapping structures and superposed metamorphic crystallizations indicate two phases of dynamothermal metamorphism, the first one with axis to north-northeast and the second one to northwest, with an intermediate phase of thermal metamorphism related to syntectonic granitic intrusions. Shears oriented north-south, possibly formed during the first dynamothermal metamorphism and reactivated in the second, are ideal sites for hydrothermalism and gold mineralization, which is greater when occurs in iron formation and carbonate-bearing rocks, as it happened at the Tucano mine. Layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the greenstones represent a potential for chromite and platinum group elements. Pegmatites are source of cassiterite and tantalite exploited from alluvial deposits.

  1. Field-based landslide risk of deep-seated landslides reactivating based on changes in infrastructure: an example from Kelso, Washington, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Large, deep-seated landslides always have the potential to reactivate in the future - generally locally and not the whole slide. How does one determine if one of these large landslides has reactivated if there are houses on it? In April of 2014 a 25 year old house was investigated to see if it was creeping on an ancient landslide near Kelso, Washington. In 1998 we had worked on nearby prehistoric slides to determine if they had reactivated. We developed a list of 17 points to investigate on a lot and in a house that showed that stress was causing movement. Inside the house we checked for: propagation of cracks in the walls, nails popping out of the walls, bulging walls, separation of internal and external chimney from walls, creaking and popping noises in the house, light switches coming out of the walls, doors and windows that are hard to shut, twisted ceiling and floor beams, cracks in concrete floors, and water seeping into the basement. On the lot outside we looked for changes in surface water drainage, bulges in retaining walls, scarps developing in the soils, pistol butt trees, and broken sewage and water lines. A stable site is defined as a site having none of the above characteristics. Slight movement is defined as having 1-5 of the above characteristics. Moderate movement is from 6 to 10 and considerable movement is from 11+. The house we investigated had a score of 14 - definitely was moving! It had had two electrical fires in the past year from severed electrical wires. We recommend that areas of slight movement be monitored, and lots with moderate to considerable movement to be dewatered to slow the movement. If engineering geologists know that movement has started early enough, proper mitigation can be installed that might stop the movement and save the homes.

  2. Characterization of graded iron / tungsten layers for the first wall of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear fusion has great potential to enable a CO 2 -neutral energy supply of future generations. The technical utilization of this energy source has hitherto been a challenge. In particular, high thermal loads and neutron-induced damage lead to extreme demands on the choice of materials for plasma-facing components (PFCs). These are therefore, as currently understood, made from a tungsten protective layer which is joined to a structure of low activation ferritic-martensitic (LAFM) steel. Due to the discrete transition of material properties at the LAFM-W joining zone as well as thermal loads, macroscopic stresses and plastic strains arise here. A feasible way to reduce this is to implement an intermediate layer with graded LAFM / W ratio, a so-called functional graded material (FGM). In the present work, macro-stresses and strains in the first wall of the fusion reactor DEMO are examined and evaluated by means of a finite element simulation. In this framework model components with and without graded interlayer are taken into account and the advantage of a FGM is emphasized. Parameter studies serve as a constructive guideline for the structural implementation of FGMs and components of the first wall. In addition, the feasibility of four methods (magnetron sputtering, liquid phase infiltration, modified atmospheric plasma spraying and electrodischarge sintering) with respect to the fabrication of FGMs is being studied. The resulting layers are microstructurally, thermo-physically and mechanically examined in detail. Based on this characterization and the finite element simulation, their suitability as a graded layer in the first wall of DEMO is evaluated and finally compared with alternative joining systems that are currently being tested in the research environment. [de

