Sample records for reaction researchers define

  1. Research misconduct oversight: defining case costs.

    Gammon, Elizabeth; Franzini, Luisa


    This study uses a sequential mixed method study design to define cost elements of research misconduct among faculty at academic medical centers. Using time driven activity based costing, the model estimates a per case cost for 17 cases of research misconduct reported by the Office of Research Integrity for the period of 2000-2005. Per case cost of research misconduct was found to range from $116,160 to $2,192,620. Research misconduct cost drivers are identified.

  2. Defining the primary research question in veterinary clinical studies.

    Giuffrida, Michelle A


    A thoughtful, clearly defined research question should be the foundation of any clinical trial or research study. The research question helps determine key study methods, and defining a specific research question helps avoid problems with inadequate sample size, inappropriate design, or multiple statistical comparisons. Rationales and strategies for formulating research questions and using them to define study protocols are discussed, with a focus on application in clinical trials.

  3. Research Network of Tehran Defined Population: Methodology and Establishment

    Ali-Asghar Kolahi


    Full Text Available Background: We need a defined population for determining prevalence and incidence of diseases, as well as conducting interventional, cohort and longitudinal studies, calculating correct and timely public health indicators, assessing actual health needs of community, performing educational programs and interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, and enhancing quality of primary health services.The objective of this project was to determine a defined population which is representative of Tehran, the Capital of Iran. This article reports the methodology and establishment of the research network of Tehran defined population.Methods: This project started by selecting two urban health centers from each of the five district health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Inside each selected urban health center, one defined population research station was established. Two new centers have been added during 2013 and 2014. For the time being, the number of the covered population of the network has reached 40000 individuals. The most important criterion for the defined population has been to be representative of the population of Tehran. For this, we selected two urban health centers from 12 of 22 municipality districts and from each of the five different socioeconomic of Greater Tehran. Merely 80000 individuals in neighborhoods of each defined population research station were considered as control group of the project.Findings: Totally we selected 12 defined population research stations and their under-covered population developed a defined population which is representative of Tehran population.Conclusion: a population lab is ready now in metropolitan of Tehran.

  4. Defining infidelity in research and couple counseling: a qualitative study.

    Moller, Naomi P; Vossler, Andreas


    Infidelity can destroy relationships, but there is long-standing debate in the field about how best to define the construct. A clear definition of infidelity is important theoretically, empirically, and therapeutically; however, research on the topic is limited. This study explores how seven experienced couple counselors define infidelity on the basis of their work with heterosexual couples presenting with this issue. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts and research findings suggest a rich web of conflicting definitions of infidelity for couples counselors and, in their accounts, clients. The findings support an understanding of infidelity as socially constructed and the implications of this for the field are discussed.

  5. Defining and implementing a model for pharmacy resident research projects

    Dick TB


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a standard approach to provide a support structure for pharmacy resident research that emphasizes self-identification of a residency research project. Methods: A subcommittee of the residency advisory committee was formed at our institution. The committee was initially comprised of 2 clinical pharmacy specialists, 1 drug information pharmacist, and 2 pharmacy administrators. The committee developed research guidelines that are distributed to residents prior to the residency start that detail the research process, important deadlines, and available resources. Instructions for institutional review board (IRB training and deadlines for various assignments and presentations throughout the residency year are clearly defined. Residents conceive their own research project and emphasis is placed on completing assignments early in the residency year. Results: In the 4 years this research process has been in place, 15 of 16 (94% residents successfully identified their own research question. All 15 residents submitted a complete research protocol to the IRB by the August deadline. Four residents have presented the results of their research at multi-disciplinary national professional meetings and 1 has published a manuscript. Feedback from outgoing residents has been positive overall and their perceptions of their research projects and the process are positive. Conclusion: Pharmacy residents selecting their own research projects for their residency year is a feasible alternative to assigning or providing lists of research projects from which to select a project.

  6. Defining and measuring successful emergency care networks: a research agenda.

    Glickman, Seth W; Kit Delgado, M; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hollander, Judd E; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Jacobs, Alice K; Kilaru, Austin S; Lorch, Scott A; Mutter, Ryan L; Myers, Sage R; Owens, Pamela L; Phelan, Michael P; Pines, Jesse M; Seymour, Christopher W; Ewen Wang, N; Branas, Charles C


    The demands on emergency services have grown relentlessly, and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has asserted the need for "regionalized, coordinated, and accountable emergency care systems throughout the country." There are large gaps in the evidence base needed to fix the problem of how emergency care is organized and delivered, and science is urgently needed to define and measure success in the emerging network of emergency care. In 2010, Academic Emergency Medicine convened a consensus conference entitled "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." This article is a product of the conference breakout session on "Defining and Measuring Successful Networks"; it explores the concept of integrated emergency care delivery and prioritizes a research agenda for how to best define and measure successful networks of emergency care. The authors discuss five key areas: 1) the fundamental metrics that are needed to measure networks across time-sensitive and non-time-sensitive conditions; 2) how networks can be scalable and nimble and can be creative in terms of best practices; 3) the potential unintended consequences of networks of emergency care; 4) the development of large-scale, yet feasible, network data systems; and 5) the linkage of data systems across the disease course. These knowledge gaps must be filled to improve the quality and efficiency of emergency care and to fulfill the IOM's vision of regionalized, coordinated, and accountable emergency care systems. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. Background defining during the imine formation reaction in FT-IR liquid cell

    Namli, Hilmi; Turhan, Onur


    Imine formation is a very important chemical reaction because of its relevance to biological process. Therefore, it is crucial to follow whole reaction process in detail. The current work performed to monitor the whole imination reaction in real time in liquid cell by FT-IR spectroscopy. The complex spectral futures due to solvent, unreacted reagents, acid catalysis and other additives are eliminated by defining a background at the beginning or at any time during the reaction. This procedure also makes it possible to monitor the changes in the concentration of each component in the liquid cell. The consumption of the functional groups of the reagents results in absorbance due to the direct difference spectra while the appearance of functional groups is monitored as percentage transmittance. The concentration changes in the cell arising from the reaction gives the product spectra without having to isolate it from the mixture. It is also possible to see the intermediates appearing and disappearing during the reaction. This report also illustrates a brief application of the technique by time dependence of the peak highs in absorption (ABS) mode.

  8. Defining moments in risk communication research: 1996-2005.

    McComas, Katherine A


    Ten years ago, scholars suggested that risk communication was embarking on a new phase that would give increased attention to the social contexts that surround and encroach on public responses to risk information. A decade later, many researchers have answered the call, with several defining studies examining the social and psychological influences on risk communication. This article reviews risk communication research appearing in the published literature since 1996. Among studies, social trust, the social amplification of risk framework, and the affect heuristic figured prominently. Also common were studies examining the influence of risk in the mass media. Among these were content analyses of media coverage of risk, as well as investigations of possible effects resulting from coverage. The use of mental models was a dominant method for developing risk message content. Other studies examined the use of risk comparisons, narratives, and visuals in the production of risk messages. Research also examined how providing information about a risk's severity, social norms, and efficacy influenced communication behaviors and intentions to follow risk reduction measures. Methods for conducting public outreach in health risk communication rounded out the literature.

  9. Reactions to define the biotite isograd in the Ryoke metamorphic belt, Kii Peninsula, Japan

    Wang, Ge-Fan; Banno, Shohei; Takeuchi, Keiji


    Two types of biotite isograd are defined in the low-grade metamorphism of the Wazuka area, a Ryoke metamorphic terrain in the Kii Peninsula, Japan. The first, BI1, is defined by the reaction of chlorite+K-feldspar= biotite+muscovite+quartz+H2O that took place in psammitic rocks, and the second, BI2, by the continuous reaction between muscovite, chlorite, biotite and quartz in pelitic rocks. The Fe/Mg ratios of the host rocks do not significantly affect the reactions. From the paragenesis of pelitic and psammitic metamorphic rocks, the following mineral zones were established for this low-pressure regional metamorphic terrain: chlorite, transitional, chlorite-biotite, biotite, and sillimanite. The celadonite content of muscovite solid solution in pelitic rocks decreases systematically with the grade of metamorphism from 38% in the chlorite zone to 11% in the biotite zone. Low pressure does not prohibit muscovite from showing the progressive change of composition, if only rocks with appropriate paragenesis are chosen. A qualitative phase diagram of the AKF system relevant to biotite formation suggests that the higher the pressure of metamorphism, the higher the celadonite content of muscovite at BI1, which is confirmed by comparing the muscovites from the Barrovian and Ryoke metamorphism.

  10. Comparisons of the utility of researcher-defined and participant-defined successful ageing.

    Brown, Lynsey J; Bond, Malcolm J


    To investigate the impact of different approaches for measuring 'successful ageing', four alternative researcher and participant definitions were compared, including a novel measure informed by cluster analysis. Rates of successful ageing were explored, as were their relative associations with age and measures of successful adaptation, to assess construct validity. Participants, aged over 65, were recruited from community-based organisations. Questionnaires (assessing successful ageing, lifestyle activities and selective optimisation with compensation) were completed by 317 individuals. Successful ageing ranged from 11.4% to 87.4%, with higher rates evident from participant definitions. Though dependent upon the definition, successful agers were typically younger, reported greater engagement with lifestyle activities and more frequent optimisation. While the current study suggested an improved classification algorithm using a common research definition, future research should explore how subjective and objective aspects of successful ageing may be combined to derive a measure relevant to policy and practice. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  11. Sequence-defined bioactive macrocycles via an acid-catalysed cascade reaction

    Porel, Mintu; Thornlow, Dana N.; Phan, Ngoc N.; Alabi, Christopher A.


    Synthetic macrocycles derived from sequence-defined oligomers are a unique structural class whose ring size, sequence and structure can be tuned via precise organization of the primary sequence. Similar to peptides and other peptidomimetics, these well-defined synthetic macromolecules become pharmacologically relevant when bioactive side chains are incorporated into their primary sequence. In this article, we report the synthesis of oligothioetheramide (oligoTEA) macrocycles via a one-pot acid-catalysed cascade reaction. The versatility of the cyclization chemistry and modularity of the assembly process was demonstrated via the synthesis of >20 diverse oligoTEA macrocycles. Structural characterization via NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of conformational isomers, which enabled the determination of local chain dynamics within the macromolecular structure. Finally, we demonstrate the biological activity of oligoTEA macrocycles designed to mimic facially amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides. The preliminary results indicate that macrocyclic oligoTEAs with just two-to-three cationic charge centres can elicit potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Defining Attributes and Metrics of Effective Research Mentoring Relationships.

    Pfund, Christine; Byars-Winston, Angela; Branchaw, Janet; Hurtado, Sylvia; Eagan, Kevin


    Despite evidence of mentoring's importance in training researchers, studies to date have not yet determined which mentoring relationships have the most impact and what specific factors in those mentoring relationships contribute to key outcomes, such as the commitment to and persistence in research career paths for emerging researchers from diverse populations. Efforts to broaden participation and persistence in biomedical research careers require an understanding of why and how mentoring relationships work and their impact, not only to research training but also to promoting career advancement. This paper proposes core attributes of effective mentoring relationships, as supported by the literature and suggested by theoretical models of academic persistence. In addition, both existing and developing metrics for measuring the effectiveness of these attributes within mentoring relationships across diverse groups are presented, as well as preliminary data on these metrics from the authors' work.

  13. Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship for Regional Research: A New Approach

    Low, Sarah A.


    In this dissertation, I develop a definition and regional measure of entrepreneurship that will aid entrepreneurship research and economic development policy. My new indicators represent an improvement over current measures of entrepreneurship. The chief contribution of these new indicators is that they incorporate innovation, which others ignore.…

  14. Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Social Measurement: Advancing Social Work Research

    Foster, Kirk A.; Hipp, J. Aaron


    Much of the current neighborhood-based research uses variables aggregated on administrative boundaries such as zip codes, census tracts, and block groups. However, other methods using current technological advances in geographic sciences may broaden our ability to explore the spatial concentration of neighborhood factors affecting individuals and…

  15. Palliative Care in Surgery: Defining the Research Priorities.

    Lilley, Elizabeth J; Cooper, Zara; Schwarze, Margaret L; Mosenthal, Anne C


    Given the acute and often life-limiting nature of surgical illness, as well as the potential for treatment to induce further suffering, surgical patients have considerable palliative care needs. Yet, these patients are less likely to receive palliative care than their medical counterparts and palliative care consultations often occur when death is imminent, reflecting poor quality end-of-life care. Surgical patients would likely benefit from early palliative care delivered alongside surgical treatment to promote goal-concordant decision making and to improve patients' physical, emotional, social, and spiritual well-being and quality of life. To date, evidence to support the role of palliative care in surgical practice is sparse and palliative care research in surgery is encumbered by methodological challenges and entrenched cultural norms that impede appropriate provision of palliative care. The objective of this article was to describe the existing science of palliative care in surgery within three priority areas and expose specific gaps within the field. We propose a research agenda to address these gaps and provide a road map for future investigation.

  16. What's in a name? How we define nanotech shapes public reactions

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Kim, Jiyoun; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael A.


    Audiences are most likely to form their opinions about issues based on the aspects that are primed and easily available in their minds (Hastie and Park, Psychol Rev 93:258-268, 1986; Tversky and Kahneman, Cogn Psychol 5:207-232, 1973). In this study, we examine how priming people with various definitions of nanotechnology differently shapes public perceptions of and engagement with the technology. Using a randomized experimental design embedded in a representative survey of the U.S. population ( n = 1,736), we find that defining nanotechnology in terms of novel applications increases public support for nanotechnology but does not motivate audiences to gather more information about it. In contrast, definitions highlighting the potential risks and benefits of nanotechnology can increase likelihood of future information seeking.

  17. What's in a name? How we define nanotech shapes public reactions

    Anderson, Ashley A., E-mail: [George Mason University, Center for Climate Change Communication (United States); Kim, Jiyoun; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Xenos, Michael A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center in Templated Synthesis and Assembly at the Nanoscale (United States)


    Audiences are most likely to form their opinions about issues based on the aspects that are primed and easily available in their minds (Hastie and Park, Psychol Rev 93:258-268, 1986; Tversky and Kahneman, Cogn Psychol 5:207-232, 1973). In this study, we examine how priming people with various definitions of nanotechnology differently shapes public perceptions of and engagement with the technology. Using a randomized experimental design embedded in a representative survey of the U.S. population (n = 1,736), we find that defining nanotechnology in terms of novel applications increases public support for nanotechnology but does not motivate audiences to gather more information about it. In contrast, definitions highlighting the potential risks and benefits of nanotechnology can increase likelihood of future information seeking.

  18. Reaction Rate Parameterization for Nuclear Astrophysics Research

    Scott, J. P.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Smith, M. S.; Hix, W. R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Sharp, J. E.; Kozub, R. L.; Meyer, R. A.


    Libraries of thermonuclear reaction rates are used in element synthesis models of a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena, such as exploding stars and the inner workings of our sun. These computationally demanding models are more efficient when libraries, which may contain over 60000 rates and vary by 20 orders of magnitude, have a uniform parameterization for all rates. We have developed an on-line tool, hosted at, to obtain REACLIB parameters (F.-K. Thielemann et al., Adv. Nucl. Astrophysics 525, 1 (1987)) that represent reaction rates as a function of temperature. This helps to rapidly incorporate the latest nuclear physics results in astrophysics models. The tool uses numerous techniques and algorithms in a modular fashion to improve the quality of the fits to the rates. Features, modules, and additional applications of this tool will be discussed. * Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. D.O.E. under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 + Supported by U.S. D.O.E. under Grant No. DE-FG02-96ER40955

  19. Well-defined Polymethylene-Based Co/Terpolymers by Combining Anthracene/Maleimide Diels-Alder Reaction with Polyhomologation

    Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos


    A novel strategy towards well-defined polymethylene-based co/terpolymers, by combining anthracene/maleimide Diels-Alder reaction with polyhomologation, is presented. For the synthesis of diblock copolymers the following approach was applied: a) synthesis of α-anthracene-ω-hydroxy- polymethylene by polyhomologation using tri (9-anthracene-methyl propyl ether) borane as initiator, b) synthesis of furan-protected-maleimide-terminated poly (ε-caprolactone) or polyethylene glycol and c). Diels-Alder reaction between the anthracene and maleimide-terminated polymers. In the case of triblock terpolymers the α-anthracene-ω-hydroxy-polymethylene was used as macroinitiator for the ring-opening polymerization of D, L-lactide to afford an anthracene-terminated PM-b-PLA copolymer, followed by Diels-Alder reaction with furan-protected maleimide-terminated poly (ε-caprolactone) or polyethylene glycol to give the triblock terpolymers. All intermediate and final products were characterized by SEC, 1H NMR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and DSC.

  20. [Recent results in research on oscillatory chemical reactions].

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina


    The mechanisms of the complicated periodical phenomenas in the nature (e.g. hearth beat, sleep cycle, circadian rhythms, etc) could be understood with using the laws of nonlinear chemical systems. In this article the newest result in the research of the subfield of nonlinear chemical dynamics aimed at constructing oscillatory chemical reactions, which are novel either in composition or in configuration, are presented. In the introductory part the concept of chemical periodicity is defined, then the forms as it can appear in time and space and the methods of their study are discussed. Detailed description of the experimental work that has resulted in two significant discoveries is provided. A method was developed to design pH-oscillators which are capable of operating under close conditions. The batch pH-oscillators are more convenient to use in some proposed applications than the equivalent CSTR variant. A redox oscillator that is new in composition was found. The permanganate oxidation of some amino acids was shown to take place according to oscillatory kinetics in a narrow range of the experimental parameters. The KMnO4 - glycine - Na2HPO4 system represents the first example in the family of manganese based oscillators where amino acids is involved. In the conclusion formal analogies between the simple chemical and some more complicated biological oscillatory phenomena are mentioned and the possibility of modeling periodic processes with the use of information gained from the studies of chemical oscillations is pointed out.

  1. Reactions to research participation in victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    Massey, Christina; Widom, Cathy Spatz


    We examined whether adults with a documented or self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) report more emotional reactions and negative responses to research participation and whether psychiatric symptoms play a moderating role in their reactions. Using a prospective cohort design, individuals with documented histories of CSA and non-abused matched controls were followed up and interviewed in adulthood (n = 460). Reactions to research participation were measured with a brief questionnaire. Concurrent symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD were assessed via standardized measures. Results showed that those with a history of CSA, documented or self-reported, experienced similar reactions compared to controls. Psychiatric symptoms predicted stronger emotional reactions and more negative responses, but also greater personal benefit, regardless of CSA history.

  2. How do we define the policy impact of public health research? A systematic review.

    Alla, Kristel; Hall, Wayne D; Whiteford, Harvey A; Head, Brian W; Meurk, Carla S


    In order to understand and measure the policy impact of research we need a definition of research impact that is suited to the task. This article systematically reviewed both peer-reviewed and grey literature for definitions of research impact to develop a definition of research impact that can be used to investigate how public health research influences policy. Keyword searches of the electronic databases Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar were conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. Keywords included 'definition' and 'policy' and 'research impact' or 'research evidence'. The search terms 'health', public health' or 'mental health' and 'knowledge transfer' or 'research translation' were used to focus the search on relevant health discipline approaches. Studies included in the review described processes, theories or frameworks associated with public health, health services or mental health policy. We identified 108 definitions in 83 publications. The key findings were that literature on research impact is growing, but only 23% of peer-reviewed publications on the topic explicitly defined the term and that the majority (76%) of definitions were derived from research organisations and funding institutions. We identified four main types of definition, namely (1) definitions that conceptualise research impacts in terms of positive changes or effects that evidence can bring about when transferred into policies (example Research Excellence Framework definition), (2) definitions that interpret research impacts as measurable outcomes (Research Councils UK), and (3) bibliometric and (4) use-based definitions. We identified four constructs underpinning these definitions that related to concepts of contribution, change, avenues and levels of impact. The dominance of bureaucratic definitions, the tendency to discuss but not define the concept of research impact, and the

  3. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    Bodnarczuk, M.


    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  4. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen


    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  5. Working to define data curated geospatial services on a Research Campus, a Purdue University Libraries Example

    Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.; Rousi, A. M.


    As Data Curation is becoming a necessity of data science and library science, Purdue University Libraries has been a leader in data curation profiles research. Such research can be defined as a data stewardship protocol similar to a multiple use case analysis. In this this example, The Purdue University Libraries Geographical Information Systems (GIS) department has engaged in a data curation profiles assessment of the campus to baseline and qualify sustainable geospatial data services. It is the intent that other libraries will consider this IRB approved approach of grounded theory to assessment the geospatial data service capacity and potential on a parametric scale. Provided is the status of such research and the some highlights or considerations in the establishment of sustainable geospatial data services that include a full data curated lifecycle. Noted here are some of the essential engagement endeavors of the research.

  6. Unfinished business: efforts to define dual-use research of bioterrorism concern.

    Zmorzynska, Anna; Suk, Jonathan E; Biederbick, Walter; Maidhof, Heinrich; Sasse, Julia; Semenza, Jan C; Hunger, Iris


    Biotechnological research poses a special security problem because of the duality between beneficial use and misuse. In order to find a balance between regulating potentially dangerous research and assuring scientific advancement, a number of assessments have tried to define which types of research are especially open to misuse and should therefore be considered dual-use research of special concern requiring rigorous oversight. So far, there has been no common understanding of what such activities are. Here we present a review of 27 assessments focusing on biological dual-use issues published between 1997 and 2008. Dual-use research activities identified by these assessments as being of special concern were compiled and compared. Moreover, from these 27 assessments, the primary research publications explicitly identified as examples of concerning research activities were extracted and analyzed. We extracted a core list of 11 activities of special concern and show that this list does not match with the reasons why primary research publications were identified as being of special concern. Additionally, we note that the 11 activities identified are not easily conducted or replicated, and therefore the likelihood of their being used in a high-tech mass casualty bioterrorism event should be reevaluated.

  7. Assessing the impact of defining a global priority research agenda to address HIV-associated tuberculosis.

    Odone, Anna; Matteelli, Alberto; Chiesa, Valentina; Cella, Paola; Ferrari, Antonio; Pezzetti, Federica; Signorelli, Carlo; Getahun, Haileyesus


    In 2010, the WHO issued 77 priority research questions (PRQs) to address HIV-associated TB. Objective of the this study was to assess the impact of defining the research agenda in stimulating and directing research around priority research questions. We used number and type of scientific publications as a proxy to quantitatively assess the impact of research agenda setting. We conducted 77 single systematic reviews - one for every PRQ - building 77 different search strategies using PRQs' keywords. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to assess the quantity and quality of research produced over time and accounting for selected covariates. In 2009-2015, PRQs were addressed by 1631 publications (median: 11 studies published per PRQ, range 1-96). The most published area was 'Intensified TB case finding' (median: 23 studies/PRQ, range: 2-74). The majority (62.1%, n = 1013) were published as original studies, and more than half (58%, n = 585) were conducted in the African region. Original studies' publication increased over the study period (P trend = <0.001). They focused more on the 'Intensified TB case finding' (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.56-2.93) and 'Drug-resistant TB and HIV infection' (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.47-3.06) areas than non-original studies. Original studies were published in journals of lower impact factor and received a smaller number of citations than non-original studies (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.42-0.69). The generation of evidence to address PRQs has increased over time particularly in selected fields. Setting a priority research agenda for HIV-associated TB might have positively influenced the direction and the conduct of research and contributed to the global response to such a major threat to health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Defining Research Priorities for Nutrition and Mental Health: Insights from Dietetics Practice.

    D'Andreamatteo, Carla; Davison, Karen M; Vanderkooy, Pat


    In 2014, a national initiative aimed at defining a research agenda for nutrition and mental health among diverse stakeholders was completed and included insights from more than 300 registered dietitians. This study explores the data from dietitians based on their years of practice, mental health experiences, and community of practice in relationship to identified mental health and nutrition research priorities. Analysis of numerical data (n = 299) and content analysis of open-ended responses (n = 269) revealed that respondents desired research for specific mental health conditions (MHCs), emotional eating, food addiction, populations with special needs, and people encountering major life transitions (e.g., recovery from abuse, refugees). Findings from the quantitative and textual data suggested that dietitians want research aimed at addressing the concerns of those in the community, fostering consumer nutrition knowledge and skill acquisition, and developing services that will impact quality of life. Subgroup analysis indicated that dietitians: (i) in early years of practice want information about specific MHCs; (ii) living in smaller towns and rural areas want data about the cost benefits of dietetics practice in mental health; and (iii) who also had additional stakeholder roles (e.g., service provider) selected priorities that address gaps in mental health services. This study highlights opportunities to tailor nutrition and mental health research that advance dietetics practice.

  9. Moving beyond Mindfulness: Defining Equanimity as an Outcome Measure in Meditation and Contemplative Research.

    Desbordes, Gaëlle; Gard, Tim; Hoge, Elizabeth A; Hölzel, Britta K; Kerr, Catherine; Lazar, Sara W; Olendzki, Andrew; Vago, David R


    In light of a growing interest in contemplative practices such as meditation, the emerging field of contemplative science has been challenged to describe and objectively measure how these practices affect health and well-being. While "mindfulness" itself has been proposed as a measurable outcome of contemplative practices, this concept encompasses multiple components, some of which, as we review here, may be better characterized as equanimity. Equanimity can be defined as an even-minded mental state or dispositional tendency toward all experiences or objects, regardless of their origin or their affective valence (pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral). In this article we propose that equanimity be used as an outcome measure in contemplative research. We first define and discuss the inter-relationship between mindfulness and equanimity from the perspectives of both classical Buddhism and modern psychology and present existing meditation techniques for cultivating equanimity. We then review psychological, physiological, and neuroimaging methods that have been used to assess equanimity, either directly or indirectly. In conclusion, we propose that equanimity captures potentially the most important psychological element in the improvement of well-being, and therefore should be a focus in future research studies.

  10. Northwest U.S. Agriculture in a Changing Climate: Collaboratively Defined Research and Extension Priorities

    Georgine G. Yorgey


    Full Text Available In order for agricultural systems to successfully mitigate and adapt to climate change there is a need to coordinate and prioritize next steps for research and extension. This includes focusing on “win-win” management practices that simultaneously provide short-term benefits to farmers and improve the sustainability and resiliency of agricultural systems with respect to climate change. In the Northwest U.S., a collaborative process has been used to engage individuals spanning the research-practice continuum. This collaborative approach was utilized at a 2016 workshop titled “Agriculture in a Changing Climate,” that included a broad range of participants including university faculty and students, crop and livestock producers, and individuals representing state, tribal and federal government agencies, industry, nonprofit organizations, and conservation districts. The Northwest U.S. encompasses a range of agro-ecological systems and diverse geographic and climatic contexts. Regional research and science communication efforts for climate change and agriculture have a strong history of engaging diverse stakeholders. These features of the Northwest U.S. provide a foundation for the collaborative research and extension prioritization presented here. We focus on identifying research and extension actions that can be taken over the next 5 years in four areas identified as important areas by conference organizers and participants: (1 cropping systems, (2 livestock systems, (3 decision support systems to support consideration of climate change in agricultural management decisions; and (4 partnerships among researchers and stakeholders. We couple insights from the workshop and a review of current literature to articulate current scientific understanding, and priorities recommended by workshop participants that target existing knowledge gaps, challenges, and opportunities. Priorities defined at the Agriculture in a Changing Climate workshop highlight

  11. Iron Contamination Mechanism and Reaction Performance Research on FCC Catalyst

    Zhaoyong Liu


    Full Text Available FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking catalyst iron poisoning would not only influence units’ product slate; when the poisoning is serious, it could also jeopardize FCC catalysts’ fluidization in reaction-regeneration system and further cause bad influences on units’ stable operation. Under catalytic cracking reaction conditions, large amount of iron nanonodules is formed on the seriously iron contaminated catalyst due to exothermic reaction. These nodules intensify the attrition between catalyst particles and generate plenty of fines which severely influence units’ smooth running. A dense layer could be formed on the catalysts’ surface after iron contamination and the dense layer stops reactants to diffuse to inner structures of catalyst. This causes extremely negative effects on catalyst’s heavy oil conversion ability and could greatly cut down gasoline yield while increasing yields of dry gas, coke, and slurry largely. Research shows that catalyst’s reaction performance would be severely deteriorated when iron content in E-cat (equilibrium catalyst exceeds 8000 μg/g.

  12. Autism spectrum disorders in older adults: toward defining a research agenda.

    Piven, Joseph; Rabins, Peter


    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are among the most common of the severe developmental disabilities, yet little is known about older adults with ASDs-in particular, how the disabilities and dependencies that result from aging interact with those resulting from ASDs. The aging of the population in Western countries, the increasing rate of diagnosis of ASDs, and the burgeoning use of services for ASDs are converging to create a large, growing influx of older adults with ASDs that could impose tremendous humanistic and economic burdens on the healthcare system and society. An understanding of the epidemiological, biological, psychological, and social aspects of ASDs in older adults is essential for preparing to meet their needs, but studies on ASDs in these individuals are practically nonexistent. This article outlines observations and recommendations of a multidisciplinary expert group convened in March 2010 to characterize gaps in knowledge regarding ASDs in older adults and defines research directions to help individuals, the healthcare system, and society prepare for meeting the needs of this population. The proposed research agenda could help improve the lives of older adults with ASDs and inform research and clinical practice involving younger individuals with ASDs.

  13. Creation of an open-access, mutation-defined fibroblast resource for neurological disease research.

    Selina Wray

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of many neurological disorders has been greatly enhanced by the discovery of mutations in genes linked to familial forms of these diseases. These have facilitated the generation of cell and animal models that can be used to understand the underlying molecular pathology. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the use of patient-derived cells, due to the development of induced pluripotent stem cells and their subsequent differentiation into neurons and glia. Access to patient cell lines carrying the relevant mutations is a limiting factor for many centres wishing to pursue this research. We have therefore generated an open-access collection of fibroblast lines from patients carrying mutations linked to neurological disease. These cell lines have been deposited in the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS Repository at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research and can be requested by any research group for use in in vitro disease modelling. There are currently 71 mutation-defined cell lines available for request from a wide range of neurological disorders and this collection will be continually expanded. This represents a significant resource that will advance the use of patient cells as disease models by the scientific community.

  14. Well-defined diimine copper(I) complexes as catalysts in click azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions.

    Barta, Jordi Markalain; Díez-González, Silvia


    A series of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles have been prepared in high yields while respecting the stringent Click criteria. In these reactions, highly stable pre-formed complexes bearing diimine ligands were used.

  15. Stakeholder participation in comparative effectiveness research: defining a framework for effective engagement.

    Deverka, Patricia A; Lavallee, Danielle C; Desai, Priyanka J; Esmail, Laura C; Ramsey, Scott D; Veenstra, David L; Tunis, Sean R


    AIMS: Stakeholder engagement is fundamental to comparative effectiveness research (CER), but lacks consistent terminology. This paper aims to define stakeholder engagement and present a conceptual model for involving stakeholders in CER. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHODS: The definitions and model were developed from a literature search, expert input and experience with the Center for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Cancer Genomics, a proof-of-concept platform for stakeholder involvement in priority setting and CER study design. RESULTS: Definitions for stakeholder and stakeholder engagement reflect the target constituencies and their role in CER. The 'analytic-deliberative' conceptual model for stakeholder engagement illustrates the inputs, methods and outputs relevant to CER. The model differentiates methods at each stage of the project; depicts the relationship between components; and identifies outcome measures for evaluation of the process. CONCLUSION: While the definitions and model require testing before being broadly adopted, they are an important foundational step and will be useful for investigators, funders and stakeholder groups interested in contributing to CER.

  16. Applying a transdisciplinary process to define a research agenda in a smallholder irrigated farming system in South Africa

    Musvoto, Constansia D


    Full Text Available findings? In a case study of smallholder irrigation in South Africa, we analyze how, using a transdisciplinary approach, a balance can be struck between the priorities of different stakeholders in defining a research agenda. A transdisciplinary approach...

  17. An FPGA Scalable Software Defined Radio Platform Design for Educational and Research Purposes

    Marcos Hervás


    Full Text Available In a digital modem design, the integration of the Analog to Digital Converters (ADC and Digital to Analog Converters (DAC with the core processor is usually a major issue for the designer. In this paper an FPGA scalable Software Defined Radio platform based on a Spartan-6 as a control unit is presented, developed for both educational and research purposes, which can fit the different application requirements in terms of analog front-end performance, processing unit and cost. The resolution and sampling frequency of the analog front-end are its main adjustable parameters. The processing core requirements involve the FPGA and the communication ports. A multidisciplinary working group was required to design a high performance system for both analog front-end and digital processing core in terms of signal integrity and electromagnetic compatibility. The platform has 5 different peripheral ports ranging from 16 kbps to 2.5 Gbps. The communication ports allow our students to develop a high range of applications for both on-site and online courses applying teaching methodology based on learning by doing using a real system to help them to reach other transversal skills.

  18. Well-Defined Diimine Copper(I Complexes as Catalysts in Click Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions

    Silvia Díez-González


    Full Text Available A series of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles have been prepared in high yields while respecting the stringent Click criteria. In these reactions, highly stable pre-formed complexes bearing diimine ligands were used.

  19. A Novel Approach to Prepare Well-Defined Silica-Supported Polyoxometalate Species by Reaction with a Chlorinated Support

    Eva Grinenval


    Full Text Available Polyoxometalates were grafted covalently on SBA-15 by a two-step procedure. The dehydroxylated mesoporous silica was first modified by reaction with methyltrichlorosilane in presence of triethylamine. The resulting solid was fully characterized and contained a mixture of mono- and digrafted species . These surface Si–Cl bonds can react with lacunary polyoxometalates as in solution, yielding to a ≡Si–O–POM linkage. However, solid state MAS NMR shows that only the digrafted species react with the polyoxometalate. This new grafting method opens the way to the synthesis of a new class of catalysts which could operate in solution without leaching.

  20. A new look at low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Krivit, Steven B; Marwan, Jan


    This paper presents a new look at low-energy nuclear reaction research, a field that has developed from one of the most controversial subjects in science, "cold fusion." Early in the history of this controversy, beginning in 1989, a strong polarity existed; many scientists fiercely defended the claim of new physical effects as well as a new process in which like-charged atomic nuclei overcome the Coulomb barrier at normal temperatures and pressures. Many other scientists considered the entire collection of physical observations-along with the hypothesis of a "cold fusion"--entirely a mistake. Twenty years later, some people who had dismissed the field in its entirety are considering the validity of at least some of the reported experimental phenomena. As well, some researchers in the field are wondering whether the underlying phenomena may be not a fusion process but a neutron capture/absorption process. In 2002, a related tabletop form of thermonuclear fusion was discovered in the field of acoustic inertial confinement fusion. We briefly review some of this work, as well.

  1. How Do Scientists Define Openness? Exploring the Relationship Between Open Science Policies and Research Practice.

    Levin, Nadine; Leonelli, Sabina; Weckowska, Dagmara; Castle, David; Dupré, John


    This article documents how biomedical researchers in the United Kingdom understand and enact the idea of "openness." This is of particular interest to researchers and science policy worldwide in view of the recent adoption of pioneering policies on Open Science and Open Access by the U.K. government-policies whose impact on and implications for research practice are in need of urgent evaluation, so as to decide on their eventual implementation elsewhere. This study is based on 22 in-depth interviews with U.K. researchers in systems biology, synthetic biology, and bioinformatics, which were conducted between September 2013 and February 2014. Through an analysis of the interview transcripts, we identify seven core themes that characterize researchers' understanding of openness in science and nine factors that shape the practice of openness in research. Our findings highlight the implications that Open Science policies can have for research processes and outcomes and provide recommendations for enhancing their content, effectiveness, and implementation.

  2. NATO Advanced Research Institute on Adaptive Control of Ill-Defined Systems

    Rissland, Edwina; Arbib, Michael


    There are some types of complex systems that are built like clockwork, with well-defined parts that interact in well-defined ways, so that the action of the whole can be precisely analyzed and anticipated with accuracy and precision. Some systems are not themselves so well-defined, but they can be modeled in ways that are like trained pilots in well-built planes, or electrolyte balance in healthy humans. But there are many systems for which that is not true; and among them are many whose understanding and control we would value. For example, the model for the trained pilot above fails exactly where the pilot is being most human; that is, where he is exercising the highest levels of judgment, or where he is learning and adapting to new conditions. Again, sometimes the kinds of complexity do not lead to easily analyzable models at all; here we might include most economic systems, in all forms of societies. There are several factors that seem to contribute to systems being hard to model, understand, or control. ...

