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Sample records for reaction asr enables

  1. Alkali silica reaction (ASR) in cement free alkali activated sustainable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    This report summarizes the findings of an experimental evaluation into alkali silica : reaction (ASR) in cement free alkali-activated slag and fly ash binder concrete. The : susceptibility of alkali-activated fly ash and slag concrete binders to dele...

  2. Mitigation of ASR by the use of LiNO{sub 3}—Characterization of the reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemann, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.leemann@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstr. 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lörtscher, Luzia [Institute for Surface Science and Technology (D-MATL), ETH Zurich, Schafmattstr. 6, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bernard, Laetitia; Le Saout, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstr. 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M. [Institute for Surface Science and Technology (D-MATL), ETH Zurich, Schafmattstr. 6, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-01

    The influence of the LiNO{sub 3} on the ASR product was studied both in a model system and in mortars. In the model system, the addition of LiNO{sub 3} decreases the dissolution rate and the solubility of silica. Lithium changes the 2-dimensional cross-linked (Q{sub 3} dominated) network of the ASR product into a less structured, Q{sub 2} dominated product, likely by adopting the role of calcium. In the mortar samples the addition of LiNO{sub 3} decreases expansion and significantly influences the chemical composition and the morphology of the reaction product. Lithium decreases the calcium, sodium and potassium content and changes the relatively porous plate-like reaction product into a dense one without texture. The findings in the mortars indicate that the ASR-suppressing effect of lithium is caused by the lower potential of the reaction product to swell. Furthermore, it forms a protective barrier after an initial reaction slowing down ASR. - Highlights: • Detection of lithium in ASR product by ToF-SIMS • Relation between composition of pore solution and ASR product • Identification of ASR suppressing mechanisms of LiNO{sub 3}.

  3. Mitigation of ASR by the use of LiNO3—Characterization of the reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, Andreas; Lörtscher, Luzia; Bernard, Laetitia; Le Saout, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the LiNO 3 on the ASR product was studied both in a model system and in mortars. In the model system, the addition of LiNO 3 decreases the dissolution rate and the solubility of silica. Lithium changes the 2-dimensional cross-linked (Q 3 dominated) network of the ASR product into a less structured, Q 2 dominated product, likely by adopting the role of calcium. In the mortar samples the addition of LiNO 3 decreases expansion and significantly influences the chemical composition and the morphology of the reaction product. Lithium decreases the calcium, sodium and potassium content and changes the relatively porous plate-like reaction product into a dense one without texture. The findings in the mortars indicate that the ASR-suppressing effect of lithium is caused by the lower potential of the reaction product to swell. Furthermore, it forms a protective barrier after an initial reaction slowing down ASR. - Highlights: • Detection of lithium in ASR product by ToF-SIMS • Relation between composition of pore solution and ASR product • Identification of ASR suppressing mechanisms of LiNO 3

  4. Linear Array Ultrasonic Test Results from Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Khazanovich, Dr. Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Salles, Lucio [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.This report presents results of the ultrasound evaluation of four concrete slabs with varying levels of ASR damage present. This included an investigation of the experimental results, as well as a supplemental simulation considering the effect of ASR damage by elasto-dynamic wave propagation using a finite integration technique method. It was found that the Hilbert Transform Indicator (HTI), developed for quantification of freeze/thaw damage in concrete structures, could also be successfully utilized for quantification of ASR damage. internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  5. Suppression of ASR through aggregate coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Many highways, runways, parking lots and bridges are suffering from premature deterioration due to : alkali silica reaction (ASR) that takes place between the alkalis contributed primarily by the cement and : a reactive form of silica from specific s...

  6. The Symmetry of Adverse Local Tissue Reactions in Patients with Bilateral Simultaneous and Sequential ASR Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Rami; Hussey, Daniel K; Donahue, Gabrielle S; Potter, Hollis G; Wallace, Robert; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Malchau, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether patients with bilateral metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements have symmetric adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) at follow-up. An MRI of both hips was performed at a mean time of six years after surgery in 43 patients. The prevalence and severity of ALTRs were found to be similar in simultaneous hips but differences were observed in sequential hips. The order and timing of sequential hip arthroplasties did not affect the severity of ALTRs. Thus, in addition to metal ion exposure from an earlier MoM implant other factors may also play a role in the progression of ALTRs. Bilateral implants should be given special consideration in risk stratification algorithms for management of patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Severe ASR damaged concrete bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio Barbosa, Ricardo; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and University of Southern Denmark (SDU) have conducted several full-scale experiments with severe ASR deteriorated bridges. This paper presents few and preliminary results from both the shear tests and the measuring of the material properties. The shear test...... show that the shear capacity is almost unaffected of ASR despite significant reduction in compressive concrete strength. Furthermore, measurements show a significant tensile reinforcement strain developed due to ASR expansion....

  8. Efficient data selection for ASR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, NT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available the deployment of ASR systems in the developing world is severely inhibited. One approach to assist with resource-scarce ASR system development, is to select ‘‘useful’’ training samples which could reduce the resources needed to collect new corpora. In this work...

  9. ASR and RE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim

    2016-01-01

    As a university discipline, the academic study of religions (ASR) has produced a critical approach to the study of religion which is (or ought be), I think, of fundamental importance for a modern secular and enlightened democratic state. However, the ”study-of-religions” approach has percolated...... with limited success into society at large as well as into the primary and secondary educational systems of Western democracies. Too often so-called religious education (RE) really is religious or confessional, and even so-called non-confessional RE is, mostly if not always, mixed with crypto......-confessional approaches, inculcation of moral values (not least those claimed to be Christian) and the promoting of religion as a resource for a more ”spiritual” approach to life. While these goals may be in line with the traditional use of the public school as the key instrument of the (nation-) state to try to confer...

  10. Energy gains from lattice-enabled nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The energy gain of a system is defined as the ratio of its output energy divided by the energy provided to operate the system. Most familiar systems have energy gains less than one due to various inefficiencies. By contrast, lattice-enabled nuclear reactions (LENR) offer high energy gains. Theoretical values in excess of 1000 are possible. Energy gains over 100 have already been reported. But, they have not yet been sustained for commercially significant durations. This article summarizes the current status of LENR energy gains. (author)

  11. Degradation of the mechanical properties in ASR-affected concrete : Overview and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, R.; Hendriks, M.A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) can generate harmful effects in the concrete structures. In this paper the degradation of the mechanical properties of ASR-affected concrete is studied by comparing the experimental results available in literature. An overview of the macroscopic material modelling

  12. Deep Eutectic Solvents Enable More Robust Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Pengfei; Wang, Xuping; Zeng, Chaoxi; Wang, Weifei; Yang, Bo; Hollmann, F.; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic method for the production of epoxidized vegetable oils was developed. The unique combination of the commercial lipase G from Penicillieum camembertii with certain deep eutectic solvents enabled the efficient production of epoxidized vegetable oils.

  13. Anodic Cyclization Reactions and the Mechanistic Strategies That Enable Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruozhu; Smith, Jake A; Moeller, Kevin D

    2017-09-19

    Oxidation reactions are powerful tools for synthesis because they allow us to reverse the polarity of electron-rich functional groups, generate highly reactive intermediates, and increase the functionality of molecules. For this reason, oxidation reactions have been and continue to be the subject of intense study. Central to these efforts is the development of mechanism-based strategies that allow us to think about the reactive intermediates that are frequently central to the success of the reactions and the mechanistic pathways that those intermediates trigger. For example, consider oxidative cyclization reactions that are triggered by the removal of an electron from an electron-rich olefin and lead to cyclic products that are functionalized for further elaboration. For these reactions to be successful, the radical cation intermediate must first be generated using conditions that limit its polymerization and then channeled down a productive desired pathway. Following the cyclization, a second oxidation step is necessary for product formation, after which the resulting cation must be quenched in a controlled fashion to avoid undesired elimination reactions. Problems can arise at any one or all of these steps, a fact that frequently complicates reaction optimization and can discourage the development of new transformations. Fortunately, anodic electrochemistry offers an outstanding opportunity to systematically probe the mechanism of oxidative cyclization reactions. The use of electrochemical methods allows for the generation of radical cations under neutral conditions in an environment that helps prevent polymerization of the intermediate. Once the intermediates have been generated, a series of "telltale indicators" can be used to diagnose which step in an oxidative cyclization is problematic for less successful transformation. A set of potential solutions to address each type of problem encountered has been developed. For example, problems with the initial

  14. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Diagnosis and Prognosis of ASR Damage in Dry Cask Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jianmin; Bazant, Zdenek; Jacobs, Laurence; Guimaraes, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a deleterious chemical process that may occur in cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes, where the hydroxyl ions in the highly alkaline pore solution attack the siloxane groups in the siliceous minerals in the aggregates. The reaction produces a cross-linked alkali-silica gel. The ASR gel swells in the presence of water. Expansion of the gel results in cracking when the swelling-induced stress exceeds the fracture toughness of the concrete. As the ASR continues, cracks may grow and eventually coalesce, which results in reduced service life and a decrease safety of concrete structures. Since concrete is widely used as a critical structural component in dry cask storage of used nuclear fuels, ASR damage poses a significant threat to the sustainability of long term dry cask storage systems. Therefore, techniques for effectively detecting, managing and mitigating ASR damage are needed. Currently, there are no nondestructive methods to accurately detect ASR damage in existing concrete structures. The only current way of accurately assessing ASR damage is to drill a core from an existing structure, and conduct microscopy on this drilled cylindrical core. Clearly, such a practice is not applicable to dry cask storage systems. To meet these needs, this research is aimed at developing (1) a suite of nonlinear ultrasonic quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) techniques to characterize ASR damage, and (2) a physics-based model for ASR damage evolution using the QNDE data. Outcomes of this research will provide a nondestructive diagnostic tool to evaluate the extent of the ASR damage, and a prognostic tool to estimate the future reliability and safety of the concrete structures in dry cask storage systems

  15. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Diagnosis and Prognosis of ASR Damage in Dry Cask Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jianmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Bazant, Zdenek [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Guimaraes, Maria [Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a deleterious chemical process that may occur in cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes, where the hydroxyl ions in the highly alkaline pore solution attack the siloxane groups in the siliceous minerals in the aggregates. The reaction produces a cross-linked alkali-silica gel. The ASR gel swells in the presence of water. Expansion of the gel results in cracking when the swelling-induced stress exceeds the fracture toughness of the concrete. As the ASR continues, cracks may grow and eventually coalesce, which results in reduced service life and a decrease safety of concrete structures. Since concrete is widely used as a critical structural component in dry cask storage of used nuclear fuels, ASR damage poses a significant threat to the sustainability of long term dry cask storage systems. Therefore, techniques for effectively detecting, managing and mitigating ASR damage are needed. Currently, there are no nondestructive methods to accurately detect ASR damage in existing concrete structures. The only current way of accurately assessing ASR damage is to drill a core from an existing structure, and conduct microscopy on this drilled cylindrical core. Clearly, such a practice is not applicable to dry cask storage systems. To meet these needs, this research is aimed at developing (1) a suite of nonlinear ultrasonic quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) techniques to characterize ASR damage, and (2) a physics-based model for ASR damage evolution using the QNDE data. Outcomes of this research will provide a nondestructive diagnostic tool to evaluate the extent of the ASR damage, and a prognostic tool to estimate the future reliability and safety of the concrete structures in dry cask storage systems

  16. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  17. Efficient harvesting of Internet audio for resource-scarce ASR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available accurate ASR system, which is generally not available when working with resourcescarce languages. In this work, the authors define a process whereby an ASR corpus is bootstrapped using unmatched ASR models in conjunction with speech and approximate...

  18. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 1.4 million reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 6,000 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides selected de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http:asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation will discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Waste Glass Powder on ASR Expansion Induced by Waste Glass Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed research is carried out to ascertain the inhibitory effect of waste glass powder (WGP on alkali-silica reaction (ASR expansion induced by waste glass aggregate in this paper. The alkali reactivity of waste glass aggregate is examined by two methods in accordance with the China Test Code SL352-2006. The potential of WGP to control the ASR expansion is determined in terms of mean diameter, specific surface area, content of WGP and curing temperature. Two mathematical models are developed to estimate the inhibitory efficiency of WGP. These studies show that there is ASR risk with an ASR expansion rate over 0.2% when the sand contains more than 30% glass aggregate. However, WGP can effectively control the ASR expansion and inhibit the expansion rate induced by the glass aggregate to be under 0.1%. The two mathematical models have good simulation results, which can be used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of WGP on ASR risk.

  20. Enabling nucleophilic substitution reactions of activated alkyl fluorides through hydrogen bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Pier Alexandre; Pomarole, Julien; Thérien, Marie-Ève; Benhassine, Yasmine; Beaulieu, Samuel; Legault, Claude Y; Paquin, Jean-François

    2013-05-03

    It was discovered that the presence of water as a cosolvent enables the reaction of activated alkyl fluorides for bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions. DFT calculations show that activation proceeds through stabilization of the transition structure by a stronger F···H2O interaction and diminishing C-F bond elongation, and not simple transition state electrostatic stabilization. Overall, the findings put forward a distinct strategy for C-F bond activation through H-bonding.

  1. ASRS application in radioactive material handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalina Sheik Muhamad and Rosli Darmawan

    2007-01-01

    ASRS is a computer controlled methods for automatically depositing and retrieving loads from defined storage locations. It consists of several major components which are the Controls System, Storage Structure (Racks), Storage/Retrieval (S/R) Machines, Fire Protection Systems, Pickup and Delivery (P and D) Stations, Storage Modules (Pallets, Baskets, Containers), Aisle Hardware, Aisle Transfer Cars, Conveyors and other transportation equipment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the potential application of the ASRS in Nuclear Malaysia. The need to use the system, operating principle and potential application will be discussed. (Author)

  2. On the ASR and ASR thermal residues characterization of full scale treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, G; Viotti, P; Luciano, A; Fino, D

    2014-02-01

    In order to obtain 85% recycling, several procedures on Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) could be implemented, such as advanced metal and polymer recovery, mechanical recycling, pyrolysis, the direct use of ASR in the cement industry, and/or the direct use of ASR as a secondary raw material. However, many of these recovery options appear to be limited, due to the possible low acceptability of ASR based products on the market. The recovery of bottom ash and slag after an ASR thermal treatment is an option that is not usually considered in most countries (e.g. Italy) due to the excessive amount of contaminants, especially metals. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the characteristics of ASR and its full-scale incineration residues. Experiments have been carried out, in two different experimental campaigns, in a full-scale tyre incineration plant specifically modified to treat ASR waste. Detailed analysis of ASR samples and combustion residues were carried out and compared with literature data. On the basis of the analytical results, the slag and bottom ash from the combustion process have been classified as non-hazardous wastes, according to the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC), and therefore after further tests could be used in future in the construction industry. It has also been concluded that ASR bottom ash (EWC - European Waste Catalogue - code 19 01 12) could be landfilled in SNRHW (stabilized non-reactive hazardous waste) cells or used as raw material for road construction, with or without further treatment for the removal of heavy metals. In the case of fly ash from boiler or Air Pollution Control (APC) residues, it has been found that the Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded regulatory leaching test limits therefore their removal, or a stabilization process, would be essential prior to landfilling the use of these residues as construction material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ASR performance analysis of an experimental call routing system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Call routing is an important application of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper the authors discuss the main issues affecting the performance of a call routing system and describe the ASR component of the "Auto...

  4. Cross-bandwidth adaptation for ASR systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available not be feasible for resource-scarce environments. Utilising limited amounts of in-domain data and a combination of feature normalisation and acoustic model adaptation techniques has therefore found wide use in ASR systems. Various approaches have been proposed...

  5. Lattice-enabled nuclear reactions in the nickel and hydrogen gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of lattice-enabled nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments involving electrochemical loading of deuterium into palladium have been conducted and reported in hundreds of papers. But, it appears that the first commercial LENR power generators will employ gas loading of hydrogen onto nickel. This article reviews the scientific base for LENR in the gas-loaded Ni-H system, and some of the tests of pre-commercial prototype generators based on this combination. (author)

  6. Novel shear capacity testing of ASR damaged full scale concrete bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Søren Gustenhoff; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A large number of concrete bridges in Denmark have to undergo wide-ranging maintenance work to prevent deterioration due to aggressive Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR). This destructive mechanism results in extensive cracking which is believed to affect the load carrying capacity of the structure...

  7. NavMol 3.0: enabling the representation of metabolic reactions by blind users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binev, Yuri; Peixoto, Daniela; Pereira, Florbela; Rodrigues, Ian; Cavaco, Sofia; Lobo, Ana M; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2018-01-01

    The representation of metabolic reactions strongly relies on visualization, which is a major barrier for blind users. The NavMol software renders the communication and interpretation of molecular structures and reactions accessible by integrating chemoinformatics and assistive technology. NavMol 3.0 provides a molecular editor for metabolic reactions. The user can start with templates of reactions and build from such cores. Atom-to-atom mapping enables changes in the reactants to be reflected in the products (and vice-versa) and the reaction centres to be automatically identified. Blind users can easily interact with the software using the keyboard and text-to-speech technology. NavMol 3.0 is free and open source under the GNU general public license (GPLv3), and can be downloaded at http://sourceforge.net/projects/navmol as a JAR file. joao@airesdesousa.com. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Murai Reaction on Furfural Derivatives Enabled by Removable N,N'-Bidentate Directing Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzetta, Cristofer; Veiros, Luis F; Oble, Julie; Poli, Giovanni

    2017-06-22

    Furfural and related compounds are industrially relevant building blocks obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. To enhance the added value of these renewable resources, a Ru-catalyzed hydrofurylation of alkenes, involving a directed C-H activation at C3 of the furan ring, was developed. A thorough experimental study revealed that a bidentate amino-imine directing group enabled the desired coupling. Removal of the directing group occurred during the purification step, directly releasing the C3-functionalized furfurals. Development of the reaction as well as optimization and scope of the method were described. A mechanism was proposed on the basis of DFT calculations. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA.

  10. Early micromovement of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, J O; Ding, M; Varmarken, J E

    2012-01-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) can detect early micromovement in unstable implant designs which are likely subsequently to have a high failure rate. In 2010, the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) was withdrawn because of a high failure rate. In 19 ASR femoral components, the mean micromovement...

  11. Analysis of ASR Clogging Investigations at Three Australian ASR Sites in a Bayesian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dillon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating uncertainties in developing an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR system, under normal budgetary constraints, a systematic approach is needed to prioritise investigations. Three case studies where field trials have been undertaken, and clogging evaluated, reveal the changing perceptions of viability of ASR from a clogging perspective as a result of the progress of investigations. Two stormwater and one recycled water ASR investigations in siliceous aquifers are described that involved different strategies to evaluate the potential for clogging. This paper reviews these sites, as well as earlier case studies and information relating water quality, to clogging in column studies. Two novel theoretical concepts are introduced in the paper. Bayesian analysis is applied to demonstrate the increase in expected net benefit in developing a new ASR operation by undertaking clogging experiments (that have an assumed known reliability for predicting viability for the injectant treatment options and aquifer material from the site. Results for an example situation demonstrate benefit cost ratios of experiments ranging from 1.5 to 6 and apply if decisions are based on experimental results whether success or failure are predicted. Additionally, a theoretical assessment of clogging rates characterised as acute and chronic is given, to explore their combined impact, for two operating parameters that define the onset of purging for recovery of reversible clogging and the onset of occasional advanced bore rehabilitation to address recovery of chronic clogging. These allow the assessment of net recharge and the proportion of water purged or redeveloped. Both analyses could inform economic decisions and help motivate an improved investigation methodology. It is expected that aquifer heterogeneity will result in differing injection rates among wells, so operational experience will ultimately be valuable in differentiating clogging behaviour under

  12. A New Zealand platform to enable genetic investigation of adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggo, Simran Ds; Chua, Eng Wee; Chin, Paul; Cree, Simone; Pearson, John; Doogue, Matthew; Kennedy, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    A multitude of factors can affect drug response in individuals. It is now well established that variations in genes, especially those coding for drug metabolising enzymes, can alter the pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic profile of a drug, impacting on efficacy and often resulting in drug-induced toxicity. The UDRUGS study is an initiative from the Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics to biobank DNA and store associated clinical data from patients who have suffered rare and/or serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The aim is to provide a genetic explanation of drug-induced ADRs using methods ranging from Sanger sequencing to whole exome and whole genome sequencing. Participants for the UDRUGS study are recruited from various sources, mainly via referral through clinicians working in Canterbury District Health Board, but also from district health boards across New Zealand. Participants have also self-referred to us from word-of-mouth communication between participants. We have recruited various ADRs across most drug classes. Where possible, we have conducted genetic analyses in single or a cohort of cases to identify known and novel genetic association(s) to offer an explanation to why the ADR occurred. Any genetic results relevant to the ADR are communicated back to the referring clinician and/or participant. In conclusion, we have developed a programme for studying the genetic basis of severe, rare or unusual ADR cases resulting from pharmacological treatment. Genomic analyses could eventually identify most genetic variants that predispose to ADRs, enabling a priori detection of such variants with high throughput DNA tests.

  13. Alkali Release from Typical Danish Aggregates to Potential ASR Reactive Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hans Christian Brolin; Grelk, Bent; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete is a well-known deterioration mechanism affecting the long term durability of Danish concrete structures. Deleterious ASR cracking can be significantly reduced or prevented by limiting the total alkali content of concrete under a certain threshold limit......, which in Denmark is recommended to 3 kg/m3 Na2Oeq.. However, this threshold limit does not account for the possible internal contribution of alkali to the concrete pore solution by release from aggregates or external contributions from varies sources. This study indicates that certain Danish aggregates...... are capable of releasing more than 0.46 kg/m3 Na2Oeq. at 13 weeks of exposure in laboratory test which may increase the risk for deleterious cracking due to an increase in alkali content in the concrete....

  14. Friedel-Crafts reaction of benzyl fluorides: selective activation of C-F bonds as enabled by hydrogen bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Pier Alexandre; Benhassine, Yasmine; Desroches, Justine; Paquin, Jean-François

    2014-12-08

    A Friedel-Crafts benzylation of arenes with benzyl fluorides has been developed. The reaction produces 1,1-diaryl alkanes in good yield under mild conditions without the need for a transition metal or a strong Lewis acid. A mechanism involving activation of the C-F bond through hydrogen bonding is proposed. This mode of activation enables the selective reaction of benzylic C-F bonds in the presence of other benzylic leaving groups. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Shear Capacity of Large-Scale RC Beams Affected by ASR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) on the shear capacity for concrete slabs without shear reinforcement. An experimental full-scale in-situ program consisting of four slabs from a bridge (Vosnæsvej) has been carried out and the results have been published in ref. [1......) and Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1). The analysis shows that three experiments were highly affected by the preparation of the experimental setup. Only one experiment contained useful information about the shear capacity. The analysis of this experiment shows that the shear capacity is not reduced as much...

  16. A General Small-Scale Reactor To Enable Standardization and Acceleration of Photocatalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chi Chip; Wismer, Michael K; Shi, Zhi-Cai; Zhang, Rui; Conway, Donald V; Li, Guoqing; Vachal, Petr; Davies, Ian W; MacMillan, David W C

    2017-06-28

    Photocatalysis for organic synthesis has experienced an exponential growth in the past 10 years. However, the variety of experimental procedures that have been reported to perform photon-based catalyst excitation has hampered the establishment of general protocols to convert visible light into chemical energy. To address this issue, we have designed an integrated photoreactor for enhanced photon capture and catalyst excitation. Moreover, the evaluation of this new reactor in eight photocatalytic transformations that are widely employed in medicinal chemistry settings has confirmed significant performance advantages of this optimized design while enabling a standardized protocol.

  17. Influence of alkali-silica reaction on the physical, mechanical, and structural behaviour of reinforced concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is one of the major concrete deterioration mechanisms in the world. Cracking in concrete structures due to ASR has been observed worldwide. In Denmark numerous concrete structures have been built with a critical amount of ASR-reactive aggregate, mostly as porous opaline...... and porous calcareous opaline flint in the fine aggregate fraction. During the last few decades, an increasing number of bridges in Denmark have been severely damaged due to ASR. In the most severe cases, the ASR-damaged bridges have been demolished and reconstructed due to uncertainty about their residual...... following features in common: (a) significant amount of ASR cracks were observed on and inside the slabs, (b) the ASR cracks were oriented parallel to the plane of the slabs, and (c) ASR occurred in the fine aggregate fraction. In this PhD study, both the compressive strength and tensile strength of drilled...

  18. Hydrometallurgical recovery of heavy metals from low grade automobile shredder residue (ASR): An application of advanced Fenton process (AFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the leaching and recovery of heavy metals from low-grade automobile shredder residue (ASR), the effects of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature and ASR particle size fractions on the heavy metal leaching rate were determined. The heavy metals were recovered by fractional precipitation and advanced Fenton process (AFP) at different pHs. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was also performed in the residue remaining after heavy metal leaching to evaluate the potential toxicity of ASR. The heavy metal leaching efficiency was increased with increasing HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations, L/S ratio and temperature. The heavy metal leaching efficiencies were maximized in the lowest ASR size fraction at 303 K and L/S ratio of 100 mL/g. The kinetic study showed that the metal leaching was best represented by a second-order reaction model, with a value of R(2) > 0.99 for all selected heavy metals. The determined activation energy (kJ/mol) was 21.61, 17.10, 12.15, 34.50, 13.07 and 11.45 for Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr, respectively. In the final residue, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Pb were under their threshold limits in all ASR size fractions. Hydrometallurgical metal recovery was greatly increased by AFP up to 99.96% for Zn, 99.97% for Fe, 95.62% for Ni, 99.62% for Pb, 94.11% for Cd and 96.79% for Cr. AFP is highly recommended for the recovery of leached metals from solution even at low concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HMM adaptation for child speech synthesis using ASR data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available . This paper reports on a feasibility study that was conducted to determine whether it is possible to synthesize good quality child voices using child speech data that was recorded for automatic speech recognition (ASR) purposes. A text-to-speech system...

  20. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

    2010-01-01

    About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction

  1. Prestressing of reinforcing bars in concrete slabs due to concrete expansion induced by Alkali-Silica Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Antonio Barbosa, Ricardo; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    Alkali-silica reactions (ASR) in concrete bridges have been a major concern worldwide for many decades. In Denmark, several bridges are severely damaged due to ASR and over 600 bridges have the potential to develop ASR in the future. The majority of these bridges are slab-bridges. Despite the many...... cases, experimental research on structural safety and residual load carrying capacity of ASR-damaged bridges is limited. As ASR causes severe cracks in the concrete, which may affect the concrete compressive and tensile strength, concerns have been directed towards the residual shear capacity. Yet...

  2. Structural modelling of ASR-affected concrete : The approach developed in the PAT-ASR project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, R.; Hendriks, M.A.N.

    2013-01-01

    The Alkali-Silica Reaction is a harmful reaction which can compromise the integrity and capacity of concrete structures. Due to its nature, a multiscale material model has been chosen to perform structural analyses. The model aims to couple the chemical and mechanical effects in order to

  3. Characterization of the Rheological and Swelling Properties of Synthetic Alkali Silicate Gels in Order to Predict Their Behavior in ASR Damaged Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayghan, Asghar Gholizadeh

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a major concrete durability concern that is responsible for the deterioration of concrete infrastructure in the world. The resultant of the reaction between the cement alkali hydroxides and the metastable silicates in the aggregates is a hygroscopic and expansive alkali-silicate gel (referred to as ASR gel in this document). The swelling behavior of ASR gels determines the extent of damage to concrete structures and, as such, mitigation of ASR relies on understanding these gels and finding ways to prevent them either from formation, or from swelling after formation. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis and characterization of ASR gels with wide ranges of compositions similar to what has been reported for the filed ASR gels in the literature. The experimental work consisted of three phases as follow. Phase I: Investigation of rheology, chemistry and physics of ASR gels produced through sol-method. Inspired from the existing literature, two sol-gel methods have been developed for the synthesis of ASR gels. The rheological (primarily gelation time, yield stress, and equilibrium stress), chemical (pore solution pH, pore solution composition, osmotic pressure, solid phase composition, stoichiometry of gelation reactions) and physical (evaporable water, solid content, etc.) properties of synthetic ASR gels have been extensively investigated in this phase. Ca/Si, Na/Si and K/Si, and water content were considered as the main chemical composition variables. In order to investigate the suppressing effects of lithium on the swelling properties of ASR gels, the gels were added with lithium in a part of the experimental program. The results strongly suggested that Ca/Si has a positive effect on the yield stress of the gels and their rate of gelation. Na/Si was found to have a decreasing effect on the yield stress and gelation rate (especially at low Ca/Si levels). K/Si and Li/Si had second-order (i.e., polynomial) effects on the yield

  4. Masgid Sultan Qansuh Al Ghury: Sheikh Antar: Asr Adhan

    OpenAIRE

    Kipervaser, Anna; LLC; On Look Films

    2010-01-01

    Sheikh Antar recites ‘Asr adhan at 4:38pm on August 10, 2010 at the Sultan Qansuh Al Ghury Mosque in El-Hussein (Islamic Cairo), calling the faithful to come and to pray. Sheikh Antar has recited the adhan here for 5 years, as a volunteer. Video & audio recordings of 6 muezzins reciting the adhan (Muslim call to prayer), with supporting photographs of muezzins and their respective mosques. Hartley Film Foundation, National Geographic All Roads Film Project, Lucius and Eva Ea...

  5. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  6. Electrochemical lithium migration to mitigate alkali-silica reaction in existing concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva De Souza, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a deterioration process that affects the durability of concrete structures worldwide. During the reaction, hydroxyl and alkali ions present in the pore solution react with reactive silica from the aggregate, forming a hygroscopic ASR gel. Alternatively, the silica

  7. Isolation of a novel abscisic acid stress ripening (OsASR) gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-13

    Sep 13, 2012 ... ... booting stages, respectively, and a 8.30-fold increase in the panicle of .... ABA and sugar cross-talk: the ASR story. Trends Plant Sci. ... Goldgur Y, Rom S, Ghirlando R, Shkolnik D, Natalia S, Zvia K, Dudy. Bar-Zv (2007). ... functional validation of the Zm-Asr1 gene and increase of water use efficiency by ...

  8. Alcali-silica reactions: Mechanisms for crack formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2006-01-01

    Alkali-silica reactions (ASR) are found all over the world and cause a large number of damage, which have lead to different sets of requirements in the different countries for the aggregates, the cements and the admixtures. One of the reasons for the damage and the different requirements is that ......Alkali-silica reactions (ASR) are found all over the world and cause a large number of damage, which have lead to different sets of requirements in the different countries for the aggregates, the cements and the admixtures. One of the reasons for the damage and the different requirements...... is that the mechanical behavior of the ASR has not been fully investigated, although the chemical aspects of ASR have been dealt with in depth. This paper presents a unified, mechanical explanation of the ASR damage mechanism, covering the relevant aspects of the diffusion model; the stress-variations in the aggregate...

  9. ASR Technology for Children with Dyslexia: Enabling Immediate Intervention to Support Reading in Bahasa Melayu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husni, Husniza; Jamaludin, Zulikha

    2009-01-01

    Reading is an essential skill towards literacy development, and should be provided so that children can master the skill at their early ages. For dyslexic children, mastering the skill is a challenge. It has been widely agreed that the theory behind such difficulties in reading for dyslexic lies in the phonological-core deficits. Support has been…

  10. The Usefulness of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR Eyespeak Software in Improving Iraqi EFL Students’ Pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Fathi Sidig Sidgi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on determining whether automatic speech recognition (ASR technology is reliable for improving English pronunciation to Iraqi EFL students. Non-native learners of English are generally concerned about improving their pronunciation skills, and Iraqi students face difficulties in pronouncing English sounds that are not found in their native language (Arabic. This study is concerned with ASR and its effectiveness in overcoming this difficulty. The data were obtained from twenty participants randomly selected from first-year college students at Al-Turath University College from the Department of English in Baghdad-Iraq. The students had participated in a two month pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software. At the end of the pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software, the students completed a questionnaire to get their opinions about the usefulness of the ASR Eyespeak in improving their pronunciation. The findings of the study revealed that the students found ASR Eyespeak software very useful in improving their pronunciation and helping them realise their pronunciation mistakes. They also reported that learning pronunciation with ASR Eyespeak enjoyable.

  11. Experimental collaboration for thick concrete structures with alkali-silica reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, N. Dianne Bull; Hayes, Nolan; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Clayton, Dwight; Ma, Z. John; Le Pape, Sihem; Le Pape, Yann

    2018-04-01

    Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) is a reaction that occurs over time in concrete between alkaline cement paste and reactive, non-crystalline silica in aggregates. An expansive gel is formed within the aggregates which results in micro-cracks in aggregates and adjacent cement paste. The reaction requires the presence of water and has been predominantly detected in groundwater-impacted portions of below grade structures, with limited impact to exterior surfaces in above grade structures. ASR can potentially affect concrete properties and performance characteristics such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, shear strength, and tensile strength. Since ASR degradation often takes significant amounts of time, developing ASR detection techniques is important to the sustainability and extended operation lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) designed and built an experiment representative of typical NPP structures to study ASR in thick concrete structures.

  12. Study on lithium migration for electrochemical treatment of concrete affected by alkali-silica reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, L.M.S.; Copuroglu, O.; Polder, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is one of the major durability problems in concrete and affects many structures worldwide. Nevertheless, currently, there are no definite treatments to stop it once it has star ted. Lithium is known to have beneficial effects on ASR. Indeed, the use of lithium-based

  13. MULTI-LABEL ASRS DATASET CLASSIFICATION USING SEMI-SUPERVISED SUBSPACE CLUSTERING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MULTI-LABEL ASRS DATASET CLASSIFICATION USING SEMI-SUPERVISED SUBSPACE CLUSTERING MOHAMMAD SALIM AHMED, LATIFUR KHAN, NIKUNJ OZA, AND MANDAVA RAJESWARI Abstract....

  14. A Catalyst-Enabled Diastereodivergent Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction: Complementarity of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes and Chiral Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zi-Qiang; Wang, Min; Chow, Chi Hao Eugene; Zhao, Yu

    2016-07-04

    Highly efficient and diastereodivergent aza-Diels-Alder reactions have been developed to access either diastereomeric series of benzofuran-fused δ-lactams and dihydropyridines in nearly perfect stereoselectivity (d.r. >20:1, >99 % ee for all examples). The complementarity of N-heterocyclic carbene and chiral amine as the catalyst was demonstrated for the first time, together with an excellent level of catalytic efficiency (1 mol % loading). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Recognition of Voice Commands by Multisource ASR and Noise Cancellation in a Smart Home Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vacher , Michel; Lecouteux , Benjamin; Portet , François

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a multisource ASR system to detect home automation orders in various everyday listening conditions in a realistic home. The system is based on a state of the art echo cancellation stage that feeds recently introduced ASR techniques. The evaluation was conducted on a realistic noisy data set acquired in a smart home where a microphone was placed near the noise source and several other microphones were placed in different rooms. This distant spe...

  16. Over-expression of Gene FaASR Promotes Strawberry Fruit Coloring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongjie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit development and ripening is a complicate process. Although much progress has been made on the ripenig process, the molecular mechamism of fruit development is not yet clear. In this study, we used ‘Sweet Charlie’ strawberry as test materials, based on cloning the strawberries ASR homologous gene, we carried out the bioinformatics and temporal expression analysis of FaASR, by manipulating ASR gene expression level in strawberry fruit, we tested the changes of physiological indicators, including sugar, ABA, pigments content, and fruit firmness, as well as phenotypic changes. In addition, we measured the expression changes of some anthocyanin-related gene, such as CHS and UFGT, by which we revealed the regulation mechanisms of ASR gene over strawberry fruit ripening. Strawberry ASR contained a typical domain of ABA/WDS that was related to fruit ripening and stress-resistance, and ASR gene over-expression could promote strawberry fruit coloring, endogenous ABA and sucrose accumulation, fruit softening, and induced the transcription levels of anthocyanin-related genes CHS and UFGT. The present study will further reveal the molecular mechanisms of information transmission in fruit development, and will also play an important foundation for future molecular improvement of strawberries breeding.

  17. The ASRS-6 has two latent factors: attention deficit and hyper-activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD, 6-items version (ASRS-6), measures inattentiveness and hyperactivity independently. Methods: The ASRS-6 was completed by 234 university students and 157 outpatients treated for drug dependence. In both samples, the ASRS-6 was subjec......Objective: To test whether the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD, 6-items version (ASRS-6), measures inattentiveness and hyperactivity independently. Methods: The ASRS-6 was completed by 234 university students and 157 outpatients treated for drug dependence. In both samples, the ASRS-6...... was subjected to two confirmatory factor analyses, one testing a one-factor model, and one testing a model with two correlated factors indicating inattentiveness and hyperactivity respectively. Test-retest reliability of the subscales was tested on a subset of the student sample (n=25). Results: In both samples......, a one-factor solution did not fit the data, but the two-factor solution fit the data better. Sub-scales differed in their correlates in ways that mirror the correlates of inattentiveness and hyperactivity in the published literature on ADHD. In the student sample, the test-retest reliability...

