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Sample records for reaction analysis showed

  1. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2017-03-01

    ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to...

  3. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Post-mortem analysis of suicide victims shows ABCB1 haplotype 1236T-2677T-3435T as a candidate predisposing factor behind adverse drug reactions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; Haukka, Jari; Sajantila, Antti

    2018-04-01

    Genetic variation in efflux transporter, permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), has recently been associated with completed violent suicides and also violent suicide attempts. As depression is known to be a risk factor for suicide and many antidepressants are P-gp substrates, it has been speculated that inadequate antidepressant treatment response or adverse side effects could be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the P-gp coding ABCB1 gene and completed suicides in citalopram users. Also, the effect of sex and suicide method used (violent vs. non-violent) was evaluated. All cases included in the study population, 349 completed suicide victims and 284 controls, were shown to be positive for antidepressant citalopram in a post-mortem toxicological drug screen. ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan genotyping assays. Haplotypes were constructed from genotype data using the PHASE software. The association between the manner of death and the ABCB1 haplotype was tested with logistic regression analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed in the ABCB1 allele or genotype frequencies between the suicide and control groups. However, the ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T haplotype was associated with completed suicides of female citalopram users (odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.07; P=0.009). After stratification by the method used for suicide, the association emerged in fatal intoxications (odds ratio: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.29-4.87; P=0.007). In other groups, no statistically significant associations were observed. Our results suggest that female citalopram users with ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the drugs as this haplotype was enriched in non-violent suicides of female citalopram users. Even though the biological mechanism behind this observation is unknown, the results provide another example of the importance

  5. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of kinetic reaction mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Turányi, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Chemical processes in many fields of science and technology, including combustion, atmospheric chemistry, environmental modelling, process engineering, and systems biology, can be described by detailed reaction mechanisms consisting of numerous reaction steps. This book describes methods for the analysis of reaction mechanisms that are applicable in all these fields. Topics addressed include: how sensitivity and uncertainty analyses allow the calculation of the overall uncertainty of simulation results and the identification of the most important input parameters, the ways in which mechanisms can be reduced without losing important kinetic and dynamic detail, and the application of reduced models for more accurate engineering optimizations. This monograph is invaluable for researchers and engineers dealing with detailed reaction mechanisms, but is also useful for graduate students of related courses in chemistry, mechanical engineering, energy and environmental science and biology.

  8. Reaction mixtures formed by nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs showed mutagenicity in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trossero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, which is present in preserved meat and can be produced in the oral cavity by reduction of nitrate taken from vegetables, could react in stomach with nitrosatable drugs, giving genotoxic-carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOC. The mutagenicity of reaction mixtures formed by sodium nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs (sulfathiazole, HST; phtalylsulfathiazole, PhST; complex Co(II-sulfathiazole, Co(II-ST in acidic medium was evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test, with TA98 and TA 100 strains. The reactions were carried out at room temperature, with a mole ratio [nitrite]/[sulfa-drug] > 1. The three reaction mixtures showed mutagenic effects in the considered range.

  9. Fat stigmatization in television shows and movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Susan M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To examine the phenomenon of fat stigmatization messages presented in television shows and movies, a content analysis was used to quantify and categorize fat-specific commentary and humor. Fat stigmatization vignettes were identified using a targeted sampling procedure, and 135 scenes were excised from movies and television shows. The material was coded by trained raters. Reliability indices were uniformly high for the seven categories (percentage agreement ranged from 0.90 to 0.98; kappas ranged from 0.66 to 0.94). Results indicated that fat stigmatization commentary and fat humor were often verbal, directed toward another person, and often presented directly in the presence of the overweight target. Results also indicated that male characters were three times more likely to engage in fat stigmatization commentary or fat humor than female characters. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first information regarding the specific gender, age, and types of fat stigmatization that occur frequently in movies and television shows. The stimuli should prove useful in future research examining the role of individual difference factors (e.g., BMI) in the reaction to viewing such vignettes.

  10. Carboplatin Hypersensitivity Reactions in Pediatric Low Grade Glioma Are Protocol Specific and Desensitization Shows Poor Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgshun, Andrew J; Hansford, Jordan R; Cole, Theresa; Choo, Sharon; Sullivan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The use of carboplatin for the treatment of pediatric low grade gliomas (PLGG) is often limited by the development of carboplatin hypersensitivity. Reported rates of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions vary between 6% and 32% in these patients. Here we report the frequency of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions depending on the treatment regimen used, and outcomes of carboplatin desensitization. The records of all patients in a single institution who were treated with carboplatin for PLGG were accessed and all patients receiving more than one dose of carboplatin are reported. Thirty four patients with PLGG were treated with carboplatin according to one of the two different regimens. Carboplatin hypersensitivity was documented in 47% of patients, but the frequency differed by treatment protocol. Those patients treated with 4-weekly single agent carboplatin had carboplatin allergy in 8% of cases whereas 68% of those treated with combined carboplatin and vincristine (every three weeks, according to the SIOP 2004 low grade glioma protocol) had carboplatin reactions (OR 23.6, P Desensitization was only successful in two out of 10 patients in whom it was attempted. Hypersensitivity reactions to carboplatin are more common in this cohort than previously reported and rates are protocol-dependent. Desensitization showed limited effectiveness in this cohort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Saccadic reaction times to audiovisual stimuli show effects of oscillatory phase reset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Diederich

    Full Text Available Initiating an eye movement towards a suddenly appearing visual target is faster when an accessory auditory stimulus occurs in close spatiotemporal vicinity. Such facilitation of saccadic reaction time (SRT is well-documented, but the exact neural mechanisms underlying the crossmodal effect remain to be elucidated. From EEG/MEG studies it has been hypothesized that coupled oscillatory activity in primary sensory cortices regulates multisensory processing. Specifically, it is assumed that the phase of an ongoing neural oscillation is shifted due to the occurrence of a sensory stimulus so that, across trials, phase values become highly consistent (phase reset. If one can identify the phase an oscillation is reset to, it is possible to predict when temporal windows of high and low excitability will occur. However, in behavioral experiments the pre-stimulus phase will be different on successive repetitions of the experimental trial, and average performance over many trials will show no signs of the modulation. Here we circumvent this problem by repeatedly presenting an auditory accessory stimulus followed by a visual target stimulus with a temporal delay varied in steps of 2 ms. Performing a discrete time series analysis on SRT as a function of the delay, we provide statistical evidence for the existence of distinct peak spectral components in the power spectrum. These frequencies, although varying across participants, fall within the beta and gamma range (20 to 40 Hz of neural oscillatory activity observed in neurophysiological studies of multisensory integration. Some evidence for high-theta/alpha activity was found as well. Our results are consistent with the phase reset hypothesis and demonstrate that it is amenable to testing by purely psychophysical methods. Thus, any theory of multisensory processes that connects specific brain states with patterns of saccadic responses should be able to account for traces of oscillatory activity in observable

  12. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Portas, M.; Perez, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  13. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P; Goutsias, John

    2009-09-07

    Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. We develop here a probabilistic approach to sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. The proposed technique employs a biophysically derived model for parameter fluctuations and, by using a recently suggested variance-based approach to sensitivity analysis [Saltelli et al., Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 105, 2811 (2005)], it leads to a powerful sensitivity analysis methodology for biochemical reaction systems. The approach presented in this paper addresses many problems associated with derivative-based sensitivity analysis techniques. Most importantly, it produces thermodynamically consistent sensitivity analysis results, can easily accommodate appreciable parameter variations, and allows for systematic investigation of high-order interaction effects. By employing a computational model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, we demonstrate that our approach is well suited for sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems and can produce a wealth of information about the sensitivity properties of such systems. The price to be paid, however, is a substantial increase in computational complexity over derivative-based techniques, which must be effectively addressed in order to make the proposed approach to sensitivity analysis more practical.

  14. A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

    2004-12-23

    W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

  15. Specifications for surface reaction analysis apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8 as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry. The apparatus is devoted to the study concerning the influence of translational kinetic energy of incident molecules to chemical reactions on solid surfaces with gas molecules. In order to achieve the research purpose, reactive molecular scattering experiments and photoemission spectroscopic measurements using synchrotron radiation are performed in that apparatus via a supersonic molecular beam generator, an electron energy analyzer and a quadrupole mass analyzer. The detail specifications for the apparatus are described in this report. (author)

  16. Advertising Discourse Analysis of FES stores: Killing Love, Cowards Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Venegas Ahumada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to analyze the structural and photographic discourse of the Autumn-Winter campaign 2008 of FES stores for young people. This was done by a semiotic theory and a critical-structural methodology of discourse. An analysis of 4 advertising photographs was done, and at once an analysis of the discourse “FES says no to violence against Women”, which explains the campaign’s target. The result is: The discourse was subjected to production condition (society of control and makes advertising a way to homogenize subjectivity of masses to consume. Recognition conditions demonstrate that this advertising discourse of symbolic violence means a type of violation of Men and Women Rights. An action like this requires commitment of Psychology in order to promote the social humanizing change, by means of university teaching and professional tasks.

  17. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  18. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiie, T., E-mail: yoshiie@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka-fu 590-0494 (Japan); Kinomura, A. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka-fu 590-0494 (Japan); Nagai, Y. [The Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    In the reactor pressure vessel surveillance data of a European-type pressurized water reactor (low-Cu steel), it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very high, and a large number of precipitates existed. In this study, defect structure evolution obtained from surveillance data was simulated by reaction kinetic analysis using 15 rate equations. The saturation of precipitation and the growth of loops were simulated, but it was not possible to explain the increase in DBTT on the basis of the defect structures. The sub-grain boundary segregation of solutes was discussed for the origin of the DBTT increase.

  19. Analysis of transfer reactions: determination of spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); The Andrzej So an Institute for Nuclear Studies, Dept. of Nuclear Reactions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    An overview of the most popular models used for the analysis of direct reaction data is given, concentrating on practical aspects. The 4 following models (in order of increasing sophistication): the distorted wave born approximation (DWBA), the adiabatic model, the coupled channels born approximation, and the coupled reaction channels are briefly described. As a concrete example, the C{sup 12}(d,p)C{sup 13} reaction at an incident deuteron energy of 30 MeV is analysed with progressively more physically sophisticated models. The effect of the choice of the reaction model on the spectroscopic information extracted from the data is investigated and other sources of uncertainty in the derived spectroscopic factors are discussed. We have showed that the choice of the reaction model can significantly influence the nuclear structure information, particularly the spectroscopic factors or amplitudes but occasionally also the spin-parity, that we wish to extract from direct reaction data. We have also demonstrated that the DWBA can fail to give a satisfactory description of transfer data but when the tenets of the theory are fulfilled DWBA can work very well and will yield the same results as most sophisticated models. The use of global rather than fitted optical potentials can also lead to important differences in the extracted spectroscopic factors.

  20. Regression analysis of a chemical reaction fouling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasak, F.; Epstein, N.

    1996-01-01

    A previously reported mathematical model for the initial chemical reaction fouling of a heated tube is critically examined in the light of the experimental data for which it was developed. A regression analysis of the model with respect to that data shows that the reference point upon which the two adjustable parameters of the model were originally based was well chosen, albeit fortuitously. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Multifractal scaling analysis of autopoisoning reactions over a rough surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Ajay; Yan, Ching-Cher Sanders; Lee, S.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Decay type diffusion-limited reactions (DLR) over a rough surface generated by a random deposition model were performed. To study the effect of the decay profile on the reaction probability distribution (RPD), multifractal scaling analysis has been carried out. The dynamics of these autopoisoning reactions are controlled by the two parameters in the decay function, namely, the initial sticking probability (P ini ) of every site and the decay rate (m). The smaller the decay rate, the narrower is the range of α values in the α-f(α) multifractal spectrum. The results are compared with the earlier work of DLR over a surface of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). We also considered here the autopoisoning reactions over a smooth surface for comparing our results, which show clearly how the roughness affects the chemical reactions. The q-τ(q) multifractal curves for the smooth surface are linear whereas those for the rough surface are nonlinear. The range of α values in the case of a rough surface is wider than that of the smooth surface

  2. Reaction path analysis of sodium-water reaction phenomena in support of chemical reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    2011-01-01

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule to the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. The results are used as the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by JAEA toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). (author)

  3. Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.

    1997-12-31

    Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.

  5. Experimental and numerical reaction analysis on sodium-water chemical reaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kikuchi, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using an elementary reaction analysis. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. The analysis contains 25 elementary reactions, which consist of 17 H_2-O_2 and 8 Na-H_2O reactions. Temperature and species concentrations in the counter-flow reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as LIF and CARS. The main reaction in the experimental conditions is Na+H_2O → NaOH+H and OH is produced by H_2O+H → H_2+OH. It is demonstrated that the reaction model in this study well explains the structure of the sodium-water counter-flow diffusion flame. (author)

  6. Analysis of the consequences of 'thermite' reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorio, Daniel; Cincotta, Daniel O.; Camacho, Esteban F.; Bruno, Hernan R.; Boero, Norma L.

    1999-01-01

    The mixture of Al-U 3 O 8 is not in a state of chemical equilibrium, and at temperatures of between 850 degree C and 1000 degree C, it reacts exo thermally. This is known, in corresponding bibliography, as a 'Thermite reaction'. This mixture is used in the manufacturing of the plate-type fuel used in research reactors. It has been pointed out that the release of energy caused by this type of reactions might represent a risk in case of accidents in this type of reactor. Conclusions, in general, tend to indicate that no such risk exists, although no concrete assurance is given that this is the case, and this fact, therefore, leaves room for doubt. The objective of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of what happens to a fuel plate when it is subjected to thermite reaction. We will, furthermore, analyze the consequences of the release of energy generated by this type of reaction within the core of the reactor, clearly defining the problem for this type of fuel and this kind of reactor

  7. Thermogravimetric analysis of the beryllium/steam reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druyts, Frank E-mail: fdruyts@sckcen.be; Iseghem, Pierre van

    2000-11-01

    In view of the safety assessment of new fusion reactor designs, kinetic data are needed on the beryllium/steam reaction. Therefore, thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the reactivity of beryllium in steam as a function of temperature, irradiation history and porosity of the samples. To this purpose, reference unirradiated S-200 VHP beryllium samples were compared with specimens irradiated in the BR2 reactor up to fast neutron fluences (E>1 MeV) of respectively 1.6x10{sup 21} n cm{sup -2} (resulting in a helium content of 300 appm He and a theoretical density of 99.9%) and 4x10{sup 22} n cm{sup -2} (21000 appm He, 97.2% theoretical density). Kinetics were parabolic for all tested beryllium types at 600 deg. C. At 700 deg. C, kinetics were parabolic for the unirradiated and irradiated 99.9% dense beryllium, and accelerating/linear for the irradiated 97.2% material. At 800 deg. C, all samples showed accelerating/linear behaviour. There was no influence of porosity on the reaction rate of beryllium in steam within the limited investigated density range, except at 700 deg. C, where the measured reaction rate for the irradiated 97.2% dense samples is an order of magnitude higher than for the irradiated 99.9% dense specimens.

  8. An Attributional Analysis of Reactions to Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Kaori

    1995-01-01

    Three studies examined observers' attributions and reactions to negative emotional displays, as well as expressers' expectations about others' reactions. Analysis revealed that people attribute others' negative emotions equally to situational factors and dispositions, whereas their own emotions are attributed to the situation more than to…

  9. Nonlinear analysis of a reaction-diffusion system: Amplitude equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E. P., E-mail: zemskov@ccas.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Dorodnicyn Computing Center (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    A reaction-diffusion system with a nonlinear diffusion term is considered. Based on nonlinear analysis, the amplitude equations are obtained in the cases of the Hopf and Turing instabilities in the system. Turing pattern-forming regions in the parameter space are determined for supercritical and subcritical instabilities in a two-component reaction-diffusion system.

  10. Analysis of partial and total inelasticities obtained from inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellandi, J.; Covolan, R.; Costa, C.G.; Montanha, J.; Mundim, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    An independent analysis of model for energetic dependence on inelasticity is presented, from experimental data of pp → c X (c = π +- , Κ +- , p +- ) type inclusive reactions. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    2001-01-01

    A current bibliography based on INIS Atomindex with 78 references on Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations has been prepared for year 1998. References are arranged by first authors' name. (N.T.)

  12. Stability Analysis of a Reaction-Diffusion System Modeling Atherogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Ibragimov, Akif; Ritter, Laura; Walton, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a linear, asymptotic stability analysis for a reaction-diffusionconvection system modeling atherogenesis, the initiation of atherosclerosis, as an inflammatory instability. Motivated by the disease paradigm articulated by Ross

  13. Importance Performance Analysis as a Trade Show Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse, Wondwesen; Skallerud, Kåre; Korneliussen, Tor

    2010-01-01

    Author's accepted version (post-print). The purpose of this study is to introduce importance performance analysis as a trade show performance evaluation and benchmarking tool. Importance performance analysis considers exhibitors’ performance expectation and perceived performance in unison to evaluate and benchmark trade show performance. The present study uses data obtained from exhibitors of an international trade show to demonstrate how importance performance analysis can be used to eval...

  14. Automatized Assessment of Protective Group Reactivity: A Step Toward Big Reaction Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Arkadii I; Madzhidov, Timur I; Klimchuk, Olga; Nugmanov, Ramil I; Antipin, Igor S; Varnek, Alexandre

    2016-11-28

    We report a new method to assess protective groups (PGs) reactivity as a function of reaction conditions (catalyst, solvent) using raw reaction data. It is based on an intuitive similarity principle for chemical reactions: similar reactions proceed under similar conditions. Technically, reaction similarity can be assessed using the Condensed Graph of Reaction (CGR) approach representing an ensemble of reactants and products as a single molecular graph, i.e., as a pseudomolecule for which molecular descriptors or fingerprints can be calculated. CGR-based in-house tools were used to process data for 142,111 catalytic hydrogenation reactions extracted from the Reaxys database. Our results reveal some contradictions with famous Greene's Reactivity Charts based on manual expert analysis. Models developed in this study show high accuracy (ca. 90%) for predicting optimal experimental conditions of protective group deprotection.

  15. Quantitative surface analysis using deuteron-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afarideh, Hossein

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique consists of looking at the energies of the reaction products which uniquely define the particular elements present in the sample and it analysis the yield/energy distribution to reveal depth profiles. A summary of the basic features of the nuclear reaction analysis technique is given, in particular emphasis is placed on quantitative light element determination using (d,p) and (d,alpha) reactions. The experimental apparatus is also described. Finally a set of (d,p) spectra for the elements Z=3 to Z=17 using 2 MeV incident deutrons is included together with example of more applications of the (d,alpha) spectra. (author)

  16. Modular verification of chemical reaction network encodings via serializability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R.; Stefanovic, Darko; Phillips, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reaction networks are a powerful means of specifying the intended behaviour of synthetic biochemical systems. A high-level formal specification, expressed as a chemical reaction network, may be compiled into a lower-level encoding, which can be directly implemented in wet chemistry and may itself be expressed as a chemical reaction network. Here we present conditions under which a lower-level encoding correctly emulates the sequential dynamics of a high-level chemical reaction network. We require that encodings are transactional, such that their execution is divided by a “commit reaction” that irreversibly separates the reactant-consuming phase of the encoding from the product-generating phase. We also impose restrictions on the sharing of species between reaction encodings, based on a notion of “extra tolerance”, which defines species that may be shared between encodings without enabling unwanted reactions. Our notion of correctness is serializability of interleaved reaction encodings, and if all reaction encodings satisfy our correctness properties then we can infer that the global dynamics of the system are correct. This allows us to infer correctness of any system constructed using verified encodings. As an example, we show how this approach may be used to verify two- and four-domain DNA strand displacement encodings of chemical reaction networks, and we generalize our result to the limit where the populations of helper species are unlimited. PMID:27325906

  17. Isothermal reaction calorimetry as a tool for kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zogg, Andreas; Stoessel, Francis; Fischer, Ulrich; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Reaction calorimetry has found widespread application for thermal and kinetic analysis of chemical reactions in the context of thermal process safety as well as process development. This paper reviews the most important reaction calorimetric principles (heat-flow, heat-balance, power-compensation, and Peltier principle) and their applications in commercial or scientific devices. The discussion focuses on the different dynamic behavior of the main calorimetric principles during an isothermal reaction measurement. Examples of available reaction calorimeters are further compared considering their detection limit, time constant as well as temperature range. In a second part, different evaluation methods for the isothermally measured calorimetric data are reviewed and discussed. The methods will be compared, focusing especially on the fact that reaction calorimetric data always contains additional informations not directly related to the actual chemical reaction such as heat of mixing, heat of phase-transfer/change processes or simple measurement errors. Depending on the evaluation method applied such disturbances have a significant influence on the calculated reaction enthalpies or rate constants

  18. Numerical Analysis of Microwave Heating on Saponification Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kama; Jia, Kun

    2005-01-01

    Currently, microwave is widely used in chemical industry to accelerate chemical reactions. Saponification reaction has important applications in industry; some research results have shown that microwave heating can significantly accelerate the reaction [1]. But so far, no efficient method has been reported for the analysis of the heating process and design of an efficient reactor powered by microwave. In this paper, we present a method to study the microwave heating process on saponification reaction, where the reactant in a test tube is considered as a mixture of dilute solution. According to the preliminary measurement results, the effective permittivity of the mixture is approximately the permittivity of water, but the conductivity, which could change with the reaction, is derived from the reaction equation (RE). The electromagnetic field equation and reaction equation are coupled by the conductivity. Following that, the whole heating processes, which is described by Maxwell's equations, the reaction equation and heat transport equation (HTE), is analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The temperature rising in the test tube are measured and compared with the computational results. Good agreement can be seen between the measured and calculated results.

  19. Ex-vacuo nuclear reaction analysis of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Doyle, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    A novel technique for performing in-air d( 3 He, p) nuclear reaction analysis of deuterium using external 3 He ion beams ranging in energy from 0.3-2.0 MeV is presented. Variable on-target beam energies for the depth profiling of deuterium are obtained by varying the transmission distance of the external 3 He beam in air. The ex-vacuo nuclear reaction analysis (XNRA) apparatus is described, and unique aspects and limitations of in-air depth profiling of deuterium using the d( 3 He, p) reaction are discussed. Example analyses where XNRA has been used for the multidimensional measurement of deuterium in fusion reactor components are presented in order to illustrate the advantages of XNRA for deuterium. These advantages include nondestructive analysis of large targets, efficient depth profiling via variable air gap energy tuning, and rapid analysis of numerous samples in the absence of vacuum cycling. (orig.)

  20. Theoretical analysis of thermal molten metal-water reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, W.

    1982-01-01

    In experiments with greater masses (kg-scale) two extreme cases had been oberved during the course of reaction when hot melt reacted with a vaporizable cooler liquid. Relatively mild hot interactions with slow pressure build-up and small pressure peak in the reaction volume often occurred but there were also some very violent reactions (steam explosions) where a remarkable portion of thermal energy had been transformed into mechanical energy with high pressure peaks. For the two types of reactions overall models for water as a coolant are developed here. Based on calculations and on comparisons with corresponding experiments it is shown that a relatively mild course of reaction can be explained by a fragmentation of the melt under following violent evaporation of the cooling medium. Pressures only with small reaction volumes up to the MPa range can be found in these reactions. The calculations, for example of Bird and Millington, showed a pressure maximum of 1 MPa after 170 ms of the start of the reaction; this agrees very well with the result of the experiment of 1.08 MPa. (orig./GL) [de

  1. Structural parameter identifiability analysis for dynamic reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidescu, Florin Paul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2008-01-01

    method based on Lie derivatives. The proposed systematic two phase methodology is illustrated on a mass action based model for an enzymatically catalyzed reaction pathway network where only a limited set of variables is measured. The methodology clearly pinpoints the structurally identifiable parameters...... where for a given set of measured variables it is desirable to investigate which parameters may be estimated prior to spending computational effort on the actual estimation. This contribution addresses the structural parameter identifiability problem for the typical case of reaction network models....... The proposed analysis is performed in two phases. The first phase determines the structurally identifiable reaction rates based on reaction network stoichiometry. The second phase assesses the structural parameter identifiability of the specific kinetic rate expressions using a generating series expansion...

  2. Analysis of reaction schemes using maximum rates of constituent steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Dumesic, James A.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the steady-state kinetics of a chemical reaction can be analyzed analytically in terms of proposed reaction schemes composed of series of steps with stoichiometric numbers equal to unity by calculating the maximum rates of the constituent steps, rmax,i, assuming that all of the remaining steps are quasi-equilibrated. Analytical expressions can be derived in terms of rmax,i to calculate degrees of rate control for each step to determine the extent to which each step controls the rate of the overall stoichiometric reaction. The values of rmax,i can be used to predict the rate of the overall stoichiometric reaction, making it possible to estimate the observed reaction kinetics. This approach can be used for catalytic reactions to identify transition states and adsorbed species that are important in controlling catalyst performance, such that detailed calculations using electronic structure calculations (e.g., density functional theory) can be carried out for these species, whereas more approximate methods (e.g., scaling relations) are used for the remaining species. This approach to assess the feasibility of proposed reaction schemes is exact for reaction schemes where the stoichiometric coefficients of the constituent steps are equal to unity and the most abundant adsorbed species are in quasi-equilibrium with the gas phase and can be used in an approximate manner to probe the performance of more general reaction schemes, followed by more detailed analyses using full microkinetic models to determine the surface coverages by adsorbed species and the degrees of rate control of the elementary steps. PMID:27162366

  3. Nuclear reaction analysis of hydrogen in materials: Principals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanford, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis for hydrogen in materials is difficult by most traditional analytic methods. Because hydrogen has no Auger transitions, no X-ray transitions, does not neutron activate, and does not backscatter ions, it is invisible in analytical methods based on these effects. In addition, since hydrogen is a universal contaminant in vacuum systems, techniques based on mass spectrometry are difficult unless extreme measures are taken to reduce hydrogen backgrounds. Because of this situation, methods have been developed for analyzing for hydrogen in solid materials based on nuclear reactions between bombarding ions and hydrogen atoms (protons) in the samples. The nuclear reaction methods are now practiced at laboratories around the world. The basic principals of nuclear reaction analysis will be briefly presented. This method will be illustrated by applications to problems ranging from basic physics, to geology, to materials science, and to art history and archeology

  4. Development of LEAP-JET code for sodium-water reaction analysis. Validation by sodium-water reaction tests (SWAT-1R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Hamada, Hirotsugu

    2004-03-01

    The sodium-water reaction event in an FBR steam generator (SG) has influence on the safety, economical efficiency, etc. of the plant, so that the selection of design base leak (DBL) of the SG is considered as one of the important matters. The clarification of the sodium-water reaction phenomenon and the development of an analysis model are necessary to estimate the sodium-water reaction event with high accuracy and rationality in selecting the DBL. The reaction jet model is pointed out as a part of the necessary improvements to evaluate the overheating tube rupture of large SGs, since the behavior of overheating tube rupture is largely affected by the reaction jet conditions outside the tube. Therefore, LEAP-JET has been developed as an analysis code for the simulation of sodium-water reactions. This document shows the validation of the LEAP-JET code by the Sodium-Water Reaction Test (SWAT-1R). The following results have been obtained: (1) The reaction rate constant, K, is estimated at between 0.001≤K≤0.1 from the LEAP-JET analysis of the SWAT-1R data. (2) The analytical results on the high-temperature region and the behaviors of reaction consumption (Na, H 2 O) and products (H 2 , NaOH, Na 2 O) are considered to be physically reasonable. (3) The LEAP-JET analysis shows the tendency of overestimation in the maximum temperature and temperature distribution of the reaction jet. (4) In the LEAP-JET analysis, the numerical calculation becomes unstably, especially in the mesh containing quite small sodium mass. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the computational algorism to stabilize it and obtain the optimum value of K in sodium-water reactions. (author)

  5. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ... in the nitrogen environment. Keywords. Surface reactivity ... sium (Na–K) compounds in the coating or core of the ..... Barkshire I R, Pruton M and Smith G C 1995 Appl. Sur.

  6. Improvement on reaction model for sodium-water reaction jet code and application analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itooka, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshinori; Okabe, Ayao; Fujimata, Kazuhiro; Murata, Shuuichi

    2000-03-01

    In selecting the reasonable DBL on steam generator (SG), it is necessary to improve analytical method for estimating the sodium temperature on failure propagation due to overheating. Improvement on sodium-water reaction (SWR) jet code (LEAP-JET ver.1.30) and application analysis to the water injection tests for confirmation of code propriety were performed. On the improvement of the code, a gas-liquid interface area density model was introduced to develop a chemical reaction model with a little dependence on calculation mesh size. The test calculation using the improved code (LEAP-JET ver.1.40) were carried out with conditions of the SWAT-3·Run-19 test and an actual scale SG. It is confirmed that the SWR jet behavior on the results and the influence to analysis result of a model are reasonable. For the application analysis to the water injection tests, water injection behavior and SWR jet behavior analyses on the new SWAT-1 (SWAT-1R) and SWAT-3 (SWAT-3R) tests were performed using the LEAP-BLOW code and the LEAP-JET code. In the application analysis of the LEAP-BLOW code, parameter survey study was performed. As the results, the condition of the injection nozzle diameter needed to simulate the water leak rate was confirmed. In the application analysis of the LEAP-JET code, temperature behavior of the SWR jet was investigated. (author)

  7. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  8. Bayesian inversion analysis of nonlinear dynamics in surface heterogeneous reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Toshiaki; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Okamoto, Atsushi; Hukushima, Koji

    2016-09-01

    It is essential to extract nonlinear dynamics from time-series data as an inverse problem in natural sciences. We propose a Bayesian statistical framework for extracting nonlinear dynamics of surface heterogeneous reactions from sparse and noisy observable data. Surface heterogeneous reactions are chemical reactions with conjugation of multiple phases, and they have the intrinsic nonlinearity of their dynamics caused by the effect of surface-area between different phases. We adapt a belief propagation method and an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to partial observation problem, in order to simultaneously estimate the time course of hidden variables and the kinetic parameters underlying dynamics. The proposed belief propagation method is performed by using sequential Monte Carlo algorithm in order to estimate nonlinear dynamical system. Using our proposed method, we show that the rate constants of dissolution and precipitation reactions, which are typical examples of surface heterogeneous reactions, as well as the temporal changes of solid reactants and products, were successfully estimated only from the observable temporal changes in the concentration of the dissolved intermediate product.

  9. Development of blow down and sodium-water reaction jet analysis codes-Validation by sodium-water reaction tests (SWAT-1R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Seino; Akikazu Kurihara; Isao Ono; Koji Jitsu

    2005-01-01

    Blow down analysis code (LEAP-BLOW) and sodium-water reaction jet analysis code (LEAP-JET) have been developed in order to improve the evaluation method on sodium-water reaction event in the steam generator (SG) of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR). The validation analyses by these two codes were carried out using the data of Sodium-Water Reaction Test (SWAT-1R). The following main results have been obtained through this validation: (1) The calculational results by LEAP-BLOW such as internal pressure and water flow rate show good agreement with the results of the SWAT- 1R test. (2) The LEAP-JET code can qualitatively simulate the behavior of sodium-water reaction. However, it is found that the code has tendency to overestimate the maximum temperature of the reaction jet. (authors)

  10. Hydrogen release from irradiated elastomers measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagielski, J., E-mail: jacek.jagielski@itme.edu.pl [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland); Ostaszewska, U. [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials & Dyes, Division of Elastomers & Rubber Technology, Harcerska 30, 05-820 Piastow (Poland); Bielinski, D.M. [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Polymer & Dye Technology, Stefanowskiego 12/16, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Grambole, D. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, PO Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Romaniec, M.; Jozwik, I.; Kozinski, R. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); Kosinska, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    Ion irradiation appears as an interesting method of modification of elastomers, especially friction and wear properties. Main structural effect caused by heavy ions is a massive loss of hydrogen from the surface layer leading to its smoothening and shrinking. The paper presents the results of hydrogen release from various elastomers upon irradiation with H{sup +}, He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} studied by using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that the hydrogen release is controlled by inelastic collisions between ions and target electrons. The last part of the study was focused on preliminary analysis of mechanical properties of irradiated rubbers.

  11. Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for

  12. Derivatization reactions in the gas—liquid chromatographic analysis of drugs in biological fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff, A.; Lingeman, H.

    1984-01-01

    Alkylation, acylation, silylation and other derivatization reactions applied to the gas chromatographic analysis of drugs in biological matrices are reviewed. Reaction conditions are discussed in relation to reaction mechanisms. Detector-oriented labelling of drugs, and derivatization with chiral

  13. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Heikkinen, Juha; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 1-3 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013) before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only. We analyzed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence. The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 2013-2014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global climate models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  14. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio eLinkosalo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 13 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013 before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only.We analysed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence.The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 20132014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global warming models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  15. Stochastic analysis of complex reaction networks using binomial moment equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer

    2012-09-01

    The stochastic analysis of complex reaction networks is a difficult problem because the number of microscopic states in such systems increases exponentially with the number of reactive species. Direct integration of the master equation is thus infeasible and is most often replaced by Monte Carlo simulations. While Monte Carlo simulations are a highly effective tool, equation-based formulations are more amenable to analytical treatment and may provide deeper insight into the dynamics of the network. Here, we present a highly efficient equation-based method for the analysis of stochastic reaction networks. The method is based on the recently introduced binomial moment equations [Barzel and Biham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 150602 (2011)]. The binomial moments are linear combinations of the ordinary moments of the probability distribution function of the population sizes of the interacting species. They capture the essential combinatorics of the reaction processes reflecting their stoichiometric structure. This leads to a simple and transparent form of the equations, and allows a highly efficient and surprisingly simple truncation scheme. Unlike ordinary moment equations, in which the inclusion of high order moments is prohibitively complicated, the binomial moment equations can be easily constructed up to any desired order. The result is a set of equations that enables the stochastic analysis of complex reaction networks under a broad range of conditions. The number of equations is dramatically reduced from the exponential proliferation of the master equation to a polynomial (and often quadratic) dependence on the number of reactive species in the binomial moment equations. The aim of this paper is twofold: to present a complete derivation of the binomial moment equations; to demonstrate the applicability of the moment equations for a representative set of example networks, in which stochastic effects play an important role.

  16. System of gait analysis based on ground reaction force assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vaverka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical analysis of gait employs various methods used in kinematic and kinetic analysis, EMG, and others. One of the most frequently used methods is kinetic analysis based on the assessment of the ground reaction forces (GRF recorded on two force plates. Objective: The aim of the study was to present a method of gait analysis based on the assessment of the GRF recorded during the stance phase of two steps. Methods: The GRF recorded with a force plate on one leg during stance phase has three components acting in directions: Fx - mediolateral, Fy - anteroposterior, and Fz - vertical. A custom-written MATLAB script was used for gait analysis in this study. This software displays instantaneous force data for both legs as Fx(t, Fy(t and Fz(t curves, automatically determines the extremes of functions and sets the visual markers defining the individual points of interest. Positions of these markers can be easily adjusted by the rater, which may be necessary if the GRF has an atypical pattern. The analysis is fully automated and analyzing one trial takes only 1-2 minutes. Results: The method allows quantification of temporal variables of the extremes of the Fx(t, Fy(t, Fz(t functions, durations of the braking and propulsive phase, duration of the double support phase, the magnitudes of reaction forces in extremes of measured functions, impulses of force, and indices of symmetry. The analysis results in a standardized set of 78 variables (temporal, force, indices of symmetry which can serve as a basis for further research and diagnostics. Conclusions: The resulting set of variable offers a wide choice for selecting a specific group of variables with consideration to a particular research topic. The advantage of this method is the standardization of the GRF analysis, low time requirements allowing rapid analysis of a large number of trials in a short time, and comparability of the variables obtained during different research measurements.

  17. Status of CONRAD, a nuclear reaction analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Jean, C. de; Habert, B.; Litaize, O.; Noguere, G.; Suteau, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a software tool (CONRAD) was initiated at CEA/Cadarache to give answers to various problems arising in the data analysis of nuclear reactions. This tool is then characterized by the handling of uncertainties from experimental values to covariance matrices for multi-group cross sections. An object oriented design was chosen allowing an easy interface with graphical tool for input/output data and being a natural framework for innovative nuclear models (Fission). The major achieved developments are a data model for describing channels, nuclear reactions, nuclear models and processes with interface to classical data formats, theoretical calculations for the resolved resonance range (Reich-Moore) and unresolved resonance range (Hauser-Feshbach, Gilbert-Cameron,...) with nuclear model parameters adjustment on experimental data sets and a Monte Carlo method based on conditional probabilities developed to calculate properly covariance matrices. The on-going developments deal with the experimental data description (covariance matrices) and the graphical user interface. (authors)

  18. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom pharmacopuncture at same concentration. 2. Observing chromatogram of HPLC, removal of the enzyme was successfully rendered on Sweet BV. 3. The anti-serum of Sweet BV showed high titers against melittin and bee venom and relatively low titer against phospholipase A2. 4. After conducting approximately 3,000 cases of Sweet BV administration, not a single case of generalized anaphylatic reaction occurred in clinical observation. 5. Mild compared to the bee venom pharmacopuncture, Sweet BV showed some acute hypersensitive reactions of edema, itchiness, and aching locally. 6. Sweet BV was administered on six patients with previous history of suffering from generalized acute hypersensitive reactions with the bee venom. None of the patients showed allergic reactions with Sweet BV, suggesting it can effectively prevent anaphylatic shock which may occur after the bee venom pharmacopuncture procedure. Conclusion : Summarizing above results, Sweet Bee Venom appears to be an effective measurement against allergic reactions from the bee venom pharmacopuncture especially against anaphylatic shock.

  19. Quantitative analysis of skin reaction by reflectance spectrophotometer. Acute reaction following proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Tsujii, Hirohiko.

    1994-01-01

    Acute reactions induced by proton irradiation were measured using a reflectance spectrophotometer, which is commonly used in the printing and textile industries. In this method, the skin color was expressed by three parameters, lightness (L * ), chroma (C * ) and hue (h). At first, in order to evaluate the accuracy of this spectrophotometer, the skin color of a normal volunteer was measured 100 times. The values of the three parameters for normal skin were as follows (mean values and standard deviation), L * : 68.64±0.29, C * : 19.08±0.13, h: 69.41±0.76. The standard deviations with regard to L * and h, were considered to be sufficiently small when compared with the changes of these parameters (prefix: Δ) in the irradiated sites (ΔL * * and h values significantly decreased with time, and the L * values were highly correlated with elapsed treatment days. The h values had a relatively low linear correlation compared with L * . The C * values had no trends as the treatment period was extended. Among these parameters, the L * values were the most valuable for assessment of proton-induced skin reactions, and it was suggested that the L * values measured with this spectrophotometer were a useful index for showing biological effects induced by proton irradiation. Further experiments are needed to apply this method to quantify the biological effects induced by other forms of ionizing radiation. (author)

  20. iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

    2012-12-01

    Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined.

  1. Proteome Analysis of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Monilinia laxa Showing Host Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Bregar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot fungus Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl. Honey is an important plant pathogen in stone and pome fruits in Europe. We applied a proteomic approach in a study of M. laxa isolates obtained from apples and apricots in order to show the host specifity of the isolates and to analyse differentially expressed proteins in terms of host specifity, fungal pathogenicity and identification of candidate proteins for diagnostic marker development. Extracted mycelium proteins were separated by 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE and visualized by Coomassie staining in a non-linear pH range of 3–11 and Mr of 14–116 kDa. We set up a 2-DE reference map of M. laxa, resolving up to 800 protein spots, and used it for image analysis. The average technical coefficient of variance (13 % demonstrated a high reproducibility of protein extraction and 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE PAGE, and the average biological coefficient of variance (23 % enabled differential proteomic analysis of the isolates. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis discriminated isolates from two different hosts, providing new data that support the existence of a M. laxa specialized form f. sp. mali, which infects only apples. A total of 50 differentially expressed proteins were further analyzed by LC-MS/MS, yielding 41 positive identifications. The identified mycelial proteins were functionally classified into 6 groups: amino acid and protein metabolism, energy production, carbohydrate metabolism, stress response, fatty acid metabolism and other proteins. Some proteins expressed only in apple isolates have been described as virulence factors in other fungi. The acetolactate synthase was almost 11-fold more abundant in apple-specific isolates than in apricot isolates and it might be implicated in M. laxa host specificity. Ten proteins identified only in apple isolates are potential candidates for the development of M. laxa host-specific diagnostic markers.

  2. Optimizing Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using Bayesian Experimental Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Udo von; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Gori, Silvio

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear Reaction Analysis with 3 He holds the promise to measure Deuterium depth profiles up to large depths. However, the extraction of the depth profile from the measured data is an ill-posed inversion problem. Here we demonstrate how Bayesian Experimental Design can be used to optimize the number of measurements as well as the measurement energies to maximize the information gain. Comparison of the inversion properties of the optimized design with standard settings reveals huge possible gains. Application of the posterior sampling method allows to optimize the experimental settings interactively during the measurement process.

  3. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation

  4. Urine proteome analysis in Dent's disease shows high selective changes potentially involved in chronic renal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Laura; Candiano, Giovanni; Anglani, Franca; Bruschi, Maurizio; Tosetto, Enrica; Cremasco, Daniela; Murer, Luisa; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Scaloni, Andrea; Petretto, Andrea; Caridi, Gianluca; Rossi, Roberta; Bonanni, Alice; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Definition of the urinary protein composition would represent a potential tool for diagnosis in many clinical conditions. The use of new proteomic technologies allows detection of genetic and post-trasductional variants that increase sensitivity of the approach but complicates comparison within a heterogeneous patient population. Overall, this limits research of urinary biomarkers. Studying monogenic diseases are useful models to address this issue since genetic variability is reduced among first- and second-degree relatives of the same family. We applied this concept to Dent's disease, a monogenic condition characterised by low-molecular-weight proteinuria that is inherited following an X-linked trait. Results are presented here on a combined proteomic approach (LC-mass spectrometry, Western blot and zymograms for proteases and inhibitors) to characterise urine proteins in a large family (18 members, 6 hemizygous patients, 6 carrier females, and 6 normals) with Dent's diseases due to the 1070G>T mutation of the CLCN5. Gene ontology analysis on more than 1000 proteins showed that several clusters of proteins characterised urine of affected patients compared to carrier females and normal subjects: proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodelling were the major group. Specific analysis on metalloproteases and their inhibitors underscored unexpected mechanisms potentially involved in renal fibrosis. Studying with new-generation techniques for proteomic analysis of the members of a large family with Dent's disease sharing the same molecular defect allowed highly repetitive results that justify conclusions. Identification in urine of proteins actively involved in interstitial matrix remodelling poses the question of active anti-fibrotic drugs in Dent's patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. HIV-1 phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L; Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; McGrath, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Brain infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been investigated in many reports with a variety of conclusions concerning the time of entry and degree of viral compartmentalization. To address these diverse findings, we sequenced HIV-1 gp120 clones from a wide range of brain, peripheral and meningeal tissues from five patients who died from several HIV-1 associated disease pathologies. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis confirmed previous studies that showed a significant degree of compartmentalization in brain and peripheral tissue subpopulations. Some intermixing between the HIV-1 subpopulations was evident, especially in patients that died from pathologies other than HIV-associated dementia. Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that (1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, (2) the meninges are the most likely primary transport tissues, and (3) infected brain macrophages comprise an important HIV reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Retrospective Analysis of Patient Presentations at the Sydney (Australia) Royal Easter Show from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Nathan; Mo, Shirley; Ong, Leon; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Wei, Daniel; Fahey, David; Liu, Jia Jenny

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Comprehensive studies on the relationship between patient demographics and subsequent treatment and disposition at a single mass-gathering event are lacking. The Sydney Royal Easter Show (SRES; Sydney Olympic Park, New South Wales, Australia) is an annual, 14-day, agricultural mass-gathering event occurring around the Easter weekend, attracting more than 800,000 patrons per year. In this study, patient records from the SRES were analyzed to examine relationships between weather, crowd size, day of week, and demographics on treatment and disposition. This information would help to predict factors affecting patient treatment and disposition to guide ongoing training of first responders and to evaluate the appropriateness of staffing skills mix at future events. Hypothesis Patient demographics, environmental factors, and attendance would influence the nature and severity of presentations at the SRES, which would influence staffing requirements. A retrospective analysis of 4,141 patient record forms was performed for patients who presented to St John Ambulance (Australian Capital Territory, Australia) at the SRES between 2012 and 2014 inclusive. Presentation type was classified using a previously published minimum data set. Data on weather and crowd size were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) and the SRES, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v22 (IBM; Armonk, New York USA). Between 2012 to 2014, over 2.5 million people attended the SRES with 4,141 patients treated onsite. As expected, the majority of presentations were injuries (49%) and illnesses (46%). Although patient demographics and presentation types did not change over time, the duration of treatment increased. A higher proportion of patients were discharged to hospital or home compared to the proportion of patients discharged back to the event. Patients from rural/regional locations (accounting for 15% of all patients) were

  7. Integrating reaction and analysis: investigation of higher-order reactions by cryogenic trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrollan Stockinger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for the investigation of a higher-order reaction by on-column reaction gas chromatography is presented. The reaction and the analytical separation are combined in a single experiment to investigate the Diels–Alder reaction of benzenediazonium-2-carboxylate as a benzyne precursor with various anthracene derivatives, i.e. anthracene, 9-bromoanthracene, 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde and 9-anthracenemethanol. To overcome limitations of short reaction contact times at elevated temperatures a novel experimental setup was developed involving a cooling trap to achieve focusing and mixing of the reactants at a defined spot in a fused-silica capillary. This trap functions as a reactor within the separation column in the oven of a gas chromatograph. The reactants are sequentially injected to avoid undefined mixing in the injection port. An experimental protocol was developed with optimized injection intervals and cooling times to achieve sufficient conversions at short reaction times. Reaction products were rapidly identified by mass spectrometric detection. This new approach represents a practical procedure to investigate higher-order reactions at an analytical level and it simultaneously provides valuable information for the optimization of the reaction conditions.

  8. Global sensitivity analysis in stochastic simulators of uncertain reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Jimenez, M; Le Maître, O P; Knio, O M

    2016-12-28

    Stochastic models of chemical systems are often subjected to uncertainties in kinetic parameters in addition to the inherent random nature of their dynamics. Uncertainty quantification in such systems is generally achieved by means of sensitivity analyses in which one characterizes the variability with the uncertain kinetic parameters of the first statistical moments of model predictions. In this work, we propose an original global sensitivity analysis method where the parametric and inherent variability sources are both treated through Sobol's decomposition of the variance into contributions from arbitrary subset of uncertain parameters and stochastic reaction channels. The conceptual development only assumes that the inherent and parametric sources are independent, and considers the Poisson processes in the random-time-change representation of the state dynamics as the fundamental objects governing the inherent stochasticity. A sampling algorithm is proposed to perform the global sensitivity analysis, and to estimate the partial variances and sensitivity indices characterizing the importance of the various sources of variability and their interactions. The birth-death and Schlögl models are used to illustrate both the implementation of the algorithm and the richness of the proposed analysis method. The output of the proposed sensitivity analysis is also contrasted with a local derivative-based sensitivity analysis method classically used for this type of systems.

  9. Global sensitivity analysis in stochastic simulators of uncertain reaction networks

    KAUST Repository

    Navarro, María

    2016-12-26

    Stochastic models of chemical systems are often subjected to uncertainties in kinetic parameters in addition to the inherent random nature of their dynamics. Uncertainty quantification in such systems is generally achieved by means of sensitivity analyses in which one characterizes the variability with the uncertain kinetic parameters of the first statistical moments of model predictions. In this work, we propose an original global sensitivity analysis method where the parametric and inherent variability sources are both treated through Sobol’s decomposition of the variance into contributions from arbitrary subset of uncertain parameters and stochastic reaction channels. The conceptual development only assumes that the inherent and parametric sources are independent, and considers the Poisson processes in the random-time-change representation of the state dynamics as the fundamental objects governing the inherent stochasticity. A sampling algorithm is proposed to perform the global sensitivity analysis, and to estimate the partial variances and sensitivity indices characterizing the importance of the various sources of variability and their interactions. The birth-death and Schlögl models are used to illustrate both the implementation of the algorithm and the richness of the proposed analysis method. The output of the proposed sensitivity analysis is also contrasted with a local derivative-based sensitivity analysis method classically used for this type of systems.

  10. Large-leak sodium-water reaction analysis for steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakano, K; Shindo, Y; Hori, M

    1975-07-01

    The guillotine rupture of 4 tubes is assumed as a design basis regarding the large-leak sodium-water reaction in the system of the MONJU steam generator. Three kinds of analyses were performed with the view to showing the integrity of the steam generator system on the reaction. The first one is the analysis of the initial pressure spike, assuming the initial guillotine rupture of 1 tube. The analysis was performed by utilizing one-dimensional sphere-cylinder model code SWAC-7 and two-dimensional axisymmetric code PISCES 2DL. The second one is the analysis of the secondary peak pressure and its propagation in the system, assuming the instantaneous guillotine rupture of 4 tubes. The third one is the analysis of the dynamic deformation of the steam generator shell. The integrity of the steam generator system was shown by the analyses. (author)

  11. Large-leak sodium-water reaction analysis for steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakano, K.; Shindo, Y.; Hori, M.

    1975-01-01

    The guillotine rupture of 4 tubes is assumed as a design basis regarding the large-leak sodium-water reaction in the system of the MONJU steam generator. Three kinds of analyses were performed with the view to showing the integrity of the steam generator system on the reaction. The first one is the analysis of the initial pressure spike, assuming the initial guillotine rupture of 1 tube. The analysis was performed by utilizing one-dimensional sphere-cylinder model code SWAC-7 and two-dimensional axisymmetric code PISCES 2DL. The second one is the analysis of the secondary peak pressure and its propagation in the system, assuming the instantaneous guillotine rupture of 4 tubes. The third one is the analysis of the dynamic deformation of the steam generator shell. The integrity of the steam generator system was shown by the analyses. (author)

  12. Dioscorea alata tuber proteome analysis shows over thirty dioscorin isoforms and novel tuber proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Gupta, Ravi; Deswal, Renu

    2017-05-01

    In Dioscorea, dioscorin (31 kDa) is the major storage protein constituting 85% of the total tuber proteins. An integrated proteomic and biochemical approach was used to understand the physiological role of dioscorin in the two contrasting growth stages (germinating and mature tuber). HPLC analysis showed 3 fold reduction in mannitol and 12.88 and 1.24 fold increase in sucrose and maltose in the germinating tuber. A 1.8 and 3 fold increase in sucrose phosphate synthase and mannitol dehydrogenase activity respectively was observed in the germinating tuber while a 2 fold higher invertase probably lowers the sucrose accumulation in the mature tuber. SDS-PAGE and 2-D maps of the mature and germinating tubers confirmed depletion (more than 50%) of dioscorin on germination. Dioscorin was purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography with 43.32 fold purification and 38.16 yield. Out of a trail of 35 spots at 31 kDa only 12 spots (identified as dioscorin isoforms) were present in the 2D gel of the purified fraction. To search for other tuber proteins besides dioscorin, the unbound fractions of DEAE column were analysed by 2DGE. DREB 1A, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and Rab-1 small GTP binding protein were identified perhaps for the first time in the Dioscorea proteome. The interactome analysis revealed these to be involved in oxidative stress, carotenoid synthesis and vesicular transport. This is perhaps the first attempt to identify tuber proteome (although limited) and to understand the physiological significance of these proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of adolescent psychotic-like experiences shows genetic overlap with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Oliver; Dudbridge, Frank; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Lu, Yi; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ronald, Angelica

    2018-03-31

    This study aimed to test for overlap in genetic influences between psychotic-like experience traits shown by adolescents in the community, and clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders in adulthood, specifically schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. The full spectra of psychotic-like experience domains, both in terms of their severity and type (positive, cognitive, and negative), were assessed using self- and parent-ratings in three European community samples aged 15-19 years (Final N incl. siblings = 6,297-10,098). A mega-genome-wide association study (mega-GWAS) for each psychotic-like experience domain was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of each psychotic-like experience domain was estimated using genomic-relatedness-based restricted maximum-likelihood (GREML) and linkage disequilibrium- (LD-) score regression. Genetic overlap between specific psychotic-like experience domains and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression was assessed using polygenic risk score (PRS) and LD-score regression. GREML returned SNP-heritability estimates of 3-9% for psychotic-like experience trait domains, with higher estimates for less skewed traits (Anhedonia, Cognitive Disorganization) than for more skewed traits (Paranoia and Hallucinations, Parent-rated Negative Symptoms). Mega-GWAS analysis identified one genome-wide significant association for Anhedonia within IDO2 but which did not replicate in an independent sample. PRS analysis revealed that the schizophrenia PRS significantly predicted all adolescent psychotic-like experience trait domains (Paranoia and Hallucinations only in non-zero scorers). The major depression PRS significantly predicted Anhedonia and Parent-rated Negative Symptoms in adolescence. Psychotic-like experiences during adolescence in the community show additive genetic effects and partly share genetic influences with clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders, specifically schizophrenia and

  14. Predictors of chronic ankle instability: Analysis of peroneal reaction time, dynamic balance and isokinetic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Guzmán, Rafael; Jiménez, Fernando; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have reported the factors contributing to chronic ankle instability, which could lead to more effective treatments. However, factors such as the reflex response and ankle muscle strength have not been taken into account in previous investigations. Fifty recreational athletes with chronic ankle instability and 55 healthy controls were recruited. Peroneal reaction time in response to sudden inversion, isokinetic evertor muscle strength and dynamic balance with the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Biodex Stability System were measured. The relationship between the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score and performance on each test was assessed and a backward multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. Participants with chronic ankle instability showed prolonged peroneal reaction time, poor performance in the Biodex Stability System and decreased reach distance in the Star Excursion Balance Test. No significant differences were found in eversion and inversion peak torque. Moderate correlations were found between the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score and the peroneal reaction time and performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test. Peroneus brevis reaction time and the posteromedial and lateral directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test accounted for 36% of the variance in the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Dynamic balance deficits and delayed peroneal reaction time are present in participants with chronic ankle instability. Peroneus brevis reaction time and the posteromedial and lateral directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test were the main contributing factors to the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score. No clear strength impairments were reported in unstable ankles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gut Transcriptome Analysis Shows Different Food Utilization Efficiency by the Grasshopper Oedaleous asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; McNeill, Mark Richard; Ma, Jingchuan; Qin, Xinghu; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko is a persistent pest occurring in north Asian grasslands. We found that O. asiaticus feeding on Stipa krylovii Roshev. had higher approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), compared with cohorts feeding on Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, Artemisia frigida Willd., or Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng. Although this indicated high food utilization efficiency for S. krylovii, the physiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying these biological observations are not well understood. Transcriptome analysis was used to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus gut are altered by feeding on the four plant species. Nymphs (fifth-instar female) that fed on S. krylovii had the largest variation in gene expression profiles, with a total of 88 genes significantly upregulated compared with those feeding on the other three plants, mainly including nutrition digestive genes of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion. GO and KEGG enrichment also showed that feeding S. krylovii could upregulate the nutrition digestion-related molecular function, biological process, and pathways. These changes in transcripts levels indicate that the physiological processes of activating nutrition digestive enzymes and metabolism pathways can well explain the high food utilization of S. krylovii by O. asiaticus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Factor analysis shows association between family activity environment and children's health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Coveney, John; Cox, David N

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the family activity environment in a questionnaire format, assess the questionnaire's reliability and describe its predictive ability by examining the relationships between the family activity environment and children's health behaviours - physical activity, screen time and fruit and vegetable intake. This paper describes the creation of a tool, based on previously validated scales, adapted from the food domain. Data are from 106 children and their parents (Adelaide, South Australia). Factor analysis was used to characterise factors within the family activity environment. Pearson-Product Moment correlations between the family environment and child outcomes, controlling for demographic variation, were examined. Three factors described the family activity environment - parental activity involvement, opportunity for role modelling and parental support for physical activity - and explained 37.6% of the variance. Controlling for demographic factors, the scale was significantly correlated with children's health behaviour - physical activity (r=0.27), screen time (r=-0.24) and fruit and vegetable intake (r=0.34). The family activity environment questionnaire shows high internal consistency and moderate predictive ability. This study has built on previous research by taking a more comprehensive approach to measuring the family activity environment. This research suggests the family activity environment should be considered in family-based health promotion interventions. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Measurement of hydrogen in BCN films by nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Haruyuki; Hirose, Yukio; Sasaki, Toshihiko [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan); Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Inst., of Ishikawa, Kanazawa (Japan); Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen is a very common contaminant in carbon films. It can strongly influence on mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the films. The analysis of hydrogen is therefore a crucial problem produce the films with the properties required. Ion beam techniques using nuclear reactions are effective for the quantitative determination of hydrogen concentration. A specially designed spectrometer is employed for the detailed determination of hydrogen concentrations by detecting 4.43MeV {gamma}-rays from the resonant nuclear reactions {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C at the 6.385MeV. In this study, the BCN films were formed on silicon substrate by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), in which boron and carbon were deposited by electron beam heating of B{sub 4}C solid and nitrogen was supplied by ion implantation simultaneously. The concentrations of hydrogen in BCN films were measured using RNRA. The mechanical properties of BCN films were evaluated using an ultra-micro-hardness tester. It was confirmed that the hardness of BCN films increased with increasing the concentration of hydrogen. (author)

  18. Coupled-reaction-channel analysis of the (d,6Li) reaction on 24Mg and 26Mg to low-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelert, W.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental spectroscopic factors of the alpha-transfer reaction on nuclei of the sd-shell show rather strong inconsistencies and scatter much more strongly than explainable by the quoted errors. The poorer the quality of agreement between experimental and theoretical angular distribution shapes, the more inconsistent the comparison of spectroscopic factors either between different experiments or between theory and experiment. In view of the strong deformation of nuclei in the lower part of the sd-shell, higher-order reaction mechanisms are expected. A coupled-reaction-channel analysis for the transitions to the 0 + , 2 + , and 4 + states of the ground-state bands in 20 Ne and 22 Ne excited via the (d, 6 Li) reaction yields good agreement between experimental and theoretical angular distribution shapes as well as spectroscopic information. (orig.)