  3. Iron Homeostasis in Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Tringe, S. G.; Franklin, H.; Bryant, D. A.; Klatt, C. G.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that life may have originated on Earth, and possibly on Mars, in association with hydrothermal activity and high concentrations of ferrous iron. However, it is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to microbes, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, the study of microbial diversity in iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) and the mechanisms of iron homeostasis and suppression of oxidative stress may help elucidate how Precambrian organisms could withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe(2+) and O2. Proteins and clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis found in cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting environments with high and low [Fe] were main target of this analysis. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that the Chocolate Pots (CP) microbial community is heavily dominated by phototrophs from the cyanobacteria (CB), Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla, while the Mushroom Spring (MS) effluent channel harbors a more diverse community in which Chloroflexi are the dominant phototrophs. It is speculated that CB inhabiting IDHS have an increased tolerance to both high concentrations of Fe(2+) and ROS produced in the Fenton reaction. This hypothesis was explored via a comparative analysis of the diversity of proteins and COGs involved in Fe and redox homeostasis in the CP and MS microbiomes.

  4. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane El Menchawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N=195, aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT milk and the fortified group received (FG daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 9 months (T9. Hemoglobin (Hb was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p=0.037. Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%; more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.

  5. An intracranial aspergilloma with low signal on T2-weighted images corresponding to iron accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States); Zoarski, G.H.; Rothman, M.I.; Zagardo, M.T. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States); Nishimura, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Sun, C.C.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States)

    2001-07-01

    We present a case of cerebral aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. The MRI signal characteristics were compared with the histologic findings. Irregular low-signal zones were demonstrated between the wall of the abscess and the central necrosis on T2-weighted images; the pathology specimen revealed concentrated iron in these transitional zones but no hemosiderin. Iron is an essential element for the growth of fungal hyphae. The low-signal zones may represent the areas where there was active proliferation of aspergillus, and the unique location of the low signal may be a helpful imaging characteristic for the diagnosis of an aspergillus abscess. (orig.)

  6. Catalytic properties of extraframework iron-containing species in ZSM-5 for N2O decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Pidko, E.A.; Filot, I.A.W.; Santen, van R.A.; Li, Can; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of mononuclear and binuclear iron-containing complexes in ZSM-5 zeolite for catalytic N2O decomposition has been investigated by periodic DFT calculations and microkinetic modeling. On mononuclear sites, the activation of a first N2O molecule is favorable. The rate of catalytic N2O

  7. No association between iron status and self-reported health-related quality of life in 16,375 Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas S; Pedersen, Ole B; Sørensen, Cecilie J

    2015-01-01

    mass index, smoking status, C-reactive protein levels, number of donations in the previous 3 years, and PCS and MCS, were available for 8692 men and 7683 women enrolled from March 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. Multivariable linear and logistic (cutoff at the 10th percentile) regression analyses were...... used to assess the relationship between iron deficiency (ferritin women. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between iron deficiency and self-reported mental or physical health. CONCLUSION: This study...

  8. Zinc and iron status during pregnancy of Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nynke; Romano, Aurora B Ampong; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2002-01-01

    Low birthweight is associated with maternal anaemia and, in some circumstances, with low iron and zinc status, but this relationship has not been investigated in the Philippines. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of anaemia and suboptimal iron and zinc status in pregnant women from three geographical regions (mountain, coast, city) of Zamboanga del Sur province at 24 weeks (n = 305). and again at 36 weeks (n = 127), gestation. At 24 weeks, 34% were anaemic (i.e., haemoglobin values (i.e., 11 x 10(9)/L; 19%) and serum C-reactive protein (> 15 mg/L; 3%). Of the women surveyed, 20% were iron depleted but not anaemic, and 15% were zinc deficient (i.e., serum zinc values at 24 weeks gestation had infants with lower birthweights than those with values > or = 105 g/L and > or = 7.1 micromol/L, respectively. However, in the multivariate model, the contribution of maternal haemoglobin to the variance in birthweight at 24 weeks gestation was non-significant, although modest for serum zinc. Anaemia and/or suboptimal zinc status during pregnancy may be related to low birthweight in the Philippines, and their aetiology deserves further study.