  18. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) based approach for speech therapy of aphasic patients: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Norezmi; Shanta, Shahnoor; Mahmud, Farhanahani; Sha'abani, MNAH

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art an automatic speech recognition (ASR) based approach for speech therapy of aphasic patients. Aphasia is a condition in which the affected person suffers from speech and language disorder resulting from a stroke or brain injury. Since there is a growing body of evidence indicating the possibility of improving the symptoms at an early stage, ASR based solutions are increasingly being researched for speech and language therapy. ASR is a technology that transfers human speech into transcript text by matching with the system's library. This is particularly useful in speech rehabilitation therapies as they provide accurate, real-time evaluation for speech input from an individual with speech disorder. ASR based approaches for speech therapy recognize the speech input from the aphasic patient and provide real-time feedback response to their mistakes. However, the accuracy of ASR is dependent on many factors such as, phoneme recognition, speech continuity, speaker and environmental differences as well as our depth of knowledge on human language understanding. Hence, the review examines recent development of ASR technologies and its performance for individuals with speech and language disorders.

  19. Long-Term Vibration Monitoring of the Effects of Temperature and Humidity on PC Girders with and without Fly Ash considering ASR Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Minh Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural responses have been used as inputs in the evaluation procedures of civil structures for years. Apart from the degradation of a structure itself, changes in the environmental conditions affect its characteristics. For adequate maintenance, it is necessary to quantify the environment-induced changes and discriminate them from the effects due to damage. This study investigates the variation in the vibration responses of prestressed concrete (PC girders, which were deteriorated because of the alkali–silica reaction (ASR, concerning ambient temperature and humidity. Three PC girders were exposed to outdoor weather conditions outside the laboratory, one of which had a selected amount of fly ash in its mixture to mitigate the ASR. The girders were periodically vibration tested for one and a half years. It was found that when the temperature and humidity increased, the frequencies and damping ratios decreased in proportion. No apparent variation in the mode shapes could be identified. A finite element model was proposed for numerical verification, the results of which were in good agreement with the measured changes in the natural frequencies. Moreover, the different dynamic performances of the three specimens indicated that the fly ash significantly affected the vibrations of the PC girders under ASR deterioration.

  20. Study on the influence of Alkali-Silica reaction on structural behavior of reinforced concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murazumi, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Matsumoto, N.; Mitsugi, S.; Takiguchi, K.; Masuda, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Expansion produced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) has been observed in the turbine generator foundation of the unit 1, Ikata nuclear power station, Japan. The foundation is a reinforced concrete frame structure. This paper, as a part of the series of investigation and experiments, discusses tests on structural behavior of concrete members affected by ASR. The purpose of the study is to obtain experimental results on the effects of ASR on bending and shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams and shear walls, and compare with the calculated results by present evaluation methods for normal concrete structures For the experiments on bending/shear behavior of beam, bending test models with a small amount of rebar and shear test models with larger amount were made of concrete in which ASR was induced by adding alkali or concrete without ASR. It was found from the results that bending strength of the bending test models and shear strength of the shear test models did not fall, nor was it lower than the calculated strength for concrete members without ASR. In the shear wall test, the two test models were made of either concrete with ASR or one without it. Horizontal load was applied with actuators on the test model fixed on the test floor, while vertical load was applied with oil jacks. The results did not indicate that ASR lowered the stiffness or strength of the wall test models, showing the strength was able to be calculated with the same formula for reinforced concrete wall without ASR. (authors)

  1. Ultrafine and highly disordered Ni 2 Fe 1 nanofoams enabled highly efficient oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shaofang; Song, Junhua; Zhu, Chengzhou; Xu, Gui-Liang; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Chengjun; Li, Xiaolin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2018-02-01

    Nickel iron hydroxides are the most promising non-noble electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media. By in situ reduction of metal precursors, compositionally controlled three-dimensional (3D) NixFeyB nanofoams (NFs) are synthesized with high surface area and uniformly distributed bimetallic networks. The resultant ultrafine amorphous Ni2Fe1B NFs exhibit extraordinary electrocatalytic performance toward OER and overall water splitting in alkaline media. At a potential as low as 1.42 V (vs. RHE), Ni2Fe1B NFs can deliver a current density of 10 mA/cm2 and show negligible activity loss after 12 hours’ stability test. Even at large current flux of 100 mA/cm2, an ultralow overpotential of 0.27 V is achieved, which is about 0.18 V more negative than benchmark RuO2. Both ex-situ Mӧssbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) reveal a phase separation and transformation for the Ni2Fe1B catalyst during OER process. The evolution of oxidation state and disordered structure of Ni2Fe1B might be a key to the high catalytic performance for OER.

  2. A real case of steam-cured concrete track slab premature deterioration due to ASR and DEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration mechanisms of some premature damaged steam-cured concrete track slabs (CTS in Chinese railway less than 4 years were investigated. Field investigation, raw materials test and suspicious products analysis were carried out. Results show that steam-cured heat damage (SCHD of concrete takes place in steam-cured process. Expansion products are ettringite in hydrated products and alkali-silica gels between the interface of hydrated products and coarse aggregate. SCHD makes CTS surface layer loose, porous and more micro-cracks. Long-term fatigue load from high-speed train acting on CTS enlarges concrete microcracks, leading to water penetrating into concrete easily in moist and rainy environment. In the process of water ingression, alkali-silica reaction (ASR and delayed ettringite formation (DEF take place, hence resulting in CTS cracking and premature deterioration.

  3. SiASR4, the Target Gene of SiARDP from Setaria italica, Improves Abiotic Stress Adaption in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianrui; Dong, Yang; Li, Cong; Pan, Yanlin; Yu, Jingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Drought and other types of abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth and crop yields. The abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins play important roles in the protection of plants against abiotic stress. However, the regulatory pathway of the gene encoding this protein remains to be elucidated. In this study, the foxtail millet ( Setaria italica ) ASR gene, SiASR4 , was cloned and characterized. SiASR4 localized to the cell nucleus, cytoplasm and cytomembrane, and the protein contained 102 amino acids, including an ABA/WDS (abscisic acid/water-deficit stress) domain, with a molecular mass of 11.5 kDa. The abundance of SiASR4 transcripts increased after treatment with ABA, NaCl, and PEG in foxtail millet seedlings. It has been reported that the S. italica ABA-responsive DRE-binding protein (SiARDP) binds to a DNA sequence with a CCGAC core and that there are five dehydration-responsive element (DRE) motifs within the SiASR4 promoter. Our analyses demonstrated that the SiARDP protein could bind to the SiASR4 promoter in vitro and in vivo . The expression of SiASR4 increased in SiARDP -overexpressing plants. SiASR4 -transgenic Arabidopsis and SiASR4 -overexpressing foxtail millet exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress. Furthermore, the transcription of stress-responsive and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger-associated genes was activated in SiASR4 transgenic plants. Together, these findings show that SiASR4 functions in the adaption to drought and salt stress and is regulated by SiARDP via an ABA-dependent pathway.

  4. Significance of Alkali-Silica reaction in nuclear safety-related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Y.; Field, K.G.; Mattus, C.H.; Naus, D.J.; Busby, J.T.; Saouma, V.; Ma, Z.J.; Cabage, J.V.; Guimaraes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant license renewal up to 60 years and possible life extension beyond has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and particularly, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete components. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Academia and the Power Generation Industry, identified the need to develop a consistent knowledge base of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) within concrete as an urgent priority (Graves et al., 2014). ASR results in an expansion of Concrete produced by the reaction between alkali (generally from cement), reactive aggregate (like amorphous silica) and water absorption. ASR causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR distress can be potentially observed and that numerous non-nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) in a majority of the States have already experienced ASR-related concrete degradation, the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed. This paper outlines an on-going research program including the investigation of the possibility of ASR in nuclear power plants, and the assessment of the residual shear bearing capacity of ASR-subjected nuclear structures. (authors)

  5. Detecting alkali-silica reaction in thick concrete structures using linear array ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull Ezell, N. Dianne; Albright, Austin; Clayton, Dwight; Santos-Villalobos, Hector

    2018-03-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) depend heavily on concrete structures, making the long-term performance of these structures crucial for safe operation, especially with license period extensions to 60 years and possibly beyond. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a reaction that occurs over time in concrete between alkaline cement paste and reactive, noncrystalline silica (aggregates). In the presence of water, an expansive gel is formed within the aggregates, which results in microcracks in aggregates and adjacent cement paste. ASR can potentially affect concrete properties and performance characteristics such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural stiffness, shear strength, and tensile strength. Currently, no nondestructive evaluation methods have proven effective in identifying ASR before surface cracks form. ASR is identified visibly or by petrographic analysis. Although ASR definitely impacts concrete material properties, the performance of concrete structures exhibiting ASR depends on whether or not the concrete is unconfined or confined with reinforcing bars. Confinement by reinforcing bars restrainsthe expansion of ASR-affected concrete, similar to prestressing, thus improving the performance of a structure. Additionally, there is no direct correlation between the mechanical properties of concrete sample cores and the in-situ properties of the concrete. The University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and a consortium of universities have developed an accelerated ASR experiment. Three large concrete specimens, representative of NPP infrastructure, were constructed containing both embedded and surface instruments. This paper presents preliminary analysis of these specimens using a frequency-banded synthetic aperture focusing technique.

  6. Dimerization and DNA-binding of ASR1, a small hydrophilic protein abundant in plant tissues suffering from water loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskin, Laura; Frankel, Nicolas; Gudesblat, Gustavo; Demergasso, Maria J.; Pietrasanta, Lia I.; Iusem, Norberto D.

    2007-01-01

    The Asr gene family is present in Spermatophyta. Its members are generally activated under water stress. We present evidence that tomato ASR1, one of the proteins of the family, accumulates in seed during late stages of embryogenesis, a physiological process characterized by water loss. In vitro, electrophoretic assays show a homo-dimeric structure for ASR1 and highlight strong non-covalent interactions between monomers prone to self-assemble. Direct visualization of single molecules by atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirms that ASR1 forms homodimers and that uncovers both monomers and dimers bind double stranded DNA

  7. Effects of externally supplied lithium on the suppression of ASR expansion in mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Mitsunori; Kodera, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Lithium salts are being externally supplied for mitigating the progress of deterioration of ASR-affected concrete structures. However, it is not clear whether the sodium or potassium in the ASR gel in concrete is replaced by the lithium supplied from the outside. In this article, we examine changes in the composition of the ASR gel, previously formed in mortar specimens, after they are immersed in LiOH solution, using backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, associated with length change measurement of the mortar prisms. The intrusion of lithium ions into mortar specimens containing a reactive aggregate could arrest their further expansion within a relatively short time after immersion in 0.50 N LiOH solution. The alkali ions incorporated in most ASR gels, located not far away from interfaces between the cement paste and reactive aggregate particles, appear to be replaced by the lithium ions supplied from the solution. However, the ASR gel within the reacted aggregate particles did not appear to have been affected by the lithium ions

  8. Shear capacity of ASR damaged structures – in-depth analysis of some in-situ shear tests on bridge slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Gustenhoff; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) on the shear capacity for concrete slabs without shear reinforcement. An experimental full-scale in-situ program consisting of four slabs from a bridge (Vosnæsvej) has been carried out and the results have been published in ref. [1......] with the principal author of this paper as co-author. After the experiments, a detailed measurement of the test specimens was conducted. Based on these measurements a thorough analysis of the experimental results was carried out and evaluated by a plastic model for shear capacity, Crack Sliding Model (CSM...

  9. Effect of Alkali-Silica Reaction on Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Structural Members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Saouma, Victor [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Le Pape, Yann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) was discovered in the early 40s by Stanton (1940) of the California Division of Highways. Since, it has been recognized as a major degradation mechanism for concrete dams and transportation infrastructures. Sometimes described as the ’cancer of concrete’, this internal swelling mechanism causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. There are no known economically viable solutions applicable to massive concrete to prevent the reaction once initiated. The e ciency of the mitigation strategies for ASR subjected structures is limited. Several cases of ASR in nuclear generating stations have been disclosed in Japan (Takatura et al. 2005), Canada at Gentilly 2 NPP (Tcherner and Aziz 2009) 1, and more recently, in the United States for which the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Information Notice (IN) 2011-20, ’Concrete Degradation by Alkali Silica Reaction,’ on November 18, 2011, to provide the industry with information related to the ASR identified at Seabrook. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR degradation can be visually detected and that numerous non nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) have already experienced ASR in a large majority of the States (e.g., Department of Transportation survey reported by Touma (Touma 2000)), the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed in the perspective of license renewal and long-term operation beyond 60 years. The aim of this report is to perform an extensive parametric series of 3D nonlinear finite element analyses of three di erent “beam-like” geometries, including two di erent depths, three di erent types of boundary conditions, and four other parameters: namely, the ASR volumetric expansion, the reinforcement ratio, the loss of elastic modulus induced by ASR and the loss of tensile strength caused by ASR.

  10. Assesment of Severely ASR Damaged Bridges: From Diagnosis to Structural Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Hansen, Søren Gustenhoff; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2016-01-01

    documented. The majority of the experimental data are based on relatively small scale laboratory specimens accelerated by various exposure conditions. Research on assessment and influence of severely ASR deterioration on the material properties and residual load carrying capacity of real-life structures...... is unfortunately limited. This paper presents an overview and discussion of the Danish experiences with assessment of the residual load carrying capacity of severely non-shear reinforced ASR damaged bridges. The discussion is supported by experimental data acquired from large scale in-situ tests of three severely...

  11. Concrete alkali-silica reaction and nuclear radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki

    2008-01-01

    The deterioration of concrete by alkali-silica reaction of aggregates (ASR) and the effect of nuclear radiations on the ASR have been reviewed based on our studies on the mechanism of ASR and the effect of nuclear radiations on the resistivity of minerals to alkaline solution. It has been found that the ASR is initiated by the attack of alkaline solution in concrete to silicious aggregates to convert them into hydrated alkali silicate. The consumption of alkali hydroxide by the aggregates induces the dissolution of Ca 2+ ions into the solution. The alkali silicate surrounding the aggregates then reacts with Ca 2+ ions to convert to insoluble tight and rigid reaction rims. The reaction rim allows the penetration of alkaline solution but prevents the leakage of viscous alkali silicate, so that alkali silicate generated afterward is accumulated in the aggregate to give an expansive pressure enough for cracking the aggregate and the surrounding concrete. The effect of nuclear radiation on the reactivity of quartz and plagioclase, a part of major minerals composing volcanic rocks as popular aggregates, to alkaline solution has been examined for clarifying whether nuclear radiations accelerates the ASR. It has been found that the irradiation of these minerals converts them into alkali-reactive amorphous ones. The radiation dose for plagioclase is as low as 10 8 Gy, which suggests that the ASR of concrete surrounding nuclear reactors is possible to be accelerated by nuclear radiation. (author)

  12. The effects of supplementary cementitious materials on alkali-silica reaction : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) has controlled alkali-silica : reaction (ASR) for more than 70 years through the use of selected aggregates. : Sand and gravel sources had to be tested using Kansas Test Method KTMR- : 23 (1999), Wetting...

  13. Reactive transport impacts on recovered freshwater quality during multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW-)ASR in a brackish heterogeneous aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Koen G.; Hartog, Niels; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    The use of multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in brackish aquifers can significantly improve the recovery efficiency (RE) of unmixed injected water. The water quality changes by reactive transport processes in a field MPPW-ASR system and their

  14. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  15. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  16. Effect of alkali–silica reaction on the shear strength of reinforced concrete structural members. A numerical and statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouma, Victor E.; Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad Amin [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Le Pape, Yann, E-mail: lepapeym@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Balaji, Rajagopalan [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Alkali–silica reaction (ASR) affects reinforced structures shear strength. • Statistical analysis indicates large scattering of post-ASR strength losses/gains. • Competitive structural and materials mechanisms affect the residual shear strength. - Abstract: The residual structural shear resistance of concrete members without shear reinforcement and subject to alkali–aggregate reaction (ASR) is investigated by finite element analysis. A parametric numerical study of 648 analyses considering various structural members’ geometries, boundary conditions, ASR-induced losses of materials properties, ASR expansions and reinforcement ratios is conducted. As a result of competitive mechanisms (e.g., ASR-induced prestressing caused by the longitudinal reinforcement) and loss of concrete materials properties, important scatter in terms of gain or loss of shear strength is observed: about 50% of the studied configurations lead to a degradation of structural performance. The range of variation in terms of post-ASR shear resistance is extremely scattered, in particular, when ASR results in out-of-plane expansion only. Influencing factors are derived by two methods: (i) visual inspection of boxplots and probability distributions, and (ii) information criteria within multiple-linear regression analysis.

  17. A smartphone-based ASR data collection tool for under-resourced languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Vries, NJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available collection strategies, highlighting some of the salient issues pertaining to collecting ASR data for under-resourced languages. We then describe the development of a smartphone-based data collection tool, Woefzela, which is designed to function in a...

  18. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by

  19. The pedagogical effectiveness of ASR-based computer assisted pronunciation training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neri, A.

    2007-01-01

    Computer Assisted Pronunciation Training (CAPT) systems with Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology have become increasingly popular to train pronunciation in the second language (L2). The advantage of these systems is the provision of a self-paced, stress-free type of training with automatic

  20. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  1. Isolation of a novel abscisic acid stress ripening ( OsASR ) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of a novel abscisic acid stress ripening ( OsASR ) gene from rice and analysis of the response of this gene to abiotic stresses. ... The cDNA with the whole open reading frame (ORF) was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 284 amino acid residues with ...

  2. Automated Detection of Alkali-silica Reaction in Concrete using Linear Array Ultrasound Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Ezell, N Dianne Bull [ORNL; Clayton, Joseph A [ORNL; Baba, Justin S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a chemical reaction in either concrete or mortar between hydroxyl ions of the alkalis (sodium and potassium) from hydraulic cement (or other sources), and certain siliceous minerals present in some aggregates. The reaction product, an alkali-silica gel, is hygroscopic having a tendency to absorb water and swell, which under certain circumstances, leads to abnormal expansion and cracking of the concrete. This phenomenon affects the durability and performance of concrete structures severely since it can cause significant loss of mechanical properties. Developing reliable methods and tools that can evaluate the degree of the ASR damage in existing structures, so that informed decisions can be made toward mitigating ASR progression and damage, is important to the long term operation of nuclear power plants especially if licenses are extended beyond 60 years. This paper examines an automated method of determining the extent of ASR damage in fabricated concrete specimens.

  3. Novel synthesis and applications of Thiomer solidification for heavy metals immobilization in hazardous ASR/ISW thermal residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jin Woong; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Park, Hung Suck

    2016-03-01

    The present paper reports the novel synthesis and application of Thiomer solidification for heavy metal immobilization in hazardous automobile shredder residues and industrial solid waste (ASR/ISW) thermal residues. The word Thiomer is a combination of the prefix of a sulfur-containing compound "Thio" and the suffix of "Polymer" meaning a large molecule compound of many repeated subunits. To immobilize heavy metals, either ASR/ISW thermal residues (including bottom and fly ash) was mixed well with Thiomer and heated at 140°C. After Thiomer solidification, approximately 91-100% heavy metal immobilization was achieved. The morphology and mineral phases of the Thiomer-solidified ASR/ISW thermal residue were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR/ISW thermal residue surface decreased and the sulfur mass percent increased. XRD indicated that the main fraction of the enclosed/bound materials on the ASR/ISW residue contained sulfur associated crystalline complexes. The Thiomer solidified process could convert the heavy metal compounds into highly insoluble metal sulfides and simultaneously encapsulate the ASR/ISW thermal residue. These results show that the proposed method can be applied to the immobilization of ASR/ISW hazardous ash involving heavy metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AsrR is an oxidative stress sensing regulator modulating Enterococcus faecium opportunistic traits, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lebreton

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator. The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial

  5. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS: utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1, in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD.Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ and executive functioning (BDEFS.Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47, and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66. The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63 and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74. Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores.Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current

  6. Petrography study on altered flint aggregate by alkali-silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulteel, D.; Rafai, N.; Degrugilliers, P.; Garcia-Diaz, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of our study is to improve our understanding of an alkali-silica reaction (ASR) via petrography. We used a chemical concrete subsystem: flint aggregate, portlandite and KOH. The altered flint aggregate is followed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after acid treatment at different intervals. After acid treatment, the observations showed an increase in aggregate porosity and revealed internal degradation of the aggregate. This degradation created amorphous zones. Before acid treatment, the analyses on polished sections by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) enabled visualization of K + and Ca 2+ penetration into the aggregate. The appearance of amorphous zones and penetration of positive ions into the aggregate are correlated with the increase in the molar fraction of silanol sites. This degradation is specific to the alkali-silica reaction

  7. Workload management and geographic disorientation in aviation incidents: A review of the ASRS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Henry P.; Tham, Mingpo; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident reports are reviewed in two related areas: pilots' failures to appropriately manage tasks, and breakdowns in geographic orientation. Examination of 51 relevant reports on task management breakdowns revealed that altitude busts and inappropriate runway usee were the most frequently reported consequences. Task management breakdowns appeared to occur at all levels of expertise, and prominent causal factors were related to breakdowns in crew communications, over-involvement with the flight management system and, for small (general aviation) aircraft, preoccupation with weather. Analysis of the 83 cases of geographic disorientation suggested that these too occurred at all levels of pilot experience. With regard to causal factors, a majority was related to poor cockpit resource management, in which inattention led to a loss of geographic awareness. Other leading causes were related to poor weather and poor decision making. The potential of the ASRS database for contributing to research and design issues is addressed.

  8. Residual shear strength of a severely ASR-damaged flat slab bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2018-01-01

    moment carried by the beams. For the beams tested in asymmetric four-point bending, an increase in the shear span-to-effective depth ratio resulted in a decrease in the measured shear strength. The measured shear strengths were compared with calculated shear strengths using the Eurocode 2. Calculations...... based on the compressive strength of drilled cores were rather conservative at low shear span-to-effective depth ratios. However, the conservatism of the Eurocode 2 decreased with increasing shear span-to-effective depth ratios. With the inclusion of ASR-induced pre-stress effect, the calculated shear...... strengths correlated better with the measured shear strengths. The test results indicated that the ASR-induced pre-stress effect can, to some extent, compensate for the significant loss in material properties....

  9. Number pronunciation in a multilingual environment and implications for an ASR system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molapo, R

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available . Mbogho, “Web-based corpus acquisition for Swahili language modelling,” in 3rd workshop on Spoken Languages Technolo- gies for Under-resourced languages, 2012, pp. 42–47. [8] T. Schlippe, C. Zhu, J. Gebhardt, and T. Schultz, “Text normalization based... multilingual environment and implications for an ASR system Raymond Molapo Human Language Technologies Research Group Meraka Institute CSIR, South Africa Multilingual Speech Technologies Group North-West University Vanderbijlpark South Africa Email: rmolapo...

  10. Trajectory Analysis of Copper and Glass Particles in Electrostatic Separation for the Recycling of ASR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-uk Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Automobile-shredder-residue (ASR recycling techniques have been widely applied for improving the total recycling rate of end-of-life vehicles. In this study, to obtain useful information for predicting or improving ASR-separation efficiency, trajectory analyses of conductors (copper and non-conductors (glass were performed using a lab-scale induction electrostatic separator. The copper-wire trajectories obtained showed a good agreement depending significantly on the electric field strength and particle size. The observed copper-wire trajectories showed consistent congruity with the coarse-particles simulation (0.5 and 0.25 mm. The observed fine-particles (0.06 mm trajectory was deflected toward the (− attractive electrode, owing to the charge density effects due to the particle characteristics and relative humidity. This results in superior separation performance because more copper enters the conductor products bin. The actual dielectric-glass trajectory was deflected toward the (− attractive electrode, thus showing characteristics similar to conductive-particle characteristics. Through analyses conducted using a stereoscopic microscope, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscope, we found heterogeneous materials (fine ferrous particles and conductive organics on the glass surface. This demonstrates the separation-efficiency decrease for non-ferrous metals during electrostatic separation in the recycling of ASR. Future work should include a pretreatment process for eliminating impurities from the glass and advanced trajectory-simulation processes.

  11. The burning of automotive shredder residue (ASR) using fluidized bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelha, Pedro; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Lopes, H.; Cabrita, I. [INETI/DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility and the environmental performance of FBC technology to burn a fluff fraction of an ASR from a Portuguese vehicle dismantling plant. The combustion studies were carried out on the pilot installation at INETI. The results obtained suggest that the Portuguese ASR has a very high mineral content (70%) and the combustion had to be sustained with the use of an auxiliary fuel (propane); the combustion efficiency was very high; the gaseous pollutants could easily be controlled below the permitted limits and sulphur and chlorine emissions were low. ASR could give rise to fluidising problems due to the accumulation of ashes in the bed; therefore, it is essential that a more efficient metal separation method be used during dismantling process; there was an enrichment of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn) on ashes retained in the cyclones, specially in the smaller particle size range (less than 10 m); however, the ashes did not have a tendency for leaching.

  12. Effect of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) on recovered stormwater quality variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D W; Peeters, L; Vanderzalm, J; Barry, K; Gonzalez, D

    2017-06-15

    Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is increasingly being considered as a means of reusing urban stormwater to supplement available urban water resources. Storage of stormwater in an aquifer has been shown to affect water quality but it has also been claimed that storage will also decrease the stormwater quality variability making for improved predictability and management. This study is the first to document the changes in stormwater quality variability as a result of subsurface storage at four full scale ASR sites using advanced statistical techniques. New methods to examine water quality are required as data is often highly left censored and so traditional measures of variability such as the coefficient of variation are inappropriate. It was observed that for some water quality parameters (most notably E. coli) there was a marked improvement of water quality and a significant decrease in variability at all sites. This means that aquifer storage prior to engineered treatment systems may be advantageous in terms of system design to avoid over engineering. For other parameters such as metal(loids)s and nutrients the trend was less clear due to the numerous processes occurring during storage leading to an increase in variability, especially for geogenic metals and metalloids such as iron and arsenic. Depending upon the specific water quality parameters and end use, use of ASR may not have a dampening effect on stormwater quality variability. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling Time-Dependent Behavior of Concrete Affected by Alkali Silica Reaction in Variable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Di Luzio, Giovanni; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2017-04-28

    Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches.

  14. The effect of alkali-aggregate reaction on concrete bridge structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows contemporary issues related to unfavorable effects of concrete alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR on concrete bridge structures (CBS. Although AAR unfavorable effects on CBS were identified in 1930s, it was much later that AAR was acknowledged as one of the most pronounced deterioration processes in concrete that results in damages to concrete structures. There are two basic forms of AAR: alkali-silica reaction (ASR and alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR. Compared to ACR, ASR is more prominent, especially in certain geographic parts of the world. Damages to concrete caused by the ASR have negative effect primarily on usability and durability of CBS, what is followed by the decrease in load bearing capacity of structural components and reliability of the whole structure, shortening of service life (SL and costly repairs. For CBS, simultaneous occurrence of ASR and other degradation processes in concrete, such as those caused by the presence of moisture, water, temperature variations and use of deicing salt during winter, are especially damaging. Based on review of the most relevant literature, this paper is focused on mechanisms and mechanisms factors of the ASR, related contemporary research and reliability design guidelines for CBS that are based on prevention of the initiation and development of ASR.

  15. Validity and Reliability of Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Thai Version (ASRS-V1.1 TH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatrungrit, Komsan; Putthisri, Suwannee; Hongsanguansri, Sirichai; Wisajan, Pattaraporn; Jullagate, Sudawan

    2017-08-25

    The adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Thai version (ASRS-V1.1) (18 items) is a questionnaire for screening adult ADHD. To test the validity and reliability of the 18-question ASRS-V1.1 Thai version (ASRS-V1.1 TH) as a screening tool for adult ADHD. The original 18-question ASRS-V1.1 version was translated into Thai. The process was composed of forward-translation, synthesis of the translation, and back translation. Cross cultural adaptation, field testing, and final adjustment were completed consecutively. The 18-question ASRS-V1.1 TH were sent to 1,500 parents of kindergarten and elementary school students in Bangkok, Thailand. The diagnostic interview was randomly selected for 50 parents from the positive result group and 50 parents from the negative result group. The clinical interview for confirming diagnosis was run by 3 psychiatrists who were blinded to the results and used DSM-5 ADHD criteria for diagnosis. The 18-question ASRS-V1.1 TH had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92: Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 for inattentive scale, Cronbach's alpha = 0.84 for hyperactive / impulsive scale). For testing the criteria validity, the questionnaire has an adequate. The AUC from the first 6 questions was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-0.92) while from the 18 questions was 0.71(95% CI: 0.55-0.86). The 18-question ASRS-V1.1TH is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure for screening adult ADHD in Thai clinical samples, especially the first 6 questions of the questionnaire.

  16. The SbASR-1 gene cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bhavanath; Lal, Sanjay; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Yadav, Sweta Kumari; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2012-12-01

    Salinity severely affects plant growth and development. Plants evolved various mechanisms to cope up stress both at molecular and cellular levels. Halophytes have developed better mechanism to alleviate the salt stress than glycophytes, and therefore, it is advantageous to study the role of different genes from halophytes. Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte, which grows luxuriantly in the salty marshes in the coastal areas. Earlier, we have isolated SbASR-1 (abscisic acid stress ripening-1) gene from S. brachiata using cDNA subtractive hybridisation library. ASR-1 genes are abscisic acid (ABA) responsive, whose expression level increases under abiotic stresses, injury, during fruit ripening and in pollen grains. The SbASR-1 transcript showed up-regulation under salt stress conditions. The SbASR-1 protein contains 202 amino acids of 21.01-kDa molecular mass and has 79 amino acid long signatures of ABA/WDS gene family. It has a maximum identity (73 %) with Solanum chilense ASR-1 protein. The SbASR-1 has a large number of disorder-promoting amino acids, which make it an intrinsically disordered protein. The SbASR-1 gene was over-expressed under CaMV 35S promoter in tobacco plant to study its physiological functions under salt stress. T(0) transgenic tobacco seeds showed better germination and seedling growth as compared to wild type (Wt) in a salt stress condition. In the leaf tissues of transgenic lines, Na(+) and proline contents were significantly lower, as compared to Wt plant, under salt treatment, suggesting that transgenic plants are better adapted to salt stress.

  17. The unipolar ASR : Viable option in unsalvageable femoral head conditions in the young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya SKS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of unsalvageable femoral head conditions in the young patient has remained an unresolved dilemma. Articular surface replacement of the hip has recently made some headway in terms of providing near-normal hip joint mechanics and function. However, this surgery has been limited to early stages of arthritis only with reasonable maintenance of head-neck congruity and morphology. Femoral neck fractures, osteonecrosis with large segment collapse, advanced arthritis with femoral incongruity, etc are traditional contraindications to the resurfacing technique. Methods: We present here a report on our series of 20 cases of unsalvageable femoral heads in young patients (age range, 27 to 52yrs, over a twelve month period (Aug 2004 to Jul 2005, treated with the unipolar ASR prosthesis. Fifteen patients (two had bilateral hip pathology had primary or secondary arthritis (degenerative, post-traumatic, ankylosing spondylitis and post-avascular necrosis while three had old operated femoral neck fractures. All patients underwent hip replacement surgery using the Unipolar ASR prosthesis. Results: Clinical and radiological results at 6-month follow up have been very encouraging and warrant further study. At an average of 4 months post-operatively, patients were able to squat, sit on the ground and perform light sporting activities. Conclusions: The Unipolar ASR prosthesis is an extension of the articular resurfacing technique employing similar principles (large size bearings, metal-on-metal interfaces, and has incorporated the advantages of the uncemented technique. We propose that this technique be more frequently used so as to brighten the prognosis of the young active patient with unsalvageable hip conditions, especially in the Asian scenario.

  18. The limitations of data perturbation for ASR of learner data in under-resourced languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, Jacob AC

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available receive their training in English or one of the other dominant languages and who start their careers in rural areas therefore often work in communities where people communicate in a language that they are not proficient in. The most prominent example....05. IV. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN A. ASR system We trained phone recognition systems using the open source Kaldi toolkit and followed a training recipe based on the Wall Street Journal and TIMIT example recipes [11]. In particular, we used a setup of position...

  19. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by mass of cement as slag); - or the use of portland fly ash cement (containing at least 25% by mass of cement as fly ash). If one of these cement types is used, then the potential reactivity of the a...

  20. Optimal Scheduling for Retrieval Jobs in Double-Deep AS/RS by Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the optimal scheduling of retrieval jobs for double-deep type Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS in the Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS used in modern industrial production. Three types of evolutionary algorithms, the Genetic Algorithm (GA, the Immune Genetic Algorithm (IGA, and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, are implemented to obtain the optimal assignments. The objective is to minimize the working distance, that is, the shortest retrieval time travelled by the Storage and Retrieval (S/R machine. Simulation results and comparisons show the advantages and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  1. Solidification/stabilization of ASR fly ash using Thiomer material: Optimization of compressive strength and heavy metals leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jin Woong; Choi, Angelo Earvin Sy; Park, Hung Suck

    2017-12-01

    Optimization studies of a novel and eco-friendly construction material, Thiomer, was investigated in the solidification/stabilization of automobile shredded residue (ASR) fly ash. A D-optimal mixture design was used to evaluate and optimize maximum compressive strength and heavy metals leaching by varying Thiomer (20-40wt%), ASR fly ash (30-50wt%) and sand (20-40wt%). The analysis of variance was utilized to determine the level of significance of each process parameters and interactions. The microstructure of the solidified materials was taken from a field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that confirmed successful Thiomer solidified ASR fly ash due to reduced pores and gaps in comparison with an untreated ASR fly ash. The X-ray diffraction detected the enclosed materials on the ASR fly ash primarily contained sulfur associated crystalline complexes. Results indicated the optimal conditions of 30wt% Thiomer, 30wt% ASR fly ash and 40wt% sand reached a compressive strength of 54.9MPa. For the optimum results in heavy metals leaching, 0.0078mg/LPb, 0.0260mg/L Cr, 0.0007mg/LCd, 0.0020mg/L Cu, 0.1027mg/L Fe, 0.0046mg/L Ni and 0.0920mg/L Zn were leached out, being environmentally safe due to being substantially lower than the Korean standard leaching requirements. The results also showed that Thiomer has superiority over the commonly used Portland cement asa binding material which confirmed its potential usage as an innovative approach to simultaneously synthesize durable concrete and satisfactorily pass strict environmental regulations by heavy metals leaching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Base voltammetric characterization of phenylazide modified deoxycytidine - the potential DNA redox label enabling its post-synthetic modifications by "click-reactions"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daňhel, Aleš; Trošanová, Zuzana; Balintová, Jana; Havran, Luděk; Hocek, Michal; Fojta, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 140-141 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /65./. 09.09.2013-13.09.2013, Tatranské Matliare] R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP206/12/G151; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040901 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0019 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : DNA redox label * click-reaction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  3. Characterization of alkali silica reaction gels using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, C.; Muñoz, J.F.; Arnold, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Raman spectroscopy to characterize amorphous materials makes this technique ideal to study alkali silica reaction (ASR) gels. The structure of several synthetic ASR gels was thoroughly characterized using Raman Spectroscopy. The results were validated with additional techniques such as Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The Raman spectra were found to have two broad bands in the 800 to 1200 cm −1 range and the 400 to 700 cm −1 range indicating the amorphous nature of the gel. Important information regarding the silicate polymerization was deduced from both of these spectral regions. An increase in alkali content of the gels caused a depolymerization in the silicate framework which manifested in the Raman spectra as a gradual shift of predominant peaks in both regions. The trends in silicate depolymerization were in agreement with results from a NMR spectroscopy study on similar synthetic ASR gels.