  3. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Birdsell Judy M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  4. Defining the research agenda to reduce the joint burden of disease from diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis

    Harries, Anthony D; Murray, Megan B; Jeon, Christie Y;


    in Africa, raising uncertainty about the strength of the diabetes mellitus-TB association in these settings, and many critical questions remain unanswered. An expert meeting was held in November 2009 to discuss where there was sufficient evidence to make firm recommendations about joint management of both...... diseases, to address research gaps and to develop a research agenda. Ten key research questions were identified, of which 4 were selected as high priority: (i) whether, when and how to screen for TB in patients with diabetes mellitus and vice versa; (ii) the impact of diabetes mellitus and non...... and monitoring tests, including measurements of blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) for patients with diabetes mellitus. Implementation of this research agenda will benefit the control of both diseases....

  5. Research on Nuclear Reaction Network Equation for Fission Product Nuclides


    Nuclear Reaction Network Equation calculation system for fission product nuclides was developed. With the system, the number of the fission product nuclides at different time can be calculated in the different neutron field intensity and neutron energy spectra

  6. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S


    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition.

  7. Northwest U.S. agriculture in a changing climate: collaboratively defined research and extension priorities

    Georgine G. Yorgey; Sonia A. Hall; Elizabeth R. Allen; Elizabeth M. Whitefield; Nichole M. Embertson; Vincent P. Jones; Brooke R. Saari; Kirti Rajagopalan; Gabrielle E. Roesch-McNally; Beatrice Van Horne; John T. Abatzoglou; Harold P. Collins; Laurie L. Houston; Timothy W. Ewing; Chad E. Kruger


    In order for agricultural systems to successfully mitigate and adapt to climate change there is a need to coordinate and prioritize next steps for research and extension. This includes focusing on “win-win” management practices that simultaneously provide short-term benefits to farmers and improve the sustainability and resiliency of agricultural systems with respect...

  8. Defining and Teaching Evaluative Thinking: Insights From Research on Critical Thinking

    Buckley, Jane; Archibald, Thomas; Hargraves, Monica; Trochim, William M.


    Evaluative thinking (ET) is an increasingly important topic in the field of evaluation, particularly among people involved in evaluation capacity building (ECB). Yet it is a construct in need of clarification, especially if it is to be meaningfully discussed, promoted, and researched. To that end, we propose that ET is essentially critical…

  9. Defining, Measuring and Supporting Success: Meeting the Challenges of Comprehensive School Reform Research. CSR Connection.

    Appelbaum, Deborah; Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan

    Many educators believe that comprehensive school reform (CSR) holds real promise for improving schools, as many CSR programs are based in research and have documented success. However, in the past year, there has been increased emphasis on CSR programs' evidence of effectiveness and scrutiny of CSR evaluations' degree of rigor. Questions exist…

  10. NASA Systems Engineering Research Consortium: Defining the Path to Elegance in Systems

    Watson, Michael D.; Farrington, Phillip A.


    The NASA Systems Engineering Research Consortium was formed at the end of 2010 to study the approaches to producing elegant systems on a consistent basis. This has been a transformative study looking at the engineering and organizational basis of systems engineering. The consortium has engaged in a variety of research topics to determine the path to elegant systems. In the second year of the consortium, a systems engineering framework emerged which structured the approach to systems engineering and guided our research. This led in the third year to set of systems engineering postulates that the consortium is continuing to refine. The consortium has conducted several research projects that have contributed significantly to the understanding of systems engineering. The consortium has surveyed the application of the NASA 17 systems engineering processes, explored the physics and statistics of systems integration, and considered organizational aspects of systems engineering discipline integration. The systems integration methods have included system energy analysis, Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), State Variable Analysis, Multidisciplinary Coupling Analysis (MCA), Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO), System Cost Modeling, System Robustness, and Value Modeling. Organizational studies have included the variability of processes in change evaluations, margin management within the organization, information theory of board structures, social categorization of unintended consequences, and initial looks at applying cognitive science to systems engineering. Consortium members have also studied the bidirectional influence of policy and law with systems engineering.

  11. Participatory Action Research on Help-Seeking Behaviors of Self-Defined Ritual Abuse Survivors: A Brief Report.

    Matthew, Laurie; Barron, Ian G


    The existence of ritual abuse is the subject of much debate. Ritual abuse survivor perceptions of seeking help have not been explored, and studies have yet to utilize self-defined survivors as collaborative researchers. This study addresses both issues. Participatory action research was utilized to design a survey and semistructured interview to investigate ritual abuse survivor experience of seeking help. Sixty-eight participants completed the survey, and 22 were interviewed. A group approach to thematic analysis aided validity and reliability. Participants reported experiencing disbelief and a lack of ritual abuse awareness and help from support services. In contrast, participatory action research was reported by participants as educative and emancipatory. Future research should explore the benefits of participatory action research for survivors of different forms of oppression.

  12. Defining interdisciplinarity and indentifying Research directions in Jani Christou’s Strychnine lady

    Maria Yerosimou


    Full Text Available Jani Christou was a major Greek composer, whose unusual, yet promising career was brought to an end after his untimely death in 1970 at the age of 44. His challenging and speculative output has intrigued generation of young music scholars; however, J. Christou’s work remains imperfectly and only patchily known and understood, especially outside Greece. This is partly because of the interdisciplinary nature of his late works which reduces the possibility of potential researchers who will academically establish J. Christou’s distinguished output. The aim of the present paper is to present and analyse parts of Strychnine Lady, a work composed in 1967 in order to propose research directions in an effort to confirm J. Christou’s posthumous reputation.

  13. Defining Remoteness from Health Care: Integrated Research on Accessing Emergency Maternal Care in Indonesia

    Bronwyn A Myers


    Full Text Available The causes of maternal death are well known, and are largely preventable if skilled health care is received promptly. Complex interactions between geographic and socio-cultural factors affect access to, and remoteness from, health care but research on this topic rarely integrates spatial and social sciences. In this study, modeling of travel time was integrated with social science research to refine our understanding of remoteness from health care. Travel time to health facilities offering emergency obstetric care (EmOC and population distribution were modelled for a district in eastern Indonesia. As an index of remoteness, the proportion of the population more than two hours estimated travel time from EmOC was calculated. For the best case scenario (transport by ambulance in the dry season, modelling estimated more than 10,000 fertile aged women were more than two hours from EmOC. Maternal mortality ratios were positively correlated with the remoteness index, however there was considerable variation around this relationship. In a companion study, ethnographic research in a subdistrict with relatively good access to health care and high maternal mortality identified factors influencing access to EmOC, including some that had not been incorporated into the travel time model. Ethnographic research provided information about actual travel involved in requesting and reaching EmOC. Modeled travel time could be improved by incorporating time to deliver request for care. Further integration of social and spatial methods and the development of more dynamic travel time models are needed to develop programs and policies to address these multiple factors to improve maternal health outcomes.

  14. Smectite-to-illite reaction. AECL research No. AECL-10842

    Oscarson, D.W.; Hume, H.B.


    The smectite component of the buffer material in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault could slowly transform over long periods of time to an inter-stratified illite/smectite material with important implications for the long-term effectiveness of the buffer material. The smectite-to-illite reaction was examined by treating Wyoming bentonite at 150C, 200C, and 250C for periods ranging from 90-194 days in five synthetic solutions having widely varying compositions. Progress of the smectite alteration reaction was determined by measuring the expandability of the reaction products by X-ray diffractometry after the exchange complex of the clay was saturated with potassium and solvated with ethylene glycol.

  15. Security Research on Software Defined Network%SDN安全技术研究

    孙鹏; 刘秋研


    随着大数据、云计算等互联网新技术的发展,对传统网络的带宽、速率、安全等方面提出了更高的要求,面对日益复杂的网络环境,传统网络在可扩展性、可编程性、灵活性等方面面临瓶颈.软件定义网络SDN(Software Defined Network)将数据的控制面和转发面分离,向上为应用层提供可编程接口,向下统一管理网络设备,一经提出便成为下一代互联网研究的热门方向.SDN技术的集中性和开放性也带来新的安全挑战,控制器本身的安全、应用层安全、数据通道安全等目前都缺乏有效的解决方案.本文阐述了SDN的优势与特点,面临的安全风险、一些增强安全的方式;然后提出一种基于SDN技术抗分布式拒绝服务攻击(DDoS,Distributed Denial of Service)的设计,最后对SDN安全问题进行思考和总结.

  16. (n,α reactions cross section research at IPPE

    Giorginis G.


    Full Text Available An experimental set-up based on an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid and wave form digitizer was used for (n,α cross section measurements. Use of digital signal processing allowed us to select a gaseous cell inside the sensitive area of the ionization chamber and determine the target atoms in it with high accuracy. This kind of approach provided us with a powerful method to suppress background arising from the detector structure and parasitic reactions on the working gas components. This method is especially interesting to study neutron reactions with elements for which solid target preparation is difficult (noble gases for example. In the present experiments we used a set of working gases which contained admixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and boron. Fission of 238U was used as neutron flux monitor. The cross section of the (n,α reaction for 16O, 14N, 20Ne, 36Ar, 40Ar and the yield ratio α0/α1 of 10B(n,α0 to 10B(n,α1 reactions was measured for neutron energies between 1.5 and 7 MeV. Additionally a measurement of the 50Cr(n,α cross section using a solid chromium target is also reported.

  17. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Krivit, Steven B


    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  18. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    Hauck, Danielle K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  19. Chemical Atmosphere-Snow-Sea Ice Interactions: defining future research in the field, lab and modeling

    Frey, Markus


    The air-snow-sea ice system plays an important role in the global cycling of nitrogen, halogens, trace metals or carbon, including greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 air-sea flux), and therefore influences also climate. Its impact on atmospheric composition is illustrated for example by dramatic ozone and mercury depletion events which occur within or close to the sea ice zone (SIZ) mostly during polar spring and are catalysed by halogens released from SIZ ice, snow or aerosol. Recent field campaigns in the high Arctic (e.g. BROMEX, OASIS) and Antarctic (Weddell sea cruises) highlight the importance of snow on sea ice as a chemical reservoir and reactor, even during polar night. However, many processes, participating chemical species and their interactions are still poorly understood and/or lack any representation in current models. Furthermore, recent lab studies provide a lot of detail on the chemical environment and processes but need to be integrated much better to improve our understanding of a rapidly changing natural environment. During a 3-day workshop held in Cambridge/UK in October 2013 more than 60 scientists from 15 countries who work on the physics, chemistry or biology of the atmosphere-snow-sea ice system discussed research status and challenges, which need to be addressed in the near future. In this presentation I will give a summary of the main research questions identified during this workshop as well as ways forward to answer them through a community-based interdisciplinary approach.

  20. Defining features of the practice of global health research: an examination of 14 global health research teams

    Craig Stephen


    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper strives to develop a pragmatic view of the scope of practice and core characteristics of global health research (GHR by examining the activities of 14 Canadian-funded global health teams that were in the process of implementing research programs. Methods: Information was collected by a reflective exploration of team proposals and progress reports, a content analysis of the outputs from an all-team meeting and review of the literature. Results: Teams adopted equity-centered, problem-focused, systems-based approaches intended to find upstream determinants that could make people more resilient to social and ecological factors impacting their health. Long-term visions and time frames were needed to develop and solidify fully functional interdisciplinary, multinational, multicultural partnerships. The implementation of research into practice was a motivating factor for all teams, but to do this, they recognized the need for evidence-based advice on how to best do this. Traditional measures of biomedical research excellence were necessary but not sufficient to encompass views of excellence of team-based interdisciplinary research, which includes features like originality, coherence and cumulative contributions to fields of study, acceptance by peers and success in translating research into gains in health status. An innovative and nuanced approached to GHR ethics was needed to deal with some unique ethical issues because the needs for GHR were not adequately addressed by institutional biomedical research ethics boards. Core competencies for GHR researchers were a blend of those needed for health promotion, population health, international development, sustainable development, and systems science. Discussion: Developing acceptable and meaningful ways to evaluate the short-term contributions for GHR and forecast its long-term impacts is a strategic priority needed to defend decisions being made in GHR development. Planning and

  1. Defining future directions for endometriosis research: workshop report from the 2011 World Congress of Endometriosis In Montpellier, France.

    Rogers, Peter A W; D'Hooghe, Thomas M; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C; Montgomery, Grant W; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N


    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.(1) A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis.

  2. Defining core issues in utilizing information technology to improve access: evaluation and research agenda.

    Jackson, George L; Krein, Sarah L; Alverson, Dale C; Darkins, Adam W; Gunnar, William; Harada, Nancy D; Helfrich, Christian D; Houston, Thomas K; Klobucar, Thomas F; Nazi, Kim M; Poropatich, Ronald K; Ralston, James D; Bosworth, Hayden B


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has been at the vanguard of information technology (IT) and use of comprehensive electronic health records. Despite the widespread use of health IT in the VA, there are still a variety of key questions that need to be answered in order to maximize the utility of IT to improve patient access to quality services. This paper summarizes the potential of IT to enhance healthcare access, key gaps in current evidence linking IT and access, and methodologic challenges for related research. We also highlight four key issues to be addressed when implementing and evaluating the impact of IT interventions on improving access to quality care: 1) Understanding broader needs/perceptions of the Veteran population and their caregivers regarding use of IT to access healthcare services and related information. 2) Understanding individual provider/clinician needs/perceptions regarding use of IT for patient access to healthcare. 3) System/Organizational issues within the VA and other organizations related to the use of IT to improve access. 4) IT integration and information flow with non-VA entities. While the VA is used as an example, the issues are salient for healthcare systems that are beginning to take advantage of IT solutions.

  3. Terminal Uranium(V/VI) Nitride Activation of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Disulfide: Factors Governing Diverse and Well-Defined Cleavage and Redox Reactions.

    Cleaves, Peter A; Kefalidis, Christos E; Gardner, Benedict M; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; Lewis, William; Maron, Laurent; Liddle, Stephen T


    The reactivity of terminal uranium(V/VI) nitrides with CE2 (E=O, S) is presented. Well-defined C=E cleavage followed by zero-, one-, and two-electron redox events is observed. The uranium(V) nitride [U(Tren(TIPS) )(N)][K(B15C5)2 ] (1, Tren(TIPS) =N(CH2 CH2 NSiiPr3 )3 ; B15C5=benzo-15-crown-5) reacts with CO2 to give [U(Tren(TIPS) )(O)(NCO)][K(B15C5)2 ] (3), whereas the uranium(VI) nitride [U(Tren(TIPS) )(N)] (2) reacts with CO2 to give isolable [U(Tren(TIPS) )(O)(NCO)] (4); complex 4 rapidly decomposes to known [U(Tren(TIPS) )(O)] (5) with concomitant formation of N2 and CO proposed, with the latter trapped as a vanadocene adduct. In contrast, 1 reacts with CS2 to give [U(Tren(TIPS) )(κ(2) -CS3 )][K(B15C5)2 ] (6), 2, and [K(B15C5)2 ][NCS] (7), whereas 2 reacts with CS2 to give [U(Tren(TIPS) )(NCS)] (8) and "S", with the latter trapped as Ph3 PS. Calculated reaction profiles reveal outer-sphere reactivity for uranium(V) but inner-sphere mechanisms for uranium(VI); despite the wide divergence of products the initial activation of CE2 follows mechanistically related pathways, providing insight into the factors of uranium oxidation state, chalcogen, and NCE groups that govern the subsequent divergent redox reactions that include common one-electron reactions and a less-common two-electron redox event. Caution, we suggest, is warranted when utilising CS2 as a reactivity surrogate for CO2 .

  4. Test analysis and research on static choice reaction ability of commercial vehicle drivers

    Zhang, Lingchao; Wei, Lang; Qiao, Jie; Tian, Shun; Wang, Shengchang


    Drivers' choice reaction ability has a certain relation with safe driving. It has important significance to research its influence on traffic safety. Firstly, the paper uses a choice reaction detector developed by research group to detect drivers' choice reaction ability of commercial vehicles, and gets 2641 effective samples. Then by using mathematical statistics method, the paper founds that average reaction time from accident group has no difference with non-accident group, and then introduces a variance rate of reaction time as a new index to replace it. The result shows that the test index choice reaction errors and variance rate of reaction time have positive correlations with accidents. Finally, according to testing results of the detector, the paper formulates a detection threshold with four levels for helping transportation companies to assess commercial vehicles drivers.

  5. Defining a Good Death (Successful Dying): Literature Review and a Call for Research and Public Dialogue.

    Meier, Emily A; Gallegos, Jarred V; Thomas, Lori P Montross; Depp, Colin A; Irwin, Scott A; Jeste, Dilip V


    There is little agreement about what constitutes good death or successful dying. The authors conducted a literature search for published, English-language, peer-reviewed reports of qualitative and quantitative studies that provided a definition of a good death. Stakeholders in these articles included patients, prebereaved and bereaved family members, and healthcare providers (HCPs). Definitions found were categorized into core themes and subthemes, and the frequency of each theme was determined by stakeholder (patients, family, HCPs) perspectives. Thirty-six studies met eligibility criteria, with 50% of patient perspective articles including individuals over age 60 years. We identified 11 core themes of good death: preferences for a specific dying process, pain-free status, religiosity/spirituality, emotional well-being, life completion, treatment preferences, dignity, family, quality of life, relationship with HCP, and other. The top three themes across all stakeholder groups were preferences for dying process (94% of reports), pain-free status (81%), and emotional well-being (64%). However, some discrepancies among the respondent groups were noted in the core themes: Family perspectives included life completion (80%), quality of life (70%), dignity (70%), and presence of family (70%) more frequently than did patient perspectives regarding those items (35%-55% each). In contrast, religiosity/spirituality was reported somewhat more often in patient perspectives (65%) than in family perspectives (50%). Taking into account the limitations of the literature, further research is needed on the impact of divergent perspectives on end-of-life care. Dialogues among the stakeholders for each individual must occur to ensure a good death from the most critical viewpoint-the patient's. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Photosynthetic Reaction Centres-from Basic Research to Application

    László NAGY


    Full Text Available There is no doubt that studying the photosynthetic conversion of light into chemical energy is extremely important in many points of view; e.g., 1 technical-in order to improve the utilization of the solar energy; 2 food production-to improve the photosynthetic production of plants in agriculture; 3 ecology-keeping the primer production in ecosystems in the biosphere balanced, etc. In the photosynthetic reaction centre protein, RC, light energy is converted by a quantum yield of almost unity. There is no such a system designed by human which is able to do that. The RC purified from purple bacteria provides an extremely unique system for studying the requirements for high efficiency conversion of light into electrochemical energy. Thanks to the recent structural (e.g. crystallography (Nobel prize to Michel, Deisenhofer, Huber and functional (Nobel prize to Marcus results together with the works of molecular biology, computer- and electro-techniques, a wealth of information made a relatively clear picture about the kinetics, energetics and stabilization of electron transport within this protein that opens possibilities for new generation practical applications. In this paper we provide a short summary of fields in which the reaction centre protein can be important from practical points of view.

  7. How to define 'best practice' for use in Knowledge Translation research: a practical, stepped and interactive process.

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma; Bragge, Peter; Gruen, Russell; Green, Sally


    Defining 'best practice' is one of the first and crucial steps in any Knowledge Translation (KT) research project. Without a sound understanding of what exactly should happen in practice, it is impossible to measure the extent of existing gaps between 'desired' and 'actual' care, set implementation goals, and monitor performance. The aim of this paper is to present a practical, stepped and interactive process to develop best practice recommendations that are actionable, locally applicable and in line with the best available research-based evidence, with a view to adapt these into process measures (quality indicators) for KT research purposes. Our process encompasses the following steps: (1) identify current, high-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and extract recommendations; (2) select strong recommendations in key clinical management areas; (3) update evidence and create evidence overviews; (4) discuss evidence and produce agreed 'evidence statements'; (5) discuss the relevance of the evidence with local stakeholders; and (6) develop locally applicable actionable best practice recommendations, suitable for use as the basis of quality indicators. Actionable definitions of local best practice are a prerequisite for doing KT research. As substantial resources go into rigorously synthesizing evidence and developing CPGs, it is important to make best use of such available resources. We developed a process for efficiently developing locally applicable actionable best practice recommendations from existing high-quality CPGs that are in line with current research evidence. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Research on consumer reactions to nutrition labelling (FLABEL)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. Recent and ongoing research, including research in the European Union (EU)-funded FP7 project FLABEL (Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life), is accumulating evidence not only on consumer liking of labels and on self-reported use, but also on labels......Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies......' attention-getting potential, on the way consumers draw inferences on product healthiness from them, and on how they actually affect choices. Based on the findings from this project, best practice guidelines will be developed for use of nutrition labelling in EU policy and the food industry, especially SMEs...

  9. How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes

    Ruefli Terry


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change, and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time. Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT to develop the outcomes (phase 1 and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2. Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1 making money; 2 getting something good to eat; 3 being housed/homeless; 4 relating to families; 5 getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6 handling health problems; 7 handling negative emotions; 8 handling legal problems; 9 improving oneself; and 10 handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized

  10. Mixed-method research protocol: defining and operationalizing patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals.

    Huber, Evelyn; Kleinknecht-Dolf, Michael; Müller, Marianne; Kugler, Christiane; Spirig, Rebecca


    To define the concept of patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals and to operationalize it in a questionnaire. The concept of patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals has not been conclusively defined in the literature. The operationalization in a corresponding questionnaire is necessary, given the increased significance of the topic, due to shortened lengths of stay and increased patient morbidity. Hybrid model of concept development and embedded mixed-methods design. The theoretical phase of the hybrid model involved a literature review and the development of a working definition. In the fieldwork phase of 2015 and 2016, an embedded mixed-methods design was applied with complexity assessments of all patients at five Swiss hospitals using our newly operationalized questionnaire 'Complexity of Nursing Care' over 1 month. These data will be analysed with structural equation modelling. Twelve qualitative case studies will be embedded. They will be analysed using a structured process of constructing case studies and content analysis. In the final analytic phase, the quantitative and qualitative data will be merged and added to the results of the theoretical phase for a common interpretation. Cantonal Ethics Committee Zurich judged the research programme as unproblematic in December 2014 and May 2015. Following the phases of the hybrid model and using an embedded mixed-methods design can reach an in-depth understanding of patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals, a final version of the questionnaire and an acknowledged definition of the concept. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 2013 Gordon Research Conference, Inorganic reaction mechanisms, Galveston, TX, March 3-8 2013

    Abu-Omar, Mahdi M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    The 2013 Gordon Conference on Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms will present cutting-edge research on the molecular aspects of inorganic reactions involving elements from throughout the periodic table and state-of-the art techniques that are used in the elucidation of reaction mechanisms. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, such as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, metallobiochemistry, electron-transfer in energy reactions, polymerization, nitrogen fixation, green chemistry, oxidation, solar conversion, alkane functionalization, organotransition metal chemistry, and computational chemistry. The talks will cover themes of current interest including energy, materials, and bioinorganic chemistry. Sections cover: Electron-Transfer in Energy Reactions; Catalytic Polymerization and Oxidation Chemistry; Kinetics and Spectroscopy of Heterogeneous Catalysts; Metal-Organic Chemistry and its Application in Synthesis; Green Energy Conversion;Organometallic Chemistry and Activation of Small Molecules; Advances in Kinetics Modeling and Green Chemistry; Metals in Biology and Disease; Frontiers in Catalytic Bond Activation and Cleavage.

  12. Population Health Research: Early Description of the Organizational Shift Toward Population Health Management and Defining a Vision for Leadership.

    Caldararo, Kristi L; Nash, David B


    As health care delivery systems adapt to the changing marketplace, many struggle to define a clear strategy that will prove successful in managing the health of entire populations. The federal government continues to put increasing pressure on organizations to shift away from the traditional way of delivering episodic care and move toward managing populations as a whole-before, during, and after a patient presents in a health care facility. Private payers have begun to follow suit as risk-based payer contracts and bundled payment models become increasingly popular. For organizations to adequately influence the health outcomes of a population, they must be responsible for more than just a patient's medical care. They must partner with the community to create a strategy that encompasses the psychosocial and environmental factors that contribute to one's health. Although health care leaders know this industry transformation is imminent, there is minimal research that shares best practices in regard to designing and implementing a successful population health management strategy. Interviews were conducted with leadership from 10 organizations in order to understand the strategic approach taken by delivery systems and health care institutions that view population health as a key aspect of their overall mission. Responses were recorded and outlined in a detailed response grid. The objective is to provide a qualitative overview of how industry leaders are currently responding to population health. Additionally, common themes and recommendations are presented to serve as guidance for other health care organizations that are at the start of their journey toward population health management.

  13. The Lower Extremities Exoskeleton Actuator Dynamics Research Taking into Account Support Reaction

    A. A. Vereikin


    Full Text Available The article shows high relevance of research, aimed at the robotic exoskeleton creation. It defines some problems related to the process of their designing; including a lack of power supply to provide enough autonomy, and difficulties of man-machine complex control. There is a review of literature on the walking robots with tree-like kinematic structure development. This work reflects the continuing investigations, currently conducted by the authors, and relies heavily on the results of previous works, devoted to this subject.The article presents the exoskeleton dynamics equation, taking into account the impact of external forces and torques, as well as external relations imposed. Using a model of lower extremities exoskeleton developed in SolidWorks software complex, baricentric parameters of the actuator links were found. The different types of movements, committed due to harmonic changes of generalized coordinates in exoskeleton degrees of mobility, equipped with electrohydraulic actuators, were analyzed. The laws of generalized coordinate changes in time, corresponding to the worst case loading, were found. All the necessary input data for the exoskeleton dynamics equation solution were determined.The numerical values of all components of the dynamics equation were obtained as result of the dynamics equation simulation. In this case, the exoskeleton actuator load capacity was assumed to be 50 kg. The article shows dependences of torque and power in the actuator degrees of mobility on the time, as well as a curve of total capacity of all drives both, ignoring and taking into consideration the support surface reactions. Obtained dependences are the initial data for the calculation of the drive system.The proposed method for determination of exoskeleton energy parameters allows developer to perform a prompt evaluation of various options for the actuator design in accordance with the selected criteria. As a main evaluation criterion, a minimum

  14. Euro-led research team creates first ever reaction between matter and antimatter


    "An EU-funded team of international researchers has produced the first ever reaction between matter and antimatter, creating protonium. Protonium is a unique type of atom that consists of a proton and an antiproton orbiting around each other." (1 page)


    Shanahan, K.


    Cold fusion researchers have accumulated a large body of anomalous results over the last 20 years that they claim proves a new, mysterious nuclear reaction is active in systems they study. Krivit and Marwan give a brief and wholly positive view of this body of research. Unfortunately, cold fusion researchers routinely ignore conventional explanations of their observations, and claim much greater than real accuracy and precision for their techniques. This paper attempts to equally briefly address those aspects of the field with the intent of providing a balanced view of the field, and to establish some criteria for subsequent publications in this arena.

  16. A new approach for the preparation of well-defined Rh and Pt nanoparticles stabilized by phosphine-functionalized silica for selective hydrogenation reactions.

    Llop Castelbou, J; Szeto, K C; Barakat, W; Merle, N; Godard, C; Taoufik, M; Claver, C


    In this work, a new methodology for the synthesis of well-defined metallic nanoparticles supported on silica is described. This methodology is based on the surface control provided by SOMC. The nanoparticles are formed via the organometallic approach and are catalytically active in the hydrogenation of p-xylene, 3-hexyne, 4-phenyl-2 butanone, benzaldehyde, and furfural.

  17. Define Project

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas


    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  18. In Situ Environmental TEM in Imaging Gas and Liquid Phase Chemical Reactions for Materials Research.

    Wu, Jianbo; Shan, Hao; Chen, Wenlong; Gu, Xin; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao


    Gas and liquid phase chemical reactions cover a broad range of research areas in materials science and engineering, including the synthesis of nanomaterials and application of nanomaterials, for example, in the areas of sensing, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and bio-related applications. Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) provides a unique opportunity for monitoring gas and liquid phase reactions because it enables the observation of those reactions at the ultra-high spatial resolution, which is not achievable through other techniques. Here, the fundamental science and technology developments of gas and liquid phase TEM that facilitate the mechanistic study of the gas and liquid phase chemical reactions are discussed. Combined with other characterization tools integrated in TEM, unprecedented material behaviors and reaction mechanisms are observed through the use of the in situ gas and liquid phase TEM. These observations and also the recent applications in this emerging area are described. The current challenges in the imaging process are also discussed, including the imaging speed, imaging resolution, and data management.




    We describe how adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can play an important role in pharmaceutical research and drug development. Not only do ADRs represent the risks and drawbacks associated with drugs but they can also be related to other knowledge available in pharmaceutical and medical research. We offe

  20. Defining Infertility

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  1. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;


    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...... over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  2. Defining European preparedness and research needs regarding emerging infectious animal diseases: results from a Delphi expert consultation.

    Wentholt, M T A; Cardoen, S; Imberechts, H; Van Huffel, X; Ooms, B W; Frewer, L J


    Emerging and major infectious animal diseases can have significant international impact on social, economic and environmental level, and are being driven by various factors. Prevention and control measures should be prepared at both national and international level to mitigate these disease risks. Research to support such policy development is mostly carried out at national level and dedicated transnational research programmes are still in its infancy. This research reports on part of a process to develop a common strategic research agenda on emerging and major infectious diseases of livestock in Europe, covering a 5-15-year time span. A two round online Delphi study was conducted to explore the views of experts on issues relating to research needs on emerging infectious diseases of livestock in Europe. Drivers that may influence the incidence of emerging infectious animal diseases in both the short (next 5 years) and medium term (10-15 years) were identified. Drivers related to regulatory measures and biological science developments were thought to decrease the incidence, and socio-economic factors to increase the incidence of emerging infectious animal diseases. From the first round a list of threats to animal health was compiled and participants combined these threats with relevant drivers in the second round. Next to identifying threats to animal health, also possible mitigatory actions to reduce the negative impact of these threats were identified. Participants emphasised that interdisciplinary research is needed to understand drivers of emerging infectious animal diseases, as well as to develop prevention and control measures which are both socio-economic and technical. From this it can be concluded that interdisciplinary research combining both natural and social research themes is required. Some of the European member states research budget needs to be allocated so that effective prevention and mitigation strategies can be developed. Copyright © 2011

  3. 软件定义网络安全技术研究%Research on Software Defined Network Security Technology

    邵延峰; 贾哲


    With the rapid development of network scale and the diversification of network services,the original network structure is difficult to meet the needs of the future development.Software Defined Network (SDN) as a new technology realizes the separation of control plane and data plane,which can provide centralized network controll and the flexible traffic management. This will take place great changes in communication field.This paper firstly analyses the features of SDN architecture and the security threat;then gives a survey on the present development of SDN security;and finally propose the development orientation of SDN security technology including network dynamic defense,software defined monitoring,and security enforcement,which can reinforce the security of SDN,and enhance the dynamic arrangement of security resources.%随着网络规模的快速扩大及网络业务的多样化,原有的网络架构难以满足未来发展需要。软件定义网络( Software Defined Network, SDN)作为一种新兴技术,实现了控制面与数据面的解耦,能够提供网络的集中控制与流量的灵活调度,将引起通信领域的巨大变革。研究了SDN架构的特点及其面临的安全威胁;针对SDN安全技术研究现状进行了综述;从网络动态防御、软件定义监控和自身安全性增强3个方面提出了SDN安全技术的发展方向。在加强SDN自身安全性的同时提高了网络安全资源的动态调度能力。

  4. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Mechanisms of Reactions of Organometallic Compounds with Surfaces

    Williams, J


    A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the "Mechanisms of Reactions of Organometallic Compounds with Surfaces" was held in St. Andrews, Scotland in June 1988. Many of the leading international researchers in this area were present at the workshop and all made oral presentations of their results. In addition, significant amounts of time were set aside for Round Table discussions, in which smaller groups considered the current status of mechanistic knowledge, identified areas of dispute or disagreement, and proposed experiments that need to be carried out to resolve such disputes so as to advance our understanding of this important research area. All the papers presented at the workshop are collected in this volume, together with summaries of the conclusions reached at the Round Table discussions. The workshop could not have taken place without financial support from NATO, and donations were also received from Associated Octel, Ltd., STC Ltd., and Epichem Ltd., for which the organisers are very grateful. The orga...

  5. It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    Kammen, Dan


    When does a scientific journal become a community? This is not the question that we explicitly set out to address five years ago when IOP Publishing agreed to launch a new format interdisciplinary journal, Environmental Research Letters (ERL). However, on reflection, that is what ERL has become, and what it needs to continue to explore during its next years of growth and evolution. The motivation for founding ERL was initially more focused: to alter the mode of publication and review in the diverse, yet linked fields of environmental and resource studies and to ensure new levels of interaction, inclusion and equity, providing the platform for the world-changing research findings published in ERL. The key driver in this conversation was the issue of access. Specifically the situation that too many research findings were produced by, and for, very specific academic 'clubs', and that the opportunity to engage in discussion and debate over important emerging findings about our world was being severely limited by the process of publication in frequently slow-to-publish and tremendously expensive traditional academic journals. The need for change was, and still is, obvious. Environmental and resource studies have been the fastest growing and most diverse nexus of academic research, private sector concern and public sector action. Universities worldwide are adding academic and extension professorships and staff as well as experiencing increasing student interest in this area at a record pace. Corporate social and environmental sustainability has been changing dramatically and, in lurching fits and starts, a mosaic of environmental regulations—both carrots and sticks—are emerging worldwide. The 'Rio + 20' Earth Summit in June 2012 will be a testament to both the dramatic broadening of this interest, and the frustration about the lack of progress at building strong global institutions to permit international cooperation. This is a clear call for an on-going and evolving

  6. Defining Dyslexia

    Tunmer, William; Greaney, Keith


    In 2007, the New Zealand Ministry of Education formally recognized the condition of dyslexia for the first time and has subsequently developed a working definition of the condition. The aim of this article is to draw on contemporary theory and research on reading development, reading difficulties, and reading intervention to describe what the…

  7. Defining and Operationalizing the Construct of Pragmatic Competence: Review and Recommendations. Research Report. ETS RR-15-06

    Timpe Laughlin, Veronika; Wain, Jennifer; Schmidgall, Jonathan


    This review paper constitutes the first step within a larger research effort to develop an interactive pragmatics learning tool for second and foreign language (L2) learners and users of English. The tool will primarily endeavor to support pragmatics learning within the language use domain "workplace." Given this superordinate objective,…

  8. Framework for Research on Children’s Reactions to Disasters and Terrorist Events

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.


    Clinical work and research relative to child mental health during and following disaster are especially challenging due to the complex child maturational processes and family and social contexts of children’s lives. The effects of disasters and terrorist events on children and adolescents necessitate diligent and responsible preparation and implementation of research endeavors. Disasters present numerous practical and methodological barriers that may influence the selection of participants, timing of assessments, and constructs being investigated. This article describes an efficient approach to guide both novice and experienced researchers as they prepare to conduct disaster research involving children. The approach is based on five fundamental research questions: “Why?, Who?, When?, What?, and How?” Addressing each of the “four Ws” will assist researchers in determining “How” to construct and implement a study from start to finish. A simple diagram of the five questions guides the reader through the components involved in studying children’s reactions to disasters. The use of this approach is illustrated with examples from disaster mental health studies in children, thus simultaneously providing a review of the literature. PMID:23034149

  9. Framework for research on children's reactions to disasters and terrorist events.

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H


    Clinical work and research relative to child mental health during and following disaster are especially challenging due to the complex child maturational processes and family and social contexts of children's lives. The effects of disasters and terrorist events on children and adolescents necessitate diligent and responsible preparation and implementation of research endeavors. Disasters present numerous practical and methodological barriers that may influence the selection of participants, timing of assessments, and constructs being investigated. This article describes an efficient approach to guide both novice and experienced researchers as they prepare to conduct disaster research involving children. The approach is based on five fundamental research questions: "Why?, Who?, When?, What?, and How?" Addressing each of the "four Ws" will assist researchers in determining "How" to construct and implement a study from start to finish. A simple diagram of the five questions guides the reader through the components involved in studying children's reactions to disasters. The use of this approach is illustrated with examples from disaster mental health studies in children, thus simultaneously providing a review of the literature.

  10. Defining excellence.

    Mehl, B


    Excellence in the pharmacy profession, particularly pharmacy management, is defined. Several factors have a significant effect on the ability to reach a given level of excellence. The first is the economic and political climate in which pharmacists practice. Stricter controls, reduced resources, and the velocity of change all necessitate nurturing of values and a work ethic to maintain excellence. Excellence must be measured by the services provided with regard to the resources available; thus, the ability to achieve excellence is a true test of leadership and innovation. Excellence is also time dependent, and today's innovation becomes tomorrow's standard. Programs that raise the level of patient care, not those that aggrandize the profession, are the most important. In addition, basic services must be practiced at a level of excellence. Quality assessment is a way to improve care and bring medical treatment to a higher plane of excellence. For such assessment to be effective and not punitive, the philosophy of the program must be known, and the goal must be clear. Excellence in practice is dependent on factors such as political and social norms, standards of practice, available resources; perceptions, time, the motivation to progress to a higher level, and the continuous innovation required to reshape the profession to meet the needs of society.