  9. Role of Sulfhydryl Sites on Bacterial Cell Walls in the Biosorption, Mobility and Bioavailability of Mercury and Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myneni, Satish C. B. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geosciences; Fein, Jeremy [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Mishra, Bhoopesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Bacteria are ubiquitous in a wide-range of low temperature aqueous systems, and can strongly affect the distribution and transport of metals and radionuclides in the environment. However, the role of metal adsorption onto bacteria, via the reactive cell wall functional groups, has been largely overlooked. Previous macroscale metal sorption, and XAS studies have shown that carboxyl and phosphoryl functional groups to be the important metal binding groups on bacterial cell walls and the sulfhydryl groups were not considered. The goal of our investigation was to evaluate the density of the sulfhydryl sites on different bacterial cell membranes that are common to soil systems, the binding affinities of these reactive groups towards Hg, and how this binding modifies the speciation of Hg in the natural waters.

  10. Cellular Studies with UVA Radiation: A Role for Iron (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, R.M.; Pourzand, C.A.; Brown, J.; Hejmadi, V.; Kvam, V.; Ryter, S.; Watkin, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The UVA (320-380 nm) component of sunlight or sunbeds acts as an oxidising carcinogen and has been clearly implicated in skin cancer. Since UVA radiation interacts with cells by generating active oxygen species, the damaging effects of this radiation will be exacerbated by the presence of catalytically reactive iron in cells. It has now been shown by two independent techniques (dequenching of metal-quenched calcein fluorescence in cells and changes in the binding activity of the iron responsive protein IRPI) that UVA radiation causes an immediate release of 'free' iron in human skin fibroblasts via the proteolysis of ferritin (Ft). Within minutes of exposure to a range of doses of UVA at natural exposure levels, the binding activity of IRP-1, as well as Ft levels, decrease in a dose-dependent manner. It is proposed that the oxidative damage to lysosomes that leads to Ft degradation and the consequent release of potentially harmful 'free' iron to the cytosol might be a major factor in UVA-induced damage to the skin. UVA radiation also breaks down heme-containing proteins in the microsomal membrane to release free heme as an additional photosensitising component. This will provide another source of enhanced free iron in skin cells since constitutive heme oxygenase 2 (in keratinocytes) and UVA-inducible heme oxygenase-1 (in fibroblasts) are likely to break down any free heme to biliverdin and release iron and carbon monoxide in the process. It is postulated that, in skin fibroblasts, this free heme release and the enhanced free iron pools will lead to an adaptive response involving heme oxygenase (with a maximum about 10 h) and ferritin (in 24-48 h) that will scavenge the heme and iron released by subsequent oxidising (UVA) treatments. (author)

  11. Effect of an acute iron overdose on PMN cells chemiluminescence and indices of inner environment in a swine model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, M.; Lojek, Antonín; Polášková, J.; Ficek, R.; Hiemer, J.; Drábek, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 4 (2006), s. 523-532 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : iron dextran * reactive oxygen species * antioxidant Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.624, year: 2006

  12. SUBCHRONIC PULMONARY PATHOLOGY, IRON-OVERLOAD AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY AFTER LIBBY AMPHIBOLE EXPOSURE IN RAT MODELS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Surface-available iron (Fe) is proposed to contribute to asbestos-induced toxicity through the production of reactive oxygen species.Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that rat models of cardiovascular disease with coexistent Fe overload would be incre...