  4. Facile and efficient room temperature solid state reaction enabled synthesis of antimony nanoparticles embedded within reduced graphene oxide for enhanced sodium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiukui; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Xiaofang; Shi, Hongxia; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Wei, Shaohua; Zhou, Yiming

    2018-06-01

    Herein, a very simple and cost-effective solid state reaction method is employed to obtain, for the first time, the antimony nanoparticles embedded within reduced graphene oxide matrices (designated as Sb/rGO). By directly grinding antimony chloride and sodium hydroxide together at room temperature in the presence of graphene oxide (GO), Sb4O5Cl2 precursor was quickly obtained, which is evenly incorporated in the graphene oxide matrices. After subsequent chemical reduction by NaBH4, the Sb/rGO composite was successfully synthesized. The as-prepared Sb/rGO composite consists of uniform Sb nanoparticles of sub-20 nm, all of which have been wrapped in and protected by the rGO matrices. The Sb nanoparticles serve as a sufficient sodium ion reservoir while the rGO matrices provide highly efficient pathways for transport of sodium ions and electrons. Moreover, the volume expansion of Sb during sodiation can be buffered in the rGO matrices. As a result, the Sb/rGO composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), including an enhanced cycling stability with a highly reversible charge capacity of 455 mA h g-1 after 45 cycles at 100 mA g-1, and a coulombic efficiency exceeding 98% during cycling. The findings in the present work pave the way to not only synthesize the designated promising electrode materials for high performance SIBs, but also thoroughly understand the solid-state reaction.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Adult Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and its short scale in accordance with DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    We developed the Japanese version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and report its psychometric properties. The ASRS-J and other questionnaires were administered to 48 adults with ADHD, 46 adults with non-ADHD psychiatric disorders, 96 non-clinical adults, and 894 university students. ADHD diagnoses were made using the Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult ADHD, which is compatible with the DSM-5. The ASRS-J, its subscales, and the short form, all had Cronbach's α values of around 0.80. Total scores on the ASRS-J and the ASRS-J-6 were highly correlated with readministration after a two-week interval. The total and 18 individual item scores in the ASRS-J were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the other three groups. ASRS-J scores were correlated with scores on the Japanese version of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report subscales (0.59≤r≤0.77), with one exception. ASRS-J scores were also correlated (albeit more weakly; r=0.38) with Beck Depression Inventory-II total scores. Employing optimal cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 are all above 0.69. The ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 showed acceptable psychometric properties, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation on lithium migration for treating alkali-silica reaction affected concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva De Souza, L.M.; Polder, R.B.; Copuroglu, O.

    2014-01-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is one of the major deterioration mechanisms that affect numerous concrete structures worldwide. During the reaction, hydroxyl and alkali (sodium and potassium ) ions react with certain siliceous compounds in the aggregate, forming a hygroscopic gel. The gel absorbs

  7. Identification of critical residues in loop E in the 5-HT3ASR binding site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthalagi Mani

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT3R is a member of a superfamily of ligand gated ion channels. All members of this family share a large degree of sequence homology and presumably significant structural similarity. A large number of studies have explored the structure-function relationships of members of this family, particularly the nicotinic and GABA receptors. This information can be utilized to gain additional insights into specific structural and functional features of other receptors in this family. Results Thirteen amino acids in the mouse 5-HT3ASR that correspond to the putative E binding loop of the nicotinic α7 receptor were chosen for mutagenesis. Due to the presence of a highly conserved glycine in this region, it has been suggested that this binding loop is comprised of a hairpin turn and may form a portion of the ligand-binding site in this ion channel family. Mutation of the conserved glycine (G147 to alanine eliminated binding of the 5-HT3R antagonist [3H]granisetron. Three tyrosine residues (Y140, Y142 and Y152 also significantly altered the binding of 5-HT3R ligands. Mutations in neighboring residues had little or no effect on binding of these ligands to the 5-HT3ASR. Conclusion Our data supports a role for the putative E-loop region of the 5-HT3R in the binding of 5-HT, mCPBG, d-tc and lerisetron. 5-HT and mCPBG interact with Y142, d-tc with Y140 and lerisetron with both Y142 and Y152. Our data also provides support for the hypothesis that this region of the receptor is present in a loop structure.

  8. Evaluation of Vali Asr (aj hospital effluent for irrigation of the green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Shahryari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recycling of sewage in our country can be one of the ways to overcome the problem of water shortage. The aim of this paper is Evaluation of Valli-e-asr hospital effluent for irrigation of the green. Materials and Methods: During the 12 months of the project since January 2009, twelve samples of the hospital water were selected. 35 samples were taken both from raw sewage and refined effluent with the average frequency of two samples every month. Various physical, chemical, and biological factors were measured on the basis of the standard method book (AWWA. The gathered data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software (version 15 and paired T test at the significant level . Results: The percentages of separating some parameters such as BOD, TSS, COD, and MPS in the exiting effluent were 63.56%, 44.9%, 42.9%, and 89.97% respectively and those of the parameters PH, Mg, SO4, and SAR were 7.52mg/l, 66.82 mg/l, 382.14 mg/l, and 0.54 mg/l respectively. The amount of parameters BOD, COD, TSS, MPN, EC, CL, TDS, and NA% were 165.14mg/l, 887.657mg/l, 784.4286mg/l, 1856857 MPN, 4137.97µs/cm, 999mg/l, 2866.57mg/l, and 75.11% respectively. Conclusion: The sewage refinery of Valli-e-asr hospital does not produce a favorable outcome and some of the parameters of the effluent such as PH, Mg, SO4, and SAR are in accord with the standards of reusing in agriculture and irrigation but many of the necessary parameters do not correspond with the necessary standards for this task.

  9. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  10. Understanding the electron-stimulated surface reactions of organometallic complexes to enable design of precursors for electron beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Julie A.; Rosenberg, Samantha G.; Barclay, Michael; Fairbrother, D. Howard [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemistry, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wu, Yung-Chien; McElwee-White, Lisa [University of Florida, Department of Chemistry, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Standard practice in electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) is to use precursors designed for thermal processes, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD). However, organometallic precursors that yield pure metal deposits in CVD often create EBID deposits with high levels of organic contamination. This contamination negatively impacts the deposit's properties (e.g., by increasing resistivity or decreasing catalytic activity) and severely limits the range of potential applications for metal-containing EBID nanostructures. To provide the information needed for the rational design of precursors specifically for EBID, we have employed an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) surface science approach to identify the elementary reactions of organometallic precursors during EBID. These UHV studies have demonstrated that the initial electron-induced deposition of the surface-bound organometallic precursors proceeds through desorption of one or more of the ligands present in the parent compound. In specific cases, this deposition step has been shown to proceed via dissociative electron attachment, involving low-energy secondary electrons generated by the interaction of the primary beam with the substrate. Electron beam processing of the surface-bound species produced in the initial deposition event usually causes decomposition of the residual ligands, creating nonvolatile fragments. This process is believed to be responsible for a significant fraction of the organic contaminants typically observed in EBID nanostructures. A few ligands (e.g., halogens) can, however, desorb during electron beam processing while other ligands (e.g., PF{sub 3}, CO) can thermally desorb if elevated substrate temperatures are used during deposition. Using these general guidelines for reactivity, we propose some design strategies for EBID precursors. The ultimate goal is to minimize organic contamination and thus overcome the key bottleneck for fabrication of relatively pure EBID nanostructures. (orig.)

  11. The influence of DOM and microbial processes on arsenic release from karst during ASR operations in the Floridan Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The mobilization of subsurface As poses a serious threat to human health, particularly in a region such as Florida where population is heavily dependent on highly porous karstic aquifers for drinking water. Injection water used in aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) or aquifer recharge (AR) operations is commonly high in dissolved organic matter (DOM) and OM can also be present in the subsurface carbonate rock. Using batch incubation experiments, this study examined the role of core preservation methods, as well as the influence of labile and more refractory DOM on the mobilization of As from carbonate rock. Incubation experiments used sealed reaction vessels with preserved and homogenized core materials collected via coring the Suwannee Formation in southwest Florida and treatment additions consisting of 1) source water (SW) enriched in sterilized soil DOM, 2) SW enriched in soil DOM and microbes, and 3) SW enriched in sodium acetate. During an initial equilibration phase in native groundwater (NGW) with low dissolved oxygen (DO; Phase 1), we found the greatest As release of the whole incubation. In the beginning of Phase 2 (N2 headspace) in which NGW was replaced with treatment solutions, there was little As release except in the vessel with Na-acetate added, which also had the lowest ORP. At the start of Phase 3, when incubations were exposed to air, most vessels saw more ion (including As) release into solution. Vessel with Na-acetate had less As release in Phase 3 than in Phase 2. During all experimental phases, treatments of DOM or microbe additions had no apparent effect on the amount of As release. The core materials was found contain significant amount of indigenous DOM (about 8 g OC/kg core) which was released during the incubation so DOC concentrations displayed no clear pattern among different treatments. At least three abiotic As mobilization mechanisms may play a role in As released during different stages of the experiment. Desorption of As from iron

  12. Automated Storage Retrieval System (ASRS) Role Towards Achievement of Safety Objective and Safety Culture in Radioactive Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hakiman Mohd Yusoff; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin; Muhammad, Z.A.; Nur Azna Mahmud; Norfazlina Zainal Abidin

    2012-01-01

    Waste Technology Development Centre (WasTeC) has been awarded with quality management system ISO 9001:2000 in June 2004 or now known as ISO 9001:2008. The scope of the unit's ISO certification is radioactive waste management and storage of radioactive material. To meet the objectives and requirements ISO 9001:2008, WasTeC has started a project known as Automated Storage and Retrieval System (ASRS). ASRS is a computing controlled method for automatically depositing and retrieving waste from defined locations. The system is used to replace the existing process of storage and retrieval of radioactive waste at storage facility at block 33.The main objective of this project is to reduced the radiation exposure to the worker and potential forklift accident occur during storage and retrieval of the radioactive waste. By using the ASRS system, WasTeC/ Nuclear Malaysia can provide a safe storage of radioactive waste and the use of this system can eliminate the repeat handling and can improve productivity. (author)

  13. Quantitative diagnosis and prognosis framework for concrete degradation due to alkali-silica reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Neal, Kyle; Nath, Paromita; Bao, Yanqing; Cai, Guowei; Orme, Peter; Adams, Douglas; Agarwal, Vivek

    2017-02-01

    This research is seeking to develop a probabilistic framework for health diagnosis and prognosis of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants that are subjected to physical, chemical, environment, and mechanical degradation. The proposed framework consists of four elements: monitoring, data analytics, uncertainty quantification, and prognosis. The current work focuses on degradation caused by ASR (alkali-silica reaction). Controlled concrete specimens with reactive aggregate are prepared to develop accelerated ASR degradation. Different monitoring techniques — infrared thermography, digital image correlation (DIC), mechanical deformation measurements, nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy (NIRAS), and vibro-acoustic modulation (VAM) — are studied for ASR diagnosis of the specimens. Both DIC and mechanical measurements record the specimen deformation caused by ASR gel expansion. Thermography is used to compare the thermal response of pristine and damaged concrete specimens and generate a 2-D map of the damage (i.e., ASR gel and cracked area), thus facilitating localization and quantification of damage. NIRAS and VAM are two separate vibration-based techniques that detect nonlinear changes in dynamic properties caused by the damage. The diagnosis results from multiple techniques are then fused using a Bayesian network, which also helps to quantify the uncertainty in the diagnosis. Prognosis of ASR degradation is then performed based on the current state of degradation obtained from diagnosis, by using a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) model for ASR degradation. This comprehensive approach of monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty-quantified diagnosis and prognosis will facilitate the development of a quantitative, risk informed framework that will support continuous assessment and risk management of structural health and performance.

  14. Ternary CaCu4P2-type pnictides AAg4Pn2 (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Khatun, Mansura; Scott Mullen, C.; Mar, Arthur

    2012-08-01

    Four ternary pnictides AAg4Pn2 (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb) were prepared by reactions of the elements at 850 °C and their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These silver-containing pnictides AAg4Pn2 adopt the trigonal CaCu4P2-type structure (Pearson symbol hR21, space group R3¯m, Z=3; a=4.5555(6) Å, c=24.041(3) Å for SrAg4As2; a=4.5352(2) Å, c=23.7221(11) Å for EuAg4As2; a=4.7404(4) Å, c=25.029(2) Å for SrAg4Sb2; a=4.7239(3) Å, c=24.689(2) Å for EuAg4Sb2), which can be derived from the trigonal CaAl2Si2-type structure of the isoelectronic zinc-containing pnictides AZn2Pn2 by insertion of additional Ag atoms into trigonal planar sites within [M2Pn2]2- slabs built up of edge-sharing tetrahedra. Band structure calculations on SrAg4As2 and SrAg4Sb2 revealed that these charge-balanced Zintl phases actually exhibit no gap at the Fermi level and are predicted to be semimetals.

  15. Oxidative C-H/C-H Cross-Coupling Reactions between N-Acylanilines and Benzamides Enabled by a Cp*-Free RhCl3/TFA Catalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jingsong; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Luoqiang; Lan, Jingbo; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Fulin; Wei, Wenlong

    2018-06-03

    Using the dual chelation-assisted strategy, a completely regiocontrolled oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling reaction between an N-acylaniline and a benzamide has been accomplished for the first time, which enables a step-economical and highly efficient pathway to 2-amino-2'-carboxybiaryl scaffolds from readily available substrates. A Cp*-free RhCl3/TFA catalytic system has been developed to replace the generally used [Cp*RhCl2]2/AgSbF6 (Cp* = pentamethyl cyclopentadienyl) in oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling reactions between two (hetero)arenes. The RhCl3/TFA system avoids the use of expensive Cp* ligand and AgSbF6. As an illustrative example, the protocol developed herein greatly streamlines access to naturally occurring benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid oxynitidine in an excellent overall yield. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Investigation of structural integrity for turbine generator foundation affected by alkali-silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryo Fujimoto; Hiroshi Shimizu; Hisashi Sekimoto; Yuichi Watanabe; Tatsuya Ishikawa

    2005-01-01

    Turbine Generator Foundation is a reinforced concrete structure having a table deck to support equipments and columns to support the table deck. After operation of the plant, the expansion of the table deck in turbine longitudinal axis in the structure has been observed. By investigation of concrete material property, it is found that the expansion has been caused by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). In this study, we evaluate the material properties of the structure affected by ASR and safety margin of capacity of the structure by nonlinear analysis using beam element model with those material properties. (authors)

  17. Perinatal risk factors for neonatal asphyxia in Vali-e-Asr hospital, Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asphyxia is a medical condition in which placental or pulmonary gas exchange is impaired or they cease all together, typically producing a combination of progressive hypoxemia and hypercapnea. Objective: In addition to regional differences in its etiology; it is important to know its risk factors. Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study, all neonates born from May 2002 to September 2005 in Vali-e-Asr Hospital were studied. 9488 newborns were born of which 6091 of the live patients were hospitalized in NICU. 546 newborns were studied as case and control group. 260 neonates (48% were female and 286 neonates (52% were male. Among the neonates who were admitted, 182 of them were diagnosed with asphyxia and twice of them (364 newborns were selected as a control group. The variables consist of; gestational age, type of delivery, birth weight, prenatal care, pregnancy and peripartum complications and neonatal disorders. Results: Our studies showed that 35 (19.2% patients had mild asphyxia, 107 (58.8% had moderate asphyxia and 40 (22% were diagnosed as severe asphyxia. Mean maternal age was 34.23±4.29yr; (range: 23-38 yr; and mean of parity was 2±1.2; (range: 1-8. Risk factors in our study included emergent Caesarian Section, preterm labor (<37w, low birth weight (<2500g, 5 minute Apgar (less than 6, need for resuscitation, nuchal cord, impaired Biophysical Profile, neonatal anemia, and maternal infertility. Conclusion: All risk factors listed above play a role in asphyxia. The majority of these factors are avoidable by means of good perinatal care

  18. The effects of supplementary cementitious materials on alkali-silica reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) has controlled alkali-silica reaction (ASR) for more than : 70 years through the use of selected aggregates. Sand and gravel sources had to be tested using Kansas Test Method : KTMR-23 (1999), Wetting an...

  19. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Gram –negative bacilli isolated of Vali-Asr Hospital wards in Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Didgar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases are of the most important causes of mortality all around the world particular in developing countries. Recently, the most important thing that has worried medical society is antibiotic resistance. Multi-resistant gram_negative rods are important pathogens in hospitals, causing high rate of mortality.The main goal of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns among common gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients of Vali-Asr Hospital. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between the years 2010-2012 in Vali-Asr hospital in Arak. In this study 1120 specimen were examined. Bacterial strains were isolated by conventional methods from various clinical samples of patients including: blood, urine, wound, sputum, CSF, andetc.All isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion method. Results: In this study 737 specimen were positive cultures. A total of 332 isolates of Gram-negative bacilli were identified. The most frequent gram negative bacteria were isolated from urine, wound, blood, respiratory secretion and catheter. The most frequent pathogens were E.coli followed by k.pneumonia, entrobacter, p.oaeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp, citrobacter and proteus. High rate of resistance to third generation of cephalospoins & carbapenems observed amang isolates of Acintobacter spp.Prodution of extended spectrum beralactamases (ESBLS was found in 51.4% of all Gram negative bacteria. Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance, particularly multi-drug resistance is frequent among microorganisms of ValiAsr Hospital. Resistance in our country, like other countries have been shown to be increased, so it is highly recommended to prohibit unnecessary prescription of antibiotics.

  20. CORROSION LOCALISEE DES ACIERS API 5L-X52 DE LA LIGNE ASR/MP SOLLICITE EN SOL ALGERIEN

    OpenAIRE

    BENDJEBBOUR, Amina

    2011-01-01

    L'étude porte sur les défaillances par corrosion localisée dans les aciers API de grade X52 de la ligne de pipelines ASR/MP acheminant les produits pétroliers sollicités en sol corrosif après échec des systèmes de protection anticorrosion (AC) à base de liants hydrocarbonés ou encore à base d'un système en multicouche complétée par une protection cathodique.

  1. Comparison of HMM experts with MLP experts in the Full Combination Multi-Band Approach to Robust ASR

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Astrid; Morris, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we apply the Full Combination (FC) multi-band approach, which has originally been introduced in the framework of posterior-based HMM/ANN (Hidden Markov Model/Artificial Neural Network) hybrid systems, to systems in which the ANN (or Multilayer Perceptron (MLP)) is itself replaced by a Multi Gaussian HMM (MGM). Both systems represent the most widely used statistical models for robust ASR (automatic speech recognition). It is shown how the FC formula for the likelihood--based MGMs...

  2. KONSEP DESAIN MEKANISME TELESKOPIS AS/RS (AUTOMATED STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM DAN ANALISIS BEBAN PADA GUIDE RAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriansyah Febriansyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sistem penyimpanan barang semakin berkembang pemakaiannya, terutama pada industri-industri maju. Hal ini disebabkan semakin banyaknya jumlah permintaan akan barang-barang kebutuhan baik industri maupun rumah tangga. Oleh karena itulah dikembangkan sistem penyimpanan dan pengambilan barang secara otomatis yang biasa dikenal dengan AS/RS. Untuk merancang sistem penyimpanan dan pengambilan barang tersebut, perlu terlebih dahulu memilih model sistem yang digunakan. Dalam perancangan ini dipilih model Telescopic Shuttle, dengan pertimbangan lebih efisien dari sisi pemakain ruang.Untuk merancang Telescopic Shuttle menggunakan bantuan software Autodesk Inventor Professional 2015, yang kemudian dibandingkan dengan perhitungan manual tegangan serta efek defleksi terjadi.

  3. The Clinical Utility of ASRS-v1.1 for Identifying ADHD in Alcoholics Using PRISM as the Reference Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria M; Schneekloth, Terry D; Hitschfeld, Mario J; Geske, Jennifer R; Atkinson, David L; Karpyak, Victor M

    2016-05-02

    The objective was to assess the clinical utility of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) in identifying ADHD in alcoholics using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM) as the diagnostic "gold standard." We performed a secondary analysis of data from 379 treatment-seeking alcoholics who completed the ASRS-v1.1 and the ADHD module of the PRISM. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. The prevalence of ADHD was 7.7% (95% CI = [5.4, 10.8]). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the ASRS-v1.1 was 18.1% (95% CI = [12.4, 25.7]) and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.6% (95% CI = [94.9, 98.9]). The ASRS-v1.1 demonstrated a sensitivity of 79.3% (95% CI = [61.6, 90.2]) and a specificity of 70.3% (95% CI = [65.3, 74.8]). The ASRS-v1.1 demonstrated acceptable sensitivity and specificity in a sample of treatment-seeking alcoholics when compared with the PRISM as the reference standard for ADHD diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Validity and reliability of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder self-report scale (ASRS-v1.1) in a clinical sample with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Samantha; Ivanova, Iryna; Bissada, Hany; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) commonly experience comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The shared features of EDs and ADHD, such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, may exacerbate ED symptomatology and pose challenges to treatment. It is important to screen patients with EDs for symptoms of ADHD to optimize their treatment outcomes. However, the psychometrics of common measures of ADHD have not yet been examined within an ED population. An example of such a measure is the ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-v1.1) symptom checklist, which identifies the presence of ADHD symptoms. This study reports a psychometric study of the ASRS-v1.1 in a clinical sample of 500 adults with an ED. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated the ASRS-v1.1 maintained its two-factor structure of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity. The item loadings demonstrated path invariance across ED diagnostic groups indicating construct validity. Further, the subscales exhibited good internal consistency and they were significantly correlated with other measures of impulsivity indicating convergent validity. The ED sample had significantly higher mean scores than published nonclinical norms indicating predictive validity, but the ASRS-v1.1 scores were not significantly different among ED diagnostic groups. Results suggest the ASRS-v1.1 is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying symptoms of ADHD among adults seeking treatment for ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring, Modeling, and Diagnosis of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Small Concrete Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cai, Guowei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gribok, Andrei V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mahadevan, Sankaran [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Structural health monitoring of concrete structures aims to understand the current health condition of a structure based on heterogeneous measurements to produce high-confidence actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. This report describes alkali-silica reaction (ASR) degradation mechanisms and factors influencing the ASR. A fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model developed by Saouma and Perotti by taking into consideration the effects of stress on the reaction kinetics and anisotropic volumetric expansion is presented in this report. This model is implemented in the GRIZZLY code based on the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment. The implemented model in the GRIZZLY code is randomly used to initiate ASR in a 2D and 3D lattice to study the percolation aspects of concrete. The percolation aspects help determine the transport properties of the material and therefore the durability and service life of concrete. This report summarizes the effort to develop small-size concrete samples with embedded glass to mimic ASR. The concrete samples were treated in water and sodium hydroxide solution at elevated temperature to study how ingress of sodium ions and hydroxide ions at elevated temperature impacts concrete samples embedded with glass. Thermal camera was used to monitor the changes in the concrete sample and results are summarized.

  6. A coupled mechanical and chemical damage model for concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignatelli, Rossella, E-mail: rossellapignatelli@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lombardi Ingegneria S.r.l., Via Giotto 36, 20145 Milano (Italy); Comi, Claudia, E-mail: comi@stru.polimi.it [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    To model the complex degradation phenomena occurring in concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction (ASR), we formulate a poro-mechanical model with two isotropic internal variables: the chemical and the mechanical damage. The chemical damage, related to the evolution of the reaction, is caused by the pressure generated by the expanding ASR gel on the solid concrete skeleton. The mechanical damage describes the strength and stiffness degradation induced by the external loads. As suggested by experimental results, degradation due to ASR is considered to be localized around reactive sites. The effect of the degree of saturation and of the temperature on the reaction development is also modeled. The chemical damage evolution is calibrated using the value of the gel pressure estimated by applying the electrical diffuse double-layer theory to experimental values of the surface charge density in ASR gel specimens reported in the literature. The chemo-damage model is first validated by simulating expansion tests on reactive specimens and beams; the coupled chemo-mechanical damage model is then employed to simulate compression and flexure tests results also taken from the literature. -- Highlights: •Concrete degradation due to ASR in variable environmental conditions is modeled. •Two isotropic internal variables – chemical and mechanical damage – are introduced. •The value of the swelling pressure is estimated by the diffuse double layer theory. •A simplified scheme is proposed to relate macro- and microscopic properties. •The chemo-mechanical damage model is validated by simulating tests in literature.

  7. Decision Support System for Aquifer Recharge (AR) and Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Planning, Design, and Evaluation - Principles and Technical Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquifer recharge (AR) is a technical method being utilized to enhance groundwater resources through man-made replenishment means, such as infiltration basins and injections wells. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) furthers the AR techniques by withdrawal of stored groundwater at...

  8. Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus nomius ASR3, a pathogen isolated from the leaf-cutter ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Afonso da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspergillus spp. cause economic impacts due to aflatoxins production. Although the toxicity of aflatoxins is already known, little information about their ecological roles is available. Here we investigated the compounds produced by Aspergillus nomius ASR3 directly from a dead leaf-cutter queen ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa and the fungal axenic culture. Chemical analyses were carried out by high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were detected in both the axenic culture and in the dead leaf-cutter queen ant. The presence of these mycotoxins in the dead leaf-cutter queen ant suggests that these compounds can be related to the insect pathogenicity of A. nomius against A. sexdens rubropilosa.

  9. Epidemiologic study of patients with DVT in Birjand Vali-e-asr hospital- (2009-2014: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toba Kazemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a condition that, in case of delay in diagnosis and treatment, can lead to serious complications like pulmonary embolism. Given the importance of assessment and identification of diseases in every community, the current study aimed at assessing the epidemiology of DVT patients in Birjand. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on all DVT patients admitted to Birjand Vali-e-asr hospital between 2009 and 2014. A trained medical student completed each researcher-designed questionnaire. based on an intern’s history recording, a physician's orders ,and a nurse’s note. Then, the patients were called up demanding the status of the patient and disease complications, readmission ,or death. Finally, the obtained data was encoded and analyzed by SPSS(V: 18 at the significant level P<0.05. Results: During the study period,263 patients with DVThad been hospitalized in Birjand Vali-e-asr hospital .Out of the patients, 50.2% were males. Mean age of the subjects was 55.84 ± 18.45 years. In 98.1% of the cases the lower extremity was involved. The most prevalent risk factor was immobilization and the least risk factor was family history of DVT. Regarding the relationship between DVT risk factors and sex only smoking cigarettes was both significant and more prevalent. During 5 years, 3.8% of the population had died due to DVT complications. Recurrent DVT in 6% and pulmonary emboli in 3.4% of the patients were diagnosed. Conclusion: Given that the most common risk factor for DVT in our study was immobilization, prophylaxis is necessary in patients at high risk tin order to decrease occurrence possibility of DVT.

  10. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) and compact disc (CD) waste: options for recovery of materials and energy. Final report for study funded by Ekokem Oy Ab 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Saeed, L.

    2002-07-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR) Auto shredder residue (ASR), also referred to as auto shredder fluff, shedder light fraction (SLF), residues from shredding (RESH) or simply 'auto fluff' of 'fluff', is the fraction of an shredded end-of-life vehicle (ELV) for which recycling routes do not yet exist. After removing several recyclable parts such as bumpers (recycled into splash plates or into new bumpers, air bags, batteries, fuel tanks and nowadays also tyres and sometimes even seats, the dismantled vehicle is shredded. The ASR is then obtained as the light shredder fraction from the airflow separator that separates it from the heavier metallic fraction, which is fully recyclable as a secondary raw material. ASR is a complex mixture of plastics (rigid and foam), rubber, glass, wood, paper, leather, textile, sand plus other dirt, and a significant fraction of metals. It may be feasible to remove a large plastics or non-ferrous fraction from the ASR or it may be separated into fractions that contain lighter and heavier fractions, respectively. The ASR fraction is typically around 20 - 25 % of the weight of the ELV it derives from. Whilst for Finland the amount of ASR produced is around 25000 tonnes annually, this number is at least 100 times higher for North America, which suggests that worldwide the annual production will be of the order of 10 million tonnes. Although recycling and recovery of ELV components is increasing the increasing number of vehicles will give a further rise of ASR generated for years to come. Since the mid-1990's there is, however, increased concern over how to handle this waste material and in European countries that follow EU legislations and directives, important changes are being enforced by three new directives: Directive 2000/53/EC (September 18, 2000) on End-of-Life Vehicles, Directive 200/76/EC (December 4, 2000) on the Incineration of Waste and Directive 1999/31/EC (April 26, 1999) on the Landfill of Waste

  11. Catalysis in the Service of Green Chemistry: Nobel Prize-Winning Palladium-Catalysed Cross-Couplings, Run in Water at Room Temperature: Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura and Negishi reactions carried out in the absence of organic solvents, enabled by micellar catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipshutz, Bruce H; Taft, Benjamin R; Abela, Alexander R; Ghorai, Subir; Krasovskiy, Arkady; Duplais, Christophe

    2012-04-01

    Palladium-catalysed cross-couplings, in particular Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura and Negishi reactions developed over three decades ago, are routinely carried out in organic solvents. However, alternative media are currently of considerable interest given an increasing emphasis on making organic processes 'greener'; for example, by minimising organic waste in the form of organic solvents. Water is the obvious leading candidate in this regard. Hence, this review focuses on the application of micellar catalysis, in which a 'designer' surfactant enables these award-winning coupling reactions to be run in water at room temperature.

  12. Ternary CaCu4P2-type pnictides AAg4Pn2 (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Khatun, Mansura; Scott Mullen, C.; Mar, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Four ternary pnictides AAg 4 Pn 2 (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb) were prepared by reactions of the elements at 850 °C and their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These silver-containing pnictides AAg 4 Pn 2 adopt the trigonal CaCu 4 P 2 -type structure (Pearson symbol hR21, space group R3-bar m, Z=3; a=4.5555(6) Å, c=24.041(3) Å for SrAg 4 As 2 ; a=4.5352(2) Å, c=23.7221(11) Å for EuAg 4 As 2 ; a=4.7404(4) Å, c=25.029(2) Å for SrAg 4 Sb 2 ; a=4.7239(3) Å, c=24.689(2) Å for EuAg 4 Sb 2 ), which can be derived from the trigonal CaAl 2 Si 2 -type structure of the isoelectronic zinc-containing pnictides AZn 2 Pn 2 by insertion of additional Ag atoms into trigonal planar sites within [M 2 Pn 2 ] 2− slabs built up of edge-sharing tetrahedra. Band structure calculations on SrAg 4 As 2 and SrAg 4 Sb 2 revealed that these charge-balanced Zintl phases actually exhibit no gap at the Fermi level and are predicted to be semimetals. - Graphical abstract: SrAg 4 As 2 and related pnictides adopt a CaCu 4 P 2 -type structure in which additional Ag atoms enter trigonal planar sites within slabs built from edge-sharing tetrahedra. Highlights: ► AAg 4 Pn 2 are the first Ag-containing members of the CaCu 4 P 2 -type structure. ► Ag atoms are stuffed in trigonal planar sites within CaAl 2 Si 2 -type slabs. ► Ag–Ag bonding develops through attractive d 10 –d 10 interactions.

  13. Ternary CaCu{sub 4}P{sub 2}-type pnictides AAg{sub 4}Pn{sub 2} (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Khatun, Mansura; Scott Mullen, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    Four ternary pnictides AAg{sub 4}Pn{sub 2} (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb) were prepared by reactions of the elements at 850 Degree-Sign C and their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These silver-containing pnictides AAg{sub 4}Pn{sub 2} adopt the trigonal CaCu{sub 4}P{sub 2}-type structure (Pearson symbol hR21, space group R3-bar m, Z=3; a=4.5555(6) A, c=24.041(3) A for SrAg{sub 4}As{sub 2}; a=4.5352(2) A, c=23.7221(11) A for EuAg{sub 4}As{sub 2}; a=4.7404(4) A, c=25.029(2) A for SrAg{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}; a=4.7239(3) A, c=24.689(2) A for EuAg{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}), which can be derived from the trigonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure of the isoelectronic zinc-containing pnictides AZn{sub 2}Pn{sub 2} by insertion of additional Ag atoms into trigonal planar sites within [M{sub 2}Pn{sub 2}]{sup 2-} slabs built up of edge-sharing tetrahedra. Band structure calculations on SrAg{sub 4}As{sub 2} and SrAg{sub 4}Sb{sub 2} revealed that these charge-balanced Zintl phases actually exhibit no gap at the Fermi level and are predicted to be semimetals. - Graphical abstract: SrAg{sub 4}As{sub 2} and related pnictides adopt a CaCu{sub 4}P{sub 2}-type structure in which additional Ag atoms enter trigonal planar sites within slabs built from edge-sharing tetrahedra. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AAg{sub 4}Pn{sub 2} are the first Ag-containing members of the CaCu{sub 4}P{sub 2}-type structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag atoms are stuffed in trigonal planar sites within CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type slabs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-Ag bonding develops through attractive d{sup 10}-d{sup 10} interactions.

  14. Natural Arsenic in the Miocene Hawthorn Group, Florida: Wide Ranging Implications for ASR, Phosphate Mining, Private Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, O. V.; Pichler, T.

    2004-12-01

    organic material, clays, and iron oxides contain lower As concentrations contrasted to pyrite; (5) Pyrite occurs in framboidal and euhedral forms. Because phosphorous, arsenic and sulfur are chemically closely related, they often occur together in nature, thus posing a potential problem for the phosphate industry. There have been several occurrences of swine fatalities due to arsenic poisoning as a result of phosphate feed supplements. Information about the concentration, distribution and mineralogical association of naturally occurring As is important, because this is a first step to forecast its behavior during anthropogenic induced physico-chemical changes in the aquifer. Recently, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) facilities in central Florida reported As concentrations in excess of 100 μ g/L in recovered water. The ASR storage zone is the Suwannee Limestone, which directly underlies the Hawthorn sediments. It is crucial to the future of ASR in this area to understand the source and distribution of arsenic in the overlying Hawthorn Group and the cycling of arsenic in the Florida platform.

  15. A proposed aging management program for alkali silica reactions in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouma, Victor E., E-mail: saouma@colorado.edu; Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad A.

    2014-10-01

    Drawing from publicly available information, this paper addresses the alkali silica reaction management of Seabrook nuclear power plant. The essence of the reaction is first examined, followed by a summary of findings, current and planned work. Then, the authors draw on their experience in ASR to first comment on the current work, and then complete the paper with what they would recommend. An important observation is that ASR constitutes a major challenge to the nuclear industry, and a thorough understanding of the State of the Art is essential before a holistic approach is undertaken. It is neither a simple nor an inexpensive challenge, yet a most critical one that industry and regulators must confront. This paper is only a breach into such an effort.

  16. A proposed aging management program for alkali silica reactions in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saouma, Victor E.; Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from publicly available information, this paper addresses the alkali silica reaction management of Seabrook nuclear power plant. The essence of the reaction is first examined, followed by a summary of findings, current and planned work. Then, the authors draw on their experience in ASR to first comment on the current work, and then complete the paper with what they would recommend. An important observation is that ASR constitutes a major challenge to the nuclear industry, and a thorough understanding of the State of the Art is essential before a holistic approach is undertaken. It is neither a simple nor an inexpensive challenge, yet a most critical one that industry and regulators must confront. This paper is only a breach into such an effort

  17. Mathematical Optimization Algorithm for Minimizing the Cost Function of GHG Emission in AS/RS Using Positive Selection Based Clonal Selection Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi; Murugesan, R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper regards with the minimization of total cost of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) efficiency in Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS). A mathematical model is constructed based on tax cost, penalty cost and discount cost of GHG emission of AS/RS. A two stage algorithm namely positive selection based clonal selection principle (PSBCSP) is used to find the optimal solution of the constructed model. In the first stage positive selection principle is used to reduce the search space of the optimal solution by fixing a threshold value. In the later stage clonal selection principle is used to generate best solutions. The obtained results are compared with other existing algorithms in the literature, which shows that the proposed algorithm yields a better result compared to others.

  18. Evaluation of Drug Resistance Pattern of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Fasa Vali-e-Asr Hospital Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdollahi Kheirabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Antibiotic resistance due to the widespread use of antibiotics is one of the major causes of failure in antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from Fasa Vali-e-Asr Hospital patients.   Materials & Methods : In total, 234 isolates of Escherichia coli strains, obtained from inpatients and outpatients, were studied. The identity of the isolated strains was confirmed by bacteriologic methods. T he drug sensitivity definition test to 17 antibiotics was done via the disk diffusion antibiogram method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the resistant isolates to Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem was measured using the s erial dilution method according to the CLSI standards.   Results : The resistance rates of the isolates to Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem by disk diffusion antibiogram method were 22.65% and 11.11% and by serial dilution method were 19.66 % and 9.4% of all the isolates, respectively.   Conclusion: These results show higher resistance of Escherichia coli to Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem as compared to the results in previous studies. Further investigation will shed light on how to more effectively battle antibiotic resistance of virulent microorganisms.

  19. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  20. Identification and characterization of a gibberellin-regulated protein, which is ASR5, in the basal region of rice leaf sheaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hironori; Mahmood, Tariq; Matsuoka, Makoto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2008-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate growth and development in higher plants. To identify GA-regulated proteins during rice leaf sheath elongation, a proteomic approach was used. Proteins from the basal region of leaf sheath in rice seedling treated with GA(3) were analyzed by fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. The levels of abscisic acid-stress-ripening-inducible 5 protein (ASR5), elongation factor-1 beta, translationally controlled tumor protein, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and a novel protein increased; whereas the level of RuBisCO subunit binding-protein decreased by GA(3) treatment. ASR5 out of these six proteins was significantly regulated by GA(3) at the protein level but not at the mRNA level in the basal region of leaf sheaths. Since this protein is regulated not only by abscisic acid but also by GA(3), these results indicate that ASR5 might be involved in plant growth in addition to stress in the basal regions of leaf sheaths.

