Sample records for reaction acting outward

  1. Institutional Field for Outward Foreign Direct Investment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Child, John; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov


    The paper AU :3 explores the stages of development of an outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) institutional field during periods of major system change in big emerging economies. The state and its agencies appear to be the principal institutional entrepreneurs in developing the OFDI organizati......The paper AU :3 explores the stages of development of an outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) institutional field during periods of major system change in big emerging economies. The state and its agencies appear to be the principal institutional entrepreneurs in developing the OFDI...

  2. China's Outward Direct Investment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; de Haan, Jakob; Qian, Xingwang; Yu, Shu

    The empirical determinants of China's outward direct investment (ODI) in Africa are examined using an officially approved ODI dataset and a relatively new OECDIMF format ODI dataset. China's ODI is found responding to the canonical economic determinants that include the market seeking motive, the

  3. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment

  4. China's Outward Direct and Portfolio Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hung-Gay Fung; Qingfeng Wilson Liu; Erin H. C. Kao


    This paper analyzes developments and trends related to China's outward direct and financial investments by examining Chinese firms' overseas acquisitions, China's holdings of US Treasury securities, and the recently formally launched Qualified Domestic Institutional Investor programs. Strategies should be developed to reach optimal decisions for both direct and portfolio investments. We argue that China should have a longer-term view for both direct and portfolio investments, enabling China to become the leader in Asia while maintaining its sustainable growth objective. China should invest heavily in the development of the Asian bond market and the Asian Currency Fund when making both portfolio and direct investment decisions.

  5. Inner body and outward appearance- the relationship between orientation toward outward appearance, body awareness and symptom perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Croon, M.A.; Vermaas, S.


    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between orientation to outward appearance, body awareness, symptom perception, and gender, from Pennebaker's competition of cues model (1982). We expected a negative relationship between orientation to outward appearance and body awareness, and

  6. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines? (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao


    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  7. Outward potassium current oscillations in macrophage polykaryons: extracellular calcium entry and calcium-induced calcium release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva R.M.


    Full Text Available Outward current oscillations associated with transient membrane hyperpolarizations were induced in murine macrophage polykaryons by membrane depolarization in the absence of external Na+. Oscillations corresponded to a cyclic activation of Ca2+-dependent K+ currents (IKCa probably correlated with variations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Addition of external Na+ (8 mM immediately abolished the outward current oscillations, suggesting that the absence of the cation is necessary not only for their induction but also for their maintenance. Oscillations were completely blocked by nisoldipine. Ruthenium red and ryanodine reduced the number of outward current cycles in each episode, whereas quercetin prolonged the hyperpolarization 2- to 15-fold. Neither low molecular weight heparin nor the absence of a Na+ gradient across the membrane had any influence on oscillations. The evidence suggests that Ca2+ entry through a pathway sensitive to Ca2+ channel blockers is elicited by membrane depolarization in Na+-free medium and is essential to initiate oscillations, which are also dependent on the cyclic release of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+-sensitive stores; Ca2+ ATPase acts by reducing intracellular Ca2+, thus allowing slow deactivation of IKCa. Evidence is presented that neither a Na+/Ca2+ antiporter nor Ca2+ release from IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores participate directly in the mechanism of oscillation

  8. Reaction pathway of the trans-acting hepatitis delta virus ribozyme: a conformational change accompanies catalysis. (United States)

    Pereira, Miguel J B; Harris, Dinari A; Rueda, David; Walter, Nils G


    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV), an infectious human pathogen and satellite of hepatitis B virus, leads to intensified disease symptoms, including progression to liver cirrhosis. Both the circular RNA genome of HDV and its complementary antigenome contain the same cis-cleaving catalytic RNA motif that plays a crucial role in virus replication. Previously, the high-resolution crystal structure of the product form of a cis-acting genomic HDV ribozyme has been determined, while a trans-acting version of the ribozyme was used to dissect the cleavage reaction pathway. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on a synthetic trans-cleaving form of the ribozyme, we are able to directly observe substrate binding (at a rate constant k(on) of 7.8 x 10(6) M(-1) min(-1) at pH 7.5, 11 mM MgCl(2), and 25 degrees C) and dissociation (at 0.34 min(-1)). Steady-state and time-resolved FRET experiments in solution and in nondenaturing gels reveal that the substrate (precursor) complex is slightly more compact (by approximately 3 A) than the free ribozyme, yet becomes significantly extended (by approximately 15 A) upon cleavage and product complex formation. We also find that trans cleavage is characterized by a high transition-state entropy (-26 eu). We propose that the significant global conformational change that we observe between the precursor and product structures occurs on the reaction trajectory into a constrained product complex-like transition state. Our observations may present the structural basis of the recently described utilization of intrinsic substrate binding energy to the overall catalytic rate enhancement by the trans-acting HDV ribozyme.

  9. Academic Perspectives on the Outcomes of Outward Student Mobility (United States)

    Bridger, Kath


    This research project was commissioned by the UK Higher Education International Unit (IU) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA) in June 2014 to explore academic perspectives on the outcomes of outward mobility at undergraduate, postgraduate and research levels for UK domiciled students, and to consider how best to facilitate the take up as well…

  10. Does Inward FDI Promote or Hinder Outward FDI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Ming Hua; Lu, Jiangyong

    In this paper we evaluate the mechanisms underlying dynamic linkages between inward FDI and outward internationalization in the Chinese automobile industry. While several studies have examined the relationship between outward and inward investment using empirical data, this is among the first to ...... may be more driven to expand internationally while firms with IJVs may face constraints from venturing abroad. Our study further delineates strategies for how automakers without IJVs may rely on external growth to springboard back into the domestic car market.......In this paper we evaluate the mechanisms underlying dynamic linkages between inward FDI and outward internationalization in the Chinese automobile industry. While several studies have examined the relationship between outward and inward investment using empirical data, this is among the first...... to employ a case study approach to investigate how international joint ventures (IJVs) established between foreign and Chinese carmakers can shape their internationalization speed, proclivity, and degree. We discuss some unique features of carmakers with and without IJVs to elucidate how firms without IJVs...

  11. Abstract ance is the outward rhythmic expression of inner emotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nnamdi Azikiwe niversity Awka, Nigeria. Abstract ance is the outward rhythmic expression of inner emotion that ... dynamics. Many factors influence the African dance, and top among them is the diversity in culture. ... most African countries, music is an essential part of the people s daily life. The two basic and very important ...

  12. Learning by outward FDI: Evidence from Chinese manufacturing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yaping


    Full Text Available Using firm-level data of Chinese manufacturing enterprises between 1998 and 2007, we investigate the existence and channels of “learning by outward FDI”. Difference-in-differences estimation reveals that productivity of Chinese parent firms is significantly improved by their outward foreign direct investment and the learning effects form a “V” shape in the following years. There is no significant difference in learning effects between state-owned enterprises and non-state-owned enterprises; neither do we find any evidence that investing in countries with advanced technology gives more learning effects. In addition, we find that learning effects mainly come from technology transfer, technology spillovers and an enlarged production scale.

  13. Allicin inhibits transient outward potassium currents in mouse ventricular myocytes




    Allicin is the active constituent of garlic, a widely used spice and food. The remedial properties of garlic have also been extensively researched and it has been demonstrated that allicin is able to inhibit the transient outward potassium current (Ito) in atrial myocytes. However, the direct effect of allicin on Ito in ventricular myocytes has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of allicin on Ito in ventricular myocytes isolated from mice were investigated, using the whol...

  14. Outward FDI and home country economic growth: a Malaysian case


    Koi Nyen Wong


    This paper attempts to explore the causality relationship between outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) and home country economic growth using Malaysia as a case. The main findings do not advocate the OFDI-led growth hypothesis. In order to promote OFDI-led growth, the home government should prepare the private sector for increasing competition in the era of globalization so that linkages can be forged with Malaysian multinationals, and to facilitate home sourcing for OFDI activities. Howe...

  15. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon


    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  16. Outward Accessibility in Urban Street Networks: Characterization and Improvements


    Travençolo, Bruno Augusto Nassif; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura


    The dynamics of transportation through towns and cities is strongly affected by the topology of the connections and routes. The current work describes an approach combining complex networks and self-avoiding random walk dynamics in order to quantify in objective and accurate manner, along a range of spatial scales, the accessibility of places in towns and cities. The transition probabilities are estimated for several lengths of the walks and used to calculate the outward accessibility of each...

  17. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.


    The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...... countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15...

  18. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon


    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  19. Outward-looking circular motion analysis of large image sequences. (United States)

    Jiang, Guang; Wei, Yichen; Quan, Long; Tsui, Hung-tat; Shum, Heung Yeung


    This paper presents a novel and simple method of analyzing the motion of a large image sequence captured by a calibrated outward-looking video camera moving on a circular trajectory for large-scale environment applications. Previous circular motion algorithms mainly focus on inward-looking turntable-like setups. They are not suitable for outward-looking motion where the conic trajectory of corresponding points degenerates to straight lines. The circular motion of a calibrated camera essentially has only one unknown rotation angle for each frame. The motion recovery for the entire sequence computes only one fundamental matrix of a pair of frames to extract the angular motion of the pair using Laguerre's formula and then propagates the computation of the unknown rotation angles to the other frames by tracking one point over at least three frames. Finally, a maximum-likelihood estimation is developed for the optimization of the whole sequence. Extensive experiments demonstrate the validity of the method and the feasibility of the application in image-based rendering.

  20. Functional reentrant waves propagate outwardly in cardiac tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Yunfan [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021 (United States)]. E-mail:; Christini, David J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021 (United States) and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021 (United States)]. E-mail:


    The dynamical nature of cardiac arrhythmias has been investigated for decades by researchers from a wide range of disciplines. One long-standing unsettled issue involves whether the mechanism of functional reentry should be described by the 'leading-circle' hypothesis or the 'spiral-wave' hypothesis, which rely on inward and outward wave propagation, respectively. To address this issue, we investigated two-dimensional FitzHugh-Nagumo type models and found that inwardly propagating waves could occur in the spontaneous oscillatory mode, but not the excitable mode. However, such spontaneous oscillatory behavior is characterized by small-amplitude, sinusoidal oscillations that are fundamentally different from the stimulus-driven, excitable behavior of cardiac myocytes. This finding suggests that inward wave propagation, which is posited by the leading-circle hypothesis for the purpose of maintaining functional reentry, is unlikely to occur in cardiac tissue.