  13. Evaluación de proteína C reactiva, velocidad de sedimentación globular, reticulocitos y ancho de distribución eritrocitaria, en niños menores de 5 años con anemia por déficit de hierro, en Cumaná, Venezuela | Evaluation of C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, reticulocytes and erithrocyte distribution width, in children under 5 years old with iron deficiency anemia, in Cumaná, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Hannaoui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate C-reactive protein, rate of globular sedimentation, reticulocytes and erythrocyte distribution width, in infants with iron deficiency anemia, 114 children of both genders were studied, aged 0 to 5 years, who attended the pediatric consultation of three health centers in the city of Cumana, Sucre state. The infants were divided into three groups: 35 apparently healthy children formed the control group, 59 children enrolled in iron deficiency anemia and 20 children with anemia from other causes. Each infant was determined the levels of serum iron, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin, hematocrit, hematimetric indices (MCHC and MCV, red cell distribution width (ADE, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and percentage reticulocyte. An ANOVA statistical analysis was applied to determine possible differences between the evaluated parameters. There were highly significant differences in the levels of iron, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, MCV and ADE among the three groups studied; while ferritin variables, reticulocytes, CRP and ESR showed no significant differences among these groups. The results allow to conclude that the determination of iron and hematological parameters are useful tools for diagnosis and for monitoring patients with iron deficiency anemia. It is recommended that the ADE be included within the profile of exams for such patients in order to assess the degree of anisocitosis in iron deficiency anemia, and thus lead doctors to a quick and accurate diagnosis as quickly as possible.

  14. Longitudinal Analysis of the Interaction Between Obesity and Pregnancy on Iron Homeostasis: Role of Hepcidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia; Montalvo-Velarde, Irene; Vital-Reyes, Victor Saul; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; López-Alarcón, Mardia

    2016-10-01

    When pregnancy occurs in obese women, two opposite mechanisms for iron homeostasis concur: increased need for available iron to support erythropoiesis and decreased iron mobilization from diets and stores due to obesity-related inflammation linked to overexpressed hepcidin. Few studies have examined the role of hepcidin on maternal iron homeostasis in the context of obese pregnancy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of maternal obesity and pregnancy on hepcidin and maternal iron status while accounting for inflammation and iron supplementation. We conducted a secondary analysis of a cohort of pregnant women recruited from a referral obstetric hospital in Mexico City. Circulating biomarkers of iron status (hepcidin, ferritin [SF], transferrin receptor [sTfR], erythropoietin [EPO]), and inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], tumor necrosis factor-[TNF]α, and interleukin-[IL]6) were determined monthly throughout pregnancy. Repeated measures ANOVA and logistic regression models were used for statistics. Twenty-three obese (Ob) and 25 lean (Lc) women were studied. SF and hepcidin declined, and EPO and sTfR increased throughout pregnancy in both groups. sTfR increased more in Ob than in Lc (p = 0.024). The smallest hepcidin decline occurred in iron-supplemented Ob women compared to non-supplemented Lc women (p = 0.022). The risk for iron deficiency at the end of pregnancy was higher for Ob than for Lc (OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 2.07-9.58) after adjusting for iron supplementation and hepcidin concentration. Pre-gestational obesity increases the risk of maternal iron deficiency despite iron supplementation. Overexpressed hepcidin appears to be a potential mechanism. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell wall integrity signaling in plants: "To grow or not to grow that's the question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voxeur, Aline; Höfte, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Plants, like yeast, have the ability to monitor alterations in the cell wall architecture that occur during normal growth or in changing environments and to trigger compensatory changes in the cell wall. We discuss how recent advances in our understanding of the cell wall architecture provide new insights into the role of cell wall integrity sensing in growth control. Next we review the properties of membrane receptor-like kinases that have roles in pH control, mechano-sensing and reactive oxygen species accumulation in growing cells and which may be the plant equivalents of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) sensors. Finally, we discuss recent findings showing an increasing role for CWI signaling in plant immunity and the adaptation to changes in the ionic environment of plant cells. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Silencing of Iron and Heme-Related Genes Revealed a Paramount Role of Iron in the Physiology of the Hematophagous Vector Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Walter-Nuno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes. We observed that blood-meal modulates the expression of ferritin, Iron Responsive protein (IRP, Heme Oxygenase (HO and the heme exporter Feline Leukemia Virus C Receptor (FLVCR, components of major pathways involved in the regulation of iron and heme metabolism, particularly in the posterior midgut (PM, where an intense release of free heme occurs during the course of digestion. Knockdown of these genes impacted the survival of nymphs and adults, as well as molting, oogenesis and embryogenesis at different rates and time-courses. The silencing of FLVCR caused the highest levels of mortality in nymphs and adults and reduced nymph molting. The oogenesis was mildly affected by the diminished expression of all of the genes whereas embryogenesis was dramatically impaired by the knockdown of ferritin expression. Furthermore, an intense production of ROS in the midgut of blood-fed insects occurs when the expression of ferritin, but not HO, was inhibited. In this manner, the degradation of dietary heme inside the enterocytes may represent an oxidative challenge that is counteracted by ferritins, conferring to this protein a major antioxidant role. Taken together these results demonstrate that the regulation of iron and heme metabolism is of paramount importance for R. prolixus physiology and imbalances in the levels of