  1. 转香蕉MaASR1基因的拟南芥株系在干旱胁迫条件下的表达谱分析%Analysis of Banana MaASR1 Gene Expression Profiles in Arabidopsis Under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 徐碧玉; 刘菊华; 贾彩红; 张建斌; 金志强

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the most important environmental stress.MaASR1 gene of banana plays an important role in plant responding to stress.In order to further study the molecular mechanism of drought resistance for over expressing MaASR1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.DNA microarray was used to broad-spectrum screening the differentially expressed genes under natural and drought treatment in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and transgenic lines.The results of the DNA microarray were analyzed by bioinformatics and RT-PCR verification of the related genes.The results showed that when the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and transgenic lines were all without any treatment,there was a total of 747 differentially expressed genes,including 559 up-regulated genes and 188down-regulated genes.And when the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and transgenic lines were all drought-treated,there was a total of 653 differentially expressed genes,including 256 up-regulated genes and 397 down-regulated genes.MaASR1 gene can increase the drought resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana by affecting the expression of hormone,photosynthesis,zinc finger protein and DREB2A which involved in the ABA-independent pathway.And to lay the foundation for the molecular mechanism of MaASR1 gene as a transcription factor to improve plant drought resistance.%干旱是最重要的环境胁迫,香蕉MaASR1基因在植物响应逆境胁迫时发挥着重要作用,为了深入研究MaASR1基因的过表达使拟南芥抗旱的分子机制,利用全基因组表达芯片来广谱的筛选MaASR1基因转入后自然条件下及干旱处理条件下差异基因的表达情况.对基因芯片的结果进行了详细的生物信息学分析及相关基因的RT-PCR验证,结果表明MaASR1基因异源表达的拟南芥株系在自然生长条件下共有747个差异基因,其中上调基因559个,下调基因188个;在干旱胁迫条件下共得到653个差异基因,其中上调基因256个,下调基因397个;MaASR1基因的转入可

  2. Synthesis, structure, and electrical conductivity of A'[A(sub 2)B(sub 3)O(sub 10)] (A'=Rb, Cs A=Sr, Ba; B=Nb, Ta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangadurai, Venkataraman; Schmid-Beurmann, Peter; Weppner, Werner

    2001-01-01

    New members of Dion-Jacobson (D-J)-type layered perovskites of the general formula A'[A(sub 2)B(sub 3)O(sub 10)] (A'=Rb, Cs; A=Sr, Ba; B=Nb, Ta) were prepared by solid-state reactions between the metal oxides, nitrates, and carbonates under specific conditions. The crystal structures were determined using powder X-ray diffraction data in combination with Rietveld analysis. The c-axis lattice parameter increases as the size of the alkaline earth ion increases. Both Sr and Ba compounds crystallize in a tetragonal cell, while the corresponding Ca compounds crystallize in an orthorhombic cell. The electrical conductivity of the layered perovskites was determined using AC impedance analysis and DC methods. Among the compounds with the same alkali ion and different alkaline earth ions, the Ca compound exhibits a higher electrical conductivity than the corresponding Sr and Ba compounds. DC measurements reveal that the layered perovskites exhibit both ionic and electronic conduction

  3. In situ alkali-silica reaction observed by x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtis, K.E.; Monteiro, P.J.M.; Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W.

    1997-01-01

    In concrete, alkali metal ions and hydroxyl ions contributed by the cement and reactive silicates present in aggregate can participate in a destructive alkali-silica reaction (ASR). This reaction of the alkalis with the silicates produces a gel that tends to imbibe water found in the concrete pores, leading to swelling of the gel and eventual cracking of the affected concrete member. Over 104 cases of alkali-aggregate reaction in dams and spillways have been reported around the world. At present, no method exists to arrest the expansive chemical reaction which generates significant distress in the affected structures. Most existing techniques available for the examination of concrete microstructure, including ASR products, demand that samples be dried and exposed to high pressure during the observation period. These sample preparation requirements present a major disadvantage for the study of alkali-silica reaction. Given the nature of the reaction and the affect of water on its products, it is likely that the removal of water will affect the morphology, creating artifacts in the sample. The purpose of this research is to observe and characterize the alkali-silica reaction, including each of the specific reactions identified previously, in situ without introducing sample artifacts. For observation of unconditioned samples, x-ray microscopy offers an opportunity for such an examination of the alkali-silica reaction. Currently, this investigation is focusing on the effect of calcium ions on the alkali-silica reaction

  4. In situ alkali-silica reaction observed by x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtis, K.E.; Monteiro, P.J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    In concrete, alkali metal ions and hydroxyl ions contributed by the cement and reactive silicates present in aggregate can participate in a destructive alkali-silica reaction (ASR). This reaction of the alkalis with the silicates produces a gel that tends to imbibe water found in the concrete pores, leading to swelling of the gel and eventual cracking of the affected concrete member. Over 104 cases of alkali-aggregate reaction in dams and spillways have been reported around the world. At present, no method exists to arrest the expansive chemical reaction which generates significant distress in the affected structures. Most existing techniques available for the examination of concrete microstructure, including ASR products, demand that samples be dried and exposed to high pressure during the observation period. These sample preparation requirements present a major disadvantage for the study of alkali-silica reaction. Given the nature of the reaction and the affect of water on its products, it is likely that the removal of water will affect the morphology, creating artifacts in the sample. The purpose of this research is to observe and characterize the alkali-silica reaction, including each of the specific reactions identified previously, in situ without introducing sample artifacts. For observation of unconditioned samples, x-ray microscopy offers an opportunity for such an examination of the alkali-silica reaction. Currently, this investigation is focusing on the effect of calcium ions on the alkali-silica reaction.

  5. Contribution a la caracterisation des betons endommages par des methodes de l'acoustique non lineaire. Application a la reaction alcalis-silice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjo, Apedovi

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the non-destructive characterization of concrete materials damaged by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). For this purpose, some nonlinear characterization techniques have been developed, as well as a nonlinear resonance test device. In order to optimize the sensitivity of the test device, the excitation module and signal processing have been improved. The nonlinear tests were conducted on seven samples of concrete damaged by ASR, three samples of concrete damaged by heat, three concrete samples damaged mechanically and three sound concrete samples. Since, nonlinear behaviour of the material is often attribute to its micro-defects hysteretic behaviour, it was shown at first that concrete damaged by ASR exhibits an hysteresis behaviour. To conduct this study, an acoustoelastic test was set, and then nonlinear resonance test device was used for characterizing sound concrete and concrete damaged by ASR. It was shown that the nonlinear technique can be used for characterizing the material without knowing its initial state, and also for detecting early damage in the reactive material. Studies were also carried out on the effect of moisture regarding the nonlinear parameters; they allowed understanding the low values of nonlinear parameters measured on concrete samples that were kept in high moisture conditions. In order to find a specific characteristic of damage caused by ASR, the viscosity of ASR gel was used. An approach, based on static creep analysis, performed on the material, while applying the nonlinear resonance technique. The spring-damping model of Maxwell was used for the interpretation of the results. Then, the creep time was analysed on samples damaged by ASR. It appears that the ASR gel increases the creep time. Finally, the limitations of the nonlinear resonance technique for in situ application have been explained and a new applicable nonlinear technique was initiated. This technique use an external source such as a

  6. Reaction products of densified silica fume agglomerates in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Sahu, Sadananda; Thaulow, Niels

    2004-01-01

    Most silica fume currently used in concrete is in the dry densified form and consists of agglomerates of sizes between 10 μm and several millimeters. Many of these agglomerates may break down only partially in normal concrete mixing. Examination of various mature silica-fume-bearing concretes using backscatter mode scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis shows that such agglomerates have reacted in situ and given rise to recognizable types of reaction products filling the space within the original outline of the agglomerate. One type is 'quiescent', and usually shows no evidence of volume instability. EDX spectra indicate that the product formed within such grains is C-S-H of very low Ca/Si ratio, with modest alkali contents. Other silica fume agglomerates may undergo a distinct alkali-silica-type reaction (ASR), with the reaction product found within the original outline of the agglomerate having significantly less calcium and usually much higher alkali contents than the quiescent type. Such reacted agglomerates show evidence of local expansion, shrinkage cracking (on drying), and other features common to ASR. Both types may be found within the same concrete, sometimes in close proximity. It further appears that exposure to seawater may convert previously formed reaction products of silica fume agglomerates to magnesium silicate hydrates

  7. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach....... The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....

  8. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  9. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...... pilot projects as enabler of transition. Aspects of how to create trust and deal with distrust during a transition are addressed. The transition in focus is the concept of New Public Management and how it is applied in the management of the Employment Service in Denmark. The transition regards...

  10. Enabling distributed collaborative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, K.

    2000-01-01

    To enable collaboration over distance, a collaborative environment that uses a specialized scientific instrument called a nanoManipulator is evaluated. The nanoManipulator incorporates visualization and force feedback technology to allow scientists to see, feel, and modify biological samples bein...

  11. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  12. Integrated subsurface water solutions for coastal environments through integrated pump&treat and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikaki, Martha; Kallioras, Andreas; Christoforidis, Christophoros; Iossifidis, Dimitris; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Makropoulos, Christos; Raat, Klaasjan; van den Berg, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands in semi-arid regions, as in Circum-Mediterranean, are considered important ecosystems that provide valuable services to human population and the environment, such as: flood protection, erosion control, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation and carbon sequestration. Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in these areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. Groundwater usually plays a vital role for the sustainability of these hydrological systems, as the underlying aquifers operate as regulators for both quantity and quality of their waters. Multi-layer and multi-objective Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be proved effective groundwater engineered solutions for the restoration of deteriorated coastal wetlands in semi- and arid regions. The plain of Marathon is a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts a naturally occurring -and today degraded- coastal wetland with the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem linked to a typical coastal hydrogeological system of a semi-arid region; and therefore can serve as a model for similar systems world-wide. The geo-hydrological setting of the area involves a multi-layer aquifer system consisting of (i) an upper un-consolidated formation of depositional unit dominated mostly by fluvial sediments and (ii) the surrounding and underlying karstified marbles; both being linked to the investigated wetland and also subjected to seawater encroachment. A smart engineered MAR system via an optimised Pump & Treat system integrated with an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme in this area would include the abstraction of brackish groundwater from the deeper karst aquifer at a location close to the shoreline and direct treatment with Reverse Osmosis (RO). for desalination. Two-fold re-use scheme of the purified effluent can then be engineered for (i) the restoration of the coastal wetland; and (ii

  13. ASR 8.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hilarybenjamin

    30 août 2010 ... de la forte demande mondiale, la forêt du bassin du Congo est, comparée .... La République démocratique du Congo qui a adhéré au processus de Rio de Janeiro5 ...... les incursions dans les réserves forestières et les mangroves ... Le processus de Rio de Janeiro est initié à l'issu de la conférence des ...

  14. ASR 2.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hilarybenjamin

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... Akiwowo offers a view of sociology of knowledge which defends a perspective of man .... contemporary problems which in the present period are self inflicted. ... defense of a thought which is often used to define wrongly the ...

  15. ASR 7.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hilarybenjamin

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... incurred by the facilities. he youth, who are all Black and mainly male, stay at hostels on SOS Glen .... normally headed by war veterans, were set up on the occupied farms. Initially, there ...... Harare: Weaver Press. Brinkerhoff ...

  16. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  17. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  18. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  19. The redox-Mannich reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Seidel, Daniel

    2014-06-06

    A complement to the classic three-component Mannich reaction, the redox-Mannich reaction, utilizes the same starting materials but incorporates an isomerization step that enables the facile preparation of ring-substituted β-amino ketones. Reactions occur under relatively mild conditions and are facilitated by benzoic acid.

  20. EnableATIS strategy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Enabling Advanced Traveler Information Systems (EnableATIS) is the traveler information component of the Dynamic Mobility Application (DMA) program. The objective of : the EnableATIS effort is to foster transformative traveler information application...

  1. Enabling Digital Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Georgsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    There are some tensions between high-level policy definitions of “digital literacy” and actual teaching practice. We need to find workable definitions of digital literacy; obtain a better understanding of what digital literacy might look like in practice; and identify pedagogical approaches, which...... support teachers in designing digital literacy learning. We suggest that frameworks such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) are approaches that enable digital literacy learning because they provide good settings for engaging with digital literacy. We illustrate this through analysis of a case. Furthermore......, these operate on a meso-level mediating between high-level concepts of digital literacy and classroom practice....

  2. CtOS Enabler

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Cepeda, Rodrigo; El Yamri El Khatibi, Meriem; Carrera García, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Las Smart Cities son, indudablemente, el futuro próximo de la tecnología al que nos acercamos cada día, lo que se puede observar en la abundancia de dispositivos móviles entre la población, que informatizan la vida cotidiana mediante el uso de la geolocalización y la información. Pretendemos unir estos dos ámbitos con CtOS Enabler para crear un estándar de uso que englobe todos los sistemas de Smart Cities y facilite a los desarrolladores de dicho software la creación de nuevas herramientas. ...

  3. A Demonstration of Concrete Structural Health Monitoring Framework for Degradation due to Alkali-Silica Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neal, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nath, Paromita [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bao, Yanqing [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cai, Guowei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Peter [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adams, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kosson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Structural health monitoring of concrete structures aims to understand the current health condition of a structure based on heterogeneous measurements to produce high-confidence actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. This ongoing research project is seeking to develop a probabilistic framework for health diagnosis and prognosis of aging concrete structures in a nuclear power plant that is subjected to physical, chemical, environment, and mechanical degradation. The proposed framework consists of four elements: monitoring, data analytics, uncertainty quantification and prognosis. This report focuses on degradation caused by ASR (alkali-silica reaction). Controlled specimens were prepared to develop accelerated ASR degradation. Different monitoring techniques – thermography, digital image correlation (DIC), mechanical deformation measurements, nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy (NIRAS), and vibro-acoustic modulation (VAM) -- were used to detect the damage caused by ASR. Heterogeneous data from the multiple techniques was used for damage diagnosis and prognosis, and quantification of the associated uncertainty using a Bayesian network approach. Additionally, MapReduce technique has been demonstrated with synthetic data. This technique can be used in future to handle large amounts of observation data obtained from the online monitoring of realistic structures.

  4. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  5. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  6. Assessment of Patients with a DePuy ASR Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement: Results of Applying the Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Hip Surgery in a Tertiary Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenaro Fernández-Valencia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis associated with the DePuy ASR hip cup is poor and varies according to the series. This implant was withdrawn from use in 2010 and all patients needed to be assessed. We present the results of the assessment of our patients treated with this device, according to the Spanish Society of Hip Surgery (SECCA algorithm published in 2011. This retrospective study evaluates 83 consecutive ASR cups, followed up at a mean of 2.9 years. Serum levels of chromium and cobalt, as well as the acetabular abduction angle, were determined in order to assess their possible correlation with failure, defined as the need for revision surgery. The mean Harris Hip Score was 83.2 (range 42–97. Eight arthroplasties (13.3% required revision due to persistent pain and/or elevated serum levels of chromium/cobalt. All the cups had a correct abduction angle, and there was no correlation between elevated serum levels of metal ions and implant failure. Since two previous ASR implants were exchanged previously to the recall, the revision rate for ASR cups in our centre is 18.2% at 2.9 years.

  7. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  8. Enabling distributed petascale science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovski, Andrew; Bharathi, Shishir; Bresnahan, John

    2007-01-01

    Petascale science is an end-to-end endeavour, involving not only the creation of massive datasets at supercomputers or experimental facilities, but the subsequent analysis of that data by a user community that may be distributed across many laboratories and universities. The new SciDAC Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) is developing tools to support this end-to-end process. These tools include data placement services for the reliable, high-performance, secure, and policy-driven placement of data within a distributed science environment; tools and techniques for the construction, operation, and provisioning of scalable science services; and tools for the detection and diagnosis of failures in end-to-end data placement and distributed application hosting configurations. In each area, we build on a strong base of existing technology and have made useful progress in the first year of the project. For example, we have recently achieved order-of-magnitude improvements in transfer times (for lots of small files) and implemented asynchronous data staging capabilities; demonstrated dynamic deployment of complex application stacks for the STAR experiment; and designed and deployed end-to-end troubleshooting services. We look forward to working with SciDAC application and technology projects to realize the promise of petascale science

  9. Enabling immersive simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  10. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  11. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  12. FY 2001 report on the survey of the formation promotion subsidy project on the environmentally friendly type energy community. Potential survey of the introduction of a processing/power generation system using ASR in the South region of Tochigi Prefecture; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy komyuniti keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. Tochigi ken nanbu chiiki ni okeru ASR (Shuredda dust) wo nenryo to shita shori hatsuden system no donyu kanosei chosa chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the consistent processing of waste automobile in Tochigi Prefecture and the neighboring area, survey/study were made of the thermal recycle using shredder dust, ASR (automobile shredder residue), as fuel as well as the material recycle. As to the amount of material recycle of waste automobile, the amount of potential recycle of iron, copper, plastic, etc. was estimated, and it was found out that the potential recycle of parts such as engine was 40-45%, that of iron scrap 35-40%, and that of ASR 20-25%. The amount of fuel (ASR amount) to be thrown into the gasification power generation system was set up at 150t. As the gasification power generation system, the pyrolysis gasifier and shaft kiln gasification melting furnace were selected. In the study of economical efficiency of the gasification power generation system, the following were considered: ASR processing price, plant cost, subsidy, running cost, char receiving price, power selling price, etc., but even in the case of the pyrolysis gasifier with highest valuation, both payback years and IRR did not reach the target. (NEDO)

  13. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr. (.,; .)

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological

  14. Speech-enabled Computer-aided Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2014-01-01

    The present study has surveyed post-editor trainees’ views and attitudes before and after the introduction of speech technology as a front end to a computer-aided translation workbench. The aim of the survey was (i) to identify attitudes and perceptions among post-editor trainees before performing...... a post-editing task using automatic speech recognition (ASR); and (ii) to assess the degree to which post-editors’ attitudes and expectations to the use of speech technology changed after actually using it. The survey was based on two questionnaires: the first one administered before the participants...

  15. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  16. Geo-Enabled, Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    We are witnessing the emergence of a global infrastructure that enables the widespread deployment of geo-enabled, mobile services in practice. At the same time, the research community has also paid increasing attention to data management aspects of mobile services. This paper offers me...

  17. The effect of covering head on the hypocalcemia caused by phototherapy in the icteric preterm infants in the Vali-e-Asr hospital in 2015; A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zangoei Dovvom Samane; Mottaghi Minoo

    2016-01-01

    There are several methods to reduce serum bilirubin in neonatal jaundice that the most common of them is phototherapy and this method will cause some side effects which one of them is hypocalcemia that is occurred due to the decreased serum concentration of melatonin. This study was conducted aims to evaluate the effect of covering head on hypocalcemia caused by the phototherapy in the icteric infants in the Vali-e-Asr Hospital in 2015. in this clinical trial study, 60 preterm inf...

  18. Toward genome-enabled mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbett, David S; Stajich, Jason E; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    Genome-enabled mycology is a rapidly expanding field that is characterized by the pervasive use of genome-scale data and associated computational tools in all aspects of fungal biology. Genome-enabled mycology is integrative and often requires teams of researchers with diverse skills in organismal mycology, bioinformatics and molecular biology. This issue of Mycologia presents the first complete fungal genomes in the history of the journal, reflecting the ongoing transformation of mycology into a genome-enabled science. Here, we consider the prospects for genome-enabled mycology and the technical and social challenges that will need to be overcome to grow the database of complete fungal genomes and enable all fungal biologists to make use of the new data.

  19. Electronic and magnetic properties of R0.5A0.5MnO3 compounds (R=Gd, Dy, Ho, Er; A=Sr, Ca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, T.; Sasaki, T.; Kakeshita, T.; Fukuda, T.; Saburi, T.; Kitagawa, H.; Kindo, K.; Honda, M.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of the perovskitelike compounds of R 0.5 A 0.5 MnO 3 (R=Gd, Dy, Ho, Er; A=Sr, Ca) have been studied by measuring lattice parameter, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization. All the Sr-doped compounds show a transition from a paramagnetic insulator to a spin-glass-like insulator at T g , even though the manganite La 0.5 Ca 0.5 MnO 3 , with nearly the same tolerance factor t, have been shown by others, to have different transitions. On the other hand, all the Ca-doped compounds show a charge-ordering transition at T CO and show a transition from a paramagnetic insulator to a canted antiferromagnetic insulator and/or a spin-glass-like insulator at T CA below T CO . These transition temperatures decrease with decreasing t. In the compound of Gd 0.5 Ca 0.5 MnO 3 , the collapse of the charge ordering has been observed under a pulsed high magnetic field of 45 T at 4.2 K. On the other hand, in the compound of Gd 0.5 Sr 0.5 MnO 3 , the magnetization process depends on the strength of magnetic field. These electronic and magnetic properties depend not only on the tolerance factor but also the variance (second moment) of the A-site ion radii distribution

  20. Content Validity of the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV; parent report and Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS; self-report are validated instruments for measuring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objectives of this study were to elicit descriptions of phenylketonuria (PKU symptoms and assess content validity of these instruments in PKU. Parents (N = 15 of children with PKU (≥8 years old and adults with PKU (N=13 described PKU-related symptoms and commented on the scale’s clarity, comprehensiveness, and relevance to their experience with PKU. Most of the adults (84.6% and all of the children were on a phenylalanine-restricted diet, according to respondent report. The inattentiveness symptoms reported by participants mapped to the inattentive items of the questionnaires. Most participants felt the inattentive items were clear and relevant to their experience. Despite study design limitations, these results demonstrate the relevance of assessing inattentiveness in PKU, and both instruments achieved content validity for inattentive subscale items.

  1. Investigating the relationship between cognitive failures and workload among nurses of Imam Khomeini and Vali-e-Asr hospitals in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Yousef Zade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High level of workload and its consequent cognitive failures are among factors which impact nurses’ behavior, performance, and efficiency. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between nurses’ cognitive failures and perceived workload. Material and Method: This cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was carried out among 150 male and female nurses, working in different units of Emam Khomeini and Vali-e-Asr hospitals in Tehran in 2013. NASA task load index (NASA-TlX and Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ were used to assess workload and cognitive failures, respectively. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation, Independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA statistical tests with SPSS software version 20. Result: Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients test results showed a significant relationship between nurses’ mental workload and their memory for names (P-value<0.001. Moreover, there was significant association between physical workload and memory, attention and total cognitive failures (CFQ total (P-value<0.05. Perceived frustration mong nurses was significantly correlated with memory, attention, motor functions and total cognitive failures (P-value<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed a high level of workload among study nurses. Furthermore, the relationships between some dimensions of mental workload and cognitive failures were confirmed, so that an increase in workload dimension can lead to more cognitive failures while doing task.

  2. Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jennifer; Wester, Roland

    2017-05-05

    We review the recent advances in the investigation of the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. During the past decade, the combination of single-collision experiments in crossed ion and neutral beams with the velocity map ion imaging detection technique has enabled a wealth of studies on ion-molecule reactions. These methods, in combination with chemical dynamics simulations, have uncovered new and unexpected reaction mechanisms, such as the roundabout mechanism and the subtle influence of the leaving group in anion-molecule nucleophilic substitution reactions. For this important class of reactions, as well as for many fundamental cation-molecule reactions, the information obtained with crossed-beam imaging is discussed. The first steps toward understanding micro-solvation of ion-molecule reaction dynamics are presented. We conclude with the presentation of several interesting directions for future research.

  3. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  4. How GNSS Enables Precision Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Precision farming: Feeding a Growing Population Enables Those Who Feed the World. Immediate and Ongoing Needs - population growth (more to feed) - urbanization (decrease in arable land) Double food production by 2050 to meet world demand. To meet thi...

  5. Selective C(sp3)−H aerobic oxidation enabled by decatungstate photocatalysis in flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudadio, G.; Govaerts, S.; Wang, Y.; Ravelli, D.; Koolman, H.; Fagnoni, M.; Djuric, S.; Noel, T.

    2018-01-01

    A mild and selective C(sp3)−H aerobic oxidation enabled by decatungstate photocatalysis has been developed. The reaction can be significantly improved in a microflow reactor enabling the safe use of oxygen and enhanced irradiation of the reaction mixture. Our method allows for the oxidation of both

  6. Integrating Spatial Multi Criteria Decision Making (SMCDM) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for delineation of the most suitable areas for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahani Amineh, Zainab Banoo; Hashemian, Seyyed Jamal Al-Din; Magholi, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Hamoon-Jazmoorian plain is located in southeast of Iran. Overexploitation of groundwater in this plain has led to water level decline and caused serious problems such as land subsidence, aquifer destruction and water quality degradation. The increasing population and agricultural development along with drought and climate change, have further increased the pressure on water resources in this region over the last years. In order to overcome such crisis, introduction of surface water into an aquifer at particular locations can be a suitable solution. A wide variety of methods have been developed to recharge groundwater, one of which is aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). One of the fundamental principles of making such systems is delineation of suitable areas based on scientific and natural facts in order to achieve relevant objectives. To that end, the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was applied in this study. More specifically, nine main parameters including depth of runoff as the considered source of water, morphology of the earth surface features such as geology, geomorphology, land use and land cover, drainage and aquifer characteristics along with quality of water in the aquifer were considered as the main layers in GIS. The runoff water available for artificial recharge in the basin was estimated through Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method. The weighted curve number for each watershed was derived through spatial intersection of land use and hydrological soil group layers. Other thematic layers were extracted from satellite images, topographical map, and other collateral data sources, then weighed according to their influence in locating process. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was then used to calculate weights of individual parameters. The normalized weighted layers were then overlaid to build up the recharge potential map. The results revealed that 34% of the

  7. DOE ASR Final Report on “Use of ARM Observations to Investigate the Role of Tropical Radiative Processes and Cloud Radiative Effects in Climate Simulations”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qiang [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Comstock, Jennifer [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2018-01-29

    The overall objective of this ASR funded project is to investigate the role of cloud radiative effects, especially those associated with tropical thin cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer, by analyzing the ARM observations combined with numerical models. In particular, we have processed and analyzed the observations from the Raman lidar at the ARM SGP and TWP sites. In the tenure of the project (8/15/2013 – 8/14/2016 and with a no-cost extension to 8/14/2017), we have been concentrating on (i) developing an automated feature detection scheme of clouds and aerosols for the ARM Raman lidar; (ii) developing an automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol extinctions for the ARM Raman lidar; (iii) investigating cloud radiative effects based on the observations on the simulated temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer using a radiative-convective model; and (iv) examining the effect of changes of atmospheric composition on the tropical lower-stratospheric temperatures. In addition, we have examined the biases in the CALIPSO-inferred aerosol direct radiative effects using ground-based Raman lidars at the ARM SGP and TWP sites, and estimated the impact of lidar detection sensitivity on assessing global aerosol direct radiative effects. We have also investigated the diurnal cycle of clouds and precipitation at the ARM site using the cloud radar observations along with simulations from the multiscale modeling framework. The main results of our research efforts are reported in the six referred journal publications that acknowledge the DOE Grant DE-SC0010557.

  8. I Hear You Eat and Speak: Automatic Recognition of Eating Condition and Food Type, Use-Cases, and Impact on ASR Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Simone; Weninger, Felix; Kurle, Richard; Ringeval, Fabien; Batliner, Anton; Mousa, Amr El-Desoky; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers), six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps), and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes. We start with demonstrating that for automatic speech recognition (ASR), it pays off to know whether speakers are eating or not. We also propose automatic classification both by brute-forcing of low-level acoustic features as well as higher-level features related to intelligibility, obtained from an Automatic Speech Recogniser. Prediction of the eating condition was performed with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier employed in a leave-one-speaker-out evaluation framework. Results show that the binary prediction of eating condition (i. e., eating or not eating) can be easily solved independently of the speaking condition; the obtained average recalls are all above 90%. Low-level acoustic features provide the best performance on spontaneous speech, which reaches up to 62.3% average recall for multi-way classification of the eating condition, i. e., discriminating the six types of food, as well as not eating. The early fusion of features related to intelligibility with the brute-forced acoustic feature set improves the performance on read speech, reaching a 66.4% average recall for the multi-way classification task. Analysing features and classifier errors leads to a suitable ordinal scale for eating conditions, on which automatic regression can be performed with up to 56.2% determination coefficient.

  9. OGC® Sensor Web Enablement Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Percivall

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a high-level overview of and architecture for the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards activities that focus on sensors, sensor networks, and a concept called the “Sensor Web”. This OGC work area is known as Sensor Web Enablement (SWE. This article has been condensed from "OGC® Sensor Web Enablement: Overview And High Level Architecture," an OGC White Paper by Mike Botts, PhD, George Percivall, Carl Reed, PhD, and John Davidson which can be downloaded from http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/15540. Readers interested in greater technical and architecture detail can download and read the OGC SWE Architecture Discussion Paper titled “The OGC Sensor Web Enablement Architecture” (OGC document 06-021r1, http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/14140.

  10. Quasielastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.

    1979-01-01

    Quasielastic reaction studies, because of their capability to microscopically probe nuclear structure, are still of considerable interest in heavy-ion reactions. The recent progress in understanding various aspects of the reaction mechanism make this aim appear closer. The relation between microscopic and macroscopic behavior, as suggested, for example, by the single proton transfer data to individual final states or averaged excitation energy intervals, needs to be explored. It seems particularly useful to extend measurements to higher incident energies, to explore and understand nuclear structure aspects up to the limit of the energy range where they are important

  11. cycloaddition reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Molecular Modeling Group, Organic Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology,. Hyderabad ... thus obtained are helpful to model the regioselectivity ... compromise to model Diels–Alder reactions involving ...... acceptance.

  12. Technological evaluation of gesture and speech interfaces for enabling dismounted soldier-robot dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattoju, Ravi Kiran; Barber, Daniel J.; Abich, Julian; Harris, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    With increasing necessity for intuitive Soldier-robot communication in military operations and advancements in interactive technologies, autonomous robots have transitioned from assistance tools to functional and operational teammates able to service an array of military operations. Despite improvements in gesture and speech recognition technologies, their effectiveness in supporting Soldier-robot communication is still uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of gesture and speech interface technologies to facilitate Soldier-robot communication during a spatial-navigation task with an autonomous robot. Gesture and speech semantically based spatial-navigation commands leveraged existing lexicons for visual and verbal communication from the U.S Army field manual for visual signaling and a previously established Squad Level Vocabulary (SLV). Speech commands were recorded by a Lapel microphone and Microsoft Kinect, and classified by commercial off-the-shelf automatic speech recognition (ASR) software. Visual signals were captured and classified using a custom wireless gesture glove and software. Participants in the experiment commanded a robot to complete a simulated ISR mission in a scaled down urban scenario by delivering a sequence of gesture and speech commands, both individually and simultaneously, to the robot. Performance and reliability of gesture and speech hardware interfaces and recognition tools were analyzed and reported. Analysis of experimental results demonstrated the employed gesture technology has significant potential for enabling bidirectional Soldier-robot team dialogue based on the high classification accuracy and minimal training required to perform gesture commands.

  13. Direct Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austern, N. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-01-15

    In order to give a unified presentation of one point of view, these lectures are devoted only to a detailed development of the standard theories of direct reactions, starting from basic principles. Discussion is given of the present status of the theories, of the techniques used for practical calculation, and of possible future developments. The direct interaction (DI) aspects of a reaction are those which involve only a few of the many degrees of freedom of a nucleus. In fact the minimum number of degrees of freedom which must be involved in a reaction are those required to describe the initial and final channels, and DI studies typically consider these degrees of freedom and no others. Because of this simplicity DI theories may be worked out in painstaking detail. DI processes concern only part of the wave function for a problem. The other part involves complicated excitations of many degrees of freedom, and gives the compound nucleus (CN) effects. While it is extremely interesting to learn how to separate DI and CN effects in an orderly manner, if they are both present in a reaction, no suitable method has yet been found. Instead, current work stresses the kinds of reactions and the kinds of final states in which DI effects dominate and in which CN effects may almost be forgotten. The DI cross-sections which are studied are often extremely large, comparable to elastic scattering cross-sections. (author)

  14. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Shao, Jingting; Pemsel, Sofia

    and their relationships to organizational success. Based on these results, the authors discovered that organizational enablers (including key factors such as leadership, governance, and influence of project managers) have a critical impact on how organizations operate, adapt to market fluctuations and forces, and make......While corporate culture plays a significant role in the success of any corporation, governance and “governmentality” not only determine how business should be conducted, but also define the policies and procedures organizations follow to achieve business functions and goals. In their book......, Organizational Enablers for Project Governance, Ralf Müller, Jingting Shao, and Sofia Pemsel examine the interaction of governance and governmentality in various types of companies and demonstrate how these factors drive business success and influence project work, efficiency, and profitability. The data...

  15. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  16. Assessment of Adequacy of Dialysis in Patients under Continuous Hemodialysis in Kamkar and Hazrat Vali Asr Hospitals, State of Qom, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Mousavi Movahed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and objectives

    Hemodialysis is one of the therapeutic modalities of the end stage renal disease (ESRD. As inadequate dialysis is considered a risk factor leading to higher morbidity and mortality, determination of adequacy of dialysis is necessary. This study was conducted to determine adequacy of dialysis in continuous hemodialysis patients in Kamkar and Hazrat Vali Asr Hospitals in the state of Qom, Iran.

    Methods

     This cross sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted in 2006. The study variables were age, gender, height, weight and duration of dialysis. Data were collected by a questionnaire and URR, dKt/V, eKt/V and pKt/V were calculated. For statistical analysis, t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Pearson correlation were employed.

    Results

     Of 238 patients, 51.7% and 48.3% were males and females respectively. The average age was 55.27 ± 16.79 years. Mean values of dKt/V, eKt/V, pKt/V and URR were 1.03 ± 0.232, 0.89 ± 0.196, 1.18 ± 0.254, and 57.46 ± 8.42 respectively. The percent of adequate dialysis in eKt/V, pKt/V and URR were 26.5%, 44.5% and 21% respectively. The mean age of insufficient eKt/V group was higher than adequate eKt/V group and t test showed a significant statistical correlation. Fisher’s exact test showed a significant correlation between adequate eKt/V and female gender, and also between eKt/V and URR. But chi-square test did not show a significant correlation between eKt/V and underling disease.

    Conclusion

     We found that hemodialysis is inadequate in a high number of patients. Further studies with larger sample numbers are recommended to determine the underlying cause of this inadequacy.

  17. Assessment of Adequacy of Dialysis in Patients under Continuous Hemodialysis in Kamkar and Hazrat Vali Asr Hospitals, State of Qom, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mousavi Movahed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesHemodialysis is one of the therapeutic modalities of the end stage renal disease (ESRD. As inadequate dialysis is considered a risk factor leading to higher morbidity and mortality, determination of adequacy of dialysis is necessary. This study was conducted to determine adequacy of dialysis in continuous hemodialysis patients in Kamkar and Hazrat Vali Asr Hospitals in the state of Qom, Iran.Methods This cross sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted in 2006. The study variables were age, gender, height, weight and duration of dialysis. Data were collected by a questionnaire and URR, dKt/V, eKt/V and pKt/V were calculated. For statistical analysis, t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Pearson correlation were employed. Results Of 238 patients, 51.7% and 48.3% were males and females respectively. The average age was 55.27 ± 16.79 years. Mean values of dKt/V, eKt/V, pKt/V and URR were 1.03 ± 0.232, 0.89 ± 0.196, 1.18 ± 0.254, and 57.46 ± 8.42 respectively. The percent of adequate dialysis in eKt/V, pKt/V and URR were 26.5%, 44.5% and 21% respectively. The mean age of insufficient eKt/V group was higher than adequate eKt/V group and t test showed a significant statistical correlation. Fisher’s exact test showed a significant correlation between adequate eKt/V and female gender, and also between eKt/V and URR. But chi-square test did not show a significant correlation between eKt/V and underling disease.Conclusion We found that hemodialysis is inadequate in a high number of patients. Further studies with larger sample numbers are recommended to determine the underlying cause of this inadequacy. Keywords: Hemodialysis, Dialysis, End Stage Renal Disease

  18. Reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Anh

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Reaction Mechanisms laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research topics are: the valence bond methods, the radical chemistry, the modelling of the transition states by applying geometric constraints, the long range interactions (ion - molecule) in gaseous phase, the reaction sites in gaseous phase and the mass spectroscopy applications. The points of convergence between the investigations of the mass spectroscopy and the theoretical chemistry teams, as well as the purposes guiding the research programs, are discussed. The published papers, the conferences, the congress communications and the thesis, are also reported [fr

  19. Extent of reaction in open systems with multiple heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedly, John C.