  19. Applications of Nuclear Reaction Analysis for Semiconductor Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luncun

    2003-01-01

    Many thin film samples used in the semiconductor industry contain C, N and O. The detection limits and accuracy obtained by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) measurement are limited due to the small cross section values. High energy non-Rutherford backscattering is often used to enhance the sensitivities. But non-Rutherford cross section values are irregular and can not be calculated as normal Rutherford backscattering values. It is also difficult to find an appropriate energy window that for all these elements, and high-energy ions are needed. In this paper, the Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method is used to simultaneously measure C, N and O. several applications in the semiconductor research, development, and manufacturing areas are presented

  20. Relation of expansion due to alkali silica reaction to the degree of reaction measured by SEM image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haha, M. Ben; Gallucci, E.; Guidoum, A.; Scrivener, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy Image Analysis (SEM-IA) was used to quantify the degree of alkali silica reaction in affected microbars, mortar and concrete prisms. It was found that the degree of reaction gave a unique correlation with the macroscopic expansion for three different aggregates, stored at three temperatures and with two levels of alkali. The relationships found for the concretes and the mortars overlap when normalised by the aggregate content. This relationship seems to be linear up to a critical reaction degree which coincides with crack initiation within the reactive aggregates

  1. The rate of second electron transfer to QB(-) in bacterial reaction center of impaired proton delivery shows hydrogen-isotope effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróti, Ágnes; Wraight, Colin A; Maróti, Péter

    2015-02-01

    The 2nd electron transfer in reaction center of photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a two step process in which protonation of QB(-) precedes interquinone electron transfer. The thermal activation and pH dependence of the overall rate constants of different RC variants were measured and compared in solvents of water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O). The electron transfer variants where the electron transfer is rate limiting (wild type and M17DN, L210DN and H173EQ mutants) do not show solvent isotope effect and the significant decrease of the rate constant of the second electron transfer in these mutants is due to lowering the operational pKa of QB(-)/QBH: 4.5 (native), 3.9 (L210DN), 3.7 (M17DN) and 3.1 (H173EQ) at pH7. On the other hand, the proton transfer variants where the proton transfer is rate limiting demonstrate solvent isotope effect of pH-independent moderate magnitude (2.11±0.26 (WT+Ni(2+)), 2.16±0.35 (WT+Cd(2+)) and 2.34±0.44 (L210DN/M17DN)) or pH-dependent large magnitude (5.7 at pH4 (L213DN)). Upon deuteration, the free energy and the enthalpy of activation increase in all proton transfer variants by about 1 kcal/mol and the entropy of activation becomes negligible in L210DN/M17DN mutant. The results are interpreted as manifestation of equilibrium and kinetic solvent isotope effects and the structural, energetic and kinetic possibility of alternate proton delivery pathways are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability Analysis of a Reaction-Diffusion System Modeling Atherogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Ibragimov, Akif

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a linear, asymptotic stability analysis for a reaction-diffusionconvection system modeling atherogenesis, the initiation of atherosclerosis, as an inflammatory instability. Motivated by the disease paradigm articulated by Ross, atherogenesis is viewed as an inflammatory spiral with a positive feedback loop involving key cellular and chemical species interacting and reacting within the intimal layer of muscular arteries. The inflammatory spiral is initiated as an instability from a healthy state which is defined to be an equilibrium state devoid of certain key inflammatory markers. Disease initiation is studied through a linear, asymptotic stability analysis of a healthy equilibrium state. Various theorems are proved, giving conditions on system parameters guaranteeing stability of the health state, and a general framework is developed for constructing perturbations from a healthy state that exhibit blow-up, which are interpreted as corresponding to disease initiation. The analysis reveals key features that arterial geometry, antioxidant levels, and the source of inflammatory components (through coupled third-kind boundary conditions or through body sources) play in disease initiation. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Accelerated Sensitivity Analysis in High-Dimensional Stochastic Reaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Pantazis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Existing sensitivity analysis approaches are not able to handle efficiently stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters and species, which are typical in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical phenomena. In this paper, a two-step strategy for parametric sensitivity analysis for such systems is proposed, exploiting advantages and synergies between two recently proposed sensitivity analysis methodologies for stochastic dynamics. The first method performs sensitivity analysis of the stochastic dynamics by means of the Fisher Information Matrix on the underlying distribution of the trajectories; the second method is a reduced-variance, finite-difference, gradient-type sensitivity approach relying on stochastic coupling techniques for variance reduction. Here we demonstrate that these two methods can be combined and deployed together by means of a new sensitivity bound which incorporates the variance of the quantity of interest as well as the Fisher Information Matrix estimated from the first method. The first step of the proposed strategy labels sensitivities using the bound and screens out the insensitive parameters in a controlled manner. In the second step of the proposed strategy, a finite-difference method is applied only for the sensitivity estimation of the (potentially) sensitive parameters that have not been screened out in the first step. Results on an epidermal growth factor network with fifty parameters and on a protein homeostasis with eighty parameters demonstrate that the proposed strategy is able to quickly discover and discard the insensitive parameters and in the remaining potentially sensitive parameters it accurately estimates the sensitivities. The new sensitivity strategy can be several times faster than current state-of-the-art approaches that test all parameters, especially in "sloppy" systems. In particular, the computational acceleration is quantified by the ratio between the total number of parameters over the

  4. Accelerated Sensitivity Analysis in High-Dimensional Stochastic Reaction Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Arampatzis

    Full Text Available Existing sensitivity analysis approaches are not able to handle efficiently stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters and species, which are typical in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical phenomena. In this paper, a two-step strategy for parametric sensitivity analysis for such systems is proposed, exploiting advantages and synergies between two recently proposed sensitivity analysis methodologies for stochastic dynamics. The first method performs sensitivity analysis of the stochastic dynamics by means of the Fisher Information Matrix on the underlying distribution of the trajectories; the second method is a reduced-variance, finite-difference, gradient-type sensitivity approach relying on stochastic coupling techniques for variance reduction. Here we demonstrate that these two methods can be combined and deployed together by means of a new sensitivity bound which incorporates the variance of the quantity of interest as well as the Fisher Information Matrix estimated from the first method. The first step of the proposed strategy labels sensitivities using the bound and screens out the insensitive parameters in a controlled manner. In the second step of the proposed strategy, a finite-difference method is applied only for the sensitivity estimation of the (potentially sensitive parameters that have not been screened out in the first step. Results on an epidermal growth factor network with fifty parameters and on a protein homeostasis with eighty parameters demonstrate that the proposed strategy is able to quickly discover and discard the insensitive parameters and in the remaining potentially sensitive parameters it accurately estimates the sensitivities. The new sensitivity strategy can be several times faster than current state-of-the-art approaches that test all parameters, especially in "sloppy" systems. In particular, the computational acceleration is quantified by the ratio between the total number of

  5. BIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ARABIAN FOALS AND THEIR LATER SUCCESSES IN SHOWS AND ON RACE TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIESZKA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabian horses are one of the most important products of Polish horse breeding.Many of them are International and World champions in shows; others are very wellknown as courageous race horses. To obtain such champions it is necessary to takeunder consideration many factors affecting the final results. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the effect of biometrical measurements of the foals at birthaccording to their future successes in shows and on racetrack. The study was carriedout on 143 horses winning in shows and in races. Body weight, height at withers,girth and canon circumferences taken at birth of these horses were analysed.Additionally coat colour was studied. All studied animals were divided into threegroups according to each measurement and the differences between such groupswere evaluated according points obtained for particular place at shows and place inraces. It was stated that horses heavier at birth and with higher girth circumferencegot more successes both at shows and on racetrack. Horses with higher height atwithers at birth were more successful in shows while animals with higher canoncircumference won oftener at race track. It was observed that the most courageousrace horses were bay while most champions were grey.

  6. Vertical ground reaction force analysis during gait with unstable shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pereira

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Footwear is no longer just an accessory but also a protection for the musculoskeletal system, and its most important characteristic is comfort.Objectives This study aims to identify and to analyze the vertical ground reaction force in barefoot women and women with unstable shoes.Methodology Five women aged 25 ± 4 years old and mass of 50 ± 7 kg participated in this study. An AMTI force plate was used for data acquisition. The 10 trials for each situation were considered valid where the subject approached the platform with the right foot and at the speed of 4 km/h ± 5%. The instable shoe of this study is used in the practice of physical activity.Results The results showed that the first peak force was higher for the footwear situation, about 5% and significant differences between the barefoot and footwear situation. This significant difference was in the first and second peaks force and in the time of the second peak.Conclusion The values showed that the footwear absorbs approximately 45% of the impact during gait.

  7. Modeling and analysis of liquid deuterium-water reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    This Presentation highlights the following: Overview of LD 2 -water reactions their connections to research reactors with cold sources; some key features and ingredients of vapor explosions in general; Examination of results of 1970 experiment at Grenoble Nuclear Research Center; Thermodynamic evaluations of energetics of explosive LD 2 -D 2 O reactions. This presentation concentrates only on the technical aspects of LD 2 /LH 2 - water reactions; it is not intended to draw/imply safety-related conclusions for research reactors

  8. Analysis of Brownian Dynamics Simulations of Reversible Bimolecular Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Lipková, Jana

    2011-01-01

    A class of Brownian dynamics algorithms for stochastic reaction-diffusion models which include reversible bimolecular reactions is presented and analyzed. The method is a generalization of the λ-bcȳ model for irreversible bimolecular reactions which was introduced in [R. Erban and S. J. Chapman, Phys. Biol., 6(2009), 046001]. The formulae relating the experimentally measurable quantities (reaction rate constants and diffusion constants) with the algorithm parameters are derived. The probability of geminate recombination is also investigated. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  9. Theoretical analysis of consecutive reactions in adiabatic stirred tank reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Byung Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Hong, Won Hae; Cha, Wol Suk; Kim, Soong Pyung; Kim, Jung Gyu

    1990-01-01

    By mathematical model for the case of the consecutive first-order exothermic reaction in an adiabatic CSTR, the effects of the system parameter i. e. relative residence time, heat of reaction and thermal sensitivity of reaction rate constant, on the concentration profile of the intermediate product of a consecutive reaction were obtained as follows. For fixed values of the ratio of the reaction rate constants t 1 / t 2 , the ratio of the correponding system parameter α where α>1 and the sensitivities of the reaction rate constants S1 and S2, the maximum value of the intermediate production dimensionless concentration increases with increase in the values of the relative energy parameter E1 and E2 and it decreases with a decrease in E1 and E2. For fixed values of the ratio of the reaction rate constants t 1 / t 2 , the ratio of the corresponding system parameter α where α 1 and t 2 and it increases with a decrease in S1 and S2. For fixed values of the ratio of the reaction rate constants t 1 / t 2 , the ratio of the corresponding system parameters α where α=1 and the relative energy parameters E1 and E2, the maximum value of the intermediate product dimensionless is constant with either increase or decrease in the sensitivities of the reaction rate constants S1 and S2. (Author)

  10. Economic impact and market analysis of a special event: The Great New England Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic; Atul Sheel; Apurv Mather; Deepak Ninan

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a post-event evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to assess its general economic impact and to refine economic estimates where possible. In addition to the standard economic impact variables, we examined travel distance, purchase decision involvement, event satisfaction, and frequency of attendance. Graphic mapping of event visitors' home ZIP...

  11. Radiographic analysis of odontogenic cysts showing displacement of the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2003-01-01

    To assess the radiographic findings of odontogenic cysts showing displacement of the mandibular canal using computed tomographic (CT) and panoramic images. CT and panoramic images of 63 odontogenic cysts (27 dentigerous, 16 odontogenic keratocysts, and 20 radicular cysts) were analyzed to evaluate the following parameters: the dimension and shape of the cysts, and the effect of the cysts on the mandibular canal and cortical plates. Of the 63 cysts examined in the study, 35 (55.6%) showed inferior displacement of the mandibular canal and 46 (73.0%) showed perforation of the canal. There were statistically significant differenced between CT and panoramic images in depicting displacement and perforation of the mandibular canal. Cortical expansion was seen in 46 cases (73.0%) and cortical perforation in 23 cases (36.5%). The radicular cysts showed cortical expansion and perforation less frequently than the other cyst groups. Large cysts of mandible should be evaluated by multiplanar CT images in order to detect the mandibular canal and cortical bone involvement.

  12. Analysis of reaction products formed in the gas phase reaction of E,E-2,4-hexadienal with atmospheric oxidants: Reaction mechanisms and atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenar, I.; Martin, P.; Cabañas, B.; Salgado, S.; Martinez, E.

    2018-03-01

    An analysis of reaction products for the reaction of E,E-2,4-hexadienal with chlorine atoms (Cl) and OH and NO3 radicals has been carried out at the first time with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the tropospheric reactivity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Time of Flight detector (GC-TOFMS) were used to carry out the qualitative and/or quantitative analyses. Reaction products in gas and particulate phase were observed from the reactions of E,E-2,4- hexadienal with all oxidants. E/Z-Butenedial and maleic anhydride were the main products identified in gas phase. E-butenedial calculated molar yield ranging from 4 to 10%. A significant amount of multifunctional compounds (chloro and hydroxy carbonyls) was identified. These compounds could be formed in particulate phase explaining the ∼90% of unaccounted carbon in gas phase. The reaction with Cl atoms in the presence of NOx with a long reaction time gave Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN) as an additional product, which is known for being an important specie in the generation of the photochemical smog. Nitrated compounds were the major organic products from the reaction with the NO3 radical. Based on the identified products, the reaction mechanisms have been proposed. In these mechanisms a double bond addition of the atmospheric oxidant at C4/C5 of E,E-2,4-hexadienal is the first step for tropospheric degradation.

  13. Analysis of n+165Ho and 169Tm reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Arthur, E.D.; Philis, C.; Nagel, P.; Collin, M.

    1982-09-01

    Experimental data for neutron-induced reactions on 165 Ho and 169 Tm have been theoretically analyzed in preparation for calculations on the unstable isotopes of Tm. A set of deformed optical model parameters was determined from measurements of s- and p-wave neutron strength functions, total cross sections, elastic angular distributions, and 16-MeV proton scattering to the 165 Ho ground and first excited states. The parameters for the 165 Ho and 169 Tm nuclei were linked by means of an isospin term in the real and imaginary well depths, together with adjustment of the ν 2 and ν 4 deformation parameters based on systematics in this mass region. Transmission coefficients from this analysis were used in Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of the 169 Tm(n,ν) cross section as well as the 169 Tm(n,2n) and (n,3n) cross sections to 23 MeV, after application of suitable preequilibrium corrections. The results of these calculations are in good agreement with most of the available experimental data on 165 Ho and 169 Tm

  14. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  15. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Gruber, Thibaud

    2014-09-01

    Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  16. Measurement and analysis of $\\alpha$ particle induced reactions on yttrium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N L; Chintalapudi, S N

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions for /sup 89/Y[( alpha ,3n); ( alpha ,4n); ( alpha , p3n); ( alpha , alpha n); ( alpha , alpha 2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ( alpha , xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ( alpha , alpha xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ( alpha ,4n), ( alpha , p3n), ( alpha , alpha n) and ( alpha , alpha 2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (23 refs).

  17. Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.L.; Gadkari, M.S. [Baroda Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Chintalapudi, S.N. [IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre, Calcutta (India)

    2000-05-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 89}Y[({alpha},3n);({alpha},4n);({alpha},p3n);({alpha},{alpha}n);({alpha},{alpha}2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ({alpha},xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ({alpha},{alpha}xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ({alpha},4n), ({alpha},p3n), ({alpha},{alpha}n) and ({alpha},{alpha}2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (orig.)

  18. Can Automated Facial Expression Analysis Show Differences Between Autism and Typical Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsos, Zsófia; Gyori, Miklos

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory analyses of emotional expressions using a commercially available facial expression recognition software are reported, from the context of a serious game for screening purposes. Our results are based on a comparative analysis of two matched groups of kindergarten-age children (high-functioning children with autism spectrum condition: n=13; typically developing children: n=13). Results indicate that this technology has the potential to identify autism-specific emotion expression features, and may play a role in affective diagnostic and assistive technologies.

  19. A micro-epidemiological analysis of febrile malaria in Coastal Kenya showing hotspots within hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejon, Philip; Williams, Thomas N; Nyundo, Christopher; Hay, Simon I; Benz, David; Gething, Peter W; Otiende, Mark; Peshu, Judy; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Greenhouse, Bryan; Bousema, Teun; Bauni, Evasius; Marsh, Kevin; Smith, David L; Borrmann, Steffen

    2014-04-24

    Malaria transmission is spatially heterogeneous. This reduces the efficacy of control strategies, but focusing control strategies on clusters or 'hotspots' of transmission may be highly effective. Among 1500 homesteads in coastal Kenya we calculated (a) the fraction of febrile children with positive malaria smears per homestead, and (b) the mean age of children with malaria per homestead. These two measures were inversely correlated, indicating that children in homesteads at higher transmission acquire immunity more rapidly. This inverse correlation increased gradually with increasing spatial scale of analysis, and hotspots of febrile malaria were identified at every scale. We found hotspots within hotspots, down to the level of an individual homestead. Febrile malaria hotspots were temporally unstable, but 4 km radius hotspots could be targeted for 1 month following 1 month periods of surveillance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02130.001. Copyright © 2014, Bejon et al.

  20. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M

    2011-01-01

    them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective...... tertiles). The difference observed in the average score in each tertile in active vs placebo-treated patients was assessed. This allowed an estimation of the efficacy that could be achieved in patients from sites where symptoms were high during the pollen season. Results:  An increased treatment effect...... of this analysis was to assess the effect possible to achieve with AIT in the groups of patients presenting the most severe allergic symptoms. Methods:  Study centres were grouped into tertiles categorized according to symptom severity scores observed in the placebo patients in each centre (low, middle and high...

  1. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Vikram, Prashant; Dixit, Shalabh; Ahmed, H U; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-06-16

    In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative

  2. Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillian, Lincoln; Pager, Devah; Hexel, Ole; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H

    2017-10-10

    This study investigates change over time in the level of hiring discrimination in US labor markets. We perform a meta-analysis of every available field experiment of hiring discrimination against African Americans or Latinos ( n = 28). Together, these studies represent 55,842 applications submitted for 26,326 positions. We focus on trends since 1989 ( n = 24 studies), when field experiments became more common and improved methodologically. Since 1989, whites receive on average 36% more callbacks than African Americans, and 24% more callbacks than Latinos. We observe no change in the level of hiring discrimination against African Americans over the past 25 years, although we find modest evidence of a decline in discrimination against Latinos. Accounting for applicant education, applicant gender, study method, occupational groups, and local labor market conditions does little to alter this result. Contrary to claims of declining discrimination in American society, our estimates suggest that levels of discrimination remain largely unchanged, at least at the point of hire.

  3. Global Trend Analysis of Multi-decade Soil Temperature Records Show Soils Resistant to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S. D.; Jennings, K.

    2017-12-01

    Soil temperature is an important determinant of many subterranean ecological processes including plant growth, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. Soils are expected to warm in response to increasing global surface temperatures; however, despite the importance of soil temperature to ecosystem processes, less attention has been given to examining changes in soil temperature over time. We collected long-term (> 20 years) soil temperature records from approximately 50 sites globally, many with multiple depths (5 - 100 cm), and examined temperature trends over the last few decades. For each site and depth we calculated annual summer means and conducted non-parametric Mann Kendall trend and Sen slope analysis to assess changes in summer soil temperature over the length of each time series. The mean summer soil temperature trend across all sites and depths was not significantly different than zero (mean = 0.004 °C year-1 ± 0.033 SD), suggesting that soils have not warmed over the observation period. Of the subset of sites that exhibit significant increases in temperature over time, site location, depth of measurement, time series length, and neither start nor end date seem to be related to trend strength. These results provide evidence that the thermal regime of soils may have a stronger buffering capacity than expected, having important implications for the global carbon cycle and feedbacks to climate change.

  4. Analysis of nonlocal phonon thermal conductivity simulations showing the ballistic to diffusive crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip B.

    2018-04-01

    Simulations [e.g., X. W. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 115201 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.115201] show nonlocal effects of the ballistic/diffusive crossover. The local temperature has nonlinear spatial variation not contained in the local Fourier law j ⃗(r ⃗) =-κ ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) . The heat current j ⃗(r ⃗) depends not just on the local temperature gradient ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) but also on temperatures at points r⃗' within phonon mean free paths, which can be micrometers long. This paper uses the Peierls-Boltzmann transport theory in nonlocal form to analyze the spatial variation Δ T (r ⃗) . The relaxation-time approximation (RTA) is used because the full solution is very challenging. Improved methods of extrapolation to obtain the bulk thermal conductivity κ are proposed. Callaway invented an approximate method of correcting RTA for the q ⃗ (phonon wave vector or crystal momentum) conservation of N (Normal as opposed to Umklapp) anharmonic collisions. This method is generalized to the nonlocal case where κ (k ⃗) depends on the wave vector of the current j ⃗(k ⃗) and temperature gradient i k ⃗Δ T (k ⃗) .

  5. Metachronous metastasis- and survival-analysis show prognostic importance of lymphadenectomy for colon carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubert Tilman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphadenectomy is performed to assess patient prognosis and to prevent metastasizing. Recently, it was questioned whether lymph node metastases were capable of metastasizing and therefore, if lymphadenectomy was still adequate. We evaluated whether the nodal status impacts on the occurrence of distant metastases by analyzing a highly selected cohort of colon cancer patients. Methods 1,395 patients underwent surgery exclusively for colon cancer at the University of Lübeck between 01/1993 and 12/2008. The following exclusion criteria were applied: synchronous metastasis, R1-resection, prior/synchronous second carcinoma, age Results Five-year survival rates for TM + and TM- were 21% and 73%, respectively (p Conclusions Besides a higher T-category, a positive N-stage independently implies a higher probability to develop distant metastases and correlates with poor survival. Our data thus show a prognostic relevance of lymphadenectomy which should therefore be retained until conclusive studies suggest the unimportance of lmyphadenectomy.

  6. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  7. Analysis of charged particle induced reactions for beam monitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surendra Babu, K. [IOP, Academia Sinica, Taipe, Taiwan (China); Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Evaluation Laboratory, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mukherjee, S., E-mail: smukherjee_msuphy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The reaction cross sections for different residual nuclides produced in the charged particle (p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}) induced reactions were calculated and compared with the existing experimental data which are important for beam monitoring and medical diagnostic applications. A detailed literature compilation and comparison were made on the available data sets for the above reactions. These calculations were carried out using the statistical model code TALYS up to 100 MeV, which contains Kalbach's latest systematic for the emission of complex particles and complex particle-induced reactions. All optical model calculations were performed by ECIS-03, which is built into TALYS. The level density, optical model potential parameters were adjusted to get the better description of experimental data. Various pre-equilibrium models were used in the present calculations with default parameters.

  8. Reactivity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Reaction: Distortion-Interaction Analysis along the Reaction Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzi; Osuna, Sílvia; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Qi, Xiaotian; Liu, Song; Houk, Kendall N; Lan, Yu

    2016-08-26

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition is one of the most powerful tools for the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Density functional theory at the B3-LYP level of theory has been used to investigate the reactivity of different-diameter SWCNTs (4-9,5) in Diels-Alder reactions with 1,3-butadiene; the reactivity was found to decrease with increasing SWCNT diameter. Distortion/interaction analysis along the whole reaction pathway was found to be a better way to explore the reactivity of this type of reaction. The difference in interaction energy along the reaction pathway is larger than that of the corresponding distortion energy. However, the distortion energy plots for these reactions show the same trend. Therefore, the formation of the transition state can be determined from the interaction energy. A lower interaction energy leads to an earlier transition state, which indicates a lower activation energy. The computational results also indicate that the original distortion of the SWCNTs leads to an increase in the reactivity of the SWCNTs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Consequence analysis of IWTS metal water reactions (Fauske and Associates report 99-35)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes the consequences of postulated thermally unstable conditions in the IWTS knock out pot. The consequence analysis shows that both the knock out pot and particulate bed will stay intact, and that releases will be minor. Reaction rate limitations prevent knock out pot pressure and/or temperature from even approaching values that would threaten structural integrity. Source term calculations based on a particle bed with a homogeneous mixture of metal and oxide particles yield a release above the K Basin pool of about 12 grams

  10. Can Technical Analysis Signals Detect Price Reactions Around Earnings Announcement?: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dedhy Sulistiawan; Jogiyanto Hartono

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether technical analysis signals can detect price reactions before and after earnings announcement dates in Indonesian stock market. Earnings announcements produce reactions, both before and after the announcements. Informed investors may use private information before earnings announcements (Christophe, Ferri and Angel, 2004; Porter, 1992). Using technical analysis signals, this study expects that retail investors (uninformed investors) can detect preannouncements react...

  11. Constant rate thermal analysis of a dehydrogenation reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perejon, A.; Perez-Maqueda, L. A.; Sanchez-Jimenez, P.E.; Criado, J. M.; Murafa, Nataliya; Šubrt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 84 (2016), s. 81454-81460 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : solid-state reaction s * hydrogen storage properties * milled magnesium hydride Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  12. Analysis of Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions at a Tertiary Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    drug reactions (ADRs) reported at Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, India. Methods: A prospective ... cost of ADRs was calculated on the basis of hospital expenditure per patient and the amount spent by patients ... drug control mechanisms, patient education regarding self-medication and maintenance of prescription records.

  13. Community College Recruitment: An Analysis of Applicant Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Paul A.; Kjorlien, Chad L.

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) conduct an empirical examination of applicant reactions to faculty jobs described in recruitment advertisements for business faculty vacancies at community colleges; and (2) assess factors that potentially impact applicant decisions to apply for and pursue position vacancies. The results of this study have…

  14. Cintichem modified process - {sup 99}Mo precipitation step: application of statistical analysis tools over the reaction parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoro, Rodrigo; Dias, Carla R.B.R.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Precipitation of {sup 99}Mo by {alpha}-benzoin oxime ({alpha}-Bz) is a standard precipitation method for molybdenum due the high selectivity of this agent. Nowadays, statistical analysis tools have been employed in analytical systems to prove its efficiency and feasibility. IPEN has a project aiming the production of {sup 99}Mo by the fission of {sup 235}U route. The processing uses as the first step the precipitation of {sup 99}Mo with {alpha}-Bz. This precipitation step involves many key reaction parameters. The aim of this work is based on the development of the already known acidic route to produce {sup 99}Mo as well as the optimization of the reactional parameters applying statistical tools. In order to simulate {sup 99}Mo precipitation, the study was conducted in acidic media using HNO{sub 3}, {alpha}Bz as precipitant agent and NaOH /1%H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as dissolver solution. Then, a Mo carrier, KMnO{sub 4} solutions and {sup 99}Mo tracer were added to the reaction flask. The reactional parameters ({alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, Mo carrier, reaction time and temperature, and cooling reaction time before filtration) were evaluated under a fractional factorial design of resolution V. The best values of each reactional parameter were determined by a response surface statistical planning. The precipitation and recovery yields of {sup 99}Mo were measured using HPGe detector. Statistical analysis from experimental data suggested that the reactional parameters {alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, reaction time and temperature have a significant impact on {sup 99}Mo precipitation. Optimization statistical planning showed that higher {alpha}Bz/Mo ratios, room temperature, and lower reaction time lead to higher {sup 99}Mo yields. (author)

  15. Analysis of the nucleon-nucleus reactions by the quantum molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Niita, Koji; Maruyama, Toshiki; Fukahori, Tokio; Takada, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Akira

    1995-01-01

    The quantum molecular dynamics + statistical decay model has been applied to analyze the nucleon-induced nuclear reactions in the energy range from 50 to 3 GeV in order to verify its applicability to light-ion induced nuclear reactions. It was found that the present approach could give a quantitative description of various cross sections such as (p,p'), (p,n), (n,p) reactions from a wide range of targets and also target-like isotope production cross sections from p+Fe reaction, showing its basic ability as a tool for the study of intermediate energy nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluation. (author)

  16. Formation kinetics of gemfibrozil chlorination reaction products: analysis and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkosek, Wendy H; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M; Gagnon, Graham A

    2014-07-01

    Aqueous chlorination kinetics of the lipid regulator gemfibrozil and the formation of reaction products were investigated in deionized water over the pH range 3 to 9, and in two wastewater matrices. Chlorine oxidation of gemfibrozil was found to be highly dependent on pH. No statistically significant degradation of gemfibrozil was observed at pH values greater than 7. Gemfibrozil oxidation between pH 4 and 7 was best represented by first order kinetics. At pH 3, formation of three reaction products was observed. 4'-C1Gem was the only reaction product formed from pH 4-7 and was modeled with zero order kinetics. Chlorine oxidation of gemfibrozil in two wastewater matrices followed second order kinetics. 4'-C1Gem was only formed in wastewater with pH below 7. Deionized water rate kinetic models were applied to two wastewater effluents with gemfibrozil concentrations reported in literature in order to calculate potential mass loading rates of 4'C1Gem to the receiving water.

  17. The browning value changes and spectral analysis on the Maillard reaction product from glucose and methionine model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Widayat

    2018-01-01

    D-glucose has been understood to provide the various effect on the reactivity in Maillard reaction resulting in the changes in physical performance of food product. Therefore this research was done to analyse physical appearance of Maillard reaction product made of D-glucose and methionine as a model system. The changes in browning value and spectral analysis model system were determined. The glucose-methionine model system was produced through the heating treatment at 50°C and RH 70% for 24 hours. The data were collected for every three hour using spectrophotometer. As result, browning value was elevated with the increase of heating time and remarkably high if compare to the D-glucose only. Furthermore, the spectral analysis showed that methionine turned the pattern of peak appearance. As conclusion, methionine raised the browning value and changed the pattern of spectral analysis in Maillard reaction model system.

  18. Vacuolar ATPases, like F1,F0-ATPases, show a strong dependence of the reaction velocity on the binding of more than one ATP per enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasho, V.N.; Boyer, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies with vacuolar ATPases have shown that multiple copies catalytic subunits are present and that these have definite sequence homology with catalytic subunits of the F 1 , F 0 -ATPases. Experiments are reported that assess whether the vacuolar ATPases may have the unusual catalytic cooperativity with sequential catalytic site participation as in the binding change mechanism for the F 1 ,F 0 -ATPases. The extent of reversal of bound ATP hydrolysis to bound ADP and P i as medium ATP concentration was lowered was determined by 18 O-exchange measurements for yeast and neurospora vacuolar ATPases. The results show a pronounced increase in the extent of water oxygen incorporation into the P i formed as ATP concentration is decreased to the micromolar range. The F 1 ,F 0 -ATPase from neurospora mitochondria showed an event more pronounced modulation, similar to that of other F 1 -type ATPases. The vacuolar ATPases thus appear to have a catalytic mechanism quite analogous to that of the F 1 ,F 0 -ATPases

  19. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical analysis of activation and reaction energies with quasi-variational coupled-cluster theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joshua A.; Knowles, Peter J.

    2018-06-01

    The performance of quasi-variational coupled-cluster (QV) theory applied to the calculation of activation and reaction energies has been investigated. A statistical analysis of results obtained for six different sets of reactions has been carried out, and the results have been compared to those from standard single-reference methods. In general, the QV methods lead to increased activation energies and larger absolute reaction energies compared to those obtained with traditional coupled-cluster theory.

  1. Test analysis and research on static choice reaction ability of commercial vehicle drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingchao; Wei, Lang; Qiao, Jie; Tian, Shun; Wang, Shengchang

    2017-03-01

    Drivers' choice reaction ability has a certain relation with safe driving. It has important significance to research its influence on traffic safety. Firstly, the paper uses a choice reaction detector developed by research group to detect drivers' choice reaction ability of commercial vehicles, and gets 2641 effective samples. Then by using mathematical statistics method, the paper founds that average reaction time from accident group has no difference with non-accident group, and then introduces a variance rate of reaction time as a new index to replace it. The result shows that the test index choice reaction errors and variance rate of reaction time have positive correlations with accidents. Finally, according to testing results of the detector, the paper formulates a detection threshold with four levels for helping transportation companies to assess commercial vehicles drivers.

  2. Dose Volume Histogram analysis for rectum and urethral reaction of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Takeshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinically relevant parameters for rectum and urethral reaction using DVH (dose volume histogram) in carbon ion radiotherapy of prostate cancer. In this year, we studied the urinary reaction mainly. 35 patients with prostate cancer were treated with carbon ion beams between June 1995 and December 1997. The applied dose was escalated from 54.0 GyE to 72.0 GyE in fixed 20 fractions. Clinical urinary reaction and rectum reaction were reviewed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring system for acute reactions, RTOG/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) scoring system for late reactions. Taking the ROI (region of interest) for DVH of urethra, we used surrogate one that was derived from the observation of MR images. 35 patients were analyzed for acute urinary reaction and 34 for late urinary reaction in the study of this year. DVH analysis suggested difference among the grades for acute and late reactions. These analysis appears to be a useful tool for predicting the urinary reactions. (author)

  3. Multi-shot analysis of the gamma reaction history diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, D. B.; Bernstein, L. A.; Church, J. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Herrmann, H. W.

    2012-01-01

    The gamma reaction history diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility has the capability to determine a number of important performance metrics for cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions: the fusion burn width, bang time and yield, as well as the areal density of the compressed ablator. Extracting those values from the measured γ rays of an implosion, requires accounting for a γ-ray background in addition to the impulse response function of the instrument. To address these complications, we have constructed a model of the γ-ray signal, and are developing a simultaneous multi-shot fitting routine to constrain its parameter space.

  4. Adverse reactions analysis and prevention of antiseptic drug in the obstetrics and gynecology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Bo, Qing; Zhang, Ying; He, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents are widely used in gynecologic inflammation and surgical period, so as to cure some infectious diseases, reduce the chance of surgical incision infection, but at the same time, there are many adverse reactions. The use of nursing interventions in obstetrics and gynecology can significantly reduce the adverse drug reactions in the treatment. The results showed that the incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was 8.8%, while that in the control group was 15.6%. The incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The results showed that the nursing intervention in obstetrics and gynecology could reduce the adverse drug reactions. In a word, the nursing intervention of obstetrics and gynecology can greatly reduce the adverse reaction of antibiotics and has certain application value. It is worth popularizing in clinical practice.

  5. In vitro antibacterial analysis of phenoloxidase reaction products from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Cong, Cong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-08-01

    Three phenoloxidases (POs) of Apostichopus japonicus, AjPOs (AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3), were partially purified from the coelomocytes with an electrophoretic method, and then employed for the in vitro antibacterial analysis. Using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO2-derived compounds inhibited the growth of Vibrio splendidus and Staphylococcus aureus, while AjPO3-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. When dopamine was used as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO3-derived compounds inhibited the growth of V. splendidus and Vibrio harveyi, while AjPO2-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. Moreover, AjPO1-derived compounds showed stronger inhibition in V. harveyi than AjPO3-derived compounds did. However, all of the three AjPO reaction products showed no inhibitions on the growth of Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens, Shewanella baltica, Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Nocardiopsis sp. with L-DOPA or dopamine as a substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of V. harveyi treated by AjPOs and dopamine showed that AjPO1-derived compounds resulted in massive bacteriolysis, AjPO2-derived compounds caused no obvious alteration on bacterial morphology, and AjPO3-derived compounds increased the ratio of spheroidal bacteria. All these results suggested that AjPO reaction products derived by L-DOPA and dopamine had different but limited antibacterial spectrum, and the different antibacterial effects observed among three AjPOs resulted from the different reaction products generated by AjPOs with the same substrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomass pyrolysis and combustion integral and differential reaction heats with temperatures using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Igathinathane, C; Yu, Manlu; Pothula, Anand Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Integral reaction heats of switchgrass, big bluestem, and corn stalks were determined using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). Iso-conversion differential reaction heats using TGA/DSC pyrolysis and combustion of biomass were not available, despite reports available on heats required and released. A concept of iso-conversion differential reaction heats was used to determine the differential reaction heats of each thermal characteristics segment of these materials. Results showed that the integral reaction heats were endothermic from 30 to 700°C for pyrolysis of switchgrass and big bluestem, but they were exothermic for corn stalks prior to 587°C. However, the integral reaction heats for combustion of the materials followed an endothermic to exothermic transition. The differential reaction heats of switchgrass pyrolysis were predominantly endothermic in the fraction of mass loss (0.0536-0.975), and were exothermic for corn stalks (0.0885-0.850) and big bluestem (0.736-0.919). Study results provided better insight into biomass thermal mechanism. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  8. Metabolic control analysis of biochemical pathways based on a thermokinetic description of reaction rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    Metabolic control analysis is a powerful technique for the evaluation of flux control within biochemical pathways. Its foundation is the elasticity coefficients and the flux control coefficients (FCCs). On the basis of a thermokinetic description of reaction rates it is here shown...... that the elasticity coefficients can be calculated directly from the pool levels of metabolites at steady state. The only requirement is that one thermodynamic parameter be known, namely the reaction affinity at the intercept of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve of reaction rate against reaction...... of the thermokinetic description of reaction rates to include the influence of effecters. Here the reaction rate is written as a linear function of the logarithm of the metabolite concentrations. With this type of rate function it is shown that the approach of Delgado and Liao [Biochem. J. (1992) 282, 919-927] can...

  9. Generic Model-Based Tailor-Made Design and Analysis of Biphasic Reaction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata

    systems have a broad range of application, such as the manufacture of petroleum based chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agro-bio products. Major considerations in the design and analysis of biphasic reaction systems are physical and chemical equilibria, kinetic mechanisms, and reaction rates. The primary...... contribution of this thesis is the development of a systematic modelling framework for the biphasic reaction system. The developed framework consists of three modules describing phase equilibria, reactions and mass transfer, and material balances of such processes. Correlative and predictive thermodynamic......Biphasic reaction systems are composed of immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases where reactants, products, and catalysts are partitioned. These biphasic conditions point to novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product separation. The biphasic...

  10. Dynamical structure analysis of crystalline-state reaction and elucidation of chemical reactivity in crystalline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    It was found that a chiral alkyl group bonded to the cobalt atom in a cobalt complex crystal was racemized with retention of the single crystal form on exposure to visible light. Such reactions, which are called crystalline-state reactions, have been found in a variety of cobalt complex crystals. The concept of reaction cavity was introduced to explain the reaction rate quantitatively and the chirality of the photo-product. The new diffractometers and detectors were made for rapid data collection. The reaction mechanism was also elucidated using neutron diffraction analysis. The unstable reaction intermediates were analyzed using cryo-trapping method. The excited-state structures were obtained at the equilibrium state between ground and excited states. (author)

  11. [Adverse reaction caused by rabies vaccine in China: a Meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X R; Wu, Z G; Zhang, W S

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To conduct a Meta-analysis on the rate of adverse reaction related to rabies vaccine, so as to provide reference for rabies vaccine immunization in China. Methods: We electronically searched databases including CNKI, VIP information resource integration service platform, WanFang Data, CBM, PubMed and The Cochrane Library, to collect studies on Chinese people who had received full rabies vaccination and recording all the adverse reactions, from January 2000 to July 2016. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were strictly followed. Meta-analysis for the adverse reaction rate was performed using the R software. Results: A total of 29 related papers had met the inclusion criteria, with no publication bias noticed. A total number of 11 020 cases had adverse reactions, among all the 94 222 respondents, with an incidence of adverse reactions as 1.04 % -47.78 % . The overall incidence rate of adverse reaction was 9.82 % (95 %CI : 7.58 % -12.72 % ). A combined local adverse reaction rate appeared as 12.05 % (95 % CI : 9.26 % -15.69 % ). The systemic adverse reaction rate was 9.06 % (95 %CI : 7.07 % -11.61 % ). The overall adverse reaction rate on aqueous vaccine was 32.39 % (95 %CI : 21.88 % -47.94 % ). Combined adverse reaction rate of freeze dried vaccine appeared as 8.65 % (95 %CI : 4.54 % -16.51 % ). Significant differences were seen between both groups ( P rabies vaccination was higher than the systemic adverse reaction rate. The adverse reaction rate of aqueous rabies vaccine was higher than that of freeze dried rabies vaccine. Our results suggested that the aqueous vaccine should gradually be eliminated.

  12. The analysis of magnesium oxide hydration in three-phase reaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaojia; Guo, Lin; Chen, Chen; Liu, Quan; Li, Tie; Zhu, Yimin, E-mail: ntp@dlmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    In order to investigate the magnesium oxide hydration process in gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) reaction system, magnesium hydroxide was prepared by magnesium oxide hydration in liquid–solid (two-phase) and three-phase reaction systems. A semi-empirical model and the classical shrinking core model were used to fit the experimental data. The fitting result shows that both models describe well the hydration process of three-phase system, while only the semi-empirical model right for the hydration process of two-phase system. The characterization of the hydration product using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed. The XRD and SEM show hydration process in the two-phase system follows common dissolution/precipitation mechanism. While in the three-phase system, the hydration process undergo MgO dissolution, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, Mg(OH){sub 2} peeling off from MgO particle and leaving behind fresh MgO surface. - Graphical abstract: There was existence of a peeling-off process in the gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) MgO hydration system. - Highlights: • Magnesium oxide hydration in gas–liquid–solid system was investigated. • The experimental data in three-phase system could be fitted well by two models. • The morphology analysis suggested that there was existence of a peel-off process.

  13. Analysis of ion implanted doped insulators by nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheith, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear resonance reaction an6520750JOalysis (NRA), using a proton beam at 1350 KeV, and the complementary rutherford backscattering, using a 1.8 MeV helium beam, techniques were utilized to investigate the level of impurities and the influencs of structural defects created by an 40 Ar + beam irradation induced in single crysttalline pure, and 10 and 20 mole % Eu doped, CaF 2 targets. The energetic proton, helium and argon beams were all supplied from the Uniersity of Jordan Van De Graaff accelerator, JOVAC. The depth distribuation of intrinsic defecta altered by the radiation damage was determined, using the resonance(p,α reaction at 1350 KeV resulting, from the halogen with proton beams of incident energies above resonance. Results are compared with transport of ions in matter calculations (TRIM), using the computer code 'TRIM-89'. Results indicate that the influence of doping alters tje crystal structure by pbserving a Ca-surfaace rich layer. The Ca enrichment is explained based on the defect model of trivalent Eu occupying the divalent substitutional places of the Ca atoms. The extra positive charge is linked to a negative one available on the the neighbouring F in order to preserve charge neutrality. The Ar irradiation results on the other hand revealed that the low level Eu doping stabilizes hte crystal better than the higher doping level. Chanages in the Eu signal from uniformly even distribution to an enhancement below the surface art a depth that is correlated with the mean and straggling values of the Ar impurrity distribution, is observed. This is consistant with the calculated Ar impurity distributions in which the 250 KeV Ar irradiation results in narrow distributions gradient of defects, possibly by a radiation enhanced diffusion mechanism. Preferential sputtering of the halogen, being the lightest element in the matrix, was alos noted. Surface topographic changes due to formation of large complexes and cracks are found to distort a large volume of

  14. Proteomic Analysis Shows Constitutive Secretion of MIF and p53-associated Activity of COX-2−/− Lung Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar Dave

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The differential expression of two closelyassociated cyclooxygenase isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, exhibited functions beyond eicosanoid metabolism. We hypothesized that COX-1 or COX-2 knockout lung fibroblasts may display altered protein profiles which may allow us to further differentiate the functional roles of these isozymes at the molecular level. Proteomic analysis shows constitutive production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in lung fibroblasts derived from COX-2−/− but not wild-type (WT or COX-1−/− mice. MIF was spontaneously released in high levels into the extracellular milieu of COX2−/− fibroblasts seemingly from the preformed intracellular stores, with no change in the basal gene expression of MIF. The secretion and regulation of MIF in COX-2−/− was “prostaglandin-independent.” GO analysis showed that concurrent with upregulation of MIF, there is a significant surge in expression of genes related to fibroblast growth, FK506 binding proteins, and isomerase activity in COX-2−/− cells. Furthermore, COX-2−/− fibroblasts also exhibit a significant increase in transcriptional activity of various regulators, antagonists, and co-modulators of p53, as well as in the expression of oncogenes and related transcripts. Integrative Oncogenomics Cancer Browser (IntroGen analysis shows downregulation of COX-2 and amplification of MIF and/or p53 activity during development of glioblastomas, ependymoma, and colon adenomas. These data indicate the functional role of the MIF-COX-p53 axis in inflammation and cancer at the genomic and proteomic levels in COX-2-ablated cells. This systematic analysis not only shows the proinflammatory state but also unveils a molecular signature of a pro-oncogenic state of COX-1 in COX-2 ablated cells.

  15. Critical analysis: use of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Granero Maltempe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leprosy is a neglected tropical disease and an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. It is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which has a predilection for the skin and peripheral nerves. Although it has low sensitivity, slit-skin smear (SSS remains the conventional auxiliary laboratory technique for the clinical diagnosis of leprosy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a molecular biology technique that holds promise as a simple and sensitive diagnostic tool. In the present study, the performance of two PCR methods, using different targets, PCR-LP and PCR-P, were compared with SSS with regard to leprosy diagnosis in a reference laboratory. M. leprae DNA was extracted from 106 lymph samples of 40 patients who had clinical suspicion of leprosy. The samples were subjected to both PCR techniques and SSS. Amplification of the human b-globin gene was used as PCR inhibitor control. The specificity of both PCR techniques was 100%, and sensitivity was 0.007 and 0.015 µg/ml for PCR-LP and PCR-P, respectively. No significant difference was found between either the PCR-LP or PCR-P results and SSS results (p > 0.05. Although PCR is not yet a replacement for SSS in the diagnosis of leprosy, this technique may be used as an efficient auxiliary tool for early detection of the disease, especially in endemic regions. This strategy may also be useful in cases in which SSS results are negative (e.g., in paucibacillary patients and cases in which skin biopsy cannot be performed.

  16. Genomic analysis of codon usage shows influence of mutation pressure, natural selection, and host features on Marburg virus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Izza; Butt, Azeem M; Tahir, Shifa; Idrees, Muhammad; Tong, Yigang

    2015-08-26

    The Marburg virus (MARV) has a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome, belongs to the family Filoviridae, and is responsible for several outbreaks of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. Codon usage patterns of viruses reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable viruses to shape their survival rates and fitness toward the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. To understand the evolution of MARV at the codon level, we report a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in MARV genomes. Multiple codon analysis approaches and statistical methods were performed to determine overall codon usage patterns, biases in codon usage, and influence of various factors, including mutation pressure, natural selection, and its two hosts, Homo sapiens and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Nucleotide composition and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis revealed that MARV shows mutation bias and prefers U- and A-ended codons to code amino acids. Effective number of codons analysis indicated that overall codon usage among MARV genomes is slightly biased. The Parity Rule 2 plot analysis showed that GC and AU nucleotides were not used proportionally which accounts for the presence of natural selection. Codon usage patterns of MARV were also found to be influenced by its hosts. This indicates that MARV have evolved codon usage patterns that are specific to both of its hosts. Moreover, selection pressure from R. aegyptiacus on the MARV RSCU patterns was found to be dominant compared with that from H. sapiens. Overall, mutation pressure was found to be the most important and dominant force that shapes codon usage patterns in MARV. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed codon usage analysis of MARV and extends our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage and evolution of MARV.

  17. Analysis of reaction cross-section production in neutron induced fission reactions on uranium isotope using computer code COMPLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Yihunie Hibstie; Mathuthu, Manny; Birhane, Marelgn Derso

    2018-04-22

    This study provides current evidence about cross-section production processes in the theoretical and experimental results of neutron induced reaction of uranium isotope on projectile energy range of 1-100 MeV in order to improve the reliability of nuclear stimulation. In such fission reactions of 235 U within nuclear reactors, much amount of energy would be released as a product that able to satisfy the needs of energy to the world wide without polluting processes as compared to other sources. The main objective of this work is to transform a related knowledge in the neutron-induced fission reactions on 235 U through describing, analyzing and interpreting the theoretical results of the cross sections obtained from computer code COMPLET by comparing with the experimental data obtained from EXFOR. The cross section value of 235 U(n,2n) 234 U, 235 U(n,3n) 233 U, 235 U(n,γ) 236 U, 235 U(n,f) are obtained using computer code COMPLET and the corresponding experimental values were browsed by EXFOR, IAEA. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR Data Bank. Computer code COMPLET has been used for the analysis with the same set of input parameters and the graphs were plotted by the help of spreadsheet & Origin-8 software. The quantification of uncertainties stemming from both experimental data and computer code calculation plays a significant role in the final evaluated results. The calculated results for total cross sections were compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR in the literature, and good agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical data. This comparison of the calculated data was analyzed and interpreted with tabulation and graphical descriptions, and the results were briefly discussed within the text of this research work. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Positron annihilation investigation and nuclear reaction analysis of helium and oxygen-implanted zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grynszpan, R.I.; Saude, S.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2005-01-01

    Since irradiation affects in-service properties of zirconia, we investigated the fluence dependence on production and thermal stability of defects induced by helium and oxygen-ion implantation in single crystals of yttria-fully-stabilized zirconia. In either case, depth profiling by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) detects a distribution of vacancy-type defects peaking at 60% of the projected ion range R p . Owing to the saturation of positron-trapping occurring for low fluences, which depends on the ion mass, we could estimate a critical size of clusters ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 nm. The lack of SPIS-evidence of an open-volume excess at R p is explained by the presence of over-pressurized gas bubbles. This assumption is confirmed by Nuclear Reaction Analysis of 3 He concentration profiles, which shows that helium remains partly trapped at R p , even after annealing above 400 o C

  19. Analysis of the width correlation in 54Fe(nγ)55Fe reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knat'ko, V.A.; Shimanovich, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    To find out structural effects manifesting themselves in the form of correlation between widths of different channels of γ decay of levels and violation of Porter-Thomas distribution, calculated are partial widths of levels for 20 high-energy γ transitions in the 54 Fe(nγ) 55 Fe reaction. Calculations are carried out for widths in relation to γ transitions on 8 low p levels of 55 Fe, for 100 sets of partial γ widths (20 widths in a set). Results of analysis of theoretical values of partial γ widths of s resonances are presented in the form of the table. Results, obtained, show that consideration of contributions into γ decay of one-particle-vibrational configurations improve the accordance with experimental data, in comparison with calculations according to the model of valent capture. It is concluded that properties of γ widths of 55 Fe resonances, calculated in studied model, agree satisfactorily with properties of experimental γ widths [ru

  20. Functional data analysis on ground reaction force of military load carriage increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Wan Rozita Wan; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2014-06-01

    Analysis of ground reaction force on military load carriage is done through functional data analysis (FDA) statistical technique. The main objective of the research is to investigate the effect of 10% load increment and to find the maximum suitable load for the Malaysian military. Ten military soldiers age 31 ± 6.2 years, weigh 71.6 ± 10.4 kg and height of 166.3 ± 5.9 cm carrying different military load range from 0% body weight (BW) up to 40% BW participated in an experiment to gather the GRF and kinematic data using Vicon Motion Analysis System, Kirstler force plates and thirty nine body markers. The analysis is conducted in sagittal, medial lateral and anterior posterior planes. The results show that 10% BW load increment has an effect when heel strike and toe-off for all the three planes analyzed with P-value less than 0.001 at 0.05 significant levels. FDA proves to be one of the best statistical techniques in analyzing the functional data. It has the ability to handle filtering, smoothing and curve aligning according to curve features and points of interest.

  1. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulier, Leon; Bradley, Emma L; Bas, Richard C; Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Castle, Laurence

    2010-04-28

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The significant decay of BADGE was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of foodstuffs, that is, tuna, apple puree, and beer, spiked with BADGE before processing and storage. Life-science inspired analytical approaches were successfully applied to study the reactions of BADGE with food ingredients, for example, amino acids and sugars. An improved mass balance of BADGE was achieved by selective detection of reaction products of BADGE with low molecular weight food components, using a successful combination of stable isotopes of BADGE and analysis by LC coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) and high-resolution mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Furthermore, proteomics approaches showed that BADGE also reacts with peptides (from protein digests in model systems) and with proteins in foods. The predominant reaction center for amino acids, peptides, and proteins was cysteine.