  17. Higher iron bioavailability of a human-like collagen iron complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Yang, Fan; Fan, Daidi; Wang, Ya; Yu, Yuanyuan

    2017-07-01

    Iron deficiency remains a public health problem around the world due to low iron intake and/or bioavailability. FeSO 4 , ferrous succinate, and ferrous glycinate chelate are rich in iron but have poor bioavailability. To solve the problem of iron deficiency, following previous research studies, a thiolated human-like collagen-ironcomplex supplement with a high iron content was prepared in an anaerobic workstation. In addition, cell viability tests were evaluated after conducting an MTT assay, and a quantitative analysis of the thiolated human-like collagen-iron digesta samples was performed using the SDS-PAGE method coupled with gel filtration chromatography. The iron bioavailability was assessed using Caco-2 cell monolayers and iron-deficiency anemia mice models. The results showed that (1) one mole of thiolated human-like collagen-iron possessed approximately 35.34 moles of iron; (2) thiolated human-like collagen-iron did not exhibit cytotoxity and (3) thiolated human-like collagen- iron digesta samples had higher bioavailability than other iron supplements, including FeSO 4 , ferrous succinate, ferrous glycine chelate and thiolated human-like collagen-Fe iron. Finally, the iron bioavailability was significantly enhanced by vitamin C. These results indicated that thiolated human-like collagen-iron is a promising iron supplement for use in the future.

  18. Toxicology Study of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Human Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Waseem; Shafiee, Hadi; Velasco, Vanessa; Sah, Vasu R; Guo, Shirui; El Assal, Rami; Inci, Fatih; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; Jahangir, Muntasir; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-08-19

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that the presence of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) and reduced graphene oxide at concentrations of 1-25 μg/mL do not affect sperm viability. However, SWCNT-COOH generate significant reactive superoxide species at a higher concentration (25 μg/mL), while reduced graphene oxide does not initiate reactive species in human sperm. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to these nanomaterials does not hinder the sperm sorting process, and microfluidic sorting systems can select the sperm that show low oxidative stress post-exposure.

  19. Toxicology Study of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Human Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Waseem; Shafiee, Hadi; Velasco, Vanessa; Sah, Vasu R.; Guo, Shirui; El Assal, Rami; Inci, Fatih; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; Jahangir, Muntasir; Anchan, Raymond M.; Mutter, George L.; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-08-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that the presence of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) and reduced graphene oxide at concentrations of 1-25 μg/mL do not affect sperm viability. However, SWCNT-COOH generate significant reactive superoxide species at a higher concentration (25 μg/mL), while reduced graphene oxide does not initiate reactive species in human sperm. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to these nanomaterials does not hinder the sperm sorting process, and microfluidic sorting systems can select the sperm that show low oxidative stress post-exposure.

  20. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Nunes Horta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron.