    1991-01-01

    The familiar batch concept of extent of reaction is reexamined for systems of reactions occurring in open systems. Because species concentrations change as a result of transport processes as well as reactions in open systems, the extent of reaction has been less useful in practice in these applications. It is shown that by defining the extent of the equivalent batch reaction and a second contribution to the extent of reaction due to the transport processes, it is possible to treat the description of the dynamics of flow through porous media accompanied by many chemical reactions in a uniform, concise manner. This approach tends to isolate the reaction terms among themselves and away from the model partial differential equations, thereby enabling treatment of large problems involving both equilibrium and kinetically controlled reactions. Implications on the number of coupled partial differential equations necessary to be solved and on numerical algorithms for solving such problems are discussed. Examples provided illustrate the theory applied to solute transport in groundwater flow.

  20. Separation of uranium isotopes by accelerated isotope exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, M.; Miyake, T.; Inada, K.; Ochi, K.; Sakamoto, T.

    1977-01-01

    A novel catalyst for isotope exchange reaction between uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) compounds enables acceleration of the reaction rate as much as 3000 times to make industrial separation of uranium isotopes economically possible

  1. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  2. Smart Grid enabled heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Detlefsen, Nina; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2014-01-01

    The transition towards a 100 % fossil-free energy system, while achieving extreme penetration levels of intermittent wind and solar power in electricity generation, requires demand-side technologies that are smart (intermittency-friendly) and efficient. The integration of Smart Grid enabling...... with an empirical study in order to achieve a number of recommendations with respect to technology concepts and control strategies that would allow residential vapor-compression heat pumps to support large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. The analysis is based on data gathered over a period of up to 3...

  3. Cyber-Enabled Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Tony; Jameson, Leland

    2007-01-01

    It is often said that numerical simulation is third in the group of three ways to explore modern science: theory, experiment and simulation. Carefully executed modern numerical simulations can, however, be considered at least as relevant as experiment and theory. In comparison to physical experimentation, with numerical simulation one has the numerically simulated values of every field variable at every grid point in space and time. In comparison to theory, with numerical simulation one can explore sets of very complex non-linear equations such as the Einstein equations that are very difficult to investigate theoretically. Cyber-enabled scientific discovery is not just about numerical simulation but about every possible issue related to scientific discovery by utilizing cyberinfrastructure such as the analysis and storage of large data sets, the creation of tools that can be used by broad classes of researchers and, above all, the education and training of a cyber-literate workforce

  4. Simulation enabled safeguards assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Robert; Bjornard, Trond; Larson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wire-frame construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed. (authors)

  5. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed

  6. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  7. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  8. Uncertainty enabled Sensor Observation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Dan; Williams, Matthew; Bastin, Lucy

    2010-05-01

    Almost all observations of reality are contaminated with errors, which introduce uncertainties into the actual observation result. Such uncertainty is often held to be a data quality issue, and quantification of this uncertainty is essential for the principled exploitation of the observations. Many existing systems treat data quality in a relatively ad-hoc manner, however if the observation uncertainty is a reliable estimate of the error on the observation with respect to reality then knowledge of this uncertainty enables optimal exploitation of the observations in further processes, or decision making. We would argue that the most natural formalism for expressing uncertainty is Bayesian probability theory. In this work we show how the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Observation Service can be implemented to enable the support of explicit uncertainty about observations. We show how the UncertML candidate standard is used to provide a rich and flexible representation of uncertainty in this context. We illustrate this on a data set of user contributed weather data where the INTAMAP interpolation Web Processing Service is used to help estimate the uncertainty on the observations of unknown quality, using observations with known uncertainty properties. We then go on to discuss the implications of uncertainty for a range of existing Open Geospatial Consortium standards including SWE common and Observations and Measurements. We discuss the difficult decisions in the design of the UncertML schema and its relation and usage within existing standards and show various options. We conclude with some indications of the likely future directions for UncertML in the context of Open Geospatial Consortium services.

  9. Enabling the First Interstellar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, P.

    2017-12-01

    All propulsion systems that leave the Earth are based on chemical reactions. Chemical reactions, at best, have an efficiency compared to rest mass of 10-10 (or about 1eV per bond). All the mass in the universe converted to chemical reactions would not propel even a single proton to relativistic speeds. While chemistry will get us to Mars it will not allow interstellar capability in any reasonable mission time. Barring new physics we are left with few realistic solutions. None of our current propulsion systems, including nuclear, are capable of the relativistic speeds needed for exploring the many nearby stellar systems and exo-planets. However recent advances in photonics and directed energy systems now allow us to realize what was only a decade ago, simply science fiction, namely the ability to seriously conceive of and plan for relativistic flight. From fully-functional gram-level wafer-scale spacecraft capable of speeds greater than c/4 that could reach the nearest star in 20 years to spacecraft for large missions capable of supporting human life with masses more than 105 kg (100 tons) for rapid interplanetary transit that could reach speeds of greater than 1000 km/s can be realized. With this technology spacecraft can be propelled to speeds currently unimaginable. Photonics, like electronics, and unlike chemical propulsion is an exponential technology with a current double time of about 20 months. This is the key. The cost of such a system is amortized over the essentially unlimited number of launches. In addition, the same photon driver can be used for many other purposes including beamed energy to power high Isp ion engines, remote asteroid composition analysis and planetary defense. This would be a profound change in human capability with enormous implications. Known as Starlight we are now in a NASA Phase II study. The FY 2017 congressional appropriations request directs NASA to study the feasibility of an interstellar mission to coincide with the 100th

  10. Evaluation and Preliminary Design of a Stormwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) System at the Wadi Khulays Dunefield in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver M.

    2013-01-01

    . The construction of dams along wadi channels enables the retention of stormwater, however the reservoirs are still subject to huge evaporative losses and contamination. In this study, the hydraulic properties of a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia are evaluated

  11. Quasielastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the experimental and theoretical situation regarding transfer reactions and inelastic scattering. In the first category there is little (very little) precision data for heavy projectiles and consequently almost no experience with quantitative theoretical analysis. For the inelastic scattering the rather extensive data strongly supports the coupled channels models with collective formfactors. At the most back angles, at intensities about 10 -5 of Rutherford scattering, a second, compound-like mechanism becomes dominant. The description of the interplay of these two opposite mechanisms provides a new challenge for our understanding

  12. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  13. Métodos de evaluación de las reacciones álcali-sílice en hormigones con áridos reciclados Evaluation methods of alkali-silica reaction in concrete with recycled aggre-gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barreto Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Las reacciones álcali-sílice son una de las causas químicas de la degradación de los hormigones con áridos pétreos (HAP que comprometen su durabilidad. La introducción de áridos reciclados (AR en los hormigones produce alteraciones en sus propiedades y diferencias en los resultados de los ensayos de evaluación de las RAS. Se encuentran en la bibliografía algunos cuidados en la evaluación de los AR y de los hormigones con áridos reciclados (HAR en cuanto a la RAS, así como propuestas de modificación de las metodologías de ensayo existentes. Existen propuestas de modificación del ensayo acelerado de mortero y hormigón con AR para acelerar las reacciones y recomendaciones para evitar alteraciones en las características del AR grueso, durante la preparación de probetas. Algunos artículos recomiendan la pre-saturación del AR, debido a su absorción de agua, para evitar variaciones en los resultados de expansión de probetas de hormigón a edades prematuras. El presente artículo pretende describir sucintamente las características de los HAR y de las RAS presentando observaciones de la bibliografía en cuanto a los métodos de evaluación de las RAS en HAR y en HAP.Alkali-silica reactions (ASR are one of the causes of chemical degradation of concrete with natural aggregates (CNA that compromise its durability. The introduction of recycled aggregates (RA in concrete creates changes in their properties and differences in the results of the evaluation tests of ASR. Existing bibliography emphasizes special care in the evaluation of RA and concrete with recycled aggregate (CRA for ASR and changes are proposed to the existing test methods. There are proposals to change the accelerated test of mortar and concrete with RA to accelerate the reactions and recommendations to prevent changes in the characteristics of the RA, during the preparation of samples. Some articles recommend the pre-saturation of the AR, due to its absorption of

  14. Influence of alkali-silica reaction and crack orientation on the uniaxial compressive strength of concrete cores from slab bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio Barbosa, Ricardo; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2018-01-01

    ASR-damaged flat slab bridges in service. Furthermore, the influence of the ASR-induced crack orientation on the compressive strength and the Young’s modulus is investigated. Uniaxial compression tests, visual observations, and thin section examinations were performed on more than 100 cores drilled...... from the three severely ASR-damaged flat slab bridges. It was found that the orientation of ASR-induced cracks has a significant influence on the uniaxial compressive strength and the stress-strain relationship of the tested cores. The compressive strength in a direction parallel to ASR cracks can...

  15. Spallation reactions; Reactions de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugon, J.

    1996-12-31

    Spallation reactions dominate the interactions of hadrons with nuclei in the GeV range (from {approx} 0.1 to {approx} 10 GeV). They correspond to a sometimes important ejection of light particles leaving most of the time a residue of mass commensurate with the target mass. The main features of the experimental data are briefly reviewed. The most successful theoretical model, namely the intranuclear cascade + evaporation model, is presented. Its physical content, results and possible improvements are critically discussed. Alternative approaches are shortly reviewed. (author). 84 refs.

  16. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H; van de Ven, Anne L; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Smid, Christine A; Buchanan, Rachel M; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-08-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of 'losing sight of the forest for the trees'. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of "-omic" technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon "-omic" technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology "snapshot" of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to "self-correct" in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  18. Methods for safe and economical design of components of ABS/ABR braking systems in terms of operating stability; Methodik zur sicheren und wirtschaftlichen betriebsfesten Auslegung von Komponenten in ABS/ASR-Bremssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher-Hoechst, M. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Technisches Zentrum Schwieberdingen (Germany); Sonsino, C.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    The combination of hardware-in-the-loop simulators with stress calculation in terms of operating stability at Robert Bosch GmbH, as well as experience gathered at LBF Darmstadt with component in terms of operating stability, result in optimized design of hydraulic units for antilock systems (ABS) and acceleration skid control systems (ASC). Thus, both safety demands and economic demands are met. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die kombinierte Anwendung von Hardware-In-The-Loop-Simulatoren mit betriebsfestigkeitsgerechter Belastungserfassung bei der Robert Bosch GmbH und die beim LBF Darmstadt vorliegenden Erfahrungen bei der betriebsfesten Bauteilauslegung fuehren zu einer optimierten Auslegung und Absicherung von Hydraulikaggregaten fuer Antiblockier- und Antriebsschlupfregelungssyteme (ABS,ASR). Die wesentlichen Schritte dieses Vorgehens wurden gezeigt. Auf diese Weise ist es moeglich, den Sicherheitsanforderungen derartiger Bauteile einerseits und den wirtschaftlich-technischen Rahmenbedingungen andererseits zu entsprechen. (orig./AKF)

  19. Evaluation on an influence to turbine generator installed on a concrete foundation structure affected by alkali-silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeo Takakura; Takashi Momoo; Shigeru Harada; Yoshihisa Asai; Takashi Hosokawa

    2005-01-01

    A turbine generator to be evaluated is a one with 566 MW capacity installed on a reinforced concrete supporting structure having a table deck portion where equipments are installed and columns to support on the table deck. After the initial operation of this turbine generator started, a difference from the initial setting at an installation stage was found at turbine generator in the annual inspection on 1979. The turbine generator foundation (herein after TG foundation) had expanded mainly longitudinal direction, and it was confirmed this expansion occurred due to affected by Alkali-Silica reaction (herein after ASR) according to concrete core samples tests. The measurement for TG foundation such as displacements started at this time. On the other hand, bearing metal temperatures and shaft vibration for the turbine generator have been continuously monitored by supervisory from initial operation. No abnormal alarm or trips by extraordinary metal temperature or axle vibration of the turbine generator due to TG foundation expansion affected by ASR have been arisen. However it is required to confirm sounding of this turbine generator in order to safely operation. The purpose of this paper checked and examined allowable capacity of turbine generator and TG foundation, in order to operate continuously and safely. (authors)

  20. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Brian.

    1991-01-01

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  1. The use of lithium compounds for inhibiting alkali-aggregate reaction effects in pavement structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapała-Sławeta, J.; Owsiak, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Internal corrosion of concrete caused by the reaction of reactive aggregate with sodium and potassium hydroxides from cement is a threat to the durability of concrete pavements. Traditional methods for reducing the negative effects of the reaction include the use of unreactive aggregates, low alkali cements, mineral additives or chemical admixtures, incorporated during mixing. Lowering the relative humidity of the concrete below 80% is another measure for limiting the destructive reaction. The incorporation of lithium compounds, in particular lithium nitrate and lithium hydroxide, to the concrete mix is a method of limiting alkali-silica reaction effects. The challenge is to reduce the negative effects of aggregate reactivity in members in which the reaction has occurred because the aggregate happened to be reactive. The paper presents ways of limiting the deterioration of ASR-affected concrete in road pavements and other forms of transportation infrastructure, mainly through the use of lithium compounds, i.e. lithium nitrate. Impregnation methods that allow the penetration of lithium ions into the concrete structure were characterized, as was the effectiveness of the solutions applied.

  2. Barriers affecting successful technology enablement of supply chain: An Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, R.; Haleem, A.; Farooquie, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    In order to compete, organizations need to focus on improving supply chain and technology acts as a major enabler. Technology enablement of supply chain has not always been successful and has been examined by many researchers. The purpose of this paper is to do a systematic literature review of technology enabled supply chain from a strategic viewpoint. The literature is examined from two perspectives. Firstly, it studies the growing interest in technology-enabled supply chain in India. Secondly, it studies barriers affecting technology enablement of supply chain. The literature review identifies that technology enabled supply chain helps in improving performance via effective decision making, monitoring entire supply chain, faster reaction to customer service problems, etc. The research has emphasized the importance of 12 barriers affecting technology enablement. This research will help as a guide for practitioners in order to successfully implement technology and fills the gap in existing literature by highlighting and consolidating the significant research work done in past.

  3. Chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ou Sik; Park, Youn Yeol

    1996-12-01

    This book is about chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism. It consists of eleven chapters, which deal with reaction and reaction speed on reaction mechanism, simple reaction by rate expression, reversible reaction and simultaneous reaction, successive reaction, complicated reaction mechanism, assumption for reaction mechanism, transition state theory, successive reaction and oscillating reaction, reaction by solution, research method high except kinetics on reaction mechanism, high reaction of kinetics like pulsed radiolysis.

  4. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience.

  5. An internet enabled impact limiter material database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an internet enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The techniques used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience. (authors)

  6. An internet enabled impact limiter material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an internet enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The techniques used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience. (authors)

  7. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience

  8. Modeling of fluctuating reaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipshtat, A.; Biham, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Various dynamical systems are organized as reaction networks, where the population size of one component affects the populations of all its neighbors. Such networks can be found in interstellar surface chemistry, cell biology, thin film growth and other systems. I cases where the populations of reactive species are large, the network can be modeled by rate equations which provide all reaction rates within mean field approximation. However, in small systems that are partitioned into sub-micron size, these populations strongly fluctuate. Under these conditions rate equations fail and the master equation is needed for modeling these reactions. However, the number of equations in the master equation grows exponentially with the number of reactive species, severely limiting its feasibility for complex networks. Here we present a method which dramatically reduces the number of equations, thus enabling the incorporation of the master equation in complex reaction networks. The method is examplified in the context of reaction network on dust grains. Its applicability for genetic networks will be discussed. 1. Efficient simulations of gas-grain chemistry in interstellar clouds. Azi Lipshtat and Ofer Biham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004), 170601. 2. Modeling of negative autoregulated genetic networks in single cells. Azi Lipshtat, Hagai B. Perets, Nathalie Q. Balaban and Ofer Biham, Gene: evolutionary genomics (2004), In press

  9. The enabling approach for housing supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Hassan

    2011-12-01

    The paper attempts to highlight prerequisites needed to improve the success of the enabling approach in achieving adequate housing provision. Then the paper revisits the Egyptian experiences in the application of the enabling approach from 2005 till 2010. Finally, the paper highlights the main drops and lessons must be considered as promising approach after the revolution.

  10. The effect of covering head on the hypocalcemia caused by phototherapy in the icteric preterm infants in the Vali-e-Asr hospital in 2015; A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangoei Dovvom Samane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods to reduce serum bilirubin in neonatal jaundice that the most common of them is phototherapy and this method will cause some side effects which one of them is hypocalcemia that is occurred due to the decreased serum concentration of melatonin. This study was conducted aims to evaluate the effect of covering head on hypocalcemia caused by the phototherapy in the icteric infants in the Vali-e-Asr Hospital in 2015. in this clinical trial study, 60 preterm infants with icterus characteristics were hospitalized in NICU ward of Vali-e-Asr Hospital in Birjand at 2014 that had the inclusion criteria and were selected by available sampling and divided into two test group (30 individuals and control group (30 individuals. Infants of the control group with the routine method and infants of the test group with the use of a hat covering occiput were treated under phototherapy. Serum bilirubin and calcium were checked upon admission, 48 hours after starting phototherapy and 24 hours after discontinuation of phototherapy. Data were analyzed using the statistical software of SPSS 15 and statistical t-test at the significance level of 0.05. results showed that the average age at birth, age at phototherapy, average of bilirubin level and calcium level before intervention in the infants of both test and control groups did not have a significant difference (P>0.05. But 48 hours after starting phototherapy, the average of serum calcium in the infants of test group compared to the control group and 24 hours after discontinuation of phototherapy in the infants of control group was significantly higher (P<0.05. In other words, incidence of hypocalcemia in infants with phototherapy with hat was significantly lower than infants with routine phototherapy. In this study (53 percent of infants of the control group received 58.9 mg intravenous calcium. Only 6% of the infants in the intervention group received 10 mg intravenous calcium. covering the

  11. Selective C(sp3 )-H Aerobic Oxidation Enabled by Decatungstate Photocatalysis in Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, Gabriele; Govaerts, Sebastian; Wang, Ying; Ravelli, Davide; Koolman, Hannes F; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Djuric, Stevan W; Noël, Timothy

    2018-04-03

    A mild and selective C(sp 3 )-H aerobic oxidation enabled by decatungstate photocatalysis has been developed. The reaction can be significantly improved in a microflow reactor enabling the safe use of oxygen and enhanced irradiation of the reaction mixture. Our method allows for the oxidation of both activated and unactivated C-H bonds (30 examples). The ability to selectively oxidize natural scaffolds, such as (-)-ambroxide, pregnenolone acetate, (+)-sclareolide, and artemisinin, exemplifies the utility of this new method. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Use of Fly Ash in the Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    crystallinity of the silica and its solubility. Common reactive minerals susceptible to ASR include strained quartz, cristobalite, opal, obsidian , chert, and... obsidian .[5] Adequate Moisture Adequate moisture, the third and final necessary component for ASR to occur, is one of the key components in the

  13. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  14. Web Enabled DROLS Verity TopicSets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tong, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this effort has been the design and development of automatically generated TopicSets and HTML pages that provide the basis of the required search and browsing capability for DTIC's Web Enabled DROLS System...

  15. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the ... the scope of operations of private sector enterprises in the West Bank and Gaza. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  16. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  17. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  18. 5G-Enabled Tactile Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Simsek, Meryem; Aijaz, Adnan; Dohler, Mischa; Sachs, Joachim; Fettweis, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The long-term ambition of the Tactile Internet is to enable a democratization of skill, and how it is being delivered globally. An integral part of this is to be able to transmit touch in perceived real-time, which is enabled by suitable robotics and haptics equipment at the edges, along with an unprecedented communications network. The fifth generation (5G) mobile communications systems will underpin this emerging Internet at the wireless edge. This paper presents the most important technolo...

  19. Integrated Photonics Enabled by Slow Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Chen, Yuntian; Ek, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources.......In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources....

  20. High-temperature epoxidation of soybean oil in flow : speeding up elemental reactions wanted and unwanted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortese, B.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Hessel, V.

    2012-01-01

    The soybean oil epoxidation reaction is investigated theoretically through kinetic modeling of temperature effects enabled through flow processing under superheated conditions. Different from previous studies on such processing, here a complex reaction network superimposed by multiphase transport is

  1. Evaluation and Preliminary Design of a Stormwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) System at the Wadi Khulays Dunefield in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver M.

    2013-04-01

    An important source of freshwater in arid lands is found in groundwater aquifers that are recharged after storm events. However, most of the precipitation is lost due to evaporation and only small fractions actually recharge the aquifers. The construction of dams along wadi channels enables the retention of stormwater, however the reservoirs are still subject to huge evaporative losses and contamination. In this study, the hydraulic properties of a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia are evaluated in order to determine the feasibility of designing a stormwater storage aquifer storage and recovery facility using the dune sands as a natural medium and design recommendations are addressed. The accurate estimation of hydraulic conductivity of unlithified sediments such as dune sands has become very important in the design of natural filtration projects, including aquifer recharge and recovery systems. Therefore, a comparison and selection of methods for the determination of the hydraulic conductivity from grain size distribution found in the literature was done. An improvement to these equations based on measurements on dune samples was obtained.

  2. Enabling Open Innovation: Lessons from Haier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arie Y.Lewin; Liisa V(a)likangas; Jin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Open innovation has become a dominant innovation paradigm.However,the actual adoption of open innovation organizational designs and practices remains elusive,and ongoing examples of large companies practicing open innovation in mature industries or beyond R&D activities are rare.Despite the continuing interest in open innovation and the surging research on the topic,not much is documented about how,in particular,large companies interpret and implement open innovation or develop and sustain an innovation-enabling culture.This paper reports on a study of Haier's adoption of six radical innovations as it implements an open innovation organization over a period of seven years.The study is unique in that the cases reveal how open innovation is enabled by the socially enabling mechanisms developed under Chairman Ruimin Zhang's leadership.These varied enabling mechanisms open the organization to serendipity at every level,from the bottom up to suppliers.Most importantly,the mechanisms imprint and sustain an open innovation culture recognized as important-yet often left unarticulated in terms of how it is practiced-in the prior literature.The paper contributes to and highlights the centrality of socially enabling mechanisms underlying an organization's innovation absorptive capacity.

  3. Nanomaterial-Enabled Wearable Sensors for Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Swetha, Puchakayala; Zhu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive wearable sensors that can be conformably attached to human skin or integrated with textiles to monitor the physiological parameters of human body or the surrounding environment have garnered tremendous interest. Owing to the large surface area and outstanding material properties, nanomaterials are promising building blocks for wearable sensors. Recent advances in the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors including temperature, electrophysiological, strain, tactile, electrochemical, and environmental sensors are presented in this review. Integration of multiple sensors for multimodal sensing and integration with other components into wearable systems are summarized. Representative applications of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors for healthcare, including continuous health monitoring, daily and sports activity tracking, and multifunctional electronic skin are highlighted. Finally, challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives in the field of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The ENABLER - Based on proven NERVA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.M.; Pierce, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial mass in low Earth orbit and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tommorrow's space propulsion needs

  5. The ENABLER - Based on proven NERVA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Julie M.; Pierce, Bill L.

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial mass in low Earth orbit and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tommorrow's space propulsion needs.

  6. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  7. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  8. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    2004-01-01

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characterized...... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. It is therefore particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context aware.Mobile...

  9. Deep eutectic solvents as performance additives in biphasic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Dongming; Wang, Xuping; Zhou, Pengfei; Hollmann, F.; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents act as surfactants in biphasic (hydrophobic/aqueous) reaction mixtures enabling higher interfacial surface areas at lower mechanical stress as compared to simple emulsions. Exploiting this effect the rate of a chemoenzymatic epoxidation reaction was increased more than

  10. Nondestructive analysis of alkali-silica reaction damage in concrete slabs using shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanovich, Lev; Freeseman, Katelyn; Salles, Lucio; Clayton, Dwight

    2018-04-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is the chemical reaction that occurs in concrete. It is caused by the interaction of alkalis in Portland cement and silica in aggregates and results in microcracks within the material. This type of damage has been the focus of nondestructive evaluation efforts in recent history, but no work was done on in-situ structures or large-scale samples. To address these limitations, an ultrasonic linear array device, MIRA, was utilized for this research. An experimental investigation was performed on four slabs with various levels of alkali-silica reaction at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) [1]. One-period impulses with a target of 50kHz center frequency were selected in this study. We propose the use of the Hilbert Transform Indicator (HTI) for quantification of ASR damage [2]. A higher HTI value would be indicative of damaged concrete, while a low value represents sound concrete. In general, values below 90 are regarded as an indicator of sound concrete while values above 100 indicate the presence of damage [3]. The ability of the HTI values to distinguish between areas of damaged concrete was evident via the production of color intensity maps. The maps show that the control specimen, was in good condition, while other slabs exhibited higher levels of damage as indicated by the HTI values. It should be noted that extreme damage conditions were not present in any of the slabs. Evaluation of migration-based reconstructions can give a qualitative characterization of large scale or excessive subsurface damage. However, for detection of stochastic damage mechanisms such as freeze-thaw damage, evaluation of the individual time-history data can provide additional information. A comparison of the spatially diverse measurements on several concrete slabs with varying freeze-thaw damage levels is given in this study. Signal characterization scans of different levels of freeze-thaw damage at various transducer spacing is investigated. The

  11. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  12. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  13. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, and their extreme dependence on foreign assistance and Israeli-controlled customs revenues, had led to the conclusion that the Palestinian ...

  14. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the ... Impact of implementing the Palestinian banking law on the performance of the private sector [Arabic language]. Documents. Impact of the commercial agents law ...

  15. Enabling DRM-preserving Digital content Redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan Nair, S.; Popescu, B.C.; Gamage, C.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of online digital content distribution has involved a limited number of centralised distributors selling protected contents and licenses authorising the use of the se contents, to consumers. In this paper, we extend this model by introducing a security scheme that enables

  16. Enablements and constraints to school leadership practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many schools in developing countries which, despite the challenges they face, defy the odds and continue to perform at exceptionally high levels. We cast our gaze on one of these resilient schools in South Africa, and sought to learn about the leadership practices prevalent in this school and the enablements and ...

  17. Sustainable Venture Capital Investments: An Enabler Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antarciuc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Investing in sustainable projects can help tackle the current sustainability challenges. Venture capital investments can contribute significantly to the growth of sustainable start-ups. Sustainable venture capital (SVC research is just emerging. This paper identifies enablers for sustainable venture capital investments in Saudi Arabia taking into account different stakeholders and firm’s tangible and intangible resources. Using perspectives from venture capital experts in Saudi Arabia and the grey-based Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL method, this study pinpoints the most critical enablers and investigates their causal and effect interconnections. The methodological process consists of reviewing the SVC literature and consulting the experts to identify the SVC enablers, creating a questionnaire, acquiring the answers from four experts, analyzing the data with grey-based DEMATEL and performing a sensitivity analysis. The government use of international standards, policies and regulations for sustainable investments, the commitment of the venture capitalists to sustainability and their deep understanding of sustainable business models are the most influential enablers. The paper concludes with implications for different actors, limitations and prospective directions for the sustainable venture capital research.

  18. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 [WC Docket No. 04-36; FCC 09-40] IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date... Internet Protocol (VoIP) service the discontinuance obligations that apply to domestic non-dominant...

  19. Extreme Networks' 10-Gigabit Ethernet enables

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    " Extreme Networks, Inc.'s 10-Gigabit switching platform enabled researchers to transfer one Terabyte of information from Vancouver to Geneva across a single network hop, the world's first large-scale, end-to-end transfer of its kind" (1/2 page).

  20. Treatment and Managing Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... a severe reaction. Consider wearing an emergency medical identification (e.g., bracelet, other jewelry). What to Read ...

  1. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng [Irvine, CA; Sui, Guodong [Los Angeles, CA; Elizarov, Arkadij [Valley Village, CA; Kolb, Hartmuth C [Playa del Rey, CA; Huang, Jiang [San Jose, CA; Heath, James R [South Pasadena, CA; Phelps, Michael E [Los Angeles, CA; Quake, Stephen R [Stanford, CA; Tseng, Hsian-rong [Los Angeles, CA; Wyatt, Paul [Tipperary, IE; Daridon, Antoine [Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  2. Preequilibrium Nuclear Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmaier, B.

    1988-01-01

    After a survey on existing experimental data on precompound reactions and a description of preequilibrium reactions, theoretical models and quantum mechanical theories of preequilibrium emission are presented. The 25 papers of this meeting are analyzed separately

  3. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Managing Your Emotional Reactions KidsHealth / For Teens / Managing Your Emotional Reactions ... Think about what you might do next time. Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our ...

  4. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    array (CLARA), extensive investigations of nuclear structure and reaction dynamics have been carried out. In the present paper aspects of these studies will be presented, focussing more closely on the reaction mechanism, in particular on the ...

  5. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  6. Thermonuclear reaction rates. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Fowler, W.A.; Caughlan, G.R.; Zimmerman, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Stellar thermonuclear reaction rates are revised and updated, adding a number of new important reaction rates. Several reactions with large negative Q-values are included, and examples of them are discussed. The importance of the decay rates for Mg-26(p,n) exp 26 Al and Al-26(n,p) exp 26 Mg for stellar studies is emphasized. 19 references

  7. Maillard Reaction: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia d'Almeida Francisquini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction is an important subject of study in food science and technology and different areas of knowledge are involved such as chemistry, food engineering, nutrition and food technology. The objective of this paper is to present the basic concepts of the Maillard reaction, such as the reaction stages, the main compounds producced and some technological consequences for dairy products.

  8. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-function is discussed in physical terms

  9. Enabling ICU patients to die at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Emma; Bates, Lucy; Liderth, Emma; Jones, Samantha; Sheen, Sheryl; Ginty, Andrew; Northmore, Melanie

    2014-10-07

    There is often an overlap between intensive care medicine and palliative medicine. When all curative treatment options have been explored, keeping the patient comfortable and free from pain is the main concern for healthcare practitioners. Patient autonomy in end of life decisions has not been encouraged in the intensive care unit (ICU), until now, because of its specialised and technical nature. Staff at the Royal Bolton Hospital have broken down the barriers to enabling ICU patients to die in their own homes, and have developed a system of collaborative working that can help to fulfil a patient's final wish to go home. This article describes how ICU staff developed a process that enabled two ventilated patients to be transferred home for end of life care.

  10. Femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathish Shivanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the efficacy and advantages of femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty (FLEK over conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in advanced keratoconus. Materials and Methods: Detailed review of literature of published randomized controlled trials of operative techniques in PKP and FLEK. Results: Fifteen studies were identified, analyzed, and compared with our outcome. FLEK was found to have better outcome in view of better and earlier stabilization uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and better refractive outcomes with low astigmatism as compared with conventional PKP. Wound healing also was noticed to be earlier, enabling early suture removal in FLEK. Conclusions: Studies relating to FLEK have shown better results than conventional PKP, however further studies are needed to assess the safety and intraoperative complications of the procedure.

  11. Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    far less attention compared to the theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems. Harvesting the full potential of modularization, particularly in relation to product development agility, depends on more than an optimal architecture. Key enablers in this context......Although modularization is becoming both a well-described domain in academia and a broadly applied concept in business, many of today’s firm still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received...... are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...

  12. NASP - Enabling new space launch options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froning, David; Gaubatz, William; Mathews, George

    1990-10-01

    Successful NASP developments in the United States are bringing about the possibility of effective, fully reusable vehicles for transport of people and cargo between earth and space. These developments include: extension of airbreathing propulsion to a much higher speed; densification of propellants for greater energy per unit volume of mass; structures with much greater strength-to-weight at high temperatures; computational advancements that enable more optimal design and integration of airframes, engines and controls; and advances in avionics, robotics, artificial intelligence and automation that enable accomplishment of earth-to-orbit (ETO) operations with much less manpower support and cost. This paper describes the relative magnitude of improvement that these developments may provide.

  13. Enabling Sustainable Improvement in IT Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Renaud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Firms must embrace processes that enable the information technology (IT function to become a strategic partner to the business functions it serves. Process ambidexterity is a way for processes to be augmented to improve alignment and adaptability to new markets and technologies. By applying the principles of process ambidexterity, the key elements required for sustainable change within the capabilities that comprise the IT function of the firm are identified. Furthermore, the scope and depth of the dysfunction that is widespread across large firms that depend upon IT are outlined to provide a contextual basis for presenting a solution framework to address sustainable change. This framework for sustainable change is of primary benefit to IT executives seeking to systematically transform the IT function and enable IT entrepreneurship.

  14. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characteriz...... and accumulates the routes of a user along with their usage patterns and that makes the routes available to services. Experiences from using the component on logs of GPS positions acquired from vehicles traveling within a real road network are reported....... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. Under such circumstances, it is particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context...

  15. Ethics case reflection sessions: Enablers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Molewijk, Bert; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2018-03-01

    In previous research on ethics case reflection (ECR) sessions about specific cases, healthcare professionals in childhood cancer care were clarifying their perspectives on the ethical issue to resolve their main concern of consolidating care. When perspectives were clarified, consequences in the team included 'increased understanding', 'group strengthening' and 'decision grounding'. Additional analysis of the data was needed on conditions that could contribute to the quality of ECR sessions. The aim of this study was to explore conditions for clarifying perspectives during ECR sessions. Data were collected from observations and interviews and the results emerged from an inductive analysis using grounded theory. Participants and research context: Six observations during ECR sessions and 10 interviews were performed with healthcare professionals working in childhood cancer care and advanced paediatric homecare. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Participants were informed about their voluntary involvement and that they could withdraw their participation without explaining why. Two categories emerged: organizational enablers and barriers and team-related enablers and barriers. Organizational enablers and barriers included the following sub-categories: the timing of the ECR session, the structure during the ECR session and the climate during the ECR session. Sub-categories to team-related enablers and barriers were identified as space for inter-professional perspectives, varying levels of ethical skills and space for the patient's and the family's perspectives. Space for inter-professional perspectives included the dominance of a particular perspective that can result from hierarchical positions. The medical perspective is relevant for understanding the child's situation but should not dominate the ethical reflection. Conditions for ECR sessions have been explored and the new knowledge can be used when training

  16. Contextual Interaction Design Research: Enabling HCI

    OpenAIRE

    Murer , Martin; Meschtscherjakov , Alexander; Fuchsberger , Verena; Giuliani , Manuel; Neureiter , Katja; Moser , Christiane; Aslan , Ilhan; Tscheligi , Manfred

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has always been about humans, their needs and desires. Contemporary HCI thinking investigates interactions in everyday life and puts an emphasis on the emotional and experiential qualities of interactions. At the Center for Human-Computer Interaction we seek to bridge meandering strands in the field by following a guiding metaphor that shifts focus to what has always been the core quality of our research field: Enabling HCI, as a leitmo...

  17. IT Enabled Agility in Organizational Ambidexterity

    OpenAIRE

    Röder, Nina; Schermann, Michael; Krcmar, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The aim of ambidextrous organizations is to balance exploratory and exploitative learning concepts. They innovate through experiments and research, and capture the value of innovations through refinement and continuous improvement. In this paper, we study the relationship of organizational ambidexterity and IT enabled agility. Based on a case study with a German car manufacturer we find that (1) entrepreneurial agility impedes exploitative concepts, (2) adaptive agility impedes exploratory co...

  18. Naval Science & Technology: Enabling the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    corn for disruptive technologies Laser Cooling Spintronics Bz 1st U.S. Intel satellite GRAB Semiconductors GaAs, GaN, SiC GPS...Payoff • Innovative and game-changing • Approved by Corporate Board • Delivers prototype Innovative Naval Prototypes (5-10 Year) Disruptive ... Technologies Free Electron Laser Integrated Topside EM Railgun Sea Base Enablers Tactical Satellite Large Displacement UUV AACUS Directed

  19. Insights into the mechanisms on chemical reactions: reaction paths for chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Rosen, E.; Eades, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    We report reaction paths for two prototypical chemical reactions: Li + HF, an electron transfer reaction, and OH + H 2 , an abstraction reaction. In the first reaction we consider the connection between the energetic terms in the reaction path Hamiltonian and the electronic changes which occur upon reaction. In the second reaction we consider the treatment of vibrational effects in chemical reactions in the reaction path formalism. 30 refs., 9 figs

  20. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  1. Identifying enabling management practices for employee engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Joubert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A currently emerging viewpoint is that today's management practices no longer add value to organisations. The focus of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the scholarly literature on management practices that could be related to employee engagement. Research purpose: This study searched for evidence in support of the notion of a management value chain, and enabling management practices within each value chain component that could relate to employee engagement. Motivation for the study: An alternative management value chain model could contribute towards a better understanding of which management practices may potentially impact employee engagement. Research design, approach, and method: This is a non-empirical (theoretical study, based on a systematic, in-depth literature review to identify the key management components and enabling practices within this proposed management value chain. Scholarly research databases were sourced for relevant peer reviewed research conducted since 1990, not excluding important contributions prior to 1990. The literature was systematically searched, selected, studied, and contextualized within this study. Main findings: Support was found for the notion of a management value chain, for enabling management practices within each proposed management value chain component, and it was also established these management practices indeed have an impact on employee engagement. Practical/managerial/implications: The possibility that management work can be presented as a generic management value chain allows managers to approach engaging management practices more systematically. Contribution/value-add: This study highlights the importance of some management practices that have never been seen as part of management work.