  2. Recruitment Methods and Show Rates to a Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program for High-Risk Men: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Veda N.; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Goplerud, Julia; Raysor, Susan; Kim, Taylor Y.; Bagden, Loretta; Mastalski, Kathleen; Zakrzewski, Debra; Leimkuhler, Suzanne; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Men with a family history (FH) of prostate cancer (PCA) and African American (AA) men are at higher risk for PCA. Recruitment and retention of these high-risk men into early detection programs has been challenging. We report a comprehensive analysis on recruitment methods, show rates, and participant factors from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), which is a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening study. Materials and Methods Men 35–69 years are eligible if they have a FH of PCA, are AA, or have a BRCA1/2 mutation. Recruitment methods were analyzed with respect to participant demographics and show to the first PRAP appointment using standard statistical methods Results Out of 707 men recruited, 64.9% showed to the initial PRAP appointment. More individuals were recruited via radio than from referral or other methods (χ2 = 298.13, p < .0001). Men recruited via radio were more likely to be AA (p<0.001), less educated (p=0.003), not married or partnered (p=0.007), and have no FH of PCA (p<0.001). Men recruited via referrals had higher incomes (p=0.007). Men recruited via referral were more likely to attend their initial PRAP visit than those recruited by radio or other methods (χ2 = 27.08, p < .0001). Conclusions This comprehensive analysis finds that radio leads to higher recruitment of AA men with lower socioeconomic status. However, these are the high-risk men that have lower show rates for PCA screening. Targeted motivational measures need to be studied to improve show rates for PCA risk assessment for these high-risk men. PMID:19758657

  3. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication.

  4. Analysis of diffusivity of the oscillating reaction components in a microreactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šafranko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When performing oscillating reactions, periodical changes in the concentrations of reactants, intermediaries, and products take place. Due to the mentioned periodical changes of the concentrations, the information about the diffusivity of the components included into oscillating reactions is very important for the control of the oscillating reactions. Non-linear dynamics makes oscillating reactions very interesting for analysis in different reactor systems. In this paper, the analysis of diffusivity of the oscillating reaction components was performed in a microreactor, with the aim of identifying the limiting component. The geometry of the microreactor microchannel and a well defined flow profile ensure optimal conditions for the diffusion phenomena analysis, because diffusion profiles in a microreactor depend only on the residence time. In this paper, the analysis of diffusivity of the oscillating reaction components was performed in a microreactor equipped with 2 Y-shape inlets and 2 Y-shape outlets, with active volume of V = 4 μL at different residence times.

  5. TRAWA, a transient analysis code for water reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamaeki, M.

    1976-06-01

    TRAWA is a transient analysis code for water reactors. It solves the two-group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously with the heat conduction equations and the two-phase hydraulic equations for one or more channels. At most one-dimensional submodels are used. Neither thermal nor hydraulic mixing appear between channels. Doppler, coolant density, coolant temperature, and soluble poison density feedbacks due to the thermohydraulics of the channels are described by using polynomial expansions for the group constants. The hydraulic circuit outside the reactor core consists of by-pass channel and risers with two-phase flow and of pump lines with incompressible flow. Nontrivial implicit methods are employed in the discretization of the equations to allow for sparse spatial mesh and flexible choice of time steps. Various transients can be calculated by applying external disturbances. The code is extensively supplied by input and output capabilities. TRAWA is written in FORTRAN V for UNIVAC 1108 computer. (author)

  6. Kinetics Analysis of Synthesis Reaction of Struvite With Air-Flow Continous Vertical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edahwati, L.; Sutiyono, S.; Muryanto, S.; Jamari, J.; Bayuseno, dan A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Kinetics reaction is a knowledge about a rate of chemical reaction. The differential of the reaction rate can be determined from the reactant material or the formed material. The reaction mechanism of a reactor may include a stage of reaction occurring sequentially during the process of converting the reactants into products. In the determination of reaction kinetics, the order of reaction and the rate constant reaction must be recognized. This study was carried out using air as a stirrer as a medium in the vertical reactor for crystallization of struvite. Stirring is one of the important aspects in struvite crystallization process. Struvite crystals or magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrates (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) is commonly formed in reversible reactions and can be generated as an orthorhombic crystal. Air is selected as a stirrer on the existing flow pattern in the reactor determining the reaction kinetics of the crystal from the solution. The experimental study was conducted by mixing an equimolar solution of 0.03 M NH4OH, MgCl2 and H3PO4 with a ratio of 1: 1: 1. The crystallization process of the mixed solution was observed in an inside reactor at the flow rate ranges of 16-38 ml/min and the temperature of 30°C was selected in the study. The air inlet rate was kept constant at 0.25 liters/min. The pH solution was adjusted to be 8, 9 and 10 by dropping wisely of 1 N KOH solution. The crystallization kinetics was examined until the steady state of the reaction was reached. The precipitates were filtered and dried at a temperature for subsequent material characterization, including Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and XRD (X-Ray diffraction) method. The results show that higher flow rate leads to less mass of struvite.

  7. Evaluation of reactor induced (n,p) reactions for activation analysis of titanium in geological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa Garcia, R; Cohen, I M [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1984-05-01

    The possibilities of reactor induced (n,p) reactions as a tool for neutron activation analysis of titanium in geological samples are discussed. The interference of calcium and scandium is experimentally evaluated. Results for Ti, Ca and Sc in GSP-1 and PCC-1 standard rocks are presented. Based on the experimental values, it is concluded that the /sup 47/Ti(n,p)/sup 47/Sc reaction is the most favourable for titanium determination. 11 refs.

  8. A Systematic Approach for the Design and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems with Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a systematic model-based analysis and the results obtained from it for an integrated design and analysis of reaction-separation systems with recycle. The methodology (systematic approach) consists of three stages where stage 1 identifies the limiting values...

  9. From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Chialva, Matteo; Novero, Mara; Miozzi, Laura; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-03-21

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic "signatures": genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions

  10. Systems level analysis of systemic sclerosis shows a network of immune and profibrotic pathways connected with genetic polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a rare systemic autoimmune disease characterized by skin and organ fibrosis. The pathogenesis of SSc and its progression are poorly understood. The SSc intrinsic gene expression subsets (inflammatory, fibroproliferative, normal-like, and limited are observed in multiple clinical cohorts of patients with SSc. Analysis of longitudinal skin biopsies suggests that a patient's subset assignment is stable over 6-12 months. Genetically, SSc is multi-factorial with many genetic risk loci for SSc generally and for specific clinical manifestations. Here we identify the genes consistently associated with the intrinsic subsets across three independent cohorts, show the relationship between these genes using a gene-gene interaction network, and place the genetic risk loci in the context of the intrinsic subsets. To identify gene expression modules common to three independent datasets from three different clinical centers, we developed a consensus clustering procedure based on mutual information of partitions, an information theory concept, and performed a meta-analysis of these genome-wide gene expression datasets. We created a gene-gene interaction network of the conserved molecular features across the intrinsic subsets and analyzed their connections with SSc-associated genetic polymorphisms. The network is composed of distinct, but interconnected, components related to interferon activation, M2 macrophages, adaptive immunity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell proliferation. The network shows extensive connections between the inflammatory- and fibroproliferative-specific genes. The network also shows connections between these subset-specific genes and 30 SSc-associated polymorphic genes including STAT4, BLK, IRF7, NOTCH4, PLAUR, CSK, IRAK1, and several human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes. Our analyses suggest that the gene expression changes underlying the SSc subsets may be long-lived, but mechanistically interconnected

  11. Analysis of insulation material deterioration under the LOCA simulated environment on the basis of reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Sohei; Kusama, Yasuo; Ito, Masayuki; Yagi, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Masato (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1982-12-01

    In the type test of the electric cables installed in reactor containment vessels, it is considerably difficult to perform the testing over a year once in a while to simulate the accidental environment containing radiation and high temperature steam. Two requirements which seem to be more realistic as compared with the above mentioned testing method are inconsistent with each other. To solve this problem, a general rule of deterioration or the expression by an equation is necessary, which enables the extrapolation to show that a short term testing stands on the safety side. The authors have tried to numerically analyze the change of mechanical characteristics of ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and Hypalon which are, important as the materials for PH cables (fire-retardant, EP rubber-insulated, chlorosulfonated polyethylene-sheathed cable), in a complex environment of radiation, steam and chemical spray simulating PWR LOCA conditions. In this report, a method is proposed to analyze and estimate the properties by the regression analysis technique on the basis of reaction kinetics, and the analyzed results are described in the order of experiment, analysis method and the results and consideration. The deterioration of the elongation P = e/esub(o) of EPR and Hypalon in the above described complex environment can be represented by the equation - dP/dt = KPsup(n). The exponent n varied in the cases when air is contained or not in that environment, suggesting that the different reactions are dominant in both conditions, respectively. For EPR, n was close to 2 if air was not contained and close to 1 if air was contained in the system.

  12. Numerical Analysis Of Hooke Jeeves-Runge Kutta To Determine Reaction Rate Equation In Pyrrole Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan, Indra; Sulistyo, Harry; Rochmad

    2001-01-01

    The numerical analysis of Hooke Jeeves Methods combined with Runge Kutta Methods is used to determine the exact model of reaction rate equation of pyrrole polymerization. Chemical polymerization of pyrrole was conducted with FeCI 3 / pyrrole solution at concentration ratio of 1.62 mole / mole and 2.18 mole / mole with varrying temperature of 28, 40, 50, and 60 o C. FeCl 3 acts as an oxidation agent to form pyrrole cation that will polymerize. The numerical analysis was done to examine the exact model of reaction rate equation which is derived from reaction equation of initiation, propagation, and termination. From its numerical analysis, it is found that the pyrrole polymerization follows third order of pyrrole cation concentration

  13. Determination and theoretical analysis of the differential cross sections of the 2H(d,p) reaction at energies and detection angles suitable for NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paneta, V.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Gastis, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Vlastou, R.; Kontos, A.; Mayer, M.; Misaelides, P.; Perdikakis, G.

    2014-01-01

    The accurate determination of deuteron depth profile presents a strong analytical challenge for all the principal IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) techniques. As far as NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) is concerned, the 2 H(d,p) reaction, seems to be a promising candidate, especially in the case of complex matrices, or for the study of deep-implanted deuteron layers. In the present work differential cross-section values for the 2 H(d,p) reaction have been determined at 140, 160 and 170 degrees, for E d (lab) = 900-1600 keV, with an energy step of 50 keV, using a well-characterized, thin C:D target deposited on a polished Si wafer. The detection system consisted of 3 silicon surface barrier (SSB) detectors (thickness of 1000 μm) placed at a distance of about 11-13 cm from the target, at the appropriate angles. The experimental results were analyzed using the R-matrix calculations code AZURE. The results, in graphical and tabular form, will soon be available to the scientific community through IBANDL

  14. Comparing transfusion reaction rates for various plasma types: a systematic review and meta-analysis/regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van Hout, Fabienne M A; Schipperus, Martin R; le Cessie, Saskia; Middelburg, Rutger A; Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2017-09-01

    We estimated rates for common plasma-associated transfusion reactions and compared reported rates for various plasma types. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles that reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Random-effects pooled rates were calculated and compared between plasma types. Meta-regression was used to compare various plasma types with regard to their reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Forty-eight studies reported transfusion reaction rates for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; mixed-sex and male-only), amotosalen INTERCEPT FFP, methylene blue-treated FFP, and solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma. Random-effects pooled average rates for FFP were: allergic reactions, 92/10 5 units transfused (95% confidence interval [CI], 46-184/10 5 units transfused); febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs), 12/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 7-22/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), 6/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1-30/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), 1.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1.2-2.7/10 5 units transfused); and anaphylactic reactions, 0.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 0-45.7/10 5 units transfused). Risk differences between plasma types were not significant for allergic reactions, TACO, or anaphylactic reactions. Methylene blue-treated FFP led to fewer FNHTRs than FFP (risk difference = -15.3 FNHTRs/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -24.7 to -7.1 reactions/10 5 units transfused); and male-only FFP led to fewer cases of TRALI than mixed-sex FFP (risk difference = -0.74 TRALI/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -2.42 to -0.42 injuries/10 5 units transfused). Meta-regression demonstrates that the rate of FNHTRs is lower for methylene blue-treated compared with FFP, and the rate of TRALI is lower for male-only than for mixed-sex FFP; whereas no significant differences are observed between plasma types for allergic reactions, TACO

  15. Partial wave analysis of the 18O(p,α0)15N reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, L.W.J.; Spicer, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    A partial wave analysis of the differential cross sections for the 18 O(p,α 0 ) 15 N reaction has been carried out applying the formalism of Blatt and Biedenharn (1952), made specific for this reaction. The differential cross sections, measured at 200 keV intervals from 6.6 to 10.4 MeV bombarding energy, were subjected to least-squares fitting to this specific analytic expression. Two resonances were given by the analysis, the 19 F states being at 14.71+-0.07 MeV (1/2 - ) and 14.80 + 0.07 MeV (1/2) +

  16. Analysis of trace gases at ppb levels by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindinger, W.; Hansel, A.

    1996-01-01

    A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) system has been developed which allows for on-line measurements of trace gas components with concentrations as low as 1 ppb. The method is based on reactions of H 3 O + ions, which perform non-dissociative proton transfer to most of the common organic trace constituents but do not react with any of the components present in clean air. Examples of medical information obtained by means of breath analysis, of environmental trace analysis, and examples in the field of food chemistry demonstrate the wide applicability of the method. (Authors)

  17. Expression analysis of genes associated with human osteosarcoma tumors shows correlation of RUNX2 overexpression with poor response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikovic, Bekim; Thorner, Paul; Chilton-MacNeill, Susan; Martin, Jeff W; Cervigne, Nilva K; Squire, Jeremy; Zielenska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Human osteosarcoma is the most common pediatric bone tumor. There is limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying osteosarcoma oncogenesis, and a lack of good diagnostic as well as prognostic clinical markers for this disease. Recent discoveries have highlighted a potential role of a number of genes including: RECQL4, DOCK5, SPP1, RUNX2, RB1, CDKN1A, P53, IBSP, LSAMP, MYC, TNFRSF1B, BMP2, HISTH2BE, FOS, CCNB1, and CDC5L. Our objective was to assess relative expression levels of these 16 genes as potential biomarkers of osteosarcoma oncogenesis and chemotherapy response in human tumors. We performed quantitative expression analysis in a panel of 22 human osteosarcoma tumors with differential response to chemotherapy, and 5 normal human osteoblasts. RECQL4, SPP1, RUNX2, and IBSP were significantly overexpressed, and DOCK5, CDKN1A, RB1, P53, and LSAMP showed significant loss of expression relative to normal osteoblasts. In addition to being overexpressed in osteosarcoma tumor samples relative to normal osteoblasts, RUNX2 was the only gene of the 16 to show significant overexpression in tumors that had a poor response to chemotherapy relative to good responders. These data underscore the loss of tumor suppressive pathways and activation of specific oncogenic mechanisms associated with osteosarcoma oncogenesis, while drawing attention to the role of RUNX2 expression as a potential biomarker of chemotherapy failure in osteosarcoma

  18. Global morphological analysis of marine viruses shows minimal regional variation and dominance of non-tailed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jennifer R; Schenck, Ryan O; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-09-01

    Viruses influence oceanic ecosystems by causing mortality of microorganisms, altering nutrient and organic matter flux via lysis and auxiliary metabolic gene expression and changing the trajectory of microbial evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Limited host range and differing genetic potential of individual virus types mean that investigations into the types of viruses that exist in the ocean and their spatial distribution throughout the world's oceans are critical to understanding the global impacts of marine viruses. Here we evaluate viral morphological characteristics (morphotype, capsid diameter and tail length) using a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (qTEM) method across six of the world's oceans and seas sampled through the Tara Oceans Expedition. Extensive experimental validation of the qTEM method shows that neither sample preservation nor preparation significantly alters natural viral morphological characteristics. The global sampling analysis demonstrated that morphological characteristics did not vary consistently with depth (surface versus deep chlorophyll maximum waters) or oceanic region. Instead, temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration, but not chlorophyll a concentration, were more explanatory in evaluating differences in viral assemblage morphological characteristics. Surprisingly, given that the majority of cultivated bacterial viruses are tailed, non-tailed viruses appear to numerically dominate the upper oceans as they comprised 51-92% of the viral particles observed. Together, these results document global marine viral morphological characteristics, show that their minimal variability is more explained by environmental conditions than geography and suggest that non-tailed viruses might represent the most ecologically important targets for future research.

  19. Marmosets, Raree shows and Pulcinelle: an Analysis and Edition of a Hitherto-Unpublished Carnival Play by Antonio de Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Plata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analyisis, annotation and edition of the Mojiganga del mundinovo (‘The raree show, a carnival play’ by Antonio de Zamora. The play was performed in 1698 Madrid by the troupe of Carlos Vallejo, along with the sacramental one-act play El templo vivo de Dios (‘The living temple of God’. The hitherto unpublished text is based on the only two extant manuscripts, located in archives in Madrid. Despite the play’s title, my analysis argues that the novelty in this play is not so much the raree show, a contraption popularized four decades earlier in Golden Age theater, as the marmosets. The death of two marmosets and the ensuing desolation of their owner, Ms. Estupenda, both trigger the play and provide it with a plot. The marmosets, too, point to a changing mentality in late 17th-century society, regarding the possession among ladies of marmosets and other monkeys as pets.

  20. Meta-analysis to obtain a scale of psychological reaction after perinatal loss: focus on miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annsofie Adolfsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson1,21School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenAbstract: Pregnancy has different meanings to different women depending upon their circumstances. A number of qualitative studies have described the experience of miscarriage by women who had desired to carry their pregnancy to full term. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify a scale of psychological reaction to miscarriage. Meta-analysis is a quantitative approach for reviewing articles from scientific journals through statistical analysis of findings from individual studies. In this review, a meta-analytic method was used to identify and analyze psychological reactions in women who have suffered a miscarriage. Different reactions to stress associated with the period following miscarriage were identified. The depression reaction had the highest average, weighted, unbiased estimate of effect (d+ = 0.99 and was frequently associated with the experience of perinatal loss. Psychiatric morbidity was found after miscarriage in 27% of cases by a diagnostic interview ten days after miscarriage. The grief reaction had a medium d+ of 0.56 in the studies included. However, grief after miscarriage differed from other types of grief after perinatal loss because the parents had no focus for their grief. The guilt is greater after miscarriage than after other types of perinatal loss. Measurement of the stress reaction and anxiety reaction seems to be difficult in the included studies, as evidenced by a low d+ (0.17 and 0.16, respectively. It has been recommended that grief after perinatal loss be measured by an adapted instrument called the Perinatal Grief Scale Short Version.Keywords: psychological, perinatal loss, pregnancy, depression 

  1. Synthesis by the Pechini method and reaction combustion for the preparation of TiO2: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.P.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Freitas, N.L.; Lira, H.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare TiO 2 powder by Pechini and combustion reaction methods. A comparative analysis between the structural and morphological results obtained by the two methods was investigated. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffractions (XRD), infrared analysis, nitrogen adsorption (BET) and particle size distribution. The results from XRD show that the powders prepared by Pechini method and by combustion reaction using aniline as fuel, present anatase as major phase and traces of rutile phase. The values of crystallite size and surface area from BET were: 30 e 44 nm; 6.2 e 4.4 m 2 /g, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The values of particle size were: 21.9 e 5.3 μm, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The Pechini method was more suitable to obtain powders with irregular agglomerates, in the block shape with particles bonded softly and small crystallite size. (author)

  2. Specific solvent effect on lumazine photophysics: A combined fluorescence and intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyon, N. Shaemningwar; Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Phukan, Smritakshi; Mitra, Sivaprasad, E-mail: smitra@nehu.ac.in

    2013-06-27

    Highlights: • Correlation of lumazine photophysics with multiparametric Kamlet–Taft equation. • Solvent basicity (β) contributes maximum towards the hydrogen bonding (HB) effect. • HB interaction occurs at N1 and N3 proton in S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} state, respectively. • IRC calculation for different tautomerization processes both in S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} states. • Process related to riboflavin biosynthesis is thermodynamically feasible. - Abstract: The photophysical properties and tautomerization behavior of neutral lumazine were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation. A quantitative estimation of the contributions from different solvatochromic parameters, like solvent polarizibility (π{sup ∗}), hydrogen bond donation (α) and hydrogen bond accepting (β) ability of the solvent, was made using linear free energy relationships based on the Kamlet–Taft equation. The analysis reveals that the hydrogen bond acceptance ability of the solvent is the most important parameter characterizing the excited state behavior of lumazine. Theoretical calculations result predict an extensive charge redistribution of lumazine upon excitation corresponding to the N3 and N1 proton dissociation sites by solvents in the ground and excited states, respectively. Comparison of S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} state potential energy curves constructed for several water mediated tautomerization processes by intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis of lumazine-H{sub 2}O cluster shows that (3,2) and (1,8) hydrogen migrations are the most favorable processes upon excitation.

  3. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of wild and domesticated Opuntia spp. species shows a metabolic adaptation through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichereaux, Carole; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E; Santos-Diaz, Maria Del Socorro; Reyes-Agüero, Antonio; Astello-García, Marizel; Guéraud, Françoise; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Schiltz, Odile; Rossignol, Michel; Barba de la Rosa, Ana Paulina

    2016-06-30

    The Opuntia genus is widely distributed in America, but the highest richness of wild species are found in Mexico, as well as the most domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, which is the most domesticated species and an important crop in agricultural economies of arid and semiarid areas worldwide. During domestication process, the Opuntia morphological characteristics were favored, such as less and smaller spines in cladodes and less seeds in fruits, but changes at molecular level are almost unknown. To obtain more insights about the Opuntia molecular changes through domestication, a shotgun proteomic analysis and database-dependent searches by homology was carried out. >1000 protein species were identified and by using a label-free quantitation method, the Opuntia proteomes were compared in order to identify differentially accumulated proteins among wild and domesticated species. Most of the changes were observed in glucose, secondary, and 1C metabolism, which correlate with the observed protein, fiber and phenolic compounds accumulation in Opuntia cladodes. Regulatory proteins, ribosomal proteins, and proteins related with response to stress were also observed in differential accumulation. These results provide new valuable data that will help to the understanding of the molecular changes of Opuntia species through domestication. Opuntia species are well adapted to dry and warm conditions in arid and semiarid regions worldwide, and they are highly productive plants showing considerable promises as an alternative food source. However, there is a gap regarding Opuntia molecular mechanisms that enable them to grow in extreme environmental conditions and how the domestication processes has changed them. In the present study, a shotgun analysis was carried out to characterize the proteomes of five Opuntia species selected by its domestication degree. Our results will help to a better understanding of proteomic features underlying the selection and specialization under

  4. ANALYSIS OF A POSSIBLE REDUCTION IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN WATER ELECTROLYSIS REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel George POPESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It was experimentally observed that the electrolysis reaction continues a short period of time - time torelax c - after the cell power supply is interrupted. This paper presents an analysis of transient phenomenaoccurring and pr opose technical solutions

  5. Bifurcation Analysis of Gene Propagation Model Governed by Reaction-Diffusion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichen Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical analysis of the attractor bifurcation for gene propagation model governed by reaction-diffusion equations. We investigate the dynamical transition problems of the model under the homogeneous boundary conditions. By using the dynamical transition theory, we give a complete characterization of the bifurcated objects in terms of the biological parameters of the problem.

  6. Modelling and simulation of a transketolase mediated reaction: Sensitivity analysis of kinetic parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayar, N.A.; Chen, B.H.; Lye, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we have used a proposed mathematical model, describing the carbon-carbon bond format ion reaction between beta-hydroxypyruvate and glycolaldehyde to synthesise L-erythrulose, catalysed by the enzyme transketolase, for the analysis of the sensitivity of the process to its kinetic...

  7. Assumption-free analysis of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Christian; Ruijter, Jan M.; Deprez, Ronald H. Lekanne; Moorman, Antoon F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of mRNAs using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by monitoring the product formation with the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I is being extensively used in neurosciences, developmental biology, and medical diagnostics. Most PCR data analysis procedures assume that the PCR

  8. On the graph and systems analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks with mass action kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recent progresses on the interplay between the graph theory and systems theory, we revisit the analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks described by mass action kinetics by reformulating it using the graph knowledge of the underlying networks. Based on this formulation, we

  9. Software news and update PyFrag - Streamlining your reaction path analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeist, W.-J.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    The PyFrag program (released as PyFrag2007.01) is a "wrap-around" for the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) package and facilitates the extension of the fragment analysis method implemented in ADF along an entire potential energy surface. The purpose is to make analyses of reaction paths and other

  10. Global reaction to the recent outbreaks of Zika virus: Insights from a Big Data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucchi, Cecilia; Paganino, Chiara; Barberis, Ilaria; Martini, Mariano; Sticchi, Laura; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Orsi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective The recent spreading of Zika virus represents an emerging global health threat. As such, it is attracting public interest worldwide, generating a great amount of related Internet searches and social media interactions. The aim of this research was to understand Zika-related digital behavior throughout the epidemic spreading and to assess its consistence with real-world epidemiological data, using a behavioral informatics and analytics approach. Methods In this study, the global web-interest and reaction to the recently occurred outbreaks of the Zika Virus were analyzed in terms of tweets and Google Trends (GT), Google News, YouTube, and Wikipedia search queries. These data streams were mined from 1st January 2004 to 31st October 2016, with a focus on the period November 2015—October 2016. This analysis was complemented with the use of epidemiological data. Spearman’s correlation was performed to correlate all Zika-related data. Moreover, a multivariate regression was performed using Zika-related search queries as a dependent variable, and epidemiological data, number of inhabitants in 2015 and Human Development Index as predictor variables. Results Overall 3,864,395 tweets, 284,903 accesses to Wikipedia pages dedicated to the Zika virus were analyzed during the study period. All web-data sources showed that the main spike of researches and interactions occurred in February 2016 with a second peak in August 2016. All novel data streams-related activities increased markedly during the epidemic period with respect to pre-epidemic period when no web activity was detected. Correlations between data from all these web platforms resulted very high and statistically significant. The countries in which web searches were particularly concentrated are mainly from Central and South Americas. The majority of queries concerned the symptoms of the Zika virus, its vector of transmission, and its possible effect to babies, including microcephaly. No statistically

  11. Global reaction to the recent outbreaks of Zika virus: Insights from a Big Data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Alicino, Cristiano; Trucchi, Cecilia; Paganino, Chiara; Barberis, Ilaria; Martini, Mariano; Sticchi, Laura; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Orsi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The recent spreading of Zika virus represents an emerging global health threat. As such, it is attracting public interest worldwide, generating a great amount of related Internet searches and social media interactions. The aim of this research was to understand Zika-related digital behavior throughout the epidemic spreading and to assess its consistence with real-world epidemiological data, using a behavioral informatics and analytics approach. In this study, the global web-interest and reaction to the recently occurred outbreaks of the Zika Virus were analyzed in terms of tweets and Google Trends (GT), Google News, YouTube, and Wikipedia search queries. These data streams were mined from 1st January 2004 to 31st October 2016, with a focus on the period November 2015-October 2016. This analysis was complemented with the use of epidemiological data. Spearman's correlation was performed to correlate all Zika-related data. Moreover, a multivariate regression was performed using Zika-related search queries as a dependent variable, and epidemiological data, number of inhabitants in 2015 and Human Development Index as predictor variables. Overall 3,864,395 tweets, 284,903 accesses to Wikipedia pages dedicated to the Zika virus were analyzed during the study period. All web-data sources showed that the main spike of researches and interactions occurred in February 2016 with a second peak in August 2016. All novel data streams-related activities increased markedly during the epidemic period with respect to pre-epidemic period when no web activity was detected. Correlations between data from all these web platforms resulted very high and statistically significant. The countries in which web searches were particularly concentrated are mainly from Central and South Americas. The majority of queries concerned the symptoms of the Zika virus, its vector of transmission, and its possible effect to babies, including microcephaly. No statistically significant correlation was found

  12. Global reaction to the recent outbreaks of Zika virus: Insights from a Big Data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    Full Text Available The recent spreading of Zika virus represents an emerging global health threat. As such, it is attracting public interest worldwide, generating a great amount of related Internet searches and social media interactions. The aim of this research was to understand Zika-related digital behavior throughout the epidemic spreading and to assess its consistence with real-world epidemiological data, using a behavioral informatics and analytics approach.In this study, the global web-interest and reaction to the recently occurred outbreaks of the Zika Virus were analyzed in terms of tweets and Google Trends (GT, Google News, YouTube, and Wikipedia search queries. These data streams were mined from 1st January 2004 to 31st October 2016, with a focus on the period November 2015-October 2016. This analysis was complemented with the use of epidemiological data. Spearman's correlation was performed to correlate all Zika-related data. Moreover, a multivariate regression was performed using Zika-related search queries as a dependent variable, and epidemiological data, number of inhabitants in 2015 and Human Development Index as predictor variables.Overall 3,864,395 tweets, 284,903 accesses to Wikipedia pages dedicated to the Zika virus were analyzed during the study period. All web-data sources showed that the main spike of researches and interactions occurred in February 2016 with a second peak in August 2016. All novel data streams-related activities increased markedly during the epidemic period with respect to pre-epidemic period when no web activity was detected. Correlations between data from all these web platforms resulted very high and statistically significant. The countries in which web searches were particularly concentrated are mainly from Central and South Americas. The majority of queries concerned the symptoms of the Zika virus, its vector of transmission, and its possible effect to babies, including microcephaly. No statistically significant

  13. Sedation for pediatric radiological procedures: analysis of potential causes of sedation failure and paradoxical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karian, V.E.; Burrows, P.E.; Connor, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, D. [Dept. of Biostatistics, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Mason, K.P. [Dept. of Anesthesiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Background. Sedation for diagnostic imaging and interventional radiologic procedures in pediatrics has greatly increased over the past decade. With appropriate patient selection and monitoring, serious adverse effects are infrequent, but failure to sedate and paradoxical reactions do occur. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine, among patients undergoing sedation for radiologic procedures, the incidence of sedation failure and paradoxical reaction to pentobarbital and to identify potentially correctable causes. Materials and methods. Records of 1665 patients who were sedated in the radiology department from 1 November 1997 to 1 July 1998 were reviewed. Patients failing sedation or experiencing paradoxical reaction were compared with respect to sex, age group, diagnosis, scan type, time of day, NPO status, use of IV contrast and type of sedation agent using the Fisher exact test, Pearson chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Student t-test, and logistic regression. Results. Data analysis revealed a sedation failure rate of 1 % and paradoxical reaction rate of 1.2 %. Stepwise multiple logistic regression revealed that the only significant independent multivariate predictor of failure was the need for the administration of a combination of pentobarbital, fentanyl, and midazolam IV. Conclusion. The low rate of sedation failure and paradoxical reactions to pentobarbital was near optimal and probably cannot be improved with the currently available sedatives. (orig.)

  14. Sedation for pediatric radiological procedures: analysis of potential causes of sedation failure and paradoxical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karian, V.E.; Burrows, P.E.; Connor, L.; Zurakowski, D.; Mason, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Sedation for diagnostic imaging and interventional radiologic procedures in pediatrics has greatly increased over the past decade. With appropriate patient selection and monitoring, serious adverse effects are infrequent, but failure to sedate and paradoxical reactions do occur. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine, among patients undergoing sedation for radiologic procedures, the incidence of sedation failure and paradoxical reaction to pentobarbital and to identify potentially correctable causes. Materials and methods. Records of 1665 patients who were sedated in the radiology department from 1 November 1997 to 1 July 1998 were reviewed. Patients failing sedation or experiencing paradoxical reaction were compared with respect to sex, age group, diagnosis, scan type, time of day, NPO status, use of IV contrast and type of sedation agent using the Fisher exact test, Pearson chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Student t-test, and logistic regression. Results. Data analysis revealed a sedation failure rate of 1 % and paradoxical reaction rate of 1.2 %. Stepwise multiple logistic regression revealed that the only significant independent multivariate predictor of failure was the need for the administration of a combination of pentobarbital, fentanyl, and midazolam IV. Conclusion. The low rate of sedation failure and paradoxical reactions to pentobarbital was near optimal and probably cannot be improved with the currently available sedatives. (orig.)

  15. Applications of nuclear reaction analysis for determining hydrogen and deuterium distribution in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altstetter, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ion beams for materials analysis has made a successful transition from the domain of the particle physicist to that of the materials scientist. The subcategory of this field, nuclear reaction analysis, is just now undergoing the transition, particularly in applications to hydrogen in materials. The materials scientist must locate the nearest accelerator, because now he will find that using it can solve mysteries that do not yield to other techniques. 9 figures

  16. Ion beam analysis - development and application of nuclear reaction analysis methods, in particular at a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeland, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    This thesis treats the development of Ion Beam Analysis methods, principally for the analysis of light elements at a nuclear microprobe. The light elements in this context are defined as having an atomic number less than approx. 13. The work reported is to a large extent based on multiparameter methods. Several signals are recorded simultaneously, and the data can be effectively analyzed to reveal structures that can not be observed through one-parameter collection. The different techniques are combined in a new set-up at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. The various detectors for reaction products are arranged in such a way that they can be used for the simultaneous analysis of hydrogen, lithium, boron and fluorine together with traditional PIXE analysis and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy as well as photon-tagged Nuclear Reaction Analysis. 48 refs

  17. A comparison of approximation techniques for variance-based sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for the analysis of complex systems. In a recent paper, we have introduced a thermodynamically consistent variance-based sensitivity analysis approach for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems under uncertainty in the standard chemical potentials of the activated complexes of the reactions and the standard chemical potentials of the molecular species. In that approach, key sensitivity indices were estimated by Monte Carlo sampling, which is computationally very demanding and impractical for large biochemical reaction systems. Computationally efficient algorithms are needed to make variance-based sensitivity analysis applicable to realistic cellular networks, modeled by biochemical reaction systems that consist of a large number of reactions and molecular species. Results We present four techniques, derivative approximation (DA, polynomial approximation (PA, Gauss-Hermite integration (GHI, and orthonormal Hermite approximation (OHA, for analytically approximating the variance-based sensitivity indices associated with a biochemical reaction system. By using a well-known model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade as a case study, we numerically compare the approximation quality of these techniques against traditional Monte Carlo sampling. Our results indicate that, although DA is computationally the most attractive technique, special care should be exercised when using it for sensitivity analysis, since it may only be accurate at low levels of uncertainty. On the other hand, PA, GHI, and OHA are computationally more demanding than DA but can work well at high levels of uncertainty. GHI results in a slightly better accuracy than PA, but it is more difficult to implement. OHA produces the most accurate approximation results and can be implemented in a straightforward manner. It turns out that the computational cost of the

  18. Combined steam and carbon dioxide reforming of methane and side reactions: Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis and experimental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Won-Jun; Jeong, Dae-Woon; Shim, Jae-Oh; Kim, Hak-Min; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Son, In Hyuk; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Selected variables have a significant influence on yields of synthesis gas. • (CO_2 + H_2O)/CH_4 affects the temperature which can achieve the maximum conversion. • Coke is formed at low temperatures even with excess oxidizing agent. • The occurrence of RWGS becomes critical in real chemical reactions. • Equilibrium conversions are maintained for 500 h without detectable deactivation. - Abstract: Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of the combined steam and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CSCRM) and side reactions was performed using total Gibbs free energy minimization. The effects of (CO_2 + H_2O)/CH_4 ratio (0.9–2.9), CO_2:H_2O ratio (3:1–1:3), and temperature (500–1000 °C) on the equilibrium conversions, yields, coke yield, and H_2/CO ratio were investigated. A (CO_2 + H_2O)/CH_4 ratio greater than 1.2, a CO_2:H_2O ratio of 1:2.1, and a temperature of at least 850 °C are preferable reaction conditions for the synthesis gas preparation in the gas to liquid process. Simulated conditions were applied to the CSCRM reaction and the experimental data were compared with the thermodynamic equilibrium results. The thermodynamic equilibrium results were mostly consistent with the experimental data, but the reverse water gas shift reaction rapidly occurred in the real chemical reaction and under excess oxidizing agent conditions. In addition, a long-term stability test (under simulated conditions) showed that the equilibrium conversion was maintained for 500 h and that the coke formation on the used catalyst was not observed.

  19. Quantitative analysis of total starch content in wheat flour by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposed a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for efficiently quantifying the total starch content in wheat flours. A certain weight of wheat flour was oxidized by potassium dichromate in an acidic condition in a sealed headspace vial. The results show that the starch in wheat flour can be completely transferred to carbon dioxide at the given conditions (at 100 °C for 40 min) and the total starch content in wheat flour sample can be indirectly quantified by detecting the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the reaction HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 3.06%, and the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 8.90%. The new reaction HS-GC method is automated, accurate, and can be a reliable tool for determining the total starch content in wheat flours in both laboratory and industrial applications. Graphical abstract The total starch content in wheat flour can be indirectly quantified by the GC detection of the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction between wheat flour and potassium dichromate in an acidic condition.

  20. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens to 63 (Glycine max. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  1. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wentao; Liu, Yaxue; Wang, Yuqian; Li, Huimin; Liu, Jiaxi; Tan, Jiaxin; He, Jiadai; Bai, Jingwen; Ma, Haoli

    2017-10-08

    The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three ( Physcomitrella patens ) to 63 ( Glycine max ). The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  2. Use of deuteron-induced nuclear reactions for quantitative surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.C.B.; Earwaker, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of the basic features of nuclear reaction analysis is given; particular emphasis is placed on quantitative light element determination using (d,p) and (d,α) reactions. The experimental apparatus is also described, with reference to the 3MV Dynamitron accelerator at the University of Birmingham Radiation Centre. Finally, a set of standard (d, p) spectra for the elements Z=3 to Z=17, using 2 MeV incident deuterons, is included together with examples of the more useful of the (d,α) spectra. (orig.)

  3. DFT analysis of the reaction paths of formaldehyde decomposition on silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alejandro; Haynes, Brian S

    2009-07-16

    Periodic density functional theory is used to study the dehydrogenation of formaldehyde (CH(2)O) on the Ag(111) surface and in the presence of adsorbed oxygen or hydroxyl species. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of elementary surface reactions have been determined. The dehydrogenation of CH(2)O on clean Ag(111) is thermodynamically and kinetically unfavorable. In particular, the activation energy for the first C-H bond scission of adsorbed CH(2)O (25.8 kcal mol(-1)) greatly exceeds the desorption energy for molecular CH(2)O (2.5 kcal mol(-1)). Surface oxygen promotes the destruction of CH(2)O through the formation of CH(2)O(2), which readily decomposes to CHO(2) and then in turn to CO(2) and adsorbed hydrogen. Analysis of site selectivity shows that CH(2)O(2), CHO(2), and CHO are strongly bound to the surface through the bridge sites, whereas CO and CO(2) are weakly adsorbed with no strong preference for a particular surface site. Dissociation of CO and CO(2) on the Ag(111) surface is highly activated and therefore unfavorable with respect to their molecular desorption.

  4. Deuterium depth profiling in JT-60U W-shaped divertor tiles by nuclear reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Ochiai, K.; Masaki, K.; Gotoh, Y.; Kutsukake, C.; Arai, T.; Nishitani, T.; Miya, N.

    2006-01-01

    Deuterium concentrations and depth profiles in plasma-facing graphite tiles used in the divertor of JAERI Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) were investigated by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The highest deuterium concentration of D/ 12 C of 0.053 was found in the outer dome wing tile, where the deuterium accumulated probably through the deuterium-carbon co-deposition. In the outer and inner divertor target tiles, the D/ 12 C data were lower than 0.006. Additionally, the maximum (H + D)/ 12 C in the dome top tile was estimated to be 0.023 from the results of NRA and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Orbit following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) simulation showed energetic deuterons caused by neutral beam injections (NBI) were implanted into the dome region with high heat flux. Furthermore, the surface temperature and conditions such as deposition and erosion significantly influenced the accumulation process of deuterium. The deuterium depth profile, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and OFMC simulation indicated the deuterium was considered to accumulate through three processes: the deuterium-carbon co-deposition, the implantation of energetic deuterons and the deuterium diffusion into the bulk

  5. Stability analysis of impulsive fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zuoan; Li Kelin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of impulsive fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms. By employing the delay differential inequality with impulsive initial conditions and M-matrix theory, we find some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms. In particular, the estimate of the exponential converging index is also provided, which depends on the system parameters. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

  6. Molecular-dynamics analysis of mobile helium cluster reactions near surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios, E-mail: maroudas@ecs.umass.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9303 (United States); Hammond, Karl D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    We report the results of a systematic atomic-scale analysis of the reactions of small mobile helium clusters (He{sub n}, 4 ≤ n ≤ 7) near low-Miller-index tungsten (W) surfaces, aiming at a fundamental understanding of the near-surface dynamics of helium-carrying species in plasma-exposed tungsten. These small mobile helium clusters are attracted to the surface and migrate to the surface by Fickian diffusion and drift due to the thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. As the clusters migrate toward the surface, trap mutation (TM) and cluster dissociation reactions are activated at rates higher than in the bulk. TM produces W adatoms and immobile complexes of helium clusters surrounding W vacancies located within the lattice planes at a short distance from the surface. These reactions are identified and characterized in detail based on the analysis of a large number of molecular-dynamics trajectories for each such mobile cluster near W(100), W(110), and W(111) surfaces. TM is found to be the dominant cluster reaction for all cluster and surface combinations, except for the He{sub 4} and He{sub 5} clusters near W(100) where cluster partial dissociation following TM dominates. We find that there exists a critical cluster size, n = 4 near W(100) and W(111) and n = 5 near W(110), beyond which the formation of multiple W adatoms and vacancies in the TM reactions is observed. The identified cluster reactions are responsible for important structural, morphological, and compositional features in the plasma-exposed tungsten, including surface adatom populations, near-surface immobile helium-vacancy complexes, and retained helium content, which are expected to influence the amount of hydrogen re-cycling and tritium retention in fusion tokamaks.

  7. Simplified method of ''push-pull'' test data analysis for determining in situ reaction rate coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, R.; Schroth, M.H.; Istok, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The single-well, ''''push-pull'''' test method is useful for obtaining information on a wide variety of aquifer physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics. A push-pull test consists of the pulse-type injection of a prepared test solution into a single monitoring well followed by the extraction of the test solution/ground water mixture from the same well. The test solution contains a conservative tracer and one or more reactants selected to investigate a particular process. During the extraction phase, the concentrations of tracer, reactants, and possible reaction products are measured to obtain breakthrough curves for all solutes. This paper presents a simplified method of data analysis that can be used to estimate a first-order reaction rate coefficient from these breakthrough curves. Rate coefficients are obtained by fitting a regression line to a plot of normalized concentrations versus elapsed time, requiring no knowledge of aquifer porosity, dispersivity, or hydraulic conductivity. A semi-analytical solution to the advective-dispersion equation is derived and used in a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the ability of the simplified method to estimate reaction rate coefficients in simulated push-pull tests in a homogeneous, confined aquifer with a fully-penetrating injection/extraction well and varying porosity, dispersivity, test duration, and reaction rate. A numerical flow and transport code (SUTRA) is used to evaluate the ability of the simplified method to estimate reaction rate coefficients in simulated push-pull tests in a heterogeneous, unconfined aquifer with a partially penetrating well. In all cases the simplified method provides accurate estimates of reaction rate coefficients; estimation errors ranged from 0.1 to 8.9% with most errors less than 5%

  8. Analysis of agility, reaction time and balance variables at badminton players aged 9-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydi Ahmet Ağaoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was investigated agility, static and dynamic balance and reaction time variables of badminton players aged between 9-14 and relate with among variables. Material and Methods: In Samsun, 19 males (sport age, 3.42±1.64 years and 12 females (3.00±1.28 years active badminton players were voluntarily participated in who are in 9-14 ages range. Agility was measured by “T” test, CSMI-Tecnobody Pk-252 isokinetic balance system measuring instrument was used to test static balance and dynamic balance and Mozart Lafayette reaction measuring instrument was used to test visual and auditory reaction times of players. Spearman correlation analysis was applied so as to correlation analysis. The level of significance was taken as p<0.05. Results: For female athletes, a positive relation was determined between the agility and the perimeter (mm used (r=0.727; p<0.01 through the static balance measure double foot and eyes are open. For male athletes, a positive relation was determined between the visual reaction time and the perimeter (mm used (r=0.725; p<0.01 through the static balance measure dominant foot and eyes are open. For male and female athletes were not found any correlation between reaction time and dynamic balance. Conclusion: It was determined that audio (ears and visual (eyes reaction time was effective on balance. While badminton players are closed eyes, audio sensors are more influence on balance test through measure dominant foot.

  9. Analysis of adverse reactions and complications of Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Chen Wei; Yang Jianyong; Xiao Haipeng; Huang Yonghui; Li Jiaping; Guo Wenbo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyse the adverse reactions and complications of Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization. Methods: 41 patients of Graves' disease underwent interventional embolization have been analysed with its adverse reactions and complications. Polyvinyl alcohol or bletilla microspheres and micro-coils were used in these patients. Results: Laryngopharyngeal and neck pain occurred in all patients. T 3 and T 4 increased in 3 days to one week after the procedure. Thirty of them showed fever. Dystopia embolism happened in two cases with one of transitory hypoparathyroidism. No hypothyroidism or hypoparathyroidism or hoarseness occur during long term follow up. Conclusions: The adverse reactions and complications of Graves disease after thyroid arteries embolization may occur. Some of them are preventable and curable

  10. Sensitive inexpensive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in tablet formulations using Hantzsch condensation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, F. A.; El-Yazbi, A. F.; Wagih, M. M.; Barary, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Two highly sensitive, simple and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric assays have been investigated for the analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in their pure and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The suggested methods depend on the condensation of the primary amino-groups in the three drugs with acetylacetone and formaldehyde according to Hantzsch reaction yielding highly fluorescent yellow colored dihydropyridine derivatives. The reaction products of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate were measured spectrophotometrically at 418, 390 and 380 nm or spectrofluorimetrically at λem/ex of 495/425 nm, 490/415 nm and 488/410 nm, respectively. Various experimental conditions have been carefully studied to maximize the reaction yield. At the optimum reaction conditions, the calibration curves were rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 8-25, 60-180 and 80-200 μg/mL spectrophotometrically and 0.02-0.2, 0.2-1.2 and 0.2-1.5 μg/mL spectrofluorimetrically for ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate, respectively with good correlation coefficients. The suggested methods were applied successfully for the analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in their commercial tablets with high percentage recoveries and negligible interference from various excipients in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The results were statistically analyzed and showed the absence of any significant difference between both developed and published methods. The procedures were validated and evaluated by the ICH guidelines revealing good reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the two proposed methods may be considered of high interest for practical and reliable analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  11. Evaluation of the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the analysis of polymerase chain reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduzio, Hélène; Ezan, Eric; Fenaille, François

    2010-12-30

    We have investigated the potential and robustness of the off-line coupling of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), for further applications in the screening of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This was based on recently reported data demonstrating that anion-exchange solid-phase extraction was the most efficient technique for efficiently desalting PCR products, with a recovery of ∼70%. Results showed that this purification approach efficiently removes almost all the chemicals commonly added to PCR buffers. ESI-MS analysis of a model 114-bp PCR product performed on the LTQ-Orbitrap instrument demonstrated that detection limits in the nM range along with an average mass measurement uncertainty of 9.15 ± 7.11 ppm can be routinely obtained using an external calibration. The PCR/ESI-MS platform was able to detect just a few copies of a targeted oligonucleotide. However, it was shown that if two PCR products are present in a mixture in a ratio higher than 10 to 1, the lower abundance one might not be reproducibly detected. Applications to SNPs demonstrated that an LTQ-Orbitrap with a resolution of 30 000 (at m/z 400) easily identified a single (A ↔ G) switch, i.e. a 16 Da difference, in binary mixtures of ∼ 35 kDa PCR products. Complementary experiments also showed that the combination of endonucleases and ESI-MS could be used to confirm base composition and sequence, and thus to screen for unknown polymorphisms in specific sequences. For example, a single (T ↔ A) switch (9 Da mass difference) was successfully identified in a 114-bp PCR product. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Parametric sensitivity analysis for biochemical reaction networks based on pathwise information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Yannis; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2013-10-22

    Stochastic modeling and simulation provide powerful predictive methods for the intrinsic understanding of fundamental mechanisms in complex biochemical networks. Typically, such mathematical models involve networks of coupled jump stochastic processes with a large number of parameters that need to be suitably calibrated against experimental data. In this direction, the parameter sensitivity analysis of reaction networks is an essential mathematical and computational tool, yielding information regarding the robustness and the identifiability of model parameters. However, existing sensitivity analysis approaches such as variants of the finite difference method can have an overwhelming computational cost in models with a high-dimensional parameter space. We develop a sensitivity analysis methodology suitable for complex stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters. The proposed approach is based on Information Theory methods and relies on the quantification of information loss due to parameter perturbations between time-series distributions. For this reason, we need to work on path-space, i.e., the set consisting of all stochastic trajectories, hence the proposed approach is referred to as "pathwise". The pathwise sensitivity analysis method is realized by employing the rigorously-derived Relative Entropy Rate, which is directly computable from the propensity functions. A key aspect of the method is that an associated pathwise Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) is defined, which in turn constitutes a gradient-free approach to quantifying parameter sensitivities. The structure of the FIM turns out to be block-diagonal, revealing hidden parameter dependencies and sensitivities in reaction networks. As a gradient-free method, the proposed sensitivity analysis provides a significant advantage when dealing with complex stochastic systems with a large number of parameters. In addition, the knowledge of the structure of the FIM can allow to efficiently address

  13. Amazing variational approach to chemical reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In this letter we analyse an amazing variational approach to chemical reactions. Our results clearly show that the variational expressions are unsuitable for the analysis of empirical data obtained from chemical reactions.

  14. Nanoscopic analysis using Maruhn-Greiner theory by energy based variables in lattice for low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo Sung; WooTae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Maruhn-Greiner theory is investigated for the low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in the aspect of the energy productions. Conventional nuclear reactions could give the hints in another kind of the nuclear theoretical utilizations. The results of simulations show the ranges of the configurations for H-ion to Pd with 10; 000 ions as 10 and 180 keV. The most probable ranges are 30 and 600 nanometers respectively. In the simulation result of broad energy regions, the cutoff energy, 350 keV , is very significant in analyzing the LENR, because the range usually depends on the entering particle, target particle, and energy of the entering particle. Therefore, the 350 keV shows there is priority for hydrogen interaction from the energy. In the analysis, the water (H_2O) has the better possibility in LENR after the 350 keV . Following the simulation for searching LENRs, the possible conditions that include the energy based variables of atomic ranges, Debye length, and reaction time has been investigated for the designed energy productions

  15. Reaction trajectory revealed by a joint analysis of protein data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Structural motions along a reaction pathway hold the secret about how a biological macromolecule functions. If each static structure were considered as a snapshot of the protein molecule in action, a large collection of structures would constitute a multidimensional conformational space of an enormous size. Here I present a joint analysis of hundreds of known structures of human hemoglobin in the Protein Data Bank. By applying singular value decomposition to distance matrices of these structures, I demonstrate that this large collection of structural snapshots, derived under a wide range of experimental conditions, arrange orderly along a reaction pathway. The structural motions along this extensive trajectory, including several helical transformations, arrive at a reverse engineered mechanism of the cooperative machinery (Ren, companion article), and shed light on pathological properties of the abnormal homotetrameric hemoglobins from α-thalassemia. This method of meta-analysis provides a general approach to structural dynamics based on static protein structures in this post genomics era.

  16. Reaction trajectory revealed by a joint analysis of protein data bank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Ren

    Full Text Available Structural motions along a reaction pathway hold the secret about how a biological macromolecule functions. If each static structure were considered as a snapshot of the protein molecule in action, a large collection of structures would constitute a multidimensional conformational space of an enormous size. Here I present a joint analysis of hundreds of known structures of human hemoglobin in the Protein Data Bank. By applying singular value decomposition to distance matrices of these structures, I demonstrate that this large collection of structural snapshots, derived under a wide range of experimental conditions, arrange orderly along a reaction pathway. The structural motions along this extensive trajectory, including several helical transformations, arrive at a reverse engineered mechanism of the cooperative machinery (Ren, companion article, and shed light on pathological properties of the abnormal homotetrameric hemoglobins from α-thalassemia. This method of meta-analysis provides a general approach to structural dynamics based on static protein structures in this post genomics era.

  17. Stoichiometric Representation of Gene–Protein–Reaction Associations Leverages Constraint-Based Analysis from Reaction to Gene-Level Phenotype Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Daniel; Herrgard, Markus; Rocha, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    only describe the metabolic phenotype at the reaction level, understanding the mechanistic link between genotype and phenotype is still hampered by the complexity of gene-protein-reaction associations. We implement a model transformation that enables constraint-based methods to be applied at the gene...... design methods are not actually feasible, and show how our approach allows using the same methods to obtain feasible gene-based designs. We also show, by extensive comparison with experimental 13C-flux data, how simple reformulations of different simulation methods with gene-wise objective functions...

  18. Periodic precipitation a microcomputer analysis of transport and reaction processes in diffusion media, with software development

    CERN Document Server

    Henisch, H K

    1991-01-01

    Containing illustrations, worked examples, graphs and tables, this book deals with periodic precipitation (also known as Liesegang Ring formation) in terms of mathematical models and their logical consequences, and is entirely concerned with microcomputer analysis and software development. Three distinctive periodic precipitation mechanisms are included: binary diffusion-reaction; solubility modulation, and competitive particle growth. The book provides didactic illustrations of a valuable investigational procedure, in the form of hypothetical experimentation by microcomputer. The development

  19. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Rok, Kwon; Suk Ho, Choi; Bae Chun Cha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom). Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom ...

  20. Passivity analysis for uncertain BAM neural networks with time delays and reaction-diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianping; Xu, Shengyuan; Shen, Hao; Zhang, Baoyong

    2013-08-01

    This article deals with the problem of passivity analysis for delayed reaction-diffusion bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with weight uncertainties. By using a new integral inequality, we first present a passivity condition for the nominal networks, and then extend the result to the case with linear fractional weight uncertainties. The proposed conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and thus can be checked easily. Examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  1. FINANCIAL MARKET REACTIONS TO INTERNATIONAL MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS IN THE BREWING INDUSTRY: AN EVENT STUDY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Heyder, Matthias; Ebneth, Oliver; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    Cross-border acquisitions have been the growing trend in recent years in the world brewing industry, giving brewers the opportunity to enhance their degree of internationalization and market share remarkably. This study employs event study analysis to examine 31 mergers and acquisitions among leading European brewing groups. Differences regarding financial market reactions can be determined within the European peer group. Managerial implications as well as future research propositions conclud...