  1. Role of phenolics from Spondias pinnata bark in amelioration of iron overload induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2016-07-26

    Crude Spondias pinnata bark extract was previously assessed for its antioxidant, anticancer and iron chelating potentials. The isolated compounds gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) were evaluated for their curative potential against iron overload-induced liver fibrosis and hepatocellular damage. In vitro iron chelation property and in vivo ameliorating potential from iron overload induced liver toxicity of GA and MG was assessed by different biochemical assays and histopathological studies. MG and GA demonstrated excellent reducing power activities but iron chelation potential of MG is better than GA. Oral MG treatment in mice displayed excellent efficacy (better than GA) to significantly restore the levels of liver antioxidants, serum markers and cellular reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent fashion. Apart from these, MG exceptionally prevented lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation whereas GA demonstrated better activity to reduce collagen content, thereby strengthening its position as an efficient drug against hepatic damage/fibrosis, which was further supported by histopathological studies. Alongside, MG efficiently eliminated the cause of liver damage, i.e., excess iron, by chelating free iron and reducing the ferritin-bound iron. The present study confirmed the curative effect of GA and MG against iron overload hepatic damage via their potent antioxidant and iron-chelating potential.

  2. Mechanism of the reduction of hexavalent chromium by organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Shuzhen [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, Guangdong Province 529020 (China); Ju, Liting [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Nengwu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions (China); Wu, Jinhua; Li, Ping [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Dang, Zhi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles were found to be more efficient in the removal of Cr(VI) than unsupported iron nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The iron nanoparticles were accommodated by the sectional structure of the clay minerals which were helpful to protect the nanoparticles from aggregating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS and XANES provided some direct information about the reduction mechanisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of the supported iron nanoparticles was stable in the reaction with Cr(VI). - Abstract: Iron nanoparticles exhibit greater reactivity than micro-sized Fe{sup 0}, and they impart advantages for groundwater remediation. In this paper, supported iron nanoparticles were synthesized to further enhance the speed and efficiency of remediation. Natural montmorillonite and organo-montmorillonite were chosen as supporting materials. The capacity of supported iron nanoparticles was evaluated, compared to unsupported iron nanoparticles, for the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI). The reduction of Cr(VI) was much greater with organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles and fitted the pseudo-second order equation better. With a dose at 0.47 g/L, a total removal capacity of 106 mg Cr/g Fe{sup 0} was obtained. Other factors that affect the efficiency of Cr(VI) removal, such as pH values, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and storage time of nanoparticles were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) were used to figure out the mechanism of the removal of Cr(VI). XPS indicated that the Cr(VI) bound to the particle surface was completely reduced to Cr(III) under a range of conditions. XANES confirmed that the Cr(VI) reacted with iron nanoparticles was completely reduced to Cr(III).

  3. The treatment of iron deficiency without anaemia (in otherwise healthy persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénin, German E

    2017-06-21

    Iron deficiency is the most widespread and frequent nutritional disorder in the world. It affects a high proportion of children and women in developing countries and is also significantly prevalent in the industrialised world, with a clear predominance in adolescents and menstruating females. Iron is essential for optimal cognitive function and physical performance, not only as a binding site of oxygen but also as a critical constituent of many enzymes. Therefore iron deficiency at all its levels - nonanaemic iron deficiency, iron deficiency with microcytosis or hypochromia and iron deficiency anaemia - should be treated. In the presence of normal stores, however, preventative iron administration is inefficient, has side effects and seems to be harmful. In symptomatic patients with fatigue or in a population at risk for iron deficiency (adolescence, heavy or prolonged menstruation, high performance sport, vegetarian or vegan diet, eating disorder, underweight), a baseline set of blood tests including haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes and serum ferritin levels are important to monitor iron deficiency. To avoid false negative results (high ferritin levels in spite of iron deficiency), an acute phase reaction should be excluded by history and measurement of C-reactive protein. An algorithm leads through this diagnostic process and the decision making for a possible treatment. For healthy males and females aged >15 years, a ferritin cut-off of 30 µg/l is appropriate. For children from 6-12 years and younger adolescents from 12-15 years, cut-offs of 15 and 20 µg/l, respectively, are recommended. As a first step in treatment, counselling and oral iron therapy are usually combined. Integrating haem and free iron regularly into the diet, looking for enhancers and avoiding inhibitors of iron uptake is beneficial. In order to prevent reduced compliance, mainly as a result of