  11. A European initiative to define research needs and foster the adoption of Managed Aquifer Recharge into river basin management

    Kneppers, Angeline; Grützmacher, Gesche; Kazner, Christian; Zojer, Hans


    The European Technology Platform for Water (WssTP) was initiated by the European Commission to federate a highly fragmented sector with the aim to foster competitive innovations and promote sustainable solutions. To achieve this, pilot programmes endorsing a bottom-up approach were launched in 2007 with a variety of stakeholders having representative water issues to solve. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was adopted as a balancing process for the safe and sustainable development, allocation and monitoring of water resource use in the context of current and future social, economic and environmental objectives. As a result key drivers were selected and a methodology was followed to identify and validate the needs with stakeholders and experts, and demonstrate solutions as an integrated part of the river basin management plans. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) was identified as a key component of integrated water resources management, especially in water scarce regions and an area relevant for further research. The paper shall summarize the process followed by the WssTP, initiating a Task Force with 36 representatives from European research institutes and industry partners with participation of a few international experts. During a workshop conducted in Graz in June 2009 these experts developed the basis for a report that has now been submitted to the European Commission for consideration in future research calls. Implementing IWRM and MAR is made difficult by the number of different water bodies, but also by the large number of stakeholders, policies, legislations and conflicting interests. The results of the MAR Task Force initiative set the basis for further discussions with the international MAR community on the relevance of the identified research needs but also on the importance and process to associate the institutional and managerial entities for capacity building and the adoption of MAR into the overall management strategies.

  12. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries:Part Ⅱ——Challenges and responses

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Yan; ZENG; Lin; LI; Xiwen; LIU


    Purpose:This paper aims to provide a systematic analysis of challenges and responses of the imminent open access-based environment so as to enable sound development of open access(OA)resource strategies.Design/methodology/approach:A systematic and evidence-based analysis is used to discover,identify,and contextualize the factors that relate or interact.A challenge metric for the overall context and additional frameworks or alternative lists is used for the detailed analysis.Findings:Research libraries are facing a reality conflict between the traditional library solution and the OA solution.New resource strategies are needed but have to be based on an open knowledge infrastructure and a systematic analysis of factors and alternatives.Support for OA publishing is becoming a major task and complicated capabilities involved call for libraries to play a central role.Hybrid collection development should be in place to take full advantages of the open world while ensuring reliable and trusted retrieval,reuse,and preservation.Research limitations:The research covers main developments in US and European countries mostly in scientific fields and for scholarly papers.Practical implications:There are already evidences for sound OA resource policies.With the imminent dominance of OA resources,research libraries should and can set up their OA resource strategies.Originality/value:The paper suggests a factor metric as an analysis framework,presents rationale lists and policies to support OA publishing,and proposes a hybrid collection strategy to plan for collection development,retrieval,and preservation.

  13. [Defining trials of medicinal products according to the revised Dutch Medical Research in Human Subjects Act (WMO)].

    Vos, E J; Huitema, A D R


    The revised Dutch Medical Research in Human Subjects Act (WMO), which implements the European directive regarding 'good clinical practice in the conduct of clinical trials on medicinal products for human use' (2001/20/EC), became effective on March 1, 2006. The revision places additional requirements on trials of medicinal products. Whether a trial should be regarded as a trial of a medicinal product is therefore an important question. The law does not provide adequate guidance for the classification of trials in which biological samples are collected, e.g. for genomic, proteomic or pharmacokinetic studies, while a medicinal product is given for a registered indication. Classifying these types of trials as trials of medicinal products does not enhance the safety of the participants. Therefore, these studies should not be considered as trials of medicinal products to avoid the increased administrative burden required by the revised WMO.

  14. 交叉口及路段拥挤界定研究%Research of Defining Congested Intersections and Sections

    畅芬叶; 王志利


    The contradiction between urban traffic supply and demand is becoming increasingly prominent. The definition and evaluation of congestion on urban roads and intersections are of significance. On the basis of the concept of congestion on intersection and road, the related researches at home and abroad were revitured,and the road and intersection congestion determination method suitable for our urban traffic operation was proposed. The evaluation method of road and intersection service level was summarized, the typical intersection delay simulation was studied through case, and the congestion's interaction mechanism between roads and intersection was discussed. The research results have theoretical significance and practical significance to our urban traffic operation evaluation and improvement.%当前,我国城市交通供需矛盾日益突出,城市道路及交叉节点的拥堵界定及拥堵评价具有重要意义.通过对交叉口及路段拥堵概念的提出,分析了国内外相关研究的成果,提出适合我国城市交通运行特征的交叉口及路段拥堵界定方法.对交叉口及路段服务水平的评价方法进行了归纳总结,通过实例研究了典型交叉口的延误仿真评价,并对交叉口与路段拥堵的相互作用机理进行了初步分析.研究成果对我国城市交通运行的评价和改善具有理论意义和实践意义.

  15. The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality.

    Diemer, Julia; Alpers, Georg W; Peperkorn, Henrik M; Shiban, Youssef; Mühlberger, Andreas


    Virtual reality (VR) has made its way into mainstream psychological research in the last two decades. This technology, with its unique ability to simulate complex, real situations and contexts, offers researchers unprecedented opportunities to investigate human behavior in well controlled designs in the laboratory. One important application of VR is the investigation of pathological processes in mental disorders, especially anxiety disorders. Research on the processes underlying threat perception, fear, and exposure therapy has shed light on more general aspects of the relation between perception and emotion. Being by its nature virtual, i.e., simulation of reality, VR strongly relies on the adequate selection of specific perceptual cues to activate emotions. Emotional experiences in turn are related to presence, another important concept in VR, which describes the user's sense of being in a VR environment. This paper summarizes current research into perception of fear cues, emotion, and presence, aiming at the identification of the most relevant aspects of emotional experience in VR and their mutual relations. A special focus lies on a series of recent experiments designed to test the relative contribution of perception and conceptual information on fear in VR. This strand of research capitalizes on the dissociation between perception (bottom-up input) and conceptual information (top-down input) that is possible in VR. Further, we review the factors that have so far been recognized to influence presence, with emotions (e.g., fear) being the most relevant in the context of clinical psychology. Recent research has highlighted the mutual influence of presence and fear in VR, but has also traced the limits of our current understanding of this relationship. In this paper, the crucial role of perception on eliciting emotional reactions is highlighted, and the role of arousal as a basic dimension of emotional experience is discussed. An interoceptive attribution model of

  16. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan


    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  17. Reaction time effects in lab- versus Web-based research: Experimental evidence.

    Hilbig, Benjamin E


    Although Web-based research is now commonplace, it continues to spur skepticism from reviewers and editors, especially whenever reaction times are of primary interest. Such persistent preconceptions are based on arguments referring to increased variation, the limits of certain software and technologies, and a noteworthy lack of comparisons (between Web and lab) in fully randomized experiments. To provide a critical test, participants were randomly assigned to complete a lexical decision task either (a) in the lab using standard experimental software (E-Prime), (b) in the lab using a browser-based version (written in HTML and JavaScript), or (c) via the Web using the same browser-based version. The classical word frequency effect was typical in size and corresponded to a very large effect in all three conditions. There was no indication that the Web- or browser-based data collection was in any way inferior. In fact, if anything, a larger effect was obtained in the browser-based conditions than in the condition relying on standard experimental software. No differences between Web and lab (within the browser-based conditions) could be observed, thus disconfirming any substantial influence of increased technical or situational variation. In summary, the present experiment contradicts the still common preconception that reaction time effects of only a few hundred milliseconds cannot be detected in Web experiments.

  18. Guideline-defining asthma clinical trials of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network.

    Denlinger, Loren C; Sorkness, Christine A; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Lemanske, Robert F


    Because of an increasing prevalence, morbidity, and mortality associated with asthma, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute created the Asthma Clinical Research Network and the Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network to improve public health. The objectives of these clinical research networks are to conduct multiple, well-designed clinical trials for rapid evaluation of new and existing therapeutic approaches to asthma and to disseminate laboratory and clinical findings to the health care community. These trials comprise a large proportion of the data driving the treatment guidelines established and reviewed by the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. This article will review the basic design and major findings of selected Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network trials involving both adults and children with asthma. Collectively, these studies have helped refine the therapeutic role of existing controller medications, establish standard models for side-effect evaluation and risk-benefit models, validate symptom-based assessments for asthma control, and identify baseline characteristics that might predict individual patient responses. Remaining challenges include shaping the role of novel therapeutics in future guidelines, incorporating pharmacogenomic data in treatment decisions, and establishing better implementation strategies for translation to community settings, all with the goal of reducing the asthma burden on society.

  19. Well-defined crystallites autoclaved from the nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system as the precursor for (Y,Eu){sub 2}O{sub 3} red phosphor: Crystallization mechanism, phase and morphology control, and luminescent property

    Zhu Qi [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Li Jiguang, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi [World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Yang, Xiaojing [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Xiaodong; Sun Xudong [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Sakka, Yoshio [Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)


    Autoclaving the rare-earth nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system under the mild conditions of 120-200 Degree-Sign C and pH 6-13 have yielded four types of well-crystallized compounds with their distinctive crystal shapes, including Ln{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Y and Eu) layered rare-earth hydroxide (hexagonal platelets), Ln{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}NO{sub 3} oxy-hydroxyl nitrate (hexagonal prisms and microwires), Ln(OH){sub 2.94}(NO{sub 3}){sub 0.06}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O hydroxyl nitrate (square nanoplates), and Ln(OH){sub 3} hydroxide (spindle-shaped microrods). The occurrence domains of the compounds are defined. Ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) as a mineralizer effectively widens the formation domains of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} containing compounds while leads to larger crystals at the same time (up to 0.3 mm). Crystallization mechanisms of the compounds and the effects of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were discussed. Optical properties (PLE/PL) of the four phases were characterized in detail and were interpreted from the different site symmetries of Eu{sup 3+}. The compounds convert to cubic-structured (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} by annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C while retaining their original crystal morphologies. The resultant phosphor oxides of diverse particle shapes exhibit differing optical properties, in terms of luminescent intensity, asymmetry factor of luminescence and fluorescence lifetime, and the underlying mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Well-defined crystallites of the various phases have been autoclaved from the nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system. Crystallization mechanisms of the compounds and the effects of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Well-defined crystallites of four phases have been hydrothermally synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The occurrence domains of the compounds are defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallization mechanisms and the

  20. Combination of nucleic acid and protein isolation with tissue array construction: using defined histologic regions in single frozen tissue blocks for multiple research purposes.

    Li, Hong; Sun, Yuan; Kong, Qing-You; Zhang, Kai-Li; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Qian; Liu, Jia


    Precise dissection of defined histological regions for nucleic acid and protein isolation is a precedent step in finding out cancer-related alterations, and high quality tissue microarrays are demanded in the validation of screened genetic alterations by multiple in situ approaches. In this study, a combined technique was developed by which sample isolation and tissue array construction could be performed on the defined morphological region(s) in single tissue block. The RNA and protein samples generated from the selected portions were of good quality and sufficient for multiple experimental purposes. The frozen tissue arrays constructed on a novel recipient are suitable for multiple in situ evaluations including immunohistochemical staining and mRNA hybridisation. In most cases, the data obtained from in situ assays coincided well with the ones revealed by RT-PCR and Western blot hybridisation. The potential experimental bias caused by cell contamination can be amended by tissue array-based retrospective examination. The combination of tissue-selective sample preparations with tissue array construction thus provide a tool by which comprehensive cancer research can be performed on defined histological regions in a series of single frozen tissue blocks.

  1. A Response to Scott's Concerns about the Relevance of Environmental Education Research: Applying Social-Ecological Systems Thinking and Consilience to Defining Research Goals

    Krasny, Marianne E.


    In William Scott's plenary address at the World Environmental Education Conference, he expressed concerns about the relevance of environmental education research in a world facing global environmental and demographic change. In responding to Scott's concerns, I argue that addressing challenges related to development and the environment requires…

  2. Defining local food

    Eriksen, Safania Normann


    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  3. On Defining Mass

    Hecht, Eugene


    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  4. Defining Effective Teaching

    Layne, L.


    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  5. Research about the Physical Reactions to Appear in Herbal Acupuncture Operating

    Kim Young-Ho


    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was done to observe the physical reactions after herbal acupuncture operating, through the questionnaire. Methods : The study group was divided into six groups that were NS group(N=20, CF group(N=22, BU group(N=23, BUM(N=19, HP group(N=20 and BV group(N=19. The herbal acupuncture was injected by 0.05ml at the Fengmen(風門:B12, Feishu(肺兪:B13, Fufen(附分:B41, Pohu(魄戶:B42 4 points. Therefore suffers recorded the existence of the symptoms on questionnaire paper which we exemplified the above symptoms on that day, in the first day, in the second day and in the seventh day. Results : The following results were obtained ; 1. General symptoms which appear in the herbal acupuncture operating were following as : pain of body partially, discomfort, pain which appear in activity and fatigue. 2. The symptoms which appear in the herbal acupuncture operating were most extreme in the first day, since then those were reduced. Conclusions : By the above results, it would be needed further research about statistically comparative-study among herbal acupunctures and alternative plans which is decreased side effect.

  6. Research on the Quantum Multistep Theory for Pre-equilibrium Nuclear Reaction


    The Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) quantum multistep theory of the pre-equilibrium reaction is further improved and perfected, A unified description for the multistep compound (MSC) process of the pre-equilibrium reaction and the compound nucleus (CN) process of full equilibrium reaction can be presented. This formula can integrate MSC and CN theories with the optical model and Hauser-Feshbach formula, and can get self-consistent expression. In multistep direct (MSB) process of the pre-equilibrium reaction, the μ-step cross section can be expressed by the convolution of μ

  7. Defining responses to therapy and study outcomes in clinical trials of invasive fungal diseases: Mycoses Study Group and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer consensus criteria.

    Segal, Brahm H; Herbrecht, Raoul; Stevens, David A; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Sobel, Jack; Viscoli, Claudio; Walsh, Thomas J; Maertens, Johan; Patterson, Thomas F; Perfect, John R; Dupont, Bertrand; Wingard, John R; Calandra, Thierry; Kauffman, Carol A; Graybill, John R; Baden, Lindsey R; Pappas, Peter G; Bennett, John E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Cordonnier, Catherine; Viviani, Maria Anna; Bille, Jacques; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Wheat, L Joseph; Graninger, Wolfgang; Bow, Eric J; Holland, Steven M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Dismukes, William E; De Pauw, Ben E


    Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have become major causes of morbidity and mortality among highly immunocompromised patients. Authoritative consensus criteria to diagnose IFD have been useful in establishing eligibility criteria for antifungal trials. There is an important need for generation of consensus definitions of outcomes of IFD that will form a standard for evaluating treatment success and failure in clinical trials. Therefore, an expert international panel consisting of the Mycoses Study Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer was convened to propose guidelines for assessing treatment responses in clinical trials of IFDs and for defining study outcomes. Major fungal diseases that are discussed include invasive disease due to Candida species, Aspergillus species and other molds, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidioides immitis. We also discuss potential pitfalls in assessing outcome, such as conflicting clinical, radiological, and/or mycological data and gaps in knowledge.

  8. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (from the FRANCE 2 Registry).

    Chopard, Romain; Meneveau, Nicolas; Chocron, Sidney; Gilard, Martine; Laskar, Marc; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Iung, Bernard; Leprince, Pascal; Teiger, Emmanuel; Chevreul, Karine; Prat, Alain; Lievre, Michel; Leguerrier, Alain; Donzeau-Gouge, Patrick; Fajadet, Jean; Schiele, Francois


    The purposes of the present study were to determine the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). A total of 3,933 consecutive patients underwent TAVI from January 2010 to December 2011 in 34 centers and were included in the French national TAVI registry "FRANCE 2"; 895 (22.7%) had concomitant COPD, 3,038 (77.3%) did not. There were no significant differences in procedural characteristics or 30-day Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined outcomes between those with and without COPD. Multivariate regression analysis showed COPD to be an independent predictor of 1-year mortality and combined efficacy end point after adjustment for concomitant co-morbidities (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.005 to 1.41, p = 0.03 and hazard ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.29 to 1.79, p <0.001, respectively). The higher mortality rate at 1 year in patients with COPD was related to cardiovascular deaths (COPD 10.0% vs non-COPD 6.2%, p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis found that the effect of COPD on 1-year mortality rate was constant across different subgroups, especially the type of approach and the type of anesthesia subgroups. In conclusion, concomitant COPD in patients referred for TAVI characterizes a high-risk population. The excess in mortality is largely determined by a higher rate of cardiovascular deaths and exists regardless of the type of procedure performed and its results.

  9. Research on the Reaction Between Technetium and Hydrazine in Nitric Acid Medium


    The reaction between technetium and hydrazine in nitric acid medium was studied by the titration ofthe concentration of hydrazine and pursuing the concentration of heptavalent technetium along with time.It is approved that the reaction between technetium and hydrazine includes an inducing period, a fast

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Theory of Chemical Reaction Dynamics


    The calculation of cross sections and rate constants for chemical reactions in the gas phase has long been a major problem in theoretical chemistry. The need for reliable and applicable theories in this field is evident when one considers the significant recent advances that have been made in developing experimental techniques, such as lasers and molecular beams, to probe the microscopic details of chemical reactions. For example, it is now becoming possible to measure cross sections for chemical reactions state selected in the vibrational­ rotational states of both reactants and products. Furthermore, in areas such as atmospheric, combustion and interstellar chemistry, there is an urgent need for reliable reaction rate constant data over a range of temperatures, and this information is often difficult to obtain in experiments. The classical trajectory method can be applied routinely to simple reactions, but this approach neglects important quantum mechanical effects such as tunnelling and resonances. For al...

  11. Research of Hydrogen Preparation with Catalytic Steam-Carbon Reaction Driven by Photo-Thermochemistry Process

    Xiaoqing Zhang


    Full Text Available An experiment of hydrogen preparation from steam-carbon reaction catalyzed by K2CO3 was carried out at 700°C, which was driven by the solar reaction system simulated with Xenon lamp. It can be found that the rate of reaction with catalyst is 10 times more than that without catalyst. However, for the catalytic reaction, there is no obvious change for the rate of hydrogen generation with catalyst content range from 10% to 20%. Besides, the conversion efficiency of solar energy to chemical energy is more than 13.1% over that by photovoltaic-electrolysis route. An analysis to the mechanism of catalytic steam-carbon reaction with K2CO3 is given, and an explanation to the nonbalanced [H2]/[CO + 2CO2] is presented, which is a phenomenon usually observed in experiment.

  12. Algebra Reform, Resarch, and the Classroom: A Reaction to a Research Base Supporting Long Term Algebra Reform.

    Burrill, Gail

    This paper is a reaction to a plenary address, "A Research Base Supporting Long Term Algebra Reform?" by James Kaput (SE 057 182). Three dimensions of algebra reform identified by Kaput (breadth, integration, and pedagogy) are discussed and contrasted with the draft version of the Algebra Document from the National Council of Teachers of…

  13. Isolation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences from an Alu polymerase chain reaction library to define the breakpoint in a patient with a constitutional translocation t(1;13) (q22;q12) and ganglioneuroblastoma.

    Michalski, A J; Cotter, F E; Cowell, J K


    We describe the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a t(1;13)(q22;q12) constitutional rearrangement occurring in a patient with a relatively benign form of neuroblastoma, called ganglioneuroblastoma. Somatic cell hybrids were generated between mouse 3T3 cells and a lymphoblastoid cell line from this patient, D.G. One isolated subclone, DGF27C11, contained the derivative chromosome, 1pter-q22::13q12-qter, but no other material from either chromosome 1 or 13. Using available DNA probes the 13 breakpoint was assigned proximal to all reported markers. In order to generate flanking markers to define this translocation further, an Alu polymerase chain reaction library was constructed from a somatic cell hybrid containing only the proximal, 13pter-13q14, region of chromosome 13. Seven unique sequences have been isolated from the library, three of which lie below and four of which lie above the 13q12 breakpoint. More precise mapping of the distal markers was achieved using a panel of somatic cell hybrids with overlapping deletions of chromosome 13. The paucity of probes in the 1q22 region has made a precise assignment of this breakpoint difficult, however it has been shown to lie distal to c-SKI and proximal to APOA2. This refined characterization of the breakpoint is a prerequisite for its cloning, which may yield genes important in the pathogenesis of ganglioneuroblastoma.

  14. 待遇确定和缴费确定模式下的企业年金精算模型研究%Research on Enterprise Annuity Fund in Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution Payment Models



    Since 1970s, there has been a great upsurge of reform around the world in endowment insurance system and retirement system. Each country around the world has put forward the idea of setting up enterprise pension system and has put it into effect. Our country is no exception. In the firm pension system employed in China, there are mainly two models defined benefit and defined contribution payment models. In this paper, we introduce two types of occupational pension systems from the point of view of risk management: defined benefit (DB) plan and defined contribution (DC) plan. The differences between the two plans are examined. We uses quantitative analysis to construct two econometrics models, derives a reasonable substitution rate of pension asset, contribution rate of pension security, and establishes pension financial management and life-long financial analysis mode. By empirical analysis, we try to work out the mutual influence among government, business, beneficiaries, pension managers. In playing game, we will maximize the overall and individual efficiency and balance efficiency.%自二十世纪七十年代以来,在世界范围之内兴起了一场养老保险制度、退休制度改革的热潮,各国纷纷推出了建立企业年金制度的政策主张并得以贯彻实施,我国的养老保险制度改革也同样显示出这样的趋势.中国实行的是企业自愿设立年金的制度,主要有收益确定型(DB)和缴费确定型(DC)两种企业年金制度,本文用模型对DB和DC两种制度下年金给付的不确定性做了比较,指出了不同具体情况下两种企业年金制度的优劣,通过探讨企业年金给付的不同确定方式,待遇确定型计划和缴费确定型计划,运用数量分析,建立两种确定方式的精算模型,得出养老资产合理替代率,养老保障分担率,建立养老理财及终生财务分析模型;通过实证分析方法,探讨政府、企业、受益人、年金管理者在相互影响,以

  15. Defining the fascial system.

    Adstrum, Sue; Hedley, Gil; Schleip, Robert; Stecco, Carla; Yucesoy, Can A


    Fascia is a widely used yet indistinctly defined anatomical term that is concurrently applied to the description of soft collagenous connective tissue, distinct sections of membranous tissue, and a body pervading soft connective tissue system. Inconsistent use of this term is causing concern due to its potential to confuse technical communication about fascia in global, multiple discipline- and multiple profession-spanning discourse environments. The Fascia Research Society acted to address this issue by establishing a Fascia Nomenclature Committee (FNC) whose purpose was to clarify the terminology relating to fascia. This committee has since developed and defined the terms a fascia, and, more recently, the fascial system. This article reports on the FNC's proposed definition of the fascial system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries:Part Ⅲ—The strategies and practices of National Science Library

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Xiwen; LIU; Lin; LI; Yan; ZENG; Li-Ping; KU


    Purpose:This paper describes the strategies and practices of National Science Library(NSL),Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS)in promoting open access(OA)and developing OA resources.Design/methodology/approach:Multi-facet frameworks are devised to guide the development of OA strategies and practices.Key OA initiatives are briefly described along the main aspects of the strategies as they contribute to implementation of the OA strategies.Findings:NSL defined its role as the Chief OA Officer for CAS and a key OA promoter for China.Accordingly,NSL has engaged in multiple fronts of promoting OA,including development of OA strategies for CAS,establishment of itself as an OA knowledge&promotion center,development of the CAS IR system,and support for OA publishing by CAS authors.Research limitations:OA is still evolving,so are the strategies and practices as many actions are experimental and explorative in nature.Open books,open data,and open educational resources are yet to be covered.Comparative studies are needed,so is the evidence-based impact analysis.Practical implications:Institutions can adopt,adapt,or compare with examples and lessons learned are described here.Originality/value:The multi-faceted frameworks,working principles,and lessons learned are based on NSL’s practices which can be valuable to the overall OA development.

  17. Some Heteroaromatic Organomercurials, Their Syntheses and Reactions: A Review of Our Research (1980-2000

    Piotr Wroczynski


    Full Text Available This review reports some novel (or improved synthetic methods for preparing a number of aromatic (carbocyclic and predominantly heterocyclic organomercurials, particularly those derived from theophylline, theobromine and uracil, as well as some novel halo- and cyano-demercuration reactions. We have also synthesized the first stable organic derivative of mercury(I, viz. 1,8-bis(acetoxydimercurio theobromine, and studied its novel reactions. We have also improved the old Willgerodt method (1897, applicable for preparing various diaryliodonium chlorides from appropriate (dichloroiodoarenes and symmetric aromatic mercurials. A full list of our works, published over the past twenty years (1980-2000, is also provided (see Refs. 1-16.

  18. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    Khandelwal, G. S.


    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  19. Theoretical Research on the Mechanism of the Dimerization Reactions of Alkyl Ketene

    Zhiguo Zhang


    Full Text Available A quantum chemical method was employed to investigate the mechanism of dimerization reactions of alkyl ketene. All the geometric configurations of the stationary points on the reactions path were optimized with Gaussian03 employing density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311G++(d, p level by energy gradient technique. The transition states were also investigated through synchronous transit method, and its reasonability was confirmed by using frequency analysis and intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis. The results can be summed up as follows: according to the frontier orbital theory, the dimerization reaction (3 to generate four-membered carbon cyclic product P3 is forbidden. Two different dimerization processes of alkyl ketene are all concerted but nonsynchronous, taking place through twisted four-membered cyclic transition states. The activation energies were calculated to be 34.54 and 61.73 kJ/mol, respectively for the two ketene dimerization processes. Calculation results satisfactorily explained the experimental facts.

  20. Defining and measuring pilot mental workload

    Kantowitz, Barry H.


    A theory is sought that is general enough to help the researcher deal with a wide range of situations involving pilot mental stress. A limited capacity theory of attention forms the basis for the theory. Mental workload is then defined as an intervening variable, similar to attention, that modulates or indexes the tuning between the demands of the environment and the capacity of the organism. Two methods for measuring pilot mental workload are endorsed: (1) objective measures based on secondary tasks; and (2) psychophysiological measures, which have not yet been perfected but which will become more useful as theoretical models are refined. Secondary-task research is illustrated by simulator studies in which flying performance has been shown not to be adversely affected by adding a complex choice-reaction secondary task.

  1. Reactions to Participating in Dating Violence Research: Are Our Questions Distressing Participants?

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Cornelius, Tara L.; Bell, Kathryn M.


    In recent years, there has been increased research focus on dating violence, producing important information for reducing these violent relationships. Yet Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are often hesitant to approve research on dating violence, citing emotional distress of participants as a possible risk of participation. However, no known…

  2. Capture reactions

    Endt, P.M.


    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation proces

  3. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    Elliott, D. G.


    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  4. The Ethical Judgment and Moral Reaction to the Product-Harm Crisis: Theoretical Model and Empirical Research

    Dong Lu


    Full Text Available Based on the dual-process theory of ethical judgment, a research model is proposed for examining consumers’ moral reactions to a product-harm crisis. A national-wide survey was conducted with 801 respondents in China. The results of this study indicate that consumers will react to a product-harm crisis through controlled cognitive processing and emotional intuition. The results of the study also show that consumers view a product-harm crisis as an ethical issue, and they will make an ethical judgment according to the perceived severity and perceived relevance of the crisis. The ethical judgment in the perceived crisis severity and perceived crisis relevance will affect consumers’ condemning emotions in terms of contempt and anger. Through controlled cognitive processing, a personal consumption-related reaction (purchasing intention is influenced by the perceived crisis severity. Furthermore, a social and interpersonal reaction (negative word of mouth is influenced by the perceived crisis relevance through the controlled cognitive processing. This social and interpersonal reaction is also influenced by the perceived crisis severity and perceived crisis relevance through the intuition of other-condemning emotion. Moreover, this study finds that the product knowledge negatively moderates the impact of the perceived crisis severity on the condemning emotions. Therefore, when a consumer has a high level of product knowledge, the effect of perceived crisis severity on the condemning emotions will be attenuated, and vice versa. This study provides scholars and managers with means of understanding and handling of consumers’ reactions to a product-harm crisis.

  5. Theoretical research program to study chemical reactions in AOTV bow shock tubes

    Taylor, Peter R.


    The main focus was the development, implementation, and calibration of methods for performing molecular electronic structure calculations to high accuracy. These various methods were then applied to a number of chemical reactions and species of interest to NASA, notably in the area of combustion chemistry. Among the development work undertaken was a collaborative effort to develop a program to efficiently predict molecular structures and vibrational frequencies using energy derivatives. Another major development effort involved the design of new atomic basis sets for use in chemical studies: these sets were considerably more accurate than those previously in use. Much effort was also devoted to calibrating methods for computing accurate molecular wave functions, including the first reliable calibrations for realistic molecules using full CI results. A wide variety of application calculations were undertaken. One area of interest was the spectroscopy and thermochemistry of small molecules, including establishing small molecule binding energies to an accuracy rivaling, or even on occasion surpassing, the experiment. Such binding energies are essential input to modeling chemical reaction processes, such as combustion. Studies of large molecules and processes important in both hydrogen and hydrocarbon combustion chemistry were also carried out. Finally, some effort was devoted to the structure and spectroscopy of small metal clusters, with applications to materials science problems.

  6. Research



    Feb 17, 2012 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ..... However, this system has great potential to negatively affect access to ... Dr. Samuel Yaw Opoku: Defining the Concept and Research Design; ...

  7. Framework for Research on Children’s Reactions to Disasters and Terrorist Events

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.


    Clinical work and research relative to child mental health during and following disaster are especially challenging due to the complex child maturational processes and family and social contexts of children’s lives. The effects of disasters and terrorist events on children and adolescents necessitate diligent and responsible preparation and implementation of research endeavors. Disasters present numerous practical and methodological barriers that may influence the selection of participants, t...

  8. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    Grayver, Eugene


    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  9. Statistical values of valence electron structure parameters applied to research on phase transition temperature and eutectoid reaction of titanium alloy


    Based on the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), the statisti- cal values of valence electron structure parameters SnA and SEA which can char- acterize the properties of alloy phases are calculated, and influences of alloying elements (e.g., V, Nb, Mo, Hf, Zr, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Si, and so on) on the phase transi- tion temperature and eutectoid reaction of titanium alloy are discussed with the statistical values of valence electron structure parameters. The research results agree well with real situations.

  10. The research of neurospecific proteins and lysosomal peptidehydrolases in frontal neocortex during forming conditioned reaction of active avoiding of rats

    Vyatkin O. K.


    Full Text Available Dynamics of the activity of neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM and lysosomal cysteine cathepsins B, L, H was researched in frontal neocortex of rat brain during forming a conditioned reaction of active avoiding. The quantitative estimation of NCAM content in the neocortex membrane fraction was carried on by ELISA in 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after starting animals’ training. The dynamics correlation between the NCAM content increasing and cysteine cathepsins activity was obtained, especially for aminopeptidase cathepsin H during the process of memory engram forming in frontal neocortex of rat brain.

  11. IAEA coordinated research project on nuclear data for charged-particle monitor reactions and medical isotope production

    Capote, Roberto; Nichols, Alan L.; Nortier, Francois Meiring; Carlson, Brett V.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Hermanne, Alex; Hussain, Mazhar; Ignatyuk, Anatoly V.; Kellett, Mark A.; Kibédi, Tibor; Kim, Guinyun; Kondev, Filip G.; Lebeda, Ondrej; Luca, Aurelian; Naik, Haladhara; Nagai, Yasuki; Spahn, Ingo; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula V.; Tárkányi, Ferenc T.; Verpelli, Marco


    An IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish and improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions and extend data for medical radionuclide production. An international team was assembled to undertake work addressing the requirements for more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. These studies are nearing completion, and are briefly described below.

  12. In pursuit of eternal beauty in the very instantaneous——A glance at molecular reaction dynamics research at DICP

    SONG Jianlan


    @@ Enchanted by the glamour of the fascinating effects resulting from the collisions between the molecules of hydrogen, deuteride and fluorine, Prof. YANG Xueming never expects to attract too many spotlights. However, over the past few years after his returning to the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), CAS, his team was frequently caught by the media on the center stage. Discoveries made by his team ranked top 10 S&T advancements of China consecutively in 2006 and 2007. Significant progress was also made in 2008 by this group in the research field of molecular reaction dynamics, and he himself has won a number of important awards and prizes.

  13. [Prevalence of disability among leprosy patients and effectiveness of leprosy reaction services with standard prednisolone treatment at field level in an endemic country--some data from joint leprosy research collaboration in Myanmar].

    Ishida, Yutaka


    Prevalence of disability among leprosy patients and effectiveness of standard predonisolone treatment for leprosy reaction at field level in some place of Myanmar are shown in this paper as results of joint leprosy research collaboration. WHO disability grading was measured for all newly registered leprosy patients through 2007 in 5 selected townships of Ayeyarwaddy Division, with the results of G0 = 66.3%, GI = 18.9%, GII = 14.7% (N = 95). The cross-sectional disability survey at selected 9 townships in Mandalay, Sagaing and Magway Division for all registered patients who had completed WHO/MDT done by JICA project in 2003/4 showed G0 = 62.5%, GI = 2.4%, GII = 35.1% (N = 10,528). From these two data, it is supposed that considerable number of patients with G1 at registered time developed worsening of disability from G1 to G2. Proportion of G0 also reduced a little bit in patients who completed WHO/MDT. Early detection and proper treatment of leprosy reaction are one of the main issues of prevention of disability. Effectiveness of leprosy reaction services were evaluated at Mandalay Special Skin Clinic, where WHO fixed regimen of prednisolone were given as routine service. 100 cases were evaluated who developed leprosy reactions from 1st December 2007 to 31st December 2008 and identified severe reaction who needed oral prednisolone treatment. Evaluation criteria of "effective" was defined as "no more signs and symptoms of reactions were present after treatment. And "less effective" was defined as "more than one of signs and symptoms were still remained after treatment". Over all "effective" was 36 (36%) and "less effective" was 64 (64%). It was also found that rates of improvement of nerve functions, either in sensory or in motor, were little after the standard treatment.

  14. 软件无线电数字信号处理器体系结构研究%Software Defined Radio Digital Signal Processor Architecture Research

    刘衡竹; 莫方政; 张波涛; 赵恒; 刘冬培; 陈艇; 周理


    Software defined radio (SDR) has won much interest for being considered to be in line with the trend of wireless communication developrnent. Now the digital signal processor (DSP) is the bottleneck of software defined radio. The advantages and disadvantages of diverse architecture of software defined radio digital signal processor are summarized, and then the trends of software defined radio digital signal processor are discussed.%软件无线电因被认为是无线通信技术未来的发展趋势而受到广泛关注.目前数字信号处理器是软件无线电发展的瓶颈.通过分析、比较目前几种较为典型的软件无线电数字信号处理器结构,归纳总结各种结构各自设计出发点和优缺点,并对软件无线电数字信号处理器的发展趋势做了展望.

  15. Alterations of Cellular Immune Reactions in Crew Members Overwintering in the Antarctic Research Station Concordia

    Crucian, Brian; Feuerecker, Matthias; Moreels, Marjan; Crucian, Brian; Kaufmann, Ines; Salam, Alex Paddy; Rybka, Alex; Ulrike, Thieme; Quintens, Roel; Sams, Clarence F.; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred; Baatout, Sarah; Chouker, Alexander


    Background: Concordia Station is located inside Antarctica about 1000km from the coast at an altitude of 3200m (Dome C). Hence, individuals living in this harsh environment are exposed to two major conditions: 1.) hypobaric hypoxia and 2.) confinement and extreme isolation. Both hypoxia and confinement can affect human immunity and health, and are likely to be present during exploration class space missions. This study focused on immune alterations measured by a new global immunity test assay, similar to the phased out delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. Methods: After informed written consent 14 healthy male subjects were included to the CHOICE-study (Consequences-of-longterm-Confinement-and-Hypobaric-HypOxia-on-Immunity-in-the Antarctic-Concordia-Environment). Data collection occurred during two winter-over periods lasting each one year. During the first campaign 6 healthy male were enrolled followed by a second campaign with 8 healthy males. Blood was drawn monthly and incubated for 48h with various bacterial, viral and fungal antigens followed by an analysis of plasma cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL2, IFN-gamma, IL10). As a control, blood was incubated without stimulation ("resting condition"). Goals: The scope of this study was to assess the consequences of hypoxia and confinement on cellular immunity as assessed by a new in vitro DTH-like test. Results: Initial results indicate that under resting conditions the in vitro DTH-like test showed low cytokine levels which remained almost unchanged during the entire observation period. However, cytokine responses to viral, bacterial and fungal antigens were remarkably reduced at the first month after arrival at Concordia when compared to levels measured in Europe prior to departure for Antarctica. With incrementing months of confinement this depressed DTH-like response tended to reverse, and in fact to show an "overshooting" immune reaction after stimulation. Conclusion: The reduced in vitro DTH-like test

  16. Press CRTT to measure aggressive behavior: the unstandardized use of the competitive reaction time task in aggression research.