  2. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study of bamboo waste treated by Echinodontium taxodii using a modified three-parallel-reactions model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Liu, Fang; Ke, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of pretreatment with Echinodontium taxodii on thermal decomposition characteristics and kinetics of bamboo wastes was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed fungal pretreatment can enhance the thermal degradation of bamboo. The negative effect of extractives in bamboo on the thermal decomposition can be decreased by the pretreatment. A modified three-parallel-reactions model based on isolated lignin was firstly proposed to study pyrolysis kinetics of bamboo lignocellulose. Kinetic analysis showed that with increasing pretreatment time fungal delignification was enhanced to transform the lignin component with high activation energy into that with low activation energy and raise the cellulose content in bamboo, making the thermal decomposition easier. These results demonstrated fungal pretreatment provided a potential way to improve thermal conversion efficiency of bamboo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stoichiometric network analysis and associated dimensionless kinetic equations. Application to a model of the Bray-Liebhafsky reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Guy; Kolar-Anić, Ljiljana Z; Anić, Slobodan R; Cupić, Zeljko D

    2008-12-25

    The stoichiometric network analysis (SNA) introduced by B. L. Clarke is applied to a simplified model of the complex oscillating Bray-Liebhafsky reaction under batch conditions, which was not examined by this method earlier. This powerful method for the analysis of steady-states stability is also used to transform the classical differential equations into dimensionless equations. This transformation is easy and leads to a form of the equations combining the advantages of classical dimensionless equations with the advantages of the SNA. The used dimensionless parameters have orders of magnitude given by the experimental information about concentrations and currents. This simplifies greatly the study of the slow manifold and shows which parameters are essential for controlling its shape and consequently have an important influence on the trajectories. The effectiveness of these equations is illustrated on two examples: the study of the bifurcations points and a simple sensitivity analysis, different from the classical one, more based on the chemistry of the studied system.

  4. Global gene analysis of oocytes from early stages in human folliculogenesis shows high expression of novel genes in reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markholt, Sara; Grøndahl, M L; Ernst, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The pool of primordial follicles in humans is laid down during embryonic development and follicles can remain dormant for prolonged intervals, often decades, until individual follicles resume growth. The mechanisms that induce growth and maturation of primordial follicles are poorly understood...... but follicles once activated either continue growth or undergo atresia. We have isolated pure populations of oocytes from human primordial, intermediate and primary follicles using laser capture micro-dissection microscopy and evaluated the global gene expression profiles by whole-genome microarray analysis......) and the mitochondrial-encoded ATPase6 (ATP6). Thus, the present study provides not only a technique to capture and perform transcriptome analysis of the sparse material of human oocytes from the earliest follicle stages but further includes a comprehensive basis for our understanding of the regulatory factors...

  5. Comprehensive Analysis of Oculocutaneous Albinism among Non-Hispanic Caucasians Shows that OCA1 Is the Most Prevalent OCA Type

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Saunie M.; Spritz, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by absent or reduced pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. In humans, four genes have been associated with “classical” OCA and another 12 genes with syndromic forms of OCA. To assess the prevalence of different forms of OCA and different gene mutations among non-Hispanic Caucasian patients, we performed DNA sequence analysis of the four genes associated with “classical” OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC...

  6. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows no association between the SNP rs1800469 in TGFB and late radiotherapy toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Gillian C.; Elliott, Rebecca M.; Alsner, Jan; Andreassen, Christian N.; Abdelhay, Osama; Burnet, Neil G.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coles, Charlotte E.; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Fuentes-Raspall, Maria J.; Alonso-Muñoz, Maria C.; Kerns, Sarah; Raabe, Annette; Symonds, R. Paul; Seibold, Petra; Talbot, Chris J.; Wenz, Frederik; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Yarnold, John; Dunning, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reported associations between risk of radiation-induced normal tissue injury and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TGFB1, encoding the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), remain controversial. To overcome publication bias, the international Radiogenomics Consortium collected and analysed individual patient level data from both published and unpublished studies. Materials and methods: TGFB1 SNP rs1800469 c.-1347T>C (previously known as C-509T) genotype, treatment-related data, and clinically-assessed fibrosis (measured at least 2 years after therapy) were available in 2782 participants from 11 cohorts. All received adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Associations between late fibrosis or overall toxicity, reported by STAT (Standardised Total Average Toxicity) score, and rs1800469 genotype were assessed. Results: No statistically significant associations between either fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype were observed with univariate or multivariate regression analysis. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), obtained from meta-analysis, for an increase in late fibrosis grade with each additional rare allele of rs1800469 was 0.98 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.85–1.11). This CI is sufficiently narrow to rule out any clinically relevant effect on toxicity risk in carriers vs. non-carriers with a high probability. Conclusion: This meta-analysis has not confirmed previous reports of association between fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype in breast cancer patients. It has demonstrated successful collaboration within the Radiogenomics Consortium.

  7. Measurement and analysis of reaction rate distributions of cores with spectrum shifter region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shigekazu; Shiroya, Seiji; Unesaki, Hironobu; Takeda, Toshikazu; Aizawa, Otohiko; Kanda, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    A study for the neutronic characteristics of the spectrum-controlled neutron irradiation fields using various reflector materials was performed. Spectrum shifter regions were constructed in the upper reflector region of the solid moderated core (B-Core) of the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). Beryllium, graphite and aluminum were selected as the loading materials for the spectrum shifter. Two tight-pitch lattice cores with different moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (V m /V f ) of 0.97 and 0.65 have been used. Axial reaction rate distributions of gold, nickel and indium wires were measured, and the spectrum index was defined as the Cd ratio of the gold wire and the ratio of gold reaction rate to nickel reaction rate. Using the conventional design calculation procedure, the experimental and calculated reaction rate and spectrum index show several disagreements. Detailed treatment of the neutron streaming effect, heterogeneous cell structure and depression factor are shown to be necessary for improving the agreement between experimental and calculated values. (author)

  8. Isolation and expression analysis of EcbZIP17 from different finger millet genotypes shows conserved nature of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopperla, Ramakrishna; Singh, Sonam; Mohanty, Sasmita; Reddy, Nanja; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2017-10-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise one of the largest gene families in plants. They play a key role in almost every aspect of plant growth and development and also in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we report isolation and characterization of EcbZIP17 , a group B bZIP transcription factor from a climate smart cereal, finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L.). The genomic sequence of EcbZIP17 is 2662 bp long encompassing two exons and one intron with ORF of 1722 bp and peptide length of 573 aa. This gene is homologous to AtbZIP17 ( Arabidopsis ), ZmbZIP17 (maize) and OsbZIP60 (rice) which play a key role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. In silico analysis confirmed the presence of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and transmembrane (TM) domains in the EcbZIP17 protein. Allele mining of this gene in 16 different genotypes by Sanger sequencing revealed no variation in nucleotide sequence, including the 618 bp long intron. Expression analysis of EcbZIP17 under heat stress exhibited similar pattern of expression in all the genotypes across time intervals with highest upregulation after 4 h. The present study established the conserved nature of EcbZIP17 at nucleotide and expression level.

  9. Gas Chromatographic-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds by Ion-Molecule Reactions Using the Electron-Deficient Reagent Ion CCl{3/+}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Su, Yue; Wang, Hao-Yang; Guo, Yin-Long

    2011-10-01

    When using tetrachloromethane as the reagent gas in gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry equipped with hybrid ionization source, the cation CCl{3/+} was generated in high abundance and further gas-phase experiments showed that such an electron-deficient reagent ion CCl{3/+} could undergo interesting ion-molecule reactions with various volatile organic compounds, which not only present some informative gas-phase reactions, but also facilitate qualitative analysis of diverse volatile compounds by providing unique mass spectral data that are characteristic of particular chemical structures. The ion-molecule reactions of the reagent ion CCl{3/+} with different types of compounds were studied, and results showed that such reactions could give rise to structurally diagnostic ions, such as [M + CCl3 - HCl]+ for aromatic hydrocarbons, [M - OH]+ for saturated cyclic ether, ketone, and alcoholic compounds, [M - H]+ ion for monoterpenes, M·+ for sesquiterpenes, [M - CH3CO]+ for esters, as well as the further fragment ions. The mechanisms of ion-molecule reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic ketones and alcoholic compounds with the reagent ion CCl{3/+} were investigated and proposed according to the information provided by MS/MS experiments and theoretical calculations. Then, this method was applied to study volatile organic compounds in Dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum and 20 compounds, including monoterpenes and their oxygen-containing derivatives, aromatic hydrocarbon and sesquiterpenes were identified using such ion-molecule reactions. This study offers a perspective and an alternative tool for the analysis and identification of various volatile compounds.

  10. Simultaneous Nuclear Reaction Analysis of Boron and Phosphorus in Thin Borophosphosilicate Glass Films Using (α,p) Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    A method combining (α,p) NRA and ellipsometry has been developed for measuring the Boron and Phosphorus content of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) used for interlevel dielectrics in integrated circuits. Yields from the 31 P(α,p 0 ) 34 S (Q = 0.63 MeV) and 10 B(α,p 0 ) 13 C (Q = 4.06 MeV) reactions are coupled with ellipsometry thickness measurements to calculate the average atomic percent of B and P in the film. Due to the relatively low Q value of the 31 P(α,p 0 ) 34 S reaction and the thickness range of the glass films (le 1.2 micrometers) they analyze, fairly high energy alpha particles, and Mylar range foils on the detector are required. Alpha energy, detector angle and range foil thickness were determined by reaction yields and the need to separate the yield peaks of interest from competing (α,p) reactions and backscattered alphas. They have determined that 6.0 MeV incident alphas with a detector angle of 135degree and about 100 micrometers of Mylar range foil are optimum for the system. The yield for the 10 B(α,p 0 ) 13 C reaction is quite constant in the energy range of interest (approximately 5.8 to 6 MeV) but the yield for the 31 P(α,p 0 ) 34 S is not. Consequently, a simple conversion from standard BPSG reference samples (independently quantified by ICP mass spectrometry) is adequate to calculate a film's %B content. The %P calculation is more complex, involving a three-dimensional fit of the P yield data and measured film thickness to the film %P content. This fit is based upon yield data from a matrix of standard film samples. The technique is sensitive to 0.1% with an accuracy of ±3 to ±10% depending on the sample. This measurement method is used routinely at Sandia National Laboratories in support of their fabrication process lines

  11. Prediction of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Reaction Wheel Assembly Angular Momentum Using Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, Russell

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the feasibility of creating a tool that can accurately predict Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) reaction wheel assembly (RWA) angular momentum, weeks or even months into the future. LRO is a three-axis stabilized spacecraft that was launched on June 18, 2009. While typically nadir-pointing, LRO conducts many types of slews to enable novel science collection. Momentum unloads have historically been performed approximately once every two weeks with the goal of maintaining system total angular momentum below 70 Nms; however flight experience shows the models developed before launch are overly conservative, with many momentum unloads being performed before system angular momentum surpasses 50 Nms. A more accurate model of RWA angular momentum growth would improve momentum unload scheduling and decrease the frequency of these unloads. Since some LRO instruments must be deactivated during momentum unloads and in the case of one instrument, decontaminated for 24 hours there after a decrease in the frequency of unloads increases science collection. This study develops a new model to predict LRO RWA angular momentum. Regression analysis of data from October 2014 to October 2015 was used to develop relationships between solar beta angle, slew specifications, and RWA angular momentum growth. The resulting model predicts RWA angular momentum using input solar beta angle and mission schedule data. This model was used to predict RWA angular momentum from October 2013 to October 2014. Predictions agree well with telemetry; of the 23 momentum unloads performed from October 2013 to October 2014, the mean and median magnitude of the RWA total angular momentum prediction error at the time of the momentum unloads were 3.7 and 2.7 Nms, respectively. The magnitude of the largest RWA total angular momentum prediction error was 10.6 Nms. Development of a tool that uses the models presented herein is currently underway.

  12. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara David R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen

  13. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, David R; Champigny, Marc J; Tattersall, Ashley; Dedrick, Jeff; Wong, Chui E; Li, Yong; Labbe, Aurelie; Ping, Chien-Lu; Wang, Yanxiang; Nuin, Paulo; Golding, G Brian; McCarry, Brian E; Summers, Peter S; Moffatt, Barbara A; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen media suggests that Thellungiella shows

  14. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen media suggests that

  15. Quantitative Analysis of the Contributing Factors Affecting Specialty Care No-Show Rates at Brooke Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    PHYSICAL THERAPY ,TMC 53 9 14.52% AUDIOLOGY,BAMC 133 22 14.19% OPHTH PEDS,BAMC 28 4 12.50% OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ,BAMC 135 18 11.76% ALLERGY CLINIC,BAMC...for physical therapy and have a total of 4 appointments set up with that clinic. For this study, only the first referral was counted and not the follow...Nephrology. Some of the other low no-show rate clinics were: Pain Management (1.27%), Endocrinology (1.52%), General Surgery (1.83%), Rheumatology (1.89

  16. Humidity independent mass spectrometry for gas phase chemical analysis via ambient proton transfer reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Huang, Guangming

    2015-03-31

    In this work, a humidity independent mass spectrometric method was developed for rapid analysis of gas phase chemicals. This method is based upon ambient proton transfer reaction between gas phase chemicals and charged water droplets, in a reaction chamber with nearly saturate humidity under atmospheric pressure. The humidity independent nature enables direct and rapid analysis of raw gas phase samples, avoiding time- and sample-consuming sample pretreatments in conventional mass spectrometry methods to control sample humidity. Acetone, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene were used to evaluate the analytical performance of present method. The limits of detection for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene are in the range of ∼0.1 to ∼0.3 ppbV; that of benzene is well below the present European Union permissible exposure limit for benzene vapor (5 μg m(-3), ∼1.44 ppbV), with linear ranges of approximately two orders of magnitude. The majority of the homemade device contains a stainless steel tube as reaction chamber and an ultrasonic humidifier as the source of charged water droplets, which makes this cheap device easy to assemble and facile to operate. In addition, potential application of this method was illustrated by the real time identification of raw gas phase chemicals released from plants at different physiological stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting points of Na and NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of sodium monoxide (Na 2 O) generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na 2 O generation at the secondary overall reaction should be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  18. Analysis of the effects of reaction parameters upon the molecular weight of an aromatic poly(hydrazide) through experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Dominique; Pinto, Jose Carlos; Borges, Cristiano P.; Nunes, Suzana P.

    2001-01-01

    Samples of an aromatic poly(hydrazide) were synthesized through low temperature solution polycondensation reactions. Monomers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and thermal analysis. The polymer material was characterized by intrinsic viscosity measurements and by NMR. The thermal behavior of the polymer samples was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of various factors that influence the course of the polymerization reaction, such as concentration of monomer and electrolyte (LiCl) in the reaction medium, purity of the monomers, reaction temperature and reaction time, were investigated. Reaction conditions were then optimized in order to allow the preparation of high molecular weight polymer resins. Values of intrinsic viscosity obtained for the poly(hydrazide) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone were as high as 1.51 dL/g. (author)

  19. Analysis of the fuel influence in obtaining HAp by combustion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.L.; Leite, A.M.D.; Viana, K.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications has led to investigation of the calcium phosphate bioceramics, and in particular hydroxyapatite (HAp), being a material similar to bone tissue, with excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconduction, enabling bone regeneration which allows the use at implants and prostheses. The synthesis of the nanometric HAp by combustion reaction enables obtaining the nanometric HAp with a more similar structure biological apatite as possible. This work aims to synthesize HAp by combustion reaction using two different routes of synthesis, first, using urea as fuel and the second using glycine, after this, evaluate the influence of fuels used in the microstructure of the hydroxyapatite obtained. The HAp obtained was characterized by: XRD, FTIR and SEM. Through analysis of the results, there is the synthesis conditions used that glycine has performed more favorable to obtaining HAp. (author)

  20. Meta-Analysis of Quantification Methods Shows that Archaea and Bacteria Have Similar Abundances in the Subseafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Megan K.; Kevorkian, Richard T.; Steen, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    There is no universally accepted method to quantify bacteria and archaea in seawater and marine sediments, and different methods have produced conflicting results with the same samples. To identify best practices, we compiled data from 65 studies, plus our own measurements, in which bacteria and archaea were quantified with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition FISH (CARD-FISH), polyribonucleotide FISH, or quantitative PCR (qPCR). To estimate efficiency, we defined “yield” to be the sum of bacteria and archaea counted by these techniques divided by the total number of cells. In seawater, the yield was high (median, 71%) and was similar for FISH, CARD-FISH, and polyribonucleotide FISH. In sediments, only measurements by CARD-FISH in which archaeal cells were permeabilized with proteinase K showed high yields (median, 84%). Therefore, the majority of cells in both environments appear to be alive, since they contain intact ribosomes. In sediments, the sum of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene qPCR counts was not closely related to cell counts, even after accounting for variations in copy numbers per genome. However, qPCR measurements were precise relative to other qPCR measurements made on the same samples. qPCR is therefore a reliable relative quantification method. Inconsistent results for the relative abundance of bacteria versus archaea in deep subsurface sediments were resolved by the removal of CARD-FISH measurements in which lysozyme was used to permeabilize archaeal cells and qPCR measurements which used ARCH516 as an archaeal primer or TaqMan probe. Data from best-practice methods showed that archaea and bacteria decreased as the depth in seawater and marine sediments increased, although archaea decreased more slowly. PMID:24096423

  1. Comprehensive analysis of oculocutaneous albinism among non-Hispanic caucasians shows that OCA1 is the most prevalent OCA type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Saunie M; Spritz, Richard A

    2008-10-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by absent or reduced pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. In humans, four genes have been associated with "classical" OCA and another 12 genes with syndromic forms of OCA. To assess the prevalence of different forms of OCA and different gene mutations among non-Hispanic Caucasian patients, we performed DNA sequence analysis of the four genes associated with "classical" OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC45A2), the two principal genes associated with syndromic OCA (HPS1, HPS4), and a candidate OCA gene (SILV), in 121 unrelated, unselected non-Hispanic/Latino Caucasian patients carrying the clinical diagnosis of OCA. We identified apparent pathologic TYR gene mutations in 69% of patients, OCA2 mutations in 18%, SLC45A2 mutations in 6%, and no apparent pathological mutations in 7% of patients. We found no mutations of TYRP1, HPS1, HPS4, or SILV in any patients. Although we observed a diversity of mutations for each gene, a relatively small number of different mutant alleles account for a majority of the total. This study demonstrates that, contrary to long-held clinical lore, OCA1, not OCA2, is by far the most frequent cause of OCA among Caucasian patients.

  2. Anatomical Network Analysis Shows Decoupling of Modular Lability and Complexity in the Evolution of the Primate Skull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Boughner, Julia C.; Diogo, Rui; Villmoare, Brian A.; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Modularity and complexity go hand in hand in the evolution of the skull of primates. Because analyses of these two parameters often use different approaches, we do not know yet how modularity evolves within, or as a consequence of, an also-evolving complex organization. Here we use a novel network theory-based approach (Anatomical Network Analysis) to assess how the organization of skull bones constrains the co-evolution of modularity and complexity among primates. We used the pattern of bone contacts modeled as networks to identify connectivity modules and quantify morphological complexity. We analyzed whether modularity and complexity evolved coordinately in the skull of primates. Specifically, we tested Herbert Simon’s general theory of near-decomposability, which states that modularity promotes the evolution of complexity. We found that the skulls of extant primates divide into one conserved cranial module and up to three labile facial modules, whose composition varies among primates. Despite changes in modularity, statistical analyses reject a positive feedback between modularity and complexity. Our results suggest a decoupling of complexity and modularity that translates to varying levels of constraint on the morphological evolvability of the primate skull. This study has methodological and conceptual implications for grasping the constraints that underlie the developmental and functional integration of the skull of humans and other primates. PMID:25992690

  3. A sensitivity analysis method for the body segment inertial parameters based on ground reaction and joint moment regressor matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamure, Sumire; Bonnet, Vincent; Dumas, Raphael; Venture, Gentiane

    2017-11-07

    This paper presents a method allowing a simple and efficient sensitivity analysis of dynamics parameters of complex whole-body human model. The proposed method is based on the ground reaction and joint moment regressor matrices, developed initially in robotics system identification theory, and involved in the equations of motion of the human body. The regressor matrices are linear relatively to the segment inertial parameters allowing us to use simple sensitivity analysis methods. The sensitivity analysis method was applied over gait dynamics and kinematics data of nine subjects and with a 15 segments 3D model of the locomotor apparatus. According to the proposed sensitivity indices, 76 segments inertial parameters out the 150 of the mechanical model were considered as not influent for gait. The main findings were that the segment masses were influent and that, at the exception of the trunk, moment of inertia were not influent for the computation of the ground reaction forces and moments and the joint moments. The same method also shows numerically that at least 90% of the lower-limb joint moments during the stance phase can be estimated only from a force-plate and kinematics data without knowing any of the segment inertial parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural analysis of CuO / CeO2-based catalytic materials intended for PROX reaction: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiva, L.S.; Simoes, A.N.; Bispo, A.; Ribeiro, M.A.; Gama, L.

    2011-01-01

    This work relates the synthesis process of CuO/CeO 2 catalytic materials by a combustion reaction method as well as it introduces a structural analysis of the developed material, this structural analysis had as main focus to evaluate the influence of the doping substance (CuO) when being incorporated in the hostess matrix structure that is CeO 2 . The CuO/CeO catalytic materials developed in this work are destined to preferential oxidation of CO reaction (PROX). The developed materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and textural complete analysis by the BET method. According to the results, the CuO incorporation changed crystallinity of the structure of the catalytic materials. On the other hand, the morphologic and textural characteristics did not showed significant differences regarding the presence of the doping substance (CuO) in the structure of the developed materials. The porosity of the structures of the developed catalytic materials belongs to the type macroporous. (author)

  5. Prediction of Support Reaction Forces of ITA via Response Spectrum Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jin Sung; Jeong, Joon Ho; Lee, Sang Jin; Oh, Jin Ho; Lee, Jong Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The irradiation targets are transferred along pipes between TTS (Target Transfer Station) and ITA (Irradiation Tube Assembly) by hydraulic forces. The ITA corresponds to the vertical guide tube for irradiation targets inside a reactor, and it penetrates the reactor structure. Because the ITA is classified into seismic category II, its structural integrity must be evaluated by the seismic analysis. To approach more realistic problem, the interaction between the ITA and the reactor structure must be considered. However, this paper is focused on the preliminary analysis, and it is simplified that only the response of the ITA caused by earthquake affects the reactor structure. The response of the ITA is predicted by the spectrum response analysis based on the FDRS (Floor Design Response Spectra) of KJRR. Finally, the reaction forces corresponding to the load transfer into the reactor structure are estimated by using ANSYS. In this study, the reaction forces due to the earthquake are estimated by the response spectrum analysis. For the saving computational time and resource required, the FE model with beam element is constructed, and it is confirmed that the accuracy of the solution is acceptable by comparing the results of the solid model.

  6. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  7. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of ‘modern’ and Neanderthal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M1s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M1s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M1 occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M1s. PMID:23914934

  8. Meta-analysis shows similar re-bleeding rates among Western and Eastern populations after index video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziatzios, Georgios; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Hassan, Cesare; Toth, Ervin; Zullo, Angelo; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2018-03-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the first-line diagnostic procedure for investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Different re-bleeding rates following index VCE have been reported among Western and Eastern studies. We conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify studies examining re-bleeding rates after VCE for OGIB. Meta-analysis assessed the pooled proportion of re-bleeding events after VCE for OGIB according to study's origin (Western vs. Eastern) and according to the length of follow-up (≥24 months vs. Western and 16 Eastern) studies with 5796 patients. Significant heterogeneity was detected among meta-analyzed studies. Overall, the pooled re-bleeding rate was similar between Western (29%; 95% CI: 23-34) and Eastern (21%; 95% CI: 15-27) populations, irrespective of the length of follow-up. The odds of re-bleeding was significantly higher after positive as compared to negative index VCE in Eastern studies (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.94). Application of specific treatment after positive index VCE was associated with lower re-bleeding odds in both Western (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.16-0.87) and Eastern (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.21-0.72) populations. Patients undergoing VCE for OGIB have similar re-bleeding rates in the East and the West, regardless of the length of follow-up. However, increased re-bleeding odds after positive index VCE is observed in Eastern studies. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lab-on-a-chip based total-phosphorus analysis device utilizing a photocatalytic reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong Geon; Jung, Daewoong; Kong, Seong Ho

    2018-02-01

    A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for total phosphorus (TP) analysis was fabricated for water quality monitoring. Many commercially available TP analysis systems used to estimate water quality have good sensitivity and accuracy. However, these systems also have many disadvantages such as bulky size, complex pretreatment processes, and high cost, which limit their application. In particular, conventional TP analysis systems require an indispensable pretreatment step, in which the fluidic analyte is heated to 120 °C for 30 min to release the dissolved phosphate, because many phosphates are soluble in water at a standard temperature and pressure. In addition, this pretreatment process requires elevated pressures of up to 1.1 kg cm-2 in order to prevent the evaporation of the heated analyte. Because of these limiting conditions required by the pretreatment processes used in conventional systems, it is difficult to miniaturize TP analysis systems. In this study, we employed a photocatalytic reaction in the pretreatment process. The reaction was carried out by illuminating a photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface formed in a microfluidic channel with ultraviolet (UV) light. This pretreatment process does not require elevated temperatures and pressures. By applying this simplified, photocatalytic-reaction-based pretreatment process to a TP analysis system, greater degrees of freedom are conferred to the design and fabrication of LOC devices for TP monitoring. The fabricated LOC device presented in this paper was characterized by measuring the TP concentration of an unknown sample, and comparing the results with those measured by a conventional TP analysis system. The TP concentrations of the unknown sample measured by the proposed LOC device and the conventional TP analysis system were 0.018 mgP/25 mL and 0.019 mgP/25 mL, respectively. The experimental results revealed that the proposed LOC device had a performance comparable to the conventional bulky TP analysis

  10. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  11. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of Ox1r-/- mice showed implication of orexin receptor-1 in mood, anxiety and social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Golam Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r-/- mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r-/- mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behaviour and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety.

  12. An actuarial analysis shows that offering lung cancer screening as an insurance benefit would save lives at relatively low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.

  13. Transcriptome analysis shows activation of the arginine deiminase pathway in Lactococcus lactis as a response to ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Lorena; Solopova, Ana; Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; González, Miriam; Tenorio, Carmen; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2017-09-18

    This paper describes the molecular response of Lactococcus lactis NZ9700 to ethanol. This strain is a well-known nisin producer and a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) model strain. Global transcriptome profiling using DNA microarrays demonstrated a bacterial adaptive response to the presence of 2% ethanol in the culture broth and differential expression of 67 genes. The highest up-regulation was detected for those genes involved in arginine degradation through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway (20-40 fold up-regulation). The metabolic responses to ethanol of wild type L. lactis strains were studied and compared to those of regulator-deletion mutants MG∆argR and MG∆ahrC. The results showed that in the presence of 2% ethanol those strains with an active ADI pathway reached higher growth rates when arginine was available in the culture broth than in absence of arginine. In a chemically defined medium strains with an active ADI pathway consumed arginine and produced ornithine in the presence of 2% ethanol, hence corroborating that arginine catabolism is involved in the bacterial response to ethanol. This is the first study of the L. lactis response to ethanol stress to demonstrate the relevance of arginine catabolism for bacterial adaptation and survival in an ethanol containing medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis for mass distribution of proton-induced reactions in intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao Yu Heng

    2002-01-01

    The mass and charge distribution of residual products produced in the spallation reactions needs to be studied, because it can provide useful information for the disposal of nuclear waste and residual radioactivity generated by the spallation neutron target system. In present work, the Many State Dynamical Model (MSDM) is based on the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM). The authors use it to investigate the mass distribution of Nb, Au and Pb proton-induced reactions in energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. The agreement between the MSDM simulations and the measured data is good in this energy range, and deviations mainly show up in the mass range of 90 - 150 for the high energy proton incident upon Au and Pb

  15. An analysis of ZEEP reaction rate measurements using the iterative five group scheme of METHUSELAH I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F R; Askew, J R [Technical Assessments and Services Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-02-15

    The five group iterative scheme of METHUSELAH I has been used to provide estimates of reaction rates for comparison with measurements in a number of loop experiments in ZEEP. Theory and experiment show good agreement for individual fission rate distributions and for the Pu-239/U-235 reaction rate ratios. Estimates of Lu/Mn ratios are in reasonable agreement with measurements in the H{sub 2}O cores, but become progressively less satisfactory as the D{sub 2}O content of the coolant is increased. It is concluded that for assessment calculations, the introduction of an iterative five group scheme improves the representation of thermal spectra in pressure tube reactor lattices. (author)

  16. Nonlinear electromechanical modelling and dynamical behavior analysis of a satellite reaction wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghalari, Alireza; Shahravi, Morteza

    2017-12-01

    The present research addresses the satellite reaction wheel (RW) nonlinear electromechanical coupling dynamics including dynamic eccentricity of brushless dc (BLDC) motor and gyroscopic effects, as well as dry friction of shaft-bearing joints (relative small slip) and bearing friction. In contrast to other studies, the rotational velocity of the flywheel is considered to be controllable, so it is possible to study the reaction wheel dynamical behavior in acceleration stages. The RW is modeled as a three-phases BLDC motor as well as flywheel with unbalances on a rigid shaft and flexible bearings. Improved Lagrangian dynamics for electromechanical systems is used to obtain the mathematical model of the system. The developed model can properly describe electromechanical nonlinear coupled dynamical behavior of the satellite RW. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  17. Compositional analysis of silicon nitride films on Si and GaAs by backscattering spectrometry and nuclear resonance reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Raju, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the application of proton and α-backscattering spectrometry for the determination of atomic ratio of Si to N in 1100-5000 A silicon nitride films on Si and GaAs. The conventional α-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry is suitable for the analysis of films on Si; it is rather inadequate for films on GaAs due to higher background from the substrate. It is shown that these films can be analysed by 14 N(α,α) 14 N scattering with 3.5 MeV α-particles. Proton elastic scattering with enhanced cross sections for 28 Si(p,p) 28 Si and 14 N(p,p) 14 N scatterings, is also suitable for analysing films on GaAs. However, the analysis of films on Si by this technique is difficult due to interferences between the signals of Si from the film and the substrate. In addition, the hydrogen content in films is determined by 1 H( 19 F,αγ) 16 O nuclear reaction analysis using the resonance at 6.4 MeV. The combination of backscattering spectrometry with nuclear reaction analysis provides compositional analysis of ternary Si 1-(x+y) N x H y films

  18. On the rejection-based algorithm for simulation and analysis of large-scale reaction networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Vo Hong, E-mail: vo@cosbi.eu [The Microsoft Research-University of Trento Centre for Computational and Systems Biology, Piazza Manifattura 1, Rovereto 38068 (Italy); Zunino, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.zunino@unitn.it [Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Priami, Corrado, E-mail: priami@cosbi.eu [The Microsoft Research-University of Trento Centre for Computational and Systems Biology, Piazza Manifattura 1, Rovereto 38068 (Italy); Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy)

    2015-06-28

    Stochastic simulation for in silico studies of large biochemical networks requires a great amount of computational time. We recently proposed a new exact simulation algorithm, called the rejection-based stochastic simulation algorithm (RSSA) [Thanh et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141(13), 134116 (2014)], to improve simulation performance by postponing and collapsing as much as possible the propensity updates. In this paper, we analyze the performance of this algorithm in detail, and improve it for simulating large-scale biochemical reaction networks. We also present a new algorithm, called simultaneous RSSA (SRSSA), which generates many independent trajectories simultaneously for the analysis of the biochemical behavior. SRSSA improves simulation performance by utilizing a single data structure across simulations to select reaction firings and forming trajectories. The memory requirement for building and storing the data structure is thus independent of the number of trajectories. The updating of the data structure when needed is performed collectively in a single operation across the simulations. The trajectories generated by SRSSA are exact and independent of each other by exploiting the rejection-based mechanism. We test our new improvement on real biological systems with a wide range of reaction networks to demonstrate its applicability and efficiency.

  19. SWAAM-LT: The long-term, sodium/water reaction analysis method computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Chung, H.H.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Tanabe, H.

    1993-01-01

    The SWAAM-LT Code, developed for analysis of long-term effects of sodium/water reactions, is discussed. The theoretical formulation of the code is described, including the introduction of system matrices for ease of computer programming as a general system code. Also, some typical results of the code predictions for available large scale tests are presented. Test data for the steam generator design with the cover-gas feature and without the cover-gas feature are available and analyzed. The capabilities and limitations of the code are then discussed in light of the comparison between the code prediction and the test data

  20. Numerical analysis of MHD Carreau fluid flow over a stretching cylinder with homogenous-heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imad; Ullah, Shafquat; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif

    2018-06-01

    The current analysis concentrates on the numerical solution of MHD Carreau fluid flow over a stretching cylinder under the influences of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Modelled non-linear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using suitable transformations. The resulting system of equations is solved with the aid of shooting algorithm supported by fifth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The impact of non-dimensional governing parameters on the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are comprehensively delineated with the help of graphs and tables.

  1. Two reactions method for accurate analysis by irradiation with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Sastri, C.S.; Valladon, M.; Borderie, B.; Debrun, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the average stopping power method the formula error itself was negligible but systematic errors could be introduced by the stopping power data used in this formula. A method directly derived from the average stopping power method, but based on the use of two nuclear reactions, is described here. This method has a negligible formula error and does not require the use of any stopping power or range data: accurate and 'self-consistent' analysis by irradiation with charged particles is then possible. (Auth.)

  2. Diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction analysis of skin biopsies in purpura fulminans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, Caroline; Vlassova, Natalia; Sarlangue, Jean; Brissaud, Olivier; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Boralevi, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Even though prompt diagnosis and treatment of purpura fulminans (PF) is essential to reduce mortality, early administration of antibiotics may preclude identification of the causative agent by standard bacterial cultures and thus render definitive diagnosis impossible. Here we present a case of an infant with PF and negative bacterial cultures for whom polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a cutaneous biopsy specimen obtained 4 days after initiation of antibiotics identified the genomic sequence of Neisseria meningitidis genogroup C. When bacterial cultures fail to provide useful information, PCR of skin biopsy specimens can be a valuable diagnostic tool in PF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Studies of photonuclear reactions and photon activation analysis in the giant dipole resonance region using microtrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duc Thiep; Nguyen Van Do; Nguyen Khac Thi; Truong Thi An; Nguyen Ngoc Son

    2004-01-01

    Microtrons are accelerators of electrons and are simultaneous source of Bremsstrahlung photon flux and fission neutrons. In 1982, a microtron of seventeen trajectories Microtron MT - 17 was put into operation at the National Institute of Physics of Vietnam. Though very modest, microtrons are very useful for developing countries such as Vietnam in both fundamental and applied physics research. During the recent years by using the above mentioned MT - 17 and microtrons from other institutes we have carried out different investigation. In this report we present some results obtained in the studies of photonuclear reactions and photon activation analysis in the giant dipole resonance region. (author)

  4. Clinical features of severe wasp sting patients with dominantly toxic reaction: analysis of 1091 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive wasp stings have been greatly underestimated and have not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and treatment strategies of severe wasp stings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multicenter retrospective study was undertaken in 35 hospitals and medical centers including 12 tertiary care hospitals and 23 secondary care hospitals in the Hubei Province, China. The detailed clinical data of 1091 hospitalized wasp sting patients were investigated. Over three-fourths (76.9% of the cases had 10 or more stings and the in-hospital mortality of patients was 5.1%. Forty-eight patients died of organ injury following toxic reactions to the stings, whereas six died from anaphylactic shock. The in-hospital mortality in patients with >10 stings was higher than that of ≤10 stings (5.2% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.02. Acute kidney injury (AKI was seen in 21.0% patients and most patients required blood purification therapy. Rhabdomyolysis was seen in 24.1% patients, hemolysis in 19.2% patients, liver injury in 30.1% patients, and coagulopathy in 22.5% patients. Regression analysis revealed that high creatinine level, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. Blood purification therapy was beneficial for patients with ≥20 stings and delayed hospital admission of patients (≥4 hours after sting. CONCLUSIONS: In China, most patients with multiple wasp stings presented with toxic reactions and multiple organ dysfunction caused by the venom rather than an anaphylactic reaction. AKI is the prominent clinical manifestation of wasp stings with toxic reaction. High creatinine levels, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death.

  5. Nuclear reaction analysis of hydrogen in amorphous silicon and silicon carbide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarc'h, A.; Le Contellec, M.; Richard, J.; Ligeon, E.; Fontenille, J.; Danielou, R.

    1980-01-01

    The 1 H( 11 B, α)αα nuclear reaction is used to determine the H content and the density of amorphous semiconductor Si 1 -sub(x)Csub(x)H 2 and SiHsub(z) thin films. Rutherford backscattering is used to determine the x values and infrared transmission to study the hydrogen bonds. We have observed a transfer or/and a release of hydrogen under bombardment by various ions and we show that this last effect must be taken into account for a correct determination of the hydrogen content. An attempt is made to correlate the hydrogen release with electronic and nuclear energy losses. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative and Selective Analysis of Feline Growth Related Proteins Using Parallel Reaction Monitoring High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten Sundberg

    Full Text Available Today immunoassays are widely used in veterinary medicine, but lack of species specific assays often necessitates the use of assays developed for human applications. Mass spectrometry (MS is an attractive alternative due to high specificity and versatility, allowing for species-independent analysis. Targeted MS-based quantification methods are valuable complements to large scale shotgun analysis. A method referred to as parallel reaction monitoring (PRM, implemented on Orbitrap MS, has lately been presented as an excellent alternative to more traditional selected reaction monitoring/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM methods. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF-system is not well described in the cat but there are indications of important differences between cats and humans. In feline medicine IGF-I is mainly analyzed for diagnosis of growth hormone disorders but also for research, while the other proteins in the IGF-system are not routinely analyzed within clinical practice. Here, a PRM method for quantification of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein (BP -3 and IGFBP-5 in feline serum is presented. Selective quantification was supported by the use of a newly launched internal standard named QPrEST™. Homology searches demonstrated the possibility to use this standard of human origin for quantification of the targeted feline proteins. Excellent quantitative sensitivity at the attomol/μL (pM level and selectivity were obtained. As the presented approach is very generic we show that high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with PRM and QPrEST™ internal standards is a versatile tool for protein quantitation across multispecies.

  7. Analysis of nuclear reaction products and materials; Preliminary treatment of uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo.

    1976-01-01

    Pre-treatment of samples is necessary to be done in order to achieve the efficient steps and accurate results of uranium analysis. The pre-treatment is particularly affected by the type of sample, the uranium concentration predicated in the sample, and the uranium analytical method which will be applied. A brief discussion about the pre-treatment of uranium analysis in the uranium ore processing and the reprocessing of spent fuel is given. (author)

  8. Compositional analysis of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) released by autolysis reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Wu, Sufeng; Ai, Chunqing; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Zhenjun; Cao, Chunyang; Yang, Jingfeng; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-07-15

    Autolysis is not only a major reason for postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber, but also a promising alternative for exogenous protease to produce peptides or polysaccharides. However, little has been known about the effects of autolysis on bioactive polysaccharides of sea cucumber. Concerning the quality and safety of sea cucumber products involved autolysis reaction, the present study focused on the chemical composition of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) released by autolysis reaction. Chemical analysis indicated that after 3-day autolysis 63% of sulfated polysaccharides were liberated but with protein chains at their reducing ends. Then the composition of SP obtained by autolysis (A-SP) was compared with that of total SPs (T-SP) via a series of analysis techniques, including FTIR, 1 H NMR, HPLC and mass spectroscopy. As indicated by the results, fucan to fucosylated chondroitin sulfate ratio was found high in A-SP compared to T-SP, fucan with a lower molecular weight was the major fraction in A-SP, and the di-sulfated Fuc residue observed in T-SP was absent in A-SP. To conclude, A-SP differed greatly from T-SP in the chemical composition, suggesting possible changes on their bioactivities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Applications of the photo-nuclear reaction data for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odsuren, M.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Turbold, A.; Davaa, S.; Baatarkhuu, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the relative method of activation analysis by continuum wide spectrum gamma-rays the same isotope is usually used for standard reference element and sample material in connection with different dependence of the reaction cross sections on the irradiation beam energy. But, in practice suitable isotopes for reference element are not always available. So, in this paper, we suggest a new method for photo-activation analysis in which is used the correction factor. This factor takes into account the difference in the photo-nuclear reaction cross section dependence on the gamma-ray energy for standard reference isotope and sample elements. The correction factor is determined by three methods of experimental, theoretical and TALYS evaluation. Pure metal foils of Au, Cu and Mo were irradiated by bremsstrahlung gamma-rays on the electron cyclic accelerator Microtron MT-22 at the Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia. Gamma spectra of the activated metal foils were measured by HP-Ge detector to obtain element contents in the samples. It was shown that experimental results with correction factors are satisfactorily in agreement with real values of the element contents in the samples

  10. Analysis of the potential geochemical reactions in the Enceladus' hydrothermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Cabañas, A. K.; Flandes, A.

    2017-12-01

    Enceladus is the sixth largest moon of Saturn and differs from its other moons, because of its cryovolcanic geysers that emanate from its south pole. The instruments of the Cassini spacecraft reveal different compounds in the gases and the dust of the geysers, such as salts (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and/or sodium carbonate), as well as silica traces (Postberg et al., 2008, 2009) that could be the result of a hydrothermal environment (Hsu et al., 2014, Sekine et al., 2014). By means of a thermodynamic analysis, we propose and evaluate potential geochemical reactions that could happen from the interaction between the nucleus surface and the inner ocean of Enceladus. These reactions may well lead to the origin of the compounds found in the geysers. From this analysis, we propose that, at least, two minerals must be present in the condritic nucleus of Enceladus: olivines (fayalite and fosterite) and feldspar (orthoclase and albite). Subsequently, taking as reference the hydrothermal processes that take place on Earth, we propose the different stages of a potential hydrothermal scenario for Enceladus.

  11. Product differentiation by analysis of DNA melting curves during the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ririe, K M; Rasmussen, R P; Wittwer, C T

    1997-02-15

    A microvolume fluorometer integrated with a thermal cycler was used to acquire DNA melting curves during polymerase chain reaction by fluorescence monitoring of the double-stranded DNA specific dye SYBR Green I. Plotting fluorescence as a function of temperature as the thermal cycler heats through the dissociation temperature of the product gives a DNA melting curve. The shape and position of this DNA melting curve are functions of the GC/AT ratio, length, and sequence and can be used to differentiate amplification products separated by less than 2 degrees C in melting temperature. Desired products can be distinguished from undesirable products, in many cases eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. Analysis of melting curves can extend the dynamic range of initial template quantification when amplification is monitored with double-stranded DNA specific dyes. Complete amplification and analysis of products can be performed in less than 15 min.

  12. A Micro Polymerase Chain Reaction Module for Integrated and Portable DNA Analysis Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Morganti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design, fabrication, and thermal characterization of a disposable miniaturized Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR module that will be integrated in a portable and fast DNA analysis system. It is composed of two independent parts: a silicon substrate with embedded heater and thermometers and a PDMS (PolyDiMethylSiloxane chamber reactor as disposable element; the contact between the two parts is assured by a mechanical clamping obtained using a Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC. This PLCC is also useful, avoid the PCR mix evaporation during the thermal cycles. Finite Element Analysis was used to evaluate the thermal requirements of the device. The thermal behaviour of the device was characterized revealing that the temperature can be controlled with a precision of ±0.5°C. Different concentrations of carbon nanopowder were mixed to the PDMS curing agent in order to increase the PDMS thermal conductivity and so the temperature control accuracy.

  13. Theoretical considerations of Flow Injection Analysis in the Absence of Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism of flow injection analysis (FIA) is assumed to be simple dissusion and the response of the detector is included in a model description that provide information about the shape of the FIA peak in terms of, basically, five parameters. Two of the five parameters are associa...... that any deviation from the features of the present model and the results of a tentative chemical reaction with one of the test compounds, is related to chemical kinetics.......The fundamental mechanism of flow injection analysis (FIA) is assumed to be simple dissusion and the response of the detector is included in a model description that provide information about the shape of the FIA peak in terms of, basically, five parameters. Two of the five parameters...

  14. Automatic simplification of systems of reaction-diffusion equations by a posteriori analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybank, Philip J; Whiteley, Jonathan P

    2014-02-01

    Many mathematical models in biology and physiology are represented by systems of nonlinear differential equations. In recent years these models have become increasingly complex in order to explain the enormous volume of data now available. A key role of modellers is to determine which components of the model have the greatest effect on a given observed behaviour. An approach for automatically fulfilling this role, based on a posteriori analysis, has recently been developed for nonlinear initial value ordinary differential equations [J.P. Whiteley, Model reduction using a posteriori analysis, Math. Biosci. 225 (2010) 44-52]. In this paper we extend this model reduction technique for application to both steady-state and time-dependent nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. Exemplar problems drawn from biology are used to demonstrate the applicability of the technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. α -induced reactions on 115In: Cross section measurements and statistical model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Mohr, P.; Török, Zs.; Huszánk, R.; Gyürky, Gy.; Fülöp, Zs.

    2018-05-01

    Background: α -nucleus optical potentials are basic ingredients of statistical model calculations used in nucleosynthesis simulations. While the nucleon+nucleus optical potential is fairly well known, for the α +nucleus optical potential several different parameter sets exist and large deviations, reaching sometimes even an order of magnitude, are found between the cross section predictions calculated using different parameter sets. Purpose: A measurement of the radiative α -capture and the α -induced reaction cross sections on the nucleus 115In at low energies allows a stringent test of statistical model predictions. Since experimental data are scarce in this mass region, this measurement can be an important input to test the global applicability of α +nucleus optical model potentials and further ingredients of the statistical model. Methods: The reaction cross sections were measured by means of the activation method. The produced activities were determined by off-line detection of the γ rays and characteristic x rays emitted during the electron capture decay of the produced Sb isotopes. The 115In(α ,γ )119Sb and 115In(α ,n )Sb118m reaction cross sections were measured between Ec .m .=8.83 and 15.58 MeV, and the 115In(α ,n )Sb118g reaction was studied between Ec .m .=11.10 and 15.58 MeV. The theoretical analysis was performed within the statistical model. Results: The simultaneous measurement of the (α ,γ ) and (α ,n ) cross sections allowed us to determine a best-fit combination of all parameters for the statistical model. The α +nucleus optical potential is identified as the most important input for the statistical model. The best fit is obtained for the new Atomki-V1 potential, and good reproduction of the experimental data is also achieved for the first version of the Demetriou potentials and the simple McFadden-Satchler potential. The nucleon optical potential, the γ -ray strength function, and the level density parametrization are also

  16. Application of Monte Carlo Methods to Perform Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis on Inverse Water-Rock Reactions with NETPATH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, David [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ronald L. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-06-01

    variation in source-water fraction between the deterministic and Monte Carlo approaches, and therefore, little variation in travel times between approaches. Sensitivity analysis proved very useful for identifying the most important input constraints (dissolved-ion concentrations), which can reveal the variables that have the most influence on source-water fractions and carbon-14 travel times. Once these variables are determined, more focused effort can be applied to determining the proper distribution for each constraint. Second, Monte Carlo results for water-rock reaction modeling showed discrete and nonunique results. The NETPATH models provide the solutions that satisfy the constraints of upgradient and downgradient water chemistry. There can exist multiple, discrete solutions for any scenario and these discrete solutions cause grouping of results. As a result, the variability in output may not easily be represented by a single distribution or a mean and variance and care should be taken in the interpretation and reporting of results.

  17. Derivation of the reduced reaction mechanisms of ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring by using concentration sensitivity analysis and principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ozone depletion events (ODEs in the springtime Arctic have been investigated since the 1980s. It is found that the depletion of ozone is highly associated with an auto-catalytic reaction cycle, which involves mostly the bromine-containing compounds. Moreover, bromide stored in various substrates in the Arctic such as the underlying surface covered by ice and snow can be also activated by the absorbed HOBr. Subsequently, this leads to an explosive increase of the bromine amount in the troposphere, which is called the “bromine explosion mechanism”. In the present study, a reaction scheme representing the chemistry of ozone depletion and halogen release is processed with two different mechanism reduction approaches, namely, the concentration sensitivity analysis and the principal component analysis. In the concentration sensitivity analysis, the interdependence of the mixing ratios of ozone and principal bromine species on the rate of each reaction in the ODE mechanism is identified. Furthermore, the most influential reactions in different time periods of ODEs are also revealed. By removing 11 reactions with the maximum absolute values of sensitivities lower than 10 %, a reduced reaction mechanism of ODEs is derived. The onsets of each time period of ODEs in simulations using the original reaction mechanism and the reduced reaction mechanism are identical while the maximum deviation of the mixing ratio of principal bromine species between different mechanisms is found to be less than 1 %. By performing the principal component analysis on an array of the sensitivity matrices, the dependence of a particular species concentration on a combination of the reaction rates in the mechanism is revealed. Redundant reactions are indicated by principal components corresponding to small eigenvalues and insignificant elements in principal components with large eigenvalues. Through this investigation, aside from the 11 reactions identified as

  18. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M; Vallerga, M B [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M R [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  19. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M. [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M.R. [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mdigiorg@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  20. Comparison of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods and platforms for single cell gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bridget C; Devonshire, Alison S; Baradez, Marc-Olivier; Marshall, Damian; Foy, Carole A

    2012-08-15

    Single cell gene expression analysis can provide insights into development and disease progression by profiling individual cellular responses as opposed to reporting the global average of a population. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the "gold standard" for the quantification of gene expression levels; however, the technical performance of kits and platforms aimed at single cell analysis has not been fully defined in terms of sensitivity and assay comparability. We compared three kits using purification columns (PicoPure) or direct lysis (CellsDirect and Cells-to-CT) combined with a one- or two-step RT-qPCR approach using dilutions of cells and RNA standards to the single cell level. Single cell-level messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis was possible using all three methods, although the precision, linearity, and effect of lysis buffer and cell background differed depending on the approach used. The impact of using a microfluidic qPCR platform versus a standard instrument was investigated for potential variability introduced by preamplification of template or scaling down of the qPCR to nanoliter volumes using laser-dissected single cell samples. The two approaches were found to be comparable. These studies show that accurate gene expression analysis is achievable at the single cell level and highlight the importance of well-validated experimental procedures for low-level mRNA analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Uranium analysis in urine by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejnik, John W. [Northern Michigan University, Chemistry Department, Marquette, MI (United States); Todorov, Todor I.; Mullick, Florabel G.; Centeno, Jose A. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Division of Biophysical Toxicology, Washington, DC (United States); Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A. [University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Urine uranium concentrations are the best biological indicator for identifying exposure to depleted uranium (DU). Internal exposure to DU causes an increased amount of urine uranium and a decreased ratio of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U in urine samples, resulting in measurements that vary between 0.00725 and 0.002 (i.e., natural and depleted uranium's {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios, respectively). A method based on inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS) was utilized to identify DU in urine by measuring the quantity of total U and the {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio. The quantitative analysis was achieved using {sup 233}U as an internal standard. The analysis was performed both with and without the reaction gas oxygen. The reaction gas converted ionized {sup 235}U{sup +} and {sup 238}U{sup +} into {sup 235}UO{sub 2}{sup +} (m/z=267) and {sup 238}UO{sub 2}{sup +} (m/z=270). This conversion was determined to be over 90% efficient. A polyatomic interference at m/z 234.8 was successfully removed from the {sup 235}U signal under either DRC operating conditions (with or without oxygen as a reaction gas). The method was validated with 15 urine samples of known uranium compositions. The method detection limit for quantification was determined to be 0.1 pg U mL{sup -1} urine and an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 1-2% within the sample measurements. The method detection limit for determining {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio was 3.0 pg U mL{sup -1} urine. An additional 21 patient samples were analyzed with no information about medical history. The measured {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio within the urine samples correctly identified the presence or absence of internal DU exposure in all 21 patients. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of the proton-induced reactions at 150 MeV - 24 GeV by high energy nuclear reaction code JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji; Nara, Yasushi; Takada, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    1999-09-01

    We are developing a nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI. NMTC/JAM implements the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the infra-nuclear cascade part. By using JAM, the upper limits of the incident energies in NMTC/JAERI, 3.5 GeV for nucleons and 2.5 GeV for mesons, are increased drastically up to several hundreds GeV. We have modified the original JAM code in order to estimate the residual nucleus and its excitation energy for nucleon or pion induced reactions by assuming a simple model for target nucleus. As a result, we have succeeded in lowering the applicable energies of JAM down to about 150 MeV. In this report, we describe the main components of JAM code, which should be implemented in NMTC/JAM, and compare the results calculated by JAM code with the experimental data and with those by LAHET2.7 code for proton induced reactions from 150 MeV to several 10 GeV. It has been found that the results of JAM can reproduce quite well the experimental double differential cross sections of neutrons and pions emitted from the proton induced reactions from 150 MeV to several 10 GeV. On the other hand, the results of LAHET2.7 show the strange behavior of the angular distribution of nucleons and pions from the reactions above 4 GeV. (author)

  3. Outcome of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in 100 suspected cases of infectious uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel Sitaula, Ranju; Janani, M K; Madhavan, H N; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2018-01-10

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is an important tool in the diagnosis of infectious uveitis. A retrospective, interventional study of PCR analysis of ocular fluid in suspected infectious uveitis cases between January 2014 to July 2016 was done. Nested, real-time and broad range PCR was performed for detection of the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes virus family, Chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, fungus, eubacterium and propionibacterium acne. Total of 100 cases included, mean age was 39.2 ± 15.4 years. Uveitis was unilateral in 82% and granulomatous in 40%. Mean visual acuity at the initial visit and final visit was 0.73 logMar and 0.63 logMar respectively. PCR analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 70.1% patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCR analysis was 90.2%, 93.9%, 93.9% and 90.2% respectively. The quantitative value of real-time M. tb. Positive PCR ranged from 32c/ml to 2722 c/ml. PCR assay is an accurate technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose the DNA genome in infectious uveitis.

  4. Vibratory Reaction Unit for the Rapid Analysis of Proteins and Glycochains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Sasakura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein digestion system using immobilized enzymes for protein identification and glycochain analyses has been developed, and a vibration reaction unit for micro-scale sample convection on an enzyme-immobilized solid surface was constructed. BSA as a model substrate was digested by this unit, and was successfully identified by mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Compared to the conventional liquid-phase digestion, the reaction unit increased the number of matched peptides from 9 to 26, protein score from 455 to 1247, and sequence coverage from 21% to 48%. Glycopeptidase F (NGF, an enzyme that cleaves N-glycans from glycoproteins, was also immobilized and used to remove the glycochains from human immunoglobulin G (IgG. Trypsin and NGF were immobilized on the same solid surface and used to remove glycochains from IgG in single-step. Glycochains were labeled with fluorescent reagent and analyzed by HPLC. Several peaks corresponding to the glycochains of IgG were detected. These results suggested that the single-step digestion system, by immobilized multiple enzymes (trypsin and NGF would be effective for the rapid structural analysis of glycoproteins.Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin; MS: mass spectrometry; NGF: glycopeptidase F; IgG: immunoglobulin G; PTM: post-translational modification; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; DTT: dithiothreitol; RT: retention time; ABOE: p-aminobenzoic acid octyl ester; PDMS: polydimethylsiloxane; ArgC: endoprotease Arginine C.