  2. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  3. Thermodynamic theory of dislocation-enabled plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermodynamic theory of dislocation-enabled plasticity is based on two unconventional hypotheses. The first of these is that a system of dislocations, driven by external forces and irreversibly exchanging heat with its environment, must be characterized by a thermodynamically defined effective temperature that is not the same as the ordinary temperature. The second hypothesis is that the overwhelmingly dominant mechanism controlling plastic deformation is thermally activated depinning of entangled pairs of dislocations. This paper consists of a systematic reformulation of this theory followed by examples of its use in analyses of experimentally observed phenomena including strain hardening, grain-size (Hall-Petch) effects, yielding transitions, and adiabatic shear banding.

  4. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  5. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  6. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V. Ley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future.

  7. Blended Learning: enabling Higher Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Matheos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning research and practice have been areas of growth for two decades in Canada, with over 95% of Canadian higher education institutions involved in some form of blended learning. Despite strong evidence based research and practice blended learning, for the most part, has remained at sidelined in Canadian universities. The article argues the need for blended learning to situate itself within the timely and crucial Higher Education Reform (HER agenda. By aligning the affordances of blended learning with the components of HER, blended learning can clearly serve as an enabler for HER.

  8. Product Line Enabled Intelligent Mobile Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2007-01-01

    research project called PLIMM that focuses on user-centered application scenarios. PLIMM is designed based on software product line ideas which make it possible for specialized customization and optimization for different purposes and hardware/software platforms. To enable intelligence, the middleware...... needs access to a range of context models. We model these contexts with OWL, focusing on user-centered concepts. The basic building block of PLIMM is the enhanced BDI agent where OWL context ontology logic reasoning will add indirect beliefs to the belief sets. Our approach also addresses the handling...

  9. Framework for Enabling User-Generated Content

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Karin H

    2012-01-01

    User-generated content, UGC, is a modern topic today and refers to media and creative works created by Internet users and posted on the Internet. More and more application developers wants to offer sharing functionalities in their applications and on their websites. The alternatives of doing so today are to use UGC platforms API, like Facebook and Twitter, to upload the content to that specific platform or to implement the framework ShareKit that enables the user to share their content on mul...

  10. Enabling information sharing in a port

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Peter Bjerg; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2012-01-01

    Ports are integral parts of many supply chains and are as such a contributing factor to the overall efficiency of the supply chain. Ports are also dynamic entities where things changes continuously. The dynamic nature of ports is also a problem when trying to optimise the utilisation of resources...... and ensure a low lead-time. Information sharing is a very important tool to reduce the effect of dynamism. This paper attempts to explain how information sharing is enabled in such an environment, and which considerations are relevant, both in regards to the information and required technology. The paper...

  11. Nanoarchitecture Control Enabled by Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Heather A.; Limmer, Krista R.; Labukas, Joseph P.

    2017-04-01

    Ionic liquids have many advantages over traditional aqueous electrosynthesis for fabrication of functional nanoarchitectures, including enabling the integration of nanoparticles into traditional coatings, superhydrophobicity, nanofoams, and other hierarchical structures. Shape and size control through ionic liquid selection and processing conditions can synthesize nanoparticles and nanoarchitectures without the use of capping agents, surfactants, or templates that are often deleterious to the functionality of the resultant system. Here we give a brief overview of some recent and interesting applications of ionic liquids to the synthesis of nanoparticles and nanoarchitectures.

  12. Principles for enabling deep secondary design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    2017-01-01

    design by analyzing two cases where secondary designers fundamentally change functionality, content and technology complexity level. The first case redesigns a decision model for agile development in an insurance company; the second creates a contingency model for choosing project management tools...... and techniques in a hospital. Our analysis of the two cases leads to the identification of four principles of design implementation that primary designers can apply to enable secondary design and four corresponding design implementation principles that secondary designers themselves need to apply....

  13. Noncanonical Reactions of Flavoenzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sobrado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes containing flavin cofactors are predominantly involved in redox reactions in numerous cellular processes where the protein environment modulates the chemical reactivity of the flavin to either transfer one or two electrons. Some flavoenzymes catalyze reactions with no net redox change. In these reactions, the protein environment modulates the reactivity of the flavin to perform novel chemistries. Recent mechanistic and structural data supporting novel flavin functionalities in reactions catalyzed by chorismate synthase, type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, UDP-galactopyranose mutase, and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase are presented in this review. In these enzymes, the flavin plays either a direct role in acid/base reactions or as a nucleophile or electrophile. In addition, the flavin cofactor is proposed to function as a “molecular scaffold” in the formation of UDP-galactofuranose and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate by forming a covalent adduct with reaction intermediates.

  14. Nuclear reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.M.; Lacey, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Research focused on the statistical and dynamical properties of ''hot'' nuclei formed in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. Theses included ''flow'' measurements and the mechanism for multifragment disassembly. Model calculations are being performed for the reactions C+C, Ne+Al, Ar+Sc, Kr+Nb, and Xe+La. It is planned to study 40 Ar reactions from 27 to 115 MeV/nucleon. 2 figs., 41 refs

  15. Knock-out reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Forest, T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    It is pointed out that the primary motivation for performing high energy single nucleon knock-out reactions is based on the concept of quasi-elastic scattering. The validity of and corrections to the partial wave impulse approximation and kinematical invariance of knock-out reactions and tests of the reaction mechanism are treated. The effect of distortions on the momentum distribution in the effective momentum approximation for given parameters are plotted. 12 references

  16. Reaction kinetics of polybutylene terephthalate polycondensation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darda, P. J.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.; Souren, F.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of the forward polycondensation reaction of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) has been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PBT - prepolymer with an initial degree of polymerization of 5.5 was used as starting material. The PBT prepolymer was prepared from dimethyl

  17. Thermonuclear reaction listing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Yuzo

    1993-01-01

    The following 10 elements, including T, are well known as nuclear fusion fuels: p, D, T, 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 9 Be, 10 B, 11 B, ( 12 C, 13 C), where 12 C and 13 C are considered only in the calculation of Q value. Accordingly the number of the thermonuclear reactions is 55, and 78, if including carbon elements. The reactions have some branches. For the branches having two and three reaction products, the reaction products, Q value and threshold energy are calculated by using a computer. We have investigated those of the branches having more than three products from the papers of Ajzenberg-Selove and so on. And also, by the same papers, we check whether the above mentioned branch has been observed or not. The results are as follows: (I) the number of reactions which have Q 0 branches only with γ ray production, and Q 0 and neutron production is 36(17), and (IV) that of reactions whose branch with Q > 0 does not produce neutrons is 9(3). The value in the parentheses shows the number of the case of the carbon elements. For 55 thermonuclear reactions induced by lighter nuclides than 11 B, the reaction products, the values of Q and threshold energy, and the papers with reaction cross section data are presented in the tables. (author)

  18. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M Allen [Berkeley, CA; Beeman, Barton V [San Mateo, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Hadley, Dean R [Manteca, CA; Landre, Phoebe [Livermore, CA; Lehew, Stacy L [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter A [Pleasanton, CA

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  19. Tattoo reaction: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea. In this series we present three cases of tattoo reaction.

  20. Acoustic modelling of Sepedi affricates for ASR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Modipa_2010.pdf_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1134 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Modipa_2010.pdf_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1...

  1. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  2. Enablers of and barriers to abortion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L

    2013-06-01

    Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs.

  3. Enabling technologies for oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    A review of oil sands production and expansion possibilities in Alberta were presented. The enabling technologies for oil sands projects include mining (bucketwheels, draglines, trucks, shovels conveyors, slurry hydrotransport); extraction (conditioning tumblers, pipelines, tanks, hot water, caustic, cold water, frothers); froth cleaning (centrifuges, solvent treatment); tailings (tailings ponds, consolidated tailings); and upgrading (coking, hydrotreating for SCO, hydrocracking and multiple products). The enabling technologies for in situ production include cyclic steam stimulation for vertical wells, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for dual horizontal wells, and cold production with wormholes. This paper described the recovery potentials of each of these processes. It also discussed the role of government and industry in research and cooperative research involving both the private and public sectors. Examples of each of these were described such as SAGD, the OSLO cold water extraction process, The consolidated tailings (CT) project, the low energy extraction process (slurry production, hydrotransport, pipeline conditioning and warm water extraction), and research in fine tailings, to demonstrate that although objectives may differ, government and industry research objectives are complementary

  4. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking

  6. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  7. ASTERIA: Arcsecond Space Telescope Enabling Research in Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, M.; Seager, S.; Smith, M. W.; Pong, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    ASTERIA (Arcsecond Space Telescope Enabling Research in Astrophysics) is a technology demonstration and opportunistic science mission to advance the state of the art in CubeSat capabilities for astrophysical measurements. The goal of ASTERIA is to achieve arcsecond-level line of sight pointing error and highly stable focal plane temperature control. These technologies will enable precision photometry, i.e. the careful measurement of stellar brightness over time. This in turn provides a way to study stellar activity, transiting exoplanets, and other astrophysical phenomena, both during the ASTERIA mission and in future CubeSat constellations. ASTERIA is a 6U CubeSat (roughly 10 x 20 x 30 cm, 12 kg) that will operate in low-Earth orbit. The payload consists of a lens and baffle assembly, a CMOS imager, and a two-axis piezoelectric positioning stage on which the focal plane is mounted. A set of commercial reaction wheels provides coarse attitude control. Fine pointing control is achieved by tracking a set of guide stars on the CMOS sensor and moving the piezoelectric stage to compensate for residual pointing errors. Precision thermal control is achieved by isolating the payload from the spacecraft bus, passively cooling the detector, and using trim heaters to perform small temperature corrections over the course of an observation. The ASTERIA project is a collaboration with MIT and is funded at JPL through the Phaeton Program for training early career employees. Flight hardware was delivered in June 2017, with launch expected in August 2017 and deployment targeted for October 2017.

  8. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  9. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described

  10. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab

  11. Fluorogenic organocatalytic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeisolsadati Oskouei, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce fluorescence spectroscopy as a new tool to gain insight into the interactions between the substrates and catalyst during organocatalytic reactions. The ultimate goal is to resolve the kinetics of the binding and reaction steps and obtain detailed understanding of the

  12. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  13. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ... leave the person alone and watch carefully for reactions affecting the entire body. Note: If a chemical gets into the eyes, the eyes should be ...

  14. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  15. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  16. Technology enabled evolutions in liquids marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, S.

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation, mergers, changing economic conditions, and downsizing have captured the headlines in the energy industry in recent times. To say that companies have struggled to react to these changes would be an understatement. Huge trading organizations have grown from nothing in a few years, while entire industry segments have been forced to restructure themselves. Information technology has enabled much of this change. By bringing information management out of the back office and onto the trading floors, companies have radically redesigned their work processes. The future promises even faster change, with business focus turning to innovative packaging of services with products, expanding asset bases, and reducing costs. Information technology will fuel this transformation by providing enterprise-wide trading solutions and, ultimately, linking the entire industry into a virtual supply chain. To remain competitive, companies need a strategy to manage information technology as a core asset

  17. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufnagel, Dick [Fermilab

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  18. Enabling MEMS technologies for communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Barber, Bradley P.; Arney, Susanne

    2001-11-01

    Modern communications demands have been steadily growing not only in size, but sophistication. Phone calls over copper wires have evolved into high definition video conferencing over optical fibers, and wireless internet browsing. The technology used to meet these demands is under constant pressure to provide increased capacity, speed, and efficiency, all with reduced size and cost. Various MEMS technologies have shown great promise for meeting these challenges by extending the performance of conventional circuitry and introducing radical new systems approaches. A variety of strategic MEMS structures including various cost-effective free-space optics and high-Q RF components are described, along with related practical implementation issues. These components are rapidly becoming essential for enabling the development of progressive new communications systems technologies including all-optical networks, and low cost multi-system wireless terminals and basestations.

  19. Enabling Indoor Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura

    Indoor spaces have always attracted interest from different scientific disciplines. Relatively recent interest in indoor settings by computer scientists is driven in part by the increasing use of smartphones, which serve as a platform for service delivery and can generate extensive volumes...... of trajectory data that can be used to study how people actually use indoor spaces. In this dissertation, we contribute partial solutions that address challenges in indoor positioning and indoor trajectory management and analysis. The key enabler of indoor location-based services and indoor movement analysis...... is a well-functioning positioning system that can be easily deployed in most public places. Different technologies are able to provide indoor positioning with different accuracy and coverage, but it is difficult to find a technology that by itself can provide good positioning in the many different layouts...

  20. Enabling women to achieve their breastfeeding goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M

    2014-03-01

    In mammalian physiology, lactation follows pregnancy, and disruption of this physiology is associated with adverse health outcomes for mother and child. Although lactation is the physiologic norm, cultural norms for infant feeding have changed dramatically over the past century. Breastfeeding initiation fell from 70% in the early 1900s to 22% in 1972. In the past 40 years, rates have risen substantially, to 77% in 2010. Although more mothers are initiating breastfeeding, many report that they do not continue as long as they desire. As reproductive health care experts, obstetricians are uniquely positioned to assist women to make an informed feeding decision, offer anticipatory guidance, support normal lactation physiology, and evaluate and treat breastfeeding complications. Integration of care among the obstetrician, pediatric provider, and lactation consultant may enable more women to achieve their breastfeeding goals, thereby improving health outcomes across two generations.

  1. Flexibility-enabling Contracts in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    As the share of intermittent renewable energy increases in the generation mix, power systems are exposed to greater levels of uncertainty and risk, which requires planners, policy and business decision makers to incentivise flexibility, that is: their adaptability to unforeseen variations....... Additionally, along with traditional sources, which already enable flexibility, a number of business models, such as thermostat-based demand response, aggregators and small storage providers, are emerging in electricity markets and expected to constitute important sources of flexibility in future decentralised...... power systems. However, due to presence of high transaction costs, relative to the size of resource, the emerging small resources cannot directly participate in an organised electricity market and/or compete. This paper asks the fundamental question of how should the provision of flexibility, as a multi...

  2. Provision of enabling technology in professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, D K

    2000-06-01

    Multiple-round golf tournaments are designed intentionally to separate individuals' scores as play proceeds. Variance analyses and consideration of individual differences (vs group mean effects) for a sample of professional events confirm that 3-, 4-, and 5-round tournaments show significantly increased variability (though stable means) from first to last rounds. It is argued here that the dispersion of scores increases as play proceeds because the more physically or mentally fit players emerge and continue to perform best. Furthermore, a marginal income analysis indicates that the average gain in earnings from a one-shot improvement in score is approximately $8,000. An interpretation based on fatigue, competition, and stress supports the Professional Golf Association's claim that provision of enabling devices, like a golf cart for disabled players, is also an enhancement and is thus unfair.

  3. Bluetooth-enabled teleradiology: applications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Angela M

    2002-01-01

    Wireless personal area networks and local area networks are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the teleradiology and telemedicine industry. Although there has been much debate about the role that Bluetooth will play in the future of wireless technology, both promoters and doubters acknowledge that Bluetooth will have an impact on networking, even if only as a "niche" product. This article provides an overview of the Bluetooth standard and highlights current and future areas of inclusion for use in a teleradiology environment. The possibilities for Bluetooth in a teleradiology environment without wires are nearly boundless and an overview of current and proposed Bluetooth-enabled radiology equipment and vendors is provided. A comparison of Bluetooth and other wireless technologies is provided, including areas of similarity and potential conflict. Bluetooth and other wireless technologies can not only peacefully coexist but also complement each other and provide enhanced teleradiology services.

  4. Metasurface-Enabled Remote Quantum Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj K; Ni, Xingjie; Wu, Chihhui; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-07-10

    An anisotropic quantum vacuum (AQV) opens novel pathways for controlling light-matter interaction in quantum optics, condensed matter physics, etc. Here, we theoretically demonstrate a strong AQV over macroscopic distances enabled by a judiciously designed array of subwavelength-scale nanoantennas-a metasurface. We harness the phase-control ability and the polarization-dependent response of the metasurface to achieve strong anisotropy in the decay rate of a quantum emitter located over distances of hundreds of wavelengths. Such an AQV induces quantum interference among radiative decay channels in an atom with orthogonal transitions. Quantum vacuum engineering with metasurfaces holds promise for exploring new paradigms of long-range light-matter interaction for atom optics, solid-state quantum optics, quantum information processing, etc.

  5. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  6. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.

    1977-06-01

    To complement discussions on the role of γ rays in heavy ion induced reactions, the author discusses the role played by particle detection. Transfer reactions are part of this subject and are among those in which one infers the properties of the residual nucleus in a reaction by observing the emerging light nucleus. Inelastic scattering ought not be excluded from this subject, although no particles are transferred, because of the role it plays in multistep reactions and in fixing O.M. parameters describing the entrance channel of the reaction. Heavy ion transfer reaction studies have been under study for some years and yet this research is still in its infancy. The experimental techniques are difficult and the demands on theory rigorous. One of the main products of heavy ion research has been the thrust to re-examine the assumptions of reaction theory and now include many effects neglected for light ion analysis. This research has spurred the addition of multistep processes to simple direct processes and coupled channel calculations. (J.R.)

  7. Enhancing chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of enhancing selected chemical reactions. The population of a selected high vibrational energy state of a reactant molecule is increased substantially above its population at thermal equilibrium by directing onto the molecule a beam of radiant energy from a laser having a combination of frequency and intensity selected to pump the selected energy state, and the reaction is carried out with the temperature, pressure, and concentrations of reactants maintained at a combination of values selected to optimize the reaction in preference to thermal degradation by transforming the absorbed energy into translational motion. The reaction temperature is selected to optimize the reaction. Typically a laser and a frequency doubler emit radiant energy at frequencies of .nu. and 2.nu. into an optical dye within an optical cavity capable of being tuned to a wanted frequency .delta. or a parametric oscillator comprising a non-centrosymmetric crystal having two indices of refraction, to emit radiant energy at the frequencies of .nu., 2.nu., and .delta. (and, with a parametric oscillator, also at 2.nu.-.delta.). Each unwanted frequency is filtered out, and each desired frequency is focused to the desired radiation flux within a reaction chamber and is reflected repeatedly through the chamber while reactants are fed into the chamber and reaction products are removed therefrom.

  8. Realising the Uncertainty Enabled Model Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, D.; Bastin, L.; Pebesma, E. J.; Williams, M.; Stasch, C.; Jones, R.; Gerharz, L.

    2012-12-01

    The FP7 funded UncertWeb project aims to create the "uncertainty enabled model web". The central concept here is that geospatial models and data resources are exposed via standard web service interfaces, such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) suite of encodings and interface standards, allowing the creation of complex workflows combining both data and models. The focus of UncertWeb is on the issue of managing uncertainty in such workflows, and providing the standards, architecture, tools and software support necessary to realise the "uncertainty enabled model web". In this paper we summarise the developments in the first two years of UncertWeb, illustrating several key points with examples taken from the use case requirements that motivate the project. Firstly we address the issue of encoding specifications. We explain the usage of UncertML 2.0, a flexible encoding for representing uncertainty based on a probabilistic approach. This is designed to be used within existing standards such as Observations and Measurements (O&M) and data quality elements of ISO19115 / 19139 (geographic information metadata and encoding specifications) as well as more broadly outside the OGC domain. We show profiles of O&M that have been developed within UncertWeb and how UncertML 2.0 is used within these. We also show encodings based on NetCDF and discuss possible future directions for encodings in JSON. We then discuss the issues of workflow construction, considering discovery of resources (both data and models). We discuss why a brokering approach to service composition is necessary in a world where the web service interfaces remain relatively heterogeneous, including many non-OGC approaches, in particular the more mainstream SOAP and WSDL approaches. We discuss the trade-offs between delegating uncertainty management functions to the service interfaces themselves and integrating the functions in the workflow management system. We describe two utility services to address

  9. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  10. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  11. Firefighter Nozzle Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Selena K.; Sunderland, Peter B.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    to anchor forces, the hose becomes straight. The nozzle reaction is found to equal the jet momentum flow rate, and it does not change when an elbow connects the hose to the nozzle. A forward force must be exerted by a firefighter or another anchor that matches the forward force that the jet would exert...... on a perpendicular wall. Three reaction expressions are derived, allowing it to be determined in terms of hose diameter, jet diameter, flow rate, and static pressure upstream of the nozzle. The nozzle reaction predictions used by the fire service are 56% to 90% of those obtained here for typical firefighting hand...

  12. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamchand, S.S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  13. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating the potential of an all-wireless aircraft as part of the ECON (Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations using Software Intensive, Networked and Wireless Enabled Architecture) seedling proposal, which is funded by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, Transformative Aeronautics Concepts (TAC) program, and NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The project consists of a brief effort carried out by a small team in the Electromagnetic Environment Effects (E3) laboratory with the intention of exposing some of the challenges faced by a wireless communication system inside the reflective cavity of an aircraft and to explore potential solutions that take advantage of that environment for constructive gain. The research effort was named EWAIC for "Enabling Wireless Aircraft Intra-communications." The E3 laboratory is a research facility that includes three electromagnetic reverberation chambers and equipment that allow testing and generation of test data for the investigation of wireless systems in reflective environments. Using these chambers, the EWAIC team developed a set of tests and setups that allow the intentional variation of intensity of a multipath field to reproduce the environment of the various bays and cabins of large transport aircraft. This setup, in essence, simulates an aircraft environment that allows the investigation and testing of wireless communication protocols that can effectively be used as a tool to mitigate some of the risks inherent to an aircraft wireless system for critical functions. In addition, the EWAIC team initiated the development of a computational modeling tool to illustrate the propagation of EM waves inside the reflective cabins and bays of aircraft and to obtain quantifiable information regarding the degradation of signals in aircraft subassemblies. The nose landing gear of a UAV CAD model was used

  14. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamchand, S.S.; Sony, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  15. Post-translational regulation enables robust p53 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Chen, Kai-Yuan; Sayed, Ali H; Hencey, Brandon; Shen, Xiling

    2013-08-30

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in DNA damage repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Due to its critical functions, the level of p53 is tightly regulated by a negative feedback mechanism to increase its tolerance towards fluctuations and disturbances. Interestingly, the p53 level is controlled by post-translational regulation rather than transcriptional regulation in this feedback mechanism. We analyzed the dynamics of this feedback to understand whether post-translational regulation provides any advantages over transcriptional regulation in regard to disturbance rejection. When a disturbance happens, even though negative feedback reduces the steady-state error, it can cause a system to become less stable and transiently overshoots, which may erroneously trigger downstream reactions. Therefore, the system needs to balance the trade-off between steady-state and transient errors. Feedback control and adaptive estimation theories revealed that post-translational regulation achieves a better trade-off than transcriptional regulation, contributing to a more steady level of p53 under the influence of noise and disturbances. Furthermore, post-translational regulation enables cells to respond more promptly to stress conditions with consistent amplitude. However, for better disturbance rejection, the p53- Mdm2 negative feedback has to pay a price of higher stochastic noise. Our analyses suggest that the p53-Mdm2 feedback favors regulatory mechanisms that provide the optimal trade-offs for dynamic control.

  16. Synthetic Biology as an Enabling Technology for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth.

  17. Mining chemical reactions using neighborhood behavior and condensed graphs of reactions approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Aurélie; Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Solov'ev, Vitaly; Varnek, Alexandre

    2012-09-24

    This work addresses the problem of similarity search and classification of chemical reactions using Neighborhood Behavior (NB) and Condensed Graphs of Reaction (CGR) approaches. The CGR formalism represents chemical reactions as a classical molecular graph with dynamic bonds, enabling descriptor calculations on this graph. Different types of the ISIDA fragment descriptors generated for CGRs in combination with two metrics--Tanimoto and Euclidean--were considered as chemical spaces, to serve for reaction dissimilarity scoring. The NB method has been used to select an optimal combination of descriptors which distinguish different types of chemical reactions in a database containing 8544 reactions of 9 classes. Relevance of NB analysis has been validated in generic (multiclass) similarity search and in clustering with Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). NB-compliant sets of descriptors were shown to display enhanced mapping propensities, allowing the construction of better Self-Organizing Maps and similarity searches (NB and classical similarity search criteria--AUC ROC--correlate at a level of 0.7). The analysis of the SOM clusters proved chemically meaningful CGR substructures representing specific reaction signatures.

  18. Improved predictions of nuclear reaction rates with the TALYS reaction code for astrophysical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J

    2008-01-01

    Context. Nuclear reaction rates of astrophysical applications are traditionally determined on the basis of Hauser-Feshbach reaction codes. These codes adopt a number of approximations that have never been tested, such as a simplified width fluctuation correction, the neglect of delayed or multiple-particle emission during the electromagnetic decay cascade, or the absence of the pre-equilibrium contribution at increasing incident energies. Aims. The reaction code TALYS has been recently updated to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates that are of astrophysical relevance. These new developments enable the reaction rates to be calculated with increased accuracy and reliability and the approximations of previous codes to be investigated. Methods. The TALYS predictions for the thermonuclear rates of relevance to astrophysics are detailed and compared with those derived by widely-used codes for the same nuclear ingredients. Results. It is shown that TALYS predictions may differ significantly from those of previous codes, in particular for nuclei for which no or little nuclear data is available. The pre-equilibrium process is shown to influence the astrophysics rates of exotic neutron-rich nuclei significantly. For the first time, the Maxwellian- averaged (n, 2n) reaction rate is calculated for all nuclei and its competition with the radiative capture rate is discussed. Conclusions. The TALYS code provides a new tool to estimate all nuclear reaction rates of relevance to astrophysics with improved accuracy and reliability. (authors)

  19. Cognitive, sensory and physical factors enabling driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Wood, Joanne; Lord, Stephen; Walker, Janine G

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed literature on cognitive, sensory, motor and physical factors associated with safe driving and crash risk in older adults with the goal of developing a model of factors enabling safe driving behaviour. Thirteen empirical studies reporting associations between cognitive, sensory, motor and physical factors and either self-reported crashes, state crash records or on-road driving measures were identified. Measures of attention, reaction time, memory, executive function, mental status, visual function, and physical function variables were associated with driving outcome measures. Self-monitoring was also identified as a factor that may moderate observed effects by influencing driving behavior. We propose that three enabling factors (cognition, sensory function and physical function/medical conditions) predict driving ability, but that accurate self-monitoring of these enabling factors is required for safe driving behaviour.

  20. Chemical tailoring of teicoplanin with site-selective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Tejas P; Miller, Scott J

    2013-06-05

    Semisynthesis of natural product derivatives combines the power of fermentation with orthogonal chemical reactions. Yet, chemical modification of complex structures represents an unmet challenge, as poor selectivity often undermines efficiency. The complex antibiotic teicoplanin eradicates bacterial infections. However, as resistance emerges, the demand for improved analogues grows. We have discovered chemical reactions that achieve site-selective alteration of teicoplanin. Utilizing peptide-based additives that alter reaction selectivities, certain bromo-teicoplanins are accessible. These new compounds are also scaffolds for selective cross-coupling reactions, enabling further molecular diversification. These studies enable two-step access to glycopeptide analogues not available through either biosynthesis or rapid total chemical synthesis alone. The new compounds exhibit a spectrum of activities, revealing that selective chemical alteration of teicoplanin may lead to analogues with attenuated or enhanced antibacterial properties, in particular against vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant strains.

  1. Modelling Chemical Reasoning to Predict and Invent Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segler, Marwin H S; Waller, Mark P

    2017-05-02

    The ability to reason beyond established knowledge allows organic chemists to solve synthetic problems and invent novel transformations. Herein, we propose a model that mimics chemical reasoning, and formalises reaction prediction as finding missing links in a knowledge graph. We have constructed a knowledge graph containing 14.4 million molecules and 8.2 million binary reactions, which represents the bulk of all chemical reactions ever published in the scientific literature. Our model outperforms a rule-based expert system in the reaction prediction task for 180 000 randomly selected binary reactions. The data-driven model generalises even beyond known reaction types, and is thus capable of effectively (re-)discovering novel transformations (even including transition metal-catalysed reactions). Our model enables computers to infer hypotheses about reactivity and reactions by only considering the intrinsic local structure of the graph and because each single reaction prediction is typically achieved in a sub-second time frame, the model can be used as a high-throughput generator of reaction hypotheses for reaction discovery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  3. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  4. Breakthrough Science Enabled by Smallsat Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjian, V.

    2017-12-01

    The recent NRC panel on "Achieving Science with Cubesats" found that "CubeSats have already proven themselves to be an important scientific tool. CubeSats can produce high-value science, as demonstrated by peer-reviewed publications that address decadal survey science goals." While some science is purely related to the size of the collecting aperture, there are plentiful examples of new and exciting experiments that can be achieved using the relatively inexpensive Cubesat platforms. We will present various potential science applications that can benefit from higher bandwidth communication. For example, on or near Earth orbit, Cubesats could provide hyperspectral imaging, gravity field mapping, atmospheric probing, and terrain mapping. These can be achieved either as large constellations of Cubesats or a few Cubesats that provide multi-point observations. Away from the Earth (up to 1AU) astrophysical variability studies, detections of solar particles between the Earth and Venus, mapping near earth objects, and high-speed videos of the Sun will also be enabled by high bandwidth communications.

  5. Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG, X.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

  6. Enabler for the agile virtual enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas; Wippel, Gerald

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, a new approach for a flexible low-cost Internet extended enterprise (project FLoCI-EE) will be presented. FLoCI-EE is a project in the fifth framework program of the European commission with 8 partners from 4 countries, which started in January 2001 and will be finished in December 2003. The main objective of FLoCI-EE is the development of a software prototype, which enables flexible enterprise cooperation with the aim to design, manufacture and sell products commonly, independent of enterprise borderlines. The needed IT-support includes functions of product data management (PDM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, existing solutions are too expensive and inflexible to be of use under current turbulent market conditions. The second part of this paper covers the item Web Services, because in the role-specific support approach of FLoCI-EE, there are user- interface-components, which are tailored for specific roles in an enterprise. These components integrate automatically the services of the so-called basic-components, and the externally offered Web Services like UDDI.

  7. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  8. BEST: barcode enabled sequencing of tetrads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Adrian C; Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Dudley, Aimée M

    2014-05-01

    Tetrad analysis is a valuable tool for yeast genetics, but the laborious manual nature of the process has hindered its application on large scales. Barcode Enabled Sequencing of Tetrads (BEST)1 replaces the manual processes of isolating, disrupting and spacing tetrads. BEST isolates tetrads by virtue of a sporulation-specific GFP fusion protein that permits fluorescence-activated cell sorting of tetrads directly onto agar plates, where the ascus is enzymatically digested and the spores are disrupted and randomly arrayed by glass bead plating. The haploid colonies are then assigned sister spore relationships, i.e. information about which spores originated from the same tetrad, using molecular barcodes read during genotyping. By removing the bottleneck of manual dissection, hundreds or even thousands of tetrads can be isolated in minutes. Here we present a detailed description of the experimental procedures required to perform BEST in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, starting with a heterozygous diploid strain through the isolation of colonies derived from the haploid meiotic progeny.

  9. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  10. Enabling technologies for industrial energy demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, Caroline H.; Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Jones, Craig I.; McKenna, Russell C.

    2008-01-01

    This state-of-science review sets out to provide an indicative assessment of enabling technologies for reducing UK industrial energy demand and carbon emissions to 2050. In the short term, i.e. the period that will rely on current or existing technologies, the road map and priorities are clear. A variety of available technologies will lead to energy demand reduction in industrial processes, boiler operation, compressed air usage, electric motor efficiency, heating and lighting, and ancillary uses such as transport. The prospects for the commercial exploitation of innovative technologies by the middle of the 21st century are more speculative. Emphasis is therefore placed on the range of technology assessment methods that are likely to provide policy makers with a guide to progress in the development of high-temperature processes, improved materials, process integration and intensification, and improved industrial process control and monitoring. Key among the appraisal methods applicable to the energy sector is thermodynamic analysis, making use of energy, exergy and 'exergoeconomic' techniques. Technical and economic barriers will limit the improvement potential to perhaps a 30% cut in industrial energy use, which would make a significant contribution to reducing energy demand and carbon emissions in UK industry. Non-technological drivers for, and barriers to, the take-up of innovative, low-carbon energy technologies for industry are also outlined

  11. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  12. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  13. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewicki, Marek; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Wells, James D.

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  14. Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

  15. Enabling Process Alignment for IT Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D. Bot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available All firms use information technology (IT. Larger firms have IT organizations whose business function is to supply and manage IT infrastructure and applications to support the firm's business objectives. Regardless of whether the IT function has been outsourced or is resident within a firm, the objectives of the IT organization must be aligned to the strategic needs of the business. It is often a challenge to balance the demand for IT against the available supply within the firm. Most IT organizations have little capacity to carry out activities that go beyond the incremental ones that are needed to run the immediate needs of the business. A process-ambidexterity framework for IT improves the IT organization's entrepreneurial ability, which in turn, better aligns the IT function with the business functions in the firm. Process ambidexterity utilizes both process alignment and process adaptability. This article presents a framework for process alignment in IT. This is useful for understanding how the processes in Business Demand Management, a core component of the process-ambidexterity framework for IT, relate to those in IT Governance and IT Supply Chain Management. The framework is presented through three lenses (governance, business, and technology along with real-world examples from major firms in the USA. Enabling process alignment in the IT function, and process ambidexterity overall, benefits those who govern IT, the executives who lead IT, as well as their peers in the business functions that depend on IT.

  16. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  17. Nucleon induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuca, S.; Antalik, R.; Kristiak, J.

    1988-01-01

    The collection contains full texts of 37 contributions; all fall within the INIS Subject Scope. The topics treated include some unsolved problems of nuclear reactions and relevant problems of nuclear structure at low and intermediate energies. (Z.S.)

  18. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  19. Statistical nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.

    2001-01-01

    A review of the statistical model of nuclear reactions is presented. The main relations are described, together with the ingredients necessary to perform practical calculations. In addition, a substantial overview of the width fluctuation correction factor is given. (author)

  20. Photon induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1982-04-01

    Various aspects of medium energy nuclear reactions induced by real photons are reviewed. Special emphasis is put on high accuracy experiments that will become possible with the next generation of electron accelerators. (orig.)

  1. Transfusion reaction - hemolytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Blood transfusion reaction Images Surface proteins causing rejection References Choate JD, Maitta RW, Tormey CA, Wu ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 177. Hall JE. Blood types; transfusion; tissue and organ transplantation. In: Hall JE, ...

  2. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  3. Reaction Qualifications Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    to a person's effectiveness by causing a favourable reaction in customers, co-workers etc. (for short: recipients) - are involved, this assumption is false. Building on work by Wertheimer, Mason, and Miller, this paper proposes an account of the reaction qualifications that count, from the point of view...... preferences, recipients should not respond to the applicant actually hired on the basis of their (the recipients') racial preferences. My account decomposes the meritocratic ideal into four separate norms, one of which applies to recipients rather than to selectors. Finally, it defends the view that reaction...... qualifications based on antimeritocratic reactions, while not unproblematic, are not entirely irrelevant from the point of view of merit. Notably, selectors need not discount them when no one - including the targets of the objectionable preferences - is unfairly disadvantaged. Because not all problematic...

  4. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CADRs).1 ... patient's management is thought to be responsible for the reaction. Some clinical ... In SJS/TEN hypotension, diarrhoea, hypothermia and confusion suggest ... and a pain management team, centred around a good core of experienced ...

  5. Reaction Qualifications Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

      When, in a competitive sphere, people are selected on the basis of qualifications only, their chances of acquiring positions of advantage may seem to depend entirely upon their abilities, not discriminatory bias. However, if reaction qualifications - i.e. characteristics which contribute...... to a person's effectiveness by causing a favourable reaction in customers, co-workers etc. (for short: recipients) - are involved, this assumption is false. Building on work by Wertheimer, Mason, and Miller, this paper proposes an account of the reaction qualifications that count, from the point of view...... of merit. Specifically, it preserves symmetry between negative evaluations of antimeritocratic bases of selection and negative evaluations of qualifications rooted in comparable antimeritocratic reactions. So if employers should not select among applicants on the basis of their (the employers') racial...