    Elson, Malte; Mohseni, M Rohangis; Breuer, Johannes; Scharkow, Michael; Quandt, Thorsten


    The competitive reaction time task (CRTT) is the measure of aggressive behavior most commonly used in laboratory research. However, the test has been criticized for issues in standardization because there are many different test procedures and at least 13 variants to calculate a score for aggressive behavior. We compared the different published analyses of the CRTT using data from 3 different studies to scrutinize whether it would yield the same results. The comparisons revealed large differences in significance levels and effect sizes between analysis procedures, suggesting that the unstandardized use and analysis of the CRTT have substantial impacts on the results obtained, as well as their interpretations. Based on the outcome of our comparisons, we provide suggestions on how to address some of the issues associated with the CRTT, as well as a guideline for researchers studying aggressive behavior in the laboratory.

  17. Closeup of research pilot Neil Armstrong operating the Iron Cross Attitude Simulator reaction contro


    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  18. Študija paradigm raziskovanja v magistrskih nalogah s področja družboslovja = A Study on Defining Research Paradigms in Preparing Master’s Theses from the Field of Sociology

    Anita Trnavčevič


    Full Text Available The requirement for completion of post-graduate, master and doctoralstudy programs is producing an individual thesis. For many students,this is the first step into research. The research question in this article,therefore, is how students in their master thesis define the paradigms.We found that in the sample the quantitative paradigm is prevailing,while the mixed methods design is present, yet both of them are seldomdefined.

  19. Defining the Internet of Things

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise


    How can a definition be given to what does not yet exist ? The Internet of Things, as it is conceptualized by researchers or imagined by science-fiction writers such as Bruce Sterling, is not yet reality and if we try to define it accurately we risk rash predictions. In order to better comprehend this notion, let us first define the main principles of the IoT as given in research papers and reports on the subject. Definitions gradually established Almost all agree that the Internet of Things...

  20. Defining the Internet of Things

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise


    How can a definition be given to what does not yet exist ? The Internet of Things, as it is conceptualized by researchers or imagined by science-fiction writers such as Bruce Sterling, is not yet reality and if we try to define it accurately we risk rash predictions. In order to better comprehend this notion, let us first define the main principles of the IoT as given in research papers and reports on the subject. Definitions gradually established Almost all agree that the Internet of Things...

  1. Definable deduction relation



    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  2. Laboratory studies of reactions of atmospheric gases with components of mineral dust aerosol and research in chemical education

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer Dianne

    Mineral dust aerosol surfaces provide a medium in the atmosphere for heterogeneous chemistry to occur, which can alter the chemical balance of the Earth's atmosphere. It is becoming increasingly clear that the heterogeneous chemistry of these aerosols is a function of relative humidity (RH), as water on the surface of these particles can enhance or inhibit reactivity depending on the reaction. In this thesis, the uptake of water on clays and oxides was investigated, as well as phase transitions for atmospherically relevant salts. Reactions of carbon dioxide and nitric acid on oxide particles in the presence and absence of water were also examined. Following the reaction of HNO 3 on an alumina surface, photoirradiation experiments were preformed to determine the effect of irradiation on the adsorbed nitrate. The results presented in this thesis provide insight into the heterogeneous reactivity of mineral dust aerosol in the presence and absence of co-adsorbed water, as well as a fundamental understanding of water uptake on soluble and insoluble aerosols. A new method, using a quartz crystal microbalance, was developed to attempt to obtain a better fundamental understanding of different mineral dust components. In addition to the laboratory research, research in chemical education is also presented in this thesis. Two different types of work being done in the area of chemical education are shown. First a new experiment was implemented into an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The technique, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, was chosen for its ability to expose students to a technique that is commonly used in laboratory research as well as the ease for which high quality results can be obtained. Students used ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor sulfate, SO 42-, adsorption on TiO2 thin films. Second, the role of cognitive load and problem difficulty was accessed with data acquired while students completed an introductory-level chemistry word problem using a web-based tool

  3. Synthesis of Well-Defined Copper "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes and Their Use as Catalysts for a "Click Reaction": A Multistep Experiment that Emphasizes the Role of Catalysis in Green Chemistry

    Ison, Elon A.; Ison, Ana


    A multistep experiment for an advanced synthesis lab course that incorporates topics in organic-inorganic synthesis and catalysis and highlights green chemistry principles was developed. Students synthesized two "N"-heterocyclic carbene ligands, used them to prepare two well-defined copper(I) complexes and subsequently utilized the complexes as…

  4. Synthesis of Well-Defined Copper "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes and Their Use as Catalysts for a "Click Reaction": A Multistep Experiment that Emphasizes the Role of Catalysis in Green Chemistry

    Ison, Elon A.; Ison, Ana


    A multistep experiment for an advanced synthesis lab course that incorporates topics in organic-inorganic synthesis and catalysis and highlights green chemistry principles was developed. Students synthesized two "N"-heterocyclic carbene ligands, used them to prepare two well-defined copper(I) complexes and subsequently utilized the complexes as…

  5. Defining the Interactions of Cellobiohydrolase with Substrate through Structure Function Studies: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-409

    Beckham, G. T.; Himmel, M. E.


    NREL researchers will use their expertise and skilled resources in numerical computational modeling to generate structure-function relationships for improved cellulase variant enzymes to support the development of cellulases with improved performance in biomass conversion.

  6. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil


    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  7. 科技型中小企业界定问题研究%The Research of Defining Scientific Small and Middle Enterprises

    罗亚非; 洪荧


    Hi-tech SMEs are the most important part in economic development. However so far for the definition of Hi-tech SMEs does not have yet to unify,and the data of Hi-tech SMEs have not been collected. This has inconvenience for the economic management and theoretical research of Hi-tech SMEs. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of Hi-tech SMEs in quality and quantity, and discuss the definition standard for the Hi-tech SMEs. We hope our work can contribute to the development of Hi-tech SMEs and related management and research.

  8. Analysis on the `Thermite` reaction consequences in accidents involving research reactors using plate-type fuel; Analisis sobre las concequencias de la reaccion `Termita` en caso de accidentes en reactores de investigacion que utilizan combustible tipo placa

    Boero, Norma L.; Bruno, Hernan R.; Camacho, Esteban F.; Cincotta, Daniel O.; Yorio, Daniel [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes


    The mixture of Al-U{sub 3} O{sub 8} is not in a state of chemical equilibrium, and at temperatures of between 850 deg C and 1000 deg C, it reacts exo thermally. This is known, in corresponding bibliography as a `Thermite reaction. This mixture is used in the manufacturing of the plate-type fuel used in research reactors. It has been pointed out that the release of energy caused by this type of reactions might represent a risk in case of accidents in this type of reactor. Conclusions, in general, tend to indicate that no such risk exists, although no concrete assurance is given that this is the case, and this fact, therefore, leaves room for doubt. The objective of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of what happens to a fuel plate when it is subjected to thermite reaction. We will, furthermore, analyze the consequences of the release of energy generated by this type of reaction within the core of the reactor, clearly defining the problem for this type of fuel and this kind of reactor. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries: Part Ⅰ—The coming main streamlization of open access resources?

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Lin; LI; Xiwen; LIU; Yan; ZENG


    Open access(OA)resources are becoming a main part of scholarly information.The paper summarizes the fast growth of OA journals and OA repositories,the outstanding OA journal impact increase,the rise of mega-OA journals like PLoS ONE,the overwhelming support of research communities to open access of publicly funded research,and the quick building up of OA support structures.These forces work together to push scholarly communications toward a turning point where OA resources occupy a major and increasing share of scholarly research resources and when management of OA resources becomes a strategic,yet unfamiliar,and potentially disruptive task for research libraries.This paper is composed of two parts.The first part will focus on the development of OA resources,while the second part will analyze the challenges in management of OA resources and develop an OA resource strategy exemplified by some of NSL’s initiatives.

  10. Defining Legal Moralism

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard


    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  11. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Defining and classifying non-substance or behavioral addictions.

    Potenza, Marc N


    Multiple controversies exist currently in the field of behavioral addictions. The opinion article by Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage and Heeren (2015) proposes an approach to considering which behaviors might be considered as foci for addictions. The article raises multiple important points that foster further dialog and highlight the need for additional research. Given that how specific behaviors are considered from diagnostic and classification perspectives holds significant public health implications, targeting and eliminating current knowledge gaps relating to behavioral addictions is an important undertaking.

  12. On defining dietary fibre.

    DeVries, Jonathan W


    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  13. Defining the states of consciousness.

    Tassi, P; Muzet, A


    Consciousness remains an elusive concept due to the difficulty to define what has been regarded for many years as a subjective experience, therefore irrelevant for scientific study. Recent development in this field of research has allowed to provide some new insight to a possible way to define consciousness. Going through the extensive literature in this domain, several perspectives are proposed to define this concept. (1) Consciousness and Attention may not reflect the same process. (2) Consciousness during wake and sleep may not involve the same mechanisms. (3) Besides physiological states of consciousness, human beings can experience modified states of consciousness either by self-training (transcendental meditation, hypnosis, etc.) or by drug intake (hallucinogens, anaesthetics, etc.). Altogether, we address the question of a more precise terminology, given the theoretical weight words can convey. To this respect, we propose different definitions for concepts like consciousness, vigilance, arousal and alertness as candidates to separate functional entities.

  14. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for the reversible reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. III - Computed points to define a global potential energy surface

    Walch, Stephen P.; Duchovic, Ronald J.


    Computed energies and geometries are reported which, combined with previously published calculations, permit a global representation of the potential energy surface for the reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. These new calculations characterize the potential energy surface (PES) for all H atom angles of approach to O2 and for the region of the inner repulsive wall. The region of the T-shaped H-O2 exchange saddle point is connected with the constrained energy minimum (CEM) path, and a new collinear H-O2 exchange saddle point is characterized which lies only 9 kcal/mol above the H + O2 asymptote. A vibrational analysis which utilizes local cubic and quartic polynomial representations of the PES along the CEM path has been carried out. Optimal geometries, energies, and harmonic frequencies are reported along with anharmonic analyses for the O2 and OH asymptotes and for the HO2 minimum region of the PES.

  15. Adaptive Water Governance: Assessing the Institutional Prescriptions of Adaptive (Co-Management from a Governance Perspective and Defining a Research Agenda

    Dave Huitema


    Full Text Available This article assesses the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-management based on a literature review of the (water governance literature. The adaptive (co-management literature contains four institutional prescriptions: collaboration in a polycentric governance system, public participation, an experimental approach to resource management, and management at the bioregional scale. These prescriptions largely resonate with the theoretical and empirical insights embedded in the (water governance literature. However, this literature also predicts various problems. In particular, attention is called to the complexities associated with participation and collaboration, the difficulty of experimenting in a real-world setting, and the politicized nature of discussion on governance at the bioregional scale. We conclude this article by outlining a common research agenda that invites the collaborative efforts of adaptive (co-management and governance scholars.

  16. Defining Documentary Film

    Juel, Henrik


    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  17. Definably amenable NIP groups

    Chernikov, Artem; Simon, Pierre


    We study definably amenable NIP groups. We develop a theory of generics, showing that various definitions considered previously coincide, and study invariant measures. Applications include: characterization of regular ergodic measures, a proof of the conjecture of Petrykowski connecting existence of bounded orbits with definable amenability in the NIP case, and the Ellis group conjecture of Newelski and Pillay connecting the model-theoretic connected component of an NIP group with the ideal s...

  18. Research of Use-Defined Aggregate Map Server Based WMS Service%WMS的自定义地图服务聚合技术研究

    许朝晖; 陈荣国; 谢炯


    针对网络地图服务资源多样化及其共享开放性的特点和WMS服务资源多但实际使用者少的缺点,研究了一种聚合WMS服务的使用方法,使得用户可以根据需求自由组合WMS服务提供的地图资源,从而产生满足用户需求的地图服务聚合应用.通过研究服务信息获取验证和服务聚合操作可视化等关键技术,实现了基于WMS地图服务的聚合应用系统.%In accordance with the Web Map Service resources diversification and the sharing opes characteristics. in vicw of the shortcoming that there were many WMs service resources but few actual users, a method to aggregate the WMs service was studied. By this method, according to the demands, the users were able to frely combine the map resources which were provided by WMS service. thus the map service aggrggation application satisfying the users nt was able to bc produced. With the research on the key technologies of service information gain. verifieation and service aggregation operation visualization an aggregation application system was realized hased on the WMS service.

  19. Ethics of the electrified mind: defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care.

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Evans, Emily L; Hamilton, Roy H


    In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice.

  20. How to consistently link extraversion and intelligence to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene: on defining and measuring psychological phenotypes in neurogenetic research.

    Wacker, Jan; Mueller, Erik M; Hennig, Jürgen; Stemmler, Gerhard


    The evidence for associations between genetic polymorphisms and complex behavioral/psychological phenotypes (traits) has thus far been weak and inconsistent. Using the well-studied Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene as an example, we demonstrate that using theoretical models to guide phenotype definition and measuring the phenotypes of interest with a high degree of specificity reveals strong gene-behavior associations that are consistent with prior work and that would have otherwise gone unnoticed. Only after statistically controlling for irrelevant portions of phenotype variance did we observe strong (Cohen's d = 0.33-0.70) and significant associations between COMT Val158Met and both cognitive and affective traits in a healthy male sample (N = 201) in Study 1: Carriers of the Met allele scored higher in fluid intelligence (reasoning) but lower in both crystallized intelligence (general knowledge) and the agency facet of extraversion. In Study 2, we conceptually replicated the association of COMT Val158Met with the agency facet of extraversion after partialing irrelevant phenotype variance in a female sample (N = 565). Finally, through reanalysis of a large published data set we showed that Met allele carriers also scored higher in indicators of fluid intelligence after partialing verbal fluency. Because the Met allele codes for a less efficient variant of the enzyme COMT, resulting in higher levels of extrasynaptic prefrontal dopamine, these observations provide further support for a role for dopamine in both intelligence and extraversion. More importantly, the present findings have important implications for the definition of psychological phenotypes in neurogenetic research.

  1. Research on optimal process parameters in thermally oxidation-assisted polishing of reaction-sintered silicon carbide

    Shen, Xinmin; Yamamura, Kazuya; Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xiangpo; Wang, Dong; Peng, Kang


    Reaction-sintered silicon carbide (RS-SiC) has been widely used in space telescope systems for its excellent physical and mechanical properties. Thermally oxidation-assisted polishing is a practical machining method to obtain RS-SiC parts with high precision, and the research focus is optimization of process parameters, because there are bumpy structures on the oxidized RS-SiC. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) detection, the distributions of oxides on the oxidized RS-SiC sample are quantitative analyzed when the thermal oxidation time is 5min, 30min, and 60min, and the calculated average differences of oxide heights between the initial Si grains and SiC grains are 10.7nm, 25.1nm, and 35.2nm, respectively. Meanwhile, the volume expansion coefficient in oxidation of Si/SiC to SiO2 is 2.257 and 2.194, respectively. Through theoretical derivation based on the Deal-Grove model, the numerical relationship between differences of oxide heights and thermal oxidation time is obtained. Combining with the material removal rate of oxide by ceria slurry in the abrasive polishing, the obtained surface quality can be precisely forecasted and controlled. The oxidized RS-SiC sample, when the oxidation time is 30min, is polished with different times to verify the theoretical analysis results. When the polishing times are 20min, 30min, and 40min, the obtained differences of oxide heights by the AFM detection are consistent with theoretical calculated results. Research on the optimal process parameters in thermally oxidation-assisted polishing of RS-SiC can improve the process level of RS-SiC sample and promote the application of SiC parts.

  2. Efficient Computational Research Protocol to Survey Free Energy Surface for Solution Chemical Reaction in the QM/MM Framework: The FEG-ER Methodology and Its Application to Isomerization Reaction of Glycine in Aqueous Solution.

    Takenaka, Norio; Kitamura, Yukichi; Nagaoka, Masataka


    In solution chemical reaction, we often need to consider a multidimensional free energy (FE) surface (FES) which is analogous to a Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. To survey the FES, an efficient computational research protocol is proposed within the QM/MM framework; (i) we first obtain some stable states (or transition states) involved by optimizing their structures on the FES, in a stepwise fashion, finally using the free energy gradient (FEG) method, and then (ii) we directly obtain the FE differences among any arbitrary states on the FES, efficiently by employing the QM/MM method with energy representation (ER), i.e., the QM/MM-ER method. To validate the calculation accuracy and efficiency, we applied the above FEG-ER methodology to a typical isomerization reaction of glycine in aqueous solution, and reproduced quite satisfactorily the experimental value of the reaction FE. Further, it was found that the structural relaxation of the solute in the QM/MM force field is not negligible to estimate correctly the FES. We believe that the present research protocol should become prevailing as one computational strategy and will play promising and important roles in solution chemistry toward solution reaction ergodography.

  3. Can play be defined?

    Eichberg, Henning


    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  4. Nouns to Define Homophobia

    Adalberto Campo Arias


    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  5. Defining "intermittent UVR exposure"

    Bodekær, Mette; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Petersen, Bibi Øager;


    to define and quantify “intermittent UVR exposure” by an objective measure. Methods: A broad study population of adults and children had data collected during a summer period. Data were personal UVR dosimetry measurements, from which the number of “intermittent days” was derived, sun behaviour diaries.......001). The corresponding numbers for prediction of nevi and lentigo density by retrospective questionnaire data was lower (R2 = 0.11, R2 = 0.26, p defined objective measure of intermittent UVR exposure. This measure may provide a better prediction of solar skin damage and CMM...

  6. Defining Data Science

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun


    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  7. Defining Mathematical Giftedness

    Parish, Linda


    This theoretical paper outlines the process of defining "mathematical giftedness" for a present study on how primary school teaching shapes the mindsets of children who are mathematically gifted. Mathematical giftedness is not a badge of honour or some special value attributed to a child who has achieved something exceptional.…

  8. Software Defined Networking

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...

  9. Defining Game Mechanics

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel


    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  10. Defining in Classroom Activities.

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra; Fischbein, Efraim


    Discusses some aspects of the defining process in geometrical context in the reference frame of the theory of "figural concepts." Presents analysis of some examples taken from a teaching experiment at the sixth-grade level. Contains 30 references. (Author/ASK)

  11. Defining Game Mechanics

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel


    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  12. Defining Teacher Communication Competence.

    Friedrich, Gustav W.

    Instructional communication research may be examined from the perspective of teacher effectiveness research, based on three dominant 20th-century philosophical traditions: logical empiricism, interpretive theories, and critical theory. Since at least 1896, scholars have used empirical research methodology (largely "logical empiricism," modeled…


    Stair, Peter C.


    presentations on chemistry at solid and liquid surfaces of relevance to catalysis, synthesis, photochemistry, environmental science, and tribology. Topics include: Fundamental Surface Chemistry; Catalysis; Solid Liquid and Aerosol Interfaces; Surface Photochemistry; Synthesis of Surfaces; Environmental Interfaces; Hot Topics in Surface Chemical Reactions; Tribology; Gas-Surface Scattering and Reactions; Novel Materials and Environments.

  14. Defining research priorities for developmental logistics

    Ittmann, HW


    Full Text Available by Trade and Industry South Africa in 2001 highlighted specific supply-chain challenges from different perspectives. Some of these challenges are listed below: Industry overview Base chemicals (ethylene and other petrochemical building blocks, ammonia... role players involved. Similar innovation with respect to the utilisation of rail could in future result from joint operational planning with Spoornet. All final products in the chlorine industry are hazardous and the key challenge for the chlorine...

  15. Audiences : Defining and Researching Screen Entertainment Reception


    This timely volume engages with one of the most important shifts in recent film studies: the turn away from text-based analysis towards the viewer. Historically, this marks a return to early interest in the effect of film on the audience by psychoanalysts and psychologists, which was overtaken by concern with the 'effects' of film, linked to calls for censorship and moral panics rather than to understanding the mental and behavioral world of the spectator. Early cinema history has revealed th...

  16. Defining Legal Moralism

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard


    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  17. Define Digital Vernacular

    刘佳; 李海英; James Stevens; Rough Nelson


    As science and technology developed, the tools of humans developed from humans’hands, to mechanical and digital technologies. The tools influ-ence almost everything in the humans’world, so does vernacular. The digital vernacular could be understood as using digital technology to vernacular; the digital means technologies. It also could be understood as doing vernacular in a digital way;the digital means data and information, in other words it can be seeking truth from facts. Define digital vernacular is not only what is digital vernacular, but also about how to do the digital vernacular and what kind of attitude we should hold to-ward the digital vernacular. Define digital vernacular as both thinking and doing.

  18. [To define internet addiction].

    Tonioni, Federico


    Internet addiction is a new behavioral disorder difficult to define, especially when referring to young teenagers who make great use of web-mediated relationships. It's necessary to separate the cases of overt dependency on those in which the abuse of internet seems to have a different value, offering the only way to achieve the possible relationship. Internet is mediating a new way of communicating and thinking, this may favor the onset of clinical phenomena intended to surprise.

  19. Decidability of definability

    Tsankov, Manuel Bodirsky; Michael Pinsker; Todor


    For a fixed infinite structure $\\Gamma$ with finite signature $\\tau$, we study the following computational problem: Input are quantifier-free first-order $\\tau$-formulas $\\phi_0,\\phi_1,\\dots,\\phi_n$ that define relations $R_0,R_1,\\dots,R_n$ over $\\Gamma$. The question is whether the relation $R_0$ is primitive positive definable from $R_1,\\ldots,R_n$, i.e., definable by a first-order formula that uses only relation symbols for $R_1, \\dots, R_n$, equality, conjunctions, and existential quantification (disjunction, negation, and universal quantification are forbidden). We show decidability of this problem for all structures $\\Gamma$ that have a first-order definition in an ordered homogeneous structure $\\Delta$ with a finite language whose age is a Ramsey class and determined by finitely many forbidden substructures. Examples for structures $\\Gamma$ with this property are the order of the rationals, the random graph, the homogeneous universal poset, the random tournament, all homogeneous universal $C$-relations...

  20. Innovation Defined, a Survey

    Van der Kooij, B.J.G.


    This paper focusses on the definition of the word ‘innovation’ as used in scholarly manuscripts (books and articles) about the topic of Innovation. The research was done in 1988, and reported in the Dutch Language in a Research Paper of the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). As preparation f

  1. Innovation Defined, a Survey

    Van der Kooij, B.J.G.


    This paper focusses on the definition of the word ‘innovation’ as used in scholarly manuscripts (books and articles) about the topic of Innovation. The research was done in 1988, and reported in the Dutch Language in a Research Paper of the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). As preparation f

  2. Defining Z in Q

    Koenigsmann, Jochen


    We show that ${\\mathbb Z}$ is definable in ${\\mathbb Q}$ by a universal first-order formula in the language of rings. We also present an $\\forall\\exists$-formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$ with just one universal quantifier. We exhibit new diophantine subsets of ${\\mathbb Q}$ like the set of non-squares or the complement of the image of the norm map under a quadratic extension. Finally, we show that there is no existential formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$, provided one assumes a strong variant of the Bombieri-Lang Conjecture for varieties over ${\\mathbb Q}$ with many ${\\mathbb Q}$-rational points.

  3. An experimental kinetic study and products research of the reactions of O3 with a series of unsaturated alcohols

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Sanping; Tong, Shengrui; Ge, Maofa


    The gas-phase reactions of unsaturated alcohols with O3 were investigated in FEP Teflon film chamber at 298 K and 760 torr of atmosphere pressure. The rate constants of the reactions of C6-C8 alkenols with O3 were determined using both the absolute and the relative rate method, and the measured values were (5.96 ± 0.35) × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (5.12 ± 0.30) × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for (Z)-3-hepten-1-ol, and (5.66 ± 0.52) × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for (Z)-3-octen-1-ol, respectively. The gas-phase products of these reactions mentioned above were detected using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrum (PTR-MS). HOCH2CH2CHO, CH2CH2CHO, HCHO and CH3CHO were identified as the main gas products for (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. HOCH2CH2CHO and CH3(CH2)2CHO dominated the gaseous products for (Z)-3-hepten-1-ol. And for (Z)-3-octen-1-ol, CH3(CH2)3CHO, CH3(CH2)2CHO and HOCH2CH2CHO were the main gaseous products. The SOA yields were monitored at the same time, which were 0.184 ± 0.013, 0.213 ± 0.017, 0.232 ± 0.021 for (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hepten-1-ol and (Z)-3-octen-1-ol, respectively. The possible reaction mechanisms were proposed and discussed. The kinetic data presented here has been used to estimate their atmosphere lifetimes and the reaction reactivity. The atmosphere implication of these reactions has also been discussed.

  4. Software-Defined Cluster

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英


    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  5. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  6. How to define green adjuvants.

    Beck, Bert; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter


    The concept 'green adjuvants' is difficult to define. This paper formulates an answer based on two approaches. Starting from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition for green chemistry, production-based and environmental-impact-based definitions for green adjuvants are proposed. According to the production-based approach, adjuvants are defined as green if they are manufactured using renewable raw materials as much as possible while making efficient use of energy, preferably renewable energy. According to the environmental impact approach, adjuvants are defined as green (1) if they have a low human and environmental impact, (2) if they do not increase active ingredient environmental mobility and/or toxicity to humans and non-target organisms, (3) if they do not increase the exposure to these active substances and (4) if they lower the impact of formulated pesticides by enhancing the performance of active ingredients, thus potentially lowering the required dosage of active ingredients. Based on both approaches, a tentative definition for 'green adjuvants' is given, and future research and legislation directions are set out.

  7. [Preparation of Coated CMC-Fe0 Using Rheological Phase Reaction Method and Research on Degradation of TCE in Water].

    Fan, Wen-jing; Cheng, Yue; Yu, Shu-zhen; Fan, Xiao-feng


    The coated nanoscale zero-valent iron (coated CMC-Fe0) was synthesized with cheap and environment friendly CMC as the coating agent using rheological phase reaction. The sample was characterized by means of XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-stripping and used to study reductive dechlorination of TCE. The experimental results indicated that the removal rate of TCE was about 100% when the CMC-Fe0 dosage was 6 g x L(-1), the initial TCE concentration was 5 mg x L(-1) and the reaction time was 40 h. The TCE degradation reaction of coated CMC-Fe0 followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Finally, the product could be simply recovered.

  8. Defining cyber warfare

    Dragan D. Mladenović


    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  9. Research Program to Determine Redox Reactions and Their Effects on Speciation and Mobility of Plutonium in DOE Wastes

    Choppin, G.R.; Rai, D.


    Plutonium in geologic matrices undergoes a variety of complex reactions which complicate its environmental behavior. These complexities in plutonium chemistry whereby a large variety of precipitation, dissolution, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions control plutonium speciation and concentrations, result in the need for a rather large amount of reliable, fundamental data to predict Pu behavior in geologic media. These data are also needed for evaluation of remediation strategies that involve removing most of the contaminants by selective methods, followed by in situ immobilization of residual contaminants. Two areas were studied during this project: (1) thermodynamic data for Th(IV) and Pu(IV) complexes of EDTA and for Pu(V) interactions with chloride; (2) kinetic data for redox reactions of Pu in the presence of common redox agents (e.g., H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MnO{sub 2}, and NaOCl) encountered under waste disposal conditions. These studies are relevant to understanding Pu behavior in wastes disposed of in diverse geologic conditions (e.g., at the WIPP and YUCCA Mountain repositories and in contaminated sediments at many different DOE sites) and also for developing effective remediation strategies (e.g., processing of high level waste tanks). These studies have yielded data to address redox reactions of plutonium in the presence of environmentally important agents (e.g. organic and inorganic oxidants/reductants).

  10. 芳烃硝化反应机理的研究的进展%Research Progress on Aromatic Nitration Reaction Mechanism



    Nitro compounds are important intermediates, but progress for nitration reaction mechanism is relatively slow. In research of the traditional theory of the experiment, researchers have proved that nitroxyl cation in the reaction mechanism is an intermediate state. In terms of the theory of quantum chemistry, researchers have proved that there is no isotope effect in the electrophilic substitution during the experimental facts. It should focus on the traditional optimal experimental conditions, and should also pay more attention to new technologies and new applications. The research progress on aromatic nitration reaction mechanism was described, help to find the nitration reaction transition state and contribute to the development of industrial nitration.%硝基化合物作为重要的中间体,但对于硝化反应机理的研究进展较为缓慢。在传统实验理论研究方面,证明了硝酰阳离子作为中间态的反应机理;在量子化学的理论方面,业已阐明了在亲电取代过程中无同位素效应的实验事实。研究工作者应在注重传统实验条件优化的同时,应多关注新技术与新应用。本文通过对硝化反应机理研究进展的介绍,希望能够为研究者找硝化反应过渡态提供帮助,为硝化工业的发展做出贡献。

  11. Defining Experiential Education.

    Luckmann, Charles


    Reflects on the definition of experiential education as formulated by the Association for Experiential Education, and on past and future themes of the Journal of Experiential Education. Cites the proliferation of education programs focusing on environmental and ecological concepts. Discusses the need for continuing research in experiential…

  12. Defining the Anthropocene

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark


    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  13. Defining Political Marketing

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    ’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...

  14. Positive roles of compartmentalization in internal reactions.

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya


    Recently, many researchers have attempted to construct artificial cell models using a bottom-up approach in which various biochemical reactions that involve a defined set of molecules are reconstructed in cell-like compartments, such as liposomes and water-in-oil droplets. In many of these studies, the cell-like compartments have acted only as containers for the encapsulated biochemical reactions, whereas other studies have indicated that compartmentalization improves the rates and yields of these reactions. Here, we introduce two ways in which compartmentalization can improve internal reactions: the isolation effect and the condensation effect. These positive effects of compartmentalization might have played an important role in the genesis of the first primitive cell on early Earth.

  15. Reactions to Reading 'Remaining Consistent with Method? An Analysis of Grounded Theory Research in Accounting': A Comment on Gurd


    Purpose: This paper is a comment on Gurd's paper published in QRAM 5(2) on the use of grounded theory in interpretive accounting research. Methodology: Like Gurd, we conducted a bibliographic study on prior pieces of research claiming the use of grounded theory. Findings: We found a large diversity of ways of doing grounded theory. There are as many ways as articles. Consistent with the spirit of grounded theory, the field suggested the research questions, methods and verifiability criteria. ...


    郭建维; 王乐夫; 纪红兵; 黄仲涛; 崔英德


    对传统的异丙苯氧化工艺及反应流程进行了简单评述,指出了该工艺存在的缺陷,并对近年来异丙苯氧化的反应工艺、催化体系等研究成果进行了总结归纳和综合评述,在此基础上对这一领域今后的研究方向和发展趋势进行了预测。%The traditional technology and the typical industrial process of cumene oxidation reaction were introduced and commented in this paper, including shortages of this intraditional technology and process. The progresses on reaction conditions, catalytic systems for cumene oxidition were summarized and reviewed. Finally, the possible directions for future research in this area were forcasted.

  17. Effect of Nuclear Reactions on the Properties of Al-Mg-Si Alloys after Long-Time Exploitation in Research Reactors

    Hofmann, A; Szteke, W; Hajewska, E; Wagner, T; Semina, V K


    Effect of fast neutron ($E>$ 0.1~?eV) irradiation on the mechanical properties and fracture morphology of the Al-Mg-Si alloys (PAR-1 and ???-1) after 40 years of exploitation in research nuclear reactors has been studied. Tested specimens were cut from structural elements of reactor EWA ($\\acute{\\rm S}$wierk, Poland). Irradiation induces degradation in mechanical properties, namely yield strength and ultimate strength increase, but elongation reduces. The mechanical property changes are caused by ageing of Al--Mg--Si alloy. During irradiation Si is formed from Al by the Al($n, \\gamma $)Si reaction. The presence of Si might cause strengthening of the Al--Mg--Si alloys by increasing precipitation of Mg$_{2}$Si or pure Si in the Al matrix. Post-irradiation activity studies of EWA reactor structural elements show that the high-activity $^{60}$Co and $^{65}$Zn isotopes have been formed by the nuclear reactions.

  18. X-Ray absorption in homogeneous catalysis research: the iron-catalyzed Michael addition reaction by XAS, RIXS and multi-dimensional spectroscopy.

    Bauer, Matthias; Gastl, Christoph


    A survey over X-ray absorption methods in homogeneous catalysis research is given with the example of the iron-catalyzed Michael addition reaction. A thorough investigation of the catalytic cycle was possible by combination of conventional X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and multi-dimensional spectroscopy. The catalytically active compound formed in the first step of the Michael reaction of methyl vinyl ketone with 2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate (1) could be elucidated in situ by RIXS spectroscopy, and the reduced catalytic activity of FeCl(3) x 6 H(2)O (2) compared to Fe(ClO(4))(3) x 9 H(2)O (3) could be further explained by the formation of a [Fe(III)Cl(4)(-)](3)[Fe(III)(1-H)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(+)][H(+)](2) complex. Chloride was identified as catalyst poison with a combined XAS-UV/vis study, which revealed that Cl(-) binds quantitatively to the available iron centers that are deactivated by formation of [FeCl(4)(-)]. Operando studies in the course of the reaction of methyl vinyl ketone with 1 by combined XAS-Raman spectroscopy allowed the exclusion of changes in the oxidation state and the octahedral geometry at the iron site; a reaction order of two with respect to methyl vinyl ketone and a rate constant of k = 1.413 min(-2) were determined by analysis of the C=C and C=O vibration band. Finally, a dedicated experimental set-up for three-dimensional spectroscopic studies (XAS, UV/vis and Raman) of homogeneous catalytic reactions under laboratory conditions, which emerged from the discussed investigations, is presented.

  19. 3-Nucleophilic substitution reaction research of GCLE%GCLE3-位亲核取代反应研究

    张静; 范继业; 翟少华


    Objective To improve the semi-synthetic technics of cephalosporin and study the nucleophilic substitution reaction kinetics of GCLE with pyridine, N-methylpyrrolidine and triazine. Methods The reaction process was monitored by HPLC, and the solvent effects were also stuided . Results The nucleophilic substitution reaction of GCLE iodid with pyridine, N-methylpyrrolidine and triazine were all SN2 course , activity order of the nucleophilicity in different solvents were as follows: acetone>tetrahydrofuran>dichloromethane>the mixture of ethyl acetate and DMF, dichloromethane>acetone>acetonitrile,acetonitrile>tetrahydrofuran. Conclusion The results of this study have certain instruction significance in improving the quality of products and guiding the fourth generation products of the production.%目的 为改进现有半合成头孢菌素类抗生素的生产工艺,研究GCLE与吡啶、N-甲基四氢吡咯和三嗪环发生亲核取代反应的动力学过程.方法 用高效液相色谱仪对该反应过程进行了监测,并进一步研究了反应的溶剂效应.结果 GCLE碘取代物与吡啶、N-甲基四氢吡咯、三嗪环的反应为SN2历程.在不同溶剂中,GCLE碘取代物与与吡啶、N-甲基四氢吡咯、三嗪环反应的活性顺序为:丙酮>四氢呋喃>乙酸乙酯-DMF>二氯乙烷,二氯乙烷>丙酮>乙腈,乙腈>四氢呋喃.结论 本研究结果对提高产品质量,指导第四代产品的生产具有一定的指导意义.

  20. Performance test results of mock-up model test facility with a full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Kato, Michio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others


    Research on a hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane, chemical reaction; CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O {yields} 3H{sub 2}O + CO, has been carried out to couple with the HTTR for establishment of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization technology and contribution to hydrogen energy society in future. The mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube test facility, a model simulating one reaction tube of a steam reformer of the HTTR hydrogen production system in full scale, was fabricated to perform tests on controllability, hydrogen production performance etc. under the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The design and fabrication of the test facility started from 1997, and the all components were installed until September in 2001. In a performance test conducted from October in 2001 to February in 2002, performance of each component was examined and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}{sub N}/h was successfully produced with high-temperature helium gas. This report describes the performance test results on components performance, hydrogen production characteristics etc., and main troubles and countermeasures. (author)

  1. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger


    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. Pharmacy Education Reaction to Presentations on Bridging the Gap Between the Basic Sciences and Clinical Practice: Teaching, Research, and Service.

    Doluisio, James T.


    Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences…

  3. Research progress on adverse reactions of pravastatin-associated myopathy%普伐他汀相关肌病不良反应的研究进展

    刘海霞; 李全斌


    目的:对普伐他汀导致相关肌病不良反应的最新研究进展进行简要综述,探讨普伐他汀在临床上的合理应用及肌病不良反应的防治措施。方法检索EMbase、万方数据库、中国生物医学文献数据库中相关文献,结合临床,进行综合分析。结果普伐他汀可致相关性肌病、疲倦和劳力性疲劳等不良反应。结论制定普伐他汀的合理用药方案,最大限度地发挥其降脂疗效,减少肌病等不良反应的发生。%Objective To briefly review the latest research progress about adverse reactions of pravastatin re-lated myopathy,investigate the reasonable application of pravastatin in the clinical and prevention measures of myopa-thy adverse reactions. Methods The EMbase,Wanfang database,China biomedical literature database of relevant liter-atures were retrieved,and the results were comprehensively analyzed combined with clinical. Results Pravastatin can cause related myopathy,tired and exertional fatigue and other adverse reactions. Conclusion Rational use of pravasta-tin can maximize its lipid-lowering effect,reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions such as myopathy.


    郭道军; 郁章玉; 王育华; 周峰岩; 宋方立


    肾上腺素的电氧化反应是生物电化学研究的重要内容. 该文对肾上腺素电子转移性质和反应机理以及影响因素进行了讨论,综述了肾上腺素电氧化反应研究的进展情况,提出了进一步研究的发展趋势.%Electrochemical oxidation of adrenaline is an important research content in bioelectrochemistry. The electron transfer properties , reaction mechanism and a few influential factors have been discussed. The evolution research of adrenaline is reviewed, and the developmental tends are pointed out in the paper.

  5. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Po-Shen Shen


    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  6. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Shen, Po-Shen; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Li, Ming-Hsien; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter


    With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV) technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  7. Software-Defined Cellular Mobile Network Solutions

    Jiandong Li; Peng Liu; Hongyan Li


    The emergency relating to software-defined networking (SDN), especially in terms of the prototype associated with OpenFlow, pro-vides new possibilities for innovating on network design. Researchers have started to extend SDN to cellular networks. Such new programmable architecture is beneficial to the evolution of mobile networks and allows operators to provide better services. The typical cellular network comprises radio access network (RAN) and core network (CN); hence, the technique roadmap diverges in two ways. In this paper, we investigate SoftRAN, the latest SDN solution for RAN, and SoftCell and MobileFlow, the latest solu-tions for CN. We also define a series of control functions for CROWD. Unlike in the other literature, we emphasize only software-defined cellular network solutions and specifications in order to provide possible research directions.

  8. Research



    Jul 20, 2016 ... Magnitude of adverse drug reaction and associated factors among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral .... predictors of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ..... Diarrhea. 3.3. Headache. 1.6. Numbness/tingling. 23. Rash. 6.6.

  9. Defining Grammatical Difficulty: A Student Teacher Perspective

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno


    Numerous second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have tried to define grammatical difficulty in second and foreign language acquisition--often as part of an attempt to relate the efficacy of different types of instruction to the degree of difficulty of grammatical structures. The resulting proliferation of definitions and the lack of a…

  10. Defining collaborative business rules management solutions

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Johan Versendaal


    From the publishers' website: The goal of this research is to define a method for configuring a collaborative business rules management solution from a value proposition perspective. In an earlier published study (Business rules management solutions: added value by means of business

  11. Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity

    Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex


    This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

  12. Reactions of Negative Ions


    2 + H2 SO 4 + HS04 (HNO 3 ) 2 + HNO 3 1.1 0.6 * defined as 1 The most important results from an atmospheric viewpoint are the reactions of H SO with NO...constant HS04 >4.5 bracketing 22 0 C1 , 1.95 * 0.25 bracketlng 32 -4 __.. . .___,_=____,,_______... . . . -- . . . . One particularly interesting aspect of

  13. Reactions to Attitudinal Deviancy.

    Levine, John M.; Allen, Vernon L.

    This paper presents a critical review of empirical and theoretical treatments of group reaction to attitudinal deviancy. Inspired by Festinger's (1950) ideas on resolution of attitudinal discrepancies in groups, Schachter (1951) conducted an experiment that has greatly influenced subsequent research and theory concerning reaction to attitudinal…

  14. Defining and Quantifying the Social Phenotype in Autism

    Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Schultz, Robert; Volkmar, Fred; Cohen, Donald


    OBJECTIVE: Genetic and neurofunctional research in autism has highlighted the need for improved characterization of the core social disorder defining the broad spectrum of syndrome manifestations. METHOD...

  15. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.


    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  16. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.


    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  17. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew


    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  18. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    Burgos, W.D.


    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  19. A defined system for in vitro lambda DNA packaging.

    Hwang, Y; Feiss, M


    We constructed a defined in vitro system for packaging lambda DNA which is composed of purified proheads, the noncapsid proteins terminase and gpFI, and the Escherichia coli DNA binding/bending protein IHF. The defined packaging system: (i) is free from endogenous ATP, DNAs, and DNases and (ii) packages 30% of the input mature lambda DNA efficiently. In this defined packaging system, IHF and gpFI make modest contributions to packaging efficiency. The defined packaging reactions showed that DNA packaging gave a linear response to the concentration of mature lambda DNA and terminase. DNA packaging showed a sigmoidal relationship with respect to the concentration of ATP and proheads.

  20. Defining breast cancer intrinsic subtypes by quantitative receptor expression.

    Cheang, Maggie C U; Martin, Miguel; Nielsen, Torsten O; Prat, Aleix; Voduc, David; Rodriguez-Lescure, Alvaro; Ruiz, Amparo; Chia, Stephen; Shepherd, Lois; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Calvo, Lourdes; Alba, Emilio; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalia; Tu, Dongsheng; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Levine, Mark N; Bramwell, Vivien H; Parker, Joel; Bernard, Philip S; Ellis, Matthew J; Perou, Charles M; Di Leo, Angelo; Carey, Lisa A


    To determine intrinsic breast cancer subtypes represented within categories defined by quantitative hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 expression. We merged 1,557 cases from three randomized phase III trials into a single data set. These breast tumors were centrally reviewed in each trial for quantitative ER, PR, and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) stain and by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), with intrinsic subtyping by research-based PAM50 RT-qPCR assay. Among 283 HER2-negative tumors with definition of triple-negative breast cancer significantly diminished enrichment for basal-like cancer (p 10%) expression, only 69 (54%) were HER2-enriched and 55 (43%) were luminal (39 luminal B, 16 luminal A). Quantitative HR expression by RT-qPCR gave similar results. Regardless of methodology, basal-like cases seldom expressed ER/ESR1 or PR/PGR and were associated with the lowest expression level of HER2/ERBB2 relative to other subtypes. Significant discordance remains between clinical assay-defined subsets and intrinsic subtype. For identifying basal-like breast cancer, the optimal HR IHC cut point was <1%, matching the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists guidelines. Tumors with borderline HR staining are molecularly diverse and may require additional assays to clarify underlying biology. ©AlphaMed Press.

  1. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;


    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...

  2. Response reactions: equilibrium coupling.

    Hoffmann, Eufrozina A; Nagypal, Istvan


    It is pointed out and illustrated in the present paper that if a homogeneous multiple equilibrium system containing k components and q species is composed of the reactants actually taken and their reactions contain only k + 1 species, then we have a unique representation with (q - k) stoichiometrically independent reactions (SIRs). We define these as coupling reactions. All the other possible combinations with k + 1 species are the coupled reactions that are in equilibrium when the (q - k) SIRs are in equilibrium. The response of the equilibrium state for perturbation is determined by the coupling and coupled equilibria. Depending on the circumstances and the actual thermodynamic data, the effect of coupled equilibria may overtake the effect of the coupling ones, leading to phenomena that are in apparent contradiction with Le Chatelier's principle.

  3. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Natalya V. Lebedeva


    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  4. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  5. Defining management competencies anno 2025: A Business-University collaboration

    Ropes, Donald


    This paper presents the results of a business – university collaborative research project on defining lower management competencies in the year 2025. The purpose of the research was to help a large local airport to define and understand what competencies lower management will need in order to functi

  6. A prognostic model to predict survival in 867 World Health Organization-defined essential thrombocythemia at diagnosis: a study by the International Working Group on Myelofibrosis Research and Treatment.

    Passamonti, Francesco; Thiele, Jürgen; Girodon, Francois; Rumi, Elisa; Carobbio, Alessandra; Gisslinger, Heinz; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Ruggeri, Marco; Randi, Maria Luigia; Gangat, Naseema; Vannucchi, Alessandro Maria; Gianatti, Andrea; Gisslinger, Bettina; Müllauer, Leonhard; Rodeghiero, Francesco; d'Amore, Emanuele S G; Bertozzi, Irene; Hanson, Curtis A; Boveri, Emanuela; Marino, Filippo; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Antonioli, Elisabetta; Carrai, Valentina; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Pascutto, Cristiana; Cazzola, Mario; Barbui, Tiziano; Tefferi, Ayalew


    Diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET) has been updated in the last World Health Organization (WHO) classification. We developed a prognostic model to predict survival at diagnosis, named IPSET (International Prognostic Score for ET), studying patients with WHO-defined ET. Age 60 years or older, leukocyte count ≥ 11 × 10(9)/L, and prior thrombosis significantly affected survival, by multivariable Cox regression. On the basis of the hazard ratio, we assigned 2 points to age and 1 each to leukocyte count and thrombosis. So, the IPSET model allocated 867 patients into 3 risk categories with significantly different survival: low (sum of points = 0; median survival not reached), intermediate (sum = 1-2; median survival 24.5 years), and high (sum = 3-4, median survival 13.8 years). The IPSET model was further validated in 2 independent cohorts including 132 WHO-defined ET and 234 Polycythemia Vera Study Group-defined ET patients. The IPSET model was able to predict the occurrence of thrombosis, and not to predict post-ET myelofibrosis. In conclusion, IPSET, based on age ≥ 60 years, leukocyte count ≥ 11 × 10(9)/L, and history of thrombosis allows prognostic assessment of WHO-defined ET and the validation process makes IPSET applicable in all patients phenotypically appearing as ET.

  7. Ouverture de 'Marketing Research and Global Markets'

    Silvio M. Brondoni


    Global markets express a new vision of market research and of marketing research, consistent with the information needs of complex organisations (generally network-based) working with several decision-making points (characterised by high-level delegations and responsibilities) and with very brief action-reaction times. Marketing research and market research represent two distinct information support domains for corporate management, with well-defined theoretical and practical limits. Market r...


    Andra M. ACHIM


    Full Text Available The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  9. Reaction Graph



    The paper proposes reaction graphs as graphical representations of computational objects.A reaction graph is a directed graph with all its arrows and some of its nodes labeled.Computations are modled by graph rewriting of a simple nature.The basic rewriting rules embody the essence of both the communications among processes and cut-eliminations in proofs.Calculi of graphs are ideentified to give a formal and algebraic account of reaction graphs in the spirit of process algebra.With the help of the calculi,it is demonstrated that reaction graphs capture many interesting aspects of computations.

  10. Defining Cyberbullying: A Multiple Perspectives Approach.

    Alipan, Alexandra; Skues, Jason; Theiler, Stephen; Wise, Lisa


    To date, there has been a lack of consensus among researchers, practitioners, and laypersons about the definition of cyberbullying. Researchers have typically applied the key characteristics of intent to harm, power imbalance, and repetition from the definition of traditional bullying to cyberbullying, but how these characteristics transfer from the real world to a technology-mediated environment remains ambiguous. Moreover, very few studies have specifically investigated how cyberbullying is defined from the perspective of bullies, victims and bystanders. To this end, this article will propose a three-part definition of cyberbullying, which incorporates the perspective of bullies, victims and bystanders.

  11. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar


    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  12. Resonance Reaction in Diffusion-Influenced Bimolecular Reactions

    Kolb, Jakob J; Dzubiella, Joachim


    We investigate the influence of a stochastically fluctuating step-barrier potential on bimolecular reaction rates by exact analytical theory and stochastic simulations. We demonstrate that the system exhibits a new resonant reaction behavior with rate enhancement if an appropriately defined fluctuation decay length is of the order of the system size. Importantly, we find that in the proximity of resonance the standard reciprocal additivity law for diffusion and surface reaction rates is violated due to the dynamical coupling of multiple kinetic processes. Together, these findings may have important repercussions on the correct interpretation of various kinetic reaction problems in complex systems, as, e.g., in biomolecular association or catalysis.

  13. Research



    Feb 10, 2015 ... screening blood/blood products prior to transfusion include ... assay (ELISA) and nucleic acid test (NAT) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ... transported in cold boxes to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and stored at -20 ...

  14. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    Juni, E; Heym, G A


    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  15. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro


    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  16. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    Stage, Jan


    on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...

  17. Defining sphincter of oddi dysfunction

    Funch-Jensen, P


    Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysmotility may give rise to pain. The golden standard for the demonstration of SO dysfunction is endoscopic manometry. A number of abnormalities are observed in patients with postcholecystectomy pain and in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. Criteria for defi...... for defining SO dysfunction and the possible mechanisms for the precipitation of pain are discussed....

  18. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    Juni, E; Heym, G A


    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  19. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.


    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  20. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani


    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage buffe...

  1. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Dousay, Tonia A.


    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  2. DEFINE Synthesis Report: DEFINE - Development of an Evaluation Framework for the Introduction of Electromobility

    Lichtblau, Günther; Stix, Sigrid; Gerbaulet, Clemens; Schill, Wolf-Peter; Totschnig, Gerhard; Litzlbauer, Markus; Miess, Michael; Schmelzer, Stefan; Ščasný, Milan; Weinzettell, Jan; MÁCA Vojtěch; Zvěřinová, Iva; Czajkowski, Mikolaj


    The project DEFINE – Development of an Evaluation Framework for the Introduction of Electromobility – was conducted by the Institute for Advanced Studies (IHS), Vienna, in cooperation with the Environment Agency Austria (EAA), the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), Austria; the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), the Institute for Applied Ecology (Oeko-Institut), Germany; and with the Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE), Poland.

  3. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W


    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  4. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Report of progress, February 1, 1975--October 31, 1975. [Summaries of research activities at Brown Univ


    Progress in the following areas of research is reported: Energies of giant isoscalar monopole and quadrupole excitations, energy-weighted sum rules, the random-phase approximation, Hartree-Fock calculations, spreading widths, physical consequences of the locality of current-density commutators and current-current sum rules. Electron-hydrogen scattering using the inhomogenous equation method; variational calculation of e/sup -/ + H scattering using the symmetrized channel coupling array equation; K operators and unitary approximations for the 3-body problem; approximate calculation of model (d-p) and (dd) amplitudes and cross sections; multi-step processes in direct reactions; bound state calculations using the channel coupling array theory. Methods for determining nuclear charge distributions, relativistic effects in nuclei, dispersion corrections and recoil corrections to elastic electron scattering; unitarity of elastic scattering amplitudes; low energy theorems for two-photon processes; pion-exchange contributions to the charge density; recoil effects and energy-dependent Hamiltonians; pion-exchange contributions to two-photon processes; hypervirial theorems for the Dirac equation; Coulomb energies of nuclei. Pion-nucleus scattering, diagonalization of the configurations, doorway states and doorway dominance, calculations for /sup 4/He, discussion of experimental results.

  5. [Situational reactions in suicidologic practice].

    Ambrumova, A G; Vrono, E M


    The paper is devoted to the description of suicidal manifestations in mentally normal adolescents among typical behavioural disorders characteristic of situational reactions of this age. Three types of suicido-dangerous situational responses of adolescents were specified with regard to their age and auto-and heteaggressiveness ratio: reaction of deprivation, explosive reaction and reaction of auto-elimination. Suicidogenic conflicts were analyzed and spheres of age-specific suicidal conflicts were defined. It is advisable that outpatient management of mentally normal adolescents with a history of a suicidal attempt be conducted in a special room of presentive suicidological service.

  6. Research

    'Simulation is an approach to teaching and learning which is defined as a ... nurse educators and staff development co-ordinators for designing learning ... Committee, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape.

  7. Research



    Dec 14, 2015 ... Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system auto-immune .... such as pre-eclampsia, flare of SLE (defined as a change in clinical ... Treatment records at presentation included use of glucocorticoids.

  8. Prebiotic Chemistry: Geochemical Context and Reaction Screening

    Henderson James Cleaves


    Full Text Available The origin of life on Earth is widely believed to have required the reactions of organic compounds and their self- and/or environmental organization. What those compounds were remains open to debate, as do the environment in and process or processes by which they became organized. Prebiotic chemistry is the systematic organized study of these phenomena. It is difficult to study poorly defined phenomena, and research has focused on producing compounds and structures familiar to contemporary biochemistry, which may or may not have been crucial for the origin of life. Given our ignorance, it may be instructive to explore the extreme regions of known and future investigations of prebiotic chemistry, where reactions fail, that will relate them to or exclude them from plausible environments where they could occur. Come critical parameters which most deserve investigation are discussed.

  9. Inflammatory reaction in chondroblastoma

    Yamamura, Sigeki [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Sato, Keiji [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Sugiura, Hideshi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Iwata, Hisashi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction accompanying chondroblastoma and to define the value of the finding in clinical practice. We reviewed the clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in six patients with histologically proven chondroblastoma. In all cases, MR imaging showered marrow and soft tissue edema. In four of six cases, periosteal reaction related to intra-osseous edema was more clearly demonstrated on MR imaging than on radiographs. Follow-up MR studies after surgery were available in three patients and all showed disappearance of inflammatory responses such as marrow and soft tissue edema, and reactive synovitis. We propose that these inflammatory reactions of chondroblastomas are inportant signs for detecting residual tumor in recurrences after surgery, as well as for making a precise diagnosis. The MR changes may also be valuable in demonstrating eradication of the tumor. (orig./MG)

  10. Software defined radio architectures evaluation

    Palomo, Alvaro; Villing, Rudi; Farrell, Ronan


    This paper presents an performance evaluation of GNU Radio and OSSIE, two open source Software Defined Radio (SDR) architectures. The two architectures were compared by running implementations of a BPSK waveform utilising a software loopback channel on each. The upper bound full duplex throughput was found to be around 700kbps in both cases, though OSSIE was slightly faster than GNU Radio. CPU and memory loads did not differ significantly.

  11. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Roshan Anupama


    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  12. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Pavol Tomasov


    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  13. Defining professional nursing accountability: a literature review.

    Krautscheid, Lorretta C


    Professional nursing accountability is described by both professional nursing organizations and nursing education credentialing agencies as a core aspect that underpins professional nursing practice. Although accountability is foundational to professional practice, a review of the literature revealed no consistent language or definition regarding professional nursing accountability. Instead, the literature itself reveals that professional nursing accountability is challenging to both describe and define. The ambiguity surrounding how to define professional nursing accountability contributes to challenges associated with both teaching and evaluating student nurse accountability within nursing education curricula. This article provides a reliable and comprehensive definition of professional nursing accountability derived from a synthesis of the literature. Recommendations for nursing education practice and recommendations for nursing education research are proposed.

  14. Well-defined transition metal hydrides in catalytic isomerizations.

    Larionov, Evgeny; Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément


    This Feature Article intends to provide an overview of a variety of catalytic isomerization reactions that have been performed using well-defined transition metal hydride precatalysts. A particular emphasis is placed on the underlying mechanistic features of the transformations discussed. These have been categorized depending upon the nature of the substrate and in most cases discussed following a chronological order.

  15. A Research-Based Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Project: Investigation of a One-Pot, Multicomponent, Environmentally Friendly Prins-Friedel-Crafts-Type Reaction

    Dintzner, Matthew R.; Maresh, Justin J.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Arena, Anthony F.; Speltz, Thomas


    Students in the undergraduate organic laboratory synthesize tetrahydro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-phenyl-2"H"-pyran via the Montmorillonite K10 clay-catalyzed reaction of p-nitrobenzaldehye with methanol, 3-buten-1-ol, and benzene. The synthesis comprises an environmentally friendly tandem Prins-Friedel-Crafts-type multicomponent reaction (MCR) and sets…

  16. 特异性多能转录因子及其作用的研究进展%Research progress on defined pluripotent transcription factors and their functions

    张芳; 周晓燕


    Viral introduction of four genes (oct-4, sox-2, c-myc, klf-4) in committed somatic cells is sufficient to yield induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that resemble embryonic stem cells. Since dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) can be easily obtained from extracted teeth, attempts to reprogram DPSC to iPS cells by defined pluripotent transcription factors may provide a more advantageous seed cell source for tooth regeneration. This review mainly covers the structures and function of the defined pluripotent transcription factors, the roles they play in de-differentiation of somatic cell and in tumor genesis, and their expressions and significances in dental pulp cell.%将自胚胎干细胞中筛选出的oct-4、sox一2、c-mye、klf-4四种基因组合转入体细胞,可获得与胚胎干细胞类似的诱导性多能干细胞.牙髓干细胞取材简单,尝试利用特异性多能转录因子将其重编程为与胚胎干细胞类似的诱导性多能干细胞,可为牙组织工程提供优质的种子细胞.本文就特异性多能转录因子的结构和功能、在体细胞去分化中的作用、在肿瘤发生中的作用、在牙髓细胞中的表达及其意义等作一综述.


    Nadezhda Nikolaevna Zilberman


    Practical implications. The results of the study contribute toьthe theoretical basis of the cross-disciplinary research field of social robotics and may be used by researchers. They may also be used as educational aid in teaching academic courses in social studies, robotics, ethics of technology, artificial intelligence, etc.

  18. Performance test results of helium gas circulator of mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Shimizu, Akira; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others


    Hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane will be connected to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) against development of nuclear heat utilization system. To obtain design and safety database of the HTTR hydrogen production system, mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction was constructed in FY 2001 and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}N{sub /}h was successfully produced in overall performance test. This report describes performance test results of a helium gas circulator in this facility. The circulator performance curves regarding to pressure-rise, input power and adiabatic thermal efficiency at standard revolution number were made based on the measured flow-rate, temperature and pressure data in overall performance test. The circulator performance prediction code was made based on these performance curves. The code can calculate revolution number, electric power and temperature-rise of the circulator using flow-rate, inlet temperature, inlet pressure and pressure-rise data. The verification of the code was carried out with the test data in FY 2002. Total pressure loss of the helium gas circulation loop was also evaluated. The circulator should be operated in conditions such as pressure from 2.7MPa to 4.0MPa and flow-rate from 250g/s to 400g/s and at maximum pressure-rise of 250 kPa in test operation. It was confirmed in above verification and evaluations that the circulator had performance to satisfy above conditions within operation limitation of the circulator such as maximum input-power of 150 kW and maximum revolution number of 12,000 rpm. (author)

  19. Biological false-positive tests comprise a high proportion of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory reactions in an analysis of 300,000 sera.

    Geusau, Alexandra; Kittler, Harald; Hein, Ulrike; Dangl-Erlach, Edda; Stingl, Georg; Tschachler, Erwin


    This retrospective study on syphilis screening at the sexually transmitted infection (STI) unit of a University Department emphasizes the necessity of a treponemal-specific test as the appropriate screening test. The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test for syphilis screening may, under certain circumstances, yield positive results in patients not infected with Treponema pallidum, a phenomenon referred to as biological false-positive (BFP) VDRL test. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of BFP tests in a large sample of sera. In this retrospective study, we analysed the results of parallel VDRL and T. pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA) testing of a total of 514,940 blood samples obtained from patients at the Vienna General Hospital between January 1988 and November 1999. Patients' sera with incomplete data on stage and sex and duplicate sera were excluded, leaving 300,000 sera for analysis. The seroprevalence for syphilis was 1.77% (n = 5320), as determined by a positive TPHA test. It was significantly higher in male than in female patients (2.03% versus 1.58%, PVDRL. With regard to reactivity in VDRL testing, 2799 patients (0.92%) of the study population were positive, of whom 736 (26%) were biological false positive. BFP reactivity was found in 0.24% of all patients and was significantly higher in women than in men (0.27% versus 0.20%, PVDRL at 1:0 and 1:2 dilutions without a positive treponemal test was not reported. The subgroup of HIV-positive patients (n = 1415) revealed a 10-fold higher rate of BFP tests (2.1% versus 0.24), an effect being statistically significant. In a low syphilis prevalence population, BFP reactions comprise a high proportion of all VDRL reactors. Therefore, the use of the VDRL as a screening procedure is challenged.

  20. UNIQLO, Define Your Own Fashion

    Wang Ting


    @@ Yes,women like and enjoy shopping.Always,they want to buy some well-designed clothes with the most 'in'factors; and what's of the great importance,they would like to hear the words:"wow! You fit the wear well!"However,the most satisfied right things could not be always waiting for you there or you would not help complaining the so-fast changing trends day by day.At that time,why not to seek some delights from the basic classic collections?UNIQLO maybe is a choice for you to define your own fashion.

  1. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    Stage, Jan


    User experience is being used to denote what a user goes through while using a computerized system. The concept has gained momentum as a means to distinguish new types of applications such as games and entertainment software from more traditional work-related applications. This paper focuses...... on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...... definition of usability to develop the notion of user experience....

  2. Research



    Jan 24, 2017 ... In Kenya, the impact of recent rotavirus vaccinations on morbidities has not been .... sterile iodized water and stored for use in PCR reactions. Briefly, the ..... Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in Africa: a review to assess the ...

  3. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper.

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Austin, Tony; Calisir, Fethi; Chanjaplammootil, Samuel; Davis, Mark J; Favela, Jesus; Gan, Heng; Gefen, Amit; Haddas, Ram; Hahn-Goldberg, Shoshana; Hornero, Roberto; Huang, Yu-Li; Jensen, Øystein; Jiang, Zhongwei; Katsanis, J S; Lee, Jeong-A; Lewis, Gladius; Lovell, Nigel H; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Morales, George G; Matis, Timothy; Matthews, Judith T; Mazur, Lukasz; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Oommen, K J; Ormand, Kevin; Rohde, Tarald; Sánchez-Morillo, Daniel; Sanz-Calcedo, Justo García; Sawan, Mohamad; Shen, Chwan-Li; Shieh, Jiann-Shing; Su, Chao-Ton; Sun, Lilly; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Yi; Tewolde, Senay N; Williams, Eric A; Yan, Chongjun; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhang, Yuan-Ting


    Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term "Healthcare Engineering" has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of "Healthcare Engineering" remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  4. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper

    Ming-Chien Chyu


    Full Text Available Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term “Healthcare Engineering” has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of “Healthcare Engineering” remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  5. Research



    Apr 26, 2016 ... stasis, hypercoagulability and endothelial injury, permits to define risk factors of ... compared to up to 90% of at-risk surgical patients [7-9]. In. Cameroon ... bowel disease, hormone-replacement therapy, oral contraceptive). A cumulative .... mention it considering the travelling conditions in rural and semi-.

  6. Research



    May 18, 2011 ... care center attendees, Suez governorate, Egypt ... determined by irritable bowel syndrome quality of life (IBS-QOL) ... American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force defined IBS ... medications) and $20 billion in indirect costs (eg, through work absenteeism and reduced productivity) each year[12] .

  7. Research and Application of Union of Genetic Programming with Automatically Defined Function%遗传编程与自动定义函数结合的研究及应用

    孙波; 孙冬


    本文根据在标准遗传编程中由于种群多样性对算法收敛特性的影响,引入了结合自动定义函数的方法,对标准遗传编程进行改进,从而得到更优的收敛性能和缩短运行时间。文中结合求路径最优化的旅行商问题来进行实际验证,结论得出改进的算法具有更好的收敛性能。%This paper,according to the standard Genetic Programming as a result of the population multiplicity to the algorithm convergence characteristic influence,has introduced the Automatically Defined Function(ADF) into the GP.It makes the improvement to the standard Genetic Programming,thus obtains the more superior convergence performance and the reduction of runtime.In the paper,used the example of traveling salesman problem to carry on the actual confirmation.The conclusion obtains the improvement for the algorithm to have the better convergence performance.

  8. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    Forterre, Patrick


    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  9. Defining life: the virus viewpoint.

    Forterre, Patrick


    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  10. Research

    A possible strategy to influence students' understanding and perception ... researcher in higher education teaching and learning facilitated the data- ..... B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures.

  11. Chemical potential and reaction electronic flux in symmetry controlled reactions.

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro


    In symmetry controlled reactions, orbital degeneracies among orbitals of different symmetries can occur along a reaction coordinate. In such case Koopmans' theorem and the finite difference approximation provide a chemical potential profile with nondifferentiable points. This results in an ill-defined reaction electronic flux (REF) profile, since it is defined as the derivative of the chemical potential with respect to the reaction coordinate. To overcome this deficiency, we propose a new way for the calculation of the chemical potential based on a many orbital approach, suitable for reactions in which symmetry is preserved. This new approach gives rise to a new descriptor: symmetry adapted chemical potential (SA-CP), which is the chemical potential corresponding to a given irreducible representation of a symmetry group. A corresponding symmetry adapted reaction electronic flux (SA-REF) is also obtained. Using this approach smooth chemical potential profiles and well defined REFs are achieved. An application of SA-CP and SA-REF is presented by studying the Cs enol-keto tautomerization of thioformic acid. Two SA-REFs are obtained, JA'(ξ) and JA'' (ξ). It is found that the tautomerization proceeds via an in-plane delocalized 3-center 4-electron O-H-S hypervalent bond which is predicted to exist only in the transition state (TS) region. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An Initial Load-Based Green Software Defined Network

    Ying Hu; Tao Luo; Norman C Beaulieu; Wenjie Wang


    Software defined network (SDN) is a new network architecture in which the control function is decoupled from the data forwarding plane, that is attracting wide attentions from both research and industry sectors...


    Walsh, Margaret; Lynch, Patrick; Harrington, Dr. Denis


    Few research agendas have successfully addressed tourism firm-level innovativeness, and the few studies that do exist typically provide only descriptive data or often remain at a conceptual level (Siguaw et al., 2006). Subsequently, an extensive knowledge gap concerning what constitutes firm-level innovativeness exists. Academics are confusing innovativeness with innovation and innovation orientation; producing many conflicting and inconsistent research results. Drawing from prior relevant...

  14. Neutron multiplicity distributions for 30 MeVu {sup 14}N reactions with the indicated targets. Progress in research, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992


    This report contains short papers on the following topics: Heavy ion reactions; nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; nuclear theory; atomic molecular and materials science; and superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation. (LSP)

  15. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    Gayon, Jean


    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  16. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    Gayon, Jean


    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  17. 石墨烯在光催化反应中应用的研究进展%Research progress in photocatalytic reactions based on graphene

    宗恺; 汪浩; 刘晶冰; 严辉


    Graphene,an atomic thick nanosheet of covalently organized two-dimensional lattice of sp2 bonded carbon atoms,has recently received tremendous attention as a hot point in the field of new photocatalytic materials.Of particular interest is its efficient charge conductivity in electron-transfer process and large theoretical specific surface area.Thus,graphene has been seen as an ideal substituent of carbon nanotubes with photocatalysts to improve photocatalytic performance.Herein the research achievements on photocatalytic reactions based on grapheme are reviewed.Five factors impacting the photocatalytic efficiency of semiconductors are first analyzed.They are the bandgap,the position of the energy band,the recombination probability of the excited electon/hole pair,the crystallinity of the photocatalyts and the absoptive capacity of the photocatalyts.Then,the fundamental mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity is discussed,and the advance in compositing method,coating method,and self-photocatalytic reactions of grapheme to adjust the bandgap of the photocatalyts is summarized.At the end,the evidence from both theory and experiment of regulating the bandgap is presented.%石墨烯是近年来人们发现和合成的一种新型二维平面纳米材料,由于其优良的导电性能和巨大的比表面积,研究者们用石墨烯与光催化材料复合,改善其光催化性能,这已成为新型光催化材料的研究热点之一。本文阐述了近年来国内外对于石墨烯在光催化反应中应用的研究动态和主要成果,分析了影响半导体材料光催化效率的5个因素,即禁带宽度、能带位置、激发电子-空穴复合概率、光催化剂结晶性和光催化剂吸附性能。介绍了石墨烯提高光催化效率的方法,重点介绍了石墨烯在复合、包覆和自身参与光催化反应3个方法中的具体应用,提出通过石墨烯与某些特定的光催化材料复合而改变其禁带宽度,可为今后通过

  18. Allergic Reactions

    ... round, they may be caused by exposure to indoor allergens such as dust mites, indoor molds or pets. Urticaria, or hives, is characterized ... home. Video: What is an allergic reaction? » Utility navigation Donate Annual meeting Browse your conditions Check pollen ...

  19. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe


    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  20. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;


    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage...... buffering, scheduling, and processing over the network. On the other hand, NC has shown great potential for increasing robustness and performance when deployed on intermediate nodes in the network. This new paradigm changes the dynamics of network protocols, requiring new designs that exploit its potential....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  1. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei


    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  2. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey


    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  3. Asymptomatic Alzheimer disease: Defining resilience.

    Hohman, Timothy J; McLaren, Donald G; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Gifford, Katherine A; Libon, David J; Jefferson, Angela L


    To define robust resilience metrics by leveraging CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology within a latent variable framework and to demonstrate the ability of such metrics to predict slower rates of cognitive decline and protection against diagnostic conversion. Participants with normal cognition (n = 297) and mild cognitive impairment (n = 432) were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Resilience metrics were defined at baseline by examining the residuals when regressing brain aging outcomes (hippocampal volume and cognition) on CSF biomarkers. A positive residual reflected better outcomes than expected for a given level of pathology (high resilience). Residuals were integrated into a latent variable model of resilience and validated by testing their ability to independently predict diagnostic conversion, cognitive decline, and the rate of ventricular dilation. Latent variables of resilience predicted a decreased risk of conversion (hazard ratio 0.02, p < 0.001), and slower rates of ventricular dilation (β < -4.7, p < 2 × 10(-15)). These results were significant even when analyses were restricted to clinically normal individuals. Furthermore, resilience metrics interacted with biomarker status such that biomarker-positive individuals with low resilience showed the greatest risk of subsequent decline. Robust phenotypes of resilience calculated by leveraging AD biomarkers and baseline brain aging outcomes provide insight into which individuals are at greatest risk of short-term decline. Such comprehensive definitions of resilience are needed to further our understanding of the mechanisms that protect individuals from the clinical manifestation of AD dementia, especially among biomarker-positive individuals. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Nuclear reaction

    Penwarden, C


    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  5. Research on the Replacement Ratio of Defined Contributed Occupational Pension Scheme under Stochastic Interest Rate%随机利率下缴费预定计划职业年金的替代率研究

    吴忠; 王灵芝; 范君晖


    事业单位养老保险制度改革关系到我国基本养老保险制度的改革进程和可持续发展问题,而面对事业单位养老金替代率90%,企业单位替代率60%的差距,事业单位养老保险制度改革遇到了一定的阻力.本文考察了如果采用缴费预定计划(DC计划)建立职业年金,事业单位养老保险的替代率问题.养老金的投资收益率是影响替代率的关键因素,而这一因素受金融市场影响较大,这里假设它为随机变量.研究发现:(1)由于女性职工的法定退休年龄早,平均寿命又比较长,对于相同的缴费率,男性的养老金替代率明显高于女性的替代率;(2)缴费率是影响替代率的另一因素,为了保持较为合理的替代率,实现养老保险制度的平稳改革,我们建议合适的缴费率为11%.%The reformation of non-profit institution endowment insurance system relates to the basic endowment insurance 's reform process and its sustainable development. At present, the replacement ratio of non-profit institution is 90%, while the enterprise's is only 60%, the reformation encountered some resistance. This paper studied the replacement ratio of non-profit institution if there is a defined contribution plan to set up an occupational pension. The fund's return on investment is a key factor of the replacement ratio, and which is influenced a lot by the financial market, so we suppose it as a random variable. We found that: (1) Given the same payment, male's replacement is obviously higher than the female' s. For the female' s legal retirement age is lower and female's average lifetime is longer than the male' s. (2) The payment is another factor to influence the replacement ratio. Holding a reasonable replacement can help the reformation accomplished smoothly, we suggest the suitable payment of occupational pension is 11 %.

  6. Defining and Measuring Academic Success

    York, Travis T.; Gibson, Charles; Rankin, Susan


    Despite, and perhaps because of its amorphous nature, the term "academic success" is one of the most widely used constructs in educational research and assessment within higher education. This paper conducts an analytic literature review to examine the use and operationalization of the term in multiple academic fields. Dominant…

  7. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  8. Research

    A sequential mixed-methods research design was chosen. This research ... development of the questionnaire used in the second phase of the survey. Quantitative data ... Microsoft Office Excel 2010 spreadsheet, descriptive data analysis was applied .... undergraduate curriculum, and implementation and evaluation thereof,.

  9. Research



    Mar 2, 2015 ... Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research ... organizations[1-9]. ... facilitate research career paths, but few career models exist in Africa ..... international and local resources to clinical studies locally. The ability of ... investigators were seen as an important asset for the transfer of.