  5. Parallel replica dynamics method for bistable stochastic reaction networks: Simulation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Plecháč, Petr

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic reaction networks that exhibit bistable behavior are common in systems biology, materials science, and catalysis. Sampling of stationary distributions is crucial for understanding and characterizing the long-time dynamics of bistable stochastic dynamical systems. However, simulations are often hindered by the insufficient sampling of rare transitions between the two metastable regions. In this paper, we apply the parallel replica method for a continuous time Markov chain in order to improve sampling of the stationary distribution in bistable stochastic reaction networks. The proposed method uses parallel computing to accelerate the sampling of rare transitions. Furthermore, it can be combined with the path-space information bounds for parametric sensitivity analysis. With the proposed methodology, we study three bistable biological networks: the Schlögl model, the genetic switch network, and the enzymatic futile cycle network. We demonstrate the algorithmic speedup achieved in these numerical benchmarks. More significant acceleration is expected when multi-core or graphics processing unit computer architectures and programming tools such as CUDA are employed.

  6. Analysis of acoustic data from UK sodium/water reaction test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.; Mcknight, J.A.; Airey, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes acoustic measurements made during a number of sodium/water reaction experiments in the UK. The tests have included water and steam injections through both realistic (fatigue crack) defects and machined orifices and have covered a range of experimental conditions including those appropriate to the inlet and outlet regions of the EFR steam generators. Injection rates were typically in the range 0.1 to 30 g/s. Where possible, gas injections were also included in the test programme for comparison, since it is anticipated that a practical SGU acoustic leak detection system would include a facility for gas injections to allow system calibration, and to confirm transmission properties within the SGU. The test sections were instrumented with accelerometers on waveguides and in some cases included an under-sodium microphone situated about 300mm above the reaction zone. Tape recordings were made during the tests and used for detailed analysis off-line, although an audible output from one of the acoustic channels was used to monitor the progress of the injections and provide information for the rig operators. A comparison of the signal amplitudes measured during the experiments with typical reactor background noise was made and an estimate of the detection sensitivity of an acoustic monitoring system was deduced. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  7. Parallel replica dynamics method for bistable stochastic reaction networks: Simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Plecháč, Petr

    2017-12-21

    Stochastic reaction networks that exhibit bistable behavior are common in systems biology, materials science, and catalysis. Sampling of stationary distributions is crucial for understanding and characterizing the long-time dynamics of bistable stochastic dynamical systems. However, simulations are often hindered by the insufficient sampling of rare transitions between the two metastable regions. In this paper, we apply the parallel replica method for a continuous time Markov chain in order to improve sampling of the stationary distribution in bistable stochastic reaction networks. The proposed method uses parallel computing to accelerate the sampling of rare transitions. Furthermore, it can be combined with the path-space information bounds for parametric sensitivity analysis. With the proposed methodology, we study three bistable biological networks: the Schlögl model, the genetic switch network, and the enzymatic futile cycle network. We demonstrate the algorithmic speedup achieved in these numerical benchmarks. More significant acceleration is expected when multi-core or graphics processing unit computer architectures and programming tools such as CUDA are employed.

  8. Redox reaction characteristics of riboflavin: a fluorescence spectroelectrochemical analysis and density functional theory calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Lu, Rui; Qian, Chen; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Riboflavin (RF), the primary redox active component of flavin, is involved in many redox processes in biogeochemical systems. Despite of its wide distribution and important roles in environmental remediation, its redox behaviors and reaction mechanisms in hydrophobic sites remain unclear yet. In this study, spectroelectrochemical analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculation were integrated to explore the redox behaviors of RF in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was used to create a hydrophobic environment. Specifically, cyclic voltafluorometry (CVF) and derivative cyclic voltafluorometry (DCVF) were employed to track the RF concentration changing profiles. It was found that the reduction contained a series of proton-coupled electron transfers dependent of potential driving force. In addition to the electron transfer-chemical reaction-electron transfer process, a disproportionation (DISP1) process was also identified to be involved in the reduction. The redox potential and free energy of each step obtained from the DFT calculations further confirmed the mechanisms proposed based on the experimental results. The combination of experimental and theoretical approaches yields a deep insight into the characteristics of RF in environmental remediation and better understanding about the proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement and analysis of cross sections for (p,x) reactions on natural molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challan, M. B.; Comsan, M.N.H.; Abou-Zeid, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Excitation functions (EFs) for the reactions n atMo(p,x) 92m Nb, and n atMo(p,x) 94 , 95m , 95g , 96 m, +g , 99m Tc up to 18 MeV from threshold have been measured employing the stacked foil activation technique, and using high resolution HPGe gamma spectrometry. Utilizing the simultaneous measurement of the excitation function of n atCu(p,x) 62 Zn, n atCu(p,x) 63 Zn, n atCu(p,x) 65 Zn, and n atTi(p,x) 48 V monitor reactions. The theoretical analysis of the EFs has been done using both the semi-classical as well as quantum mechanical codes which include compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium (PE) emission into consideration. In general, theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data. Effect of various free parameters used in the calculations has also been discussed. A significant contribution of pre-equilibrium component has been observed at these energies

  10. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the chlorination of uranium oxide by gas-solid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.J.; Kim, I.S.; Shin, H.S.; Ro, S.G.; Park, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine the operating condition of an uranium chlorination process with U 3 O 8 -C-Cl 2 system, the experimental conditions have been evaluated preliminarily by the thermochemical analysis and experimentally confirmed in this study. The dry-type chlorination of U 3 O 8 occurs as irreversible and exothermic reaction and produces many kinds of chloride compounds such as UCl 3 , UCl 4 , UCl 5 , and UCl 6 in the air and humidity controlled argon environment. Taking account of Gibbs free energy and vapor pressure for various chloride compounds, the proper temperature range of chlorination appears to be 863 to 953 K in aspects of increasing reaction rate and the yield of nonvolatile product. In the course of the experimental confirmation the powder of U 3 O 8 is perfectly converted into uranium chlorides within 4 hours above 863 K, and then the maximum fraction of uranium chloride remaining in the reactor is about 30% of total conversion mass. (author)

  11. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Xia Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the air-staged combustion technology is one of the key technologies with low investment running costs and high emission reduction efficiency for the pulverized boiler, it is important to reveal the chemical reaction kinetics mechanism for developing various technologies of nitrogen oxide reduction emissions. At the present work, a three-dimensional mesh model of the large-scale four corner tangentially fired boiler furnace is established with the GAMBIT pre-processing of the FLUENT software. The partial turbulent premixed and diffusion flame was simulated for the air-staged combustion processing. Parameters distributions for the air-staged and no the air-staged were obtained, including in-furnace flow field, temperature field and nitrogen oxide concentration field. The results show that the air-staged has more regular velocity field, higher velocity of flue gas, higher turbulence intensity and more uniform temperature of flue gas. In addition, a lower negative pressure zone and lower O2 concentration zone is formed in the main combustion zone, which is conducive to the NO of fuel type reduced to N2, enhanced the effect of NOx reduction. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 5th November 2015; Revised: 14th January 2016; Accepted: 16th January 2016  How to Cite: Zhang, J.X., Zhang, J.F. (2016. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 100-108. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.431.100-108 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.431.100-108

  12. Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin analysis of 93Nb reactions: P→Q transitions and reduced importance of multistep compound emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    We have implemented multistep compound (MSC) and multistep direct (MSD) preequilibrium theories of Feshbach, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK) for the calculation of nucleon-induced reactions. Unlike most previous analyses, which have concentrated on just one of these multistep mechanisms, we consider both mechanisms as well as subsequent Hauser-Feshbach equilibrium emission, and describe the complete nucleon emission spectra and angular distributions quantum mechanically. We compare theoretical calculations of (n,n') and (n,p) reactions on 93 Nb at energies of 14, 20, and 25.7 MeV with experimental data. Our analysis suggests that the FKK theory should be modified to allow transitions from the MSD to MSC preequilibrium chains, and shows MSC processes to be less important than previously thought. We find that the MSD mechanism dominates preequilibrium emission even for incident neutron energies as low as 14 MeV. A model to account for preequilibrium flux cascading from the MSD to MSC chain is presented, and we check its validity with a least-squares fit to data which establishes the experimentally observed partitioning between MSD and MSC

  13. A mathematical analysis of Prx2-STAT3 disulfide exchange rate constants for a bimolecular reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Troy F; Deen, William M; Sikes, Hadley D

    2018-03-22

    Appreciation of peroxiredoxins as the major regulators of H 2 O 2 concentrations in human cells has led to a new understanding of redox signaling. In addition to their status as the primary reducers of H 2 O 2 to water, the oxidized peroxiredoxin byproduct of this reaction has recently been shown capable of participation in H 2 O 2 -mediated signaling pathways through disulfide exchange reactions with the transcription factor STAT3. The dynamics of peroxidase-transcription factor disulfide exchange reactions have not yet been considered in detail with respect to how these reactions fit into the larger network of competing reactions in human cells. In this study, we used a kinetic model of oxidation and reduction reactions related to H 2 O 2 metabolism in the cytosol of human cells to study the dynamics of peroxiredoxin-2 mediated oxidation of the redox-regulated transcription factor STAT3. In combination with previously reported experimental data, the model was used to estimate the rate coefficient of a biomolecular reaction between Prx2 and STAT3 for two sets of assumptions that constitute lower and upper bound cases. Using these estimates, we calculated the relative rates of the reaction of oxidized peroxiredoxin-2 and STAT3 and other competing reactions in the cytosol. These calculations revealed that peroxiredoxin-2-mediated oxidation of STAT3 likely occurs at a much slower rate than competing reactions in the cytosol. This analysis suggests the existence of more complex mechanisms, potentially involving currently unknown protein-protein recognition partners, which facilitate disulfide exchange reactions between peroxiredoxin-2 and STAT3. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MetaFluxNet: the management of metabolic reaction information and quantitative metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yup; Yun, Hongsoek; Park, Sunwon; Lee, Sang Yup

    2003-11-01

    MetaFluxNet is a program package for managing information on the metabolic reaction network and for quantitatively analyzing metabolic fluxes in an interactive and customized way. It allows users to interpret and examine metabolic behavior in response to genetic and/or environmental modifications. As a result, quantitative in silico simulations of metabolic pathways can be carried out to understand the metabolic status and to design the metabolic engineering strategies. The main features of the program include a well-developed model construction environment, user-friendly interface for metabolic flux analysis (MFA), comparative MFA of strains having different genotypes under various environmental conditions, and automated pathway layout creation. http://mbel.kaist.ac.kr/ A manual for MetaFluxNet is available as PDF file.

  15. Development of fast reactor containment safety analysis code, CONTAIN-LMR. (3) Improvement of sodium-concrete reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Doi, Daisuke; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    A computer code, CONTAIN-LMR, is an integrated analysis tool to predict the consequence of severe accident in a liquid metal fast reactor. Because a sodium-concrete reaction behavior is one of the most important phenomena in the accident, a Sodium-Limestone Concrete Ablation Model (SLAM) has been developed and installed into the original CONTAIN code at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the U.S. The SLAM treats chemical reaction kinetics between the sodium and the concrete compositions mechanistically using a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer (B/L) and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region, the application is limited to the reaction between sodium and limestone concrete. In order to apply SLAM to the reaction between sodium and siliceous concrete which is an ordinary structural concrete in Japan, the chemical reaction kinetics model has been improved to consider the new chemical reactions between sodium and silicon dioxide. The improved model was validated to analyze a series of sodium-concrete experiments which were conducted in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). It has been found that relatively good agreement between calculation and experimental results is obtained and the CONTAIN-LMR code has been validated with regard to the sodium-concrete reaction phenomena. (author)

  16. Self-propagating exothermic reaction analysis in Ti/Al reactive films using experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Seema, E-mail: seema.sen@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical University of Ilmenau, Department of Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Niederrhein University of Applied Science, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Lake, Markus; Kroppen, Norman; Farber, Peter; Wilden, Johannes [Niederrhein University of Applied Science, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Schaaf, Peter [Technical University of Ilmenau, Department of Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Development of nanoscale Ti/Al multilayer films with 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 molar ratios. • Characterization of exothermic reaction propagation by experiments and simulation. • The reaction velocity depends on the ignition potentials and molar ratios of the films. • Only 1Ti/3Al films exhibit the unsteady reaction propagation with ripple formation. • CFD simulation shows the time dependent atom mixing and temperature flow during exothermic reaction. - Abstract: This study describes the self-propagating exothermic reaction in Ti/Al reactive multilayer foils by using experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulation. The Ti/Al foils with different molar ratios of 1Ti/1Al, 1Ti/2Al and 1Ti/3Al were fabricated by magnetron sputtering method. Microstructural characteristics of the unreacted and reacted foils were analyzed by using electronic and atomic force microscopes. After an electrical ignition, the influence of ignition potentials on reaction propagation has been experimentally investigated. The reaction front propagates with a velocity of minimum 0.68 ± 0.4 m/s and maximum 2.57 ± 0.6 m/s depending on the input ignition potentials and the chemical compositions. Here, the 1Ti/3Al reactive foil exhibits both steady state and unsteady wavelike reaction propagation. Moreover, the numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation shows the time dependent temperature flow and atomic mixing in a nanoscale reaction zone. The CFD simulation also indicates the potentiality for simulating exothermic reaction in the nanoscale Ti/Al foil.

  17. Experimental investigation of solid sodium-water reaction: tests results and phenomenological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudin, K.; Beauchamp, F.; Proust, C.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium-Water Reaction (SWR) is an issue one has to be capable to deal with for the next generation of nuclear reactors (SFR for GEN IV). The background of these experiments is the improvement of safety demonstration regarding SWR in an open volume. This experimental campaign is conducted at the CEA Cadarache inside a cylindrical reactor filled with inert gas. The sodium is inside a loading pot and water comes into contact by immersion. SWR and its physical effects are followed by different pressure and temperature sensors. The results show a limit to the overpressure increasing sodium mass. Global assessment of physical effects of SWR contributes to put forward the relative nature of phenomena with geometric configuration, and the importance of scale effects. (authors)

  18. Possibility of analysis using RBS, PIXE and nuclear reaction on the electrostatic Pelletron accelerator 5SDH-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Nghia; Bui Van Loat; Le Hong Khiem

    2011-01-01

    The electrostatic Pelletron accelerator 5SDH-2 is installing at Hanoi University of Sciences. This accelerator will be the first tandem electrostatic accelerator installed in Vietnam. The schematic structure, principle of operation of the machine and its application for analysis using Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS), Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) will be presented. (author)

  19. Nondestructive analysis of alkali-silica reaction damage in concrete slabs using shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanovich, Lev; Freeseman, Katelyn; Salles, Lucio; Clayton, Dwight

    2018-04-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is the chemical reaction that occurs in concrete. It is caused by the interaction of alkalis in Portland cement and silica in aggregates and results in microcracks within the material. This type of damage has been the focus of nondestructive evaluation efforts in recent history, but no work was done on in-situ structures or large-scale samples. To address these limitations, an ultrasonic linear array device, MIRA, was utilized for this research. An experimental investigation was performed on four slabs with various levels of alkali-silica reaction at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) [1]. One-period impulses with a target of 50kHz center frequency were selected in this study. We propose the use of the Hilbert Transform Indicator (HTI) for quantification of ASR damage [2]. A higher HTI value would be indicative of damaged concrete, while a low value represents sound concrete. In general, values below 90 are regarded as an indicator of sound concrete while values above 100 indicate the presence of damage [3]. The ability of the HTI values to distinguish between areas of damaged concrete was evident via the production of color intensity maps. The maps show that the control specimen, was in good condition, while other slabs exhibited higher levels of damage as indicated by the HTI values. It should be noted that extreme damage conditions were not present in any of the slabs. Evaluation of migration-based reconstructions can give a qualitative characterization of large scale or excessive subsurface damage. However, for detection of stochastic damage mechanisms such as freeze-thaw damage, evaluation of the individual time-history data can provide additional information. A comparison of the spatially diverse measurements on several concrete slabs with varying freeze-thaw damage levels is given in this study. Signal characterization scans of different levels of freeze-thaw damage at various transducer spacing is investigated. The

  20. MALDI MS-based Composition Analysis of the Polymerization Reaction of Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) and Ethylene Glycol (EG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Lee, Yeon Jung; Kim, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an MS-based analysis method for monitoring changes in polymer composition during the polyaddition polymerization reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylene glycol (EG). The polymerization was monitored as a function of reaction time using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). The resulting series of polymer adducts terminated with various end-functional groups were precisely identified and the relative compositions of those series were estimated. A new MALDI MS data interpretation method was developed, consisting of a peak-resolving algorithm for overlapping peaks in MALDI MS spectra, a retrosynthetic analysis for the generation of reduced unit mass peaks, and a Gaussian fit-based selection of the most prominent polymer series among the reconstructed unit mass peaks. This method of data interpretation avoids errors originating from side reactions due to the presence of trace water in the reaction mixture or MALDI analysis. Quantitative changes in the relative compositions of the resulting polymer products were monitored as a function of reaction time. These results demonstrate that the mass data interpretation method described herein can be a powerful tool for estimating quantitative changes in the compositions of polymer products arising during a polymerization reaction.

  1. Automatic analysis and reduction of reaction mechanisms for complex fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel

    2001-05-01

    general, detailed calculations of temperature, pressure, concentration and flame velocity show excellent agreement with measurements. Skeletal mechanisms for PRF were constructed for the SI engine case, reproducing autoignition well on removal of reactions pertaining to 15% of the species. QSSA reduction was tested on the staged combustor and the engines, using pure and weighted lifetime indices. Monitoring NO concentrations in the staged combustor and ignition timing in the engines, good reproduction is possible while approximating about 70% of the species. However, some species have to be manually retained for accuracy and numerical stability. For improved ranking, sensitivity was added to the index applied to the premixed flames, in addition to necessary molecular transport information. The maximum atomic mass fraction occupied by a certain molecular species was also constrained to limit the mass and energy deficiency caused by QSSA. For methane, the laminar flame velocities as well as concentration profiles are well predicted by the most strongly reduced mechanism with five global reaction steps. For the kerosene surrogate mechanism, QSSA involving 50% of the species was successfully attempted.

  2. Analysis of a Mathematical Model of Lithium-Sulfur Cells Part III: Electrochemical Reaction Kinetics, Transport Properties and Charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaznavi, Mahmoudreza; Chen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The discharge behavior of Li-S cells in wide range of exchange current densities of electrochemical reactions is studied. • Among all reduction reactions, 1/2 S 8(l) +e − ⇌1/2 S 8 2− and 1/2 S 2 2− +e − ⇌2S 2− play the most important role in capacity performance. • Low diffusion increases the precipitation of polysulfides in separator which may block the anode surface. • Large solubility of Li 2 S is needed for the model to be able to simulate the charging process. - Abstract: Sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model of a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery was performed by investigating the response of the model to variation of the exchange current densities, diffusion coefficients, and cathode thickness over a wide range; the results of the analysis were used to explain the some aspects of the behavior of the system which may be seen in experiments. In particular, among all the exchange current densities, the exchange current density of the elemental sulfur reduction has the most significant effect on the discharge capacity of the cell. The variation of the diffusion coefficients was also analyzed, providing information on the non-uniformity of precipitants in the cell after discharge. An optimum cathode thickness was presented to gain the highest capacity of the cell. Finally, the simulation of charging was studied, showing that the model needs a large solubility product of di-lithium sulfide to be able to simulate the charge process of a cell

  3. Group Analysis of Free Convection Flow of a Magnetic Nanofluid with Chemical Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jashim Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics viscous incompressible free convective boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting, chemically reacting nanofluid from a convectively heated permeable vertical surface is presented. Scaling group of transformations is used in the governing equations and the boundary conditions to determine absolute invariants. A third-order ordinary differential equation which corresponds to momentum conservation and two second-order ordinary differential equations which correspond to energy and nanoparticle volume fraction (species conservation are derived. Our (group analysis indicates that, for the similarity solution, the convective heat transfer coefficient and mass transfer velocity are proportional to x-1/4 whilst the reaction rate is proportional to x-1/2, where x is the axial distance from the leading edge of the plate. The effects of the relevant controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction are examined. The accuracy of the technique we have used was tested by performing comparisons with the results of published work and the results were found to be in good agreement. The present computations indicate that the flow is accelerated and temperature enhanced whereas nanoparticle volume fractions are decreased with increasing order of chemical reaction. Furthermore the flow is strongly decelerated, whereas the nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature are enhanced with increasing magnetic field parameter. Increasing convection-conduction parameter increases velocity and temperatures but has a weak influence on nanoparticle volume fraction distribution. The present study demonstrates the thermal enhancement achieved with nanofluids and also magnetic fields and is of relevance to nanomaterials processing.

  4. Applications of computer simulation, nuclear reactions and elastic scattering to surface analysis of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco de Carvalho, J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article involves computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. Both the “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions and elastic scattering are used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. The method is successfully applied to thick flat targets of graphite, quartz and sapphire and targets containing thin films of aluminium oxide. Depth profiles of 12C and 16O nuclei are determined using (d,p and (d,α deuteron induced reactions. Rutherford and resonance elastic scattering of (4He+ ions are also used.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energia” para reacciones nucleares, así como el de difusión elástica. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan com datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Este método se aplica con éxito em muestras espesas y planas de grafito, cuarzo y zafiro y muestras conteniendo películas finas de óxido de aluminio. Se calculan perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 16O a través de reacciones (d,p y (d,α inducidas por deuterones. Se utiliza también la difusión elástica de iones (4He+, tanto a Rutherford como resonante.

  5. Reduction and Analysis of Low Temperature Shift Heterogeneous Catalyst for Water Gas Reaction in Ammonia Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain additional quantities of hydrogen after the reforming reactions of natural gas and protect the ammonia synthesis catalyst, it is crucial to achieve and maintain maximum possible activity, selectivity and stability of the low temperature shift catalyst for conversion of water gas reaction during its lifetime. Whereas the heterogeneous catalyst comes in oxidized form, it is of the utmost importance to conduct the reduction procedure properly. The proper reduction procedure and continuous analysis of its performance would ensure the required activity, selectivity and stability throughout the catalyst’s service time. For the proper reduction procedure ofthe low temperature shift catalyst, in addition to process equipment, also necessary is a reliable and realistic system for temperature measurements, which will be effective for monitoring the exothermal temperature curves through all catalyst bed layers. For efficiency evaluation of low shift temperature catalyst reduction and its optimization, it is necessary to determine at regular time intervals the temperature approach to equilibrium and temperature profiles of individual layers by means of "S" and "die off" temperature exothermal curves. Based on the obtained data, the optimum inlet temperature could be determined, in order to maximally extend the service life of the heterogeneous catalyst as much as possible, and achieve the optimum equilibrium for conversion of the water gas. This paper presents the methodology for in situ reduction of the low temperature shift heterogeneous catalyst and the developed system for monitoring its individual layers to achieve the minimum possible content of carbon monoxide at the exit of the reactor. The developed system for temperature monitoring through heterogeneous catalyst layers provides the proper procedure for reduction and adjustment of optimum process working conditions for the catalyst by the continuous increase of reactor inlet

  6. A moment-convergence method for stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Nie, Qing; Zhou, Tianshou

    2016-05-21

    Traditional moment-closure methods need to assume that high-order cumulants of a probability distribution approximate to zero. However, this strong assumption is not satisfied for many biochemical reaction networks. Here, we introduce convergent moments (defined in mathematics as the coefficients in the Taylor expansion of the probability-generating function at some point) to overcome this drawback of the moment-closure methods. As such, we develop a new analysis method for stochastic chemical kinetics. This method provides an accurate approximation for the master probability equation (MPE). In particular, the connection between low-order convergent moments and rate constants can be more easily derived in terms of explicit and analytical forms, allowing insights that would be difficult to obtain through direct simulation or manipulation of the MPE. In addition, it provides an accurate and efficient way to compute steady-state or transient probability distribution, avoiding the algorithmic difficulty associated with stiffness of the MPE due to large differences in sizes of rate constants. Applications of the method to several systems reveal nontrivial stochastic mechanisms of gene expression dynamics, e.g., intrinsic fluctuations can induce transient bimodality and amplify transient signals, and slow switching between promoter states can increase fluctuations in spatially heterogeneous signals. The overall approach has broad applications in modeling, analysis, and computation of complex biochemical networks with intrinsic noise.

  7. Hybrid Semantic Analysis for Mapping Adverse Drug Reaction Mentions in Tweets to Medical Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan; Sarker, Abeed; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    Social networks, such as Twitter, have become important sources for active monitoring of user-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Automatic extraction of ADR information can be crucial for healthcare providers, drug manufacturers, and consumers. However, because of the non-standard nature of social media language, automatically extracted ADR mentions need to be mapped to standard forms before they can be used by operational pharmacovigilance systems. We propose a modular natural language processing pipeline for mapping (normalizing) colloquial mentions of ADRs to their corresponding standardized identifiers. We seek to accomplish this task and enable customization of the pipeline so that distinct unlabeled free text resources can be incorporated to use the system for other normalization tasks. Our approach, which we call Hybrid Semantic Analysis (HSA), sequentially employs rule-based and semantic matching algorithms for mapping user-generated mentions to concept IDs in the Unified Medical Language System vocabulary. The semantic matching component of HSA is adaptive in nature and uses a regression model to combine various measures of semantic relatedness and resources to optimize normalization performance on the selected data source. On a publicly available corpus, our normalization method achieves 0.502 recall and 0.823 precision (F-measure: 0.624). Our proposed method outperforms a baseline based on latent semantic analysis and another that uses MetaMap.

  8. A moment-convergence method for stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiajun [School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Nie, Qing [Department of Mathematics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Zhou, Tianshou, E-mail: mcszhtsh@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Computational Science and School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2016-05-21

    Traditional moment-closure methods need to assume that high-order cumulants of a probability distribution approximate to zero. However, this strong assumption is not satisfied for many biochemical reaction networks. Here, we introduce convergent moments (defined in mathematics as the coefficients in the Taylor expansion of the probability-generating function at some point) to overcome this drawback of the moment-closure methods. As such, we develop a new analysis method for stochastic chemical kinetics. This method provides an accurate approximation for the master probability equation (MPE). In particular, the connection between low-order convergent moments and rate constants can be more easily derived in terms of explicit and analytical forms, allowing insights that would be difficult to obtain through direct simulation or manipulation of the MPE. In addition, it provides an accurate and efficient way to compute steady-state or transient probability distribution, avoiding the algorithmic difficulty associated with stiffness of the MPE due to large differences in sizes of rate constants. Applications of the method to several systems reveal nontrivial stochastic mechanisms of gene expression dynamics, e.g., intrinsic fluctuations can induce transient bimodality and amplify transient signals, and slow switching between promoter states can increase fluctuations in spatially heterogeneous signals. The overall approach has broad applications in modeling, analysis, and computation of complex biochemical networks with intrinsic noise.

  9. Scaling analysis in modeling transport and reaction processes a systematic approach to model building and the art of approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, William B

    2007-01-01

    This book is unique as the first effort to expound on the subject of systematic scaling analysis. Not written for a specific discipline, the book targets any reader interested in transport phenomena and reaction processes. The book is logically divided into chapters on the use of systematic scaling analysis in fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer, and reaction processes. An integrating chapter is included that considers more complex problems involving combined transport phenomena. Each chapter includes several problems that are explained in considerable detail. These are followed by several worked examples for which the general outline for the scaling is given. Each chapter also includes many practice problems. This book is based on recognizing the value of systematic scaling analysis as a pedagogical method for teaching transport and reaction processes and as a research tool for developing and solving models and in designing experiments. Thus, the book can serve as both a textbook and a reference boo...

  10. Numerical analysis for Darcy-Forchheimer flow in presence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz Khan

    Full Text Available A mathematical study is presented to investigate the influences of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions in local similar flow caused by stretching sheet with a non-linear velocity and variable thickness. Porous medium effects are characterized by using Darcy-Forchheimer porous-media. A simple isothermal model of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions is used. The multiphysical boundary value problem is dictated by ten thermophysical parameters: ratio of mass diffusion coefficients, Prandtl number, local inertia coefficient parameter, inverse Darcy number, shape parameter, surface thickness parameter, Hartman number, Homogeneous heat reaction, strength of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions and Schmidt number. Resulting systems are computed by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Different shapes of velocity are noticed for n > 1 and n < 1. Keywords: Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions, Non Darcy porous medium, Variable sheet thickness, Homogeneous heat reaction with stoichiometric coefficient, Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method

  11. #13ReasonsWhy Health Professionals and Educators are Tweeting: A Systematic Analysis of Uses and Perceptions of Show Content and Learning Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kimberly K; Burns, Kelli

    2018-04-27

    This study is a content analysis of health professionals' and educators' tweets about a popular Netflix show that depicts teen suicide: 13 Reasons Why. A content analysis of 740 tweets was conducted to determine the main themes associated with professionals' and educators' tweets about the show, as well as the valence of the tweets. Additionally, a thematic analysis of linked content in tweets (n = 178) was conducted to explore additional content shared about the show and modeling outcomes. Results indicated the largest percentage of tweets was related to social learning, particularly about outcomes that could occur from viewing the show. The valence of the tweets about outcomes was more positive than negative. However, linked materials commonly circulated in tweets signified greater concern with unintended learning outcomes. Some of the linked content included media guidelines for reporting on suicide with recommendations that entertainment producers follow the guidelines. This study emphasizes the importance of including social learning objectives in future typologies of Twitter uses and demonstrates the importance of examining linked content in Twitter studies.

  12. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Rion Brattig; Li, Lang; Rocha, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that Instagram

  13. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    CORREIA, RION BRATTIG; LI, LANG; ROCHA, LUIS M.

    2015-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this “Bibliome”, the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products—including cannabis—which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015. We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that

  14. Bifurcation analysis of a delay reaction-diffusion malware propagation model with feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhe; Zhao, Hongyong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-05-01

    With the rapid development of network information technology, information networks security has become a very critical issue in our work and daily life. This paper attempts to develop a delay reaction-diffusion model with a state feedback controller to describe the process of malware propagation in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs). By analyzing the stability and Hopf bifurcation, we show that the state feedback method can successfully be used to control unstable steady states or periodic oscillations. Moreover, formulas for determining the properties of the bifurcating periodic oscillations are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theorem. Finally, we conduct extensive simulations on large-scale MWSNs to evaluate the proposed model. Numerical evidences show that the linear term of the controller is enough to delay the onset of the Hopf bifurcation and the properties of the bifurcation can be regulated to achieve some desirable behaviors by choosing the appropriate higher terms of the controller. Furthermore, we obtain that the spatial-temporal dynamic characteristics of malware propagation are closely related to the rate constant for nodes leaving the infective class for recovered class and the mobile behavior of nodes.

  15. Automated selected reaction monitoring data analysis workflow for large-scale targeted proteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surinova, Silvia; Hüttenhain, Ruth; Chang, Ching-Yun; Espona, Lucia; Vitek, Olga; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-08-01

    Targeted proteomics based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry is commonly used for accurate and reproducible quantification of protein analytes in complex biological mixtures. Strictly hypothesis-driven, SRM assays quantify each targeted protein by collecting measurements on its peptide fragment ions, called transitions. To achieve sensitive and accurate quantitative results, experimental design and data analysis must consistently account for the variability of the quantified transitions. This consistency is especially important in large experiments, which increasingly require profiling up to hundreds of proteins over hundreds of samples. Here we describe a robust and automated workflow for the analysis of large quantitative SRM data sets that integrates data processing, statistical protein identification and quantification, and dissemination of the results. The integrated workflow combines three software tools: mProphet for peptide identification via probabilistic scoring; SRMstats for protein significance analysis with linear mixed-effect models; and PASSEL, a public repository for storage, retrieval and query of SRM data. The input requirements for the protocol are files with SRM traces in mzXML format, and a file with a list of transitions in a text tab-separated format. The protocol is especially suited for data with heavy isotope-labeled peptide internal standards. We demonstrate the protocol on a clinical data set in which the abundances of 35 biomarker candidates were profiled in 83 blood plasma samples of subjects with ovarian cancer or benign ovarian tumors. The time frame to realize the protocol is 1-2 weeks, depending on the number of replicates used in the experiment.

  16. Analysis of a Buchwald-Hartwig amination: reaction for pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik

    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction is widely used in the production of N-arylated amines in the pharmaceutical industry. The reaction is betweenan aryl halogen and a primary or secondary amine in the presence of a base and a homogeneous catalyst giving the desired N-arylated amine. Due to mild...... is to increase the understanding of the chem­ical reaction mechanisms and kinetics for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. Also, to develop methods for application of these mechanisms and kinetics to optimize and scale up an organic synthesis to an industrial phar­maceutical production. The Buchwald...

  17. Analysis of a Buckwald-Hartwig amination: reaction for pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction is widely used in the production of N-arylated amines in the pharmaceutical industry. The reaction is betweenan aryl halogen and a primary or secondary amine in the presence of a base and a homogeneous catalyst giving the desired N-arylated amine. Due to mild...... is to increase the understanding of the chem­ical reaction mechanisms and kinetics for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. Also, to develop methods for application of these mechanisms and kinetics to optimize and scale up an organic synthesis to an industrial phar­maceutical production. The Buchwald...

  18. Analysis of S gene mutation of the hepatitis B virus in adult liver transplant recipients showing resistance to hepatitis B immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G-C; Hwang, S; Ahn, C-S; Kim, K-H; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Song, G-W; Jung, D-H; Shin, Y W; Kim, S-H; Chang, K-H; Namgoong, J-M; Park, C-S; Park, H-W; Park, Y-H; Kang, S-H; Jung, B-H; Lee, S-G

    2013-10-01

    A considerable proportion of recipients of liver transplantations who are presented hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) monotherapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prophylaxis develop HBIG resistance. In this study, we investigated the mutation patterns in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of amino acid sequences 100 to 160. Using the gene sequence analyzer for amino acid sequences 0 to 226 in the S/pre-S region we analyzed blood samples of 15 patients showing HBIG resistance after high-dose HBIG prophylaxis. Various mutations in the MHR were observed in 14/15 samples: Gly145Arg mutation in 8/13 Adr subtype and 1/2 Ayw subtype samples (60%). The next most common mutation was Gly165Trp in 8/13 Adr subtype but neither of 2 Ayw subtype samples (53.3%). Concurrent antiviral resistance was noted in 5 patients: lamivudine (n = 5), or entecavir (n = 3), but not adefovir, suggesting the occurrence of simultaneous, antiviral cross-resistances. Two patients underwent retransplantation due to the progression of HBV infection despite vigorous antiviral therapy. At diagnosis of HBV recurrence, the mean HBV DNA load was 6.5 × 10(6) copies/mL; 4 patients showed paradoxical coexistence of anti-HBs and HBsAg. Currently, 2 subjects show low-level HBV DNA replication in peripheral blood, although the other 12 had no DNA replication after prolonged antiviral therapy. This study suggested that various mutations in the "a" determinant were associated with HBIG resistance. Since treatment failure to rescue antiviral therapy was often associated with delayed detection of HBV recurrence rather than concurrent antiviral resistance, frequent HBV surveillance using more sensitive screening tests, such as HBeAg and HBV DNA polymerase chain reaction assay, seems to be mandatory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Global Handwashing Day 2012: a qualitative content analysis of Chinese social media reaction to a health promotion event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Cai, Jingxian; Hao, Yi; Ying, Yuchen; Chan, Benedict Shing Bun; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a handwashing promotion campaign organized by the Global Public-Private Partnership of Handwashing with Soap. In China, it has been promoted by the Chinese public health authorities, international organizations and multinational corporations through various channels including social media such as Sina Weibo, the leading Chinese microblogging site similar to Twitter. The objective of this study is to qualitatively assess Chinese social media users' reactions to a health promotion campaign using Global Handwashing Day (GHD) 2012 as an example. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 552 Weibo posts generated on GHD 2012 by Weibo users with 1000 or more followers with the Chinese keyword for "handwashing." We categorized the Weibo posts into groups by keywords that frequently appeared in the data set. These groups were either exact reposts of an original post, or they conveyed similar information. We observed the interconnections between traditional media and social media in handwashing promotion. Social media were found to serve as amplifiers of contents provided by traditional media. We observed the contextualization of global hygiene messages in a unique national social media market in China. Our study showed that social media and traditional media are two interconnected arms of the GHD campaign in China. Our analysis demonstrated that public health campaigns in China can be evaluated using social media data. The themes and topics identified in this study will help public health practitioners evaluate future social media handwashing promotion campaigns.

  20. Rapid differentiation of closely related isolates of two plant viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, D J; Morton, A; Spence, N J; Miller, A

    1995-09-01

    Immunocapture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the product has been shown to be an effective procedure for discriminating serologically indistinguishable isolates of two plant viruses, raspberry bushy dwarf (RBDV) and zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV). For both viruses, only limited sequence information was available at the time of primer design, but most of the isolates which were tested could be amplified (the one exception being a serologically quite distinct isolate of ZYMV). Restriction endonucleases revealing diagnostic RFLPs were readily identified. Each of two isolates of ZYMV could be detected in the presence of the other and the relative proportions approximately quantified by visual estimation of the relative intensity of the appropriate bands. A range of isolates of different RBDV pathotypes were compared; isolates were grouped in ways that accorded with their known history. Computer analysis of the published sequence from which the primers had been derived showed the sequenced isolate to be identical with an isolate imported from the USSR. The PCR/RFLP procedure is rapid (it can be completed in less than 2 days), effective and will probably be generally applicable to distinguishing closely related virus isolates, even where little sequence information is available.

  1. Multivariate curve resolution using a combination of mid-infrared and near-infrared spectra for the analysis of isothermal epoxy curing reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hideki; Morita, Shigeaki

    2018-05-01

    Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) was applied to a hetero-spectrally combined dataset consisting of mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra collected during the isothermal curing reaction of an epoxy resin. An epoxy monomer, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and a hardening agent, 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM), were used for the reaction. The fundamental modes of the Nsbnd H and Osbnd H stretches were highly overlapped in the MIR region, while their first overtones could be independently identified in the NIR region. The concentration profiles obtained by MCR using the hetero-spectral combination showed good agreement with the results of calculations based on the Beer-Lambert law and the mass balance. The band assignments and absorption sites estimated by the analysis also showed good agreement with the results using two-dimensional (2D) hetero-correlation spectroscopy.

  2. Systematic analysis of DEMETER-like DNA glycosylase genes shows lineage-specific Smi-miR7972 involved in SmDML1 regulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Li, Caili; Lu, Shanfa

    2018-05-08

    DEMETER-like DNA glycosylases (DMLs) initiate the base excision repair-dependent DNA demethylation to regulate a wide range of biological processes in plants. Six putative SmDML genes, termed SmDML1-SmDML6, were identified from the genome of S. miltiorrhiza, an emerging model plant for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies. Integrated analysis of gene structures, sequence features, conserved domains and motifs, phylogenetic analysis and differential expression showed the conservation and divergence of SmDMLs. SmDML1, SmDML2 and SmDML4 were significantly down-regulated by the treatment of 5Aza-dC, a general DNA methylation inhibitor, suggesting involvement of SmDMLs in genome DNA methylation change. SmDML1 was predicted and experimentally validated to be target of Smi-miR7972. Computational analysis of forty whole genome sequences and almost all of RNA-seq data from Lamiids revealed that MIR7972s were only distributed in some plants of the three orders, including Lamiales, Solanales and Boraginales, and the number of MIR7972 genes varied among species. It suggests that MIR7972 genes underwent expansion and loss during the evolution of some Lamiids species. Phylogenetic analysis of MIR7972s showed closer evolutionary relationships between MIR7972s in Boraginales and Solanales in comparison with Lamiales. These results provide a valuable resource for elucidating DNA demethylation mechanism in S. miltiorrhiza.

  3. Market reaction to grouping equities in stock markets: An empirical analysis on Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Yildiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to investigate the market reaction to stock grouping announcements in Borsa Istanbul which requires stocks to be classified into groups “A”, “B” and “C” according to their market capitalization and floating rates. By utilizing event study analysis, our results suggest that grouping announcements have significant effect on stock prices and trading volume. The event day positive (negative relationship between abnormal return and volume for the upgraded (downgraded stocks supports the downward sloping demand curve hypothesis. Moreover, findings also suggest that stocks which are upgraded to Group A are exposed to more attention which is in line with the attention hypothesis. The reverse is valid for the downgraded firms. We find no evidence of price reversals and long-term symmetrical liquidity effect which lead us to reject price pressure and liquidity hypotheses. Finally, we reach controversial evidence for the information hypothesis. Keywords: Equity grouping, Regulation, Price and volume effects, Jel Classification: G11, G12, G14

  4. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  5. Impacts of heterogeneous reactions to atmospheric peroxides: Observations and budget analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mengru; Chen, Zhongming; Shen, Hengqing; Li, Huan; Wu, Huihui; Wang, Yin

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric peroxides play important roles in atmospheric chemistry, acting as reactive oxidants and reservoirs of HOX and ROX radicals. Field measurements of atmospheric peroxides were conducted over urban Beijing from 2015 to 2016, including dust storm days, haze days and different seasons. We employed a box model based on RACM2 mechanism to conduct concentration simulation and budget analysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA). In this study, heterogeneous reaction is found to be a significant sink for atmospheric H2O2 and PAA in urban Beijing. Here, we recommend a suitable uptake coefficient formula considering the water effect for model research of peroxides. It is found that H2O2 and PAA unexpectedly maintained considerable concentrations on haze days, even higher than that on non-haze days. This phenomenon is mainly ascribed to relatively high levels of volatile organic compounds and ozone on haze days. In addition, high levels of water vapor in pollution episode can promote not only the heterogeneous uptake to aerosol phase but also the production of H2O2. Atmospheric PAA formation is suggested to be sensitive to alkenes and NOX in urban Beijing. In particular, with the help of peroxides, sulfate formation rate from heterogeneous uptake could increase by ∼4 times on haze days, indicating the potential effect of peroxides on enhancement of aerosol oxidative property and secondary sulfate formation.

  6. Reporting patterns of adverse drug reactions over recent years in China: analysis from publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-jing; Ye, Xiao-fei; Wang, Xing-xing; Wang, Jing; Shi, Wen-tao; Gao, Qing-bin; Zhang, Tian-yi; Xu, Jin-fang; Zhu, Tian-tian; He, Jia

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify the reporting patterns of self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in China. A variety of sources were searched, including the official website of China FDA, the national center for ADR monitoring center, publications from PubMed, and so on. We retrieved the relevant information and made descriptive and comparative analysis from the year 2009 to 2013. The ADR reporting numbers were 638,996, 692,904, 852,799, 1,200,000 and 1,317,000 from 2009 to 2013, respectively. Healthcare professionals contributed significantly, and their proportion always exceeded 80% before 2012. The average report per million inhabitants has increased from 479 to 983 from 2009 to 2013. However, the proportion of new or serious report was always below 25%. The reports mainly concern anti-infective agents and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), especially TCM injection. The proportion of ADR reports in geriatric patients has increased for 4 consecutive years. ADR report numbers and reporting rates in China are on the rise. However, the proportion of new or serious reports as well as the proportion of reports contributed by consumers and pharmaceutical companies are still quite low. More attention should be paid to the elderly, anti-infective agents and TCM, especially TCM injections.

  7. Fission mode analysis of the reaction 237Np(n,f) - possibilities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegler, P.

    1996-01-01

    Fission fragment properties for the reaction 237 Np(n,f) have been measured at the Van de Graaff Laboratory of the IRMM. Using a double gridded ionization chamber the mass, kinetic energy and the angular distribution for both fission fragments could be determined simultaneously for an incident neutron energy range from E n =0.3 MeV upto E n =5.5 MeV. Complete datasets have been acquired for 13 different neutron energies covering sub barrier fission as well as fission in the plateau region. A detailed analysis of the fragment distributions and the respective momenta has been carried out, checking the coherence against the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The consideration of multi-modal fission offers an improved possibility for the description of the fragment distributions backed up by theoretical calculations on the basis of the multi-model random-neck rupture model of Brosa, Grossmann and Mueller. The changes of the fission fragment properties under investigation are completely described and an interpretation of the findings is presented. (author)

  8. Kinetic analysis of the reactions of hypobromous acid with protein components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    available for HOBr. In this study, rate constants for reaction of HOBr with protein components have been determined. The second-order rate constants (22 degrees C, pH 7.4) for reaction with protein sites vary by 8 orders of magnitude and decrease in the order Cys > Trp approximately Met approximately His...

  9. Venom immunotherapy for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings : a systematic review and health economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyle, R.; Elremeli, M.; Cherry, M.; Oude Elberink, J.N.G.; Bulsara, M.; Mahon, J.; Daniels, M.; Hockenhull, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is commonly used for preventing further allergic reactions to insect stings in people who have had a sting reaction. The efficacy and safety of this treatment has not previously been assessed by a high-quality systematic review. Objectives To assess the effects

  10. Ene-ene-yne Reactions: Activation Strain Analysis and Role of Aromaticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, I.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Cossío, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    The trend in reactivity of the thermal cycloisomerization reactions of 1,3-hexadien-5-ynes, A=B-C=D-E≡F, were explored and analyzed by using density functional theory at the M06-2X/def2-TZVPP level. These reactions proceed through formally aromatic transition states to form a bent-allene

  11. Compilation and R-matrix analysis of Big Bang nuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descouvemont, Pierre; Adahchour, Abderrahim; Angulo, Carmen; Coc, Alain; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    We use the R-matrix theory to fit low-energy data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Special attention is paid to the rate uncertainties which are evaluated on statistical grounds. We provide S factors and reaction rates in tabular and graphical formats

  12. Nanoscale studies of cement chemistry with 15N resonance reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Livingston, Richard A.; Rolfs, Claus; Becker, Hans-Werner; Kubsky, Stefan; Spillane, Timothy; Castellote, Marta; Viedma, Paloma G. de

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of materials with ion beams have proven to be a valuable technique for describing the spatial distributions of specific elements in host materials. We have applied this technique using the 15 N(p, αγ) 12 C reaction to study the time dependence of the chemical reactions involved in the curing of cement. By using the Dynamitron Tandem accelerator at the Ruhr Universitaet, Bochum, Germany, we have been able to achieve a few nanometer spatial resolution at the surface of cement grains and to study the hydrogen distributions to a depth of about 2 μm. By applying a technique for stopping the chemical reactions at arbitrary times, the time dependence of the chemical reactions involving specific components of cement can be investigated. In addition, the effects of additives on the chemical reactions have been studied, as have materials that are components of concrete

  13. Nanoscale studies of cement chemistry with {sup 15}N resonance reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Physics, Unit 3046, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)]. E-mail: schweitz@phys.uconn.edu; Livingston, Richard A. [Federal Highway Administration, HRDI-05, 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean, VA 22101 (United States); Rolfs, Claus [Institut fuer Physik mit Ionenstrahlen, Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum Universitaetsstr. 150, Gebaeude NB 3, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Becker, Hans-Werner [Institut fuer Physik mit Ionenstrahlen, Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum Universitaetsstr. 150, Gebaeude NB 3, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Kubsky, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik mit Ionenstrahlen, Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum Universitaetsstr. 150, Gebaeude NB 3, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Spillane, Timothy [University of Connecticut, Department of Physics, Unit 3046, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Castellote, Marta [Institute of Construction Science ' Eduardo Torroja' (CSIC), Serrano Galvache no. 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Viedma, Paloma G. de [Institute of Construction Science ' Eduardo Torroja' (CSIC), Serrano Galvache no. 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-12-15

    Analyses of materials with ion beams have proven to be a valuable technique for describing the spatial distributions of specific elements in host materials. We have applied this technique using the {sup 15}N(p, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction to study the time dependence of the chemical reactions involved in the curing of cement. By using the Dynamitron Tandem accelerator at the Ruhr Universitaet, Bochum, Germany, we have been able to achieve a few nanometer spatial resolution at the surface of cement grains and to study the hydrogen distributions to a depth of about 2 {mu}m. By applying a technique for stopping the chemical reactions at arbitrary times, the time dependence of the chemical reactions involving specific components of cement can be investigated. In addition, the effects of additives on the chemical reactions have been studied, as have materials that are components of concrete.

  14. Computer aided design, analysis and experimental investigation of membrane assisted batch reaction-separation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz; Buchaly, Carsten; Kreis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Membrane assisted batch reaction operation offers an interesting option for equilibrium limited reaction systems in chemical and biochemical manufacturing by selective removal of one of the products and thereby increasing the product yield. The design of such hybrid systems need to take into acco......Membrane assisted batch reaction operation offers an interesting option for equilibrium limited reaction systems in chemical and biochemical manufacturing by selective removal of one of the products and thereby increasing the product yield. The design of such hybrid systems need to take...... into account the performance of each constituent element and the optimisation of the design must take into consideration their interdependency. In this paper use of a membrane, to assist in the synthesis of propyl-propionate is investigated through the use of a hybrid process design framework, which consists...... and separation functionalities and to design/analyse the hybrid scheme. The generated hybrid scheme has been validated through experiments involving an esterification reaction....

  15. Widely applicable MATLAB routines for automated analysis of saccadic reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Forssman, Linda; Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Wass, Sam

    2015-06-01

    Saccadic reaction time (SRT) is a widely used dependent variable in eye-tracking studies of human cognition and its disorders. SRTs are also frequently measured in studies with special populations, such as infants and young children, who are limited in their ability to follow verbal instructions and remain in a stable position over time. In this article, we describe a library of MATLAB routines (Mathworks, Natick, MA) that are designed to (1) enable completely automated implementation of SRT analysis for multiple data sets and (2) cope with the unique challenges of analyzing SRTs from eye-tracking data collected from poorly cooperating participants. The library includes preprocessing and SRT analysis routines. The preprocessing routines (i.e., moving median filter and interpolation) are designed to remove technical artifacts and missing samples from raw eye-tracking data. The SRTs are detected by a simple algorithm that identifies the last point of gaze in the area of interest, but, critically, the extracted SRTs are further subjected to a number of postanalysis verification checks to exclude values contaminated by artifacts. Example analyses of data from 5- to 11-month-old infants demonstrated that SRTs extracted with the proposed routines were in high agreement with SRTs obtained manually from video records, robust against potential sources of artifact, and exhibited moderate to high test-retest stability. We propose that the present library has wide utility in standardizing and automating SRT-based cognitive testing in various populations. The MATLAB routines are open source and can be downloaded from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods.html .

  16. Depressurization accident analysis of MPBR by PBRSIM with chemical reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Hee Cheon; Kadak, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    The simple model for natural circulation is implemented into PBR S IM to provide air inlet velocity from the containment air space. For the friction and form loss only the pebble region is considered conservatively modeling laminar flow through a packed bed. For the chemical reaction model of PBR S IM the oxidation rate is determined as the minimum value of three mechanisms estimated at each time step: oxygen mass flow rate entering the bottom of the reflector, oxidation rate by kinetics, and oxygen mass flow rate arriving at the graphite surface by diffusion. Oxygen mass flux arriving at the graphite surface by diffusion is estimated based on energy-mass analogy. Two types of exothermic chemical reaction are considered: (C + zO 2 → xCO + yCO 2 ) and (2CO + O 2 2CO 2 ). The heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reaction rates by kinetics are determined by INEEL and Bruno correlations, respectively. The instantaneous depressurization accident of MPBR is simulated using PBR S IM with chemical model. The air inlet velocity is initially rapidly dropped within 10 hr and reaches a saturation value of about 1.5cm/s. The oxidation rate by the diffusion process becomes lower than that by the chemical kinetics above 600K. The maximum pebble bed temperatures without and with chemical reaction reach the peak values of 1560 and 1617 .deg. C at 80 hr and 92 hr, respectively. As the averaged temperatures in the bottom reflector and the pebble bed regions increase with time, (C+1/2O2 ->CO) reaction becomes dominant over (C+O 2 →CO 2 ) reaction. Also, the CO generated by (C+1/2O 2 →CO) reaction will be consumed by (2CO+O 2 →2CO 2 ) reaction and the energy homogeneously generated by this CO depletion reaction becomes dominant over the heterogeneous reaction

  17. Investigation of structural properties associated with alkali-silica reaction by means of macro- and micro-structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Xiangyin; Fournier, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Structural properties associated with alkali-silica reaction were systematically investigated by means of macro-structural accelerated mortar prism expansion levels testing, combined with micro-structural analysis. One part of this study is to determine the reactivity of the aggregate by means of accelerated mortar bar tests, and also to evaluate perlite aggregate constituents, especially the presence of deleterious components and find main causes of the alkali-silica reaction, which was based on the petrographic studies by optical microscope and the implication of X-ray diffraction on the aggregate. Results implied that the aggregate was highly alkali-silica reactive and the main micro-crystalline quartz-intermediate character and matrix that is mainly composed of chalcedony are potentially suitable for alkali-silica reaction. The other part is to study the long-term effect of lithium salts against alkali-silica reaction by testing accelerated mortar prism expansion levels. The macro-structural results were also consistent with the micro-structural mechanisms of alkali-silica reaction of mortar prisms containing this aggregate and the effect of chemical admixtures by means of the methods of scanning electron microscope-X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was indicated by these techniques that lithium salts, which were introduced into concrete containing reactive aggregate at the mixing stage, suppressed the alkali-silica reaction by producing non-expansive crystalline materials

  18. Clonality assessment of lymphoproliferative lesions using the polymerase chain reaction: An analysis of two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Moorchung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymphoid malignancies are a heterogeneous group of disorders which may be difficult to differentiate from reactive proliferations even after immunohistochemistry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is believed to be a good adjunct tool for diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We examined 24 cases of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative lesions in this study and evaluated the PCR as an additional tool in the confirmation of the diagnosis. Two different PCR methodologies were evaluated. Results: In the evaluation of the T-cell PCR, it was seen that the correlation using both the commercial kits and the custom-synthesized primers was highly significant at a P value of 0.05. Conclusions: Both the methods showed an excellent concordance for T-cell γ gene rearrangements, However, the same was not seen in the B-cell receptor rearrangements. This may be because of the small sample size or the inability of consensus V primers to recognize complementary DNA sequences in all of the V segments.

  19. Measurement and analysis of the reaction π-p→π-π+n at 63 GeV incident momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, S.C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The measurement and analysis of the reaction π - p→π - π + n at 63.2 GeV incident momentum is described. The aim of the experiment was to measure the s-dependence of the production mechanism and to search for high spin resonances in the ππ system. (Auth.)

  20. Analysis and characterization of heavy residues produced in 129Xe + natSn reactions between 8 and 25 AMeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisan, J.