  1. Denmark: Outward FDI from Denmark and Its Policy Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter


    Except for a peak in 2011 due to large one-off investments, Danish flows of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) have been dampened since 2007 by the lingering European sovereign debt crisis, which continues to hamper the Danish economy. Over a longer time span however, the Danish corporate...... sector has developed a substantial international presence since the 1980s. Today, about half of the workforce in Danish manufacturing industries is employed abroad. Companies plan to expand their foreign operations further still, with 60% of companies with foreign operations planning to expand...... their production of goods and services abroad toward 2015. The Danish Government supports the internationalization of Danish companies, and recently more emphasis has been put on OFDI into the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China) and other growth markets....

  2. Inward-outward linkages in the internationalization process of firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane

    , on the one hand, that firms with importing experience from a specific market prior to initiating exports to this market have a shorter export spell. This in line with the thesis that prior importing experience facilitates firms’ outward internationalization by reducing the sunk costs associated with export......This study provides a new angle as to how firms’ importing activities influence their export activities by looking at survival in individual export markets. Duration models on a panel of Danish exporters in the manufacturing sector are used to investigate this relationship. The results reveal...... market entry and that export survival is negatively correlated with these sunk costs. Only importing experience within the same market affects (shortens) a firm’s export spell, which also is in line with the argument that a priori import experience reduces firms’ export market specific sunk costs...

  3. Effect of Electric Field on Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama


    The thesis comprises effects of electric fields on a fundamental study of spheri­cal premixed flame propagation.Outwardly-propagating spherical laminar premixed flames have been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by applying au uni-directional electric potential.Direct photography and schlieren techniques have been adopted and captured images were analyzed through image processing. Unstretched laminar burning velocities under the influence of electric fields and their associated Markstein length scales have been determined from outwardly prop­agating spherical flame at a constant pressure. Methane and propane fuels have been tested to assess the effect of electric fields on the differential diffusion of the two fuels.The effects of varying equivalence ratios and applied voltages have been in­vestigated, while the frequency of AC was fixed at 1 KHz. Directional propagating characteristics were analyzed to identify the electric filed effect. The flame morphology varied appreciably under the influence of electric fields which in turn affected the burning rate of mixtures.The flame front was found to propagate much faster toward to the electrode at which the electric fields were supplied while the flame speeds in the other direction were minimally influenced. When the voltage was above 7 KV the combustion is markedly enhanced in the downward direction since intense turbulence is generated and as a result the mixing process or rather the heat and mass transfer within the flame front will be enhanced.The com­bustion pressure for the cases with electric fields increased rapidly during the initial stage of combustion and was relatively higher since the flame front was lengthened in the downward direction.

  4. Outward foreign direct investments and home country's economic growth (United States)

    Ciesielska, Dorota; Kołtuniak, Marcin


    The study examines the time stability of the causality direction and cross-correlations between the home country's economic growth and pace of growth of its outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) stocks within the complex system of the Polish national economy. The research has been performed in order to verify, using both the time and frequency domains time series analyses, if economic agents' long term decisions on outward foreign direct investments, leading to cross-border value chains and production fragmentation processes, are of adaptive or predictive character. Consequently, the aim was to check if the home country's economic growth leads the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises, which stays in line with Dunning's Investment Development Path (IDP) paradigm, or if these complex processes, thanks to entrepreneurs' ability to formulate relevant rational expectations, precede the home country's economic growth, which would be supported with the introduction of the policy on reinforcing the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises. The presence of the unidirectional economic growth-led internationalization, consistent with the IDP concept's base assumptions, has been ascertained by the results of the short term Granger causality tests. Nevertheless, the results of the wavelet analyses, supported with the results of the econometric block exogeneity long term causality Wald tests, have revealed that in the long term the OFDI stocks' growth permanently precedes the home country's economic growth, which stays in the unequivocal contrast with the IDP paradigm's premises, as well as with the indicated above short term Granger causality tests' outcomes and indicates that economic agents' choices are not strictly of adaptive but also of predictive character, which influences the current state of knowledge on economic complex systems' characteristics. Such a result is of a great importance in the light of the existence of the significant

  5. Adverse reactions in a dose-ranging study with a new long-acting fluoroquinolone, fleroxacin.


    Bowie, W R; Willetts, V; Jewesson, P J


    New fluoroquinolones have generally been well tolerated. In a double-blind evaluation of oral fleroxacin, using 400, 600, or 800 mg once daily for 7 days in an ambulatory setting for treatment of uncomplicated genital infections, we encountered unexpectedly high rates of adverse reactions. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether any factors in addition to dose could be found to account for our observations. Adverse reactions developed in 66 (84%) of 79 individuals, and severe ...

  6. On corotation torques, horseshoe drag and the possibility of sustained stalled or outward protoplanetary migration (United States)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.


    We study the torque on low-mass protoplanets on fixed circular orbits, embedded in a protoplanetary disc in the isothermal limit. We consider a wide range of surface density distributions including cases where the surface density increases smoothly outwards. We perform both linear disc response calculations and non-linear numerical simulations. We consider a large range of viscosities, including the inviscid limit, as well as a range of protoplanet mass ratios, with special emphasis on the co-orbital region and the corotation torque acting between disc and protoplanet. For low-mass protoplanets and large viscosity, the corotation torque behaves as expected from linear theory. However, when the viscosity becomes small enough to enable horseshoe turns to occur, the linear corotation torque exists only temporarily after insertion of a planet into the disc, being replaced by the horseshoe drag first discussed by Ward. This happens after a time that is equal to the horseshoe libration period reduced by a factor amounting to about twice the disc aspect ratio. This torque scales with the radial gradient of specific vorticity, as does the linear torque, but we find it to be many times larger. If the viscosity is large enough for viscous diffusion across the co-orbital region to occur within a libration period, we find that the horseshoe drag may be sustained. If not, the corotation torque saturates leaving only the linear Lindblad torques. As the magnitude of the non-linear co-orbital torque (horseshoe drag) is always found to be larger than the linear torque, we find that the sign of the total torque may change even for mildly positive surface density gradients. In combination with a kinematic viscosity large enough to keep the torque from saturating, strong sustained deviations from linear theory and outward or stalled migration may occur in such cases.

  7. Allicin inhibits transient outward potassium currents in mouse ventricular myocytes. (United States)

    Cao, Hong; Huang, Congxin; Wang, Xin


    Allicin is the active constituent of garlic, a widely used spice and food. The remedial properties of garlic have also been extensively researched and it has been demonstrated that allicin is able to inhibit the transient outward potassium current (I to ) in atrial myocytes. However, the direct effect of allicin on I to in ventricular myocytes has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of allicin on I to in ventricular myocytes isolated from mice were investigated, using the whole-cell patch recording technique. The results revealed that I to current was not significantly suppressed by allicin in the low-dose group (10 µmol/l; P>0.05). However, I to was significantly inhibited by higher doses of allicin (30, 100 and 300 µmol/l; Pallicin (≥100 µmol/l) was able to accelerate the voltage-dependent inactivation of I to in mouse ventricular myocytes. In conclusion, the present study revealed that allicin inhibited the I to in mouse ventricular myocytes, which may be the mechanism through which allicin exerts its antiarrhythmic effect.

  8. Crystal structures of salts of mono- and triprotonated [3(6)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-tetraazatricyclo[,13)]docosane, and equilibrium studies of the reactions between mono-, di- and triprotonated species, respectively, having none, one and two lone pairs pointing outwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Johan; Pretzmann, Ulla; Olsen, Carl Erik


    to be the rate-determining step. In acidic solution i(+),i,i,o(+)-H-2[36]adz(2+) is very inert with respect to exchange of the inside coordinated proton (k(ex)...The structures of bromide salt of the inside monoprotonated tricyclic amine 1,5,9,13-tetraazatricyclo[,13)]docosane, i(+),i,i,i-[H[3(6)]adz]Br and of the tetrabromozincate bromide salt of its triprotonated form, i(+),i,o(+),o(+)-[H-3[3(6)]adz][ZnBr(4)lBr-H2O have been determined by X...... a time-averaged T-d symmetry. The latter is interpreted as a fast exchange of the outside coordinated proton between the four sites in i(+),i,i,o(+)-H-2[3(6)]adz(2+). The exchange reaction is acid catalyzed, and a pathway involving the triprotonated species i(+),i,o(+),o(+) -H-3[3(6)]adz(3+) is assumed...