  6. Firefighter Nozzle Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Selena K.; Sunderland, Peter B.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Nozzle reaction and hose tension are analyzed using conservation of fluid momentum and assuming steady, inviscid flow and a flexible hose in frictionless contact with the ground. An expression that is independent of the bend angle is derived for the hose tension. If this tension is exceeded owing...... to anchor forces, the hose becomes straight. The nozzle reaction is found to equal the jet momentum flow rate, and it does not change when an elbow connects the hose to the nozzle. A forward force must be exerted by a firefighter or another anchor that matches the forward force that the jet would exert...... on a perpendicular wall. Three reaction expressions are derived, allowing it to be determined in terms of hose diameter, jet diameter, flow rate, and static pressure upstream of the nozzle. The nozzle reaction predictions used by the fire service are 56% to 90% of those obtained here for typical firefighting hand...

  7. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  8. Spallation reactions: calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    Current methods for calculating spallation reactions over various energy ranges are described and evaluated. Recent semiempirical fits to existing data will probably yield the most accurate predictions for these reactions in general. However, if the products in question have binding energies appreciably different from their isotropic neighbors and if the cross section is approximately 30 mb or larger, then the intranuclear-cascade-evaporation approach is probably better suited. (6 tables, 12 figures, 34 references) (U.S.)

  9. Chemical reactions confined within carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, Scott A; Rance, Graham A; Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2016-08-22

    In this critical review, we survey the wide range of chemical reactions that have been confined within carbon nanotubes, particularly emphasising how the pairwise interactions between the catalysts, reactants, transition states and products of a particular molecular transformation with the host nanotube can be used to control the yields and distributions of products of chemical reactions. We demonstrate that nanoscale confinement within carbon nanotubes enables the control of catalyst activity, morphology and stability, influences the local concentration of reactants and products thus affecting equilibria, rates and selectivity, pre-arranges the reactants for desired reactions and alters the relative stability of isomeric products. We critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the confinement of chemical reactions inside carbon nanotubes from a chemical perspective and describe how further developments in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and the incorporation of multifunctionality are essential for the development of this ever-expanding field, ultimately leading to the effective control of the pathways of chemical reactions through the rational design of multi-functional carbon nanoreactors.

  10. Dual Ligand-Enabled Nondirected C-H Olefination of Arenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wedi, Philipp; Meyer, Tim; Tavakoli, Ghazal; van Gemmeren, Manuel

    2018-02-23

    The application of the Pd-catalyzed oxidative C-H olefination of arenes, also known as the Fujiwara-Moritani reaction, has traditionally been limited by the requirement for directing groups on the substrate or the need to use the arene in large excess, typically as a (co)solvent. Herein the development of a catalytic system is described that, through the combined action of two complementary ligands, makes it possible to use directing-group-free arenes as limiting reagents for the first time. The reactions proceed under a combination of both steric and electronic control and enable the application of this powerful reaction to valuable arenes, which cannot be utilized in excess. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Here, line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  12. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  13. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  14. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  15. Integrated and Intelligent Manufacturing: Perspectives and Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing market competition and advances in technology, more and more countries are prioritizing advanced manufacturing technology as their top priority for economic growth. Germany announced the Industry 4.0 strategy in 2013. The US government launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP in 2011 and the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI in 2014. Most recently, the Manufacturing USA initiative was officially rolled out to further “leverage existing resources... to nurture manufacturing innovation and accelerate commercialization” by fostering close collaboration between industry, academia, and government partners. In 2015, the Chinese government officially published a 10-year plan and roadmap toward manufacturing: Made in China 2025. In all these national initiatives, the core technology development and implementation is in the area of advanced manufacturing systems. A new manufacturing paradigm is emerging, which can be characterized by two unique features: integrated manufacturing and intelligent manufacturing. This trend is in line with the progress of industrial revolutions, in which higher efficiency in production systems is being continuously pursued. To this end, 10 major technologies can be identified for the new manufacturing paradigm. This paper describes the rationales and needs for integrated and intelligent manufacturing (i2M systems. Related technologies from different fields are also described. In particular, key technological enablers, such as the Internet of Things and Services (IoTS, cyber-physical systems (CPSs, and cloud computing are discussed. Challenges are addressed with applications that are based on commercially available platforms such as General Electric (GE’s Predix and PTC’s ThingWorx.

  16. The Grid-Enabled NMR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawenda, M.; Meyer, N.; Stroinski, M.; Popenda, L.; Gdaniec, Z.; Adamiak, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    The laboratory equipment used for experimental work is very expensive and unique as well. Only big regional or national centers could afford to purchase and use it, but on a very limited scale. That is a real problem that disqualifies all other research groups not having direct access to these instruments. Therefore the proposed framework plays a crucial role in equalizing the chances of all research groups. The Virtual Laboratory (VLab) project focuses its activity on embedding laboratory equipments in grid environments (handling HPC and visualization), touching some crucial issues not solved yet. In general the issues concern the standardization of the laboratory equipment definition to treat it as a simple grid resource, supporting the end user under the term of the workflow definition, introducing the accounting issues and prioritizing jobs which follow experiments on equipments. Nowadays, we have a lot of various equipments, which can be accessed remotely via network, but only on the way allowing the local management console/display to move through the network to make a simpler access. To manage an experimental and post-processing data as well as store them in a organized way, a special Digital Science Library was developed. The project delivers a framework to enable the usage of many different scientific facilities. The physical layer of the architecture includes the existing high-speed network like PIONIER in Poland, and the HPC and visualization infrastructure. The application, in fact the framework, can be used in all experimental disciplines, where access to physical equipments are crucial, e.g., chemistry (spectrometer), radio astronomy (radio telescope), and medicine (CAT scanner). The poster presentation will show how we deployed the concept in chemistry, supporting these disciplines with grid environment and embedding the Bruker Avance 600 MHz and Varian 300 MHz spectrometers. (author)

  17. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  18. Global Controllability of Chemical Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Drexler, Dániel András; Tóth, János

    2015-01-01

    Controllability of chemical reactions is an important problem in chemical engineering science. In control theory, analysis of the controllability of linear systems is well-founded, however the dynamics of chemical reactions is usually nonlinear. Global controllability properties of chemical reactions are analyzed here based on the Lie-algebra of the vector fields associated to elementary reactions. A chemical reaction is controllable almost everywhere if all the reaction rate coefficients can...

  19. Introduction to chemical reaction engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Geol

    1990-10-01

    This deals with chemical reaction engineering with thirteen chapters. The contents of this book are introduction on reaction engineering, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics and chemical reaction, abnormal reactor, non-isothermal reactor, nonideal reactor, catalysis in nonuniform system, diffusion and reaction in porosity catalyst, design catalyst heterogeneous reactor in solid bed, a high molecule polymerization, bio reaction engineering, reaction engineering in material process, control multi-variable reactor process using digital computer.

  20. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrat'Ev, V N

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  1. Social-ecological enabling conditions for payments for ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi R. Huber-Stearns; Drew E. Bennett; Stephen Posner; Ryan C. Richards; Jenn Hoyle. Fair; Stella J. M. Cousins; Chelsie L. Romulo

    2017-01-01

    The concept of "enabling conditions" centers on conditions that facilitate approaches to addressing social and ecological challenges. Although multiple fields have independently addressed the concept of enabling conditions, the literature lacks a shared understanding or integration of concepts. We propose a more synthesized understanding of enabling conditions beyond disciplinary boundaries by focusing on the enabling conditions that influence the implementation of a range of environmental p...

  2. Inflammatory reaction in chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Sigeki; Sato, Keiji; Sugiura, Hideshi; Iwata, Hisashi

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction accompanying chondroblastoma and to define the value of the finding in clinical practice. We reviewed the clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in six patients with histologically proven chondroblastoma. In all cases, MR imaging showered marrow and soft tissue edema. In four of six cases, periosteal reaction related to intra-osseous edema was more clearly demonstrated on MR imaging than on radiographs. Follow-up MR studies after surgery were available in three patients and all showed disappearance of inflammatory responses such as marrow and soft tissue edema, and reactive synovitis. We propose that these inflammatory reactions of chondroblastomas are inportant signs for detecting residual tumor in recurrences after surgery, as well as for making a precise diagnosis. The MR changes may also be valuable in demonstrating eradication of the tumor. (orig./MG)

  3. Inflammatory reaction in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, Sigeki [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Sato, Keiji [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Sugiura, Hideshi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Iwata, Hisashi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction accompanying chondroblastoma and to define the value of the finding in clinical practice. We reviewed the clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in six patients with histologically proven chondroblastoma. In all cases, MR imaging showered marrow and soft tissue edema. In four of six cases, periosteal reaction related to intra-osseous edema was more clearly demonstrated on MR imaging than on radiographs. Follow-up MR studies after surgery were available in three patients and all showed disappearance of inflammatory responses such as marrow and soft tissue edema, and reactive synovitis. We propose that these inflammatory reactions of chondroblastomas are inportant signs for detecting residual tumor in recurrences after surgery, as well as for making a precise diagnosis. The MR changes may also be valuable in demonstrating eradication of the tumor. (orig./MG)

  4. People avoid situations that enable them to deceive others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalvi, S.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2011-01-01

    Information advantage enables people to benefit themselves by deceiving their counterparts. Using a modified ultimatum bargaining game with an exit option, we find that people are more likely to avoid settings enabling them to privately deceive their counterparts than settings which do not enable

  5. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  6. Reactions to dietary tartrazine.

    OpenAIRE

    David, T J

    1987-01-01

    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either ...

  7. Nuclear fission and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear fission research programs are designed to elucidate basic features of the fission process. Specifically, (1) factors determining how nucleons of a fissioning nucleus are distributed between two fission fragments, (2) factors determining kinetic energy and excitation energies of fragments, and (3) factors controlling fission lifetimes. To these ends, fission studies are reported for several heavy elements and include investigations of spontaneous and neutron-induced fission, heavy ion reactions, and high energy proton reactions. The status of theoretical research is also discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Modeling of Reaction Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Farzad, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to model the reaction calorimeter in order to calculate the heat of absorption which is the most important parameter in this work. Reaction calorimeter is an apparatus which is used in measuring the heat of absorption of CO2 as well as the total pressure in vapor phase based on vapor-liquid equilibrium state. Mixture of monoethanolamine (MEA) and water was used as a solvent to absorb the CO2.Project was divided in to three parts in order to make the programming...

  9. Introduction to nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction to nuclear reaction phenomena is aimed primarily but not exclusively at readers at the undergraduate student level. An overview of the subject is presented in the first two chapters entitled - Some background information and Introduction to nuclear reactions. The third chapter reviews scattering theory with emphasis on the underlying physical ideas and also provides schematic entrees to the more advanced topics. The physical models which have been developed to account for the various aspects of nuclear phenomena are described in more detail in chapter 4. References and exercises are appended to each chapter. (U.K.)

  10. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Gil, D.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  11. Biofunctionalized conductive polymers enable efficient CO2 electroreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Halime; Aljabour, Abdalaziz; De Luna, Phil; Farka, Dominik; Greunz, Theresia; Stifter, David; Kus, Mahmut; Zheng, Xueli; Liu, Min; Hassel, Achim W.; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Sargent, Edward H.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Stadler, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Selective electrocatalysts are urgently needed for carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels, thereby closing the carbon cycle. To date, noble metals have achieved the best performance in energy yield and faradaic efficiency and have recently reached impressive electrical-to-chemical power conversion efficiencies. However, the scarcity of precious metals makes the search for scalable, metal-free, CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) catalysts all the more important. We report an all-organic, that is, metal-free, electrocatalyst that achieves impressive performance comparable to that of best-in-class Ag electrocatalysts. We hypothesized that polydopamine—a conjugated polymer whose structure incorporates hydrogen-bonded motifs found in enzymes—could offer the combination of efficient electrical conduction, together with rendered active catalytic sites, and potentially thereby enable CO2RR. Only by developing a vapor-phase polymerization of polydopamine were we able to combine the needed excellent conductivity with thin film–based processing. We achieve catalytic performance with geometric current densities of 18 mA cm−2 at 0.21 V overpotential (−0.86 V versus normal hydrogen electrode) for the electrosynthesis of C1 species (carbon monoxide and formate) with continuous 16-hour operation at >80% faradaic efficiency. Our catalyst exhibits lower overpotentials than state-of-the-art formate-selective metal electrocatalysts (for example, 0.5 V for Ag at 18 mA cm−1). The results confirm the value of exploiting hydrogen-bonded sequences as effective catalytic centers for renewable and cost-efficient industrial CO2RR applications. PMID:28798958

  12. Elucidating reaction mechanisms on quantum computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiher, Markus; Wiebe, Nathan; Svore, Krysta M.; Wecker, Dave; Troyer, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    With rapid recent advances in quantum technology, we are close to the threshold of quantum devices whose computational powers can exceed those of classical supercomputers. Here, we show that a quantum computer can be used to elucidate reaction mechanisms in complex chemical systems, using the open problem of biological nitrogen fixation in nitrogenase as an example. We discuss how quantum computers can augment classical computer simulations used to probe these reaction mechanisms, to significantly increase their accuracy and enable hitherto intractable simulations. Our resource estimates show that, even when taking into account the substantial overhead of quantum error correction, and the need to compile into discrete gate sets, the necessary computations can be performed in reasonable time on small quantum computers. Our results demonstrate that quantum computers will be able to tackle important problems in chemistry without requiring exorbitant resources.

  13. Elucidating reaction mechanisms on quantum computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiher, Markus; Wiebe, Nathan; Svore, Krysta M.; Wecker, Dave; Troyer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    With rapid recent advances in quantum technology, we are close to the threshold of quantum devices whose computational powers can exceed those of classical supercomputers. Here, we show that a quantum computer can be used to elucidate reaction mechanisms in complex chemical systems, using the open problem of biological nitrogen fixation in nitrogenase as an example. We discuss how quantum computers can augment classical computer simulations used to probe these reaction mechanisms, to significantly increase their accuracy and enable hitherto intractable simulations. Our resource estimates show that, even when taking into account the substantial overhead of quantum error correction, and the need to compile into discrete gate sets, the necessary computations can be performed in reasonable time on small quantum computers. Our results demonstrate that quantum computers will be able to tackle important problems in chemistry without requiring exorbitant resources. PMID:28674011

  14. Elucidating reaction mechanisms on quantum computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiher, Markus; Wiebe, Nathan; Svore, Krysta M; Wecker, Dave; Troyer, Matthias

    2017-07-18

    With rapid recent advances in quantum technology, we are close to the threshold of quantum devices whose computational powers can exceed those of classical supercomputers. Here, we show that a quantum computer can be used to elucidate reaction mechanisms in complex chemical systems, using the open problem of biological nitrogen fixation in nitrogenase as an example. We discuss how quantum computers can augment classical computer simulations used to probe these reaction mechanisms, to significantly increase their accuracy and enable hitherto intractable simulations. Our resource estimates show that, even when taking into account the substantial overhead of quantum error correction, and the need to compile into discrete gate sets, the necessary computations can be performed in reasonable time on small quantum computers. Our results demonstrate that quantum computers will be able to tackle important problems in chemistry without requiring exorbitant resources.

  15. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-06-01

    compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and meas- urable thermometrically . Contents I. Influence of Preliminary...thoroughly insulated be- tween the carburettor and the engine, by aluminium foil and asbestos. -I -I " I" I ’I il i~ " !, I I 1𔃻I I’ ) To enable the

  16. The 'compensation effect' in the graphite/CO2 reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, W.J.

    1983-08-01

    The compensation effect is the often observed linear relationship between the activation energy and pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius equations of a series of related reactions. Previously reported studies of the graphite/CO 2 reaction at different total pressures and CO 2 /CO ratios are used as an example of the compensation effect. The effect is shown in general to be an artefact produced by a strong correlation between the parameter estimates in the conventional Arrhenius plot. A transformation of the Arrhenius plot to minimise the overall correlation between estimates and thus enable detection of a true compensation effect is presented. The results of this transformation on the kinetic data for the graphite/CO 2 reaction are consistent with previous analyses of the reaction system. They show that there is only a limited compensation effect within this study and demonstrate the influence of the approach to equilibrium of the graphite/CO 2 reaction. (author)

  17. (MIRC) reaction w

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudesh Kumari

    eco-friendly solvents, high yields and easy work-up procedure. Keywords. Ethylene glycol; 4-hydroxycoumarin; ... ability and also compatibility with most organic and inorganic compounds. Because of these properties it is ..... phenyl amino)-2H-chromen-2-one (8a) was isolated from the reaction mixture to confirm the ...

  18. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive

  19. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ulcers. Affected individuals may complain of a burning sensation and mouth sensitivity to cold, hot, and spicy foods. Lichenoid ... melon, and pineapple, are all associated with this syndrome. You should inform your ... reaction in the mouth, though some are more common than others. If ...

  20. Reaction Formulation: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Reaction formation was studied by Sigmund Freud. This defense mechanism may be related to repression, substitution, reversal, and compensation (or over-compensation). Alfred Adler considered compensation a basic process in his individual psychology. Anna Freud discussed some defense mechanisms, and Bibring, Dwyer, Huntington, and Valenstein…

  1. Reaction schemes of immunoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaage, M.; Barbet, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors apply a general theory for multiple equilibria to the reaction schemes of immunoanalysis, competition and sandwich. This approach allows the manufacturer to optimize the system and provide the user with interpolation functions for the standard curve and its first derivative as well, thus giving access to variance [fr

  2. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    a significant number of patients at unnecessary risk. Some patients may be labelled with a wrong allergy, leading to unnecessary warnings against harmless substances, and some patients may be put at risk of subsequent re-exposure to the real allergen. Patients with suspected allergic reactions during...

  3. Reaction product imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  4. Photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded binary complexes in which the constituents are only mildly perturbed by the intermolecular bond. Such complexes, with their large zero point excursions, set the stage for events that occur following electronic excitation of one of the constituents. This can take several forms, but in all cases, entrance channel specificity is imposed by the character of the complex as well as the nature of the photoinitiation process. This has enabled us to examine aspects of bimolecular processes: steric effects, chemical branching ratios, and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, monitoring reactions directly in the time domain can reveal mechanisms that cannot be inferred from measurements of nascent product excitations. Consequently, we examined several systems that had been studied previously by our group with product state resolution. With CO 2 /HI, in which reaction occurs via a HOCO intermediate, the rates agree with RRKM predictions. With N 2 O/HI, the gas phase single collision reaction yielding OH + N 2 has been shown to proceed mainly via an HNNO intermediate that undergoes a 1,3-hydrogen shift to the OH + N 2 channel. With complexes, ab initio calculations and high resolution spectroscopic studies of analogous systems suggest that the hydrogen, while highly delocalized, prefers the oxygen to the nitrogen. We observe that OH is produced with a fast risetime (< 250 fs) which can be attributed to either direct oxygen-side attack or rapid HNNO decomposition and/or a termolecular contribution involving the nearby iodine

  5. What Is a Reaction Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.

  6. Kinetics of Bio-Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    his chapter predicts the specific rates of reaction by means of a mathematical expression, the kinetics of the reaction. This expression can be derived through a mechanistic interpretation of an enzymatically catalyzed reaction, but it is essentially of empirical nature for cell reactions. The mo...

  7. Modular verification of chemical reaction network encodings via serializability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R.; Stefanovic, Darko; Phillips, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reaction networks are a powerful means of specifying the intended behaviour of synthetic biochemical systems. A high-level formal specification, expressed as a chemical reaction network, may be compiled into a lower-level encoding, which can be directly implemented in wet chemistry and may itself be expressed as a chemical reaction network. Here we present conditions under which a lower-level encoding correctly emulates the sequential dynamics of a high-level chemical reaction network. We require that encodings are transactional, such that their execution is divided by a “commit reaction” that irreversibly separates the reactant-consuming phase of the encoding from the product-generating phase. We also impose restrictions on the sharing of species between reaction encodings, based on a notion of “extra tolerance”, which defines species that may be shared between encodings without enabling unwanted reactions. Our notion of correctness is serializability of interleaved reaction encodings, and if all reaction encodings satisfy our correctness properties then we can infer that the global dynamics of the system are correct. This allows us to infer correctness of any system constructed using verified encodings. As an example, we show how this approach may be used to verify two- and four-domain DNA strand displacement encodings of chemical reaction networks, and we generalize our result to the limit where the populations of helper species are unlimited. PMID:27325906

  8. Reactions to dietary tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, T J

    1987-02-01

    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either by the parents or the nursing staff after the administration of placebo or active substances. Twenty two patients returned to a normal diet without problems, but the parents of two children insisted on continuing the diet. While popular belief has it that additives may have harmful behavioural effects, objective verification is required to prevent overdiagnosis.

  9. Photooxidative reactions of psoralens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, A.Ya.; Sukhorukov, V.L.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism and biological significance of photooxidative reactions of psoralens are reviewed. Skin-photosensitizing activities of bifunctional and monofunctional psoralens are compared. Antioxidants tocopherols and butilated hydroxytoluene inhibit photochemical reactions of psoralens responsible for induction of erythema. The same antioxidants do not inhibit PUVA-therapy of psriasis. Though psoralens can generate singlet oxygen under UVA-irradiation (315 - 400 nm), nevertheless singlet oxygen does not play significant role in 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) sensitized photooxidation of tocopherol or dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). SH-compounds enhance the rate of 8-MOP sensitized photooxidation of DOPA by a factor of four, simultaneously the rate of oxidation of SH-groups is enhanced many fold in the presence of DOPA. Under UVA-irradiation in organic solvents psoralens are photooxidized. Dimeric photooxidized psoralens are easily destructed in water medium, their destruction induce oxidation of unsaturated lipids and DOPA. (author)

  10. Solar nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, G

    1978-04-01

    The current state of neutrino solar astrophysics is outlined, showing the contradictions between the experimental results of solar neutrino detection and the standard solar models constructed on the basis of the star structure and development theory, which give values for high-energy neutrino fluxes considerably exceeding the upper experimental limit. A number of hypotheses interpreting the experimental results are summarized. The hypotheses are critically assessed and experiments are recommended for refining or verifying experimental data. Also dealt with are nuclear reactions in the Sun, as is the attempt to interpret the anomalous by high /sup 3/He fluxes from the Sun and the relatively small amounts of solar neutrinos and gamma quanta. The importance is emphasized of the simultaneous and complex measurement of the fluxes of neutrons, gamma radiation, and isotopes of hydrogen, helium, and boron from the Sun as indicators of nuclear reactions in the Sun.

  11. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  12. Reactions to dietary tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, T J

    1987-01-01

    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either by the parents or the nursing staff after the administration of placebo or active substances. Twenty two patients returned to a normal diet without problems, but the parents of two children insisted on continuing the diet. While popular belief has it that additives may have harmful behavioural effects, objective verification is required to prevent overdiagnosis. PMID:3548601

  13. Hadron reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, P.D.B.; Martin, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of hadron scattering at high energies are reviewed in such a way as to combine the ideas of the parton model and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with Regge theory and phenomenology. After a brief introduction to QCD and the basic features of hadron scattering data, scaling and the dimensional counting rules, the parton structure of hadrons, and the parton model for large momentum transfer processes, including scaling violations are discussed. Hadronic jets and the use of parton ideas in soft scattering processes are examined, attention being paid to Regge theory and its applications in exclusive and inclusive reactions, the relationship to parton exchange being stressed. The mechanisms of hadron production which build up cross sections, and hence the underlying Regge singularities, and the possible overlap of Regge and scaling regions are discussed. It is concluded that the key to understanding hadron reaction mechanisms seems to lie in the marriage of Regge theory with QCD. (author)

  14. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is revised the nuclear reactions which present an interest in astrophysics regarding the explanation of some problems such as the relative quantity of the elements, the structure and evolution of the stars. The principal object of the study is the determination of the experimental possibilities in the field of astrophysics, of an accelerator Van de Graaff's 700 KeV type. Two hundred nuclear reactions approximately, were found, and nothing or very little has been done in the intervals of energy which are of interest. Since the bombardment energies and the involved sections are low in some cases, there are real possibilities, for the largest number of stars to obtain important statistical data with the above mentioned accelerator, taking some necessary precautions. (author)

  15. Photochemical reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of unimolecular and bimolecular reaction dynamics with application in combustion and energy systems. The energy dependence in ketene isomerization, ketene dissociation dynamics, and carbonyl substitution on organometallic rhodium complexes in liquid xenon have been studied. Future studies concerning unimolecular processes in ketene as well as energy transfer and kinetic studies of methylene radicals are discussed.

  16. Semi-continuous ultrasonic sounding and changes of ultrasonic signal characteristics as a sensitive tool for the evaluation of ongoing microstructural changes of experimental mortar bars tested for their ASR potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Kuchařová, A.; Petružálek, Matěj; Šachlová, Š.; Svitek, Tomáš; Přikryl, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, September (2016), s. 40-50 ISSN 0041-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/12/0915 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : alkali-silica reaction * accelerated test * thermal heating * mortar bar * ultrasonic sounding Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2016

  17. Polyneutron Chain Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John C. Fisher

    2000-01-01

    Although helium atoms do not form molecules, a sufficiently large number will bind into a stable liquid droplet. A comparable situation is expected for neutrons, with a sufficiently large number binding into a stable droplet of neutron matter. Such polyneutron droplets can be viewed as isotopes of an element with nuclear charge Z=0, tentatively denoted neutrium, symbol Nt. Because of the relatively weak binding of neutrons compared with that of a mix of neutrons and protons, the minimum number of neutrons required for stability of a droplet is fairly large. Early estimates of ∼60 may be reduced to a dozen or so by the BCS pairing interaction. The Nt entries with N≥12 are new to the table of isotopes. Because all of them are beta-unstable, none is expected to persist as a free particle. Yet, some may occasionally be produced by means to be described below, and it is of interest to examine their decay chains and their interactions with charged nuclei to ascertain how their presence might be revealed. Although these reactions are interesting, they cannot be taken seriously without identifying a source for the initial Nt isotope that begins the chain. Here, we consider possible interactions between 16 O and A Nt. Although there is no strong interaction between them, we can expect a very weak residual attraction that can form a loosely bound 16 O A Nt nuclear molecule. This is not a compound nucleus in the usual sense because, considered as fluids, the 16 O and A Nt droplets are immiscible. For a droplet with fewer than about 60 neutrons, beta decay of A Nt is prevented by the buildup of Coulomb energy associated with transforming A Nt into A H in close proximity to 16 O. Thus, it is possible that 16 O A Nt molecules can persist indefinitely and that a few of them may be present in ordinary water as supermassive oxygen nuclei. Because the binding of these molecules is weak, the A Nt component can tunnel to an adjacent nucleus, and if the adjacent nucleus is 18 O, a

  18. Semantic Sensor Web Enablement for COAST, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that facilitates discovery and integration of...

  19. Logistics Reduction: RFID Enabled Autonomous Logistics Management (REALM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Radio-frequency identification (RFID) Enabled Autonomous Logistics Management (REALM) task...

  20. Ligand-enabled ortho-C-H olefination of phenylacetic amides with unactivated alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Zhu; Chen, Xing-Rong; Xu, Hui; Dai, Hui-Xiong; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2018-02-07

    Although chelation-assisted C-H olefination has been intensely investigated, Pd(ii)-catalyzed C-H olefination reactions are largely restricted to acrylates and styrenes. Here we report a quinoline-derived ligand that enables the Pd(ii)-catalyzed olefination of the C(sp 2 )-H bond with simple aliphatic alkenes using a weakly coordinating monodentate amide auxiliary. Oxygen is used as the terminal oxidant with catalytic copper as the co-oxidant. A variety of functional groups in the aliphatic alkenes are tolerated. Upon hydrogenation, the ortho -alkylated product can be accessed. The utility of this reaction is also demonstrated by the late-stage diversification of drug molecules.

  1. Ligand-Enabled γ-C(sp(3))-H Olefination of Amines: En Route to Pyrrolidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; He, Jian; Liu, Tao; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2016-02-17

    Pd(II)-catalyzed olefination of γ-C(sp(3))-H bonds of triflyl (Tf) and 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) protected amines is achieved. Subsequent aza-Wacker oxidative cyclization or conjugate addition of the olefinated intermediates provides a variety of C-2 alkylated pyrrolidines. Three pyridine- and quinoline-based ligands are developed to match different classes of amine substrates, demonstrating a rare example of ligand-enabled C(sp(3))-H olefination reactions. The use of Ns protecting group to direct C(sp(3))-H activation of alkyl amines is also a significant step toward practical C-H functionalizations of alkyl amines.

  2. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments

  3. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli, E-mail: jerby@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 6997801 (Israel)

    2015-08-03

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.

  4. Procedures for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H.

    2005-01-01

    A simple algorithm for a complete enumeration of the possible ways a redox reaction (RR) might be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions (HRs) using the response reactions (RERs) formalism is presented. A complete enumeration of the possible ways a RR may be decomposed into HRs is equivalent to a complete enumeration of stoichiometrically…

  5. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  6. Boron atom reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, R.; Tabacco, M.B.; Digiuseppe, T.G.; Davidovits, P.

    1982-01-01

    The reaction rates of atomic boron with various epoxides have been measured in a flow tube apparatus. The bimolecular rate constants, in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , are: 1,2-epoxypropane (8.6 x 10 -11 ), 1,2-epoxybutane (8.8 x 10 -11 ), 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (5.5 x 10 -11 ), 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (5.7 x 10 -11 ), and 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane (1.5 x 10 -11 ). (orig.)

  7. Nuclear reactions. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2014-03-01

    Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and

  8. Comparing chemical reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardelli, Luca; Tribastone, Mirco; Tschaikowski, Max

    2017-01-01

    We study chemical reaction networks (CRNs) as a kernel model of concurrency provided with semantics based on ordinary differential equations. We investigate the problem of comparing two CRNs, i.e., to decide whether the solutions of a source and of a target CRN can be matched for an appropriate...... choice of initial conditions. Using a categorical framework, we extend and unify model-comparison approaches based on dynamical (semantic) and structural (syntactic) properties of CRNs. Then, we provide an algorithm to compare CRNs, running linearly in time with respect to the cardinality of all possible...... comparisons. Finally, using a prototype implementation, CAGE, we apply our results to biological models from the literature....

  9. Gravitational radiation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    We give a short personally-biased review on the recent progress in our understanding of gravitational radiation reaction acting on a point particle orbiting a black hole. The main motivation of this study is to obtain sufficiently precise gravitational waveforms from inspiraling binary compact starts with a large mass ratio. For this purpose, various new concepts and techniques have been developed to compute the orbital evolution taking into account the gravitational self-force. Combining these ideas with a few supplementary new ideas, we try to outline a path to our goal here. (author)

  10. Isotopes in oxidation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of isotopes in the study of organic oxidation mechanisms is discussed. The help provided by tracer studies to demonstrate the two-equivalent path - hydride transfer, is illustrated by the examples of carbonium oxidants and the Wacker reaction. The role of kinetic isotope effects in the study of the scission of carbon-hydrogen bonds is illustrated by hydride abstraction, hydrogen atom abstraction, proton abstraction and quantum mechanical tunnelling. Isotopic studies on the oxidation of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, amines and hydrocarbons are discussed. The role of isotopes in the study of biochemical oxidation is illustrated with a discussion on nicotinamide and flavin coenzymes. (B.R.H.)

  11. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  12. Nuclear reactions. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and experimental

  13. Carbon-13 Labeling Used to Probe Cure and Degradation Reactions of High- Temperature Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, J. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    High-temperature, crosslinked polyimides are typically insoluble, intractible materials. Consequently, in these systems it has been difficult to follow high-temperature curing or long-term degradation reactions on a molecular level. Selective labeling of the polymers with carbon-13, coupled with solid nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), enables these reactions to be followed. We successfully employed this technique to provide insight into both curing and degradation reactions of PMR-15, a polymer matrix resin used extensively in aircraft engine applications.

  14. Perception of Information Technology Enablers for Effective Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedor Brookman; Jakobus Smit; Gilbert Gilbert Silvius

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the importance of enablers in order for IT to support effective supply chain management, as perceived defined by different positions in the supply chain. In the study, a significant difference for the enabler “Funds for IT enablement” is found between the supplier

  15. Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) Fort Bliss Military Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    FINAL REPORT Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) Fort Bliss Military Reservation ESTCP Project EW-201140 FEBRUARY...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-11-C-0082 Fort Bliss, Texas...Lockheed Martin’s Intelligent Microgrid Solution can provide more energy security while also lowering electric utility costs and greenhouse gas emissions

  16. Constructing New Bioorthogonal Reagents and Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, R David; Prescher, Jennifer A

    2018-05-15

    Chemical tools are transforming our understanding of biomolecules and living systems. Included in this group are bioorthogonal reagents-functional groups that are inert to most biological species, but can be selectively ligated with complementary probes, even in live cells and whole organisms. Applications of these tools have revealed fundamental new insights into biomolecule structure and function-information often beyond the reach of genetic approaches. In many cases, the knowledge gained from bioorthogonal probes has enabled new questions to be asked and innovative research to be pursued. Thus, the continued development and application of these tools promises to both refine our view of biological systems and facilitate new discoveries. Despite decades of achievements in bioorthogonal chemistry, limitations remain. Several reagents are too large or insufficiently stable for use in cellular environments. Many bioorthogonal groups also cross-react with one another, restricting them to singular tasks. In this Account, we describe our work to address some of the voids in the bioorthogonal toolbox. Our efforts to date have focused on small reagents with a high degree of tunability: cyclopropenes, triazines, and cyclopropenones. These motifs react selectively with complementary reagents, and their unique features are enabling new pursuits in biology. The Account is organized by common themes that emerged in our development of novel bioorthogonal reagents and reactions. First, natural product structures can serve as valuable starting points for probe design. Cyclopropene, triazine, and cyclopropenone motifs are all found in natural products, suggesting that they would be metabolically stable and compatible with a variety of living systems. Second, fine-tuning bioorthogonal reagents is essential for their successful translation to biological systems. Different applications demand different types of probes; thus, generating a collection of tools that span a continuum of

  17. Polymer reaction engineering, an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2005-01-01

    Summary This chapter contains sections titled: Polymer Materials A Short History of Polymer Reaction Engineering The Position of Polymer Reaction Engineering Toward Integrated Polymer Reaction Engineering The Disciplines in Polymer Reaction Engineering The Future: Product-inspired Polymer Reaction

  18. Substitution reactions of technetium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, T.

    1997-01-01

    Substitution reactions of a series of technetium complexes are considered in comparison with corresponding reactions of rhenium. Rhenium and technetium complexes are rather inert in substitution reactions, the latter are characterized by greater rate constants when they proceed according to dissociative mechanism. In rare cases when k Tc /k Re id little it is assumed that the reaction proceeds according to the associative mechanism. (author)

  19. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  20. Social-ecological enabling conditions for payments for ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R. Huber-Stearns

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "enabling conditions" centers on conditions that facilitate approaches to addressing social and ecological challenges. Although multiple fields have independently addressed the concept of enabling conditions, the literature lacks a shared understanding or integration of concepts. We propose a more synthesized understanding of enabling conditions beyond disciplinary boundaries by focusing on the enabling conditions that influence the implementation of a range of environmental policies termed payments for ecosystem services (PES. Through an analysis of key literature from different disciplinary perspectives, we examined how researchers and practitioners refer to and identify enabling conditions within the context of PES. Through our synthesis, we identified 24 distinct enabling conditions organized within 4 broad themes: biophysical, economic, governance, and social-cultural conditions. We found that the literature coalesces around certain enabling conditions, such as strong ecosystem science and existing institutions, regardless of disciplinary background or journal audience. We also observed key differences in how authors perceive the direction of influence for property type, program objectives, and number of actors. Additionally, we noted an emphasis on the importance of the contextual nature of many enabling conditions that may cause certain conditions to have a disproportionate impact on successful implementation in some circumstances. Unraveling the relative importance of specific enabling conditions in diverse contexts remains a research frontier. Ultimately, no single disciplinary perspective is likely to provide all necessary insights for PES creation, and given the intertwined nature of enabling conditions, practitioners need to consider insights from multiple dimensions. Our work suggests opportunities to better connect diverse conversations through integration of concepts, a common vocabulary, and a synthetic framework.

  1. Reaction Decoder Tool (RDT): extracting features from chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Asad; Torrance, Gilliean; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Martínez Cuesta, Sergio; Fenninger, Franz; Gopal, Nimish; Choudhary, Saket; May, John W; Holliday, Gemma L; Steinbeck, Christoph; Thornton, Janet M

    2016-07-01

    Extracting chemical features like Atom-Atom Mapping (AAM), Bond Changes (BCs) and Reaction Centres from biochemical reactions helps us understand the chemical composition of enzymatic reactions. Reaction Decoder is a robust command line tool, which performs this task with high accuracy. It supports standard chemical input/output exchange formats i.e. RXN/SMILES, computes AAM, highlights BCs and creates images of the mapped reaction. This aids in the analysis of metabolic pathways and the ability to perform comparative studies of chemical reactions based on these features. This software is implemented in Java, supported on Windows, Linux and Mac OSX, and freely available at https://github.com/asad/ReactionDecoder : asad@ebi.ac.uk or s9asad@gmail.com. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Nuclear reactions an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown – mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos – to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.   The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no ...