    2008-06-01

    Studies with the INDRA multidetector of the 129 Xe + nat Sn reactions showed the unexpected existence of heavy fragments with a charge as large as Z=70. The charges of Xe and Sn are 54 and 50 respectively. Reactions between nuclei with a charge product greater than 2700 are dominated by deep inelastic collisions. For Xe + Sn the product is exactly 2700. After these observations, 129 Xe + nat Sn reactions at 8, 12, 15, 20 and 25 AMeV have been done. It will then be possible to clarify if the heavy residues are formed by an incomplete fusion, massive transfers occurring in deep inelastic collisions or a very asymmetric fission of a compound system. This work will present experimental results obtained by the analysis of these experiments. We will show that heavy residues are formed with a production cross-section of 10 -2 mb. Angular distributions show that the residues can be produced by an incomplete fusion of the projectile and the target. The study of the products in coincidence with the residues shows that a compound system was formed, followed by a fission producing the residue and a lighter fragment. The comparison with a phenomenological model, HIPSE, confirms that the model is valid at these energies

  1. Analysis of gas absorption to a thin liquid film in the presence of a zero-order chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed theoretical analysis of the process of gas absorption to a thin liquid film adjacent to a horizontal rotating disk. The film is formed by the impingement of a controlled liquid jet at the center of the disk and subsequent radial spreading of liquid along the disk. The chemical reaction between the gas and the liquid film can be expressed as a zero-order homogeneous reaction. The process was modeled by establishing equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and species concentration and solving them analytically. A scaling analysis was used to determine dominant transport processes. Appropriate boundary conditions were used to solve these equations to develop expressions for the local concentration of gas across the thickness of the film and distributions of film height, bulk concentration, and Sherwood number along the radius of the disk. The partial differential equation for species concentration was solved using the separation of variables technique along with the Duhamel's theorem and the final analytical solution was expressed using confluent hypergeometric functions. Tables for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are presented for a number of reaction rate constants. A parametric study was performed using Reynolds number, Ekman number, and dimensionless reaction rate as parameters. At all radial locations, Sherwood number increased with Reynolds number (flow rate) as well as Ekman number (rate of rotation). The enhancement of mass transfer due to chemical reaction was found to be small when compared to the case of no reaction (pure absorption), but the enhancement factor was very significant when compared to pure absorption in a stagnant liquid film. The zero-order reaction processes considered in the present investigation included the absorption of oxygen in aqueous alkaline solutions of sodiumdithionite and rhodium complex catalyzed carbonylation of methanol. Present analytical results were compared to previous theoretical

  2. Phi-value analysis of a linear, sequential reaction mechanism: theory and application to ion channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Pearson, John E; Auerbach, Anthony

    2005-12-01

    We derive the analytical form of a rate-equilibrium free-energy relationship (with slope Phi) for a bounded, linear chain of coupled reactions having arbitrary connecting rate constants. The results confirm previous simulation studies showing that Phi-values reflect the position of the perturbed reaction within the chain, with reactions occurring earlier in the sequence producing higher Phi-values than those occurring later in the sequence. The derivation includes an expression for the transmission coefficients of the overall reaction based on the rate constants of an arbitrary, discrete, finite Markov chain. The results indicate that experimental Phi-values can be used to calculate the relative heights of the energy barriers between intermediate states of the chain but provide no information about the energies of the wells along the reaction path. Application of the equations to the case of diliganded acetylcholine receptor channel gating suggests that the transition-state ensemble for this reaction is nearly flat. Although this mechanism accounts for many of the basic features of diliganded and unliganded acetylcholine receptor channel gating, the experimental rate-equilibrium free-energy relationships appear to be more linear than those predicted by the theory.

  3. Analysis of fluorine by nuclear reactions and applications to human dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroobants, J.; Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Demortier, G.; Nicolas, G.

    Nuclear reactions induced on Fluorine by low energy protons are investigated, thick target excitation yield curves and tables for 19 F(p,p'γ) 19 F and 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O reactions are given between 0.3 and 2.5 MeV. Interferences from other nuclear reactions, detection limits and sensitivity for Fluorine detection are investigated. After a wide investigation of the repartition of Fluorine in tooth enamel it is concluded that there is an equilibrium of the concentrations between tooth and saliva which is rapidly restored after the perturbation introduced by the external treatments. (author)

  4. Detailed analysis of allergic cutaneous reactions to spinal cord stimulator devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry ZA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeshan Ahmed Chaudhry,1 Umer Najib,2 Zahid H Bajwa,3 W Carl Jacobs,4 Javed Sheikh,5 Thomas T Simopoulos61Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Robert C Byrd Health Sciences Center of West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; 3Boston Headache Institute, Waltham, MA, USA; 4Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, Allergy and Immunology, 6Department of Anesthesia, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brookline, MA, USAAbstract: The use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS devices to treat chronic, refractory neuropathic pain continues to expand in application. While device-related complications have been well described, inflammatory reactions to the components of these devices remain underreported. In contrast, hypersensitivity reactions associated with other implanted therapies, such as endovascular and cardiac rhythm devices, have been detailed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the clinical presentation and course of inflammatory reactions as well as the histology of these reactions. All patients required removal of the entire device after developing inflammatory reactions over a time course of 1–3 months. Two patients developed a foreign body reaction in the lead insertion wound as well as at the implantable pulse generator site, with histology positive for giant cells. One patient developed an inflammatory dermatitis on the flank and abdomen that resolved with topical hydrocortisone. “In vivo” testing with a lead extension fragment placed in the buttock resulted in a negative reaction followed by successful reimplantation of an SCS device. Inflammatory reactions to SCS devices can manifest as contact dermatitis, granuloma formation, or foreign body reactions with giant cell formation. Tissue diagnosis is essential, and

  5. Collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data for analysis of cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Brůha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, excessive drinking, overeating and physical inactivity are well-established risk factors decreasing human physical performance. Moreover, epidemiological work has identified modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor diet and physical and cognitive inactivity that are associated with the risk of reduced cognitive performance. Definition, collection and annotation of human reaction times and suitable health related data and metadata provides researchers with a necessary source for further analysis of human physical and cognitive performance. The collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data was obtained from two groups comprising together 349 people of all ages - the visitors of the Days of Science and Technology 2016 held on the Pilsen central square and members of the Mensa Czech Republic visiting the neuroinformatics lab at the University of West Bohemia. Each provided dataset contains a complete or partial set of data obtained from the following measurements: hands and legs reaction times, color vision, spirometry, electrocardiography, blood pressure, blood glucose, body proportions and flexibility. It also provides a sufficient set of metadata (age, gender and summary of the participant's current life style and health to allow researchers to perform further analysis. This article has two main aims. The first aim is to provide a well annotated collection of human reaction times and health related data that is suitable for further analysis of lifestyle and human cognitive and physical performance. This data collection is complemented with a preliminarily statistical evaluation. The second aim is to present a procedure of efficient acquisition of human reaction times and supporting health related data in non-lab and lab conditions. Keywords: Reaction time, Health related data, Cognitive and physical performance, Chronic disease, Data acquisition, Data collection, Software for data collection

  6. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  7. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  8. Study on reaction mechanism by analysis of kinetic energy spectra of light particles and formation of final products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Nasirov, A. K.; Anastasi, A.; Curciarello, F.; Fazio, G.

    2018-05-01

    The sensitivity of reaction mechanism in the formation of compound nucleus (CN) by the analysis of kinetic energy spectra of light particles and of reaction products are shown. The dependence of the P CN fusion probability of reactants and W sur survival probability of CN against fission at its deexcitation on the mass and charge symmetries in the entrance channel of heavy-ion collisions, as well as on the neutron numbers is discussed. The possibility of conducting a complex program of investigations of the complete fusion by reliable ways depends on the detailed and refined methods of experimental and theoretical analyses.

  9. Multipole decomposition analysis of the 27Al, 90Zr, 208Pb(p, n) reactions at 295 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, T.; Greenfield, M.B.; Koori, N.; Okihana, A.; Hatanaka, K.

    1996-01-01

    Differential cross sections at θ lab between 0 and 15 and the polarization transfer D NN at zero degrees for the 27 Al, 90 Zr, 208 Pb(p,n) reactions are measured at a bombarding energy of 295 MeV. A multipole decomposition (MD) technique is applied to extract L=0, L=1, and L≥2 contributions to the cross sections. The summed Gamow-Teller strength B(GT) is compared with shell-model calculations for the 27 Al(p,n) and 90 Zr(p,n) reactions. The usefulness of the polarization transfer observable in the MD analysis is discussed. (orig.)

  10. On-line Analysis of Catalytic Reaction Products Using a High-Pressure Tandem Micro-reactor GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Kim, Young-Min; Hosaka, Akihiko; Watanabe, Chuichi; Teramae, Norio; Ohtani, Hajime; Kim, Seungdo; Park, Young-Kwon; Wang, Kaige; Freeman, Robert R

    2017-01-01

    When a GC/MS system is coupled with a pressurized reactor, the separation efficiency and the retention time are directly affected by the reactor pressure. To keep the GC column flow rate constant irrespective of the reaction pressure, a restrictor capillary tube and an open split interface are attached between the GC injection port and the head of a GC separation column. The capability of the attached modules is demonstrated for the on-line GC/MS analysis of catalytic reaction products of a bio-oil model sample (guaiacol), produced under a pressure of 1 to 3 MPa.

  11. A Theoretical Analysis of the Reaction Between Ethyl and Molecular Oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, James A; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Robertson, Struan H

    2000-01-01

    Using a combination of electronic-structure theory, variational transition-state theory, and solutions to the time-dependent master equation, we have studied the kinetics of the reaction between ethyl...

  12. An analysis of serious adverse drug reactions at a tertiary care teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal Prajapati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the various aspects of serious adverse drug reactions (serious ADRs such as clinical presentation, causality, severity, and preventability occurring in a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: All serious ADRs reported from January 2010 to May 2015 at ADR Monitoring Centre, Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, were selected as per the World health Organization -Uppsala Monitoring Center (WHO-UMC criteria. A retrospective analysis was carried out for clinical presentation, causality (as per the WHO-UMC scale and Naranjo′s algorithm, severity (Hartwig and Siegel scale, and preventability (Schumock and Thornton criteria. Results: Out of 2977 ADRs reported, 375 were serious in nature. The most common clinical presentation involved was skin and appendageal disorders (71, 18.9%. The common causal drug group was antitubercular (129, 34.4% followed by antiretroviral (76, 20.3% agents. The criteria for the majority of serious ADRs were intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage (164, 43.7% followed by hospitalization (158, 42.1%. Majority of the serious ADRs were continuing (191, 50.9% at the time of reporting, few recovered (101, 26.9%, and two were fatal. The majority of serious ADRs were categorized as possible (182, 48.8% followed by probable (173, 46.1% in nature. Conclusion: Antitubercular, antiretroviral, and antimicrobial drugs were the most common causal drug groups for serious ADRs. This calls for robust ADR monitoring system and education of patients and prescribers for identification and effective management.

  13. Cobalt sulfide thin films: Chemical growth, reaction kinetics and microstructural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, S.S. [Thin Film and Solar Studies Research Laboratory, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Sikora, Andrzej [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, ul. M Skłodowskiej-Curie 55/61, 50-369 Wroclaw (Poland); Pawar, S.T. [Thin Film and Solar Studies Research Laboratory, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Maldar, N.N. [Polymer Chemistry Department, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Deshmukh, L.P., E-mail: laldeshmukh@gmail.com [Thin Film and Solar Studies Research Laboratory, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India)

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • CoS thin films were deposited from an aqueous alkaline bath. • The CoS thin films are polycrystalline with hexagonal crystal structure. • Microstructure consists of multifaceted webbed network of elongated CoS crystallites. • MFM images revealed presence of magnetic regions mimicking surface topography. • Influence of the complexing agents is also stressed by the bandgap measurements. - Abstract: CoS thin films were successfully deposited from an aqueous alkaline bath containing ammonia and TEA as the complexing agents. Under the pre-optimized conditions (temperature = 80 ± 0.5 °C, speed of the substrate rotation = 65 ± 2 rpm and deposition period = 90 min), ammonia and TEA quantities in the reaction bath were found to play a decisive role in the final product yield. Highly uniform, dark sea-green colored and tightly adherent deposits were obtained at our experimental conditions. As-obtained CoS thin films were polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal class of crystal system as derived from the X-ray diffraction analysis. Complex multifaceted webbed network of as-grown CoS crystals elongated and threaded into each other were observed through a scanning electron microscope. Atomic force micrographs revealed collapsing of the hillocks and filling of the valleys triggering decrease in the RMS roughness for increased TEA and NH{sub 3} quantities. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was employed to study surface topography in terms of magnetic mapping. MFM images highlighted the existence of the magnetic clusters imitating topography. Broad absorption edge with high absorption coefficient (α ≈ 10{sup 4} cm{sup −1}) was observed for as-grown CoS thin films. Determined values of the optical bandgaps revealed influence of complexing environment on the final product.

  14. Perspectives on Queer Music Therapy: A Qualitative Analysis of Music Therapists' Reactions to Radically Inclusive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggan, Catherine E; Grzanka, Patrick R; Bain, Candice L

    2018-01-13

    The queer music therapy model was designed by Bain, Grzanka, and Crowe in 2016 as a novel therapeutic approach to affirm and empower LGBTQ+ identity through music. No data have been generated on how this model might actually be implemented, or the strengths and limitations of the model according to music therapy professionals. The purpose of this study was to build on Bain and colleagues' work by collecting music therapists' perspectives on queer music therapy and using these data to critically evaluate the model. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with twelve music therapists who identify as LGBTQ+ or have experience working with LGBTQ+ clients. Participants were prompted to discuss their music therapy backgrounds, experiences with LGBTQ+ clients, and reactions to the queer music therapy model. Interviews were analyzed using a critical discourse analysis approach. The qualitative findings revealed major strengths of the queer music therapy model and ways in which it could be improved by attending to: (a) the structural limitations of the music therapy discipline, including the demographic composition of the field and lack of critical perspectives in music therapy training; and (b) intersectional considerations of ageism and ableism within diverse LGBTQ+ populations. Queer music therapy has positive implications for future work with LGBTQ+ individuals, but it must more substantively integrate intersectionality theory to serve a diverse range of LGBTQ+ clients. Further, it must critically attend to the structural limitations of the music therapy discipline itself. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Music Therapy Association. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Analysis of a nuclear backscattering and reaction data by the method of convolution integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.B.

    1979-02-01

    A quantitative description of nuclear backscattering and reaction processes is made. Various formulas pertinent to nuclear microanalysis are assembled in a manner useful for experimental application. Convolution integrals relating profiles of atoms in a metal substrate to the nuclear reaction spectra obtained in the laboratory are described and computed. Energy straggling and multiple scattering are explicitly included and shown to be important. Examples of the application of the method to simple backscattering, oxide films, and implanted gas are discussed. 7 figures, 1 table

  16. Analysis of π+p→π0(eta)Δ++ and related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Mohammad; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rafique, Muhammad

    1984-01-01

    The differential and integrated cross sections and density matrix elements for the reactions π + p→ π 0 (eta)Δ ++ and the reactions π - p→π - Δ + , K + p→K 0 Δ ++ and K - n→K-bar 0 Δ - which are related to them by SU(2) and SU(3) are fitted by using a simple Regge pole model with phenomenological residue functions. (author)

  17. Development of analysis model for mid and long-term effects of sodium water reaction event in LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Seong O; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Eui Kwang; Wi, Myung Hwan

    2002-04-01

    The Sodium-Water Reaction(SWR) is important in the design consideration of a LMR steam generator. To develop the analysis code for long-term effects of SWR, investigation on the characteristics of various SWR analysis code and the assessment of an analysis model for long term effects were performed. In an event of SWR, pressure spikes of wave propagation occur at its initial stage and last for a very short time, and then bulk motion of fluid and reaction products is progressed and lasts for a long time. In a case SWR occurs, a number of hydrogen bubbles produced and sodium is entrained into the bubbles through the gas-liquid bubble interfaces by evaporation or diffusion. The partial pressure of the sodium in a hydrogen bubble is determined as a function of the bubble size, temperature, and pressure, and is rapidly decreased as its size increased. From this, it can be considered that the bulk motion in the later phase of SWR is an axial motion caused by expansion of a single-phase hydrogen gas bubble produced by a reaction in the vicinity of the leak site. Through this investigation, a preliminary simple analysis model for long-term effects of SWR was set up and sensitivity study using the system design parameters such as pressure and temperature of IHTS for KALIMER was performed. Also, a simpler analysis model using the cover gas pressure change related to the production of a hydrogen bubble in a steam generator was developed from the analyses results. These simple analysis models of the reaction site and the pressure behavior with hydrogen production can be used to develop the mid and long-term analysis code for SWR in the KALIMER steam generator design

  18. Determination of transport and reaction swarm coefficients from the analysis of complex transient pulses from the pulsed Townsend experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekstein, A; De Urquijo, J; Rodríguez-Luna, J C; Juárez, A M; Ducasse, O

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper the interpretation and analysis of transient pulses from a pulsed Townsend experiment by solving the continuity equations of the charged carriers (electrons and ions) involved in the avalanche. The set of second order partial differential equations is solved by SIMAV, a simulator designed specifically for the pulsed Townsend avalanche. Complex situations involving processes such as electron detachment, ion-molecule reactions, Penning ionization and secondary electron emission from ion impact at the cathode, virtually impossible to solve analytically, are discussed here to illustrate the capability of the simulator to help explain the various reaction processes involved in the avalanche, and also to derive some of the transport and reaction coefficients.

  19. 389 Allergic Reactions to Local Anesthetics: Detection by Skin Tests and Subcutaneous Provocation. Analysis of 160 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Luiz; Gonçalves Tavares, Tania Maria; Delcourt, Nathalia; Baroni, Juliana; Rios, João; Rios, José Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse reactions to local anesthetics (LA) are frequent and often referred to as allergic. Although immune-mediated reactions are rare, it should be investigated for suspected cases. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive skin test to these drugs in patients with a suspected history of allergic reactions and describe the main socio-demographic characteristics of these individuals. Methods Retrospective study of medical records of patients attended at Policlínica Geral do Rio de Janeiro Allergic Clinic, between 2008 and 2011. The parameters evaluated were the test indication and the patient ages and gender. The drug tested was that the patient had a history of suspicion. Patients underwent skin prick and intradermal tests and subcutaneous provocation. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed. Results It was performed 160 tests (125 female). Three of this total was excluded due to inconclusive results. In women, the highest proportion of tests was in the age group from 41 to 60 years (43%), while in males the higher concentration was at a youngest age group: 21 to 40 years (41%). The most common indication (103 cases, 65%) for the tests was a previous suspected anaphylactic reaction by LA. Seven of 157 tests had a positive result (4.4%), 6 of them occurred in women (4.8%). Only one test resulted in a type of anaphylactic reaction response (0.67%). All patients who presented positive response to the test had a history of per-anesthetic reaction that suggested an immune-mediated mechanism. Conclusions In patients with a history of previous reaction to local anesthetics, the skin tests with these drugs have a key role in the prevention of anaphylaxis, and on guidance for adequate anesthetic procedures.

  20. Comprehensive genetic analysis of early host body reactions to the bioactive and bio-inert porous scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Ehashi

    Full Text Available To design scaffolds for tissue regeneration, details of the host body reaction to the scaffolds must be studied. Host body reactions have been investigated mainly by immunohistological observations for a long time. Despite of recent dramatic development in genetic analysis technologies, genetically comprehensive changes in host body reactions are hardly studied. There is no information about host body reactions that can predict successful tissue regeneration in the future. In the present study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were coated with bioactive collagen or bio-inert poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate (PMB and were implanted subcutaneously and compared the host body reaction to those substrates by normalizing the result using control non-coat polyethylene scaffold. The comprehensive analyses of early host body reactions to the scaffolds were carried out using a DNA microarray assay. Within numerous genes which were expressed differently among these scaffolds, particular genes related to inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis were focused upon. Interleukin (IL-1β and IL-10 are important cytokines in tissue responses to biomaterials because IL-1β promotes both inflammation and wound healing and IL-10 suppresses both of them. IL-1β was up-regulated in the collagen-coated scaffold. Collagen-specifically up-regulated genes contained both M1- and M2-macrophage-related genes. Marked vessel formation in the collagen-coated scaffold was occurred in accordance with the up-regulation of many angiogenesis-inducible factors. The DNA microarray assay provided global information regarding the host body reaction. Interestingly, several up-regulated genes were detected even on the very bio-inert PMB-coated surfaces and those genes include inflammation-suppressive and wound healing-suppressive IL-10, suggesting that not only active tissue response but also the inert response may relates to these genetic

  1. Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Early Host Body Reactions to the Bioactive and Bio-Inert Porous Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehashi, Tomo; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Minowa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    To design scaffolds for tissue regeneration, details of the host body reaction to the scaffolds must be studied. Host body reactions have been investigated mainly by immunohistological observations for a long time. Despite of recent dramatic development in genetic analysis technologies, genetically comprehensive changes in host body reactions are hardly studied. There is no information about host body reactions that can predict successful tissue regeneration in the future. In the present study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were coated with bioactive collagen or bio-inert poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) and were implanted subcutaneously and compared the host body reaction to those substrates by normalizing the result using control non-coat polyethylene scaffold. The comprehensive analyses of early host body reactions to the scaffolds were carried out using a DNA microarray assay. Within numerous genes which were expressed differently among these scaffolds, particular genes related to inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis were focused upon. Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 are important cytokines in tissue responses to biomaterials because IL-1β promotes both inflammation and wound healing and IL-10 suppresses both of them. IL-1β was up-regulated in the collagen-coated scaffold. Collagen-specifically up-regulated genes contained both M1- and M2-macrophage-related genes. Marked vessel formation in the collagen-coated scaffold was occurred in accordance with the up-regulation of many angiogenesis-inducible factors. The DNA microarray assay provided global information regarding the host body reaction. Interestingly, several up-regulated genes were detected even on the very bio-inert PMB-coated surfaces and those genes include inflammation-suppressive and wound healing-suppressive IL-10, suggesting that not only active tissue response but also the inert response may relates to these genetic regulations. PMID:24454803

  2. Analysis of Protein Content in Rices Using Fast Neutron Reaction 14N(n,2 n) N13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri-Sulamdari; Elin-Nuraini; Chotimah

    2000-01-01

    Protein content in rices such as IR 33 , Cisadane, and Rojolele has beendetermined using fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). The existence ofprotein is characterized using E γ = 0.511 MeV from nuclear reaction 14 N (n,2 n) N 13 . Two methods of FNAA for quantification were used. Inabsolute method, the protein content was determined by measuring the neutronflux using Al foil, and in comparative additive method it was determined bycomparing to the known N standard which was additive to the samples. Theexperimental results show that the protein content in those rices ranges from(6.33 ± 0.05) % to (6.9 ± 0.11) % in weight. From the reference, thegrained rices contained 6.8 % in weight of protein. The value of the proteinstandard from the reference was in range of the experimental result. Howeverthere were still differences due to nuclear data stability of flux neutron,flux sample composition and the utilization of detector. (author)

  3. Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by boron neutron capture reaction in human squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Itoh, Tasuku; Imamichi, Shoji; Kikuhara, Sota; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Hirai, Takahisa; Saito, Soichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of cell death induced by boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR), we performed proteome analyses of human squamous tumor SAS cells after BNCR. Cells were irradiated with thermal neutron beam at KUR after incubation under boronophenylalanine (BPA)(+) and BPA(−) conditions. BNCR mainly induced typical apoptosis in SAS cells 24 h post-irradiation. Proteomic analysis in SAS cells suggested that proteins functioning in endoplasmic reticulum, DNA repair, and RNA processing showed dynamic changes at early phase after BNCR and could be involved in the regulation of cellular response to BNCR. We found that the BNCR induces fragments of endoplasmic reticulum-localized lymphoid-restricted protein (LRMP). The fragmentation of LRMP was also observed in the rat tumor graft model 20 hours after BNCT treatment carried out at the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. These data suggest that dynamic changes of LRMP could be involved during cellular response to BNCR. - Highlights: • BNCR in human squamous carcinoma cells caused typical apoptotic features. • BNCR induced fragments of LRMP, in human squamous carcinoma and rat tumor model. • The fragmentation of LRMP could be involved in cellular response to BNCR.

  4. Influence of cold work on the diffusion of ion-implanted nitrogen in D9 steel using nuclear reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunkumar, J.; David, C.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Nair, K.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    D9 steels and their modified versions are envisaged for use as fuel cladding and wrapper materials in the Indian fast breeder reactor (FBR) programme. The role played by interstitially dissolved nitrogen in steel matrices for the stabilization of austenitic phase, increase of strength and corrosion resistance is well known. Various factors: the role of grain boundaries and the their orientation, stress mediation, grain fragmentation and production of short circuit paths as a result of compressive stress are known to affect the diffusion of nitrogen. Basically, cold working produces plethora of defects throughout the sample as compared to its solution annealed state. Our earlier studies on 1 x10"1"5 and 5x10"1"5 N"1"5 implanted Solution Annealed D9 (SAD9) showed significant vacancy-nitrogen complexes for higher fluence. Hence, thermal diffusion behaviour of nitrogen was studied in 5 x10"1"5 -N"1"5 implanted samples in solution annealed state. In the present study, to understand the influence of cold work, similar thermal diffusion behaviour of nitrogen has been studied in Cold Worked D9 steel (CWD9) using nuclear reaction analysis

  5. Gene network analysis shows immune-signaling and ERK1/2 as novel genetic markers for multiple addiction phenotypes: alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Yuan, Christine; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2015-06-05

    Addictions to alcohol and tobacco, known risk factors for cancer, are complex heritable disorders. Addictive behaviors have a bidirectional relationship with pain. We hypothesize that the associations between alcohol, smoking, and opioid addiction observed in cancer patients have a genetic basis. Therefore, using bioinformatics tools, we explored the underlying genetic basis and identified new candidate genes and common biological pathways for smoking, alcohol, and opioid addiction. Literature search showed 56 genes associated with alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction. Using Core Analysis function in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that ERK1/2 was strongly interconnected across all three addiction networks. Genes involved in immune signaling pathways were shown across all three networks. Connect function from IPA My Pathway toolbox showed that DRD2 is the gene common to both the list of genetic variations associated with all three addiction phenotypes and the components of the brain neuronal signaling network involved in substance addiction. The top canonical pathways associated with the 56 genes were: 1) calcium signaling, 2) GPCR signaling, 3) cAMP-mediated signaling, 4) GABA receptor signaling, and 5) G-alpha i signaling. Cancer patients are often prescribed opioids for cancer pain thus increasing their risk for opioid abuse and addiction. Our findings provide candidate genes and biological pathways underlying addiction phenotypes, which may be future targets for treatment of addiction. Further study of the variations of the candidate genes could allow physicians to make more informed decisions when treating cancer pain with opioid analgesics.

  6. The fading affect bias shows positive outcomes at the general but not the individual level of analysis in the context of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Kyle A; Dunlap, Spencer M

    2017-08-01

    Unpleasant affect fades faster than pleasant affect (e.g., Walker, Vogl, & Thompson, 1997); this effect is referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB; Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003a). Research shows that the FAB is consistently related to positive/healthy outcomes at a general but not at a specific level of analysis based on event types and individual differences (e.g., Gibbons et al., 2013). Based on the positive outcomes for FAB and negative outcomes for social media (Bolton et al., 2013; Huang, 2010), the current study examined FAB in the context of social media events along with related individual differences. General positive outcomes were shown in the form of robust FAB effects across social media and non-social media events, a larger FAB for non-social media events than for social media events, negative correlations of FAB with depression, anxiety, and stress as well as a positive correlation of FAB with self-esteem. However, the lack of a negative correlation between FAB and anxiety for social media events in a 3-way interaction did not show positive outcomes at a specific level of analysis. Rehearsal ratings mediated the 3-way interaction. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison of genotyping-by-sequencing analysis methods on low-coverage crop datasets shows advantages of a new workflow, GB-eaSy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, Daniel P; Battu, Gopal; Hudson, Karen A; Diers, Brian W; Hudson, Matthew E

    2017-12-28

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a method to identify genetic variants and quickly genotype samples, reduces genome complexity by using restriction enzymes to divide the genome into fragments whose ends are sequenced on short-read sequencing platforms. While cost-effective, this method produces extensive missing data and requires complex bioinformatics analysis. GBS is most commonly used on crop plant genomes, and because crop plants have highly variable ploidy and repeat content, the performance of GBS analysis software can vary by target organism. Here we focus our analysis on soybean, a polyploid crop with a highly duplicated genome, relatively little public GBS data and few dedicated tools. We compared the performance of five GBS pipelines using low-coverage Illumina sequence data from three soybean populations. To address issues identified with existing methods, we developed GB-eaSy, a GBS bioinformatics workflow that incorporates widely used genomics tools, parallelization and automation to increase the accuracy and accessibility of GBS data analysis. Compared to other GBS pipelines, GB-eaSy rapidly and accurately identified the greatest number of SNPs, with SNP calls closely concordant with whole-genome sequencing of selected lines. Across all five GBS analysis platforms, SNP calls showed unexpectedly low convergence but generally high accuracy, indicating that the workflows arrived at largely complementary sets of valid SNP calls on the low-coverage data analyzed. We show that GB-eaSy is approximately as good as, or better than, other leading software solutions in the accuracy, yield and missing data fraction of variant calling, as tested on low-coverage genomic data from soybean. It also performs well relative to other solutions in terms of the run time and disk space required. In addition, GB-eaSy is built from existing open-source, modular software packages that are regularly updated and commonly used, making it straightforward to install and maintain

  8. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M; Huang, C L; Vonk, L A; Lu, Z F; Bank, R A; Helder, M N; Doulabi, B Zandieh

    2016-11-01

    Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend to co-purify with RNA, they can absorb the full spectrum of UV light and they are potent inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare and optimise different homogenisation methods and RNA isolation kits for an array of cartilaginous tissues. Tissue samples such as the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF), articular cartilage (AC) and meniscus, were collected from goats and homogenised by either the MagNA Lyser or Freezer Mill. RNA of duplicate samples was subsequently isolated by either TRIzol (benchmark), or the RNeasy Lipid Tissue, RNeasy Fibrous Tissue, or Aurum Total RNA Fatty and Fibrous Tissue kits. RNA yield, purity, and integrity were determined and gene expression levels of type II collagen and aggrecan were measured by real-time PCR. No differences between the two homogenisation methods were found. RNA isolation using the RNeasy Fibrous and Lipid kits resulted in the purest RNA (A260/A280 ratio), whereas TRIzol isolations resulted in RNA that is not as pure, and show a larger difference in gene expression of duplicate samples compared with both RNeasy kits. The Aurum kit showed low reproducibility. For the extraction of high-quality RNA from cartilaginous structures, we suggest homogenisation of the samples by the MagNA Lyser. For AC, NP and AF we recommend the RNeasy Fibrous kit, whereas for the meniscus the RNeasy Lipid kit is advised.Cite this article: M. Peeters, C. L. Huang, L. A. Vonk, Z. F. Lu, R. A. Bank, M. N. Helder, B. Zandieh Doulabi. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016

  9. A Content Analysis of How Sexual Behavior and Reproductive Health are Being Portrayed on Primetime Television Shows Being Watched by Teens and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsler, Janni J; Glik, Deborah; de Castro Buffington, Sandra; Malan, Hannah; Nadjat-Haiem, Carsten; Wainwright, Nicole; Papp-Green, Melissa

    2018-02-01

    Television is a leading source of sexual education for teens and young adults, thus it is important to understand how sexual behavior and reproductive health are portrayed in popular primetime programming. This study is a media content analysis of the 19 top-rated scripted English-language primetime television shows aired between January 1, 2015 and May 31, 2015, and viewed by American youth audiences 12-24 years of age. The purpose of this study is to assess how sex/sexuality and reproductive health are being portrayed in a popular medium that reaches many adolescent and young adult audiences. Themes used for this analysis include youth pregnancy/parenting, mentoring/guidance of youth regarding sexual behavior, sex/sexuality, body image/identity, sexual violence/abuse/harassment, gender identity/sexual orientation, and reproductive health. Themes have been classified in one of the following six categories: visual cues, brief mentions, dialogue, minor storylines, major storylines, and multi-episode storylines. Our findings indicate that narratives providing educational information regarding the risks and consequences of sexual behavior were missing from the television shows we analyzed and that storylines promoting low risk sexual behavior were rare. Sexual violence and abuse, casual sex among adults, lack of contraception use, or no portrayal of consequences of risky behaviors were common. Compared to prior research, we found an emergent theme normalizing non-heterosexual gender identity and sexual orientation. Our findings have important implications as exposure to popular media shapes the perceptions and behaviors of teens and young adults. This study has the potential to shed light on the need to create stories and narratives in television shows watched by American teens and young adults with educational messages regarding the risks and consequences of sexual behavior.

  10. Public reactions to e-cigarette regulations on Twitter: a text mining analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Wilcox, Gary B; Tuttle, Hannah M; Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Pikowski, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    In May 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final rule that deemed e-cigarettes to be within their regulatory authority as a tobacco product. News and opinions about the regulation were shared on social media platforms, such as Twitter, which can play an important role in shaping the public's attitudes. We analysed information shared on Twitter for insights into initial public reactions. A text mining approach was used to uncover important topics among reactions to the e-cigarette regulations on Twitter. SAS Text Miner V.12.1 software was used for descriptive text mining to uncover the primary topics from tweets collected from May 1 to May 17 2016 using NUVI software to gather the data. A total of nine topics were generated. These topics reveal initial reactions to whether the FDA's e-cigarette regulations will benefit or harm public health, how the regulations will impact the emerging e-cigarette market and efforts to share the news. The topics were dominated by negative or mixed reactions. In the days following the FDA's announcement of the new deeming regulations, the public reaction on Twitter was largely negative. Public health advocates should consider using social media outlets to better communicate the policy's intentions, reach and potential impact for public good to create a more balanced conversation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Free Energy Contribution Analysis Using Response Kernel Approximation: Insights into the Acylation Reaction of a Beta-Lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Toshio; Ando, Kanta; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Koseki, Shiro

    2016-09-08

    A widely applicable free energy contribution analysis (FECA) method based on the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approximation using response kernel approaches has been proposed to investigate the influences of environmental residues and/or atoms in the QM region on the free energy profile. This method can evaluate atomic contributions to the free energy along the reaction path including polarization effects on the QM region within a dramatically reduced computational time. The rate-limiting step in the deactivation of the β-lactam antibiotic cefalotin (CLS) by β-lactamase was studied using this method. The experimentally observed activation barrier was successfully reproduced by free energy perturbation calculations along the optimized reaction path that involved activation by the carboxylate moiety in CLS. It was found that the free energy profile in the QM region was slightly higher than the isolated energy and that two residues, Lys67 and Lys315, as well as water molecules deeply influenced the QM atoms associated with the bond alternation reaction in the acyl-enzyme intermediate. These facts suggested that the surrounding residues are favorable for the reactant complex and prevent the intermediate from being too stabilized to proceed to the following deacylation reaction. We have demonstrated that the free energy contribution analysis should be a useful method to investigate enzyme catalysis and to facilitate intelligent molecular design.

  12. The analysis of B, C, N, and O by nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debras, G.; Deconninck, G.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear reactions induced on light elements by lower energy deuterons are investigated. Differential cross section for 10 B(d,α 0 ) 8 Be, 10 B(d,α 1 ) 8 Be, 12 C(d,p 0 ) 13 C, 14 N(d,α 1 ) 12 C, 16 O(d,p 0 ) 17 O, 16 O(d,p 1 ) 17 O and 16 O(d,α 0 ) 14 N reactions are measured between 0.5 and 3 MeV at an observation angle of 135 0 with respect to the incident beam. Possible application of these reactions to the measurement of surface concentration is considered. Special emphasis was given on nitrogen determination in order to study nitrogen concentration in industrial glasses. Surface nitrogen repartition on glass, origin of nitrogen, influence of oxidizing and reducing conditions and glass structure are discussed. (author)

  13. Analysis of (3He, t) charge exchange reactions at 140 AMeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pardeep; Zegers, R.G.T.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Noji, S.; Kim, B.T.; Sakai, H.

    2014-01-01

    The spin-isospin response in nuclei has been studied widely through ( 3 He, t) and (t, 3 He) charge-exchange reactions wherein a proton (neutron) transforms into a neutron (proton), which in turn changes the isospin, ΔT=1, of the nuclei participating in the reaction, either with or without spin transfer. The Gamow-Teller transitions are used to obtain the weak transition strength in the excitation-energy regions inaccessible through β-decay. The strengths deduced using charge exchange experiments provide stringent tests for nuclear structure calculations and serve as inputs for variety of applications in which weak transition strengths play a role. In this context, we explore here the ( 3 He,t) charge-exchange reaction at 140 MeV/u on 18 O, 26 Mg, 58,60,62, 64 Ni, 90 Zr, 118,120 Sn and 208 Pb targets, within the theoretical framework of distorted wave impulse approximation

  14. Comparative Analysis of the $^{178m2}$Hf Yield at Reactions with Different Projectiles

    CERN Document Server

    Karamian, S A

    2004-01-01

    The long-lived high-spin $^{178m2}$Hf $K$-isomer can be produced in nuclear reactions with different projectiles. The reaction yields and cross-sections have been measured in the series of experiments and the results are now overviewed. The systematics of isomer-to-ground state ratios are drawn and real production capabilities are estimated for the best reactions. Such a summary is relevant to the significance of the isomer studies both for the nuclear-science knowledge and for possible applications. Potential isomer applications have been earlier stressed in popular publications with probably overestimated expectations. The real possibilities are restricted in part by the production yield and by other shortcomings as well.

  15. Analysis of genetic distance between Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos showing two distinct fleece phenotypes, Suri and Huacaya, by means of microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 2.9.3.2. The sample was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37 showed deviation from equilibrium (Ploci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044, expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033, number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772 and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036 are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei’s and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza’s. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci.

  16. Worldwide withdrawal of medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically identified medicinal products withdrawn worldwide because of adverse drug reactions, assessed the level of evidence used for making the withdrawal decisions, and explored the patterns of withdrawals over time. We searched PubMed, the WHO database of withdrawn products, and selected texts. We included products that were withdrawn after launch from 1950 onwards, excluding non-human and over-the-counter medicines. We assessed the levels of evidence on which withdrawals were based using the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Of 353 medicinal products withdrawn from any country, only 40 were withdrawn worldwide. Anecdotal reports were cited as evidence for withdrawal in 30 (75%) and deaths occurred in 27 (68%). Hepatic, cardiac, and nervous system toxicity accounted for over 60% of withdrawals. In 28 cases, the first withdrawal was initiated by the manufacturer. The median interval between the first report of an adverse drug reaction that led to withdrawal and the first withdrawal was 1 year (range 0-43 years). Worldwide withdrawals occurred within 1 year after the first withdrawal in any country. In conclusion, the time it takes for drugs to be withdrawn worldwide after reports of adverse drug reactions has shortened over time. However, there are inconsistencies in current withdrawal procedures when adverse drug reactions are suspected. A uniform method for establishing worldwide withdrawal of approved medicinal products when adverse drug reactions are suspected should be developed, to facilitate global withdrawals. Rapid synthesis of the evidence on harms should be a priority when serious adverse reactions are suspected.

  17. The analysis of stress reactions ana coping patterns of cancer patients who perceived stress by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Dong Han; Kim, Jin Su; Park, Gil Yong; Son, Mi Suk

    2001-01-01

    This study is performed to encourage cancer patients to identify, relieve and effectively overcome the stress caused by radiotherapy, by analyzing stress reactions and coping patterns of cancer patients who perceived stress due to radiotherapy. The study group was composed of 85 cancer patients of the age 20 or higher who were undergoing radiotherapy in four hospitals located in Seoul and Kyonggi-do. The survey questionnaire was used, which had 161 questions inquiring respondents of general status, perceived stress, stress reactions and coping patterns. The surveyed data were analyzed by a SAS program, which employed descriptive statistics. Pearson Correlation Coefficient, t-test, ANOVA and Stepwised Multiple Regression. The stress perception and reaction rates were low in cancer patients comparing to patients of the other study. In the coping patterns. the problem-focused coping patterns were significantly higher than emotion-focused coping patterns. The statistically meaningful differences were observed in the stress perception and reactions depending on the time of diagnosis and perceived health level. As for the problem-focused coping patterns, significant differences were found depending on age, marital status, education, income and the number of family members as well as perceived health level of patients. The level of perceived stress and that of stress reactions was found to have positively significant correlation(r=.764, p<.001) while the perceived stress and the problem-focused coping patterns was correlated negatively (r=-.288, p<.01). The stress reactions and the problem-focused coping patterns was found to have negatively significant correlation(r=-.289, p<.01). The problem-focused coping behavior, which cooperated with doctors, technologists, nurses and families of cancer patients, is advisable for the cancer patients to overcome uncertainty and uneasiness by effectively release the stress.

  18. The analysis of stress reactions ana coping patterns of cancer patients who perceived stress by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Dong Han; Kim, Jin Su; Park, Gil Yong; Son, Mi Suk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    This study is performed to encourage cancer patients to identify, relieve and effectively overcome the stress caused by radiotherapy, by analyzing stress reactions and coping patterns of cancer patients who perceived stress due to radiotherapy. The study group was composed of 85 cancer patients of the age 20 or higher who were undergoing radiotherapy in four hospitals located in Seoul and Kyonggi-do. The survey questionnaire was used, which had 161 questions inquiring respondents of general status, perceived stress, stress reactions and coping patterns. The surveyed data were analyzed by a SAS program, which employed descriptive statistics. Pearson Correlation Coefficient, t-test, ANOVA and Stepwised Multiple Regression. The stress perception and reaction rates were low in cancer patients comparing to patients of the other study. In the coping patterns. the problem-focused coping patterns were significantly higher than emotion-focused coping patterns. The statistically meaningful differences were observed in the stress perception and reactions depending on the time of diagnosis and perceived health level. As for the problem-focused coping patterns, significant differences were found depending on age, marital status, education, income and the number of family members as well as perceived health level of patients. The level of perceived stress and that of stress reactions was found to have positively significant correlation(r=.764, p<.001) while the perceived stress and the problem-focused coping patterns was correlated negatively (r=-.288, p<.01). The stress reactions and the problem-focused coping patterns was found to have negatively significant correlation(r=-.289, p<.01). The problem-focused coping behavior, which cooperated with doctors, technologists, nurses and families of cancer patients, is advisable for the cancer patients to overcome uncertainty and uneasiness by effectively release the stress.

  19. Determination of 18O by prompt nuclear reaction analysis: application for measurement of microsamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, S.D.; Cohen, D.; Katsaros, A.; Tom, J.; Owen, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the routine determination of 18 O concentrations in microsamples of biological fluids. The method utilizes the prompt nuclear reaction 18 O(p,α 0 ) 15 N, and 846-keV protons from a 3-MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator are focused on ∼2,000-Angstroem-thick Ta 2 O 5 targets prepared by anodic oxidation from 50-μl samples of water distilled from blood or other biological fluids. The broad cross section of the resonance peak for this nuclear reaction (47 keV) ensures high yields, especially at small reaction angles, and the high-energy α particles produced by the reaction (4 MeV) are readily separated from scattered protons by the use of an aluminized Mylar foil of suitable thickness. Background levels of 18 O (0.204 atom%) can be detected with run times of ∼5-8 min, and the sensitivity of the method is of the order of 0.05 atom%. Experimental error due to sample preparation was found to be 1.7%, and counting errors were close to theoretical limits so that total error was of the order of 2.5%. Duplicate samples were analyzed by use of the 18 O(p,α 0 ) 15 N reaction at Lucas Heights, Australia and the 18 O(p,n) 18 F reaction at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the agreement was excellent (y = 1.0123x - 0.0123, r = 0.991, P < 0.001). The theoretical limitations and the general applicability of the method in biological studies designed to estimate the rate of metabolism of free-ranging animals are also discussed. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Effects of Prophylactic Ankle Supports on Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Landing: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Niu, Tienan Feng, Lejun Wang, Chenghua Jiang, Ming Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate on how prophylactic ankle supports (PASs may influence the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF during landing. Therefore, the primary aims of this meta-analysis were to systematically review and synthesize the effect of PASs on vGRF, and to understand how PASs affect vGRF peaks (F1, F2 and the time from initial contact to peak loading (T1, T2 during landing. Several key databases, including Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, ProQuest, Medline, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Physical Activity Index, were used for identifying relevant studies published in English since inception to April 1, 2015. The computerized literature search and cross-referencing the citation list of the articles yielded 3,993 articles. Criteria for inclusion required that 1 the study was conducted on healthy adults; 2 the subject number and trial number were known; 3 the subjects performed landing with and without PAS; 4 the landing movement was in the sagittal plane; 5 the comparable vGRF parameters were reported; and 6 the F1 and F2 must be normalized to the subject’s body weight. After the removal of duplicates and irrelevant articles, 6, 6, 15 and 11 studies were respectively pooled for outcomes of F1, T1, F2 and T2. This study found a significantly increased F2 (.03 BW, 95% CI: .001, .05 and decreased T1 (-1.24 ms, 95% CI: -1.77, -.71 and T2 (-3.74 ms, 95% CI: -4.83, -2.65 with the use of a PAS. F1 was not significantly influenced by the PAS. Heterogeneity was present in some results, but there was no evidence of publication bias for any outcome. These changes represented deterioration in the buffering characteristics of the joint. An ideal PAS design should limit the excessive joint motion of ankle inversion, while allowing a normal range of motion, especially in the sagittal plane.

  1. Asymptotic analysis of reaction-diffusion-advection problems: Fronts with periodic motion and blow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, Nikolay

    2017-02-01

    This is an extended variant of the paper presented at MURPHYS-HSFS 2016 conference in Barcelona. We discuss further development of the asymptotic method of differential inequalities to investigate existence and stability of sharp internal layers (fronts) for nonlinear singularly perturbed periodic parabolic problems and initial boundary value problems with blow-up of fronts for reaction-diffusion-advection equations. In particular, we consider periodic solutions with internal layer in the case of balanced reaction. For the initial boundary value problems we prove the existence of fronts and give their asymptotic approximation including the new case of blowing-up fronts. This case we illustrate by the generalised Burgers equation.

  2. Gc, gc-ms analysis of lipophilic fractions of aerial parts of fagonia indica burm.f. showing growth inhibitory effect on ht 29 colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farheen, R.; Mahmood, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fagonia indica Burm.f. is a small genus of herbs and under shrubs. The plant contains potentially active substances and has been used traditionally for the treatment of many illnesses including cancer. Many polar compounds have been reported from this plant but its non-polar constituents have only been rarely studied. In the present studies these constituents of aerial parts of Fagonia indica Burm.f. and its sub fractions showing growth inhibitory effect on HT 29 colorectal cancer cells were analyzed using flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-EIMS analysis. The present studies exhibited the presence of free fatty acids and their esters along with structurally diverse constituents including triterpene, heterocyclic organic compound, aromatics, hydrocarbons, alcohols, lactone and sterols which may be responsible for this activity. The results suggest that the non-polar constituents of F. indica bear a potential of further studies. (author)

  3. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  4. Contribution to the analysis of dileptons production reactions in proton-proton collision with HADES; Contribution a l'analyse de reactions de production de dileptons en collision proton-proton avec HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriniere, E

    2008-03-15

    The most recent analysis of dilepton spectra, produced in heavy ion collisions, have shown the need for a precise knowledge of all dilepton production channels. The experimental HADES facility, installed on the GSI accelerator site, is appropriate for that goal. Thus, the Dalitz decay branching ratio of {delta} resonance ({delta} {yields} Ne{sup +}e{sup -}), which has never been measured, is studied in this work. Moreover, the pp {yields} p/ {delta}{sup +} {yields} ppe{sup +-} reaction could allow to provide some information about the internal resonance structure and more precisely, about the electromagnetic transition N - A form factors. The analysis of simulations shows the feasibility of this experiment, estimates the counting yield as well as the Signal over Background ratio. This analysis shows also the great importance of the momentum resolution of the detector for the success of this experiment. The momentum resolution must be investigated. In this work, an attempt to find out the most important contributions to the measured resolution is presented. The calibration step, which provides the relation between electronic time and physical time, the detector alignment (global, relative or internal) as well as the tracking method are studied. Some methods for improvement of these different contributions are proposed in order to reach the optimal resolution. (author)

  5. Experimental and numerical analysis of the combustor for a cogeneration system based on the aluminum/water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Paltrinieri, Fabrizio; Stefani, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum reaction with water is studied as a technology for hydrogen production. • A test rig is developed for the analysis of aluminum/water reaction. • The system is the core component of a cogeneration plant for hydrogen/power production. • The interaction of liquid aluminum jet and water steam stream is investigated. • The main capabilities of the injection system are assessed. - Abstract: The paper focuses on the design of the experimental apparatus aimed at analyzing the performance of the combustion chamber of a cogeneration system based on the reaction of liquid aluminum and water steam. The cogeneration system exploits the heat released by the oxidation of aluminum with water for super-heating the vapor of a steam cycle and simultaneously producing hydrogen. The only by-product is alumina, which in a closed loop can be recycled back and transformed again into aluminum. Therefore, aluminum is used as an energy carrier to transport the energy from the alumina reduction plant to the location of the proposed system. The water is also used in a closed loop since the amount of water produced employing the hydrogen obtained by the proposed system corresponds to the oxidizing water for the Al/H 2 O reaction. This study investigates the combustor where the liquid aluminum–steam reaction takes place. In particular, the design of the combustion chamber and the interaction between the liquid aluminum jet and the water steam flow are evaluated using a numerical and an experimental approach. The test rig is specifically designed for the analysis of the liquid aluminum injection in a slightly super-heated steam stream. The first experiments are carried out to verify the correct behavior of the test rig. Thermography is employed to qualitatively assess the steam entrainment of the liquid aluminum jet. Finally, the experimental measurements are compared with the multi-dimension multi-phase flow simulations in order to estimate the influence of

  6. Angular and velocity analysis of the three-fold events in the Xe+Cu reaction at 45 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M.L.; Fuschini, E.; Manduci, L.; Mastinu, P.F.; Milazzo, P.M.; Gramegna, F.; Ferrero, A.M.J.; Gulminelli, F.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.; Scardaoni, R.; Buttazzo, P.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Vannini, G.; Auger, G.; Plagnol, E.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of the angular and velocity distributions of the intermediate mass fragments produced in the reaction Xe+Cu at 45 MeV/u is presented. Events coming from central collisions are selected and compared with predictions of different models based on a statistical deexcitation of an equilibrated source. The angular and velocity correlations show that the experimental production of three nearly-equal mass fragments cannot be explained by a sequential binary decay and is compatible with a multifragmentation mechanism. ((orig.))

  7. Understanding the mechanisms of solid-water reactions through analysis of surface topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Joel Z; Brantley, Susan L

    2015-12-01

    The topography of a reactive surface contains information about the reactions that form or modify the surface and, therefore, it should be possible to characterize reactivity using topography parameters such as surface area, roughness, or fractal dimension. As a test of this idea, we consider a two-dimensional (2D) lattice model for crystal dissolution and examine a suite of topography parameters to determine which may be useful for predicting rates and mechanisms of dissolution. The model is based on the assumption that the reactivity of a surface site decreases with the number of nearest neighbors. We show that the steady-state surface topography in our model system is a function of, at most, two variables: the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with two neighbors versus three neighbors (d(2)/d(3)) and the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with one neighbor versus three neighbors (d(1)/d(3)). This means that relative rates can be determined from two parameters characterizing the topography of a surface provided that the two parameters are independent of one another. It also means that absolute rates cannot be determined from measurements of surface topography alone. To identify independent sets of topography parameters, we simulated surfaces from a broad range of d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) and computed a suite of common topography parameters for each surface. Our results indicate that the fractal dimension D and the average spacing between steps, E[s], can serve to uniquely determine d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) provided that sufficiently strong correlations exist between the steps. Sufficiently strong correlations exist in our model system when D>1.5 (which corresponds to D>2.5 for real 3D reactive surfaces). When steps are uncorrelated, surface topography becomes independent of step retreat rate and D is equal to 1.5. Under these conditions, measures of surface topography are not independent and any single topography parameter contains all of the available mechanistic

  8. Large Scale Genome Analysis Shows that the Epitopes for Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies Are Predominant in the Pandemic 2009 Influenza Virus A H1N1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E. Lara-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past pandemic strain H1N1 (A (H1N1pdm09 has now become a common component of current seasonal influenza viruses. It has changed the pre-existing immunity of the human population to succeeding infections. In the present study, a total of 14,210 distinct sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database were used for the analysis. The epitope compositions in A (H1N1pdm09, classic seasonal strains, swine strains as well as highly virulent avian strain H5N1, identified with the aid of the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB, were compared at genomic level. The result showed that A (H1N1 pdm09 contains the 90% of B-cell epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies (EBCA, which is in consonance with the recent reports on the experimental identification of new epitopes or antibodies for this virus and the binding tests with influenza virus protein HA of different subtypes. Our analysis supports that high proportional EBCA depends on the epitope pattern of A (H1N1pdm09 virus. This study may be helpful for better understanding of A (H1N1pdm09 and the production of new influenza vaccines.