  9. Outward Bound Giwaykiwin: Connecting to Land and Culture through Indigenous Outdoor Education (United States)

    Lowan, Greg


    Outward Bound Canada's (OBC) Giwaykiwin Program was founded in 1985 in response to a recognized need for programming specific to students from Indigenous backgrounds. The Giwaykiwin program aims to integrate Outward Bound (OB) and Indigenous philosophies and traditions. Giwaykiwin means "coming home" in Ojibwa and signifies the program's…

  10. Properties of the transient outward current in rabbit atrial cells. (United States)

    Clark, R B; Giles, W R; Imaizumi, Y


    1. Whole-cell and patch clamp techniques have been used to study the steady-state voltage dependence and the kinetics of a transient outward current, It, in single cells from rabbit atrium. 2. The steady-state voltage dependence of both activation and inactivation of It are well described by Boltzmann functions. Inactivation is fully removed at potentials negative to -70 mV and it is complete near 0 mV. The threshold for activation of It is near -30 mV and it is fully activated at +30 mV. The region of overlap between the activation and inactivation curves indicates that a steady non-inactivating current will be recorded over a membrane potential range from approximately -30 to 0 mV. 3. In general, the time course of inactivation at potentials in the range 0 to +50 mV is best described as a sum of two exponential functions. The kinetic parameters controlling these processes exhibit only very weak voltage dependence. 4. Comparison of the time course of the development of inactivation in response to long depolarizing voltage clamp steps with the development of inactivation in response to trains of brief depolarizing pulses indicates that inactivation develops very quickly and decays relatively slowly at potentials near the resting potential (e.g. -70 mV). Thus, in response to (i) a train of voltage-clamp pulses or (ii) a series of action potentials, the magnitude of It decreases due to a progressive increase in the amount of inactivation. 5. A simple model of channel gating is presented: it can account for the major aspects of the voltage dependence and kinetics of It (cf. Aldrich, 1981). 6. Cell-attached patch clamp recordings have been used to identify the single-channel or unitary events underlying the current, It. In general, only one active channel is present per patch. The single-channel conductance in normal Tyrode solution is approximately 14 pS and the current-voltage relationship is approximately linear between +50 and +150 mV with respect to rest. This

  11. Toxic effects of environmental rare earth elements on delayed outward potassium channels and their mechanisms from a microscopic perspective. (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; He, Jingfang; Xia, Ao; Cheng, Mengzhu; Yang, Qing; Du, Chunlei; Wei, Haiyan; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing


    The wide applications cause a large amount of rare earth elements (REEs) to be released into the environment, and ultimately into the human body through food chain. Toxic effects of REEs on humans have been extensively studied, but their toxic effects and binding targets in cells are not understood. Delayed outward potassium channels (K+ channels) are good targets for exogenous substances or clinical drugs. To evaluate cellular toxicities of REEs and clarify toxic mechanisms, the toxicities of REEs on the K+ channel and their structural basis were investigated. The results showed that delayed outward potassium channels on the plasma membrane are the targets of REEs acting on living organisms, and the changes in the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of the K+ channel are the reasons of diseases induced by REEs. Two types of REEs, a light REE La3+ and a heavy REE Tb3+, displayed different intensity of toxicities on the K+ channel, in which the toxicity of Tb3+ was stronger than that of La3+. More interestingly, in comparison with that of heavy metal Cd2+, the cytotoxicities of the light and heavy REEs showed discriminative differences, and the cytotoxicity of Tb3+ was higher than that of Cd2+, while the cytotoxicity of La3+ was lower than that of Cd2+. These different cytotoxicities of La3+, Tb3+ and Cd2+ on human resulted from the varying binding abilities of the metals to this channel protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mislocalization of stationary and flashed bars after saccadic inward and outward adaptation of reactive saccades. (United States)

    Schnier, Fabian; Lappe, Markus


    Recent studies have shown that saccadic inward adaptation (i.e., the shortening of saccade amplitude) and saccadic outward adaptation (i.e., the lengthening of saccade amplitude) rely on partially different neuronal mechanisms. There is increasing evidence that these differences are based on differences at the target registration or planning stages since outward but not inward adaptation transfers to hand-pointing and perceptual localization of flashed targets. Furthermore, the transfer of reactive saccade adaptation to long-duration overlap and scanning saccades is stronger after saccadic outward adaptation than that after saccadic inward adaptation, suggesting that modulated target registration stages during outward adaptation are increasingly used in the execution of saccades when the saccade target is visually available for a longer time. The difference in target presentation duration between reactive and scanning saccades is also linked to a difference in perceptual localization of different targets. Flashed targets are mislocalized after inward adaptation of reactive and scanning saccades but targets that are presented for a longer time (stationary targets) are mislocalized stronger after scanning than after reactive saccades. This link between perceptual localization and adaptation specificity suggests that mislocalization of stationary bars should be higher after outward than that after inward adaptation of reactive saccades. In the present study we test this prediction. We show that the relative amount of mislocalization of stationary versus flashed bars is higher after outward than that after inward adaptation of reactive saccades. Furthermore, during fixation stationary and flashed bars were mislocalized after outward but not after inward adaptation. Thus, our results give further evidence for different adaptation mechanisms between inward and outward adaptation and harmonize some recent research.

  13. Extraction (DSX from Erigeron breviscapus modulates outward potassium currents in rat retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yin


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of DSX, an active component extracted from Erigeron breviscapus, on the voltage-gated outward K+ channel currents in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs by using electrophysiological method, and to explore the possible mechanisms of DSX on optic nerve protection. METHODS: Outward K+ currents were recorded by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques on acutely isolated rat RGCs. Outward K+ currents were induced by a series of depolarizing voltage pulses from a holding potential of -70 mV to +20 mV in an increment of 10 mV. RESULTS: Extracellular application of DSX voltage-dependently suppressed both the steady-state and peak current amplitudes of outward K+ currents in rat RGCs. Furthermore, DSX reversibly and dose-dependently inhibited the amplitudes of outward K+ currents of the cells. At +20 mV membrane potential DSX at the concentrations of 0.02 g/L and 0.05 g/L showed no significant effects on the currents. In contrast, DSX at higher concentrations (0.1 g/L, 0.2 g/L and 0.5 g/L significantly suppressed the current amplitudes. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that DSX reversibly and dose-dependently suppress outward K+ channel currents in rat RGCs, which may be one of the possible mechanisms underlying Erigeron breviscapus prevents vision loss and RGC damage caused by glaucoma.

  14. Comparison of dynamic balancing responses following outward lateral perturbations during walking of healthy and post-stroke subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjačić Zlatko


    Full Text Available Efficient dynamic balancing and movement coordination during walking are essential for stability. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess dynamic balancing responses in a selected post-stroke subject and to compare them with those assessed in neurologically intact individual. Balance Assessment Robot, a haptic robot that interfaces to a pelvis of a subject walking on an instrumented treadmill, was used to deliver perturbing pushes to the pelvis. We have assessed centre-of-pressure (CoP and horizontal components of ground reaction forces (GRF following outward pushes. The results have shown that depending on the amplitude of a perturbing push neurologically intact individual responded predominantly by “ankle” and “hip” strategies at lower amplitude of perturbation and “ankle” and “stepping” strategies at higher amplitude of perturbation. Post-stroke subject responded mainly by “ankle” and “hip” strategies when perturbed on the sound leg while the response when perturbed on the impaired leg was similar to the one observed in healthy subject. These preliminary results indicate that post-stroke subjects might be reluctant or not able to perform “cross step” with their impaired leg which is needed when counteracting outward perturbation.

  15. Different inward and outward conduction mechanisms in NaVMs suggested by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ke


    Full Text Available Rapid and selective ion transport is essential for the generation and regulation of electrical signaling pathways in living organisms. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD simulations with an applied membrane potential to investigate the ion flux of bacterial sodium channel NaVMs. 5.9 µs simulations with 500 mM NaCl suggest different mechanisms for inward and outward flux. The predicted inward conductance rate of ∼27±3 pS, agrees with experiment. The estimated outward conductance rate is 15±3 pS, which is considerably lower. Comparing inward and outward flux, the mean ion dwell time in the selectivity filter (SF is prolonged from 13.5±0.6 ns to 20.1±1.1 ns. Analysis of the Na+ distribution revealed distinct patterns for influx and efflux events. In 32.0±5.9% of the simulation time, the E53 side chains adopted a flipped conformation during outward conduction, whereas this conformational change was rarely observed (2.7±0.5% during influx. Further, simulations with dihedral restraints revealed that influx is less affected by the E53 conformational flexibility. In contrast, during outward conduction, our simulations indicate that the flipped E53 conformation provides direct coordination for Na+. The free energy profile (potential of mean force calculations indicates that this conformational change lowers the putative barriers between sites SCEN and SHFS during outward conduction. We hypothesize that during an action potential, the increased Na+ outward transition propensities at depolarizing potentials might increase the probability of E53 conformational changes in the SF. Subsequently, this might be a first step towards initiating slow inactivation.

  16. The Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy (Act) and Voluntary Cycling on Reaction Time and Measures of Executive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome (United States)

    Ringenbach, S. D. R.; Holzapfel, S. D.; Mulvey, G. M.; Jimenez, A.; Benson, A.; Richter, M.


    Background: Reports of positive effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in persons with Down syndrome are extremely limited. However, a novel exercise intervention, termed assisted cycling therapy (ACT), has resulted in acutely improved cognitive planning ability and reaction times as well as improved cognitive planning after 8 weeks of…

  17. Formaldehyde suppresses neuronal apoptosis via inhibition of outward K(+) currents in rat hippocampus. (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Guo, Jianli; Qi, Zhi


    Formaldehyde (FA) is widely present in the environment, and is also a mammalian metabolite. However, its biological role has not been well understood. Here, we show that FA plays an anti-apoptotic role in cultured hippocampal neurons: FA suppressed staurosporine-induced neuronal apoptosis and inhibited the activity of apoptosis-associated caspase-3/7 proteases in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, FA suppressed outward K(+) currents and attenuated the enhanced IK currents that are associated with neuronal apoptosis. As an increase in outward K(+) currents is critical for cell apoptosis, our results suggest that FA exerts its anti-apoptotic effects on neuronal cells, probably through its inhibitory effect on the outward K(+) currents.

  18. Outward transport of high-temperature materials around the midplane of the solar nebula. (United States)

    Ciesla, Fred J


    The Stardust samples collected from Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicate that large-scale mixing occurred in the solar nebula, carrying materials from the hot inner regions to cooler environments far from the Sun. Similar transport has been inferred from telescopic observations of protoplanetary disks around young stars. Models for protoplanetary disks, however, have difficulty explaining the observed levels of transport. Here I report the results of a new two-dimensional model that shows that outward transport of high-temperature materials in protoplanetary disks is a natural outcome of disk formation and evolution. This outward transport occurs around the midplane of the disk.