  3. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-01-01

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10 19 W/cm 2 . In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that μCi of 62 Cu can be generated via the (γ,n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10 19 Wcm -2

  4. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Rayet, M.

    1990-01-01

    At all times and at all astrophysical scales, nuclear reactions have played and continue to play a key role. This concerns the energetics as well as the production of nuclides (nucleosynthesis). After a brief review of the observed composition of various objects in the universe, and especially of the solar system, the basic ingredients that are required in order to build up models for the chemical evolution of galaxies are sketched. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the stellar yields through an overview of the important burning episodes and nucleosynthetic processes that can develop in non-exploding or exploding stars. Emphasis is put on the remaining astrophysical and nuclear physics uncertainties that hamper a clear understanding of the observed characteristics, and especially compositions, of a large variety of astrophysical objects

  5. Reaction mechanisms of metal complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, R W

    2000-01-01

    This text provides a general background as a course module in the area of inorganic reaction mechanisms, suitable for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate study and/or research. The topic has important research applications in the metallurgical industry and is of interest in the science of biochemistry, biology, organic, inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry. In addition to coverage of substitution reactions in four-, five- and six-coordinate complexes, the book contains further chapters devoted to isomerization and racemization reactions, to the general field of redox reactions, and to the reactions of coordinated ligands. It is relevant in other fields such as organic, bioinorganic and biological chemistry, providing a bridge to organic reaction mechanisms. The book also contains a chapter on the kinetic background to the subject with many illustrative examples which should prove useful to those beginning research. Provides a general background as a course module in the area of inorganic reaction mechanis...

  6. Organizational Enablers for Governance and Governmentality of Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Pemsel, Sofia; Shao, Jingting

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the organizational enablers for governance in the realm of projects. We first conceptualize organizational enablers as comprising of process facilitators and discursive abilities, each with its own factors and mechanisms. Then we apply this concept to the literature on proje......, and through development of self-responsible, self-organizing people for governmentality in project settings. Questions for future research are indicated....... governance, governance of projects and governmentality. Outcomes indicate that governance is enabled through different forms of flexibility at different levels of governance, institutional setup and authority at the project level, flexible structures and mindsets of people at the organizational level...

  7. Implementation analysis of lean enablers for managing engineering programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arnim, Joachim; Oehmen, Josef; Rebentisch, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents research to improve the applicability of the Lean Enablers and consists of two parts. The first is a case study of a very successful project management maturity improvement initiative at Siemens Industry Sector’s Industry Automation division in the US. It views the initiative...... from the perspective of the Lean Enablers [Oehmen 2012] and is based on information from [Sopko 2012a], [Sopko 2012b], [Sopko 2010], [Sopko 2009], interviews, internal documentation, and the used MSP program management methodology [UK 2011]. The analysis of Lean Enablers incorporated in the MSP...

  8. Internet-enabled collaborative agent-based supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiming; Kremer, Rob; Norrie, Douglas H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents some results of our recent research work related to the development of a new Collaborative Agent System Architecture (CASA) and an Infrastructure for Collaborative Agent Systems (ICAS). Initially being proposed as a general architecture for Internet based collaborative agent systems (particularly complex industrial collaborative agent systems), the proposed architecture is very suitable for managing the Internet enabled complex supply chain for a large manufacturing enterprise. The general collaborative agent system architecture with the basic communication and cooperation services, domain independent components, prototypes and mechanisms are described. Benefits of implementing Internet enabled supply chains with the proposed infrastructure are discussed. A case study on Internet enabled supply chain management is presented.

  9. Process and device for energy production from thermonuclear fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, Bruno.

    1977-01-01

    An energy generating system is described using a fusion reaction. It includes several contrivances for confining a plasma in an area, a protective device around a significant part of each of these confinement contrivances, an appliance for introducing a fusion reaction fuel in each of the confinements so that the plasma may be formed. Each confinement can be separated from the protective device so that it may be replaced by another. The system is connected to the confinements, to the protective devices or to both. It enables the thermal energy to be extracted and transformed into another form, electric, mechanical or both [fr

  10. Laboratory Measurements for H3+ Deuteration Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kyle; Hillenbrand, Pierre-Michel; Urbain, Xavier; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2018-06-01

    Deuterated molecules are important chemical tracers of protostellar cores. At the ~106 cm-3 particle densities and ~20 K temperatures typical for protostellar cores, most molecules freeze onto dust grains. A notable exception is H3+ and its isotopologues. These become important carriers of positive charge in the gas, can couple to any ambient magnetic field, and can thereby alter the cloud dynamics. Knowing the total abundance of H3+ and its isotopologues is important for studying the evolution of protostellar cores. However, H3+ and D3+ have no dipole moment. They lack a pure rotational spectrum and are not observable at protostellar core temperatures. Fortunately H2D+ and D2H+ have dipole moments and a pure rotational spectrum that can be excited in protostellar cores. Observations of these two molecules, combined with astrochemical models, provide information about the total abundance of H3+ and all its isotopologues. The inferred abundances, though, rely on accurate astrochemical data for the deuteration of H3+ and its isotopologues.Here we present laboratory measurements of the rate coefficients for three important deuterating reactions, namely D + H3+/H2D+/D2H+ → H + H2D+/ D2H+/D3+. Astrochemical models currently rely on rate coefficients from classical (Langevin) or semi-classical methods for these reactions, as fully quantum-mechanical calculations are beyond current computational capabilities. Laboratory studies are the most tractable means of providing the needed data. For our studies we used our novel dual-source, merged fast-beams apparatus, which enables us to study reactions of neutral atoms and molecular ions. Co-propagating beams allow us to measure experimental rate coefficients as a function of collision energy. We extract cross section data from these results, which we then convolve with a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution to generate thermal rate coefficients. Here we present our results for these three reactions and discuss some implications.

  11. Chemical signal activation of an organocatalyst enables control over soft material formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trausel, Fanny; Maity, Chandan; Poolman, Jos M; Kouwenberg, D S J; Versluis, Frank; van Esch, Jan H; Eelkema, Rienk

    2017-10-12

    Cells can react to their environment by changing the activity of enzymes in response to specific chemical signals. Artificial catalysts capable of being activated by chemical signals are rare, but of interest for creating autonomously responsive materials. We present an organocatalyst that is activated by a chemical signal, enabling temporal control over reaction rates and the formation of materials. Using self-immolative chemistry, we design a deactivated aniline organocatalyst that is activated by the chemical signal hydrogen peroxide and catalyses hydrazone formation. Upon activation of the catalyst, the rate of hydrazone formation increases 10-fold almost instantly. The responsive organocatalyst enables temporal control over the formation of gels featuring hydrazone bonds. The generic design should enable the use of a large range of triggers and organocatalysts, and appears a promising method for the introduction of signal response in materials, constituting a first step towards achieving communication between artificial chemical systems.Enzymes regulated by chemical signals are common in biology, but few such artificial catalysts exist. Here, the authors design an aniline catalyst that, when activated by a chemical trigger, catalyses formation of hydrazone-based gels, demonstrating signal response in a soft material.

  12. Web-Enabled ATR/Fusion Development System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruda, Harald

    2001-01-01

    .... We have designed a Web-Enabled ATR/Fusion Development System (WEADS) that will allow distributed development and execution of AIR and fusion algorithms using currently available infrastructures...

  13. Enabling search services on outsourced private spatial data

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung; Ghinita, Gabriel; Jensen, Christian Sø ndergaard; Kalnis, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Cloud computing services enable organizations and individuals to outsource the management of their data to a service provider in order to save on hardware investments and reduce maintenance costs. Only authorized users are allowed to access the data

  14. Prognostics-Enabled Power Supply for ADAPT Testbed, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop's role is to develop electronic prognostics for sensing power systems in support of NASA/Ames ADAPT testbed. The prognostic enabled power systems from...

  15. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  16. Starshade Assembly Enabled by the Deep Space Gateway Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunsfeld, J. M.; Siegler, N.; Mukherjee, R.

    2018-02-01

    A starshade is a large external coronagraph which will allow the direct imaging and analysis of planets around nearby stars. We present how the Deep Space Gateway would enable the robotic/astronaut construction of a starshade.

  17. Enabling legislation and regulatory determinations for a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong

    1977-01-01

    General remarks on objectives and scope of enabling legislation, on the regulatory body and on the IAEA activities and assistance in regulatory matters e.g. the IAEA Safety Guides which are in preparation. (HP) [de

  18. Distributed Collaborative Learning Communities Enabled by Information Communication Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Alvarez (Heidi Lee)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHow and why can Information Communication Technology (ICT) contribute to enhancing learning in distributed Collaborative Learning Communities (CLCs)? Drawing from relevant theories concerned with phenomenon of ICT enabled distributed collaborative learning, this book identifies gaps in

  19. Intercultural Knowledge Flows in Edge Organizations: Trust as an Enabler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavrieli, Dana A; Scott, W. R

    2005-01-01

    ...., across military services and coalition partners) and knowledge flows. A major factor that emerges as an enabler of knowledge flows, especially in dynamic environments such as those in which Edge organizations operate, is trust...

  20. Excavating obstacles and enablers to internationalization at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Jos; Woldegiyorgis, Ayenachew A.; Rumbley, Laura E.; de Wit, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Gives an overview of my research as a visiting scholar at The Boston College Center for International Higher Education. This research classifies these obstacles and enablers in four categories: disciplinary, external, internal and personal.

  1. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  2. PrenDB, a Substrate Prediction Database to Enable Biocatalytic Use of Prenyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunera, Jakub; Kindinger, Florian; Li, Shu-Ming; Kolb, Peter

    2017-03-10

    Prenyltransferases of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) superfamily catalyze the attachment of prenyl or prenyl-like moieties to diverse acceptor compounds. These acceptor molecules are generally aromatic in nature and mostly indole or indole-like. Their catalytic transformation represents a major skeletal diversification step in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including the indole alkaloids. DMATS enzymes thus contribute significantly to the biological and pharmacological diversity of small molecule metabolites. Understanding the substrate specificity of these enzymes could create opportunities for their biocatalytic use in preparing complex synthetic scaffolds. However, there has been no framework to achieve this in a rational way. Here, we report a chemoinformatic pipeline to enable prenyltransferase substrate prediction. We systematically catalogued 32 unique prenyltransferases and 167 unique substrates to create possible reaction matrices and compiled these data into a browsable database named PrenDB. We then used a newly developed algorithm based on molecular fragmentation to automatically extract reactive chemical epitopes. The analysis of the collected data sheds light on the thus far explored substrate space of DMATS enzymes. To assess the predictive performance of our virtual reaction extraction tool, 38 potential substrates were tested as prenyl acceptors in assays with three prenyltransferases, and we were able to detect turnover in >55% of the cases. The database, PrenDB (www.kolblab.org/prendb.php), enables the prediction of potential substrates for chemoenzymatic synthesis through substructure similarity and virtual chemical transformation techniques. It aims at making prenyltransferases and their highly regio- and stereoselective reactions accessible to the research community for integration in synthetic work flows. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Make or buy of IT-enabled innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Overby, Mikkel Lucas; Özcan, Serden

    2004-01-01

    , an analysis of three companies in the financial sector - Charles Schwab, Fidelity Investment, and Merrill Lynch - reveals that governance choices influence a company's ap-propriable learning curve advantage to slow down or speed up adoption and imitation of IT-enabled innovation. Moreover, we discuss...... the implications of governance choices in techno-logical environments characterised by either accumulation or disruption. Keywords: IT-enabled innovation, outsourcing, technological regime, strategic posture, first-mover advantages, financial services, online brokerage...

  4. Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    flames," Physics of Fluids , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1447-54, 1995. [8] K. Lyons, " Toward an understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of lifted...Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control This report summarizes the research accomplished in the project...34Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control". The main areas of activity are: a) electrostatic flame and flow

  5. Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    modal biometrics submissions to include iris, face, palm and finger prints from biometrics collection devices, which will support the Warfighter in...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) Defense Acquisition Management...Phone: 227-3119 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 15, 2015 Program Information Program Name Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) DoD

  6. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  7. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  8. On the security of SSL/TLS-enabled applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Lal Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SSL/TLS (Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security-enabled web applications aim to provide public key certificate based authentication, secure session key establishment, and symmetric key based traffic confidentiality. A large number of electronic commerce applications, such as stock trading, banking, shopping, and gaming rely on the security strength of the SSL/TLS protocol. In recent times, a potential threat, known as main-in-the-middle (MITM attack, has been exploited by attackers of SSL/TLS-enabled web applications, particularly when naive users want to connect to an SSL/TLS-enabled web server. In this paper, we discuss about the MITM threat to SSL/TLS-enabled web applications. We review the existing space of solutions to counter the MITM attack on SSL/TLS-enabled applications, and then, we provide an effective solution which can resist the MITM attack on SSL/TLS-enabled applications. The proposed solution uses a soft-token based approach for user authentication on top of the SSL/TLS’s security features. We show that the proposed solution is secure, efficient and user friendly in comparison to other similar approaches.

  9. Physician communication via Internet-enabled technology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Neil G; Randall, Glen E; Archer, Norman P; Musson, David M

    2017-10-01

    The use of Internet-enabled technology (information and communication technology such as smartphone applications) may enrich information exchange among providers and, consequently, improve health care delivery. The purpose of this systematic review was to gain a greater understanding of the role that Internet-enabled technology plays in enhancing communication among physicians. Studies were identified through a search in three electronic platforms: the Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search identified 5140 articles; of these, 21 met all inclusion criteria. In general, physicians were satisfied with Internet-enabled technology, but consensus was lacking regarding whether Internet-enabled technology improved efficiency or made a difference to clinical decision-making. Internet-enabled technology can play an important role in enhancing communication among physicians, but the extent of that benefit is influenced by (1) the impact of Internet-enabled technology on existing work practices, (2) the availability of adequate resources, and (3) the nature of institutional elements, such as privacy legislation.

  10. Biocompatible click chemistry enabled compartment-specific pH measurement inside E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maiyun; Jalloh, Abubakar S; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Peng; Chen, Peng R

    2014-09-19

    Bioorthogonal reactions, especially the Cu(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, have revolutionized our ability to label and manipulate biomolecules under living conditions. The cytotoxicity of Cu(I) ions, however, has hindered the application of this reaction in the internal space of living cells. By systematically surveying a panel of Cu(I)-stabilizing ligands in promoting protein labelling within the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, we identify a highly efficient and biocompatible catalyst for intracellular modification of proteins by azide-alkyne cycloaddition. This reaction permits us to conjugate an environment-sensitive fluorophore site specifically onto HdeA, an acid-stress chaperone that adopts pH-dependent conformational changes, in both the periplasm and cytoplasm of E. coli. The resulting protein-fluorophore hybrid pH indicators enable compartment-specific pH measurement to determine the pH gradient across the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. This construct also allows the measurement of E. coli transmembrane potential, and the determination of the proton motive force across its inner membrane under normal and acid-stress conditions.

  11. DNA-Nanotechnology-Enabled Chiral Plasmonics: From Static to Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Duan, Xiaoyang; Liu, Na

    2017-12-19

    The development of DNA nanotechnology, especially the advent of DNA origami, has made DNA ideally suited to construct nanostructures with unprecedented complexity and arbitrariness. As a fully addressable platform, DNA origami can be used to organize discrete entities in space through DNA hybridization with nanometer accuracy. Among a variety of functionalized particles, metal nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) feature an important pathway to endow DNA-origami-assembled nanostructures with tailored optical functionalities. When metal particles are placed in close proximity, their particle plasmons, i.e., collective oscillations of conduction electrons, can be coupled together, giving rise to a wealth of interesting optical phenomena. Nevertheless, characterization methods that can read out the optical responses from plasmonic nanostructures composed of small metal particles, and especially can optically distinguish in situ their minute conformation changes, are very few. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy has proven to be a successful means to overcome these challenges because of its high sensitivity in discrimination of three-dimensional conformation changes. In this Account, we discuss a variety of static and dynamic chiral plasmonic nanostructures enabled by DNA nanotechnology. In the category of static plasmonic systems, we first show chiral plasmonic nanostructures based on spherical AuNPs, including plasmonic helices, toroids, and tetramers. To enhance the CD responses, anisotropic gold nanorods with larger extinction coefficients are utilized to create chiral plasmonic crosses and helical superstructures. Next, we highlight the inevitable evolution from static to dynamic plasmonic systems along with the fast development of this interdisciplinary field. Several dynamic plasmonic systems are reviewed according to their working mechanisms. We first elucidate a reconfigurable plasmonic cross structure that can execute DNA-regulated conformational

  12. Inflammatory and redox reactions in colorectal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Tina; Biasi, Fiorella; Calfapietra, Simone; Nano, Mario; Poli, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    It has been established that there is a relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer development. The constant colonic inflammation typical of inflammatory bowel diseases is now considered a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development. The inflammatory network of signaling molecules is also required during the late phases of carcinogenesis, to enable cancer cells to survive and to metastasize. Oxidative reactions are an integral part of the inflammatory response, and are generally associated with CRC development. However, when the malignant phenotype is acquired, increased oxidative status induces antioxidant defenses in cancer cells, favoring their aggressiveness. This contradictory behavior of cancer cells toward redox status is of great significance for potential anticancer therapies. This paper summarizes the essential background information relating to the molecules involved in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation during carcinogenesis. Understanding more of their function in CRC stages might provide the foundation for future developments in CRC treatment. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Physics of positronium acceptor complex formation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debarshi; Ganguly, Bichitra Nandi; Mukherjee, Tapas; Dutta-Roy, Binayak

    2002-01-01

    Positronium (P s ) reaction rates (κ) with weak Acceptors (Ac) leading to the formation of Ps-Ac complexes show several interesting features: non-monotonic temperature dependence of κ(departing from the usual Arrhenius behaviour), considerable variability of κ with respect to different solvents, and anomalies in response to external pressure at ambient temperature. The object of this work is to explain all these phenomena using a remarkably simple bubble model (the widely used model for the pick-off component of ortho-positronium decay in liquids), which has been revisited several times in the context and as a result smooth diffuse boundary of the bubble was suggested that yields reasonable agreement of the experimental data. The contractile force on the bubble relies much on the surface tension of the liquid, through our calculation the notion of critical surface tension emerges and enables us to explain the experimental observations satisfactorily. (author)

  14. D+D thermonuclear fusion reactions with polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, P.

    1986-01-01

    Polarization measurements from the 2 H(d, n) 3 He and 2 H(d, p) 3 H thermonuclear reactions at deuteron energies below 1 MeV are anayzed. Results of analysis enable to discuss the existence of 4 He excited states in the vicinity of d+d threshold energy as well as to extrapolate total cross-sections σ tot (d+d) into the region of very low energies

  15. Development of species-specific DNA probes for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari by polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; van Belkum, A; Koeken, A; Stegeman, H; Henkens, M H; van der Plas, J; Goossens, H; Niesters, H G; Quint, W G

    The application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting assays enables discrimination between species and strains of microorganisms. PCR primers aiming at arbitrary sequences in combination with primers directed against the repetitive extragenic palindrome (REP) or enterobacterial

  16. Nuclear reactions as structure probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Bernard; Cugnon, Joseph; Roussel-Chomaz, Patricia; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Oliveira Santos, Francois de; Bauge, Eric; Poves, Alfredo; Keeley, Nicholas; Simenel, Cedric; Avez, Benoit; Lacroix, Denis; Baye, Daniel; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Pons, Alexandre

    2007-09-01

    This publication gathers courses which aim at giving a view on new experiments which are performed by using radioactive beams, notably low intensity beams, in different accelerators, and allow the structure of very exotic nuclei to be characterized. Experimental as well as theoretical aspects are thus addressed. The contributions propose: a brief history of nuclear reactions and of instruments used to study them from the discovery of nucleus to the DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation); an overview of nuclear reactions; experimental techniques; the theory of collisions at low energy; resonant elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and astrophysical reactions; to probe nuclear structure with nucleons; shell model and spectroscopic factors; analysis of transfer reactions and determination of spectroscopic factors; microscopic approaches of nuclear dynamics; theoretical aspects of dissociation reactions; experimental aspects of knockout reactions; research in oenology with the chemical characterisation of defective ageing of dry white wines

  17. Characterising Complex Enzyme Reaction Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Melike Dönertaş

    Full Text Available The relationship between enzyme-catalysed reactions and the Enzyme Commission (EC number, the widely accepted classification scheme used to characterise enzyme activity, is complex and with the rapid increase in our knowledge of the reactions catalysed by enzymes needs revisiting. We present a manual and computational analysis to investigate this complexity and found that almost one-third of all known EC numbers are linked to more than one reaction in the secondary reaction databases (e.g., KEGG. Although this complexity is often resolved by defining generic, alternative and partial reactions, we have also found individual EC numbers with more than one reaction catalysing different types of bond changes. This analysis adds a new dimension to our understanding of enzyme function and might be useful for the accurate annotation of the function of enzymes and to study the changes in enzyme function during evolution.

  18. The Glaser–Hay reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Jensen, Jonas; Tortzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative Glaser–Hay coupling of two terminal alkynes to furnish a butadiyne is a key reaction for acetylenic scaffolding. Although the reaction is performed under rather simple conditions [CuCl/TMEDA/O2 (air)], the mechanism is still under debate. Herein we present detailed studies...... on the scope of this reaction by using both 13C NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopic methods. The former method was used to study the kinetics of the coupling of aryl-substituted alkynes as the aryl carbon resonances of the reactants and products have similar NOEs and relaxation times. The reaction was found...... to be zero-order with respect to the terminal alkyne reactant under standard preparative conditions. Moreover, as the reaction proceeded, a clear change to slower reaction kinetics was observed, but it was still apparently zero-order. The onset of this change was found to depend on the catalyst loading...

  19. The Paterno-Buchi reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Rasmus Yding; Schalk, Oliver; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.

    2012-01-01

    The Paternò-Büchi (PB) reaction between an excited carbonyl compound and an alkene has been widely studied, but so far little is known about the excited-state dynamics of the reaction. In this investigation, we used a compound in which a formyl and a vinyl group are attached to a [2.......2]paracyclophane in order to obtain a model system in pre-reactive conformation for the PB reaction. We studied the excited-state dynamics of the isolated molecule in a molecular beam using femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The results show that inter-system crossing...... within two picoseconds competes efficiently with the reaction in the singlet manifold. Thus, the PB reaction in this model system takes place in the triplet state on a time scale of nanoseconds. This result stresses the importance of triplet states in the excited-state pathway of the PB reaction...

  20. Limits for Stochastic Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelletti, Daniele

    Reaction systems have been introduced in the 70s to model biochemical systems. Nowadays their range of applications has increased and they are fruitfully used in dierent elds. The concept is simple: some chemical species react, the set of chemical reactions form a graph and a rate function...... is associated with each reaction. Such functions describe the speed of the dierent reactions, or their propensities. Two modelling regimes are then available: the evolution of the dierent species concentrations can be deterministically modelled through a system of ODE, while the counts of the dierent species...... at a certain time are stochastically modelled by means of a continuous-time Markov chain. Our work concerns primarily stochastic reaction systems, and their asymptotic properties. In Paper I, we consider a reaction system with intermediate species, i.e. species that are produced and fast degraded along a path...

  1. Cold-cap reactions in vitrification of nuclear waste glass: experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Jaehun; Pierce, David A.; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-01-01

    Cold-cap reactions are multiple overlapping reactions that occur in the waste-glass melter during the vitrification process when the melter feed is being converted to molten glass. In this study, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate cold-cap reactions in a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To separate the reaction heat from both sensible heat and experimental instability, we employed the run/rerun method, which enabled us to define the degree of conversion based on the reaction heat and to estimate the heat capacity of the reacting feed. Assuming that the reactions are nearly independent and can be approximated by the nth order kinetics, we obtained the kinetic parameters using the Kissinger method combined with least squares analysis. The resulting mathematical simulation of the cold-cap reactions provides a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model

  2. Metal-free bioconjugation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkel, Sander S; van Delft, Floris L

    2013-01-01

    The recent strategy to apply chemical reactions to address fundamental biological questions has led to the emergence of entirely new conjugation reactions that are fast and irreversible, yet so mild and selective that they can be performed even in living cells or organisms. These so-called bioorthogonal reactions open novel avenues, not only in chemical biology research, but also in many other life sciences applications, including the modulation of biopharmaceuticals by site-specific modification approaches.

  3. Volcanic Aggregates from Azores and Madeira Archipelagos (Portugal): An Overview Regarding the Alkali Silica Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Sara; Ramos, Violeta; Fernandes, Isabel; Nunes, João Carlos; Fournier, Benoit; Santos Silva, António; Soares, Dora

    2017-12-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a type of deterioration that has been causing serious expansion, cracking and durability/operational issues in concrete structures worldwide. The presence of sufficient moisture, high alkali content in the cement paste and reactive forms of silica in the aggregates are the required conditions for this reaction to occur. Reactive aggregates of volcanic nature have been reported in different countries such as Japan, Iceland and Turkey, among others. The presence of silica minerals and SiO2-rich volcanic glass is regarded as the main cause for the reactivity of volcanic rocks. In Portugal, volcanic aggregates are mainly present in Azores and Madeira Archipelagos and, for several years, there was no information regarding the potential alkali-reactivity of these rocks. Since the beginning of this decade some data was obtained by the work of Medeiros (2011) and Ramos (2013) and by the national research projects ReAVA, (Characterization of potential reactivity of the volcanic aggregates from the Azores Archipelago: implications on the durability of concrete structures) and IMPROVE (Improvement of performance of aggregates in the inhibition of alkali-aggregate reactions in concrete), respectively. In order to investigate the potential alkali-reactivity of aggregates from both archipelagos, a total of sixteen aggregates were examined under the optical microscope and, some of them, also under the Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. A set of geochemical analyses and laboratory expansion tests were also performed on those volcanic aggregates. The main results showed that the presence of volcanic glass is rare in both archipelagos and that the samples of Madeira Archipelago contain clay minerals (mainly from scoria/tuff formations inter-layered with the lava flows), which can play a role in concrete expansion. The results of the laboratory tests showed that one of the samples performed as potentially reactive

  4. Multistep processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The theories of nuclear reactions are reviewed with particular attention to the recent work on multistep processes. The evidence for compound nucleus and direct interaction reactions is described together with the results of comparisons between theories and experimental data. These theories have now proved inadequate, and there is evidence for multistep processes that take place after the initial direct stage but long before the attainment of the statistical equilibrium characteristic of compound nucleus processes. The theories of these reactions are described and it is shown how they can account for the experimental data and thus give a comprehensive understanding of nuclear reactions. (author)

  5. Critical parameters near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition in La{sub 0.7}A{sub 0.3}(Mn{sub 1-x}b{sub x})O{sub 3} (A=Sr; B=Ti and Al; x=0.0 and 0.05) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiem, N.V. [Hongduc University, 307 Lelai Street, Thanhhoa City (Viet Nam)], E-mail: nvkhiem2002@yahoo.com; Phong, P.T. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bau, L.V. [Hongduc University, 307 Lelai Street, Thanhhoa City (Viet Nam); Nam, D.N.H.; Hong, L.V.; Phuc, N.X. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2009-07-15

    The critical parameters provide important information concerning the interaction mechanisms near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition. In this paper, we present a thorough study for the critical behavior of La{sub 0.7}A{sub 0.3}(Mn{sub 1-x}B{sub x})O{sub 3} (A=Sr; B=Ti and Al; x=0.0 and 0.05) polycrystalline samples near ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition temperature by analyzing isothermal magnetization data. We have analyzed our dc-magnetization data near the transition temperature with the help of the modified Arrot plot, Kouvel-Fisher method. We have determined the critical temperature T{sub C} and the critical parameters {beta}, {gamma} and {delta}. With the values of T{sub C}, {beta} and {gamma}, we plot Mx(1-T/T{sub C}){sup -{beta}} vs. Hx(1-T/T{sub C}){sup -{gamma}}. All the data collapse on one of the two curves. This suggests that the data below and above T{sub C} obey scaling, following a single equation of state. Critical parameters for x=0 and x{sub Ti}=0.05 samples are between those predicted for a 3D-Heisenberg model and mean-field theory and for x{sub Al}=0.05 samples the values obtained for the critical parameters are close to those predicted by the mean-field theory.

  6. Critical parameters near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition in La0.7A0.3(Mn1-xbx)O3 (A=Sr; B=Ti and Al; x=0.0 and 0.05) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiem, N.V.; Phong, P.T.; Bau, L.V.; Nam, D.N.H.; Hong, L.V.; Phuc, N.X.

    2009-01-01

    The critical parameters provide important information concerning the interaction mechanisms near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition. In this paper, we present a thorough study for the critical behavior of La 0.7 A 0.3 (Mn 1-x B x )O 3 (A=Sr; B=Ti and Al; x=0.0 and 0.05) polycrystalline samples near ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition temperature by analyzing isothermal magnetization data. We have analyzed our dc-magnetization data near the transition temperature with the help of the modified Arrot plot, Kouvel-Fisher method. We have determined the critical temperature T C and the critical parameters β, γ and δ. With the values of T C , β and γ, we plot Mx(1-T/T C ) -β vs. Hx(1-T/T C ) -γ . All the data collapse on one of the two curves. This suggests that the data below and above T C obey scaling, following a single equation of state. Critical parameters for x=0 and x Ti =0.05 samples are between those predicted for a 3D-Heisenberg model and mean-field theory and for x Al =0.05 samples the values obtained for the critical parameters are close to those predicted by the mean-field theory.

  7. The central tower of the cathedral of Schleswig - New investigations to understand the alcali-silica reaction of historical mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Wanja; Protz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The damaging alcali-silica reaction leads to crack-formation and structural destruction at noumerous, constructed with cement mortar, buildings worldwide. The ASR-reaction causes the expansion of altered aggregates by the formation of a swelling gel. This gel consists of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that increases in volume with water, which exerts an expansive pressure inside the material. The cathedral of Schleswig is one of the oldest in northern Germany. The first church was built in 985-965. The Romanesque building part was erected around 1180 and the Gothic nave at the end of the 13th century. The central tower was constructed between 1888 and 1894 with brick and cement mortar. With 112 meters, the tower is the second-largest church spire of the country of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. Due to the formation of cracks and damages from 1953 to 1956 first restoration works took place. Further developments of cracks are making restoration necessary again today. For developing a suitable conservation strategy, different investigations were done. The investigation included the determination of the pore space properties, the hygric and thermal dilatation and mercury porosimetry measurements. Furthermore, the application of cathodoluminescence microscopy may give information about the alteration process and microstructures present and reveal the differences between unaltered and altered mortars. An obvious relation between the porosity and the swelling intensity could be detected. Furthermore it becomes apparent, that a clear zonation of the mortar took place. The mortar near the surface is denser with a lower porosity and has a significantly lower swelling or dilatation.

  8. Progress in microscopic direct reaction modeling of nucleon induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.; Hilaire, S.; Lechaftois, F.; Peru, S.; Pillet, N.; Robin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2015-12-15

    A microscopic nuclear reaction model is applied to neutron elastic and direct inelastic scatterings, and pre-equilibrium reaction. The JLM folding model is used with nuclear structure information calculated within the quasi-particle random phase approximation implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The folding model for direct inelastic scattering is extended to include rearrangement corrections stemming from both isoscalar and isovector density variations occurring during a transition. The quality of the predicted (n,n), (n,n{sup '}), (n,xn) and (n,n{sup '}γ) cross sections, as well as the generality of the present microscopic approach, shows that it is a powerful tool that can help improving nuclear reactions data quality. Short- and long-term perspectives are drawn to extend the present approach to more systems, to include missing reactions mechanisms, and to consistently treat both structure and reaction problems. (orig.)

  9. Physiological environment induce quick response - slow exhaustion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko eHiroi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In vivo environments are highly crowded and inhomogeneous, which may affect reaction processes in cells. In this study we examined the effects of intracellular crowding and an inhomogeneity on the behavior of in vivo reactions by calculating the spectral dimension (ds, which can be translated into the reaction rate function. We compared estimates of anomaly parameters obtained from Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS data with fractal dimensions derived from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM image analysis. FCS analysis indicated that the anomalous property was linked to physiological structure. Subsequent TEM analysis provided an in vivo illustration; soluble molecules likely percolate between intracellular clusters, which are constructed in a self-organizing manner. We estimated a cytoplasmic spectral dimension ds to be 1.39 ± 0.084. This result suggests that in vivo reactions initially run faster than the same reactions in a homogeneous space; this conclusion is consistent with the anomalous character indicated by FCS analysis. We further showed that these results were compatible with our Monte-Carlo simulation in which the anomalous behavior of mobile molecules correlates with the intracellular environment, leading to description as a percolation cluster, as demonstrated using TEM analysis. We confirmed by the simulation that the above-mentioned in vivo like properties are different from those of homogeneously concentrated environments. Additionally, simulation results indicated that crowding level of an environment might affect diffusion rate of reactant. Such knowledge of the spatial information enables us to construct realistic models for in vivo diffusion and reaction systems.

  10. Integration of metabolome data with metabolic networks reveals reporter reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çakir, Tunahan; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Önsan, Zeynep Ilsen

    2006-01-01

    Interpreting quantitative metabolome data is a difficult task owing to the high connectivity in metabolic networks and inherent interdependency between enzymatic regulation, metabolite levels and fluxes. Here we present a hypothesis-driven algorithm for the integration of such data with metabolic...... network topology. The algorithm thus enables identification of reporter reactions, which are reactions where there are significant coordinated changes in the level of surrounding metabolites following environmental/genetic perturbations. Applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated by using data from...... is measured. By combining the results with transcriptome data, we further show that it is possible to infer whether the reactions are hierarchically or metabolically regulated. Hereby, the reported approach represents an attempt to map different layers of regulation within metabolic networks through...

  11. Vulnerabilities in First-Generation RFID-enabled Credit Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt-Benjamin, Thomas S.; Bailey, Daniel V.; Fu, Kevin; Juels, Ari; O'Hare, Tom

    RFID-enabled credit cards are widely deployed in the United States and other countries, but no public study has thoroughly analyzed the mechanisms that provide both security and privacy. Using samples from a variety of RFID-enabled credit cards, our study observes that (1) the cardholder's name and often credit card number and expiration are leaked in plaintext to unauthenticated readers, (2) our homemade device costing around 150 effectively clones one type of skimmed cards thus providing a proof-of-concept implementation for the RF replay attack, (3) information revealed by the RFID transmission cross contaminates the security of RFID and non-RFID payment contexts, and (4) RFID-enabled credit cards are susceptible in various degrees to a range of other traditional RFID attacks such as skimming and relaying.

  12. Competitive intelligence as an enabler for firm competitiveness: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview, from literature, about how competitive intelligence can be an enabler towards a firm’s competitiveness. This overview is done under the background of intense global competition that firms are currently experiencing. This paper used a qualitative content analysis as a data collection methodology on all identified journal articles on competitive intelligence and firm competitiveness. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability and trustworthiness, peer-reviewed journal articles and triangulation were used. The paper found that competitive intelligence is an important enabler of firm competitiveness. The findings from this paper will assist business managers to understand and improve their outlook of competitive intelligence as an enabler of firm competitiveness and will be of great academic value.

  13. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sherjeel M; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Nassar, Joanna M; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2018-04-01

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Sherjeel M.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen.

  15. The ENABLER---based on proven NERVA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.M.; Pierce, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial Mass In Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO) and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tomorrow's space propulsion needs

  16. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Sherjeel M.

    2018-02-27

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen.

  17. Reaction mechanisms in zeolite catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozanska, X.; Santen, van R.A.; Auerbach, S.C.; Carrado, K.A.; Dutta, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    A review; described are the most basic mechanistic reaction steps that are induced by zeolite catalysts. Details on the zeolitic properties that are relevant to mol. reactivity are also provided. The theor. methods and models at hand to allow the investigation of these reaction steps and that have

  18. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is ...

  19. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  20. Web-palvelu Housing Enabler -arviointivälineelle

    OpenAIRE

    Liukko, Sakarias

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytteen lähtökohtana oli ET Elämisen Tuki Oy:n tarve korvata esteettömyyden arvioinnissa käytettävä, Housing Enabler -menetelmän apuna toiminut, tietokonesovellus tietoverkkojen välityksellä toimivalla järjestelmällä. Työssä perehdyttiin Housing Enabler -arviointivälineeseen ja palvelukeskeisen arkkitehtuurin mukaisesti toteutettaviin tietoverkkojen kautta käytettävien palvelujen toteutusteknologioihin Java EE -arkkitehtuurissa. Järjestelmä toteutettiin näiden periaatteiden mukaises...