  9. Robotic Assisted Radical Cystectomy with Extracorporeal Urinary Diversion Does Not Show a Benefit over Open Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen Tan

    Full Text Available The number of robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC procedures is increasing despite the lack of Level I evidence showing any advantages over open radical cystectomy (ORC. However, several systematic reviews with meta-analyses including non-randomised studies, suggest an overall benefit for RARC compared to ORC. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the perioperative morbidity and efficacy of RARC compared to ORC in patients with bladder cancer.Literature searches of Medline/Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and clinicaltrials.gov databases up to 10th March 2016 were performed. The inclusion criteria for eligible studies were RCTs which compared perioperative outcomes of ORC and RARC for bladder cancer. Primary objective was perioperative and histopathological outcomes of RARC versus ORC while the secondary objective was quality of life assessment (QoL, oncological outcomes and cost analysis.Four RCTs (from 5 articles met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 239 patients all with extracorporeal urinary diversion. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics of RARC and ORC patients were evenly matched. There was no significant difference between groups in perioperative morbidity, length of stay, positive surgical margin, lymph node yield and positive lymph node status. RARC group had significantly lower estimated blood loss (p<0.001 and wound complications (p = 0.03 but required significantly longer operating time (p<0.001. QoL was not measured uniformly across trials and cost analysis was reported in one RCTs. A test for heterogeneity did highlight differences across operating time of trials suggesting that surgeon experience may influence outcomes.This study does not provide evidence to support a benefit for RARC compared to ORC. These results may not have inference for RARC with intracorporeal urinary diversion. Well-designed trials with appropriate endpoints conducted

  10. Gene expression analysis of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates show that two-component response systems enhance drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Cui, Zhenling; Sun, Xian; Peng, Jinfu; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Wei; Huang, Wenhua; Chu, Kaili; Zhang, Lu; Ge, Baoxue; Li, Yao

    2015-05-01

    Global analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays was performed between a reference strain H37Rv and two clinical extensively drug-resistant isolates in response to three anti-tuberculosis drug exposures (isoniazid, capreomycin, and rifampicin). A deep analysis was then conducted using a combination of genome sequences of the resistant isolates, resistance information, and related public microarray data. Certain known resistance-associated gene sets were significantly overrepresented in upregulated genes in the resistant isolates relative to that observed in H37Rv, which suggested a link between resistance and expression levels of particular genes. In addition, isoniazid and capreomycin response genes, but not rifampicin, either obtained from published works or our data, were highly consistent with the differentially expressed genes of resistant isolates compared to those of H37Rv, indicating a strong association between drug resistance of the isolates and genes differentially regulated by isoniazid and capreomycin exposures. Based on these results, 92 genes of the studied isolates were identified as candidate resistance genes, 10 of which are known resistance-related genes. Regulatory network analysis of candidate resistance genes using published networks and literature mining showed that three two-component regulatory systems and regulator CRP play significant roles in the resistance of the isolates by mediating the production of essential envelope components. Finally, drug sensitivity testing indicated strong correlations between expression levels of these regulatory genes and sensitivity to multiple anti-tuberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the emergence and development of drug resistance in resistant tuberculosis isolates and useful clues for further studies on this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An attributional analysis of reactions to poverty: the political ideology of the giver and the perceived morality of the receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bernard; Osborne, Danny; Rudolph, Udo

    2011-05-01

    An attributional analysis of reactions to poverty is presented. The article begins by discussing the perceived causes of poverty and their taxonomic properties (locus, stability, and controllability). One antecedent of causal beliefs, political ideology, is then examined in detail, followed by a review of the effects of causal beliefs on emotions and behavior. It is contended that helping the poor is a moral issue, but the moral evaluation concerns the targeted recipient of aid rather than the potential help giver. Persons perceived as responsible for their plight, a dominant construal for conservatives, elicit anger and neglect. In contrast, those seen as not responsible for their financial hardship, an outlook predominantly endorsed by liberals, arouse sympathy and help giving. Sympathy is the most important proximal determinant of aid. This analysis is extended to reactions to achievement failure, abortion, and rape. Policy implications are also examined.

  12. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.

    2017-05-03

    Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  13. Kinematical analysis of the data from three-particle reactions by statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, J.; Nocken, U.

    1976-01-01

    A statistical procedure to unfold the kinematics of coincidence spectra from three-particle reactions is presented which is used to protect the coincidence events on the kinematical curve. The width of the projection intervals automatically matches the experimental resolution.. The method is characterized by its consistency thus also permitting a reasonable projection of sum-coincidences. (Auth.)

  14. NRABASE 2.0. Charged-particle nuclear reaction data for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbich, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    For 30 targets between H-1 and Ag-109, differential cross sections for reactions induced by protons, deuterons, He-3 and alpha particles are given in tabular and graphical form. The data were compiled from original experimental references. The database was developed under a research contract with the IAEA Physics Section and is available on diskette from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  15. Quantitative analysis of oxygen depth distribution by means of deuteron reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyumin, A.N.; Eremin, V.K.; Konnikov, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Experimentally are investigated and realized possibilities for using the reaction for quantitative determination of the depth profiles of the oxygen distribution in HTSC structures in layers up to 10 4 A. It is concluded that in the near-surface layers when profiling the oxygen content is achieved the spatial resolution of 150 A

  16. Design, Testing and Kinetic Analysis of Bulky Monodentate Phosphorus Ligands in the Mizoroki-Heck Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodds, Deborah L.; Boele, Maarten D. K.; van Strijdonck, Gino P. F.; de Vries, Johannes G.; van Leeuwen, Piet W. N. M.; Kamer, Paul C. J.

    A series of new monodentate phosphane ligands 2 have been evaluated in the MizorokiHeck arylation reaction of iodobenzene and styrene and compared with our previously reported ligands, 1, 3 and 4. The concept of rational ligand design is discussed, and we describe how the performance of this new

  17. Analysis of coupled mass transfer and sol-gel reaction in a two-phase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijns, H.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Pel, L.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The coupled mass transfer and chemical reactions of a gel-forming compound in a two-phase system were studied in detail. Tetra-methyl-ortho-silicate (TMOS) is often used as a precursor in sol-gel chemistry to produce silica gels in aqueous systems. TMOS can also be mixed with many hydrocarbons

  18. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  19. Genotype by environment interaction for litter size in pigs as quantified by reaction norms analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, P W; Su, G

    2008-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure was used to estimate linear reaction norms (i.e. individual G × E plots) on 297 518 litter size records of 121 104 sows, daughters of 2040 sires, recorded on 144 farms in North and Latin America, Europe, Asia and Australia. The method allowed for simultaneous estimation of al...

  20. Reaction theory for analysis of nuclear giant resonances production and decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foglia, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of mixing parameters connected to the different decay forms of the giant resonances was theoretically justified, and their energy dependence determined as well using a reaction theory which treats in a consistent manner the giant multipolar resonances formation and their different decay modes. (L.C.J.A.)

  1. Structural Analysis of Substrate, Reaction Intermediate, and Product Binding in Haemophilus influenzae Biotin Carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B.; Bonnot, Ross; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO2 from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin. PMID:26020841

  2. Toxicological analysis of limonene reaction products using an in vitro exposure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Khurshid, Shahana S.; Meade, B. Jean; Lukomska, Ewa; Wells, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations suggest a link between exposure to indoor air chemicals and adverse health effects. Consumer products contain reactive chemicals which can form secondary pollutants which may contribute to these effects. The reaction of limonene and ozone is a well characterized example of this type of indoor air chemistry. The studies described here characterize an in vitro model using an epithelial cell line (A549) or differentiated epithelial tissue (MucilAir™). The model is used to investigate adverse effects following exposure to combinations of limonene and ozone. In A549 cells, exposure to both the parent compounds and reaction products resulted in alterations in inflammatory cytokine production. A one hour exposure to limonene + ozone resulted in decreased proliferation when compared to cells exposed to limonene alone. Repeated dose exposures of limonene or limonene + ozone were conducted on MucilAir™ tissue. No change in proliferation was observed but increases in cytokine production were observed for both the parent compounds and reaction products. Factors such as exposure duration, chemical concentration, and sampling time point were identified to influence result outcome. These findings suggest that exposure to reaction products may produce more severe effects compared to the parent compound. PMID:23220291

  3. Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates by Analysis of Barium-140 From Fission Dosimeters

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes two procedures for the measurement of reaction rates by determining the amount of the fission product 140Ba produced by the non-threshold reactions 235U(n,f), 241Am(n,f), and 239Pu(n,f), and by the threshold reactions 238U(n,f), 237Np(n,f), and 232Th(n,f). 1.2 These reactions produce many fission products, among which is 140Ba, having a half-life of 12.752 days. 140Ba emits gamma rays of several energies; however, these are not easily detected in the presence of other fission products. Competing activity from other fission products requires that a chemical separation be employed or that the 140Ba activity be determined indirectly by counting its daughter product 140La. This test method describes both procedure (a), the nondestructive determination of 140Ba by the direct counting of 140La several days after irradiation, and procedure (b), the chemical separation of 140Ba and the subsequent counting of 140Ba or its daughter 140La. 1.3 With suitable techniques, fission neutron fl...

  4. Oxygen atom transfer reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. A bonding evolution theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Navarrete, Patricio; Sensato, Fabricio R; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2014-08-07

    In this research, a comprehensive theoretical investigation has been conducted on oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. The joint use of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of chemical events along a reaction pathway. The progress of the reaction has been monitored by structural stability domains from ELF topology while the changes between them are controlled by turning points derived from CT which reveal that the reaction mechanism can be separated in several steps: first, a rupture of the peroxo O1-O2 bond, then a rearrangement of lone pairs of the sulfur atom occurs and subsequently the formation of S-O1 bond. The OAT process involving the oxidation of sulfides and sulfoxides is found to be an asynchronous process where O1-O2 bond breaking and S-O1 bond formation processes do not occur simultaneously. Nucleophilic/electrophilic characters of both dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, are sufficiently described by our results, which hold the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of electrons that compose the bonds while the bonds change.

  5. Analysis of adverse reactions and complications of transcatheter uterine artery embolization (TUAE) for uterine fibroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Luo Pengfei; Du Juan; Zuo Yuewei; Hu Xiaoping; Hong Danhua; Lin Huahuan; Li Gaowen; Liu Suyun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the adverse reactions and complications as well as their preventive and therapeutic measures of TUAE for uterine fibroids. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two patients with uterine fibroids were treated by TUAE. Bilateral uterine arteries were embolized using lipiodol-pingyangmycin emulsion (LPE), together with Gelfoam particles. All patients were hospitalized for 3 to 10 days after TUAE and were followed up for 1 to 24 months to observe the adverse reactions and complications. Results: Adverse reactions of TUAE included postembolization syndrome ( n 182); urinary irritation ( n = 24), and hyporrhea of vagina ( n = 25 ) . Complications of TUAE included expelling of necrotic fibroids per vagina ( n = 5 ); urinary retention ( n = 10); urinary tract infection ( n = 1 ); ulcer of labia minora ( n = 1 ); ecchymosis and ulceration on buttock ( n = 1), and secondary infection of chocolate cyst of ovary. ( n = 1 ). All the above-mentioned side effects of TUAE recovered to normal after expectant or especial treatment without any sequels left. Conclusion: The adverse reactions of TUAE are reversible and the complications of TUAE are preventable and curable

  6. Analysis of the consequences of 'thermite' reaction; Analisis sobre las consecuencias de la reaccion 'termita'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorio, Daniel; Cincotta, Daniel O; Camacho, Esteban F; Bruno, Hernan R; Boero, Norma L [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    1999-07-01

    The mixture of Al-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} is not in a state of chemical equilibrium, and at temperatures of between 850 degree C and 1000 degree C, it reacts exo thermally. This is known, in corresponding bibliography, as a 'Thermite reaction'. This mixture is used in the manufacturing of the plate-type fuel used in research reactors. It has been pointed out that the release of energy caused by this type of reactions might represent a risk in case of accidents in this type of reactor. Conclusions, in general, tend to indicate that no such risk exists, although no concrete assurance is given that this is the case, and this fact, therefore, leaves room for doubt. The objective of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of what happens to a fuel plate when it is subjected to thermite reaction. We will, furthermore, analyze the consequences of the release of energy generated by this type of reaction within the core of the reactor, clearly defining the problem for this type of fuel and this kind of reactor.

  7. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the reaction between biological catecholamines and chlorinated methylperoxy radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimić, Dušan S.; Milenković, Dejan A.; Marković, Jasmina M. Dimitrić; Marković, Zoran S.

    2018-05-01

    The antiradical potency of catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, L-DOPA), metabolites of dopamine (homovanillic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and catechol towards substituted methylperoxy radicals is investigated. The thermodynamic parameters, together with the kinetic approach, are used to determine the most probable mechanism of action. The natural bond orbital and quantum theory of atoms in molecules are utilised to explain the highest reactivity of trichloromethylperoxy radical. The preferred mechanism is dependent both on the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters . The number of chlorine atoms on radical, the presence of intra-molecular hydrogen bond and number of hydroxy groups attached to the aromatic ring significantly influence the mechanism. The results suggest that sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) is the most probable for reaction with methylperoxy and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) for reaction with trichloromethylperoxy radicals, with a gradual transition between SPLET and HAT for other two radicals. Due to the significant deprotonation of molecules containing the carboxyl group, the respective anions are also investigated. The HAT and SPLET mechanisms are highly competitive in reaction with MP radical, while the dominant mechanism towards chlorinated radicals is HAT. The reactions in methanol and benzene are also discussed.

  8. Consistent analysis of peripheral reaction channels and fusion for the 16,18O+58Ni systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.J.S.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J.; Chamon, L.C.; Pereira, D.; Anjos, R.M.; Rossi, E.S.; Silva, C.P.; Alvarez, M.A.G.; Nobre, G.P.A.; Gasques, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured elastic scattering and peripheral reaction channel cross sections for the 16,18 O+ 58 Ni systems at ELab=46 MeV. The data were analyzed through extensive coupled-channel calculations. It was investigated the consistency of the present analysis with a previous one at sub-barrier energies. Experimental fusion cross sections for these systems are also compared with the corresponding predictions of the coupled-channel calculations

  9. Multipolarity analysis for 14C high-energy resonance populated by (18O,16O) two-neutron transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Bondì, M.; Agodi, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Azaiez, F.; Franchoo, S.; Khan, E.; Bonaccorso, A.; Fortunato, L.; Foti, A.; Linares, R.; Lubian, J.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Vitturi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The 12 C( 18 O, 16 O) 14 C reaction at 84 MeV incident energy has been explored up to high excitation energy of the residual nucleus thanks to the use of the MAGNEX spectrometer to detect the ejectiles. In the region above the two-neutron separation energy, a resonance has been observed at 16.9 MeV. A multipolarity analysis of the cross section angular distribution indicates an L = 0 character for such a transition

  10. Detection and RFLP Analysis of Canine Parvovirus (CPV) DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKUL, Aykut

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the detection of canine parvovirus (CPV) in a fecal sample from a dog with enteritis was performed for the first time using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Turkey. The final PCR product was analyzed using the restriction fragment length polymorphysm (RFLP) technique. RFLP analysis using Apa LI and Eco RV restriction endonucleases revealed homology in the nucleotide sequence in at least the VP2 coding region of the virus DNAs detected in the fecal specimen and prepared fr...

  11. Determination of tea fluorine concentration with 19F(p, αγ)16O prompt nuclear reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Daihua; Shen Guantao; Li Deyi; Wu Junheng

    1987-01-01

    Experiments of 19 F(p, αγ) 16 O prompt nuclear reaction analyses of tea F contents were performed on a Cockroft-Walton accelerator. The principle and apparatus are described. More than 150 varieties tea samples were examined. Results show that for the same variety of tea samples, the higher the grade of the tea, the higher the F concentration it contains, and for different varieties, the better the tea, the lower the F concentration of the tea

  12. Stability analysis of non-autonomous reaction-diffusion systems: the effects of growing domains

    KAUST Repository

    Madzvamuse, Anotida; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Maini, Philip K.

    2009-01-01

    By using asymptotic theory, we generalise the Turing diffusively-driven instability conditions for reaction-diffusion systems with slow, isotropic domain growth. There are two fundamental biological differences between the Turing conditions on fixed and growing domains, namely: (i) we need not enforce cross nor pure kinetic conditions and (ii) the restriction to activator-inhibitor kinetics to induce pattern formation on a growing biological system is no longer a requirement. Our theoretical findings are confirmed and reinforced by numerical simulations for the special cases of isotropic linear, exponential and logistic growth profiles. In particular we illustrate an example of a reaction-diffusion system which cannot exhibit a diffusively-driven instability on a fixed domain but is unstable in the presence of slow growth. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

  13. The Analysis of the Adverse Reaction of Traditional Chinese Medicine Tumor Bone Marrow Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenzhen; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid increase of cancer patients, chemotherapy is the main method for the clinical treatment of cancer, but also in the treatment of the adverse reactions--bone marrow suppression is often a serious infection caused by patients after chemotherapy and the important cause of mortality. Chinese medicine has obvious advantages in the prevention and treatment of bone marrow depression after chemotherapy. According to tumor bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy of etiology and pathogenesis of traditional Chinese medicine and China national knowledge internet nearly 10 years of traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and control of the status of clinical and laboratory research of tumor bone marrow suppression, the author analyzed and summarized its characteristics, so as to provide the basis for treating bone marrow suppression of drug research and development, and promote small adverse reactions of the development and utilization of natural medicine and its preparations.

  14. Stability analysis of non-autonomous reaction-diffusion systems: the effects of growing domains

    KAUST Repository

    Madzvamuse, Anotida

    2009-08-29

    By using asymptotic theory, we generalise the Turing diffusively-driven instability conditions for reaction-diffusion systems with slow, isotropic domain growth. There are two fundamental biological differences between the Turing conditions on fixed and growing domains, namely: (i) we need not enforce cross nor pure kinetic conditions and (ii) the restriction to activator-inhibitor kinetics to induce pattern formation on a growing biological system is no longer a requirement. Our theoretical findings are confirmed and reinforced by numerical simulations for the special cases of isotropic linear, exponential and logistic growth profiles. In particular we illustrate an example of a reaction-diffusion system which cannot exhibit a diffusively-driven instability on a fixed domain but is unstable in the presence of slow growth. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

  15. Kudi: A free open-source python library for the analysis of properties along reaction paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    With increasing computational capabilities, an ever growing amount of data is generated in computational chemistry that contains a vast amount of chemically relevant information. It is therefore imperative to create new computational tools in order to process and extract this data in a sensible way. Kudi is an open source library that aids in the extraction of chemical properties from reaction paths. The straightforward structure of Kudi makes it easy to use for users and allows for effortless implementation of new capabilities, and extension to any quantum chemistry package. A use case for Kudi is shown for the tautomerization reaction of formic acid. Kudi is available free of charge at www.github.com/stvogt/kudi.

  16. Practical approaches to the ESI-MS analysis of catalytic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Lars P E; Stoddard, Rhonda L; McIndoe, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a soft ionization technique commonly coupled with liquid or gas chromatography for the identification of compounds in a one-time view of a mixture (for example, the resulting mixture generated by a synthesis). Over the past decade, Scott McIndoe and his research group at the University of Victoria have developed various methodologies to enhance the ability of ESI-MS to continuously monitor catalytic reactions as they proceed. The power, sensitivity and large dynamic range of ESI-MS have allowed for the refinement of several homogenous catalytic mechanisms and could potentially be applied to a wide range of reactions (catalytic or otherwise) for the determination of their mechanistic pathways. In this special feature article, some of the key challenges encountered and the adaptations employed to counter them are briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A Parallel Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometric Method for Analysis of Potential CSF Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmalm, Gunnar; Sjödin, Simon; Simonsen, Anja Hviid

    2018-01-01

    SCOPE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (PRM-MS) assay consisting of a panel of potential protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirteen proteins were selected based on their association with neurode......SCOPE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (PRM-MS) assay consisting of a panel of potential protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirteen proteins were selected based on their association...... with neurodegenerative diseases and involvement in synaptic function, secretory vesicle function, or innate immune system. CSF samples were digested and two to three peptides per protein were quantified using stable isotope-labeled peptide standards. RESULTS: Coefficients of variation were generally below 15%. Clinical...

  18. Analysis of Milk Production Traits in Early Lactation Using a Reaction Norm Model with Unknown Covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi Shariati, Mohammad; Su, Guosheng; Madsen, Per

    2007-01-01

    The reaction norm model is becoming a popular approach to study genotype x environment interaction (GxE), especially when there is a continuum of environmental effects. These effects are typically unknown, and an approximation that is used in the literature is to replace them by the phenotypic...... means of each environment. It has been shown that this method results in poor inferences and that a more satisfactory alternative is to infer environmental effects jointly with the other parameters of the model. Such a reaction norm model with unknown covariates and heterogeneous residual variances...... across herds was fitted to milk, protein, and fat yield of first-lactation Danish Holstein cows to investigate the presence of GxE. Data included 188,502 first test-day records from 299 herds and 3,775 herd-years in a time period ranging from 1991 to 2003. Variance components and breeding values were...

  19. Ambulatory Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Liedtke, Christian; Droog, Ed

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One

  20. Synthesis of superheavy elements: Uncertainty analysis to improve the predictive power of reaction models

    OpenAIRE

    Lu , H.; Boilley , D.; Abe , Y.; Shen , C.

    2016-01-01

    13 pages, 13 figures, submitted for publication in PRC; International audience; Background: Synthesis of super-heavy elements is performed by heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions. However , fusion is known to be hindered with respect to what can be observed with lighter ions. Thus some delicate ambiguities remain on the fusion mechanism that eventually lead to severe discrepancies in the calculated formation probabilities coming from different fusion models. Purpose: In the present work, we...

  1. Analysis of Reaction Times and Aerobic Capacities of Soccer Players According to Their Playing Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz; Karakoc, Onder; Taskin, Mine; Dural, Murat

    2016-01-01

    70 soccer players in Gaziantep amateur league voluntarily participated in this study, (average of their ages 19,17±1,34years, average of their heights 181,28±5,06 cm, average of their body weights 76,75±4,43 kg and average of their sports experiences 3,78±0,95 years) to analyze visual and auditory reaction times and aerobic capacities of amateur…

  2. Analysis of the Sodium-Water Reaction Phenomena by Small Water/Steam Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J-Y; Kim, T-J; Kim, J-M; Kim, B-H; Park, N-C

    2006-01-01

    One of the important problems to be solved in the design and construction of a sodium cooled fast reactor is to confirm the safety and reliability of the steam generator which transfers the heat from the sodium to the water. Sodium-water reaction events may occur when material faults such as a pinhole or cracks occur in the heat transfer tube wall. When such a leak occurs, evaporating water or superheated steam enters through a small leak into the sodium. The surface of this steam jet reacts with the surrounding sodium. Due to turbulence, sodium and particles of the reaction products are drawn at a high velocity into the jet. Impingement of these particles on an adjacent tube is followed by a combined process of a corrosion and erosion which results in a local weakening of the affected tube. If there is no reliable detection available in time, wastage will ultimately result in an additional leak in the adjacent tube. Therefore, it is very significant to predict these phenomena quantitatively from the view of designing a steam generator and its leak detection systems. The objective of this study is a basic investigating of the sodium-water reaction phenomena by small water/steam leaks

  3. Correlation analysis of the progesterone-induced sperm acrosome reaction rate and the fertilisation rate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T; Qin, Y; Ye, T; Wang, Y; Pan, J; Zhu, Y; Duan, L; Li, K; Teng, X

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether progesterone-induced acrosome reaction (AR) rate could be an indicator for fertilisation rate in vitro. Twenty-six couples with unexplained infertility and undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment were involved. On the oocytes retrieval day after routine IVF, residual sperm samples were collected to receive progesterone induction (progesterone group) or not (control group). AR rate was calculated and fertilisation rate was recorded. The correlation between progesterone-induced AR and fertilisation rate and between sperm normal morphology and 3PN (tripronuclear) were analysed using the Spearman correlation analysis. The AR rate of progesterone group was statistically higher than that of the control group (15.6 ± 5.88% versus 9.66 ± 5.771%, P rate (r = -0.053, P > 0.01) or rate of high-quality embryo development (r = -0.055, P > 0.01). Normal sperm morphology also showed no significant correlation with the amount of 3PN zygotes (r = 0.029, P > 0.01), rate of 3PN zygotes production (r = 0.20, P > 0.01), rate of 3PN embryo development (r = -0.406, P > 0.01), fertilisation rate (r = -0.148, P > 0.01) or progesterone-induced AR rate (r = 0.214, P > 0.01). Progesterone can induce AR in vitro significantly; however, the progesterone-induced AR may not be used to indicate fertilisation rate. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis investigation of CO-O2 and CO-NO reactions over a commercial automotive catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oukaci, R.; Blackmond, D.G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.; Gallaher, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis (SSITKA) is used to study two model reactions, CO oxidation and CO-NO reactions, on a typical formulation of a three-way auto-catalyst. Under steady-state conditions, abrupt switches in the isotopic composition of CO ( 12 C 16 O/ 13 C 18 O) were carried out to produce isotopic transients in both labeled reactants and products. Along with the determination of the average surface lifetimes and concentrations of reaction intermediates, an analysis of the transient responses along the carbon reaction pathway indicated that the distribution of active sites for the formation of CO 2 was bimodal for both reactions. Furthermore, relatively few surface sites contributed to the overall reaction rate

  5. Step training improves reaction time, gait and balance and reduces falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Schoene, Daniel; Lord, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of stepping interventions on fall risk factors and fall incidence in older people. Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, CENTRAL) and reference lists of included articles from inception to March 2015. Randomised (RCT) or clinical controlled trials (CCT) of volitional and reactive stepping interventions that included older (minimum age 60) people providing data on falls or fall risk factors. Meta-analyses of seven RCTs (n=660) showed that the stepping interventions significantly reduced the rate of falls (rate ratio=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65, prisk ratio=0.51, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.68, pfalls and proportion of fallers. A meta-analysis of two RCTs (n=62) showed that stepping interventions significantly reduced laboratory-induced falls, and meta-analysis findings of up to five RCTs and CCTs (n=36-416) revealed that stepping interventions significantly improved simple and choice stepping reaction time, single leg stance, timed up and go performance (pfalls among older adults by approximately 50%. This clinically significant reduction may be due to improvements in reaction time, gait, balance and balance recovery but not in strength. Further high-quality studies aimed at maximising the effectiveness and feasibility of stepping interventions are required. CRD42015017357. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Measurement and analysis of double-differential neutron emission spectra in (P,N) and (α,N) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.; Mehta, M.K.

    1988-05-01

    The second IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting on Measurement and Analysis of Double-Differential Neutron Emission Spectra in (p,n) and (α,n) Reactions was convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna during 8-10 February, 1988. The main objectives of the Co-ordinated Research Project for which this meeting was held are (i) to extract systematic information about nuclear level densities as a function of excitation energy by analysing the neutron emission spectra from (p,n) and (α,n) reactions on properly selected targets and bombarding energy range, and (ii) to parametrize this information into appropriate phenomenological models to enable reliable extrapolation for general use of level density information in basic and applied nuclear physics related problems. Detailed conclusions and recommendations, together with a summary of the programme during 1988/1989 are attached in the Appendices

  7. An integrated one-chip-sensor system for microRNA quantitative analysis based on digital droplet polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Masahiko; Wiederkehr, Rodrigo Sergio; Cai, Qing; Majeed, Bivragh; Fiorini, Paolo; Stakenborg, Tim; Matsuno, Toshinobu

    2016-04-01

    A silicon microfluidic chip was developed for microRNA (miRNA) quantitative analysis. It performs sequentially reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in a digital droplet format. Individual processes take place on different cavities, and reagent and sample mixing is carried out on a chip, prior to entering each compartment. The droplets are generated on a T-junction channel before the polymerase chain reaction step. Also, a miniaturized fluorescence detector was developed, based on an optical pick-up head of digital versatile disc (DVD) and a micro-photomultiplier tube. The chip integrated in the detection system was tested using synthetic miRNA with known concentrations, ranging from 300 to 3,000 templates/µL. Results proved the functionality of the system.

  8. An Optimized Elasto-Plastic Subgrade Reaction For Modeling The Response Of A Nonlinear Foundation For A Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Richard Paul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical and structural engineers are faced with a difficult task when their designs interact with each other. For complex projects, this is more the norm than the exception. In order to help bridge that gap, a method for modeling the behavior of a foundation using a simple elasto-plastic subgrade reaction was developed. The method uses an optimization technique to position 4-6 springs along a pile foundation to produce similar load deflection characteristics that were modeled by more sophisticated geotechnical finite element software. The methodology uses an Excel spreadsheet for accepting user input and delivering an optimized subgrade spring stiffness, yield, and position along the pile. In this way, the behavior developed from the geotechnical software can be transferred to the structural analysis software. The optimization is achieved through the solver add-in within Excel. Additionally, a beam on a nonlinear elastic foundation model is used to compute deflections of the optimized subgrade reaction configuration.

  9. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  10. The importance of the toxicological analysis in newborns: clearing the case of a tetralogy of Fallot with a paradoxical reaction to 1-hydroxymidazolam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ialongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short half-life benzodiazepines like midazolam are used as premedication to relieve intra-partum pain, and are known to have no adverse effects to the newborn. However, such short-acting drugs are known to induce paradoxical reactions when their concentration is abnormally elevated respect to the age of the subject. In a 1 day-old newborn, admitted to the Cardiology Unit of the “Bambino Gesù” Children Hospital of Rome due to a prenatal diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot, a paradoxical reaction with a spontaneous resolution was observed. The analysis of urines, performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after a drug screening, showed the presence of the active metabolite 1-hydroxymidazolam at 9.7 µg/mL with no detectable trace of its precursor midazolam and of the alternative metabolite 4-hydroxymidazolam. On the basis of these evidences, we speculated that 1-hydroxymidazolam, produced by the mother’s liver enzymes, passed to the newborn whose reduced volume of distribution (for the shunted circulation favoured the onset of such a reaction. Hence, the toxicological approach should be carried out on both mother and child wherever the clinical picture may appear unexplainable or does not match with the other findings collected.

  11. Histopathology of tumour associated sarcoid-like stromal reaction in breast cancer. An analysis of 5 cases with immunohistochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bässler, R; Birke, F

    1988-01-01

    In 5 cases of invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma of the breast multiple epithelioid and giant cell containing granulomas were detected, localized mainly in circumferential regions, but also in the center of the carcinomas. These granulomas were interpreted as sarcoid-like stromal reactions, occurring as sarcoid-like lesions in uni- and bilateral primaries, in a recurrent tumour, and also in axillary lymph nodes. Histopathologically, these granulomas were not quite uniform, some of them corresponding to typical sarcoidosis, others showing marked proliferations of epithelioid or giant cells or containing fibrinoid exudate or necroses. The granulomas were surrounded by dense infiltrates of mononuclear cells. Tuberculosis and mycosis was excluded. There were no hints of generalized sarcoidosis. Pathogenetically, these are reactions in the tumour stroma of varying intensity, and are not caused by necroses of the tumour tissue nor by microbial infections. Such tumour-associated sarcoid-like stroma reactions are interpreted as a T-cell mediated immune response to an antigen expression of the carcinoma acting as the local trigger; in 2 cases they were connected with sarcoid-like lesions of the axillary lymph nodes. Their occurrence in bilateral carcinoma of the breast points to an immunological disposition for this special kind of host-versus-tumour response. The intensity of these changes in a recurrent tumour reflects an immunological hypersensitivity reaction. The pathogenetic and differential diagnostic aspects of epithelioid granulomas of the female breast in chronic granulomatous mastitis, panniculitis, foreign body reaction, rare infections, and in therapeutically induced sarcoidosis are described and discussed.

  12. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  13. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  15. Reaction energetics on long-range corrected density functional theory: Diels-Alder reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman K; Tsuneda, Takao

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of quantitative reaction analysis on the orbital energies of long-range corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) is presented. First, we calculated the Diels-Alder reaction enthalpies that have been poorly given by conventional functionals including B3LYP functional. As a result, it is found that the long-range correction drastically improves the reaction enthalpies. The barrier height energies were also computed for these reactions. Consequently, we found that dispersion correlation correction is also crucial to give accurate barrier height energies. It is, therefore, concluded that both long-range exchange interactions and dispersion correlations are essentially required in conventional functionals to investigate Diels-Alder reactions quantitatively. After confirming that LC-DFT accurately reproduces the orbital energies of the reactant and product molecules of the Diels-Alder reactions, the global hardness responses, the halves of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy gaps, along the intrinsic reaction coordinates of two Diels-Alder reactions were computed. We noticed that LC-DFT results satisfy the maximum hardness rule for overall reaction paths while conventional functionals violate this rule on the reaction pathways. Furthermore, our results also show that the HOMO-LUMO gap variations are close to the reaction enthalpies for these Diels-Alder reactions. Based on these results, we foresee quantitative reaction analysis on the orbital energies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rate Coefficient Measurements and Theoretical Analysis of the OH + ( E) CF3CH=CHCF3 Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Marshall, Paul; Waterland, Robert L; Ravishankara, Akkihebbal R; Burkholder, James B

    2018-04-25

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with (E) CF3CH=CHCF3 ((E)-1,1,14,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene, HFO-1336mzz(E)) were measured over a range of temperature (211-374 K) and bath gas pressure (20-300 Torr; He, N2) using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique. k1(T) was independent of pressure over this range of conditions with k1(296 K) = (1.31 ± 0.15) × 10 13 cm3 molecule 1 s 1 and k1(T) = (6.94 ± 0.80) × 10 13 exp[ (496 ± 10)/T] cm3 molecule 1 s 1, where the uncertainties are 2 and the pre-exponential term includes estimated systematic error. Rate coefficients for the OD reaction were also determined over a range of temperature (262-374 K) at 100 Torr (He). The OD rate coefficients were ~15% greater than the OH values and showed similar temperature dependent behavior with k2(T) = (7.52 ± 0.44) × 10 13 exp[ (476 ± 20)/T] and k2(296 K) = (1.53 ± 0.15) × 10 13 cm3 molecule 1 s 1. The rate coefficients for reaction 1 were also measured using a relative rate technique between 296 and 375 K with k1(296 K) measured to be (1.22 ± 0.1) × 10 13 cm3 molecule 1 s 1 in agreement with the PLP-LIF results. In addition, the 296 K rate coefficient for the O3 + (E) CF3CH=CHCF3 reaction was determined to be reaction and the significant decrease in OH reactivity compared to the (Z) CF3CH=CHCF3 stereoisomer reaction. The estimated atmospheric lifetime of (E) CF3CH=CHCF3, due to loss by reaction with OH, is estimated to be ~90 days, while the actual lifetime will depend on the location and season of its emission. Infrared absorption spectra of (E) CF3CH=CHCF3 were measured and used to estimate the 100-year time horizon global warming potentials (GWP) of 32 (atmospherically well-mixed) and 14 (lifetime-adjusted).

  17. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis in pediatric patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sha-Yi; Yang, Jing-Wei; Shao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Xue-Lian; Lu, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the diagnostic role of Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid detection and quantitation in the serum of pediatric and young adult patients with infectious mononucleosis. The primary outcome of this meta-analysis was the sensitivity and specificity of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and quantitation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching for articles that were published through September 24, 2014 in the following databases: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The following keywords were used for the search: "Epstein-Barr virus," "infectious mononucleosis," "children/young adults/infant/pediatric," and "polymerase chain reaction or PCR." Three were included in this analysis. We found that for detection by PCR, the pooled sensitivity for detecting EBV DNA was 77% (95%CI, 66-86%) and the pooled specificity for was 98% (95%CI, 93-100%). Our findings indicate that this PCR-based assay has high specificity and good sensitivity for detecting of EBV DNA, indicating it may useful for identifying patients with infectious mononucleosis. This assay may also be helpful to identify young athletic patients or highly physically active pediatric patients who are at risk for a splenic rupture due to acute infectious mononucleosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of the SPIKE code for analysis of the sodium-water reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kim, Tae Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    In the secondary loop of liquid metal reactors, including SG, water leak into sodium causes the sudden increase of pressure by the H{sub 2} and heat generated from reaction. At few miliseconds after leak, a sharp and short-lived increase of pressure is generated and its propagation depends on the acoustic constraint characteristics of secondary loop. As increasing leak amount of water, another pressure increase is caused by H{sub 2} and its transients depends on the resistance of pressure opening system, such as rupture disc. For prediction of the transients of initial spike pressure, a code of SPIKE was developed. The code was based on the following simplifications and assumptions: combination of total and half release of H{sub 2} rate, spherical shape of H{sub 2} bubble, compressible and Newtonian fluid for sodium. The program was built in FOTRAN language and consisted of 5 modules. Several sample calculations were performed to test the code and to determine the scale down factor of experimental facilities for experimental verification of the code: parameter study of the variables in chemical reaction model, comparison study with results calculated by superposition methods for simple piping structures, comparison study with results calculated by previous researchers, and calculation for KALIMER models of various size. With these calculation results, the generally predicted phenomena of sodium water reaction can be explained and the calculated ones by SPIKE code were well agreed with the previous study. And the scale down factor can be determined. (author). 88 refs., 99 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. Analysis of (d,n) reactions via the Dirac DWBA with finite range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Eric; McNeil, J. A.

    2004-10-01

    The Distorted-wave Born Approximation (DWBA) is used to calculate differential cross sections of low-energy deuteron stripping reactions. The implementation makes use of Dirac phenomenological potentials with an exact treatment of finite-range effects. The mutual interaction of these effects upon the resulting calculations will be presented. In addition, we use our finite-range implementation to study the effect on the cross sections due to the model dependence of the internal deuteron wave function. Specifically, we examine this effect using the internal deuteron wave functions generated with the Reid soft-core, Bonn, and Argonne-V18 potentials.

  20. [Neurophysiological analysis of the development of endocrine and hypertensive reactions in long-term emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M G; Arkhangel'skaia, M I; Polyntsev, Iu V; Vorontsov, V I

    1985-08-01

    A study was made of the effect of chronic emotional stress on the formation of hypertension in animals. This was shown to be related to dynamic changes in the function of the CNS, particularly in the hypothalamic apparatus of the neuroendocrine control. The above changes played a role in the formation of hypertensive vascular reactions accompanied by a high hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex and thyroid. During stabilization of high arterial blood pressure at the late stages of the "after-effect", the hormonal secretion returns to normal.

  1. Stability test and analysis of the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Subsystem thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, John; Hurlbert, Eric; Krohn, Douglas; Arndt, Scott; Clark, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The results are reported of a test program conducted on the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Subsystem thruster in order to investigate the effects of trapped helium bubbles and saturated propellants on stability, determine if thruster-to-thruster stability variations are significant, and determine stability under STS-representative conditions. It is concluded that the thruster design is highly reliable in flight and that burn-through has not occurred. Significantly unstable thrusters are screened out, and wire wrap is found to protect against chamber burn-throughs and to provide a fail-safe thruster for this situation.

  2. Detection of submonolayer oxygen-18 on a gold surface by nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L S; Kenny, M J; Wieczorek, L [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1994-12-31

    A gold substrate is the preferred solid surface for formation of an organic self-assembled monolayer ( SAM ). Device fabrication process may require the gold film to be exposed to photolithographic processing and plasma treatment prior to molecular assembly. It has been observed that oxygen plasma treatment prevents the formation of SAMs; however, subsequent treatment with an argon plasma allows assembly of the organic monolayers. To understand the mechanisms involved, a plasma containing 98% {sup 18}O was used and the film surface was analysed using the {sup 18}O (p,{alpha}){sup 15}N nuclear reaction. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  3. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions in (α,np) reactions on 128,130Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.; Sankaracharyulu, M.G.V.; Ansari, M.A.; Prasad, R.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    1992-02-01

    Excitation functions for the reactions 128 Te(α,np) 130 I, 130 Te(α,np) 132 I and 130 Te(α,np) 132m I have been measured using stacked foil technique and have also been calculated using statistical model with and without the inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission. As expected, inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission in compound nucleus calculations agree well with the experimental excitation functions. The pre-equilibrium fraction has been found to be energy and target mass number dependent. (author). 37 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Optimization of phase analysis of refractory alloys in the gas-ion-reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenkamp, H.J.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Nickel, H.

    1980-04-01

    Reactor components outside the core which are under high thermal and mechanical stresses are made from refractory alloys. For basic research and for quality control, these materials are investigated by metallography, which is an independent group of characterization procedures as well as basis for many other methods. An important way of increasing the information about a material yielded by metallography is the expansions of phase contrast, in particular the phase contrasting in the gas-ion-reaction chamber. In this paper, the experimental procedure is described and the process of optimizing the procedure with respect to the Ni- and Fe-based refractory alloys examined in the IRW is discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Linear regression analysis of potentiometric titration data for asymmetric redox reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar'yanov, B.M.; Gavrilenko, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    A statistical method of processing the curves of potentiometric titration for homogeneous asymmetric redox reactions has been suggested. The method was tested using a model titrimetric system Mohr's salt-K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and was employed for Te determination in an individual solution, semiconductor alloy and CdTe ceramics. Random error of the equivalence point evaluation by the data of a specific titration of 0.1-0.01 M solutions does not exceed 0.3% in case of titration of 0.001 M solutions it increases up to 1.2%. The value of s r varies from 0.0006 to 0.007

  6. Detection of submonolayer oxygen-18 on a gold surface by nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S.; Kenny, M.J.; Wieczorek, L. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1993-12-31

    A gold substrate is the preferred solid surface for formation of an organic self-assembled monolayer ( SAM ). Device fabrication process may require the gold film to be exposed to photolithographic processing and plasma treatment prior to molecular assembly. It has been observed that oxygen plasma treatment prevents the formation of SAMs; however, subsequent treatment with an argon plasma allows assembly of the organic monolayers. To understand the mechanisms involved, a plasma containing 98% {sup 18}O was used and the film surface was analysed using the {sup 18}O (p,{alpha}){sup 15}N nuclear reaction. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Analysis of discrete reaction-diffusion equations for autocatalysis and continuum diffusion equations for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chi-Jen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we analyze both the spatiotemporal behavior of: (A) non-linear “reaction” models utilizing (discrete) reaction-diffusion equations; and (B) spatial transport problems on surfaces and in nanopores utilizing the relevant (continuum) diffusion or Fokker-Planck equations. Thus, there are some common themes in these studies, as they all involve partial differential equations or their discrete analogues which incorporate a description of diffusion-type processes. However, there are also some qualitative differences, as shall be discussed below.

  8. Neutron-induced complex reaction analysis with 3D nuclear track simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Palfalvi, J.K.; Akatov, Yu.; Arevalo, O.; Greaves, E.D.; Nemeth, P.; Palacios, D.; Szabo, J.; Eoerdoegh, I.

    2005-01-01

    Complex (multiple) etched tracks are analysed through digitised images and 3D simulation by a purpose-built algorithm. From a binary track image an unfolding procedure is followed to generate a 3D track model, from which several track parameters are estimated. The method presented here allows the deposited energy, that originated from particle fragmentation or carbon spallation by means of induced tracks in commercially available PADC detectors, to be estimated. Results of evaluated nuclear tracks related to 12 C (n,3αn ' ) reaction are presented here. The detectors were exposed on the ISS in 2001

  9. Methanol conversion to light olefins over nanostructured CeAPSO-34 catalyst: Thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions and effect of template type on catalytic properties and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Sogand [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi, Mohammad, E-mail: haghighi@sut.ac.ir [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Charghand, Mojtaba [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: In this research nanostructured CeAPSO-34 was synthesized to explore the effect of TEAOH and morpholine on its physiochemical properties and MTO performance. Prepared catalysts were characterized with XRD, FESEM, BET, FTIR and NH3-TPD techniques. The results indicated that the nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. The catalyst obtained by using morpholine showed longer life time as well as sustaining light olefins selectivity at higher values. Furthermore, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions network was carried out to address the major channels of methanol to olefins conversion. - Highlights: • Introduction of Ce into SAPO-34 framework. • Comparison of CeAPSO-34 synthesized using morpholine and TEAOH. • The nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34. • Morpholine enhances catalyst lifetime in MTO process. • Presenting a complete reaction network for MTO process. - Abstract: TEAOH and morpholine were employed in synthesis of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 molecular sieve and used in methanol to olefins conversion. Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET, FTIR and NH{sub 3}-TPD techniques. XRD patterns reflected the higher crystallinity of the catalyst synthesized with morpholine. The FESEM results indicated that the nature of the template determines the morphology of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. There was a meaningful difference in the strength of both strong and weak acid sites for CeAPSO-34 catalysts synthesized with TEAOH and morpholine templates. The catalyst synthesized with morpholine showed higher desorption temperature of both weak and strong acid sites evidenced by NH{sub 3}-TPD characterization. The catalyst obtained using morpholine template had the longer lifetime and sustained desired light olefins at higher values. A comprehensive

  10. Methanol conversion to light olefins over nanostructured CeAPSO-34 catalyst: Thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions and effect of template type on catalytic properties and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Sogand; Haghighi, Mohammad; Charghand, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this research nanostructured CeAPSO-34 was synthesized to explore the effect of TEAOH and morpholine on its physiochemical properties and MTO performance. Prepared catalysts were characterized with XRD, FESEM, BET, FTIR and NH3-TPD techniques. The results indicated that the nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. The catalyst obtained by using morpholine showed longer life time as well as sustaining light olefins selectivity at higher values. Furthermore, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions network was carried out to address the major channels of methanol to olefins conversion. - Highlights: • Introduction of Ce into SAPO-34 framework. • Comparison of CeAPSO-34 synthesized using morpholine and TEAOH. • The nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34. • Morpholine enhances catalyst lifetime in MTO process. • Presenting a complete reaction network for MTO process. - Abstract: TEAOH and morpholine were employed in synthesis of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 molecular sieve and used in methanol to olefins conversion. Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET, FTIR and NH 3 -TPD techniques. XRD patterns reflected the higher crystallinity of the catalyst synthesized with morpholine. The FESEM results indicated that the nature of the template determines the morphology of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. There was a meaningful difference in the strength of both strong and weak acid sites for CeAPSO-34 catalysts synthesized with TEAOH and morpholine templates. The catalyst synthesized with morpholine showed higher desorption temperature of both weak and strong acid sites evidenced by NH 3 -TPD characterization. The catalyst obtained using morpholine template had the longer lifetime and sustained desired light olefins at higher values. A comprehensive thermodynamic

  11. Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent.

  12. Analysis of aluminum base-reaction effect in density, porosity, and thermal insulation of porous fire bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismogroho, Agus Sukarto; Firmansyah, Trisna Bagus; Meidianto, Alwi; Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Amal, Muhamad Ikhlasul

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of aluminium corrosion reaction on the density, porosity, and thermal insulation capability of porous fire bricks. The reaction between aluminium and alkaline solution produces hydrogen and other sediment products. The test specimens of fire bricks were made from the mixture of castable cement, aluminium powder of 325 mesh in size (0, 0.1, 1, and 2 wt% with respect to castable cement), and 0.185 M KOH solution. The structural examination of the specimens shows the increase of porosity to 22.7 - 30.6% and the decrease of density in the range of 1.135-1.503 g/mL. In addition, the samples possess average pore size of 0.001-0.003 cm3 with the thermal insulation in the range of 47-78%.

  13. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  14. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation of patterns in fractional and classical reaction-diffusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owolabi, Kolade M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine pattern formation in the sub— and super-diffusive scenarios and compare it with that of classical or standard diffusive processes in two-component fractional reaction-diffusion systems that modeled a predator-prey dynamics. The focus of the work concentrates on the use of two separate mathematical techniques, we formulate a Fourier spectral discretization method as an efficient alternative technique to solve fractional reaction-diffusion problems in higher-dimensional space, and later advance the resulting systems of ODEs in time with the adaptive exponential time-differencing solver. Obviously, the fractional Fourier approach is able to achieve spectral convergence up to machine precision regardless of the fractional order α, owing to the fact that our approach is able to give full diagonal representation of the fractional operator. The complexity of the dynamics in this system is theoretically discussed and graphically displayed with some examples and numerical simulations in one, two and three dimensions.

  15. Development of automatic nuclear emulsion plate analysis system and its application to elementary particle reactions, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushida, Noriyuki; Otani, Masashi; Kumazaki, Noriyasu

    1984-01-01

    This system is composed of precise coordinate measuring apparatuses, a stage controller and various peripherals, employing NOVA 4/C as the host computer. The analyzed results are given as the output to a printer or an XY plotter. The data required for experiment, sent from Nagoya University and others, are received by the host computer through an acoustic coupler, and stored in floppy disks. This paper contains simple explanation on the monitor for the events which occur immediately after the on-line measurement ''MTF 1'', the XY plotter and the acoustic coupler, which hold important position in the system in spite of low cost, due to the development of useful program, as those were not described in the previous paper. The three-dimensional reconstruction of tracks and various errors, corrective processing and analytical processing after corrective processing as off-line processing are also described. In addition, the application of the system was made to the E-531 neutrino experiment in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which attempted to measure the life of the charm particles generated in neutrino reaction with a composite equipment composed of nuclear plates and various counters. First, the outline of the equipment, next, the location of neutrino reaction and the surveillance of charm particle decay using MTF program as the analyzing method at the target, and thirdly, the emulsion-counter data fitting are explained, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%

  17. Bridge mediated two-electron transfer reactions: Analysis of stepwise and concerted pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, E.G.; May, V.

    2004-01-01

    A theory of nonadiabatic donor (D)-acceptor (A) two-electron transfer (TET) mediated by a single regular bridge (B) is developed. The presence of different intermediate two-electron states connecting the reactant state D -- BA with the product state DBA -- results in complex multiexponential kinetics. The conditions are discussed at which a reduction to two-exponential as well as single-exponential kinetics becomes possible. For the latter case the rate K TET is calculated, which describes the bridge-mediated reaction as an effective two-electron D-A transfer. In the limit of small populations of the intermediate TET states D - B - A, DB -- A, D - BA - , and DB - A - , K TET is obtained as a sum of the rates K TET (step) and K TET (sup) . The first rate describes stepwise TET originated by transitions of a single electron. It starts at D -- BA and reaches DBA -- via the intermediate state D - BA - . These transitions cover contributions from sequential as well as superexchange reactions all including reduced bridge states. In contrast, a specific two-electron superexchange mechanism from D -- BA to DBA -- defines K TET (sup) . An analytic dependence of K TET (step) and K TET (sup) on the number of bridging units is presented and different regimes of D-A TET are studied

  18. Quantitative analysis of MDR1 (multidrug resistance) gene expression in human tumors by polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, K.E.; Beck, C.; Holzmayer, T.A.; Chin, J.E.; Roninson, I.B.; Wunder, J.S.; Andrulis, I.L.; Gazdar, A.F.; Willman, C.L.; Griffith, B.; Von Hoff, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The resistance of tumor cells ot chemotheraprutic drugs is a major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy. In human cells, expression of the MDR1 gene, encoding a transmembrane efflux pump (P-glycoprotein), leads to decreased intracellular accumulation and resistance to a variety of lipophilic drugs (multidrug resistance; MDR). The levels of MDR in cell lines selected in bitro have been shown to correlate with the steady-state levels of MDR1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein. In cells with a severalfold increase in cellular drug resistance, MDR1 expression levels are close to the limits of detection by conventional assays. MDR1 expression has been frequently observed in human tumors after chemotherapy and in some but not all types of clinically refactory tumors untreated with chemotherapeutic drugs. The authors have devised a highly sensitive, specific, and quantitative protocol for measuring the levels of MDR1 mRNA in clincal samples, based on the polymerase chain reaction. They have used this assay to measure MDR1 gene expression in MDR cell lines and >300 normal tissues, tumor-derived cell lines, and clinical specimens of untreated tumors of the types in which MDR1 expression was rarely observed by standard assays. Low levels of MDR1 expression were found by polymerase chain reaction in most solid tumors and leukemias tested. The frequency of samples without detectable MDR1 expression varied among different types of tumors; MDR1-negative samples were ost common among tumor types known to be relatively responsive to chemotherapy

  19. Thermodynamic stability of elementary chemical reactions proceeding at finite rates revisited using Lyapunov function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burande, Chandrakant S.; Bhalekar, Anil A.

    2005-01-01

    The thermodynamic stability of a few representative elementary chemical reactions proceeding at finite rates has been investigated using the recently proposed thermodynamic Lyapunov function and following the steps of Lyapunov's second method (also termed as the direct method) of stability of motion. The thermodynamic Lyapunov function; L s , used herein is the excess rate of entropy production in the thermodynamic perturbation space, which thereby inherits the dictates of the second law of thermodynamics. This Lyapunov function is not the same as the excess entropy rate that one encounters in thermodynamic (irreversible) literature. The model chemical conversions studied in this presentation are A+B→v x X and A+B↔ν x X. For the sake of simplicity, the thermal effects of chemical reactions have been considered as not adding to the perturbation as our main aim was to demonstrate how one should use systematically the proposed thermodynamic Lyapunov function following the steps of Lyapunov's second method of stability of motion. The domains of thermodynamic stability under the constantly acting small disturbances, thermodynamic asymptotic stability and thermodynamic instability in these model systems get established

  20. R/S analysis of reaction time in Neuron Type Test for human activity in civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Kang, Ming-Cui; Li, Jing-Qiang; Liu, Hai-Tao

    2017-03-01

    Human factors become the most serious problem leading to accidents of civil aviation, which stimulates the design and analysis of Neuron Type Test (NTT) system to explore the intrinsic properties and patterns behind the behaviors of professionals and students in civil aviation. In the experiment, normal practitioners' reaction time sequences, collected from NTT, exhibit log-normal distribution approximately. We apply the χ2 test to compute the goodness-of-fit by transforming the time sequence with Box-Cox transformation to cluster practitioners. The long-term correlation of different individual practitioner's time sequence is represented by the Hurst exponent via Rescaled Range Analysis, also named by Range/Standard deviation (R/S) Analysis. The different Hurst exponent suggests the existence of different collective behavior and different intrinsic patterns of human factors in civil aviation.

  1. Analysis of ping-pong reaction mechanisms by positional isotope exchange. Application to galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, L.S.; Raushel, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new positional isotope exchange method has been developed that can be used for the analysis of enzyme-catalyzed reactions which have ping-pong kinetic mechanisms. The technique can be used to measure the relative rates of ligand dissociation from enzyme-product complexes. Enzyme is incubated with the labeled substrate and an excess of the corresponding unlabeled product. The partitioning of the enzyme-product complex back toward free enzyme is determined from the rate of positional isotope exchange within the original labeled substrate. The partitioning of the enzyme-product complex forward toward free enzyme is determined from the rate of formation of totally unlabeled substrate. It has been shown that the ratio of the two rates provides a lower limit for the release of product from the enzyme-product complex. The technique has been applied to the reaction catalyzed by galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. The lower limit for the release of glucose 1-phosphate from the uridyl-enzyme relative to the maximal velocity of the reverse reaction was determined to be 3.4 +/- 0.5

  2. Analysis of infusion-site reactions in renal transplant recipients receiving peripherally administered rabbit antithymocyte globulin as compared with basiliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Abbie L; Roberts, Keri; Malek, Sayeed K; Chandraker, Anil K; Tullius, Stefan G; Gabardi, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Antithymocyte globulin rabbit (r-ATG) has been used for the treatment and prevention of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Current manufacturer recommendations for r-ATG dictate the need for administration through a high-flow vein (central line). Previous studies have shown peripheral administration of r-ATG to be safe; however, these studies suggest the co-administration of heparin and hydrocortisone and did not compare the infusion-site reaction rates to a control group. A retrospective analysis was conducted of adult RTR receiving r-ATG or basiliximab between January 2004 and October 2006. Each agent was administered through a dedicated peripheral line. The primary endpoint was the incidence of infusion-site reactions. Other endpoints included the need to replace the intravenous catheter and the incidence of systemic thrombosis within 1 month of transplantation. During the study period, 152 peripheral infusions of r-ATG and 92 peripheral infusions of basiliximab were administered. No difference in infusion-site reactions was noted between the groups. There was also no difference either in the need for peripheral line replacement or the rates of systemic thrombosis. Peripheral administration of r-ATG is safe and can be infused without concomitant heparin and hydrocortisone. This method of r-ATG infusion was shown to be as safe as peripherally administered basiliximab.