  19. Country-Specific Experience, Host Country Government Corruption, And Outward Foreign Direct Investment By Korean Textile Firms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyungho Kim; Hyunwoo Lim


      This study explores how organizational learning and host country government corruption influenced outward foreign direct investment by Korean textile firms between 1986 and 1995, given that foreign...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Patch clamp studies were done on tonoplasts of V unguiculata. Apart from the usually present inward rectifying K+ conducting channels (IRC), vacuoles showed outward rectifying channels (ORC), although less frequently. The ORC are activated at physiological tonoplast potentials, in contrast to IRC,

  1. A Planning Guide for Short Backpacking and Ski Touring Courses with Colorado Outward Bound School. (United States)

    McLeod, Ricki

    Outward Bound (OB) backpacking and Nordic ski programs aim to integrate humanistic goals (i.e., personal awareness and understanding and compassion for others) with the school's curriculum. Program goals fall in three areas--personal, group, and academic. In designing a successful course which will achieve the goals, there are several phases, all…

  2. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from Emerging Economies and National Development Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Kokko, Ari


    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an integral part of national development strategy throughout the developing world. However, while traditionally strategies have focused on the role of inward flows only, today, outward FDI is used on a larger scale and more deliberately to access markets...

  3. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure. (United States)


    .... Specifically, to effect the advance electronic transmission of the required cargo information to CBP, the USPPI... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure. 192.14 Section 192.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION...

  4. Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Human Capital Development: A Small Country Perspective (United States)

    McDonnell, Anthony


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…

  5. The role of fluency in preferences for inward over outward words. (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Giti; Körner, Anita; Topolinski, Sascha


    The present studies examined a novel explanation for the in-out effect, the phenomenon that words with inward wanderings of consonantal articulation spots are preferred over words with outward wanderings. We hypothesized that processing fluency might account for the in-out effect instead of, or in addition to, the originally proposed mechanism of motor-associated motivational states. Inward words could be more fluently processed than outward words, which could lead to the preference effect. Corpus analyses (Studies 1a and 1b) revealed more inward than outward words in English and German, which could account for their differing fluency. Additionally, inward compared to outward words were pronounced faster (Study 2) and were rated as being easier to pronounce (Studies 3a and 3b), indicating greater fluency. Crucially, a mediation analysis (Study 4) suggests that the influence of consonantal direction on preference was partially mediated by fluency. However, accounting for the influence of fluency still left a significant residual in-out effect, not accounted for by our fluency measure. This evidence supports a partial causal contribution of articulation fluency to the in-out effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Outward bound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schefter, Jim


    ... series of unmanned missions to explore the solar system. Called Discovery, the program is NASA's answer to political and scientific criticism of billion-dollar space extravaganzas that can take a decade or more to get results. Discovery's goal is to design smaller spacecraft with narrowly focused scientific goals, and to build them quickly enough ...

  7. Comparison of the Effects of a Transient Outward Potassium Channel Activator on Currents Recorded from Atrial and Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callø, Kirstine; Nof, Eyal; Jespersen, Thomas


    NS5806 activates the transient outward potassium current (I(to) ) in canine ventricular cells. We compared the effects of NS5806 on canine atrial versus ventricular tissues and myocytes.......NS5806 activates the transient outward potassium current (I(to) ) in canine ventricular cells. We compared the effects of NS5806 on canine atrial versus ventricular tissues and myocytes....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorela IACOVOIU


    Full Text Available Starting from the theory of the Investment Development Path (IDP and competitive advantages, this study presents an econometrical approach of the relationship between net outward investment position, given by the net outward investment per capita (NOI, and innovation capabilities, reflected by the global innovation index (GII. The results of the analysis carried out for the worldwide economies, in the year 2013, using five models demonstrate that there is no significant correlation between NOI, as dependent variable, and GII as independent one. Thus, the highest coefficient of determination value was .201 (cubic model, reflecting the fact that only 20.1% of the variation in the NOI is explained by GII. Therefore, the level of country’s innovation capacities is not one of the main forces that determine its NOI position.

  9. The Double-Edged Sword - Outward and Inward Directed Aggression among War Combatants. (United States)

    Snir, Avigal; Itzhaky, Liat; Solomon, Zahava


    Inspired by the two-stage model of countervailing forces, we explored the mechanism underlining inward and outward aggression among ex-combatants. Israeli veterans (N = 230) reported their partner's violence (outward aggression), suicidal ideation (inward aggression), aggressive impulses, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), paranoid ideation and guilt. Suicidal ideation was related to aggressive impulses only in the presence of PTSD, or under high guilt; whereas paranoid ideation buffered these effects. Violence towards the partner, on the other hand, was related to aggressive impulses under low guilt and in the absence of PTSD. Aggressive impulses underline both suicidal ideation and partner violence. The inter-relations between PTSD, guilt, and paranoid ideation influence the manifestation of aggression and the direction it takes.

  10. An Analysis of China's Outward Foreign Direct Investment to the EU: Features and Problems


    Ying Fan


    This research paper reviews the development of China's outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) to the European Union since the global fnancial crisis, summarizes the apparent characteristics and causes behind that development, provides an in-depth analysis of the problems and deep rooted risks in such investment, and predicts that with China's economy being stronger the scale of China's OFDI will be greater in the coming period. However, since Chinese enterprises are really newcomers of OFDI...

  11. China's outward FDI : an industry-level analysis of host country determinants


    Amighini, Alessia; Rabellotti, Roberta; Sanfilippo , Marco


    We use disaggregated data by country and industry to empirically analyze the host country determinants of Chinese outward foreign direct investment (FDI) for the years 2003 to 2011. Our results suggest that the host-country determinants of Chinese FDI differ between high- and low-income countries. While all Chinese FDI is invariably market seeking, other motivations stand out for differing sectors in specific country groups. The resource seeking motivation is relevant for manufacturing FDI to...

  12. Origin of delayed outward ionic current in charge movement traces from frog skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Hui, C S; Chen, W


    1. Non-linear membrane ionic current was studied in highly stretched cut frog twitch fibres in a double Vaseline-gap voltage clamp chamber, with the internal solution containing 0.1 mM EGTA and the external solution containing Cl- as the major anion. After the Na+ currents was abolished by TTX in the external solution and the K+ currents were suppressed by external TEA+ and Rb+ and internal Cs+, a delayed outward ionic current with a time course similar to that of the delayed rectifier current was observed during depolarization. 2. The delayed outward ionic current was resistant to 1 mM 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) in the external solution and was unaltered when a fraction of the internal Cs+ was replaced by K+ or Na+, suggesting that the current was not carried by cations flowing through the delayed rectifiers. 3. The delayed outward ionic current was greatly reduced by replacing the external Cl- with CH3SO3-,SO4(2-), glutamate or gluconate, indicating strongly that the current was carried by Cl- flowing through anion channels. The current was also suppressed by 1 mM external 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid (9-ACA). 4. The delayed outward ionic current was reduced by blockers of calcium-dependent Cl- channels, such as SITS and frusemide (furosemide), in a dose- and voltage-dependent manner and by increasing intracellular [EGTA] to 20 mM, suggesting that part of the Cl- current in the muscle fibres could be calcium dependent. 5. The total Cl- current could be dissected into calcium-dependent and calcium-independent components. Each component accounted for roughly half of the total Cl- current. The maximum slope conductance of the calcium-dependent Cl- channels was 60.9 +/- 6.0 microS microF-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 4).

  13. What determines Chinese outward direct investment in Africa? Case study: CNPC and Huawei




    Outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from China has increased substantially in recent years. Africa, as one of the most significant destinations of OFDI, has attracted increased global attention. The determinants of China’s OFDI to Africa are primarily linked to poorly governed countries with abundant natural resources. However, the results are inconclusive because of the differences between state-controlled and privately owned firms. In order to explore what drives Chinese OFDI in Africa...

  14. Cesium blockade of delayed outward currents and electrically induced pacemaker activity in mammalian ventricular myocardium. (United States)

    Meier, C F; Katzung, B G


    The effects of Cs+, 5-25 mM, were studied in cat and guinea pig papillary muscles using voltage clamp and current clamp techniques. In solutions containing normal K+, the major effects of Cs+ were depolarization of the resting potential and reduction of the delayed outward current (ixl) between -80 and -20 mV. Both inward and outward portions of the isochronal current voltage relation (l-s clamps) were reduced by extracellular Cs+. This resulted in a substantial reduction of inward rectification and, by subtraction from the normal I-V relationship, the definition of a Cs+-sensitive component of current. Under current clamp conditions, 5-10 mM Cs+ produced a dose-dependent slowing of repetitive firing induced by depolarization. At higher concentrations (25 mM) the resting potential was depolarized and repetitive activity could not be induced by further depolarization. However, release of hyperpolarizing pulses was followed by prolonged bursts of repetitive action potentials, suggesting partial reversal of blockade or participation of another pacemaker process. The experimental results and a numerical simulation show that under readily attainable conditions, reduction in an outward pacemaker current may slow pacemaker activity.

  15. Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Woo Lee


    Full Text Available PurposeLong-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects.MethodsThis retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate.ResultsSix serious side effects (0.9% were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621. Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy.ConclusionSterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP.

  16. Benzylation Reactions in DMF Lead to an Impurity Which Acts as an Organocatalyst Poison in Thiourea-Catalyzed Glycosylations. (United States)

    Colgan, Avene C; Müller-Bunz, Helge; McGarrigle, Eoghan M


    The benzylation of alcohols with the commonly used combination of benzyl bromide and sodium hydride in DMF can lead to the formation of an amine side product, N,N'-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1-(o-tolyl)methanamine. This amine coeluted with benzylated galactal during column chromatography and was found to be a catalyst poison in thiourea-catalyzed glycosylations of galactals. It may also be problematic for other base-sensitive reactions involving benzylated substrates. Solutions to this problem are described.