  10. Defining and Measuring Academic Success

    Travis T. York


    Full Text Available Despite, and perhaps because of its amorphous nature, the term - academic success' is one of the most widely used constructs in educational research and assessment within higher education. This paper conducts an analytic literature review to examine the use and operationalization of the term in multiple academic fields. Dominant definitions of the term are conceptually evaluated using Astin's I-E-O model resulting in the proposition of a revised definition and new conceptual model of academic success. Measurements of academic success found throughout the literature are presented in accordance with the presented model of academic success. These measurements are provided with details in a user-friendly table (Appendix B. Results also indicate that grades and GPA are the most commonly used measure of academic success. Finally, recommendations are given for future research and practice to increase effective assessment of academic success.

  11. Research



    Apr 26, 2016 ... Management of biomedical waste in two medical laboratories in Bangui, Central ... Research .... Central African Republic Ministry of Health and corresponding ethics ..... In CAR, the management of BW remains embryonic. It is.

  12. Research



    Aug 28, 2015 ... Ethiopia, 2Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department ... of Public Health, 4Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious .... active ingredient x 10,000 dilution rate of product): 0.1%.

  13. Research



    Mar 11, 2011 ... ... to General Organization of Teaching Hospitals and Institutes, Egypt, 2Department of .... Ethiopia at Max-Burger Research Institute, Leipzig, Germany ... [22] than Croatia (50%), Australia (53%), Thailand (41%), Italy (32.6%), ...

  14. Research

    7, No. 1 AJHPE. Research. A comprehensive approach to curriculum evaluation is deemed ... While evaluators are guided by the experiences of using different methods, ..... provided a follow-up in-depth exploration of the quantitative results.

  15. Research

    ... community in the design, conduct and/or evaluation of these activities. ... During Phase I of the mixed-methods research design, data were collected by ... A questionnaire survey was administered to all students registered for ... Data analysis.

  16. Research



    Feb 3, 2016 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). ( .... What is known about this topic ... India Co-ordinated Research Project. Ministry .... African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005 ...

  17. Research



    Dec 6, 2011 ... Asia indicate a high incidence of Kikuchi lymphadenitis [6]. However ... It is believed that information derived from this study will be of immense value to the attending physician and also form a baseline data for future research.

  18. Research

    judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual ... [5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined ... to evidence-based practice in final-year undergraduate physiotherapy students.

  19. Research

    curricula to address health systems changes and challenges .... Likert scale questions were used, along with open-ended qualitative questions. ... Clear communicator: Able to communicate important aspects of theory, research findings clearly ...

  20. researchers

    levels who is fluent in only Afrikaans and English. Differences in race .... The lack of knowledge of a particular vernacular often places a researcher firmly as an ..... discourse of African American women', Black women in the academy. Promises.

  1. Research


    May 6, 2014 ... Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, ... This design is useful to explore a topic, using qualitative ... interview a Delphi questionnaire was used to gather additional quantitative.

  2. Research

    Research. Clinical teaching is a technique used in the education of nurses. It ... learnt in a contextualised learning environment, which should support them in their ..... development of continuing professional development strategies. This study ...

  3. Research



    Mar 3, 2016 ... radiation therapy [9, 10]. The signs of obstructive ... year's undergraduate medical student: socio-demographic including age (in years), sex. .... awareness and enhance further research in this domain. Conclusion. Patients ...

  4. Research

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973


    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  5. Research



    Apr 29, 2016 ... performance hence workplace training is tied to achieving organizational aims and objectives. .... Ethical consideration: Permission to conduct research was sought from the County ..... Everybody Business: Strengthening.

  6. Suzuki偶联反应中钯配合物催化剂的研究进展%Research Progress in Palladium Ligand Catalysts on Suzuki Coupling Reaction

    李瑞; 白雪峰


    Suzuki偶联反应是在零价钯配合物催化剂的催化下,芳基硼酸与卤代芳烃进行的交叉偶联反应,可以高效、高选择性地构建C-C键.钯配合物催化剂对Suzuki偶联反应的活性和选择性起着决定性的影响,是研究Suzuki偶联反应的关键.对含有膦配体、N-卡宾配体、亚胺配体、胺配体和其它配体的钯配合物催化剂催化效果进行了综述.%Suzuki coupling reactions are a kind of reactions between organic arylboronic acid and aryl halides to construct C-C bond over the ze-ro-valent palladium catalysts with high efficiency and selectivity. Palladium ligand catalysts, which are the key of study on Suzuki coupling reaction, play an important role in the activity of Suzuki coupling reaction. The catalytic properties of phosphine ligand, N-heterocyclic carbine ligand, inline ligand, amine ligand and other ligands of palladium complex are summarized.

  7. The Defining Characteristics of Urban Living Labs

    Kris Steen


    Full Text Available The organization of supported and sustainable urban interventions is challenging, with multiple actors involved, fragmented decision-making powers, and multiple values at stake. Globally, urban living labs have become a fashionable phenomenon to tackle this challenge, fostering the development and implementation of innovation, experimentation, and knowledge in urban, real-life settings while emphasizing the important role of participation and co-creation. However, although urban living labs could in this way help cities to speed up the sustainable transition, urban living lab experts agree that, in order to truly succeed in these ambitious tasks, the way urban living labs are being shaped and steered needs further research. Yet, they also confirm the existing variation and opaqueness in the definition of the concept. This article contributes to conceptual clarity by developing an operationalized definition of urban living labs, which has been used to assess 90 sustainable urban innovation projects in the city of Amsterdam. The assessment shows that the majority of the projects that are labelled as living labs do not include one or more of the defining elements of a living lab. In particular, the defining co-creation and development activities were found to be absent in many of the projects. This article makes it possible to categorize alleged living lab projects and distill the “true” living labs from the many improperly labelled or unlabelled living labs, allowing more specific analyses and, ultimately, better targeted methodological recommendations for urban living labs.

  8. Recognizing and defining clinical nurse leaders.

    Stanley, David

    This article addresses the issue of clinical leadership and how it is defined. The concepts and definitions of clinical leadership are considered as well as the results of new research that suggests that clinical leaders can be seen as experts in their field, and because they are approachable and are effective communicators, are empowered to act as a role model, motivating others by matching their values and beliefs about nursing and care to their practice. This is supported by a new leadership theory, congruent leadership, proposed as the most appropriate leadership theory to support an understanding of clinical leadership. Congruent leaders (clinical nurse leaders) are followed because there is a match between the leader's values and beliefs and their actions.

  9. Defining dysplasia in Barrett esophagus.

    Robert, Marie E


    Histologic grading of esophageal biopsies remains the cornerstone of management in patients with Barrett esophagus. This remains true despite ongoing research into the genetic abnormalities that occur in the setting of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. As of this writing, there are no objective tests that can replace the pathologist's eyes in predicting prognosis in this setting. However, pathologists and clinicians are well aware that the histologic interpretation of biopsies is an inherently subjective practice. The validity of this exercise depends entirely on the experience of the pathologist. Having said that, two interobserver studies on the grading of dysplasia in Barrett esophagus suggest that, if published criteria are adhered to, the histologic grading of dysplasia is a useful tool in patient management. In this review, the updated pathologic criteria for each category of dysplasia are presented, and the results of two large interobserver variability studies are reviewed.

  10. Reaction studies of hot silicon, germanium and carbon atoms

    Gaspar, P.P.


    The goal of this project was to increase the authors understanding of the interplay between the kinetic and electronic energy of free atoms and their chemical reactivity by answering the following questions: (1) what is the chemistry of high-energy carbon silicon and germanium atoms recoiling from nuclear transformations; (2) how do the reactions of recoiling carbon, silicon and germanium atoms take place - what are the operative reaction mechanisms; (3) how does the reactivity of free carbon, silicon and germanium atoms vary with energy and electronic state, and what are the differences in the chemistry of these three isoelectronic atoms This research program consisted of a coordinated set of experiments capable of achieving these goals by defining the structures, the kinetic and internal energy, and the charge states of the intermediates formed in the gas-phase reactions of recoiling silicon and germanium atoms with silane, germane, and unsaturated organic molecules, and of recoiling carbon atoms with aromatic molecules. The reactions of high energy silicon, germanium, and carbon atoms created by nuclear recoil were studied with substrates chosen so that their products illuminated the mechanism of the recoil reactions. Information about the energy and electronic state of the recoiling atoms at reaction was obtained from the variation in end product yields and the extent of decomposition and rearrangement of primary products (usually reactive intermediates) as a function of total pressure and the concentration of inert moderator molecules that remove kinetic energy from the recoiling atoms and can induce transitions between electronic spin states. 29 refs.

  11. 合成乙酰水杨酸的反应条件的探讨%Research of Reaction Conditions about Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized

    李娅生; 刘大勇; 王九; 王昱航; 陈强; 付富生


    对乙酰水杨酸“老药新用”的应用现状以及应用前景进行了详细的分析。比较了目前市场上乙酰水杨酸各种合成方法的优劣,设计了适合于工业化的较佳的合成路线,考察了原料物质的量之比、催化剂用量、反应温度、反应时间对反应收率的影响,进一步优化了合成工艺。经过实验数据的处理与分析,采用O-酰基化反应合成乙酰水杨酸的适宜条件为:无水环境下,对甲苯磺酸为催化剂,n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酹)=1:2.0:反应温度为85℃和反应时间为30rain时,乙酰水杨酸的收率高于97%。所得样品符合《中国药典》和《美国药典》中乙酰水杨酸的质量要求,能够用于合成乙酰水杨酸。%Acetylsalicylic acid "new use for an old drug" application status and application prospect were analyzed in detail. Compared with the present market of acetylsalicylic acid synthesis methods advantages and disadvantages. Design suitable for industrialization of better synthetic route. The effect of raw material ratio, the dosage of catalyst, reaction temperature, reaction time on the yield of the reaction, further optimization of the synthesis technology. Through the experimental data processing and analysis, the O acylation reaction conditions for synthesis of acetyl salicylic acid: without water environment, concentrated 4-Toluene sulfonic acid as catalyst, n(salicylic acid) " n(acetic anhydride)=l : 2.0; when the reaction temperature of 85 ℃ and reaction time of 30 min, acetyl salicylic acid yield were higher than 97 %. The sample meets acetylsalicylic acid quality requirements of"Chinese Pharmacopoeia" and "with the United States Pharmacopoeia", can be used for the synthesis of acetyl salicylic acid.

  12. Defining reclaimed water potability requirements

    Janik, D. S.


    Water used during previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will probably have to utilize some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little applied experience in either the US or foreign space programs with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitutes an engineering challenge of the broadest nature and will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed US spacestation. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specification will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Perhaps the most strigent specifications will involve water to be consumed. NASA's present Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled potable water. No specifications for reclaimed or recycled potable water presently exist either inside or outside NASA. NASA's past experience with potable water systems is reviewed, limitations of the present Potable Water Specifications are examined, present world expertise with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and system analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent Reclaimed/Recycled Potable Water Specifications for spacecraft is presented.

  13. Research



    Feb 25, 2013 ... Of these 56 eyes, the visual acuity in 49 eyes (87.5%) improved with pinhole. Twenty seven pupils had ... ( Research ... primary basic 1 to 6 and aged 5 to 15 years were included in the study. The United ...

  14. Research

    collaboration, but also in less tangible ways affecting quality of research.[5] ... Methods. A 40-hour workshop in biostatistical reasoning was conducted ... test median score was 68% (IQR 62 - 76%), with p<0.0001 for the overall comparison of pre- v. post-scores. ... limitations of a traditional lecture-based mode of instruction.

  15. Research



    Mar 13, 2014 ... &Corresponding author: Dr. Oliver Ezechi, Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, ... with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. ... Whether or not HCV directly impacts HIV disease ..... natural history, fibrosis, and impact of antiretroviral treatment:.

  16. Research

    understood in the profession, evolved from therapeutic activity (within a medi- cal model ... facilitate students' ability to examine institutional systems that hinder ..... don't have connections with each other … we went to the schools and were told ... for change or conduct action research projects that deal with occupational.

  17. Research



    Dec 11, 2015 ... ... Dschang, Cameroon, 2Division of Health Operations Research, Ministry of Public ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... not yet been investigated but may can be explained by weakness of .... Cameroonian market and why not apply for surveillance of.

  18. Research

    by teaching them skills on how to acquire and appraise knowledge for a particular ... [3] Similarities have been noted in the roles of lecturers that facilitate learning rather than ..... Student feedback related to facilitators of and barriers to learning. Facilitators of ... 'Sometimes time (clinical, research, social, sport) was limited.'.

  19. Research



    Aug 25, 2011 ... completely replaced animals with computer modeling, manikins and ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ... developed internal guidelines on the use of animals in research in 2004 [13]. ... Only one institution used human cell cultures as a replacement to live animal use.

  20. Research



    Aug 5, 2013 ... In 2007, The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended ... are taken nearer to the community through clinical outreach ... Sample size and Sampling procedure ... researchers shared and debated the way each of them understood .... this may involve selling off assets to get the money for transport.

  1. Research



    Apr 20, 2016 ... ... Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ... diabetes mellitus, obesity, family history of premature CHD in a first ... was reviewed and approved by the Hospital's Research and Ethics .... apoptosis of peripheral adipocytes, decreased pre-adipocyte.

  2. Spallation reactions; Reactions de spallation

    Cugon, J.


    Spallation reactions dominate the interactions of hadrons with nuclei in the GeV range (from {approx} 0.1 to {approx} 10 GeV). They correspond to a sometimes important ejection of light particles leaving most of the time a residue of mass commensurate with the target mass. The main features of the experimental data are briefly reviewed. The most successful theoretical model, namely the intranuclear cascade + evaporation model, is presented. Its physical content, results and possible improvements are critically discussed. Alternative approaches are shortly reviewed. (author). 84 refs.

  3. 乙酸乙酯反应精馏新工艺的研究进展%Research progress of new technology for ethyl acetate reaction distillation

    李柏春; 肖连杰; 张文林


    总结了几种反应精馏生产乙酸乙酯的新工艺.介绍了反应精馏-萃取耦合、反应精馏-膜渗透蒸发、隔壁塔反应精馏、反应精馏联产乙酸乙酯/乙酸丁酯、立体催化精馏塔生产乙酸乙酯5种新工艺过程,并进行了对比分析,指出各自的优缺点,最后对其发展前景进行了展望.%Several new kinds of reaction distillation for the production of ethyl acetate are summarized.Five new process including reaction-extraction distillation,membrane for pervaporation-assisted esterification reactor,reactive dividing wall column,reaction-distillation and catalytic rectification tower are analyzed and compared.The advantages and disadvantages of each process are pointed out.Finally,the prospects in this field are also outlooked.

  4. Research Progress in the Reaction for Methanol to Aromatics%甲醇制芳烃反应的研究进展

    项楠; 金熙俊


    The difficulties in the reaction for methanol to aromatics were simply introduced. The advantages and defects of the catalyst ZSM-5 were discussed. The optimized conditions for the reaction of MTA with the catalyst HZSM-5 were pointed out. Typical modification methods of the ZSM-5 molecular sieve were summarized, and development direction of catalysts for the reaction of methanol to aromatics was put forward.%简单介绍了甲醇制芳烃(MTA)目前所面临的困难,以及 MTA 反应所适用的催化剂 ZSM-5及其优势。指出以 HZSM-5做催化剂时,MTA 反应的最优化反应条件,并综述了国内外目前对于 ZSM-5催化剂的几种改性方法。并提出适用 MTA 的催化剂的开发方向。

  5. Defining disability: metaphysical not political.

    Riddle, Christopher A


    Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British

  6. 微通道反应器中二氯丙醇环化反应%Research on cyclization reaction of dichloropropanol in a micro-channel reactor

    张跃; 李津石; 严生虎; 刘建武; 沈介发


    研究了微通道反应器内二氯丙醇的环化制备环氧氯丙烷的反应,考察了反应温度、原料配比、停留时间等单因素对环氧氯丙烷收率的影响。实验确定了较优的工艺参数组合:环化反应温度50℃,二氯丙醇与氢氧化钠的摩尔比1∶1.2,停留时间45 s,NaOH质量分数20%时ECH的收率达到95.2%。在微通道反应的时空转化率要比常规反应高出两个数量级。与传统的工艺方法相比,微通道反应中环氧氯丙烷的收率提高了10%,降低了过程的能耗,废水排放量减少了45%。%The paper is about the cyclization reaction of dichloropropanol preparing epoxy chloropropane in a micro-channel reactor.The influence of reaction temperature,the ratio of two materials,the detention time on the yield of epoxy chloropropane are studied.The optimal parameters for reaction process are obtained as 50 ℃ reaction temperature,1∶1.2 for the ratio of dichloropropanol and NaOH,45 s detention time,20% weight concentration of sodium hydroxide solution,under which the yield of the epoxy chloropropane can reach up to 95.2%.The STC in micro-channel reactor is more than 100 times of that in a regular reactor.Comparing with traditional technological process,this new micro-channel reaction process makes the yield of epoxy chloropropane increased by 10% with less energy consumption,and the waste water discharge reduced by 45%.

  7. Reactions to reading “Remaining consistent with method? An analysis of grounded theory research in accounting”: A comment on Gurd


    Purpose: The present paper is a comment on Gurd's paper published in QRAM on the use of grounded theory in interpretive accounting research. Methodology: Like Gurd, we conducted a bibliographic study on prior pieces of research claiming the use of grounded theory. Findings: We found a large diversity of ways of doing grounded theory. There are as many ways as articles. Consistent with the spirit of grounded theory, the field suggested the research questions, methods and verifiability criteria...

  8. Reactions to reading “Remaining consistent with method? An analysis of grounded theory research in accounting”: A comment on Gurd


    Purpose: The present paper is a comment on Gurd’s paper published in QRAM on the use of grounded theory in interpretive accounting research. Methodology: Like Gurd, we conducted a bibliographic study on prior pieces of research claiming the use of grounded theory. Findings: We found a large diversity of ways of doing grounded theory. There are as many ways as articles. Consistent with the spirit of grounded theory, the field suggested the research questions, methods and verifiability criteria...

  9. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas


    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  10. Automated Writing Evaluation: Defining the Classroom Research Agenda

    Warschauer, Mark; Ware, Paige


    With the advent of English as a global language, the ability to write well in English across diverse settings and for different audiences has become an imperative in second language education programmes throughout the world. Yet the teaching of second language writing is often hindered by the great amount of time and skill needed to evaluate…

  11. Defining Usability: How Library Practice Differs from Published Research

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Germain, Carol Anne; Rorissa, Abebe


    Library/information science professionals need a clearly articulated definition of usability/Web usability to implement intuitive websites. In this study, the authors analyzed usability definitions provided by the ARL library professionals and those found in the library/information science and computer science-information systems literature.…

  12. Linezolid analysis of research papers in the subject of adverse drug reaction%利奈唑胺不良反应的文献计量分析

    白艳; 王羽凝; 李其; 王天琳; 孙艳; 王瑾; 王睿


    目的:分析利奈唑胺临床应用不良反应的发生、分布、严重程度及有效防治措施。方法检索PubMed、EMbase,Web of Science,中国知网( CNKI)和万方数据库关于利奈唑胺不良反应的文献,截止到2014年6月。用Endnote X7及人工双重进行分类整理,分析文献发表的分布,国家,归纳文献涉及基础疾病与处理措施,利奈唑胺主要不良反应发生的类型、部位、严重程度、临床表现及防治措施。结果共纳入文献233篇。首次发表利奈唑胺不良反应的文献是在2000年,在2012年发文量49篇,达到最高峰。论文数量居前5的国家有中国(37篇)、美国(25篇)、英国(14篇)、西班牙(6篇)、新西兰(5篇)。文献最高被引频次为94次。涉及注射用利奈唑胺引起严重的不良反应为神经系统、血液系统及消化系统不良反应等。结论通过减少用药的疗程、剂量或用药期间严格检测患者血象,降低不良反应发生率。%Objective To comprehensively the linezolid clinical applica-tion of the occurrence of adverse drug reaction, distribution, severity, and effective prevention and control measures, more reasonable, safe for clinical use of linezolid provides the reference basis.Methods English search PubMed, EMbase, and Web of Science database, Chinese search CNKI and Wanfang about the document of the linezolid adverse drug reaction, the deadline in June 2014, use Endnote X7 sorting.Distribution and the literature involves the basic diseases and the treatment measures, summarizes the major adverse drug reaction of the linezolid type, site, severity, clinical manifestations and prevention measures were ana-lysed.Results Participants included 233 references.For the first time linezolid adverse drug reaction of literatures published in 2000, 49 num-ber reaches its peak in 2012.The paper number among the five countries, China (37), the United States (25), Britain (14

  13. Research on the Reaction Control System for Spacecraft Re-Entry Flight%跨大气层飞行器再入段RCS控制特性

    宁国栋; 张曙光; 方振平


    以航天飞机为例,论述了跨大气层飞行器反推力控制系统(Reaction Control System,RCS)的工作原理,并给出了RCS推进器的控制模型.同时分析了RCS在回路中的各种工作模式和多推进器的系统冗余及其组合方式.最后在对RCS系统操作的基础上,研究了航天飞机在再人段飞行时的RCS控制问题.

  14. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann


    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetical...

  15. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Bleich, Michael R


    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity.

  16. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    Matthew Lawrence Stanley


    Full Text Available Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel. The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the correct method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that

  17. Synthesis of Cubic Phase-Co Microspheres by Mechanical Solid-State Reaction-Thermal Decomposition and Research on Its Growth Kinetics

    Ying Deng


    Full Text Available Cubic phase cobalt (Co, which can be used as a key component for composite materials given its excellent ductility and internal structure, is not easy to obtain at room temperature. In this study, oxalic acid and cobalt nitrate are used as raw materials to synthesize the cobalt oxalate precursor, which has a stable structure with a five-membered chelate ring. Cobalt oxalate microspheres, having a high internal energy content, were prepared by using mechanical solid-state reaction in the presence of a surfactant, which can produce spherical micelles. The thermal decomposition of the precursor was carried out by maintaining it in a nitrogen atmosphere at 450°C for 3 h. At the end of the procedure, 100 nm cubic phase-Co microspheres, stable at room temperature, were obtained. Isothermal and nonisothermal kinetic mechanisms of cobalt grain growth were investigated. The cubic-Co grain growth activation energy, Q, was calculated in this study to be 71.47 kJ/mol. The required reaction temperature was low, making the production process simple and suitable for industrial applications.

  18. Reaction product imaging

    Chandler, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  19. Defining nodes in complex brain networks.

    Stanley, Matthew L; Moussa, Malaak N; Paolini, Brielle M; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J


    Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel). The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter) spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the "correct" method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that deserves extensive

  20. Research on the nanocrystal FeV{sub x}O{sub y} catalysts for new reaction from propane to propylene and CO

    Li, Yanhua; Chen, Shu; Xu, Aixin; Ma, Fei; Chen, Fang; Lu, Weimin, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The new reaction from propane to C{sub 3}H{sub 6} and CO has been proposed in this paper. • The catalysts restrain the formation of CO{sub 2} and increase the selectivity of CO. • The FeVO{sub 4} (isolated VO{sub 4} species) may be the phase structure of high selectivity. • The suitable acid sites on the catalysts are in favour of the reaction. - Abstract: The FeV{sub x}O{sub y} catalysts, used for selective oxidation of propane to propylene and CO, were prepared via sol-gel method using F-127 as chelating agent. And the catalyst with V/Fe (molar ratio) = 0.1 showed quite good selectivity of propylene and CO and the sum of them can be more than 90%. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, H{sub 2}-TPR and NH{sub 3}-TPD. The relationship between the structure and catalytic properties was also preliminarily discussed. The results indicated that chemical interaction took place between the vanadium and iron, which could be referred to V-O-Fe bonds and the formation of Fe(VO{sub 4}). Meanwhile, with the increase of vanadium content, the distribution of all the elements proportion and valence state on the surface of the catalysts as well as the acid amount and acid sites changed immensely. All of these affected the catalytic performance and improve the selectivity of CO and inhibit that of CO{sub 2}.

  1. Research progress in drug reactions on hERG potassium channels%药物对hERG钾通道作用机制研究进展

    林敏; 李泱; 张建成


    人ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG)钾通道表达了延迟整流钾电流的快激活成分,对动作电位的复极至关重要.hERG钾电流不仅是抗心律失常作用的主要靶点,也是诸多药物增加尖端扭转型室速和心源性猝死风险的关键位点,而该电流的降低和(或)升高与基因突变或药物阻滞作用密切相关.随着对药物与hERG钾通道相互作用机制研究的深入,药物与通道孔道区蛋白结合位点的作用及其对通道转运的影响逐步被揭示,但这些药物对hERG作用的临床应用仍有待评价.%Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channels conduct the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current ( Ikr). The reduction ( or increase ) of Ikr current due to either gene mutations or adverse drug effects would increase the risk of torsades de pointes and sudden cardiac death. This paper reviews various mechanisms of drug reactions of hERG potassium channels and the properties of major drug-protein reaction sites in the pore region and trafficking of hERG potassium channels under the influence of drugs. However, the effect of clinical administration of drugs on hERG remains unclear.

  2. Research on Relation between Reaction Time and Performance of Sprint and Hurdle%田径短跨项目起跑反应时与运动成绩关联的研究



    反应时作为生理学、心理学及训练学等学科领域的专业术语,受各自学科理论依据与实践实验条件的影响,导致概念界定歧义与数据测量迥异。借助过往经典文献的研究思路与理论架构,取样第15届世界田径锦标赛短跨项目运动员的反应时及运动成绩数据,描述与推断不同性别、轮次、等级水平、项目距离等因素对反应时的影响、反应时与运动成绩的关联及反应时的稳定性。研究表明:1)男女100 m、100 m栏与110 m栏起跑反应时分别存在非常显著性差异与显著性差异,除去男女100 m与100 m栏、110 m栏外,其他不同运动项目间均存在不同程度的显著性差异;2)除去女子200 m预复决赛各轮次反应时存在显著性差异外,其他项目未见差异;3)男女100 m、200 m起跑反应与运动成绩存在显著性相关;4)优秀运动员能够持有较低水平的反应时。科学认识反应时的运行原理及作用、改善运动技术、提高力量素质、积极心理干预等训练参数及手段是提高田径短跨项目运动成绩的根本途径。%As a technical term in the fields of physiology ,psychology and training theory ,the reaction time is influenced by the theoretical basis and the experimental conditions of each subject ,which lead to the concept of ambiguity and data measurement difference .By means of classical literature in the past research ideas and theoretical framework ,sampling the reaction time and performance data of sprinters and hur‐dlers in the 15th World Athletics Championships ,this paper describes and infers the influence of different gender ,rounds ,the grade level ,the event distance on the reaction time ,relation of reaction time with per‐formance ,and stability of reaction time .The result shows that 1) there is very significant difference and significant difference between male and female 100m ,100m and 110m hurdles’ reaction time

  3. Defining food literacy: A scoping review.

    Truman, Emily; Lane, Daniel; Elliott, Charlene


    The term "food literacy" describes the idea of proficiency in food related skills and knowledge. This prevalent term is broadly applied, although its core elements vary from initiative to initiative. In light of its ubiquitous use-but varying definitions-this article establishes the scope of food literacy research by identifying all articles that define 'food literacy', analysing its key conceptualizations, and reporting outcomes/measures of this concept. A scoping review was conducted to identify all articles (academic and grey literature) using the term "food literacy". Databases included Medline, Pubmed, Embase, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Scopus, JSTOR, and Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Of 1049 abstracts, 67 studies were included. From these, data was extracted on country of origin, study type (methodological approach), primary target population, and the primary outcomes relating to food literacy. The majority of definitions of food literacy emphasize the acquisition of critical knowledge (information and understanding) (55%) over functional knowledge (skills, abilities and choices) (8%), although some incorporate both (37%). Thematic analysis of 38 novel definitions of food literacy reveals the prevalence of six themes: skills and behaviours, food/health choices, culture, knowledge, emotions, and food systems. Study outcomes largely focus on knowledge generating measures, with very few focusing on health related outcome measures. Current definitions of food literacy incorporate components of six key themes or domains and attributes of both critical and functional knowledge. Despite this broad definition of the term, most studies aiming to improve food literacy focus on knowledge related outcomes. Few articles address health outcomes, leaving an important gap (and opportunity) for future research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Research on Macro-kinetics of Phase Transfer Catalytic Reaction for Benzyl Acetate%相转移催化合成乙酸苄酯宏观动力学研究



    The macro-kinetics of phase transfer catalytic reaction for benzyl acetate from benzyl chloride and sodium acetate with benzyltriethylammonium chloride as catalyst was researched. In the kinetics experiments, the concentration of phase transfer catalyst benzyltriethylammonium was keep unchanged, and excess sodium acetate was used to keep constant acetate concentration by dissolution equilibrium. The kinetics experiments were carried out to obtained the reaction order of benzyl chloride at 50-60℃. The results indicated that the reaction orders for benzyl chloride was 1, and the activation energy was 36.4kJ/mol.%研究了氯化苄与乙酸钠在相转移催化剂苄基三乙基氯化铵作用下合成乙酸苄酯的宏观动力学。研究中固定相转移催化剂用量,并使乙酸钠大量过量以维持反应体系中乙酸钠浓度为定值。在50~60℃的温度下进行实验。实验结果表明,反应对氯化苄为1级,反应表观活化能为36.4kJ/mol。

  5. Defining collaborative business rules management solutions : framework and method

    Zoet, Martijn; Versendaal, Johan


    From the publishers' website: The goal of this research is to define a method for configuring a collaborative business rules management solution from a value proposition perspective. In an earlier published study (Business rules management solutions: added value by means of business interoperability

  6. Frameworks for defining and managing the wilderness experience

    Robert E. Manning


    A large and growing body of research on outdoor recreation and the wilderness experience has been conducted over the nearly 50 years since passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964. A number of conceptual and empirical frameworks have emerged from this body of knowledge that can be used to help define and manage the wilderness experience.

  7. Defining an Approach for Future Close Air Support Capability


    ARROYO CENTER Defining an Approach for Future Close Air Support Capability John Matsumura, John Gordon IV, Randall Steeb Prepared for the United...capabilities; however, this research subsequently refocused specifically on close air support (CAS) capabilities in recent conflict and the possible...1 Definition of Close Air Support

  8. Defining Success in Action Learning: An International Comparison

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to explore how the two groups of action learning experts (Korean and non-Korean experts) define success of action learning to see whether there are any cultural differences. To this end, the authors conducted a total of 44 interviews with action learning experts around the world. Research questions guiding…

  9. Defining Leadership: Collegiate Women's Learning Circles: A Qualitative Approach

    Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.


    The researchers employed qualitative methods to evaluate first-year female students' definition of "leadership" through involvement in the Women's Learning Circle. The findings revealed that students defined leadership in two dimensions: traits and behaviors. The qualitative findings explore a multidimensional approach to the voices of…

  10. Defining Leadership: Collegiate Women's Learning Circles: A Qualitative Approach

    Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.


    The researchers employed qualitative methods to evaluate first-year female students' definition of "leadership" through involvement in the Women's Learning Circle. The findings revealed that students defined leadership in two dimensions: traits and behaviors. The qualitative findings explore a multidimensional approach to the voices of…

  11. The LOLITA User-Definable Template Interface

    Košmelj, Katarina


    The development of user-definable templates interfaces which allow the user to design new templates definitions in a user-friendly way is a new issue in the field of information extraction. The LOLITA user-definable templates interface allows the user to define new templates using sentences in natural language text with a few restrictions and formal elements. This approach is rather different from previous approaches to information extraction which require developers to code the template defi...

  12. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  13. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs II

    Chernikov, Artem


    We continue investigating the structure of externally definable sets in NIP theories and preservation of NIP after expanding by new predicates. Most importantly: types over finite sets are uniformly definable; over a model, a family of non-forking instances of a formula (with parameters ranging over a type-definable set) can be covered with finitely many invariant types; we give some criteria for the boundedness of an expansion by a new predicate in a distal theory; naming an arbitrary small indiscernible sequence preserves NIP, while naming a large one doesn't; there are models of NIP theories over which all 1-types are definable, but not all n-types.

  14. Spectroscopic research of Lambda hypernuclei up to medium-heavy mass region with the (e,e'K+) reaction

    Gogami, Toshiyuki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)


    In 2009 (August-November), the E05-115 experiment was carried out at JLab to investigate L hypernuclei in the wide mass region up to A = 52 ($7\\atop{Λ}$He, $10\\atop{Λ}$Be, $12\\atop{Λ}$B and $52\\atop{Λ}$V) with the (e,e'K+) reaction. This is the first attempt to investigate a medium heavy L hypernucleus with the (e,e'K+) reaction. Experimentally, it is difficult to measure heavier L hypernuclei as background rates of particles which originate from electromagnetic processes are roughly in proportion to Z2 (Z: target proton number) in the (e,e'K+) experiment. To perform the experiment, many experimental techniques have been developed and introduced such as optimization of the electron spectrometer configuration (tilt method), clean kaon identification, particle tracking under high multiplicity environment, precise energy scale calibration and so on. In the present thesis, experimental results of the elementary process of p(e,e'K+)L, L hypernuclei of $7\\atop{Λ}$He, $10\\atop{Λ}$Be, $12\\atop{Λ}$B and $52\\atop{Λ}$V are shown. Elementary processes of the electroproduction of L and Σ0, p(e,e'K+)L, Σ0 were used for the absolute energy scale calibration of our spectrometer systems. A careful Monte Carlo simulation shows that the binding energy can be obtained with a systematic error of 0.11 MeV with our energy scale calibration method. A study of the elementary process of L is important to understand L hypernuclei as it is essential for theoretical calculations of L hypernuclei. The differential cross section of the p(e,e'K+)L reaction at the small K+ scattering angle (theta-CM/gamma-K approx. 15.5°), the small Q2 (approx 0.01 [GeV/c]2) and the total energy of W = 1.92 GeV, where no experimental data exists was obtained to be 235 ± 13$+28\\atop{-24}$ nb/sr. The ground state (1/2+) binding energy

  15. Research on the Reaction Mechanism of Network Public Opinion Related to Procuratorate%涉检网络舆情反应机制研究

    张亚力; 余芳


    新形势下的舆论环境要求检察机关提高处置网络舆情危机的能力。只有建立涉检网络舆情反应机制,敏锐地把握、驾驭应对舆论的能力,及时、坦诚地公开检务信息,才能培养人民群众对司法权威的认同感,提高检察工作的执法公信力,化解社会矛盾、维护社会和谐稳定。%Procuratorial organs are required to improve their abilities to deal with the crisis of network public opinion under the new situation. Only by establishing the reaction mechanism of network public opinion, mastering how to handle the public opinion keenly, opening the procuratorial information timely and frankly, people's sense of identity to judicial authority can be educated, the law enforcement credibility of procuratorial work can be improved, social contradictions can be defused, social harmony and stability can be maintained.

  16. 羟醛缩合法合成肉桂醛的工艺研究%Research on Synthesis Technology of Cinnamaldehyde by Aldol Reaction

    李海花; 闫顺生


    Cinnamaldehyde is synthesized from the reaction of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde with base as the catalyst. The factors affecting the quality and recovery of cinnamaldehyde, such as the catalyst, the temperature, the molar ration of the benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde are analyzed. The results show that at a temperature of 25 ℃ ,catalyst for sodium hydroxide, benzaldehyde : acetaldehyde = 3 : 1 conditions,the yield of the product can reach 76%.%以苯甲醛、乙醛为原料,在碱性条件下用羟醛缩合法合成产物肉桂醛,并分别考察了催化剂、反应温度、两种原料用量比对产物收率的影响。结果表明:在温度为25℃、催化剂为氢氧化钠、苯甲醛:乙醛=3:1的条件下,产品收率能达到76%。

  17. İnovasyon Süreci Performansı Ölçüm Kriterlerini Nitel Bir Araştırma İle Belirleme: Bilişim Sektöründen Bulgular - Defining Innovation Process Performance Measurement Criteria with a Qualitative Research: Findings from IT Sector

    Yunus Emre TAŞGİT


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define innovation performance measurement criteria for firms and measure their performance through these criteria. IT firms in technoparks at TR42 East Marmara Region are included in the study and qualitative research method is used. Data are collected through the interviews conducted with managers of IT firms and are analyzed with descriptive and content analysis techniques. After the analysis, some measurement criteria are introduced to measure the innovation performance. Results show that “Idea Generation” stage is not taken seriously by these firms. Performances of “Beta Version Development” and “Full Version Development” stages are high. Firms have to analyze “Sale” stage carefully.

  18. Open Effective Field Theories from Deeply Inelastic Reactions

    Braaten, Eric; Hammer, Hans-Werner; Lepage, G. Peter


    Effective field theories have often been applied to systems with inelastic reactions that produce particles with large momenta outside the domain of validity of the effective theory. The effects of the deeply inelastic reactions have been taken into account in previous work by adding local anti-Hermitian terms to the effective Hamiltonian density. We show that an additional modification is required in equations governing the density matrix when multi-particle states are considered. We define an effective density matrix by tracing out states containing high-momentum particles, and show that it satisfies a Lindblad equation, with Lindblad operators determined by the anti-Hermitian terms in the effective Hamiltonian density. This research was supported in part by the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Simons Foundation.