  4. Increase of the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO by Carbon and Iron Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Tryba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of TiO2 by doping of a residue carbon and iron can give enhanced photoactivity of TiO2. Iron adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 can be an electron or hole scavenger and results in the improvement of the separation of free carriers. The presence of carbon can increase the concentration of organic pollutants on the surface of TiO2 facilitating the contact of the reactive species with the organic molecules. Carbon-doped TiO2 can extend the absorption of the light to the visible region and makes the photocatalysts active under visible-light irradiation. It was proved that TiO2 modified by carbon and iron can work in both photocatalysis and photo-Fenton processes, when H2O2 is used, enhancing markedly the rate of the organic compounds decomposition such as phenol, humic acids and dyes. The photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds on TiO2 modified by iron and carbon is going by the complex reactions of iron with the intermediates, what significantly accelerate the process of their decomposition. The presence of carbon in such photocatalyst retards the inconvenient reaction of OH radicals scavenging by H2O2, which occurs when Fe-TiO2 photocatalyst is used.

  5. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  6. A cascade of iron-containing proteins governs the genetic iron starvation response to promote iron uptake and inhibit iron storage in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Encinar del Dedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters.

  7. The interplay between iron accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation during the execution step of neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Urrutia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing set of observations points to mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, oxidative damage and chronic inflammation as common pathognomonic signs of a number of neurodegenerative diseases that includes Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedrich’s ataxia and Parkinson’s disease. Particularly relevant for neurodegenerative processes is the relationship between mitochondria and iron. The mitochondrion upholds the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and heme, the most abundant iron-containing prosthetic groups in a large variety of proteins, so a fraction of incoming iron must go through this organelle before reaching its final destination. In turn, the mitochondrial respiratory chain is the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS derived from leaks in the electron transport chain. The co-existence of both iron and ROS in the secluded space of the mitochondrion makes this organelle particularly prone to hydroxyl radical-mediated damage. In addition, a connection between the loss of iron homeostasis and inflammation is starting to emerge; thus, inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha and IL-6 induce the synthesis of the divalent metal transporter 1 and promote iron accumulation in neurons and microglia. Here, we review the recent literature on mitochondrial iron homeostasis and the role of inflammation on mitochondria dysfunction and iron accumulation on the neurodegenerative process that lead to cell death in Parkinson’s disease. We also put forward the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation and inflammation are part of a synergistic self-feeding cycle that ends in apoptotic cell death, once the antioxidant cellular defense systems are finally overwhelmed.

  8. Mono- and binuclear non-heme iron chemistry from a theoretical perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokob, T. A.; Chalupský, Jakub; Bím, Daniel; Andrikopoulos, Prokopis C.; Srnec, Martin; Rulíšek, Lubomír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, 5/6 (2016), s. 619-644 ISSN 0949-8257 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-10279Y; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31419S; GA ČR GA15-19143S Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1305 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : non-heme iron * density functional theory * multireference methods * dioxygen activation * reactivity Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2016

  9. Oxygen reduction reaction at MWCNT-modified nanoscale iron(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine: remarkable performance over platinum and tolerance toward methanol in alkaline medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fashedemi, OO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A nanoscale iron(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine (nanoFeTSPc) catalyst obtained by co-ordinating with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and subsequently anchored onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been...

  10. Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for iron supplementation. Emerging evidence from both animal and population-based studies, however, has raised potential concerns because significant associations have been observed between greater iron stores and disturbances in glucose metabolism, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes among nonpregnant individuals. Yet, the evidence is uncertain regarding the role of iron in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a c