  17. 4-Aminopyridine causes apoptosis and blocks an outward rectifier K+ channel in malignant astrocytoma cell lines. (United States)

    Chin, L S; Park, C C; Zitnay, K M; Sinha, M; DiPatri, A J; Perillán, P; Simard, J M


    Among the ion channels and pumps activated by growth factor stimulation, K+ channels have been implicated in the growth and proliferation of several cancer cell lines. The role of these channels in central nervous system tumors, however, has not been described. This study used the malignant astrocytoma cell lines U87 and A172. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) inhibition of proliferation was dose dependent, and assessment using a TUNEL in situ assay revealed that apoptosis occurred in U87 cells with wild-type p53 but not in A172 cells with mutant p53 (24-hr incubation with mM 4-AP). In patch clamp experiments, we identified two types of K+ currents in both cell lines, a charybdotoxin-sensitive Ca2(+)-activated K+ channel and a 4-AP-sensitive outward rectifier K+ current. The outward rectifier current was blocked by 4-AP in a dose-dependent manner, with half-maximal block occurring at 3.9 mM. The blocking effect of 4 mM 4-AP was noticeable at potentials as low as -65 mV and was statistically significant at -60 mV and above, suggesting that 4-AP-sensitive current is active at physiological potentials. By contrast, charybdotoxin (1 microM) and tetraethylammonium. Cl (2 mM) blocked the Ca2(+)-activated K+ channel in both cell lines but had no appreciable effect on cell growth. Our findings reveal that 4-AP inhibits proliferation and the outward rectifier K+ channel in both U87 and A172 cells. More studies are needed, however, to describe the mechanism by which K+ channels influence proliferation and induce apoptosis.

  18. An Analysis of China's Outward Foreign Direct Investment to the EU: Features and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fan


    Full Text Available This research paper reviews the development of China's outward foreign direct investment (OFDI to the European Union since the global fnancial crisis, summarizes the apparent characteristics and causes behind that development, provides an in-depth analysis of the problems and deep rooted risks in such investment, and predicts that with China's economy being stronger the scale of China's OFDI will be greater in the coming period. However, since Chinese enterprises are really newcomers of OFDI, they are far from being mature and successful players, which requires not only capital, but also an organic combination of intangible elements regarding economy, society, and culture etc.

  19. French Military Adaptation in the Afghan War: Looking Inward or Outward?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier


    For some, a specific feature of the French armed forces' adaptation process would be the capacity to look inward instead of outward in order to identify relevant solutions to tactical/doctrinal problems. This article questions such a narrative, and argues that the French armed forces are as quick...... as any to borrow from other countries’ experiences. In order to do so, this article introduces the concept of ‘selective emulation’, and compares the French and German military adaptation processes in Afghanistan. The article argues that there is indeed something distinctive about French military...

  20. Nanosecond electric pulses differentially affect inward and outward currents in patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Yang

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of 5 ns electric pulses on macroscopic ionic currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped adrenal chromaffin cells. Current-voltage (I-V relationships first established that the early peak inward current was primarily composed of a fast voltage-dependent Na+ current (INa, whereas the late outward current was composed of at least three ionic currents: a voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa, a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca, and a sustained voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. A constant-voltage step protocol was next used to monitor peak inward and late outward currents before and after cell exposure to a 5 ns pulse. A single pulse applied at an electric (E-field amplitude of 5 MV/m resulted in an instantaneous decrease of ~4% in peak INa that then declined exponentially to a level that was ~85% of the initial level after 10 min. Increasing the E-field amplitude to 8 or 10 MV/m caused a twofold greater inhibitory effect on peak INa. The decrease in INa was not due to a change in either the steady-state inactivation or activation of the Na+ channel but instead was associated with a decrease in maximal Na+ conductance. Late outward current was not affected by a pulse applied at 5 MV/m. However, for a pulse applied at the higher E-field amplitudes of 8 and 10 MV/m, late outward current in some cells underwent a progressive ~22% decline over the course of the first 20 s following pulse exposure, with no further decline. The effect was most likely concentrated on ICa and IK(Ca as IKV was not affected. The results of this study indicate that in whole-cell patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells, a 5 ns pulse differentially inhibits specific voltage-gated ionic currents in a manner that can be manipulated by tuning E-field amplitude.

  1. Classical confinement and outward convection of impurity ions in the MST RFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Mirnov, V. V.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Caspary, K. J.; Chapman, B. E.; Parke, E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Magee, R. M. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Craig, D. [Physics Department, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States); Fiksel, G. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States)


    Impurity ion dynamics measured with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolution reveal classical ion transport in the reversed-field pinch. The boron, carbon, oxygen, and aluminum impurity ion density profiles are obtained in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] using a fast, active charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy diagnostic. Measurements are made during improved-confinement plasmas obtained using inductive control of tearing instability to mitigate stochastic transport. At the onset of the transition to improved confinement, the impurity ion density profile becomes hollow, with a slow decay in the core region concurrent with an increase in the outer region, implying an outward convection of impurities. Impurity transport from Coulomb collisions in the reversed-field pinch is classical for all collisionality regimes, and analysis shows that the observed hollow profile and outward convection can be explained by the classical temperature screening mechanism. The profile agrees well with classical expectations. Experiments performed with impurity pellet injection provide further evidence for classical impurity ion confinement.

  2. Mesenteric resistance arteries in type 2 diabetic db/db mice undergo outward remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M Souza-Smith

    Full Text Available Resistance vessel remodeling is controlled by myriad of hemodynamic and neurohormonal factors. This study characterized structural and molecular remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs in diabetic (db/db and control (Db/db mice.Structural properties were assessed in isolated MRAs from 12 and 16 wk-old db/db and Db/db mice by pressure myography. Matrix regulatory proteins were measured by Western blot analysis. Mean arterial pressure and superior mesenteric blood flow were measured in 12 wk-old mice by telemetry and a Doppler flow nanoprobe, respectively.Blood pressure was similar between groups. Lumen diameter and medial cross-sectional area were significantly increased in 16 wk-old db/db MRA compared to control, indicating outward hypertrophic remodeling. Moreover, wall stress and cross-sectional compliance were significantly larger in diabetic arteries. These remodeling indices were associated with increased expression of matrix regulatory proteins matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, MMP-12, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 in db/db arteries. Finally, superior mesenteric artery blood flow was increased by 46% in 12 wk-old db/db mice, a finding that preceded mesenteric resistance artery remodeling.These data suggest that flow-induced hemodynamic changes may supersede the local neurohormonal and metabolic milieu to culminate in hypertrophic outward remodeling of type 2 DM mesenteric resistance arteries.

  3. 'Oxytocin' for the outwardly oriented: Evidence for interactive effects in placebo responding. (United States)

    Darragh, Margot; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S


    In order to harness the placebo effect for clinical benefit, more research is needed to determine who might be responsive to a placebo treatment. Recently, a two-faceted Transactional Model of Placebo Responding (TMPR) was offered, which suggests different personality types might respond to different contextual cues. The current study directly tested this model by manipulating treatment descriptors to match the two purported facets of responsiveness. Physically healthy volunteers (N=77) experiencing life stress were randomised to either the: (1) wait-list control, (2) 'serotonin treatment' group; or (3) 'oxytocin treatment' group. Both treatment groups received an 'antistress' intranasal spray (placebo). The 'serotonin' and 'oxytocin' treatments were described to appeal to the two purported facets responsiveness set out in the TMPR, inward and outward orientation. The BIS/BAS scale was used as proxies for inward (BIS) and outward (BAS) orientation. It was hypothesised that high BAS types would be more responsive to the 'oxytocin' and high BIS types would be more responsive to the 'serotonin'. Findings provide partial support for hypotheses, with high but not low BAS types having a greater response to the 'oxytocin' placebo; but the pattern of responses from high BIS types were contrary to predictions. Findings indicate interactions between personality type and environmental cues may contribute to placebo responding, but more research is needed to investigate possible operationalisations of responsiveness and the contextual cues to which different types may respond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the development of the inward/outward personality organization: a genetic association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nardi

    Full Text Available Reciprocity with primary caregivers affects subjects' adaptive abilities toward the construction of the most useful personal meaning organization (PMO with respect to their developmental environment. Within cognitive theory the post-rationalist approach has outlined two basic categories of identity construction and of regulation of cognitive and emotional processes: the Outward and the Inward PMO. The presence of different, consistent clinical patterns in Inward and Outward subjects is paralleled by differences in cerebral activation during emotional tasks on fMRI and by different expression of some polymorphisms in serotonin pathways. Since several lines of evidence support a role for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in mediating individual susceptibility to environmental emotional stimuli, this study was conducted to investigate its influence in the development of the Inward/Outward PMO. PMO was assessed and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism investigated in 124 healthy subjects who were subdivided into an Inward (n = 52 and an Outward (n = 72 group. Case-control comparisons of short allele (S frequencies showed significant differences between Inwards and Outwards (p = 0.036, χ2 test; p = 0.026, exact test. Genotype frequencies were not significantly different although values slightly exceeded p ≤ 0.05 (p = 0.056, χ2 test; p = 0.059, exact test. Analysis of the 5-HTTLPR genotypes according to the recessive inheritance model showed that the S/S genotype increased the likelihood of developing an Outward PMO (p = 0.0178, χ2 test; p = 0.0143, exact test; OR = 3.43, CI (95% = 1.188-9.925. A logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between short allele and S/S genotypes with the Outward PMO also when gender and age were considered. However none of the differences remained significant after correction for multiple testing, even though using the recessive model they approach significance. Overall our data seem to suggest a putative genetic basis

  5. Institutional System Development for Outward Foreign Direct Investment in China and Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Child, John; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This paper examines institutional formation and institutional entrepreneurship relating to outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) in China and Russia since the beginning of their market-oriented economic reforms. It focuses on the stages of OFDI institutional development during these periods...... state policy was consistent in supporting their regulative, normative and cognitive pillars. The paper concludes by advancing theoretical propositions and an analytical framework which posits various consequences of political and economic continuity for OFDI institutional development, moderated...... of major system change, with particular reference to both the processes and outcomes involved. In each country, the state and its agencies were the principal institutional entrepreneurs in developing the OFDI system. Consequently, the development of OFDI institutions depended heavily on the extent to which...