  3. Resonance analysis of the {sup 12}C,{sup 13}C({alpha},n) reactions and evaluation of neutron yield data of the reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Toru [AITEL Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The {sup 12}C({alpha},n){sup 15}O reaction and the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O reaction were analyzed with a resonance formula in the incident {alpha}-particle energy range of 1.0 to 16.0 MeV. With the obtained resonance parameters, branching ratios of the emitted neutrons to the several levels of the residual nucleus and their angular distributions were calculated to obtain the energy spectrum of emitted neutrons. Thick target neutron yield of carbon were also calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  4. Investigation of safety margin for turbine generator foundation affected by Alkali Silica reaction based on non-linear structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, H.; Asai, Y.; Hosokawa, T.; Sekimoto, H.; Sato, K.; Oshima, R.; Takiguchi, K.; Masuda, Y.; Nishiguchi, I.

    2005-01-01

    A turbine generator foundation is a reinforced concrete structure having a table deck and columns to support equipments. After operation of the plant, the expansion of the table deck in turbine longitudinal axis has been observed. By investigation of concrete material properties, it was found that the expansion has been caused by alkali-silica reaction. This study has been performed to evaluate the safety allowance of strength capacity of the turbine generator foundation by nonlinear analysis using beam element model with elongation, rebar strain and material properties data which have been measured for almost 30 years in actual foundation. (authors)

  5. Multidimensional analysis of collective sidewards flow in Au on Au reactions between 100 and 1050 A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienold, T.; Fan, Z.G.; Hartnack, C.

    1994-11-01

    An excitation function of the Au on Au reaction from 100 to 1050 A MeV was measured using the FOPI-facility at GSI Darmstadt. Nuclear charge (Z≤15) and velocity of the product were detected with full azimuthal acceptance at laboratory angles 1 ≤Θ lab ≤30 . For the first time an analysis is presented which combines the azimuthally asymmetric part of the transverse flow (sidewards flow), stopping and the associated collision geometry. In comparison to microscopic transport model calculations we demonstrate the relevance of this method for the extraction of the nuclear equation of state. (orig.)

  6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTERVIEWERS CONDUCTING SOCIOLOGICAL SURVEYS: THE USE OF THE PSYCHOTYPES THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS’ NONVERBAL REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж В Пузанова

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sociological data is the problem that cannot lose relevance in the works of methodologists and practicing sociologists for decades. Procedures and techniques for the improvement of the quality of information for all type of survey methods are developing. The purpose of the article is to inform the interviewers conducting semi-structured or unstructured interviews of the recommendations developed on the basis of the theory of psychotypes (by V.V. Ponomarenko. This technology will allow to improve the quality of sociological data. Identification of the psychotype of the respondent and his emotional reactions to different sensitive topics during the interview are the basis of this technology. Emotional reactions can be traced by nonverbal cues (facial expressions, gestures and poses and interpreted by the technology of the analysis of nonverbal reactions developed and approved earlier. During the multi-stage experiment, the reactions significant in the course of interview were traced and analyzed - irritation, surprise, sadness, contempt, joy, fear, disgust, stress/discomfort, doubt/indecision, manifestations of mental processes. At the first phase, representatives of ‘ideal types’ of each psychotype were selected by an abridged psychological test and external diagnostics based on sensitive topics. As a result, the recommendations for a semi-structured interview were formulated. To use this technique, it is necessary to test an interviewee before the interview by the abridged psychological technique (in case there are doubts after the visual diagnostics. According to the psychotype the interviewer pays attention to the sensitive topics of the in-terview, and during the interview can reformulate the open-ended questions to reduce the sensitivity of significant topics for each respondent.

  7. Deletion Analysis Of The Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy Gene Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastur P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Duchenna Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and Becker Muscular Dystorphy (BMD is mainly based on clinical profile, serum CPK values, muscle biopsy and immunostaining for dystrophin. This was done in 100 unrelated patients using 19 exons including the promoter region in two sets of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. These primers amplify most of the exons in the deletion prone ′hot spot′ regions allowing determinations of deletion end points. Intragenic deletions were detected in 74 patients indicating that the use of PCR- based assays will allow deletion detection help in prenatal diagnosis for most of the DMD/BMD patients. The frequency of deletions observed in the present study was 74%.

  8. Deletion Analysis Of The Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy Gene Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastur R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD is mainly based on clinical profile, serum CPK values, muscle biopsy and immunostaining for dystrophin. Most recent and accurate method for diagnosing DMD/BMD is by detection of mutations in the DMD gene. This was done in 100 unrelated patients using 19 exons including the promoter region in two sets of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. These primers amplify most of the exons in the deletion prone ′hotspot′ regions allowing determination of deletion end point. Intragenic deletions were detected in 74 patients indicating that the use of PCR-based assays will allow deletion detection help in prenatal diagnosis for most of the DMD/BMD patients. The frequency of deletions observed in the present study was 74%.

  9. A coupled model of transport-reaction-mechanics with trapping. Part I - Small strain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, A.; McMeeking, R.; Grazioli, D.; Magri, M.

    2018-05-01

    A fully coupled model for mass and heat transport, mechanics, and chemical reactions with trapping is proposed. It is rooted in non-equilibrium rational thermodynamics and assumes that displacements and strains are small. Balance laws for mass, linear and angular momentum, energy, and entropy are stated. Thermodynamic restrictions are identified, based on an additive strain decomposition and on the definition of the Helmholtz free energy. Constitutive theory and chemical kinetics are studied in order to finally write the governing equations for the multi-physics problem. The field equations are solved numerically with the finite element method, stemming from a three-fields variational formulation. Three case-studies on vacancies redistribution in metals, hydrogen embrittlement, and the charge-discharge of active particles in Li-ion batteries demonstrate the features and the potential of the proposed model.

  10. Study of the (p,α)-reaction on sd-shell nuclei and their microscopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyler, F.

    1982-01-01

    In the present thesis the (p,α) reaction on the 2s-1d-shell nuclei 23 Na, 24 Mg, 26 Mg, 27 Al, 35 Cl, 37 Cl, and 39 K was measured. The experiments were performed at the isochronous cyclotron JULIC of the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the Nuclear Research Facility Juelich and at the Emperor Van-de-Graaff accelerator of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics Heidelberg. Angular distributions for transitions to several residual nucleus states were evaluated in the energy range between 18 and 45 MeV incident proton energy. By the application of magnetic spectrometers as detection device an energy resolution between 25 and 45 keV could be reached. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Kinetic and Reaction Pathway Analysis in the Application of Botulinum Toxin A for Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Lebeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new approach in the treatment of specific wounds in animal models and in patients with type A botulinum toxin is the focus of this paper. The indications or conditions include traumatic wounds (experimental and clinical, surgical (incision wounds, and wounds such as fissures and ulcers that are signs/symptoms of disease or other processes. An objective was to conduct systematic literature searches and take note of the reactions involved in the healing process and identify corresponding pharmacokinetic data. From several case reports, we developed a qualitative model of how botulinum toxin disrupts the vicious cycle of muscle spasm, pain, inflammation, decreased blood flow, and ischemia. We transformed this model into a minimal kinetic scheme for healing chronic wounds. The model helped us to estimate the rate of decline of this toxin's therapeutic effect by calculating the rate of recurrence of clinical symptoms after a wound-healing treatment with this neurotoxin.

  12. Synthesis and applications of 18O standards for nuclear reaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitthan, E.; Corrêa, S. A.; Soares, G. V.; Radtke, C.; Stedile, F. C.

    2014-08-01

    A new method to synthesize 18O standard samples to be used in nuclear reaction analyses is proposed and investigated. This method consists of obtaining a Si18O2 film on a Si substrate using a natural abundance SiO2 film as a passivation layer to prevent the isotopically enriched film to be exposed to the atmosphere and possibly degraded by it. For that, sequential oxidation steps are performed followed by a controlled etching in aqueous hydrofluoric acid. Details of these steps are discussed as well as the stability of the synthesized samples. Applications using these standard samples in the field of alternative semiconductors to Si (SiC and Ge), used in micro and nanoelectronics are also presented.

  13. Action of the chlorine trifluoride on water vapour. Analysis of reaction products. Technical report - 589

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, R.

    1961-06-01

    As the separation of uranium 235 from uranium 238 by gaseous diffusion under the form of uranium hexa-fluoride requires the use of materials which may contain some impurities retained by chemical or physical bounds, this report addresses the use of a reactant which would allow these impurities to be removed. Due to its properties (inert with respect to UF 6 ; transforms most of impurities into volatile compounds, and different UF compounds into UF 6 ; strongly reacts on water; all its degradation products are volatile), chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) has been chosen. It is used for the preprocessing of materials for their passivation with respect to UF 6 , and for a post-processing for the regeneration of porous materials by transformation of UF 4 , UO 2 F 2 and UF x into UF 6 . The authors more particularly studied the reaction between ClF 3 and water

  14. Shortening Isolation of Patients With Suspected Tuberculosis by Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Background. Isolation of patients suspected for pulmonary tuberculosis is guided by serial sputum smears. This can result in isolation for days for patients with noncontagious tuberculosis. To determine whether a single sample negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex at polymerase chain...... reaction (PCR) can guide isolation. Methods. We retrospectively evaluated sputum samples analyzed for M. tuberculosis complex at the International Reference Laboratory of Mycobacteriology, Copenhagen, Denmark in 2002–2011. We selected culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases with ≥3 samples within 14 days...... before or after the initial culture-positive sample. We repeated the process for those with ≥2 samples within 28 days. The primary outcome was PCR-negative, smear-positive patients. Results. We included 53 533 sputum samples from 20 928 individuals; 1636 had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Of these, 856...

  15. Probing the reaction mechanism of IspH protein by x-ray structure analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Gräwert, Tobias

    2009-12-28

    Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) represent the two central intermediates in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. The recently discovereddeoxyxylulose 5-phosphate pathway generates a mixture of IPP and DMAPP in its final step by reductive dehydroxylation of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl- 2-butenyl 4-diphosphate. This conversion is catalyzed by IspH protein comprising a central iron-sulfur cluster as electron transfer cofactor in the active site. The five crystal structures of IspH in complex with substrate, converted substrate, products and PPi reported in this article provide unique insights into the mechanism of this enzyme. While IspH protein crystallizes with substrate bound to a [4Fe-4S] cluster, crystals of IspH in complex with IPP, DMAPP or inorganic pyrophosphate feature [3Fe-4S] clusters. The IspH:substrate complex reveals a hairpin conformation of the ligand with the C(1) hydroxyl group coordinated to the unique site in a [4Fe-4S] cluster of aconitase type. The resulting alkoxide complex is coupled to a hydrogen-bonding network, which serves as proton reservoir via a Thr167 proton relay. Prolonged x-ray irradiation leads to cleavage of the C(1)-O bond (initiated by reducing photo electrons). The data suggest a reaction mechanism involving a combination of Lewis-acid activation and proton coupled electron transfer. The resulting allyl radical intermediate can acquire a second electron via the iron-sulfur cluster. The reaction may be terminated by the transfer of a proton from the β-phosphate of the substrate to C(1) (affording DMAPP) or C(3) (affording IPP).

  16. Modelling of the spallation reaction: analysis and testing of nuclear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toccoli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The spallation reaction is considered as a 2-step process. First a very quick stage (10 -22 , 10 -29 s) which corresponds to the individual interaction between the incident projectile and nucleons, this interaction is followed by a series of nucleon-nucleon collisions (intranuclear cascade) during which fast particles are emitted, the nucleus is left in a strongly excited level. Secondly a slower stage (10 -18 , 10 -19 s) during which the nucleus is expected to de-excite completely. This de-excitation is performed by evaporation of light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He, 4 He) or/and fission or/and fragmentation. The HETC code has been designed to simulate spallation reactions, this simulation is based on the 2-steps process and on several models of intranuclear cascades (Bertini model, Cugnon model, Helder Duarte model), the evaporation model relies on the statistical theory of Weiskopf-Ewing. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the ability of the HETC code to predict experimental results. A methodology about the comparison of relevant experimental data with results of calculation is presented and a preliminary estimation of the systematic error of the HETC code is proposed. The main problem of cascade models originates in the difficulty of simulating inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions, the emission of pions is over-estimated and corresponding differential spectra are badly reproduced. The inaccuracy of cascade models has a great impact to determine the excited level of the nucleus at the end of the first step and indirectly on the distribution of final residual nuclei. The test of the evaporation model has shown that the emission of high energy light particles is under-estimated. (A.C.)

  17. Probing the reaction mechanism of IspH protein by x-ray structure analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Grä wert, Tobias; Span, Ingrid; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Rohdich, Felix; Eppinger, Jö rg; Bacher, Adelbert; Groll, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) represent the two central intermediates in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. The recently discovereddeoxyxylulose 5-phosphate pathway generates a mixture of IPP and DMAPP in its final step by reductive dehydroxylation of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl- 2-butenyl 4-diphosphate. This conversion is catalyzed by IspH protein comprising a central iron-sulfur cluster as electron transfer cofactor in the active site. The five crystal structures of IspH in complex with substrate, converted substrate, products and PPi reported in this article provide unique insights into the mechanism of this enzyme. While IspH protein crystallizes with substrate bound to a [4Fe-4S] cluster, crystals of IspH in complex with IPP, DMAPP or inorganic pyrophosphate feature [3Fe-4S] clusters. The IspH:substrate complex reveals a hairpin conformation of the ligand with the C(1) hydroxyl group coordinated to the unique site in a [4Fe-4S] cluster of aconitase type. The resulting alkoxide complex is coupled to a hydrogen-bonding network, which serves as proton reservoir via a Thr167 proton relay. Prolonged x-ray irradiation leads to cleavage of the C(1)-O bond (initiated by reducing photo electrons). The data suggest a reaction mechanism involving a combination of Lewis-acid activation and proton coupled electron transfer. The resulting allyl radical intermediate can acquire a second electron via the iron-sulfur cluster. The reaction may be terminated by the transfer of a proton from the β-phosphate of the substrate to C(1) (affording DMAPP) or C(3) (affording IPP).

  18. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  19. Factorial analysis of the trihalomethane formation in the reaction of colloidal, hydrophobic, and transphilic fractions of DOM with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanov, Stefan; Tauler, Roma; Rodrigues, Pedro M S M; Antunes, Maria Cristina G; Pereira, Dilson; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the factors that affect trihalomethane (THMs) formation when dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions (colloidal, hydrophobic, and transphilic fractions) in aqueous solutions were disinfected with chlorine. DOM fractions were isolated and fractionated from filtered lake water and were characterized by elemental analysis. The investigation involved a screening Placket-Burman factorial analysis design of five factors (DOM concentration, chlorine dose, temperature, pH, and bromide concentration) and a Box-Behnken design for a detailed assessment of the three most important factor effects (DOM concentration, chlorine dose, and temperature). The results showed that colloidal fraction has a relatively low contribution to THM formation; transphilic fraction was responsible for about 50% of the chloroform generation, and the hydrophobic fraction was the most important to the brominated THM formation. When colloidal and hydrophobic fraction solutions were disinfected, the most significant factors were the following: higher DOM fraction concentration led to higher THM concentration, an increase of pH corresponded to higher concentration levels of chloroform and reduced bromoform, higher levels of chlorine dose and temperature produced a rise in the total THM formation, especially of the chlorinated THMs; higher bromide concentration generates higher concentrations of brominated THMs. Moreover, linear models were implemented and response surface plots were obtained for the four THM concentrations and their total sum in the disinfection solution as a function of the DOM concentration, chlorine dose, and temperature. Overall, results indicated that THM formation models were very complex due to individual factor effects and significant interactions among the factors. In order to reduce the concentration of THMs in drinking water, DOM concentrations must be reduced in the water prior to the disinfection. Fractionation of DOM, together with an elemental

  20. Quasielastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the experimental and theoretical situation regarding transfer reactions and inelastic scattering. In the first category there is little (very little) precision data for heavy projectiles and consequently almost no experience with quantitative theoretical analysis. For the inelastic scattering the rather extensive data strongly supports the coupled channels models with collective formfactors. At the most back angles, at intensities about 10 -5 of Rutherford scattering, a second, compound-like mechanism becomes dominant. The description of the interplay of these two opposite mechanisms provides a new challenge for our understanding

  1. Analysis of the spallation residues and the associated particles in the reaction Fe+p at 1 GeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gentil, E.

    2006-09-01

    SPALADIN is a new type of spallation experiment that has been carried out at the GSI accelerator facility (Germany) in order to improve the modelling of the spallation reaction. This experiment is based on the coincidence measurement in inverse kinematics of the spallation residues and the de-excitation fragments. This work presents the analysis of Fe 56 + p reaction at 1 GeV per nucleon. Results on cross-sections and heavy residue velocity spectra are compared to previous data and enabled us to characterize the setup. Most of the element production cross-sections have been obtained with an uncertainty below 10 per cent. In the particular case of helium, its production cross-section has been measured to be σ(1 GeV) = (598 ± 67) mb. The knowledge of this cross-section is important to assess the irradiation damage undergone by the window separating the accelerator from the target. The study of the de-excitation of the pre-fragment shows that the evaporation of light particles (Z ≤ 2) is the main way of de-excitation whatever the collision centrality. However, the de-excitation through the emission of intermediate mass fragments is observed in 5% of the events and most of these events correspond to a very asymmetric binary breaking. The velocity distributions of light residues (with regards to the mass of the projectile) show a significant disagreement with the average velocities predicted by spallation codes. (A.C.)

  2. A Retrospective Analysis of Spontaneous Adverse Drug Reactions Reports Relating to Paediatric Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosliana Rosli

    Full Text Available Spontaneous reporting on adverse drug reactions (ADR has been established in Malaysia since 1987, and although these reports are monitored by the Malaysia drug monitoring authority, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, information about ADRs in the paediatric patient population still remains unexplored. The aims of this study, therefore, were to characterize the ADRs reported in respect to the Malaysian paediatric population and to relate the data to specific paediatric age groups.Data on all ADRs reported to the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau between 2000 and 2013 for individuals aged from birth to 17 years old were analysed with respect to age and gender, type of reporter, suspected medicines (using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification, category of ADR (according to system organ class as well as the severity of the ADR.In total, 11,523 ADR reports corresponding to 22,237 ADRs were analysed, with half of these reporting one ADR per report. Vaccines comprised 55.7% of the 11,523 ADR reports with the remaining being drug related ADRs. Overall, 63.9% of ADRs were reported for paediatric patients between 12 and 17 years of age, with the majority of ADRs reported in females (70.7%. The most common ADRs reported were from the following system organ classes: application site disorders (32.2%, skin and appendages disorders (20.6%, body as a whole general disorders (12.8% and central and peripheral nervous system disorders (11.2%. Meanwhile, ADRs in respect to anti-infectives for systemic use (2194/5106; 43.0% were the most frequently reported across all age groups, followed by drugs from the nervous system (1095/5106; 21.4%. Only 0.28% of the ADR cases were reported as fatal. A large proportion of the reports were received from healthcare providers in government health facilities.ADR reports concerning vaccines and anti-infectives were the most commonly reported in children, and are mainly seen in adolescents, with most of

  3. Activation analysis of thallium by /sup 203/Tl(n,2n)/sup 202/Tl reaction in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I M; Resnizky, S M; Baro, G B [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Gerencia de Radioisotopos y Radiaciones

    1982-01-01

    Two techniques are described for neutron activation analysis of thallium in biological and geological materials, based on /sup 203/Tl(n,2n)/sup 202/Tl reaction in nuclear reactors. Co-precipitation with bismuth sulphide is used as a pre-concentration method of thallium in urine samples, and post-irradiation chemical separation is also performed. The detection limit is 0.5 ..mu..g/l, for 100 ml urine samples. For thallium determination in blendes a radiochemical separation is carried out after the irradiation. An extension of this technique is presented for glass and silicate rocks. Results for seven blende samples from different places of Argentina are shown. Analysis of two reference materials, the 614 glass from the National Bureau of Standards and the granodiorite GSP-1 from the U.S. Geological Survey were also performed. The results are in very good agreement with the certified or estimated values.

  4. Study of the excited levels of 11C and 12C by the analysis of protons induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihet, Y.

    1984-07-01

    The present work is a study of 11 and 12 C excited states by reactions of non polarised protons on 10 B and 11 B. R-matrix analysis of the 10 B excitation curves in the range E p = 0 to 8 MeV was used to establish parameters of 41 levels in 11 C. Isobaric multiplets of T = 1/2 and T = 3/2 states in A = 11 nuclei are deduced. Analysis of 11 B excitation curves in the E p = 0.5 to 7.4 MeV range led to parameter values of 60 levels in 12 C. T = 1 states in A = 12 isobaric nuclei are discussed [fr

  5. Trends and advances in food analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihah, Nur Thaqifah; Hossain, Mohammad Mosharraf; Lubis, Hamadah; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2016-05-01

    Analyses to ensure food safety and quality are more relevant now because of rapid changes in the quantity, diversity and mobility of food. Food-contamination must be determined to maintain health and up-hold laws, as well as for ethical and cultural concerns. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a rapid and inexpensive quantitative method to detect the presence of targeted DNA-segments in samples, helps in determining both accidental and intentional adulterations of foods by biological contaminants. This review presents recent developments in theory, techniques, and applications of RT-PCR in food analyses, RT-PCR addresses the limitations of traditional food analyses in terms of sensitivity, range of analytes, multiplexing ability, cost, time, and point-of-care applications. A range of targets, including species of plants or animals which are used as food ingredients, food-borne bacteria or viruses, genetically modified organisms, and allergens, even in highly processed foods can be identified by RT-PCR, even at very low concentrations. Microfluidic RT-PCR eliminates the separate sample-processing step to create opportunities for point-of-care analyses. We also cover the challenges related to using RT-PCR for food analyses, such as the need to further improve sample handling.

  6. Analysis of the Efficiency of Surfactant-Mediated Stabilization Reactions of EGaIn Nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenauer, Lauren R; Lu, Qingyun; Hakem, Ilhem F; Majidi, Carmel; Bockstaller, Michael R

    2017-09-26

    A methodology based on light scattering and spectrophotometry was developed to evaluate the effect of organic surfactants on the size and yield of eutectic gallium/indium (EGaIn) nanodroplets formed in organic solvents by ultrasonication. The process was subsequently applied to systematically evaluate the role of headgroup chemistry as well as polar/apolar interactions of aliphatic surfactant systems on the efficiency of nanodroplet formation. Ethanol was found to be the most effective solvent medium in promoting the formation and stabilization of EGaIn nanodroplets. For the case of thiol-based surfactants in ethanol, the yield of nanodroplet formation increased with the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic part. In the case of the most effective surfactant system-octadecanethiol-the nanodroplet yield increased by about 370% as compared to pristine ethanol. The rather low overall efficiency of the reaction process along with the incompatibility of surfactant-stabilized EGaIn nanodroplets in nonpolar organic solvents suggests that the stabilization mechanism differs from the established self-assembled monolayer formation process that has been widely observed in nanoparticle formation.

  7. Dynamic thermal reaction analysis of wall structures in various cooling operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Biao; Long, Enshen; Meng, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four different envelop structures are separately built in the same test building. • Cooling temperature and operation time were chosen as perturbations. • State Space Method is used to analyze the influence of wall sequence order. • The numerical models are validated by the comparisons of theory and test results. • The contrast of temperature change of different envelop structures was stark. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology of performance assessing of envelops under different cooling operation conditions, by focusing on indoor temperature change and dynamic thermal behavior performance of walls. To obtain a general relationship between the thermal environment change and the reaction of envelop, variously insulated walls made with the same insulation material are separately built in the same wall of a testing building with the four different structures, namely self-heat insulation (full insulation material), exterior insulation, internal insulation and intermediate insulation. The advantage of this setting is that the test targets are exposed to the same environmental variables, and the tests results are thus comparable. The target responses to two types of perturbations, cooling temperature and operation time were chosen as the important variations in the tests. Parameters of cooling set temperature of 22 °C and 18 °C, operation and restoring time 10 min and 15 min are set in the test models, and discussed with simulation results respectively. The results reveal that the exterior insulation and internal insulation are more sensitive to thermal environment change than self-heat insulation and intermediate insulation.

  8. Reaction engineering analysis of Scenedesmus ovalternus in a flat-plate gas-lift photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Anja Pia; Wolf, Lara; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Microalgal strains of the genus Scenedesmus are a promising resource for commercial biotechnological applications. The temperature-, pH- and light-dependent growth of Scenedesmus ovalternus has been investigated on a laboratory scale. Best batch process performance was obtained at 30°C, pH 8.0 and an incident photon flux density of 1300μmolphotonsm -2 s -1 using a flat-plate gas-lift photobioreactor. Highest growth rate (0.11h -1 ) and space-time yield (1.7±0.1g CDW L -1 d -1 ) were observed when applying these reaction conditions. Biomass concentrations of up to 7.5±0.1g CDW L -1 were achieved within six days (25.0±0.5g CDW m -2 d -1 ). The light-dependent growth kinetics of S. ovalternus was identified using Schuster's light transfer model and Andrews' light inhibition model (K S =545μmolphotonsm -2 s -1 ; K I =2744μmolphotonsm -2 s -1 ; μ max =0.21h -1 ). The optimal mean integral photon flux density for growth of S. ovalternus was estimated to be 1223μmolphotonsm -2 s -1 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mariana Silva Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and nonathletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5 years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n=26, a long-distance runner group (n = 23, and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The non-athlete control group and the triathlete group exhibited smaller vertical forces, a greater ground contact time, and a greater application of force during maximum vertical acceleration than the long-distance runner group. The total work (180º/s was greater in eccentric dorsiflexion and concentric plantar flexion for the non-athlete control group and the triathlete group than the long-distance runner group. The peak torque (60º/s was greater in eccentric plantar flexion and concentric dorsiflexion for the control group than the athlete groups. CONCLUSIONS: The athlete groups exhibited less muscle strength and resistance than the control group, and the triathletes exhibited less impact and better endurance performance than the runners.

  10. Positional isotope exchange analysis of the uridine-diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, L.; Hilscher, L.; Raushel, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme uridine-diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the reversible formation of pyrophosphate and UDP-glucose from UTP and glc-1P. The positional isotope exchange reaction was measured using oxygen-18 labelled UTP. The synthesis of [β- 18 O 2 , βγ- 18 O, γ- 18 O 3 ]UTP was accomplished by the coupled activities of carbamate kinase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and nucleoside monophosphate kinase. The exchange of an oxygen-18 from a β-nonbridge position of the labelled UTP to the αβ-bridge position was measured with 31 P NMR. The ratio of the rate of net substrate turnover and the positional isotope exchange rate was measured as a function of the initial glc-1P concentration. This ratio was found to increase with an increasing concentration of glc-1P. The intercept at low glc-1P was found to be 1.2 and the slope was 4.5 mM -1 . These results have been interpreted to mean that this enzyme has an ordered addition of substrates. The lower limit for the release of pyrophosphate from E-UDPG-PP/sub i/ relative to V 2 is 1.2. The rate constant for the release of UTP from E-UTP relative to V 1 is 9

  11. Cost analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction microbiological diagnosis in patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J; Mar, J; Varela-Ledo, E; Garea, M; Matinez-Lamas, L; Rodriguez, J; Regueiro, B

    2012-11-01

    Antibiotic treatment for septic shock is generally prescribed on an empirical basis using broad-spectrum antibiotics. Molecular diagnostic techniques can detect the presence of microbial DNA in blood within a few hours and facilitate early, targeted treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique, LightCycler SeptiFast (LSC), in patients with sepsis. A cost-minimisation study was carried out in patients admitted with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock to the intensive care unit of a university hospital. The stay in the intensive care unit, hospital admission, 28-day and six-month mortality, and the economic cost of the clinical process were also evaluated. The study involved 48 patients in the LSC group and 54 patients in the control group. The total cost was €42,198 in the control group versus €32,228 in the LCS group with statistically significant differences (P average net saving of €9970 per patient. The mortality rate was similar in both groups. The main finding of this study was the significant economic saving afforded by the use of the LCS technique, due to the shortening of intensive care unit stay and the use of fewer antibiotics.

  12. Analysis of hepcidin expression: in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction from paraffin sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraoka, Yuhki; Sawada, Tokihiko; Shiraki, Takayuki; Park, Kyunghwa; Sakurai, Yuhichiro; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Kubota, Keiichi

    2012-07-28

    To establish methods for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for hepcidin using RNAs isolated from paraffin-embedded sections and in situ hybridization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Total RNA from paraffin-embedded sections was isolated from 68 paraffin-embedded samples of HCC. Samples came from 54 male and 14 female patients with a mean age of 66.8 ± 7.8 years. Quantitative PCR was performed. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for hepcidin were also performed. Quantitative PCR for hepcidin using RNAs isolated from paraffin-embedded sections of HCC was performed successfully. The expression level of hepcidin mRNA in cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in non-cancer tissues. A method of in situ hybridization for hepcidin was established successfully, and this demonstrated that hepcidin mRNA was expressed in non-cancerous tissue but absent in cancerous tissue. We have established novel methods for quantitative PCR for hepcidin using RNAs isolated from paraffin-embedded sections and in situ hybridization of HCC.

  13. [Adverse reactions to drugs reported by the primary care physicians of Andalusia. Analysis of underreporting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelló Iserte, J; Castillo Ferrando, J R; Laínez, M M; García Morillas, M; Arias González, A

    1994-04-15

    To discover the sort of adverse reactions to medication (ARM) notified by Primary Care doctors and identify the under-notification of those cases having special clinical-epidemiological interest. Retrospective study in which 2,597 ARM corresponding to 1,467 Yellow Cards (YC) were analysed. These were notified by Primary Care doctors to the Centro Andaluz de Farmacovigilancia (Andalusian Drug-watch centre) during the period from 1/6/90 to 31/12/92. To assess the seriousness of the ARM, their terminological classification and imputability, the criteria used in the WHO's international "Yellow Card" programme of spontaneous notification were followed. 77.2% of all notifications were from Primary Care, of which 7.4% were of special interest due to their serious or novel character. However an undernotification of serious and well-known ARM was detected, such as digestive haemorrhages (1.07/10(6) inhibitants per year), anaphylactic shock (0.34/10(6) inhab/year), agranulocytosis (0.23/10(6) inhab/year) and aplastic anaemia (0.05/10(6) inhab/year), among others. Most of the main under-notified ARM are generated in the community but treated in hospital Casualty departments. Therefore it would be useful to develop specific Drug-watch programmes in the hospitals themselves.

  14. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows a significant association between the ATM rs1801516 SNP and toxicity after radiotherapy in 5456 breast and prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Rosenstein, Barry S; Kerns, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried ou...

  15. Reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Pedersen, Shona; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Marcussen, Niels

    2011-12-01

    Differentiation between malignant renal cell carcinoma and benign oncocytoma is of great importance to choose the optimal treatment. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of renal tumor is therefore crucial; however, existing imaging techniques and histologic examinations are incapable of providing an optimal differentiation profile. Analysis of gene expression of molecular markers is a new possibility but relies on appropriate standardization to compare different samples. The aim of this study was to identify stably expressed reference genes suitable for the normalization of results extracted from gene expression analysis of renal tumors. Expression levels of 8 potential reference genes (ATP5J, HMBS, HPRT1, PPIA, TBP, 18S, GAPDH, and POLR2A) were examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in tumor and normal tissue from removed kidneys from 13 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 5 patients with oncocytoma. The expression levels of genes were compared by gene stability value M, average gene stability M, pairwise variation V, and coefficient of variation CV. More candidates were not suitable for the purpose, but a combination of HMBS, PPIA, ATP5J, and TBP was found to be the best combination with an average gene stability value M of 0.9 and a CV of 0.4 in the 18 tumors and normal tissues. A combination of 4 genes, HMBS, PPIA, ATP5J, and TBP, is a possible reference in renal tumor gene expression analysis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A combination of four genes, HMBS, PPIA, ATP5J and TBP, being stably expressed in tissues from RCC is possible reference genes for gene expression analysis.

  16. Eutectic reaction analysis between TRU-50%Zr alloy fuel and HT-9 cladding, and temperature prediction of eutectic reaction under steady-state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Bong Sang; Park, Won Seok

    2001-02-01

    Blanket fuel assembly for HYPER contains a bundle of pins arrayed in triangular pitch, which has hexagonal bundle structure. The reference blanket fuel pin consists of the fuel slug of TRU-50wt%Zr alloy and the cladding material of ferritic martensite steel, HT-9. Chemical interaction between fuel slug and cladding is one of the major concerns in metallic fuel rod design. The contact of metallic fuel slug and stainless steel cladding in a fuel rod forms a complex multi-component diffusion couple at elevated temperatures. The potential problem of inter-diffusion of fuel and cladding components is essentially two-fold weakening of cladding mechanical strength due to the formation of diffusion zones in the cladding, and the formation of comparatively low melting point phases in the fuel/cladding interface to develop eutectic reaction. The main components of fuel slug are composed of zirconium alloying element in plutonium matrix, including neptunium, americium and uranium additionally. Therefore basic eutectic reaction change of Pu-Fe binary system can be assessed, while it is estimated how much other elements zirconium, uranium, americium and neptunium influence on plutonium phase stability. Afterwards it is needed that eutectic reaction is verified through experimental necessarily.

  17. Eutectic reaction analysis between TRU-50%Zr alloy fuel and HT-9 cladding, and temperature prediction of eutectic reaction under steady-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Bong Sang; Park, Won Seok

    2001-02-01

    Blanket fuel assembly for HYPER contains a bundle of pins arrayed in triangular pitch, which has hexagonal bundle structure. The reference blanket fuel pin consists of the fuel slug of TRU-50wt%Zr alloy and the cladding material of ferritic martensite steel, HT-9. Chemical interaction between fuel slug and cladding is one of the major concerns in metallic fuel rod design. The contact of metallic fuel slug and stainless steel cladding in a fuel rod forms a complex multi-component diffusion couple at elevated temperatures. The potential problem of inter-diffusion of fuel and cladding components is essentially two-fold weakening of cladding mechanical strength due to the formation of diffusion zones in the cladding, and the formation of comparatively low melting point phases in the fuel/cladding interface to develop eutectic reaction. The main components of fuel slug are composed of zirconium alloying element in plutonium matrix, including neptunium, americium and uranium additionally. Therefore basic eutectic reaction change of Pu-Fe binary system can be assessed, while it is estimated how much other elements zirconium, uranium, americium and neptunium influence on plutonium phase stability. Afterwards it is needed that eutectic reaction is verified through experimental necessarily

  18. The value of routine polymerase chain reaction analysis of intraocular fluid specimens in the diagnosis of infectious posterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Marius A; Lecuona, Karin A; Rogers, Graeme; Bunce, Catey; Corcoran, Craig; Michaelides, Michel

    2013-01-01

    To assess the value of routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on intraocular fluid from patients presenting with a first episode of suspected active infectious posterior uveitis in a population with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Retrospective, interventional case series. Participants. 159 consecutive patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital over a five-year period. PCR analysis was performed for cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PCR analysis confirmed the initial clinical diagnosis in 55 patients (35%) and altered the initial clinical diagnosis in 36 patients (23%). The clinical diagnosis prior to PCR testing was nonspecific (uncertain) in 51 patients (32%), with PCR providing a definitive final diagnosis in 20 of these patients (39%); necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis were particularly difficult to diagnose correctly without the use of PCR analysis. The clinical phenotype alone was unreliable in diagnosing the underlying infectious cause in a quarter of patients in this study. Since the outcome of incorrectly treated infective uveitis can be blinding, PCR analysis of ocular fluids is recommended early in the disease even in resource poor settings.

  19. Optical model analysis of quasielastic (p, n) reactions at 22.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.D.; Zafiratos, C.D.; Lind, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Quasielastic (p, n) differential cross sections have been measured for 29 nuclei ranging from 9 Be to 208 Pb at an energy of 22.8 MeV in approximately 7.5 0 steps from 10 0 to 152 0 . The results have been analysed with a distorted-wave Born approximation in terms of the generalized optical model due to Lane. Starting with a complex isospin interaction form factor, U 1 , deduced from the Becchetti-Greenlees global set of proton optical parameters, the shape of the surface-peaked, imaginary part of U 1 was varied until good fits to the data were obtained. The shape of the real part of U 1 and the ratio of the real to imaginary well depths were kept fixed at the Becchetti-Greenlees values. The resulting best-fit form factors had overall strengths 20-30% less than the Becchetti-Greenlees value. Further, the resulting imaginary part of U 1 was found to peak at a decreasing radius relative to the real part of U 1 with an increasing width as A increased. A smoothed parametrization of the best-fit U 1 is given for all nuclei with A > 40. The individual best-fit U 1 is used to generate self-consistent neutron optical potentials from the Becchetti-Greenlees proton optical potentials as prescribed by the Lane model. Neutron elastic scattering angular distributions and reaction cross sections predicted by these self-consistent potentials are in good agreement with observed neutron scattering data. (Auth.)

  20. A text-mining analysis of the public's reactions to the opioid crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Glowacki, Joseph B; Wilcox, Gary B

    2017-07-19

    Opioid abuse has become an epidemic in the United States. On August 25, 2016, the former Surgeon General of the United States sent an open letter to care providers asking for their help with combatting this growing health crisis. Social media forums such as Twitter allow for open discussions among the public and up-to-date exchanges of information about timely topics such as opioids. Therefore, the goal of the current study is to identify the public's reactions to the opioid epidemic by identifying the most popular topics tweeted by users. A text miner, algorithmic-driven statistical program was used to capture 73,235 original tweets and retweets posted within a 2-month time span 15 (August 15, 2016, through October 15, 2016). All tweets contained references to "opioids," "turnthetide," or similar keywords. The sets of tweets were then analyzed to identify the most prevalent topics. The most discussed topics had to do with public figures addressing opioid abuse, creating better treatment options for teen addicts, using marijuana as an alternative for managing pain, holding foreign and domestic drug makers accountable for the epidemic, promoting the "Rx for Change" campaign, addressing double standards in the perceptions and treatment of black and white opioid users, and advertising opioid recovery programs. Twitter allows users to find current information, voice their concerns, and share calls for action in response to the opioid epidemic. Monitoring the conversations about opioids that are taking place on social media forums such as Twitter can help public health officials and care providers better understand how the public is responding to this health crisis.

  1. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.; AbuElela, Ayman; Merzaban, Jasmeen

    2017-01-01

    -selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein

  2. Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from a high altitude aircraft: Modelling and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, J. A.; Letros, D.; Zawada, D.; Bourassa, A.; Degenstein, D.; Solheim, B.

    2018-04-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has been developed to measure the vertical distribution of water vapour in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere with a high vertical resolution (∼500 m). The Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) instrument combines an imaging system with a monolithic field-widened SHS to observe limb scattered sunlight in a vibrational band of water (1363 nm-1366 nm). The instrument has been optimized for observations from NASA's ER-2 aircraft as a proof-of-concept for a future low earth orbit satellite deployment. A robust model has been developed to simulate SHOW ER-2 limb measurements and retrievals. This paper presents the simulation of the SHOW ER-2 limb measurements along a hypothetical flight track and examines the sensitivity of the measurement and retrieval approach. Water vapour fields from an Environment and Climate Change Canada forecast model are used to represent realistic spatial variability along the flight path. High spectral resolution limb scattered radiances are simulated using the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model. It is shown that the SHOW instrument onboard the ER-2 is capable of resolving the water vapour variability in the UTLS from approximately 12 km - 18 km with ±1 ppm accuracy. Vertical resolutions between 500 m and 1 km are feasible. The along track sampling capability of the instrument is also discussed.

  3. Content Analysis of Chemistry Curricula in Germany Case Study: Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofte, Roxana S.

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum-assessment alignment is a well known foundation for good practice in educational assessment, for items' curricular validity purposes. Nowadays instruments are designed to measure pupils' competencies in one or more areas of competence. Sub-competence areas could be defined theoretically and statistical analysis of empirical data by…

  4. Tensor methods for parameter estimation and bifurcation analysis of stochastic reaction networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liao, S.; Vejchodský, Tomáš; Erban, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 108 (2015), s. 20150233 ISSN 1742-5689 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 328008 - STOCHDETBIOMODEL Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : gene regulatory networks * stochastic modelling * parametric analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.818, year: 2015 http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/12/108/20150233

  5. Analysis of the 7Be (P, γ) 8B reaction at extremely low energies within the modified two-body potential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Igamov, S.B.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Obtaining the extremely low energy cross sections for the reaction 7 Be(p,γ ) 8 B is of great interest for a reliable estimation of the rate of this reaction, which is crucial for an accurate determination of the solar neutrino flux. At present, in current literature, there is a rather wide spread in estimation of this rate (see, for instance, Ref. [1] and references therein). In this work, the modified two-body potential approach for analysis of the astrophysical S- factor S(E) for the peripheral direct radiative capture 7 Be(p,γ ) 8 B reaction of astrophysical interest is applied, in which the additional conditions of verification of the peripheral character of the reaction under consideration are formulated. The method involves the information on the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for the virtual decay 8 B → 7 Be+p and allows one to exclude the model dependence of the calculated direct astrophysical S-factor S(E) on the geometric parameters (radius r 0 and diffuseness a) of the adopted Woods-Saxon potential, which is usually used for calculations both for the two-body ( 7 Be+p)-bound state and for the 7 Be p -scattering state. The rather precise experimental astrophysical S-factor, S exp (E), in the energy range 100 7 Be(p,γ ) 8 B reaction, measured recently by the authors of Ref. [1] is used for the analysis. It is demonstrated that at extremely low energies this reaction is strongly peripheral and the measured S exp (E) can be used as an independent source of getting the information about the ANC. The new information about values of the ANC is obtained with an estimation of the weighted mean errors for them, which involves both the experimental errors of the S exp (E), and uncertainty of the method not exceeding 4%. The extracted value of the ANC is equal to C 2 =C 2 1/2 +C 2 3/2 =5.68± 0.15 fm -1 , where the indices show the value total angular momentum of the proton in the (p+ 7 Be)-bound state of 8 B. It was also demonstrated

  6. Diffusion tensor MRI shows progressive changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus after status epilepticus in rat - histological validation with Fourier-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Raimo A; Miettinen, Tuukka; Laitinen, Teemu; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra

    2017-05-15

    Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE. In order to tie the DTI findings to changes in the tissue microstructure, myelin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-stained sections from the same animals underwent Fourier analysis. We compared the Fourier analysis parameters, anisotropy index and angle of myelinated axons or astrocyte processes, to corresponding DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the orientation angle of the principal eigenvector. We found progressive detectable changes in DTI parameters in both the dentate gyrus (FA, axial diffusivity [D || ], linear anisotropy [CL] and spherical anisotropy [CS], pFourier analysis revealed that both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes played a role in the water diffusion anisotropy changes detected by DTI in individual portions of the dentate gyrus (suprapyramidal blade, mid-portion, and infrapyramidal blade). In the whole dentate gyrus, myelinated axons markedly contributed to the water diffusion changes. In CA3bc as well as in CA3b and CA3c, both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes contributed to water diffusion anisotropy and orientation. Our study revealed that DTI is a promising method for noninvasive detection of microstructural alterations in the hippocampus proper. These alterations may be potential imaging markers for epileptogenesis

  7. Chaos control in the cerium-catalyzed Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction using recurrence quantification analysis measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatoorehchi, Hooman; Zarghami, Reza; Abolghasemi, Hossein; Rach, Randolph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Theoretical and experimental chaos control for the Belousov–Zhabotinsky-CSTR system. •Application of recurrence analysis quantification for chaos control by feedback loops. •Optimization of determinism and recurrence rate as RQA-based measures. •Accurate solution of the Montanator model by the multi-stage Adomian decomposition method. -- Abstract: Chaos control in the Belousov–Zhabotinsky-CSTR system was investigated theoretically and experimentally by reconstructing the phase space of the cerium (IV) ions concentration time series and then optimizing recurrence quantification analysis measures. The devised feedback loop acting on the reactor inlet flow rate was able to experimentally suppress chaos and drive the system to an almost predictable state with approximately 93% determinism. Similar theoretical results have also been demonstrated in numerical simulations using the four-variable Montanator model as solved by the multistage Adomian decomposition method

  8. Synthesis and conformational analysis of new arylated-diphenylurea derivatives related to sorafenib drug via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masoudi, Najim A.; Essa, Ali Hashem; Alwaaly, Ahmed A. S.; Saeed, Bahjat A.; Langer, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Sorafenib, is a relatively new cytostatic drug approved for the treatment of renal cell and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of new sorafenib analogues offers the possibility of generating structures of increased potency. To this end, a series of arylated-diphenylurea analogues 17-31 were synthesized via Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction, related to sorafenib by treatment of three diarylureas 2-4 having 3-bromo, 4-chloro and 2-iodo groups with various arylboronic acids. Conformational analysis of the new arylated urea analogues has been investigated using MOPAC 2016 of semi empirical PM7 Hamiltonian computational method. Our results showed that all compounds preferred the trans-trans conformations. Compound 17 has been selected to calculate the torsional energy profiles for rotation around the urea bonds and found to be existed predominantly in the trans-trans conformation with only very minimal fluctuation in conformation.

  9. 'You want to show you're a valuable employee': A critical discourse analysis of multi-perspective portrayals of employed women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Margaret; MacEachen, Ellen; MacNeill, Margaret; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2018-06-01

    Background Advice on fibromyalgia, a chronic illness primarily affecting women, often presents it as incompatible with work and rarely covers how to remain employed. Yet many women do. Objectives We aimed to understand how these women, their family members, and workmates portrayed employees with fibromyalgia, and how these portrayals helped women retain employment. Methods We interviewed 22 participants, comprising five triads and three dyads of people who knew each other. Using the methodology of critical discourse analysis, we analysed the interview data within and across the triads/dyads through coding, narrative summaries, and relational mapping. Results Participants reported stereotypes that employees with fibromyalgia are lazy, malingering, and less productive than healthy workers. Countering these assumptions, participants portrayed the women as normal, valuable employees who did not 'give in' to their illness. The portrayals drew on two discourses, normalcy and mind-controlling-the-body, and a related narrative, overcoming disability. We propose that participants' portrayals helped women manage their identities in competitive workplaces and thereby remain employed. Discussion Our findings augment the very sparse literature on employment with fibromyalgia. Using a new approach, critical discourse analysis, we expand on known job-retention strategies and add the perspectives of two key stakeholders: family members and workmates.

  10. The reaction π-p → π-π-π+p: Development of the analysis methods and selected results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchikov, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the description of the analysis methods and results of applying them to the exclusive diffractive reaction π-p → π-π-π+p of 50 . 106 events measured with COMPASS detector. The large statistics of π-π-π+ events enables the two-dimensional partial-wave analysis independently in 100 bins of m(3π) with 0.5 < m(3π) < 2.5 GeV/c2 and in 11 intervals of squared momentum transfer with 0.1 < t' < 1 GeV2/c2. The partial-wave analysis sub-density matrix is the subject to further mass-dependent fits describing the data in terms of resonances in 3π system and coherent background contributions. The novel approach of extracting JPC = 0++(π+π-)S isobar amplitudes as model-free functions, different for several JPC 3π states, is used. It demonstrates the presence of processes π(1800) → f0(980)π and π(1800) → f0(1500)π as well as π2(1880) → f0(980)π and new narrow signal a1(1420) → f0(980)π, without any established shapes used for (π+π-)S isobars. The presented analysis is subject to further development and refinements which currently take place.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for viruses in paraffin-embedded myocardium from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy or myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, T R; Meurs, K M; Lehmkuhl, L B; Magnon, A L; Weisbrode, S E; Atkins, C E

    2001-01-01

    To perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on paraffin-embedded myocardium from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and dogs with myocarditis to screen for canine parvovirus, adenovirus types 1 and 2, and herpesvirus. Myocardial specimens from 18 dogs with an antemortem diagnosis of DCM and 9 dogs with a histopathologic diagnosis of myocarditis were evaluated. Paraffin-embedded myocardial specimens were screened for viral genome by PCR analysis. Positive-control specimens were developed from cell cultures as well as paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from dogs with clinical and histopathologic diagnoses of viral infection with canine parvovirus, adenovirus types 1 and 2, and herpesvirus. The histologic characteristics of all myocardial specimens were classified regarding extent, location, and type of inflammation and fibrosis. Canine adenovirus type 1 was amplified from 1 specimen from a dog with DCM. Canine parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, and herpesvirus were not amplified from any myocardial specimens. Histologic analysis of specimens from dogs with DCM revealed variable amounts of fibrosis; myocardial inflammation was observed in 1 affected dog. Histopathologic analysis of specimens from dogs with myocarditis disclosed variable degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Viral agents canine parvovirus, adenovirus types 1 and 2, and herpesvirus are not commonly associated with DCM or active myocarditis in dogs. Additional studies evaluating for nucleic acid from viruses that less commonly affect dogs or different types of infectious agents may be warranted to gain insight into the cause of DCM and myocarditis in dogs.

  12. Solvent effect on the degree of (a)synchronicity in polar Diels-Alder reactions from the perspective of the reaction force constant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Diana; Martínez-Araya, Jorge I; Jaque, Pablo

    2017-12-29

    In this work, we computationally evaluated the influence of six different molecular solvents, described as a polarizable continuum model at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level, on the activation barrier/reaction rate, overall energy change, TS geometry, and degree of (a)synchronicity of two concerted Diels-Alder cycloadditions of acrolein (R1) and its complex with Lewis acid acrolein···BH 3 (R2) to cyclopentadiene. In gas-phase, we found that both exothermicity and activation barrier are only reduced by about 2.0 kcal mol -1 , and the asynchronicity character of the mechanism is accentuated when BH 3 is included. An increment in the solvent's polarity lowers the activation energy of R1 by 1.3 kcal mol -1 , while for R2 the reaction rate is enhanced by more than 2000 times at room temperature (i.e., the activation energy decreases by 4.5 kcal mol -1 ) if the highest polar media is employed. Therefore, a synergistic effect is achieved when both external agents, i.e., Lewis acid catalyst and polar solvent, are included together. This effect was ascribed to the ability of the solvent to favor the encounter between cyclopentadiene and acrolein···BH 3 . This was validated by the asymmetry of the TS which becomes highly pronounced when either both or just BH 3 is considered or the solvent's polarity is increased. Finally, the reaction force constant κ(ξ) reveals that an increment in the solvent's polarity is able to turn a moderate asynchronous mechanism of the formation of the new C-C σ-bonds into a highly asynchronous one. Graphical abstract A synergistic effect is achieved when both external agents, i.e., Lewis acid catalyst and polar solvent, are included together: lowered energy barriers and increased asynchronicities.

  13. Hydrogen incorporation and radiation induced dynamics in metal-oxide-silicon structures. A study using nuclear reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briere, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    Resonant nuclear reaction analysis, using the 1 H( 15 N, αγ) 12 C reaction at 6.4 MeV, has been successfully applied to the investigation of hydrogen incorporation and radiation induced migration in metal-oxide-silicon structures. A preliminary study of the influence of processing parameters on the H content of thermal oxides, with and without gate material present, has been performed. It is found that the dominant source of hydrogen in Al gate devices and dry oxides is often contamination, likely in the form of adsorbed water vapor, formed upon exposure to room air after removal from the oxidation furnace. Concentrations of hydrogen in the bulk oxide as high as 3 10 20 cm -3 (Al gate), and as low as 1 10 18 cm -3 (poly Si-gate) have been observed. Hydrogen accumulation at the Si-SiO 2 interface has been reproducibly demonstrated for as-oxidized samples, as well as for oxides exposed to H 2 containing atmospheres during subsequent thermal processing. The migration of hydrogen, from the bulk oxide to the silicon-oxide interface during NRA, has been observed and intensively investigated. A direct correlation between the hydrogen content of the bulk oxide and the radiation generated oxide charges and interface states is presented. These data provide strong support for the important role of hydrogen in determining the radiation sensitivity of electronic devices. (orig.)

  14. Effect of interfering reactions on the determination of iodine-129 concentrations in the enviroment by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filistovich, V.; Nedvetskajte, T.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the interfering reactions sup(235)U(n, f) sup(129)In(n, γ)sup(130)I, sup(128)Te(n, γ)sup(129)Te, sup(129)Te(Tsub(1/2)sup(βsup(-))=69.6 min) sup(129)I(n, γ)sup(130)I and sup(127)I(3n, γ)sup(130)I on the measurements by the activation analysis method of the background sup(129)I concentrations in the environment has been investigated. The calculations have shown that these reactions may result in considerable errors. A pretreatment of samples before their irradiation in a reactor is therefore needed. It is recommended to use the destructive distillation method. A nomogram is given with the help of which it is possible to determine the optimal time for the sample irradiation in the reactor after the sup(127)I concentrations have bee nevaluated in the samples, because the considerable amount of the sup(129)I can be generated from the sup(127)I by the triple neutron capture

  15. Global Controllability of Chemical Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Drexler, Dániel András; Tóth, János

    2015-01-01

    Controllability of chemical reactions is an important problem in chemical engineering science. In control theory, analysis of the controllability of linear systems is well-founded, however the dynamics of chemical reactions is usually nonlinear. Global controllability properties of chemical reactions are analyzed here based on the Lie-algebra of the vector fields associated to elementary reactions. A chemical reaction is controllable almost everywhere if all the reaction rate coefficients can...

  16. Dielectric properties, impedance analysis and modulus behavior of CaTiO{sub 3} ceramic prepared by solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Y.J., E-mail: yjeng_86@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hassan, J., E-mail: jumiah@science.upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, M., E-mail: mansor@science.upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A single phase orthorhombic CaTiO{sub 3} structure with sub-micron grains is produced. •The frequency exponent ‘s’ is temperature dependent and explained by CBH model. •The dielectric constant and loss tangent are frequency and temperature dependent. •The modulus plot reveals the presence of thermally activated dielectric relaxation. •Cole-cole plot reveals two primary relaxation processes exist in the sample. -- Abstract: Calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}) with the general formula for perovskites, ABO{sub 3}, is of technological importance, particularly with regard to dielectric properties. In this work, CaTiO{sub 3} ceramic material was prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. The dielectric properties, impedance characteristics and modulus behavior of the CaTiO{sub 3} ceramic material sintered at 1240 °C were investigated in the frequency range of 10{sup −2}–10{sup 6} Hz and temperature range of 100–250 °C. The XRD analysis of the sintered CaTiO{sub 3} shows that it is an orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters a = 5.4398 Å, b = 7.6417 Å, and c = 5.3830 Å. The FESEM micrograph shows a significant difference in grain size distribution ranging from 0.26 to 2.32 μm. The AC conductivity, σ{sub AC}, is found to increase with increasing temperature within the frequency range of 10{sup −2}–10{sup 6} Hz confirming the hopping of electrons to be the conduction mechanism. Due to the decreasing values of the frequency exponent s with increasing temperature, the results of the σ{sub AC} are discussed using the correlated barrier height (CBH) model. For dielectric studies, the dielectric constant, ε′ is found to decrease with increasing frequency. In the whole temperature range of 100–250 °C, high and low frequency plateau are observed. Each converges at high frequency (>10{sup 5} Hz) for all the temperatures. The frequency dependence of loss tangent, tan δ, decreases with rise in temperature, with the

  17. Combined analysis of 19 common validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants shows moderate discriminative value and no evidence of gene-gene interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Grarup, N; A