  19. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner


    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  20. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces. Final Progress Report



    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces was held at Holiday Inn, Ventura, California, 2/16-21/03. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  1. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Henry Reactions

    Raquel P. Herrera


    Full Text Available A large number of interesting organocatalytic enantioselective protocols have been explored and successfully applied in the last decade. Among them, the Henry (nitroaldol reaction represents a powerful carbon-carbon bond-forming procedure for the preparation of valuable synthetic intermediates, such as enantioenriched nitro alcohols, which can be further transformed in a number of important nitrogen and oxygen-containing compounds. This area of research is still in expansion and a more complex version of this useful process has recently emerged, the domino Michael/Henry protocol, affording highly functionalized cycles with multiple stereogenic centers.

  2. 双金属改性膨润土作为PRB介质的试验%Experimental Research on Bimetal Modified Bentonite as PRB Reaction Media

    杨维; 吴燕萍; 李世良; 杨肖肖


    This paper discussed the feasibility of three different dual metal(AL-Fe, AL-Cu and Fe-Cu)hy-droxyl polymer modified bentonite as PRB reaction media and studied the effects of aging time,pillared temperature , suspended concentration, and aging temperature on modified bentonite using orthogonal and single factor combined experiment. Meanwhile, the structural changes of non-modified and modified bentonite were analyzed. Results showed that the four factors had different effects on modified bentonite and the effect of suspended concentration was greatest. The removal efficiencies of CODCr and ammonia nitrogen from landfill leachate contaminated underground water was 66% and 62% respectively. And the optimal modification conditions were Fe-Cu modified bentonite,suspended concentration of 4 g/L,pillared temperature of 80 t, aging temperature of 80 t and aging time of 12 h. Moreover,the layer separation of bentonite modified by bimetal on proper conditions was expanded and the removal efficiency of CODCr and ammonia nitrogen were improved. Therefore,the modified bentonite can be used as PRB reaction media.%目的 探讨将3种Al-Fe、Al - Cu、Fe- Cu双金属聚合羟基物改性天然钠基膨润土后作为PRB反应介质的可行性.方法 结合正交和单因素试验,研究4个因素:老化时间、柱化温度、悬浊液质量浓度、老化温度对改性膨润土效果的影响,分析改性前后膨润土的结构变化.结果 4个因素对天然钠基膨润土的改性效果均有不同程度的影响,其中悬浊液质量浓度因素影响最大,3种不同双金属改性膨润土对地下水中垃圾渗滤液的CODcr和氨氮的去除率都分别达到66%、62%.最佳改性条件为Fe - Cu双金属改性、悬浊液质量浓度为4 g/L、柱化温度为80℃、老化温度80℃、老化时间12 h.结论 经适宜条件下改性过的双金属改性膨润土增大了层间距,提高了膨润土对CODCr、氨氮的去除能力,可以作为PRB反应介质.

  3. Sleep Health: Can We Define It? Does It Matter?

    Buysse, Daniel J.


    Good sleep is essential to good health. Yet for most of its history, sleep medicine has focused on the definition, identification, and treatment of sleep problems. Sleep health is a term that is infrequently used and even less frequently defined. It is time for us to change this. Indeed, pressures in the research, clinical, and regulatory environments require that we do so. The health of populations is increasingly defined by positive attributes such as wellness, performance, and adaptation, and not merely by the absence of disease. Sleep health can be defined in such terms. Empirical data demonstrate several dimensions of sleep that are related to health outcomes, and that can be measured with self-report and objective methods. One suggested definition of sleep health and a description of self-report items for measuring it are provided as examples. The concept of sleep health synergizes with other health care agendas, such as empowering individuals and communities, improving population health, and reducing health care costs. Promoting sleep health also offers the field of sleep medicine new research and clinical opportunities. In this sense, defining sleep health is vital not only to the health of populations and individuals, but also to the health of sleep medicine itself. Citation: Buysse DJ. Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter? SLEEP 2014;37(1):9-17. PMID:24470692

  4. Research Progress of Biodiesel Materials and Reaction Device%生物柴油原料与反应装置的研究进展

    李琪; 徐琴琴; 银建中


    作为一种清洁、 可再生的替代能源, 生物柴油近年来备受关注. 酯交换反应广泛应用于生物柴油制备工艺. 为了降低生产成本、 提高产品质量, 生物柴油研究的关键在于选取低廉的制备原料和优化的反应装置. 综述了生物柴油的原料, 包括第一代食用植物油、 第二代非食用植物油和动物油脂以及第三代微藻油, 在此基础上, 总结了生物柴油的间歇与连续反应装置, 并对生物柴油发展前景进行了展望.%In recent years, biodiesel, as a clean and renewable alternative energy sources, has attracted much attention. Transesterification is widely used in biodiesel preparation and the key factor is to utilize the low price raw material and optimal reactor to reduce the production cost and improve the product quality. The raw materials of biodiesel are introduced in this paper, including the first generation of edible vegetable oil, the second generation of non-edible vegetable oil and animal fat, and the third generation of micro algae oil. Then the batch and continuous reaction devices of biodiesel preparation are summarized. At last, the development prospect of biodiesel is proposed.

  5. The Research of Polyurethane Foam Rising Test and Reaction Process%浅析聚氨酯泡沫起升试验与反应过程

    吕晓奇; 于大海; 朱彦; 唐劲松


    The foam rising was tested using foam lifting test instrument. The reaction features of polyisocyanu⁃rate foam ( PIR) and polyurethane foam ( PUR) were investigated by measuring the variations of foam�s the height, temperature, pressure and electric susceptibility with the time. Based on the experiments, the main process of foam generation was also elaborated. The results showed that the rising height curve of PIR could be divided into two parts of curves with different rising rate. The regular polyurethane foam had single peak during the rising height var⁃iation. The temperature curve had two curves with different rate variation, corresponding to the foaming and gel re⁃actions, respectively.%利用泡沫起升测试仪进行泡沫起升试验,通过测试聚氨酯泡沫( PUF )反应中的高度、温度、压力以及泡沫电极化值随时间的变化情况,研究了聚异氰脲酸酯泡沫( PIR)及常规的聚氨基甲酸酯泡沫( PUR)反应的特征,并对泡沫产生的主要反应过程进行解释。结果表明,聚异氰脲酸酯泡沫的上升高度曲线可分为两段具有不同的上升速度的曲线;聚氨基甲酸酯泡沫的起升试验中高度变化图为单峰曲线,温度曲线具有两段速率曲线,分别对应了发泡与凝胶反应。

  6. 沙门菌PCR检测技术应用进展%Research progress in detection of Salmonella by polymerase chain reaction

    黄丽华; 唐保晖


    Salmonella spp,is one the principal bacteria causing food poinonings. The conventional detection of Salmonella spp.include selective culture, biochemical idenfication, etc, that were time-consuming and low sensitivity and difficult to meet the rapid detection demand. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)is one the recently developed methods for rapid detection of Salmonella spp in various kinds of foods. The objective gene to be detected by PCR is diversified, mianly covering species-specific prime gene.serogroup-specific gene and serotype -specific prime gene. In this paper the variou objective genes of Salmonella spp to be detected by various PCR techniquew were discussed.%沙门菌是引起食物中毒的主要致病菌之一,其传统检测方法包括选择性培养、生化鉴定等步骤,耗时长、灵敏性差,很难满足快速检测要求.聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术是近年来广泛应用于食品中沙门菌快速检测的方法之一,其检测目的基因多种多样,主要包括属特异性引物基因、血清群特异性引物基因与血清型特异性引物基因.本文主要概述PCR技术应用于沙门菌检测的各种目的基因,并简要介绍常规PCR、多重PCR及实时定量PCR等技术的应用.

  7. A definability theorem for first order logic

    Butz, C.; Moerdijk, I.


    In this paper we will present a definability theorem for first order logic This theorem is very easy to state and its proof only uses elementary tools To explain the theorem let us first observe that if M is a model of a theory T in a language L then clearly any definable subset S M ie a subset S

  8. Defining Dynamic Graphics by a Graphical Language

    毛其昌; 戴汝为


    A graphical language which can be used for defining dynamic picture and applying control actions to it is defined with an expanded attributed grammar.Based on this a system is built for developing the presentation of application data of user interface.This system provides user interface designers with a friendly and high efficient programming environment.

  9. 7 CFR 29.12 - Terms defined.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 29.12 Section 29.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.12 Terms defined. As used in this subpart and in all...

  10. Countertransference reactions to families where child abuse has occurred

    Carr, Alan


    In this paper five countertransference reactions, which may be experienced by workers on child abuse management teams, are described. Karpman's Drama Triangle is used as a framework within which to define these reactions. The reactions are: (1) rescuing the child; (2) rescuing the parents; (3) rescuing the mother and child while persecuting the father, (4) rescuing the father; and (5) persecuting the family.

  11. A hierarchical approach to defining marine heatwaves

    Hobday, Alistair J.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Perkins, Sarah E.; Smale, Dan A.; Straub, Sandra C.; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Burrows, Michael T.; Donat, Markus G.; Feng, Ming; Holbrook, Neil J.; Moore, Pippa J.; Scannell, Hillary A.; Sen Gupta, Alex; Wernberg, Thomas


    Marine heatwaves (MHWs) have been observed around the world and are expected to increase in intensity and frequency under anthropogenic climate change. A variety of impacts have been associated with these anomalous events, including shifts in species ranges, local extinctions and economic impacts on seafood industries through declines in important fishery species and impacts on aquaculture. Extreme temperatures are increasingly seen as important influences on biological systems, yet a consistent definition of MHWs does not exist. A clear definition will facilitate retrospective comparisons between MHWs, enabling the synthesis and a mechanistic understanding of the role of MHWs in marine ecosystems. Building on research into atmospheric heatwaves, we propose both a general and specific definition for MHWs, based on a hierarchy of metrics that allow for different data sets to be used in identifying MHWs. We generally define a MHW as a prolonged discrete anomalously warm water event that can be described by its duration, intensity, rate of evolution, and spatial extent. Specifically, we consider an anomalously warm event to be a MHW if it lasts for five or more days, with temperatures warmer than the 90th percentile based on a 30-year historical baseline period. This structure provides flexibility with regard to the description of MHWs and transparency in communicating MHWs to a general audience. The use of these metrics is illustrated for three 21st century MHWs; the northern Mediterranean event in 2003, the Western Australia 'Ningaloo Niño' in 2011, and the northwest Atlantic event in 2012. We recommend a specific quantitative definition for MHWs to facilitate global comparisons and to advance our understanding of these phenomena.

  12. Vision 2020. Reaction Engineering Roadmap

    Klipstein, David H. [Reaction Design, San Diego, CA (United States); Robinson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Reaction Engineering Roadmap is a part of an industry- wide effort to create a blueprint of the research and technology milestones that are necessary to achieve longterm industry goals. This report documents the results of a workshop focused on the research needs, technology barriers, and priorities of the chemical industry as they relate to reaction engineering viewed first by industrial use (basic chemicals; specialty chemicals; pharmaceuticals; and polymers) and then by technology segment (reactor system selection, design, and scale-up; chemical mechanism development and property estimation; dealing with catalysis; and new, nonstandard reactor types).

  13. Chemically defined medium and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Kozak, Elena; Conley, Catharine A.


    BACKGROUND: C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Use of a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of use in large-scale growth and screening of animals. RESULTS: We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats to using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change the composition of the defined medium. CONCLUSIONS: As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  14. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)


    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  15. Triple click reaction strategy for macromolecular diversity.

    Tunca, Umit


    This Feature Article focuses on the rapidly emerging concept of the "triple click reactions" towards the design and synthesis of macromolecules with well-defined topology and chemical composition, and also precise molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution. The term "triple click reaction" used in this feature article is based on the utilization of three chemically and mechanistically different click reactions for polymer-polymer conjugation and post-modification of the polymers. Three sequential click reactions of which two are identical should not be considered to be triple click reactions. The triple click reaction strategy for polymer conjugation and post-modification of polymers is classified in this article based on the resultant architectures: linear and non-linear structures. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Catalysis of Photochemical Reactions.

    Albini, A.


    Offers a classification system of catalytic effects in photochemical reactions, contrasting characteristic properties of photochemical and thermal reactions. Discusses catalysis and sensitization, examples of catalyzed reactions of excepted states, complexing ground state substrates, and catalysis of primary photoproducts. (JM)

  17. SNAP benefits: Can an adequate benefit be defined?

    Yaktine, Ann L; Caswell, Julie A


    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increases the food purchasing power of participating households. A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the question of whether it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy. Total resources; individual, household, and environmental factors; and SNAP program characteristics that affect allotment adequacy were identified from a framework developed by the IOM committee. The committee concluded that it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy; however, such a definition must take into account the degree to which participants' total resources and individual, household, and environmental factors influence the purchasing power of SNAP benefits and the impact of SNAP program characteristics on the calculation of the dollar value of the SNAP allotment. The committee recommended that the USDA Food and Nutrition Service investigate ways to incorporate these factors and program characteristics into research aimed at defining allotment adequacy.

  18. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation for...

  19. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  20. Convolutional Goppa codes defined on fibrations

    Curto, J I Iglesias; Martín, F J Plaza; Sotelo, G Serrano


    We define a new class of Convolutional Codes in terms of fibrations of algebraic varieties generalizaing our previous constructions of Convolutional Goppa Codes. Using this general construction we can give several examples of Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) Convolutional Codes.

  1. Radiation Tolerant Software Defined Video Processor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MaXentric's is proposing a radiation tolerant Software Define Video Processor, codenamed SDVP, for the problem of advanced motion imaging in the space environment....

  2. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary


    In my experience, defining vocabularies compiled for English dictionaries for a British or .... Oxford 3000, which contains 3 540 entries, and is available on the Internet. ... One thing that became apparent was a lack of consistency within lexical.

  3. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  4. Analysis of kinetic reaction mechanisms

    Turányi, Tamás


    Chemical processes in many fields of science and technology, including combustion, atmospheric chemistry, environmental modelling, process engineering, and systems biology, can be described by detailed reaction mechanisms consisting of numerous reaction steps. This book describes methods for the analysis of reaction mechanisms that are applicable in all these fields. Topics addressed include: how sensitivity and uncertainty analyses allow the calculation of the overall uncertainty of simulation results and the identification of the most important input parameters, the ways in which mechanisms can be reduced without losing important kinetic and dynamic detail, and the application of reduced models for more accurate engineering optimizations. This monograph is invaluable for researchers and engineers dealing with detailed reaction mechanisms, but is also useful for graduate students of related courses in chemistry, mechanical engineering, energy and environmental science and biology.

  5. Catalyst Initiation in the Oscillatory Carbonylation Reaction

    Katarina Novakovic


    Full Text Available Palladium(II iodide is used as a catalyst in the phenylacetylene oxidative carbonylation reaction that has demonstrated oscillatory behaviour in both pH and heat of reaction. In an attempt to extract the reaction network responsible for the oscillatory nature of this reaction, the system was divided into smaller parts and they were studied. This paper focuses on understanding the reaction network responsible for the initial reactions of palladium(II iodide within this oscillatory reaction. The species researched include methanol, palladium(II iodide, potassium iodide, and carbon monoxide. Several chemical reactions were considered and applied in a modelling study. The study revealed the significant role played by traces of water contained in the standard HPLC grade methanol used.

  6. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Ion IVAN


    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  7. [Allergic reactions to transfusion].

    Hergon, E; Paitre, M L; Coeffic, B; Piard, N; Bidet, J M


    Frequent allergic reactions following transfusion are observed. Usually, they are benign but sometimes we observe severe allergic reactions. Adverse reactions may be brought about by least two mechanisms. First, immediate-type hypersensibility reactions due to IgE. Secondly, anaphylactic-type reactions due to interaction between transfused IgA and class specific anti IgA in the recipient's plasma. They are characterized by their severest form (anaphylactic shock). The frequency of severe reactions following the transfusion blood plasma is very low. These transfusion reactions are complement-mediated and kinins-mediated. Prevention of allergic reactions is necessary among blood donors and recipients.

  8. Miniaturized continuous flow reaction vessels: influence on chemical reactions

    Brivio, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David


    This review offers an overview of the relatively young research area of continuous flow lab-on-a-chip for synthetic applications. A short introduction on the basic aspects of lab-on-a-chip is given in the first part. Subsequently, the effects of downscaling reaction vessels as well as the advantages

  9. Type I hypersensitivity reaction as a complication of lepa

    Janthli, Deepa Manjunath; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Somashekar, Shruthi; Lohith, B. A.


    Adverse drug reaction is defined as response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological functions. Type I hypersensitivity reaction is known as anaphylactic reaction which is due to immediate immunoglobulin E-mediated reaction. It is characterized by symptoms such as fever nausea, back pain, angiodema, rash, flushing, etc. Lepa generally refers to the a...

  10. Original Research

    cognitive development of preschool children in relation to their socio economic status. The researcher ... India, early childhood is defined as the period of a child's life from ..... context some mass media technology like TV and. Radio are ...

  11. Defining the alloreactive T cell repertoire using high-throughput sequencing of mixed lymphocyte reaction culture.

    Ryan O Emerson

    Full Text Available The cellular immune response is the most important mediator of allograft rejection and is a major barrier to transplant tolerance. Delineation of the depth and breadth of the alloreactive T cell repertoire and subsequent application of the technology to the clinic may improve patient outcomes. As a first step toward this, we have used MLR and high-throughput sequencing to characterize the alloreactive T cell repertoire in healthy adults at baseline and 3 months later. Our results demonstrate that thousands of T cell clones proliferate in MLR, and that the alloreactive repertoire is dominated by relatively high-abundance T cell clones. This clonal make up is consistently reproducible across replicates and across a span of three months. These results indicate that our technology is sensitive and that the alloreactive TCR repertoire is broad and stable over time. We anticipate that application of this approach to track donor-reactive clones may positively impact clinical management of transplant patients.

  12. Well-Defined Silica Grafted Molybdenum Bis(imido) Catalysts for Imine Metathesis Reactions

    Barman, Samir


    Novel site-isolated tetracoordinated molybdenum complexes possessing bis(imido) ligands, [(≡Si–O)2Mo(═NR)2] (R = t-Bu, 2,6-C6H3-i-Pr2), were immobilized on partially dehydroxylated silica (SiO2-200) by a rigorous surface organometallic chemistry protocol. The newly developed materials adorned with bis(imido) functional units, which were previously exploited mainly as spectator ligands on silica-supported olefin metathesis molybdenum catalysts, are found to be efficient heterogeneous catalytic systems for imine cross metathesis under mild conditions.

  13. Controlled Covalent Functionalization of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide To Generate Defined Bifunctional 2D Nanomaterials

    Faghani, Abbas; Donskyi, Ievgen S.; Fardin Gholami, Mohammad; Ziem, Benjamin; Lippitz, Andreas; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Böttcher, Christoph; Rabe, Jürgen P.


    Abstract A controlled, reproducible, gram‐scale method is reported for the covalent functionalization of graphene sheets by a one‐pot nitrene [2+1] cycloaddition reaction under mild conditions. The reaction between commercially available 2,4,6‐trichloro‐1,3,5‐triazine and sodium azide with thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) results in defined dichlorotriazine‐functionalized sheets. The different reactivities of the chlorine substituents on the functionalized graphene allow stepwise post‐modification by manipulating the temperature. This new method provides unique access to defined bifunctional 2D nanomaterials, as exemplified by chiral surfaces and multifunctional hybrid architectures. PMID:28165179

  14. Defining the public health threat of food fraud.

    Spink, John; Moyer, Douglas C


    Food fraud, including the more defined subcategory of economically motivated adulteration, is a food risk that is gaining recognition and concern. Regardless of the cause of the food risk, adulteration of food is both an industry and a government responsibility. Food safety, food fraud, and food defense incidents can create adulteration of food with public health threats. Food fraud is an intentional act for economic gain, whereas a food safety incident is an unintentional act with unintentional harm, and a food defense incident is an intentional act with intentional harm. Economically motivated adulteration may be just that-economically motivated-but the food-related public health risks are often more risky than traditional food safety threats because the contaminants are unconventional. Current intervention systems are not designed to look for a near infinite number of potential contaminants. The authors developed the core concepts reported here following comprehensive research of articles and reports, expert elicitation, and an extensive peer review. The intent of this research paper is to provide a base reference document for defining food fraud-it focuses specifically on the public health threat-and to facilitate a shift in focus from intervention to prevention. This will subsequently provide a framework for future quantitative or innovative research. The fraud opportunity is deconstructed using the criminology and behavioral science applications of the crime triangle and the chemistry of the crime. The research provides a food risk matrix and identifies food fraud incident types. This project provides a starting point for future food science, food safety, and food defense research. Food fraud, including the more defined subcategory of economically motivated adulteration, is a food protection threat that has not been defined or holistically addressed. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, led to the development of food defense as an autonomous area of

  15. Researching research

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola


    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....


    Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio


    Dietary proteins are the source of the amino acids required by the body for tissue growth and maintenance. The Population Reference Intake (PRI) for proteins, as defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for healthy adults, including the elderly, is 0.83 g/kg body weight/day. This amount is defined on the net balance of body protein (or “nitrogen balance”, given by the difference between dietary nitrogen intake and losses) equivalent to 0.66 g/kg/day plus a safety factor for interp...

  17. GNU Based Security in Software Defined Radio

    H. B. Bhadka


    Full Text Available Various new technologies are explored for radio communication toward the 21st century. Among them the technology of "software defined radio" attracts large attention. Software Defined Radio (SDR technology implements some of the functional modules of a radio system in software enabling highly flexible handsets. SDR devices may be reconfigured dynamically via the download of new software modules. Malicious or malfunctioning downloaded software present serious security risks to SDR devices and networks in which they operate. Together with the use of software downloading, future terminals will become a platform to support the deployment of yet unspecified services and applications.

  18. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke;


    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The differe......Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks...

  19. What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System

    Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.


    Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

  20. A Calibration Reaction For NIF

    Vande Kolk, B.; Chen, Y.; Deboer, R. J.; Gilardy, G.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Manukyan, K.; Moran, M.; Seymour, C.; Stech, E.; Strauss, S.; Wiescher, M.


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) can produce a temperature range imitating that which occurs in a star during its hydrogen burning phase. The 10B(p, α)7Be reaction has been selected as a way to determine the temperatures created at NIF. The advantage of this calibration reaction is the product: Be-7 has a half-life of 53.2 days, sufficient for gathering and studying the abundance created while also decaying within several months. A 10 keV resonance exists which dominates the 10B(p, α)7Be reaction as well as 10B(p, γ)11C, another reaction channel of 10B+p. Additionally, another resonance exists for both reactions at 600 keV. There is not reliable extrapolation to the low energies corresponding to those of NIF due to the two mentioned resonances interfering, with a shared spin-parity 5/2+. Measurements were performed and will be presented for the cross-sections of the 10B(p, α)7Be and 10B(p, γ)11C reactions to more confidently extrapolate to lower energies. Research supported by NSF PHY-1419765 and JINA-CEE PHY-1430152.

  1. A Research on the Demographic Reactions to the Usage of Essential Banking Services in Northern Cyprus(KKTC’de Temel Banka Hizmetlerine Yönelik Demografik Tepkiler Üzerine Bir Araştırma

    Hüseyin ÖZDEŞER


    Full Text Available The nature and variety of financial services heavily influenced by information technology are rapidly changing. Because of the cost efficiency of new financial services commercial banks should pursue an appropriate marketing strategy for keeping present customers and attracting new ones in order to be competitive. In other words, the banker who wants to be successful must become more and more oriented to understanding customer behavior in the financial marketplace. However, demographic differences that can potentially constitute various market segments necessitating different marketing strategy should be considered when trying to understand customer behavior. In this respect, the demographic reactions of customers towards banking services in Northern Cyprus of which civil servants from Prime Ministry are chosen as the case study are researched. Basic findings of research can be summarized as: “Modern banking features are accepted by passage of time. Automated Teller Machine (ATM is the oldest method and has the most extend usage where internet banking is the newest way and its usage is the narrowest one. Beside this, women tend to use technology more than men. There is a negative relationship between the using new banking features and age. On the other hand, the new banking features and educational attainment has a positive relationship”.

  2. The Territory of Literature: Defining the Coastline.

    Naidoo, Beverly


    Provides the insights and reactions of one fiction writer who discovered that her works had been included on Great Britain's official reading list of the Revised Orders. Considers the rationale of the inclusion of the writer's own writing on the reading list. (HB)

  3. Design and synthesis of structurally well-defined functional polypropylenes via transition metal-mediated olefin polymerization chemistry

    Dong Jinyong


    Functionalization of polyolefins is an industrially important yet scientifically challenging research subject.This paper summarizes our recent effort to access structurally well-defined functional polypropylenes via transition metal-mediated olefin polymerization.In one approach,polypropylenes containing side chain functional groups of controlled concentrations were obtained by Ziegler-Natta-catalyzed copolymerization of propylene in combination with either living anionic or controlled radical polymerization of polar monomers.The copolymerization of propylene with 1,4-divinylbenzene using an isospecific MgC12-supported TIC14 catalyst yielded potypropylenes containing pendant styrene moieties.Both metalation reaction with n-butyllithium and hydrochlorination reaction with dry hydrogen chloride selectively and quantitatively occurred at the pendant reactive sites,generating polymeric benzyllithium and 1-chloroethylbenzene species.These species initiated living anionic polymerization of styrene(S)and atom transfer radical polymerization(in the presence of CuC1 and pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) of methyl methacrylate(MMA),respectively,resulting in functional polypropylene graft copolymers(PP-g-PS and PP-g-PMMA)with controllable graft lengths.In another approach,chain end-functionalized polypropylenes containing a terminal OH-group with controlled molecular weights were directly prepared by propylene polymerization with a metaUocene catalyst through a selective aluminum chain transfer reaction.Both approaches proved to be desirable polyolefin functionalization routes in terms of efficiency and polymer structure controllability.

  4. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.


    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  5. Defining, constructing and assessing learning outcomes.

    Taylor, R M


    Learning outcomes define the veterinary curriculum and inform students about what they must be able to demonstrate to succeed. Stakeholder consultation during their development ensures that programme learning outcomes equip graduates to contribute to the veterinary profession. Effective learning outcomes form a hierarchy linking the programme, its courses and tasks. Clear outcomes direct students towards higher quality learning by indicating the achievements intended, but leave scope for emergent learning outcomes. Defined technical competencies fit within this overarching framework, complementing higher order learning. Mapping is used to align learning outcomes horizontally and vertically so students are systematically guided towards entry-level competence and professional independence. Constructively aligned learning and assessment tasks ensure learners spend the focused time required to sequentially develop programme outcomes. Assessment by staff, peers and other stakeholders certifies achievement of intended outcomes. Effective assessment also empowers students to define and achieve their own learning outcomes, so they develop the habits of autonomous life-long learning. Evaluation of the quality and consistency of achieved outcomes informs ongoing programme improvement. If we are going to achieve the objectives of this set of papers, i.e. to improve public health education globally (Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz. 28 [2] 2009), then it is essential that they be well defined in the learning outcomes statement of all veterinary schools.

  6. Restandardisation defined as democratising language planning1

    aims to define restandardisation as democratising language planning, i.e. a .... disintegration of the Soviet Union of Yugoslavia, the opening of borders in Europe, and the ..... descriptive framework for standardisation as a language planning process. .... belonging to the same language group in order to form one common ...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2 - Terms defined.


    ... Definitions § 51.2 Terms defined. Words in the regulations in this part in the singular form shall be deemed.... “Federal-State Inspection Agency” means any State agency, business association or trade organization... plant. “Packing plant” means the premises, buildings, structures, and equipment including but...

  8. Defining benzodiazepine dependence: The confusion persists

    Linsen, S.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Breteler, M.H.M.


    Little consensus exists on the risk of benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence. We investigated how often BZD dependence and related concepts have been defined in the literature on BZD effects in humans. In addition, the definitions of BZD dependence were compared in order to assess the similarity of conten

  9. 47 CFR 54.401 - Lifeline defined.


    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.401 Lifeline defined. (a) As used in this... assistance. Eligible telecommunications carriers not subject to state commission jurisdiction also shall...


    Yu. A. Burduzha


    The essence of terms “project”, “investment project” is defined in the article, as well as the difference between definitions of terms “project”, “plan” and “program” is determined. The main approaches to the treatment of definition of term “investment project” are considered.

  11. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)


    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  12. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs

    Chernikov, Artem


    We prove that externally definable sets in first order NIP theories have honest definitions, giving a new proof of Shelah's expansion theorem. Also we discuss a weak notion of stable embeddedness true in this context. Those results are then used to prove a general theorem on dependent pairs, which in particular answers a question of Baldwin and Benedikt on naming an indiscernible sequence.

  13. Defining Parental Involvement: Perception of School Administrators

    Young, Clara Y.; Austin, Sheila M.; Growe, Roslin


    There remains a plaguing question of how to get parents involved with their child's education. Many parents and educators have different perceptions of what parental involvement means. Miscommunication between the two groups often exists because of how parental involvement is conceptualized. While educators define parental involvement as…

  14. Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound

    Terslev, Lene; Naredo, E; Iagnocco, A


    Objective: To standardize ultrasound (US) in enthesitis. Methods: An Initial Delphi exercise was undertaken to define US detected enthesitis and its core components. These definitions were subsequently tested on static images taken from Spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients in order to evaluate...

  15. 16 CFR 303.1 - Terms defined.


    ... that solicit ultimate consumers to purchase such textile products by mail, telephone, electronic mail... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.1 Terms defined. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise specifically requires: (a) The term Act means the Textile Fiber...

  16. Acquisition Cycle Time: Defining the Problem


    prescribe appetite suppression and fiscal discipline . Still others diagnose inept management and excessive bureaucracy, and prescribe streamlined...complex the system, the higher this bound. • Software development consists of completing known work and discovering new work. There are fundamental ... taxonomy of acquisition risk categories, with corresponding development timelines. In that report, a low-risk acquisition is defined to be one that

  17. 16 CFR 502.2 - Terms defined.


    ... and customary and regular when used with the term price means the price at which a consumer commodity..., package, label, person, commerce, principal display panel, and random package have the same meaning as those terms are defined under part 500 of this chapter. (b) The term packager and labeler means any...

  18. Software-defined anything challenges status quo

    Simpson, Wayne; Borders, Tammie


    INL successfully developed a proof of concept for "Software Defined Anything" by emulating the laboratory's business applications that run on Virtual Machines. The work INL conducted demonstrates to industry on how this methodology can be used to improve security, automate and repeat processes, and improve consistency.


    Yu. A. Burduzha


    Full Text Available The essence of terms “project”, “investment project” is defined in the article, as well as the difference between definitions of terms “project”, “plan” and “program” is determined. The main approaches to the treatment of definition of term “investment project” are considered.

  20. CEO Turnover and Market Reaction in Indonesia

    Doddy Setiawan


    Full Text Available This research examines Chief Executive Officer (CEO turnover and market reaction in Indonesia. The sample of this research consists of 213 CEO turnover announcements for Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2000–2010 period. T-tests were used to investigate the effect of CEO turnover announcement on abnormal stock return during the event windows periods. The results of this research show that there is positive reaction on the CEO turnover announcements. This research considers both routine and non routine CEO turnover processes. This research finds that both turnover processes have information content to investor. This research also finds positive reaction on the announcements of outsider incoming CEO, while investors do not react on the announcement of insider incoming CEO. Thus, this research provides evidence that CEO turnover announcement have information content.   Keywords: CEO turnover, stock price, turnover process, the origin of incoming CEO

  1. Accelerating Calculations of Reaction Dissipative Particle Dynamics in LAMMPS


    and generally requires more time to solve per particle . This means that roughly half of the MPI processes will have higher reaction run times, while...ARL-TR-8018 ● MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Accelerating Calculations of Reaction Dissipative Particle Dynamics in LAMMPS...Research Laboratory Accelerating Calculations of Reaction Dissipative Particle Dynamics in LAMMPS by Christopher P Stone Computational

  2. Responsibility for proving and defining in abstract algebra class

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy


    There is considerable variety in inquiry-oriented instruction, but what is common is that students assume roles in mathematical activity that in a traditional, lecture-based class are either assumed by the teacher (or text) or are not visible at all in traditional math classrooms. This paper is a case study of the teaching of an inquiry-based undergraduate abstract algebra course. In particular, gives a theoretical account of the defining and proving processes. The study examines the intellectual responsibility for the processes of defining and proving that the professor devolved to the students. While the professor wanted the students to engage in all aspects of defining and proving, he was only successful at devolving responsibility for certain aspects and much more successful at devolving responsibility for proving than conjecturing or defining. This study suggests that even a well-intentioned instructor may not be able to devolve responsibility to students for some aspects of mathematical practice without using a research-based curriculum or further professional development.

  3. Research progress in chemical reaction kinetics applied in confined explosions%化学反应动力学应用于约束爆炸的研究进展

    钟巍; 田宙


    The confined explosions may cause a high-temperature and high-pressure environment. Under such environment, the explosive products and oxygen in the air easily have very active chemical reactions. The research on the chemical reaction kinetics of the confined explosions can get more accurate parameters, such as total pressure, static pressure and total energy, so the physical phenomena including the thermal strain and the mechanics effect can be described more accurately. This is important to consummate the explosion phenomenology. Summarizing the research work at home and abroad, a brief introduction to the developed history and latest investigation on the chemical reaction kinetics applied in the confined explosions was given, and the research results obtained as well as the experimental and the numerical simulation methods were also presented. The focus was on the experimental studies and the numerical simulations of the small equivalent confined explosions, and some further study and problems were pointed out.%约束爆炸会产生高温高压环境,该环境下,爆炸产物和空气中的氧气等成分极易发生化学反应.研究约束爆炸中涉及到的化学反应动力学过程,将动力学过程的具体参数耦合到约束爆炸中,可以获得约束爆炸后密封容器或者密闭爆室内更精确的总压力、静态压力和爆炸释放的总热量值,进而更准确地描述约束爆炸中的热应变、力学效应等重要物理现象,对于完善爆炸现象学研究具有重要的意义.通过总结国内外在这方面的研究工作,介绍了在约束爆炸研究中引入化学反应动力学过程的发展历史和最新进展,取得的研究成果,以及进行实验采用的技术方案和数值模拟方法.重点介绍了在化爆小当量约束爆炸的研究中,考虑化学反应动力学过程的实验研究方法和数值模拟方法,并分析指出了一些有待进一步研究解决的问题.

  4. Is operations research really research?

    NJ Manson


    Full Text Available This paper takes a philosophical look at the Research in Operations Research. First, the questions "What is Research?" and "What is Operations Research?" are discussed. Next, the paper discusses why it is important to have a clear definition of research, especially in academia. The paper then discusses a research paradigm called 'Design Research'. Design Research is defined and compared with other research paradigms. Seven guidelines for understanding, executing, and evaluating Design Research are presented. As examples, three recently published papers on Operations Research are evaluated using these guidelines. Finally, conclusions are presented discussing why it can be advantageous to understand, execute and evaluate Operations Research projects within the Design Research paradigm.

  5. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    Kunz, Wunibald


    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  6. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Kim, Su Yeong


    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  7. Defining life or bringing biology to life.

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro


    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called 'omics' revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough-but also encompassing enough-terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  8. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;


    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...

  9. Fingerprinting Software Defined Networks and Controllers


    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air...Networking Defined Within a computer network, switching devices contain three abstractly organized services known as planes [9]. As shown in Figure 2.1, these...stations that exist within an exploitable network. The final threat vector is the lack of trusted resources for forensics and remediation for when an

  10. Quantum Thought Experiments Can Define Nature

    McCartor, D


    One would not think that thought experiments could matter to nature, for they are a humble human device. Yet quantum mechanics very naturally frames thought experiments (as distinct from precisely defining what exists). They exemplify the informing powers of radiation. Though based on wave functions that have time symmetry, these tableaux inevitably tell of irreversible behavior by nature. The paper sketches how John von Neumann's measurement theory fits into this and retells N. David Mermin's baseball story.

  11. Defining benzodiazepine dependence: The confusion persists


    Little consensus exists on the risk of benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence. We investigated how often BZD dependence and related concepts have been defined in the literature on BZD effects in humans. In addition, the definitions of BZD dependence were compared in order to assess the similarity of contents. From a total of 250 papers (published between 1988 and 1991) 51 provided 126 dependence-related definitions. Six studies referred to the DSM definitions and one to the WHO definition. The obsol...