  6. A critical revision of the empirical literature on Chinese outward investment: A new proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Carlos


    Full Text Available Research on China’s role in the globalization of economic activity focuses mainly on its involvement in trade and on its competitiveness as a manufacturing location for foreign investors. However, since the mid-1990s China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI has become an important part of its integration into the global economy. This dimension is poorly understood, and few empirical studies about the drivers behind Chinese OFDI have been published thus far. After reviewing critically the empirical literature, which provides ambiguous results about the explanatory power of some of the large list of determinants put forward, we aim to provide a more accurate description of the motives behind Chinese OFDI. Using a panel data approach for the period 1995 to 2009 and for a large host country sample, we identify some key drivers. We find that host market size, natural resources and FDI openness are of paramount relevance. However, the asset seeking hypothesis is not confirmed.

  7. Red Trojan Horses? A New Look at Chinese SOEs' Outward Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiang


    Full Text Available How dangerous is Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI because of the state's influence over business, particularly state-owned enterprises (SOEs? To what extent are business and politics interwoven in Chinese investment decisions? Crucial knowledge is lacking on the relationship between the state and companies in China's OFDI. This study does not claim to completely refute the conventional view that Chinese companies, particularly SOEs, are controlled by the state in their OFDI activities. However, it tries to provide some evidence that suggests the need for a revised look at them. It argues that although Chinese SOEs are supported by Chinese diplomacy and loans in their OFDI and have a tacit understanding of certain strategic goals of the state, they enjoy autonomy to make business decisions and have prioritized maximizing their own business interests. Importantly, this is enabled by the state's view that the profit of SOEs is consistent with national interests.

  8. Red Trojan Horses? A New Look at Chinese SOEs' Outward Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiang


    Full Text Available How dangerous is Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI because of the state's influence over business, particularly state-owned enterprises (SOEs? To what extent are business and politics interwoven in Chinese investment decisions? Crucial knowledge is lacking on the relationship between the state and companies in China's OFDI. This study does not claim to completely refute the conventional view that Chinese companies, particularly SOEs, are controlled by the state in their OFDI activities. However, it tries to provide some evidence that suggests the need for a revised look at them. It argues that although Chinese SOEs are supported by Chinese diplomacy and loans in their OFDI and have a tacit understanding of certain strategic goals of the state, they enjoy autonomy to make business decisions and have prioritized maximizing their own business interests. Importantly, this is enabled by the state's view that the profit of SOEs is consistent with national interests.

  9. Direct measurement of conformational strain energy in protofilaments curling outward from disassembling microtubule tips. (United States)

    Driver, Jonathan W; Geyer, Elisabeth A; Bailey, Megan E; Rice, Luke M; Asbury, Charles L


    Disassembling microtubules can generate movement independently of motor enzymes, especially at kinetochores where they drive chromosome motility. A popular explanation is the 'conformational wave' model, in which protofilaments pull on the kinetochore as they curl outward from a disassembling tip. But whether protofilaments can work efficiently via this spring-like mechanism has been unclear. By modifying a previous assay to use recombinant tubulin and feedback-controlled laser trapping, we directly demonstrate the spring-like elasticity of curling protofilaments. Measuring their mechanical work output suggests they carry ~25% of the energy of GTP hydrolysis as bending strain, enabling them to drive movement with efficiency similar to conventional motors. Surprisingly, a β-tubulin mutant that dramatically slows disassembly has no effect on work output, indicating an uncoupling of disassembly speed from protofilament strain. These results show the wave mechanism can make a major contribution to kinetochore motility and establish a direct approach for measuring tubulin mechano-chemistry.

  10. Outward potassium currents of supraoptic magnocellular neurosecretory cells isolated from the adult guinea-pig. (United States)

    Hlubek, M D; Cobbett, P


    1. Several types of whole-cell outward K+ current recorded from magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) dissociated from the supraoptic nucleus of the adult guinea-pig were identified on the basis of their voltage dependence, kinetics, pharmacology and Ca2+ dependence. 2. The predominant K+ current evoked from a holding potential of -40 mV was slowly activating, long-lasting, tetraethylammonium (TEA) sensitive and showed little steady-state inactivation. Also, this current was reduced by extracellular Cd2+. These data suggest that in supraoptic MNCs classical Ca(2+)-insensitive, delayed rectifier channels (KV) and Ca(2+)-sensitive, non-inactivating channels (KCa) both contribute to the sustained current. 3. A transient, low-threshold K+ current, which was 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) sensitive and showed significant steady-state inactivation, was evoked along with the sustained current from a holding potential of -90 mV. Based on these characteristics, this current corresponds to the A-current (IK(A)) described in other neurons. 4. IK(A) was activated when Ca2+ influx was blocked or when Ca2+ was absent from the extracellular medium, suggesting that Ca2+ influx is not necessary for activation of the current. 5. In many recordings, a transient 4-AP-insensitive outward current was evoked from a holding potential of -40 mV. This high-threshold transient K+ current was abolished by extracellular Cd2+ or TEA and was absent when extracellular Ca2+ was replaced by Sr2+, suggesting that it is a transient Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current. 6. We conclude that the presence of multiple types of K+ current may, in part, underlie the complex firing patterns of oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic MNCs.

  11. Relevant dimensions and contextual weights of distance in international business decisions : Evidence from Spanish and Chinese outward FDI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drogendijk, Rian; Martin Martin, Oscar

    We investigate how distance and different dimensions of distance between countries explain the outward FDI of firms according to distinct home country contexts. We identify three important dimensions of country distance: socio-economic development distance, cultural and historical distance and

  12. Ion-Controlled Conformational Dynamics in the Outward-Open Transition from an Occluded State of LeuT (United States)

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Gracia, Luis; Weinstein, Harel; Noskov, Sergei; Shi, Lei


    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) proteins are secondary Na+-driven active transporters that terminate neurotransmission by substrate uptake. Despite the availability of high-resolution crystal structures of a bacterial homolog of NSSs—Leucine Transporter (LeuT)—and extensive computational and experimental structure-function studies, unanswered questions remain regarding the transport mechanisms. We used microsecond atomistic molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations and free-energy computations to reveal ion-controlled conformational dynamics of LeuT in relation to binding affinity and selectivity of the more extracellularly positioned Na+ binding site (Na1 site). In the course of MD simulations starting from the occluded state with bound Na+, but in the absence of substrate, we find a spontaneous transition of the extracellular vestibule of LeuT into an outward-open conformation. The outward opening is enhanced by the absence of Na1 and modulated by the protonation state of the Na1-associated Glu-290. Consistently, the Na+ affinity for the Na1 site is inversely correlated with the extent of outward-open character and is lower than in the occluded state with bound substrate; however, the Na1 site retains its selectivity for Na+ over K+ in such conformational transitions. To the best of our knowledge, our findings shed new light on the Na+-driven transport cycle and on the symmetry in structural rearrangements for outward- and inward-open transitions. PMID:23009837

  13. Equilibrated atomic models of outward-facing P-glycoprotein and effect of ATP binding on structural dynamics. (United States)

    Pan, Lurong; Aller, Stephen G


    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that alternates between inward- and outward-facing conformations to capture and force substrates out of cells like a peristaltic pump. The high degree of similarity in outward-facing structures across evolution of ABC transporters allowed construction of a high-confidence outward-facing Pgp atomic model based on crystal structures of outward-facing Sav1866 and inward-facing Pgp. The model adhered to previous experimentally determined secondary- and tertiary- configurations during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence or absence of MgATP. Three long lasting (>100 ns) meta-stable states were apparent in the presence of MgATP revealing new insights into alternating access. The two ATP-binding pockets are highly asymmetric resulting in differential control of overall structural dynamics and allosteric regulation of the drug-binding pocket. Equilibrated Pgp has a considerably different electrostatic profile compared to Sav1866 that implicates significant kinetic and thermodynamic differences in transport mechanisms.

  14. The Outward Extension of an Ecological Footprint in City Expansion: The Case of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaodi Xie


    Full Text Available A biologically productive area was used in the ecological footprint method to measure the demand and impact of human activities on the natural capital, and further, to judge whether the impact is within the scope of the regional bio-capacity. In this presentation, an indicator “ecological footprint distance (Def” is proposed. The results indicated that the proposed indicator Def could identify the outward extension of a city’s ecological footprint with the city’s rapid expansion. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of imported bio-capacity increased approximately from 48% to 64%, which implied that the ecological impact of Beijing had expanded year by year. The Def of Beijing increased from 567 km in 2008 to 677 km in 2012, with an average annual increase of about 25 km. From the perspective of seasonal change, Beijing’s ecological footprint distance in winter and spring was much higher than in summer and fall. The main features of provincial-spatial distribution of Beijing’s Def were as follows: grain and oil and meat and eggs were mainly supplied by Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei and Inner Mongolia; yet vegetable and fruit were mainly supplied by Hainan, Guangdong, Hebei and Shandong. Measures should be taken to decentralize the sources of imported bio-capacity, so as to ensure a sustainable development in Metropolitan cities.

  15. Imaging inward and outward trafficking of gold nanoparticles in whole animals. (United States)

    Marchesano, Valentina; Hernandez, Yulan; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ambrosone, Alfredo; Tino, Angela; Hobmayer, Bert; de la Fuente, Jesus M; Tortiglione, Claudia


    Gold nanoparticles have emerged as novel safe and biocompatible tools for manifold applications, including biological imaging, clinical diagnostics, and therapeutics. The understanding of the mechanisms governing their interaction with living systems may help the design and development of new platforms for nanomedicine. Here we characterized the dynamics and kinetics of the events underlying the interaction of gold nanoparticles with a living organism, from the first interaction nanoparticle/cell membrane, to the intracellular trafficking and final extracellular clearance. By treating a simple water invertebrate (the cnidarian Hydra polyp) with functionalized gold nanoparticles, multiple inward and outward routes were imaged by ultrastructural analyses, including exosomes as novel undescribed carriers to shuttle the nanoparticles in and out the cells. From the time course imaging a highly dynamic picture emerged in which nanoparticles are rapidly internalized (from 30 min onward), recruited into vacuoles/endosome (24 h onward), which then fuse, compact and sort out the internalized material either to storage vacuoles or to late-endosome/lysosomes, determining almost complete clearance within 48 h from challenging. Beside classical routes, new portals of entry/exit were captured, including exosome-like structures as novel undescribed nanoparticle shuttles. The conservation of the endocytic/secretory machinery through evolution extends the value of our finding to mammalian systems providing dynamics and kinetics clues to take into account when designing nanomaterials to interface with biological entities.

  16. Transient outward current modulates discontinuous conduction in rabbit ventricular cell pairs. (United States)

    Huelsing, D J; Pollard, A E; Spitzer, K W


    While several studies have demonstrated that the L-type calcium current maintains discontinuous conduction, the contribution of the transient outward current (I(to)) to conduction remains unclear. This study evaluated the effects of I(to) inhibition on conduction between ventricular myocytes. An electronic circuit with a variable resistance (R(j)) was used to electrically couple single epicardial myocytes isolated from rabbit right ventricle. We inhibited I(to) with 4-aminopyridine superfusion, rate-acceleration, or premature stimulation to evaluate the subsequent effects on conduction delay and the critical R(j), which was quantified as the highest R(j) that could be imposed before conduction failed. I(to) inhibition significantly enhanced conduction in all cell pairs (n=23). Pharmacologic inhibition of I(to) resulted in a 32+/-5% decrease in conduction delay and a 36+/-7% increase in critical R(j). Similarly, reduction of the basic cycle length from 2 to 0.5 s resulted in a 31+/-3% decrease in conduction delay and a 31+/-3% increase in critical R(j). Finally, premature action potentials conducted with a 41+/-4% shorter conduction delay and a 73+/-24% higher critical R(j) than basic action potentials. I(to) inhibition significantly enhanced conduction across high R(j). These results suggest I(to) may contribute to rate-dependent conduction abnormalities.

  17. Genetic inactivation of IL-1 signaling enhances atherosclerotic plaque instability and reduces outward vessel remodeling in advanced atherosclerosis in mice (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew R.; Moehle, Christopher W.; Johnson, Jason L.; Yang, Zhengyu; Lee, Jae K.; Jackson, Christopher L.; Owens, Gary K.


    Clinical complications of atherosclerosis arise primarily as a result of luminal obstruction due to atherosclerotic plaque growth, with inadequate outward vessel remodeling and plaque destabilization leading to rupture. IL-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine that promotes atherogenesis in animal models, but its role in plaque destabilization and outward vessel remodeling is unclear. The studies presented herein show that advanced atherosclerotic plaques in mice lacking both IL-1 receptor type I and apolipoprotein E (Il1r1–/–Apoe–/– mice) unexpectedly exhibited multiple features of plaque instability as compared with those of Il1r1+/+Apoe–/– mice. These features included reduced plaque SMC content and coverage, reduced plaque collagen content, and increased intraplaque hemorrhage. In addition, the brachiocephalic arteries of Il1r1–/–Apoe–/– mice exhibited no difference in plaque size, but reduced vessel area and lumen size relative to controls, demonstrating a reduction in outward vessel remodeling. Interestingly, expression of MMP3 was dramatically reduced within the plaque and vessel wall of Il1r1–/–Apoe–/– mice, and Mmp3–/–Apoe–/– mice showed defective outward vessel remodeling compared with controls. In addition, MMP3 was required for IL-1–induced SMC invasion of Matrigel in vitro. Taken together, these results show that IL-1 signaling plays a surprising dual protective role in advanced atherosclerosis by promoting outward vessel remodeling and enhancing features of plaque stability, at least in part through MMP3-dependent mechanisms. PMID:22201681

  18. Mefenamic acid bi-directionally modulates the transient outward K+ current in rat cerebellar granule cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Shi, Wen-Jie; Fei, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Ya-Rong; Zeng, Xi-Min; Mei, Yan-Ai


    The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on ion channels has been widely studied in several cell models, but less is known about their modulatory mechanisms. In this report, the effect of mefenamic acid on voltage-activated transient outward K(+) current (I(A)) in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells was investigated. At a concentration of 5 microM to 100 microM, mefenamic acid reversibly inhibited I(A) in a dose-dependent manner. However, mefenamic acid at a concentration of 1 microM significantly increased the amplitude of I(A) to 113+/-1.5% of the control. At more than 10 microM, mefenamic acid inhibited the amplitude of I(A) without any effect on activation or inactivation. In addition, a higher concentration of mefenamic acid induced a significant acceleration of recovery from inactivation with an increase of the peak amplitude elicited by the second test pulse. Intracellular application of mefenamic acid could significantly increase the amplitude of I(A), but had no effect on the inhibition induced by extracellular mefenamic acid, implying that mefenamic acid may exert its effect from both inside and outside the ion channel. Furthermore, the activation of current induced by intracellular application of mefenamic acid was mimicked by other cyclooxygenase inhibitors and arachidonic acid. Our data demonstrate that mefenamic acid is able to bi-directionally modulate I(A) channels in neurons at different concentrations and by different methods of application, and two different mechanisms may be involved.

  19. The institutional perspective on outward foreign direct investment from China: the relationship between the government and firms


    Cheng, Qian


    China's outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has increased considerably in the last few decades. The development of China's OFDI has distinct features, in particular the fact that the major investors undertaking large-scale deals are state-owned enterprises. However, they have few competitive advantages compared with their international counterparts. As mainstream theories have difficulty in providing a reasonable explanation of China's OFDI, this thesis analyses the Chinese government's ...

  20. The relationship of outwardly-directed aggression to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts across two high-risk samples. (United States)

    Swogger, Marc T; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Conner, Kenneth R


    While research has established some relationships between risk factors and specific suicide-related outcomes, in large part the extent to which suicidal ideation and attempts have different risk profiles is unclear. Using two theories of suicidal behavior to guide our hypotheses, we studied the relationship of outwardly-directed aggression to suicidal ideation and attempts in two high-risk samples. Participants in study one were 271 criminal offenders in a pretrial diversion program. Participants in study two were 892 psychiatric inpatients who participated in the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. In both studies, after controlling for relevant covariates, outwardly-directed aggression was associated with suicide attempts, but not ideation. Among psychiatric patients, further analyses revealed that outwardly-directed aggression was associated with planned, but not unplanned, suicide attempts. That aggression is related to suicide attempts and not ideation is consistent with hypotheses based on both Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior and theories based on a diathesis toward behavioral dysregulation (e.g., Mann, 2009). That aggression was associated with planned suicide attempts is consistent with Joiner's theory. Competing explanations for the results include a potential role of proactive aggression in suicide attempts, particularly planned attempts.

  1. Macroscopic Properties of Hollow Cone Spray Using an Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector in GCI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Penghui


    Fuel mixture formation and spray characteristics are crucial for the advancement of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. For investigations of spray characteristics, a high-pressure high-temperature spray chamber with constant volume has been designed, tested and commissioned at CCRC, KAUST. Back light illumination technique has been applied to investigate the macroscopic spray properties of an outwardly opening piezoelec- tric injector. Three parameters including injection pressure, ambient pressure, and ambient temperature have been involved. A total of 18 combinations of experimental conditions were tested under non-reactive conditions. Through qualitative analysis of spray morphology under different operating conditions, an apparent distinction of spray morphology has been noticed. Spray morphology and propagation have shown strong dependencies on ambient pressure and ambient tempera- ture while injection pressure has a negligible effect on spray shape. Increasingly compact and bushier spray patterns were observed in the cases of high ambient pressure due to in- creasing aerodynamic drag force on spray boundary. It should also be noted that ambient temperature plays a fairly important role in fuel evaporation rate. At 200 °C, oscillating and considerably short spray shape was produced. Also, circumferential ring-like vortices and distinctive string-like structures have been identified for the fuel spray exiting this hollow cone injector. It has been observed that high ambient pressure conditions (Pamb = 4 bar and 10.5 bar) are favorable to the vortices generation, which has also been reported in previous literature. The quantitative description of macroscopic spray properties reveals that ambient pres- sure and ambient temperature are found to be the most influential parameters on liquid penetration length. The rise of ambient pressure results in considerably shorter liquid pen- etration length. Ambient temperature also appears to be a very effective

  2. Motivations of Russian firms to invest abroad: how do sanctions affect Russia’s outward foreign direct investment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto Kari


    Full Text Available In 2013, Russia’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI soared and the OFDI stock exceeded $ 500 billion. However, a year later, Russia’s OFDI dropped by nearly 15 per cent. Rapid upward and downward swings make it necessary to analyze the motivation of Russian firms to invest abroad as well as to assess the impact of sanctions on Russian OFDI. The author points out that a significant part of Russia’s outward FDI stock is accounted for by the operations of Russian corporations in their home market. It is concluded that although Western sanctions target a relatively small number of Russian citizens and companies, they nevertheless affect some of Russia’s key people, largest banks, and hydrocarbon producers. Therefore, their direct impact could be substantial. Alongside the direct impact, one should consider their indirect impact, such as the tumbling rouble exchange rate and Russian banks’ increasing interest rates, which decrease Russian firms’ capability to invest abroad. Moreover, a less amicable politic al atmosphere in the West may push some Russian corporations out of the Western markets and diminish the enthusiasm of new ones to enter them. Today, Russia’s counter-sanctions do not directly restrict the country’s OFDI, but Russian state-owned enterprises may reach a decision to hold foreign investments to support Russia’s sanction policy.