  12. Defining viability in mammalian cell cultures

    Browne, Susan M.; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed


    Abstract A large number of assays are available to monitor viability in mammalian cell cultures with most defining loss of viability as a loss of plasma membrane integrity, a characteristic of necrotic cell death. However, the majority of cultured cells die by apoptosis and early apoptotic cells, although non-viable, maintain an intact plasma membrane and are thus ignored. Here we measure the viability of cultures of a number of common mammalian cell lines by assays that measure me...

  13. Thermodynamics. Using Affinities to define reversible processes

    Ritacco, Hernán A


    In this article a definition of reversible processes in terms of differences in intensive Thermodynamics properties (Affinities) is proposed. This definition makes it possible to both define reversible processes before introducing the concept of entropy and avoid the circularity problem that follows from the Clausius definition of entropy changes. The convenience of this new definition compared to those commonly found in textbooks is demonstrated with examples.

  14. Double Pion Production Reactions

    Oset, E; Cano, F; Hernández, E; Kamalov, S S; Nacher, J C; Tejedor, J A G


    We report on reactions producing two pions induced by real and virtual photons or nucleons. The role of different resonances in these reactions is emphasized. Novel results on coherent two pion photoproduction in nuclei are also reported.

  15. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine


    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  16. Microscale Thermite Reactions.

    Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnaiz, Susana


    Describes the adaptation of thermite (aluminum with metal oxides) reactions from whole-class demonstrations to student-run micro-reactions. Lists detailed directions and possible variations of the experiment. (WRM)

  17. Defining culturally responsive teaching: The case of mathematics

    Jenni L. Harding-DeKam


    Full Text Available Elementary classroom teachers in eight school districts across Colorado, United States, share the knowledge of their students’ home and community life, define culturally responsive mathematics based on the children they instruct, and give examples of how students learn math through culture in their classrooms. Findings from two interviews, classroom observations, and student artifacts reveal that teachers have an intimate cultural knowledge of the students in their classrooms, define culturally responsive mathematical practices consistent with research, use culturally responsive mathematics teaching for authentic learning, and express a need for additional professional development and curriculum support for culturally responsive mathematics instruction. Culturally responsive mathematics is important in elementary classrooms because it allows students to make personal connections to mathematics content.

  18. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio; Zhang, Yi


    Designers, in response to codes or voluntary " green building " programs, are increasingly concerned with building energy demand reduction, but they are not fully aware of the energy saving potential of architectural design. According to literature, building form, construction and material choices...... on sustainable design: " Design With Climate " by Olgyay (1963), which discussed strategies for climate-adapted architecture, and Lechner´s " Heating, Cooling and Lighting " (1991), on how to reduce building energy needs by as much as 60 – 80 percent with proper architectural design decisions. Both books used...... behaviour. The research shows the best solution for each of the climates and compares them with Olgyay´s findings. Finally, for each climate the energy saving potential is defined and then compared to Lechner's conclusions. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design (PDF Download Available...

  19. How Should Energy Be Defined Throughout Schooling?

    Bächtold, Manuel


    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two main approaches in physics concerning the definition of energy, one claiming there is no satisfactory definition and taking conservation as a fundamental property, and the other based on Rankine's definition of energy as the capacity of a system to produce changes. We then present a study concerning how energy is actually defined throughout schooling in the case of France by analyzing national programs, physics textbooks, and the answers of teachers to a questionnaire. This study brings to light a consistency problem in the way energy is defined across school years: in primary school, an adapted version of Rankine's definition is introduced and conservation is ignored; in high school, conservation is introduced and Rankine's definition is ignored. Finally, we address this consistency problem by discussing possible teaching progressions. We argue in favor of the use of Rankine's definition throughout schooling: at primary school, it is a possible substitute to students' erroneous conceptions; at secondary school, it might help students become aware of the unifying role of energy and thereby overcome the compartmentalization problem.

  20. Speciation without Pre-Defined Fitness Functions.

    Gras, Robin; Golestani, Abbas; Hendry, Andrew P; Cristescu, Melania E


    The forces promoting and constraining speciation are often studied in theoretical models because the process is hard to observe, replicate, and manipulate in real organisms. Most models analyzed to date include pre-defined functions influencing fitness, leaving open the question of how speciation might proceed without these built-in determinants. To consider the process of speciation without pre-defined functions, we employ the individual-based ecosystem simulation platform EcoSim. The environment is initially uniform across space, and an evolving behavioural model then determines how prey consume resources and how predators consume prey. Simulations including natural selection (i.e., an evolving behavioural model that influences survival and reproduction) frequently led to strong and distinct phenotypic/genotypic clusters between which hybridization was low. This speciation was the result of divergence between spatially-localized clusters in the behavioural model, an emergent property of evolving ecological interactions. By contrast, simulations without natural selection (i.e., behavioural model turned off) but with spatial isolation (i.e., limited dispersal) produced weaker and overlapping clusters. Simulations without natural selection or spatial isolation (i.e., behaviour model turned off and high dispersal) did not generate clusters. These results confirm the role of natural selection in speciation by showing its importance even in the absence of pre-defined fitness functions.

  1. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies

    Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Abrams, Donald; Pradier, Christian; Weber, Rainer; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Kirk, Ole; Law, Matthew; De Wit, Stephane; Friis-Møller, Nina; Phillips, Andrew N; Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate deaths from AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) in the D:A:D Study and to investigate the relationship between these deaths and immunodeficiency. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients (23 437) were followed prospectively f

  2. Chemical transport reactions

    Schäfer, Harald


    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  3. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)


    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  4. Reaction systems with precipitation

    Marek Rogalski


    Full Text Available This article proposes expanding Reaction Systems of Ehrenfeucht and Rozenberg by incorporating precipitation reactions into it. This improves the computing power of Reaction Systems by allowing us to implement a stack. This addition enables us to implement a Deterministic Pushdown Automaton.

  5. Screened Thermonuclear Reaction Rates on Magnetar Surfaces

    LIU Hong-Lin; LUO Zhi-Quan; LIU Jing-Jing; LAI Xiang-Jun


    Improving Salpeter's method, we discuss the effect of superstrong magnetic fields (such as those of magnetars) on thermonuclear reaction rates. These most interesting reactions, including the hydrogen burning by the CNO cycle and the helium burning by the triple alpha reaction, are investigated as examples on the magnetar surfaces. The obtained result shows that the superstrong magnetic fields can increase the thermonuclear reaction rates by many orders of magnitude. The enhancement may have significant influence for further study research of the magnetars, especially for the x-ray luminosity observation and the evolution of magnetars.

  6. Carbon-Fixing Reactions of Photosynthesis.


    Summaryplantcell;28/7/tpc.116.tt0716/FIG1F1fig1Photosynthesis in plants converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy. Although photosynthesis involves many proteins and catalytic processes, it often is described as two sets of reactions, the light-dependent reactions and the carbon-fixing reactions. This lesson introduces the core biochemistry of the carbon-fixing reactions of photosynthesis, as well as its variations, C4 and CAM. Finally, it addresses how and why plants are affected by rising atmospheric CO2 levels, and research efforts to increase photosynthetic efficiency in current and future conditions. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Cognitive Control in Software Defined Networking for Port Scan Detection


    ARL-TR-8059 ● July 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Using Cognitive Control in Software -Defined Networking for Port Scan...Cognitive Control in Software -Defined Networking for Port Scan Detection by Vinod K Mishra Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 June–31 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Using Cognitive Control in Software -Defined Networking for

  8. 微量量热技术测定酶催化反应的研究进展%Progress of research on microcalorimetry of enzyme-catalyzed reaction



    酶活性和动力学行为是生物化学和催化化学研究中非常重要的内容。本文综述了微量量热技术在酶催化反应中的最新研究和应用进展,重点介绍了等温滴定量热和流动微量量热技术,并讨论了微量量热技术在计算酶催化反应动力学参数方面的优势。%Determination of enzyme kinetics and activity are the most important analytical procedures in biochemistry. The present review deals with the research progress of the microcalorimetry of enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The more recent applications of calorimetric techniques such as isothermal titration cal-orimetry and flow calorimetry to the study of enzyme kinetics ,as well as the advantages on using calorime-tric techniques in the determination of kinetic parameters of enzymes ,is also discussed here.

  9. 7 CFR 1205.500 - Terms defined.


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton... administrative body established pursuant to the Cotton Research and Promotion Order. (c) CCC means the Commodity Credit Corporation. (d) Current value of Cotton means the gross price per pound of lint cotton...

  10. 7 CFR 1219.200 - Terms defined.


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH... subpart, the definitions of terms used in this subpart shall have the same meaning as the definitions of such terms which appear in Subpart A—Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order of...

  11. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    Sarantites, D.G.


    This report discusses research in the following areas: nuclear structure; fusion reactions near and below the barrier; incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and instrumentation and analysis. (LSP).

  12. Nuclear reaction studies: Progress report

    Thaler, R.M.


    A principal focus of recent research has been the three-body problem. A great deal of effort has been devoted to the creation of a computer program to calculate physical observables in the three body problem below 1 GeV. Successful results have been obtained for the triton. Additional work concerns scattering of K/sup +/ mesons from nuclei, antinucleon physics, relativistic nuclear physics and inclusive reactions. (DWL)

  13. Software Defined Radio: Basic Principles and Applications

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández


    Full Text Available The author makes a review of the SDR (Software Defined Radio technology, including hardware schemes and application fields. A low performance device is presented and several tests are executed with it using free software. With the acquired experience, SDR employment opportunities are identified for low-cost solutions that can solve significant problems. In addition, a list of the most important frameworks related to the technology developed in the last years is offered, recommending the use of three of them.

  14. Software defined networks a comprehensive approach

    Goransson, Paul


    Software Defined Networks discusses the historical networking environment that gave rise to SDN, as well as the latest advances in SDN technology. The book gives you the state of the art knowledge needed for successful deployment of an SDN, including: How to explain to the non-technical business decision makers in your organization the potential benefits, as well as the risks, in shifting parts of a network to the SDN modelHow to make intelligent decisions about when to integrate SDN technologies in a networkHow to decide if your organization should be developing its own SDN applications or

  15. Rates of Convergence of Recursively Defined Sequences

    Lambov, Branimir Zdravkov


    This paper gives a generalization of a result by Matiyasevich which gives explicit rates of convergence for monotone recursively defined sequences. The generalization is motivated by recent developments in fixed point theory and the search for applications of proof mining to the field. It relaxes...... the requirement for monotonicity to the form xn+1 ≤ (1+an)xn+bn where the parameter sequences have to be bounded in sum, and also provides means to treat computational errors. The paper also gives an example result, an application of proof mining to fixed point theory, that can be achieved by the means discussed...

  16. UNIQLO,Define Your Own Fashion


    Yes,women like and enjoy shopping.Always,they want to buy some well-designed clothes with the most ‘in’ factors;and what’s of the great importance,they would like to hear the words:"wow! You fit the wear well!" However,the most satisfied right things could not be always waiting for you thereory ou would not help complaining the so-fast changing trends day by day.At that time,why not to seek some delights from the basic classic collections? UNIQLO maybe is a choice for you to define youro wn fashion.

  17. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper


    phosphatases. The main objective of this study was to quantify the binding affinity of different enzymes that are involved in this cyclic process. We established a protocol to quickly, reproducibly, and quantitatively measure the binding of the enzymes to glucans utilizing Affinity Gel Electrophoresis (AGE...... glucan phosphatases showed similar affinities for the short oligosaccharide β-cyclodextrin. We performed structure-guided mutagenesis to define the mechanism of these differences. We found that the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) domain provided a stronger binding affinity compared to surface binding...

  18. Defining Requirements for Improved Photovoltaic System Reliability

    Maish, A.B.


    Reliable systems are an essential ingredient of any technology progressing toward commercial maturity and large-scale deployment. This paper defines reliability as meeting system fictional requirements, and then develops a framework to understand and quantify photovoltaic system reliability based on initial and ongoing costs and system value. The core elements necessary to achieve reliable PV systems are reviewed. These include appropriate system design, satisfactory component reliability, and proper installation and servicing. Reliability status, key issues, and present needs in system reliability are summarized for four application sectors.

  19. Languages for Software-Defined Networks


    1 Languages for Software-Defined Networks Nate Foster∗, Michael J. Freedman†, Arjun Guha∗, Rob Harrison‡, Naga Praveen Katta†, Christopher Monsanto ...2012. [12] “The Frenetic project.”, Sept. 2012. [13] N. Foster, R. Harrison, M. J. Freedman, C. Monsanto , J. Rexford...performance networks,” in ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 254–265, Aug. 2011. [15] C. Monsanto , N. Foster, R. Harrison, and D. Walker, “A compiler and run-time system for

  20. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...... and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  1. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan


    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  2. Software-Defined Radio for Space-to-Space Communications

    Fisher, Ken; Jih, Cindy; Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Abbott, Ben A.; Fritz, Justin A.


    A paper describes the Space- to-Space Communications System (SSCS) Software- Defined Radio (SDR) research project to determine the most appropriate method for creating flexible and reconfigurable radios to implement wireless communications channels for space vehicles so that fewer radios are required, and commonality in hardware and software architecture can be leveraged for future missions. The ability to reconfigure the SDR through software enables one radio platform to be reconfigured to interoperate with many different waveforms. This means a reduction in the number of physical radio platforms necessary to support a space mission s communication requirements, thus decreasing the total size, weight, and power needed for a mission.

  3. 对甲酚烷基化反应催化剂的研究进展%Research progress of catalysts used in the alkylation reaction ofp-cresol

    张吕鸿; 王江涛; 肖晓明; 罗铭芳; 朱桃月; 张荣亚


    主要从酸性催化剂的发展历程全面综述了分子筛、固体超强酸、离子交换树脂、杂多酸、离子液体等多种酸性催化剂的优点和缺点,并总结出对甲酚在不同催化剂作用下反应产物区域选择性的结果。通过对多种催化剂的特性和反应结果对比着重介绍了离子液体催化剂,离子液体同时拥有液体酸高密度酸性和固体酸易分离不挥发的优点,在保持着浓硫酸酸性强度的同时,还具有低蒸气压、热稳定性高、对环境无污染、功能化设计的优良特性,这为今后对甲酚烷基化反应绿色催化剂的发展提供了重要的研究方向,避免了目前工业上常用液体酸催化剂存在的污染环境设备和安全隐患等重大问题。%Various novel acidic catalysts in the development history of catalysts,such as molecular sieves,super solid acids,heteropoly acids,ion exchange resins,ionic liquids,are introduced .The products’ regioselectivity ofp-cresol under the acidic catalysts are also summarized. Through comparing the characteristics of various catalysts and reaction results,ionic liquids are introduced as key points which show both high density acidity by liquid acids and easy separation by non-volatile solid acids. Apart from the acidity of similar to sulfuric acid,ionic liquids also have good features of low consumption,stability to water and air,no pollution and functional design which provide an important research direction for development of the catalysts ofp-cresol alkylation reaction. Also, problems of liquid acid catalysts used in industrial such as corrosion and safety can be avoided.

  4. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodine based contrast media

    Bellin, Marie-France; Stacul, Fulvio; Webb, Judith A W


    DEFINITION: Late adverse reactions (LAR) to contrast media (CM) are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after exposure. NEED FOR REVIEW: In view of more prospective studies of LAR and new data about their pathophysiology, the Contrast Medium Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Societ...

  5. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways.

    Gasteiger, Johann


    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered.


    ripal dilipbhai ranpara


    Full Text Available Cryptography is the gold standard for security. It is used to protect the transmission and storage of data between two parties by encrypting it into an unreadable format. Cryptography has enabled the first wave of secure transmissions, which has helped fuel the growth of transactions like shopping, banking, and finance over the world’s biggest public network, the Internet. Many Internet applications such as e-mail, databases, and browsers store a tremendous amount of personal and financial information, but frequently the data is left unprotected. Traditional network security is frequently less effective at preventing hackers from accessing this data. For instance, once-private databases are now completely exposed on the Internet. It turns out that getting to the database that holds millions of credit card numbers—the transmission—is secure through the use of cryptography, but the database itself isn’t, fueling the rise of credit card information theft. A paradigm shift is now under way for cryptography. The only way to make data secure in any application that runs over the Internet is to use secret (also known as private key cryptography. The current security methods focus on securing Internet applications using public keys techniques that are no longer according to my knowledge no one has addressed on COMMENSURABLE USER-DEFINE KEY TECHNIQUE that is used to encrypt the data as per the user-define key

  7. Cancer nursing in Ontario: defining nursing roles.

    Fitch, Margaret I; Mings, Deborah


    The delivery of cancer care in Ontario is facing unprecedented challenges. Shortages in nursing, as in all professional disciplines, are having an impact on the delivery of cancer care. Oncology nurses have a major role to play in the delivery of optimum cancer care. Oncology nursing, when adequately defined and supported, can benefit the cancer delivery system, patients, and families. A primary nursing model is seen as being key to the delivery of optimum cancer care. Primary nursing as a philosophy facilitates continuity of care, coordination of a patient's care plan, and a meaningful ongoing relationship with the patient and his/her family. Primary nursing, when delivered in the collaboration of a nurse-physician team, allows for medical resources to be used appropriately. Defined roles enable nurses to manage patients within their scope of practice in collaboration with physicians. Enacting other nursing roles, such as nurse practitioners and advanced practice nurses, can also enable the health care system to manage a broader number of patients with more complex needs. This article presents a position paper originally written as the basis for an advocacy and education initiative in Ontario. It is shared in anticipation that the work may be useful to oncology nurses in other jurisdictions in their efforts to advance oncology nursing and improvement of patient care.

  8. Using experimental design to define boundary manikins.

    Bertilsson, Erik; Högberg, Dan; Hanson, Lars


    When evaluating human-machine interaction it is central to consider anthropometric diversity to ensure intended accommodation levels. A well-known method is the use of boundary cases where manikins with extreme but likely measurement combinations are derived by mathematical treatment of anthropometric data. The supposition by that method is that the use of these manikins will facilitate accommodation of the expected part of the total, less extreme, population. In literature sources there are differences in how many and in what way these manikins should be defined. A similar field to the boundary case method is the use of experimental design in where relationships between affecting factors of a process is studied by a systematic approach. This paper examines the possibilities to adopt methodology used in experimental design to define a group of manikins. Different experimental designs were adopted to be used together with a confidence region and its axes. The result from the study shows that it is possible to adapt the methodology of experimental design when creating groups of manikins. The size of these groups of manikins depends heavily on the number of key measurements but also on the type of chosen experimental design.

  9. Defining professional pharmacy services in community pharmacy.

    Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom I


    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision, yet none encompass the full range of professional services delivered by community pharmacy. The majority of current pharmacy service definitions and nomenclature refer to either the professional philosophy of pharmaceutical care or to specific professional pharmacy services; particularly pharmaceutical services provided by pharmacists with a focus on drug safety, effectiveness and health outcomes. The objective of this paper is therefore to define a professional pharmacy service within the context of the community pharmacy model of service provision. A professional pharmacy service is defined as "an action or set of actions undertaken in or organised by a pharmacy, delivered by a pharmacist or other health practitioner, who applies their specialised health knowledge personally or via an intermediary, with a patient/client, population or other health professional, to optimise the process of care, with the aim to improve health outcomes and the value of healthcare." Based on Donabedian's framework, the professional pharmacy service definition incorporates the concepts of organizational structure, process indicators and outcome measures. The definition will assist in many areas including recognition of the full range of services provided by community pharmacy and facilitating the identification of indicators of professional pharmacy service implementation and sustainable provision. A simple conceptual model for incorporating all services provided by community pharmacy is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke


    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The differe......Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks....... The difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age...

  11. Habitat Management on Refuge Lands: defining objectives, efficacy, and metrics of success

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Research poster on reducing uncertainty of habitat management on refuges by clearly defining benchmarks for success and Inventory and Monitoring programs. This study...

  12. Defining the coupled effects of cryogenic, space-radiation, and hypervelocity impact damamge on COPV's Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the research proposed herein is to define the coupled (combined) effect of critical environments on the structural performance of composite overwrap...

  13. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Austin, Tony; Calisir, Fethi; Chanjaplammootil, Samuel; Davis, Mark J; Favela, Jesus; Gan, Heng; Gefen, Amit; Haddas, Ram; Hahn-Goldberg, Shoshana; Hornero, Roberto; Huang, Yu-Li; Jensen, Øystein; Jiang, Zhongwei; Katsanis, J S; Lee, Jeong-A; Lewis, Gladius; Lovell, Nigel H; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Morales, George G; Matis, Timothy; Matthews, Judith T; Mazur, Lukasz; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Oommen, K J; Ormand, Kevin; Rohde, Tarald; Sánchez-Morillo, Daniel; Sanz-Calcedo, Justo García; Sawan, Mohamad; Shen, Chwan-Li; Shieh, Jiann-Shing; Su, Chao-Ton; Sun, Lilly; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Yi; Tewolde, Senay N; Williams, Eric A; Yan, Chongjun; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhang, Yuan-Ting


    .... However, the definition of "Healthcare Engineering" remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession...

  14. Defining "mutation" and "polymorphism" in the era of personal genomics.

    Karki, Roshan; Pandya, Deep; Elston, Robert C; Ferlini, Cristiano


    The growing advances in DNA sequencing tools have made analyzing the human genome cheaper and faster. While such analyses are intended to identify complex variants, related to disease susceptibility and efficacy of drug responses, they have blurred the definitions of mutation and polymorphism. In the era of personal genomics, it is critical to establish clear guidelines regarding the use of a reference genome. Nowadays DNA variants are called as differences in comparison to a reference. In a sequencing project Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and DNA mutations are defined as DNA variants detectable in >1 % or genomic sequence. We propose to solve this nomenclature dilemma by defining mutations as DNA variants obtained in a paired sequencing project including the germline DNA of the same individual as a reference. Moreover, the term mutation should be accompanied by a qualifying prefix indicating whether the mutation occurs only in somatic cells (somatic mutation) or also in the germline (germline mutation). We believe this distinction in definition will help avoid confusion among researchers and support the practice of sequencing the germline and somatic tissues in parallel to classify the DNA variants thus defined as mutations.

  15. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Menzie, D.E.


    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”

    Deterding, Sebastian; Dixon, Dan; Khaled, Rilla


    Recent years have seen a rapid proliferation of mass-market consumer software that takes inspiration from video games. Usually summarized as “gamification”, this trend connects to a sizeable body of existing concepts and research in human- computer interaction and game studies, such as serious...... games, pervasive games, alternate reality games, or playful design. However, it is not clear how “gamification” relates to these, whether it denotes a novel phenomenon, and how to define it. Thus, in this paper we investigate “gamification” and the historical origins of the term in relation...... to precursors and similar concepts. It is suggested that “gamified” applications provide insight into novel, gameful phenomena complementary to playful phenomena. Based on our research, we propose a definition of “gamification” as the use of game design elements in non-game contexts....

  17. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis.

    Herrmann, J-M; Duchamp, C; Karkmaz, M; Hoai, Bui Thu; Lachheb, H; Puzenat, E; Guillard, C


    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of "green chemistry", such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H(2)S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO(2). The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH radicals by neutralization of OH(-) surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the "Plataforma Solar de Almeria" (Spain).

  18. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis

    Herrmann, J.-M. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Duchamp, C. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Karkmaz, M. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, UMR 5256, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Hoai, Bui Thu [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Lachheb, H. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Puzenat, E. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Guillard, C. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)


    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5 wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of 'green chemistry', such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H{sub 2}S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO{sub 2}. The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH{center_dot} radicals by neutralization of OH{sup -} surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the 'Plataforma Solar de Almeria' (Spain)

  19. Noncanonical Reactions of Flavoenzymes

    Pablo Sobrado


    Full Text Available Enzymes containing flavin cofactors are predominantly involved in redox reactions in numerous cellular processes where the protein environment modulates the chemical reactivity of the flavin to either transfer one or two electrons. Some flavoenzymes catalyze reactions with no net redox change. In these reactions, the protein environment modulates the reactivity of the flavin to perform novel chemistries. Recent mechanistic and structural data supporting novel flavin functionalities in reactions catalyzed by chorismate synthase, type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, UDP-galactopyranose mutase, and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase are presented in this review. In these enzymes, the flavin plays either a direct role in acid/base reactions or as a nucleophile or electrophile. In addition, the flavin cofactor is proposed to function as a “molecular scaffold” in the formation of UDP-galactofuranose and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate by forming a covalent adduct with reaction intermediates.

  20. "Defining Computer 'Speed': An Unsolved Challenge"

    CERN. Geneva


    Abstract: The reason we use computers is their speed, and the reason we use parallel computers is that they're faster than single-processor computers. Yet, after 70 years of electronic digital computing, we still do not have a solid definition of what computer 'speed' means, or even what it means to be 'faster'. Unlike measures in physics, where the definition of speed is rigorous and unequivocal, in computing there is no definition of speed that is universally accepted. As a result, computer customers have made purchases misguided by dubious information, computer designers have optimized their designs for the wrong goals, and computer programmers have chosen methods that optimize the wrong things. This talk describes why some of the obvious and historical ways of defining 'speed' haven't served us well, and the things we've learned in the struggle to find a definition that works. Biography: Dr. John Gustafson is a Director ...

  1. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José


    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances....... This new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges...

  2. Defining Service and Education in Pediatrics.

    Boyer, Debra; Gagne, Josh; Kesselheim, Jennifer C


    Program directors (PDs) and trainees are often queried regarding the balance of service and education during pediatric residency training. We aimed to use qualitative methods to learn how pediatric residents and PDs define service and education and to identify activities that exemplify these concepts. Focus groups of pediatric residents and PDs were performed and the data qualitatively analyzed. Thematic analysis revealed 4 themes from focus group data: (1) misalignment of the perceived definition of service; (2) agreement about the definition of education; (3) overlapping perceptions of the value of service to training; and (4) additional suggestions for improved integration of education and service. Pediatric residents hold positive definitions of service and believe that service adds value to their education. Importantly, the discovery of heterogeneous definitions of service between pediatric residents and PDs warrants further investigation and may have ramifications for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and those responsible for residency curricula.

  3. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming

    Miralda, Irina; Uriarte, Silvia M.; McLeish, Kenneth R.


    Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, mitochondrial contents, and bacterial and viral products induces neutrophils to transition from a basal state into a primed one, which is currently defined as an enhanced response to activating stimuli. Although, typically associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase, primed neutrophils show enhanced responsiveness of exocytosis, NET formation, and chemotaxis. Phenotypic changes associated with priming also include activation of a subset of functions, including adhesion, transcription, metabolism, and rate of apoptosis. This review summarizes the breadth of phenotypic changes associated with priming and reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind those changes. We conclude that the current definition of priming is too restrictive. Priming represents a combination of enhanced responsiveness and activated functions that regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. PMID:28611952

  4. Multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Crawford, Darrell; Burczynski, Frank J.; Liu, Xin; Liau, Ian; Roberts, Michael S.


    Multiphoton microscopy is the preferred method when in vivo deep-tissue imaging is required. This review presents the application of multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function. In particular, multiphoton microscopy is useful in imaging intracellular events, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cellular metabolism in terms of NAD(P)H changes with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The morphology of hepatocytes can be visualized without exogenously administered fluorescent dyes by utilizing their autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signal of collagen, which is useful in diagnosing liver disease. More specific imaging, such as studying drug transport in normal and diseased livers are achievable, but require exogenously administered fluorescent dyes. If these techniques can be translated into clinical use to assess liver function, it would greatly improve early diagnosis of organ viability, fibrosis, and cancer.

  5. Quantum computing. Defining and detecting quantum speedup.

    Rønnow, Troels F; Wang, Zhihui; Job, Joshua; Boixo, Sergio; Isakov, Sergei V; Wecker, David; Martinis, John M; Lidar, Daniel A; Troyer, Matthias


    The development of small-scale quantum devices raises the question of how to fairly assess and detect quantum speedup. Here, we show how to define and measure quantum speedup and how to avoid pitfalls that might mask or fake such a speedup. We illustrate our discussion with data from tests run on a D-Wave Two device with up to 503 qubits. By using random spin glass instances as a benchmark, we found no evidence of quantum speedup when the entire data set is considered and obtained inconclusive results when comparing subsets of instances on an instance-by-instance basis. Our results do not rule out the possibility of speedup for other classes of problems and illustrate the subtle nature of the quantum speedup question.

  6. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper;


    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch...... is comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...... phosphatases. The main objective of this study was to quantify the binding affinity of different enzymes that are involved in this cyclic process. We established a protocol to quickly, reproducibly, and quantitatively measure the binding of the enzymes to glucans utilizing Affinity Gel Electrophoresis (AGE...

  7. Using archetypes for defining CDA templates.

    Moner, David; Moreno, Alberto; Maldonado, José A; Robles, Montserrat; Parra, Carlos


    While HL7 CDA is a widely adopted standard for the documentation of clinical information, the archetype approach proposed by CEN/ISO 13606 and openEHR is gaining recognition as a means of describing domain models and medical knowledge. This paper describes our efforts in combining both standards. Using archetypes as an alternative for defining CDA templates permit new possibilities all based on the formal nature of archetypes and their ability to merge into the same artifact medical knowledge and technical requirements for semantic interoperability of electronic health records. We describe the process followed for the normalization of existing legacy data in a hospital environment, from the importation of the HL7 CDA model into an archetype editor, the definition of CDA archetypes and the application of those archetypes to obtain normalized CDA data instances.

  8. Oscillator metrology with software defined radio

    Sherman, Jeff A


    Analog electrical elements such as mixers, filters, transfer oscillators, isolating buffers, dividers, and even transmission lines contribute technical noise and unwanted environmental coupling in time and frequency measurements. Software defined radio (SDR) techniques replace many of these analog components with digital signal processing (DSP) on rapidly sampled signals. We demonstrate that, generically, commercially available multi-channel SDRs are capable of time and frequency metrology, outperforming purpose-built devices by as much as an order-of-magnitude. For example, for signals at 10 MHz and 6 GHz, we observe SDR time deviation noise floors of about 20 fs and 1 fs, respectively, in under 10 ms of averaging. Examining the other complex signal component, we find a relative amplitude measurement instability of 3e-7 at 5 MHz. We discuss the scalability of a SDR-based system for simultaneous measurement of many clocks. SDR's frequency agility allows for comparison of oscillators at widely different freque...

  9. Can we define climate using information theory?

    Larson, J Walter, E-mail: larson@mcs.anl.go [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); School of Computer Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)


    The standard definition of climate is, by convention, based on a thirty-year sample. But why? One way to define the sampling period for constructing climatologies is to ask: What is a sufficient sample to construct probability density functions (PDF) for key meteorological variables? I propose an information-theoretic framework for evaluating climatic sampling periods based on level of detail and associated uncertainties in the estimated PDF, the Shannon entropy growth curve and its discrete derivative, and the Kullback-Leibler divergence. I compute these quantities for 235 years of daily data from the Central UK Temperature record and use these statistics to compare popular sampling periods and discuss the feasibility of determining an optimal sampling period.

  10. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Heather S. Gregg


    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  11. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.


    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  12. Computing platforms for software-defined radio

    Nurmi, Jari; Isoaho, Jouni; Garzia, Fabio


    This book addresses Software-Defined Radio (SDR) baseband processing from the computer architecture point of view, providing a detailed exploration of different computing platforms by classifying different approaches, highlighting the common features related to SDR requirements and by showing pros and cons of the proposed solutions. Coverage includes architectures exploiting parallelism by extending single-processor environment (such as VLIW, SIMD, TTA approaches), multi-core platforms distributing the computation to either a homogeneous array or a set of specialized heterogeneous processors, and architectures exploiting fine-grained, coarse-grained, or hybrid reconfigurability. Describes a computer engineering approach to SDR baseband processing hardware; Discusses implementation of numerous compute-intensive signal processing algorithms on single and multicore platforms; Enables deep understanding of optimization techniques related to power and energy consumption of multicore platforms using several basic a...

  13. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software-Defined Radio

    Bhat, Arvind


    Software-defined radio (SDR) technology allows radios to be reconfigured to perform different communication functions without using multiple radios to accomplish each task. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed SDR platforms that switch adaptively between different operation modes. The innovation works by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal processing tasks. In Phase I of the project, the company developed SDR cognitive capabilities, including adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), automatic modulation recognition (AMR), and spectrum sensing. In Phase II, these capabilities were integrated into SDR platforms. The reconfigurable transceiver design employs high-speed field-programmable gate arrays, enabling multimode operation and scalable architecture. Designs are based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and are modular in nature, making it easier to upgrade individual components rather than redesigning the entire SDR platform as technology advances.

  14. Nurse leader resilience: career defining moments.

    Cline, Susan


    Resilience is an essential component of effective nursing leadership. It is defined as the ability to survive and thrive in the face of adversity. Resilience can be developed and internalized as a measure to improve retention and reduce burnout. Nurse leaders at all levels should develop these competencies to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex health care environment. Building positive relationships, maintaining positivity, developing emotional insight, creating work-life balance, and reflecting on successes and challenges are effective strategies for resilience building. Nurse leaders have a professional obligation to develop resilience in themselves, the teams they supervise, and the organization as a whole. Additional benefits include reduced turnover, reduced cost, and improved quality outcomes through organizational mindfulness.

  15. Software Defined Radios - Architectures, Systems and Functions

    Sims, Herb


    Software Defined Radio is an industry term describing a method of utilizing a minimum amount of Radio Frequency (RF)/analog electronics before digitization takes place. Upon digitization all other functions are performed in software/firmware. There are as many different types of SDRs as there are data systems. Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology has been proven in the commercial sector since the early 90's. Today's rapid advancement in mobile telephone reliability and power management capabilities exemplifies the effectiveness of the SDR technology for the modern communications market. In contrast the foundations of transponder technology presently qualified for satellite applications were developed during the early space program of the 1960's. SDR technology offers potential to revolutionize satellite transponder technology by increasing science data through-put capability by at least an order of magnitude. While the SDR is adaptive in nature and is "One-size-fits-all" by design, conventional transponders are built to a specific platform and must be redesigned for every new bus. The SDR uses a minimum amount of analog/Radio Frequency components to up/down-convert the RF signal to/from a digital format. Once analog data is digitized, all processing is performed using hardware logic. Typical SDR processes include; filtering, modulation, up/down converting and demodulation. This presentation will show how the emerging SDR market has leveraged the existing commercial sector to provide a path to a radiation tolerant SDR transponder. These innovations will reduce the cost of transceivers, a decrease in power requirements and a commensurate reduction in volume. A second pay-off is the increased flexibility of the SDR by allowing the same hardware to implement multiple transponder types by altering hardware logic - no change of analog hardware is required - all of which can be ultimately accomplished in orbit. This in turn would provide high capability and low cost

  16. Defining and measuring irritability: Construct clarification and differentiation.

    Toohey, Michael J; DiGiuseppe, Raymond


    Irritability is a symptom of 15 disorders in the DSM-5 and is included in Mood Disorders, Addictive Disorders, Personality Disorders, and more (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, the term irritability is defined and measured inconsistently in the scholarly literature. In this article, we reviewed the scholarly definitions of irritability and the item content of irritability measures. Components of definitions and items measuring irritability were divided into three categories: a) causes, b) experience, and c) consequences. We also reviewed potential causes and biomarkers of irritability. We found much overlap between definitions and measures of irritability and related constructs such as anger and aggression. Consequently, the validity of research on irritability needs to be questioned including the role of irritability in psychopathology and the presence of irritability as a symptom in any disorder. Research on irritability's role in behavioral disorders needs to be repeated after more well defined measures are developed. We proposed a more precise definition of irritability that clearly differentiates it from related constructs. Suggested items for measuring irritability are also provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research misconduct

    Gilbert, F.J. E-mail:; Denison, A.R


    Good research practice is important to the scientific community. An awareness of what constitutes poor practice is important. Various types of research misconduct are defined in this article. The extent of research misconduct in the field of radiology has been assessed by contacting five English language radiology journals. Redundant or duplicate publication has been reported infrequently, Radiology (1), American Journal of Roentgenology (3), Clinical Radiology (3), British Journal of Radiology (2) and European Radiology (1). The issue of how the radiology community might tackle research misconduct is discussed with reference to guidance from the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and the Committee of Publication Ethics.

  18. Reaction kinetics of polybutylene terephthalate polycondensation reaction

    Darda, P. J.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.; Souren, F.


    The kinetics of the forward polycondensation reaction of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) has been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PBT - prepolymer with an initial degree of polymerization of 5.5 was used as starting material. The PBT prepolymer was prepared from dimethyl tereph

  19. Transfusion reaction - hemolytic

    ... of allergic transfusion reactions that do not cause hemolysis. ... transfusion, the transfusion must be stopped right away. Blood samples from the recipient (person getting the transfusion) and ...

  20. Desosamine in multicomponent reactions

    Achatz, Sepp; Dömling, Alexander


    Desosamine occurring ubiquitously in natural products is introduced into isocyanide based multicomponent reaction chemistry. Corresponding products are of potential interest for the design of novel antibiotics. © 2006.