  3. The German model of capitalism and the persistence of outward foreign direct investment: evidence from German manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin T Bohl


    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of critique on the German model of capitalism in general, and German public policy in particular as to the ability to successfully adjust to rapid change and exogenous shocks in wake of economic globalisation, this paper investigates the degree of shock persistence in foreign direct investment (FDI of ten German manufacturing industries for the period 1976 to 2003. Theory on exports and non-FDI investment suggests that FDI should exhibit a considerable degree of shock persistence because they are subject to high sunk costs because of high entry and exit costs associated with the high level of asset specificity that is normally connected to FDI. Persistence in foreign direct investment time series data is established by applying various unit root tests. The results are robust to the potential presence of structural breaks in the data. The empirical analysis shows that German outward FDI in mature manufacturing industries, with one exception, exhibits a high degree of shock persistence. The results suggest, at least for mature German industries, that the sunk costs view on shock persistency is confirmed for outward FDI. The results furnish evidence for a tentative assessment of the relationship between German public policy and FDI strategies of multinational firms.

  4. Competitive Intelligence and Knowledge Creation - Outward insights from an empirical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Oubrich


    Full Text Available The 21st century is characterized by many transformations which have had an impact on the growth of companies, such as aggressive competition, layoff plans, terrorist attacks and rising oil prices. It is of importance for a company to develop a protection against future impediments. This can be done by creating knowledge through a competitive intelligence process, which is the main focus of this article. With different theories about knowledge creation and competitive intelligence at hand, a qualitative empirical study was developed. The article presents how a company’s strategic intent, mission and strategic objectives can act as a guide for the competitive intelligence process, in order to gain the information necessary to find opportunities and eliminate threats.

  5. Factors Attributing to Outwards Direct Investments from Developing Countries to Developed Countries: Evidence from China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore the growing trend of outward foreign direct investments (OFDIs from developing countries to developed countries. Market-seeking and strategic asset explorations are the main motivations for conducting OFDIs in developed countries. Meanwhile, cross-border greenfield investments and cross-border mergers and acquisitions are the main entry strategies used by developing countries when penetrating the developed markets. Finally, this paper reveals mixed results about the explaining ability of John Dunning’s International Development Path (IDP theory on the patterns of selected developing markets' OFDIs to developed countries. On the one hand, China’s OFDIs follow the paths in the IDP theory. On the other hand, those of India do not confirm so.

  6. Synergetic activation of outwardly rectifying Cl− currents by hypotonic stress and external Ca2+ in murine osteoclasts (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromu; Nakamura, Fusao; Kuno, Miyuki


    An outwardly rectifying Cl− (ORCl) current of murine osteoclasts was activated by hypotonic stimulation. The current was characterized by rapid activation, little inactivation, strong outward rectification, blockage by DIDS and permeability to organic acids (pyruvate and glutamate). The hypotonically activated ORCl current was inhibited by intracellular dialysis with an ATP-free pipette solution, but not by replacement of ATP with a poorly hydrolysable ATP analogue adenosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). The current amplitude was reduced when intracellular alkalinity increased over the pH range 6.6–8.0. Intracellular application of cytochalasin D occasionally activated the ORCl current without hypotonic stress, but inhibited activation of the ORCl current by hypotonic stimulation. The hypotonically activated ORCl current was unaffected by a non-actin-depolymerizing cytochalasin, chaetoglobosin C, but partially inhibited by deoxyribonuclease I. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ inhibited activation of the ORCl current by hypotonic shock, but did not reduce the current once activated. The hypotonically activated ORCl current was partially decreased by intracellular dialysis with 20 mm EGTA. With 10 mm Ca2+ in the extracellular medium, the ORCl current was activated in response to more minor decreases in osmolarity than with 1 mm Ca2+. The increased sensitivity to hypotonicity was mimicked by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ level (pCa 6.5). These results suggest that hypotonic stimulation and a rise in the extracellular Ca2+ level synergistically activate the ORCl channel of murine osteoclasts, and that the activating process is modified by multiple intracellular factors (pH, ATP and actin cytoskeletal organization). PMID:9925886

  7. Modulation by chloramine-T of 4-aminopyridine-sensitive transient outward current in rabbit atrial cells. (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Habuchi, Y; Nishio, M; Suto, F; Yoshimura, M


    The effects of an oxidizing agent, chloramine-T, on the 4-aminopyridine-sensitive transient outward current (ITO) were investigated in rabbit atrial myocytes by using patch-clamp techniques. Extracellular application of chloramine-T at 20 microM irreversibly slowed the time course of inactivation of the whole-cell ITO, and increased the peak by 19.3% (n = 19) at +40 mV. At 100 microM, chloramine-T decreased the peak by 22.5% (n = 9) of the control, and subsequently induced a glibenclamide-sensitive time-independent outward K+ current. Under superfusion with dithiothreitol (3 mM), chloramine-T (100 microM) produced no change in ITO. The chloramine-T-induced slowing of ITO inactivation was partially reversed by subsequent application of 3 mM dithiothreitol. In single-channel recordings with the cell-attached patch configuration, chloramine-T (20 microM) increased the open probability of the ITO channel from 0.15 to 0.46 at a potential 100 mV positive to the resting potential, and the mean open lifetime from 5.1 ms to 7.0 ms (n = 5). The unitary current amplitude was not affected. As a result, chloramine-T increased the ensemble current in amplitude and slowed its decay. These results indicated that: (1) inactivation of the native A-type channels of rabbit heart is susceptible to oxidation; and (2) oxidation of ITO channels may contribute to the genesis of arrhythmias.

  8. Resveratrol Improved Flow-Mediated Outward Arterial Remodeling in Ovariectomized Rats with Hypertrophic Effect at High Dose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Petit

    Full Text Available Chronic increases in blood flow in resistance arteries induce outward remodeling associated with increased wall thickness and endothelium-mediated dilatation. This remodeling is essential for collateral arteries growth following occlusion of a large artery. As estrogens have a major role in this remodeling, we hypothesized that resveratrol, described as possessing phytoestrogen properties, could improve remodeling in ovariectomized rats.Blood flow was increased in vivo in mesenteric arteries after ligation of adjacent arteries in 3-month old ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol (5 or 37.5 mg/kg per day: RESV5 or RESV37.5 or vehicle. After 2 weeks arterial structure and function were measured in vitro in high flow (HF and normal flow (NF arteries isolated from each rat.Arterial diameter was greater in HF than in NF arteries in ovariectomized rats treated with RESV5 or RESV37.5, not in vehicle-treated rats. In mice lacking estrogen receptor alpha diameter was equivalent in HF and NF arteries whereas in mice treated with RESV5 diameter was greater in HF than in NF vessels. A compensatory increase in wall thickness and a greater phenylephrine-mediated contraction were observed in HF arteries. This was more pronounced in HF arteries from RESV37.5-treated rats. ERK1/2 phosphorylation, involved in hypertrophy and contraction, were higher in RESV37.5-treated rats than in RESV5- and vehicle-treated rats. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was greater in HF than in NF arteries in RESV5-treated rats only. In HF arteries from RESV37.5-treated rats relaxation was increased by superoxide reduction and markers of oxidative stress (p67phox, GP91phox were higher than in the 2 other groups.Resveratrol improved flow-mediated outward remodeling in ovariectomized rats thus providing a potential therapeutic tool in menopause-associated ischemic disorders. This effect seems independent of the estrogen receptor alpha. Nevertheless, caution should be taken with

  9. X-ray structures of LeuT in substrate-free outward-open and apo inward-open states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Harini; Gouaux, Eric (Oregon HSU)


    Neurotransmitter sodium symporters are integral membrane proteins that remove chemical transmitters from the synapse and terminate neurotransmission mediated by serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, glycine and GABA ({gamma}-aminobutyric acid). Crystal structures of the bacterial homologue, LeuT, in substrate-bound outward-occluded and competitive inhibitor-bound outward-facing states have advanced our mechanistic understanding of neurotransmitter sodium symporters but have left fundamental questions unanswered. Here we report crystal structures of LeuT mutants in complexes with conformation-specific antibody fragments in the outward-open and inward-open states. In the absence of substrate but in the presence of sodium the transporter is outward-open, illustrating how the binding of substrate closes the extracellular gate through local conformational changes: hinge-bending movements of the extracellular halves of transmembrane domains 1, 2 and 6, together with translation of extracellular loop 4. The inward-open conformation, by contrast, involves large-scale conformational changes, including a reorientation of transmembrane domains 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7, a marked hinge bending of transmembrane domain 1a and occlusion of the extracellular vestibule by extracellular loop 4. These changes close the extracellular gate, open an intracellular vestibule, and largely disrupt the two sodium sites, thus providing a mechanism by which ions and substrate are released to the cytoplasm. The new structures establish a structural framework for the mechanism of neurotransmitter sodium symporters and their modulation by therapeutic and illicit substances.

  10. The Impact of Outward FDI on the South Korean Labor Market: Evidence on the Wages of Four Types of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshik Lee


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify the relation between OFDI (Outward Foreign Direct Investment and wage inequality. In order to analyze various effects of OFDI on wages depending on the types of workers, the research classified laborers into four categories: permanent/skilled worker, permanent/unskilled worker, temporary/skilled worker, and temporary/unskilled worker. With controlling wage- determining factors such as education, labor union, individual fixed-effect, and industry-level effect, this paper examines whether OFDI attributes to the wage inequality among each type of workers. Moreover, this study also analyzes possible effects on wages that could vary according to the different characteristics of investments by classifying OFDI into two groups: OECD and non-OECD. The results reveal that OFDI makes certain differences according to skill-intensity and contract type in terms of influences on wages. It also shows that the effect of OFDI on wages is more subject to contract type than to skill-intensity. The classification of OFDI into OECD and non-OECD proves that effects on wages can vary by characteristics of the subject of investment.

  11. Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural interventions for outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities. (United States)

    Ali, Afia; Hall, Ian; Blickwedel, Jessica; Hassiotis, Angela


    Outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour is a significant part of problem behaviours presented by people with intellectual disabilities. Prevalence rates of up to 50% have been reported in the literature, depending on the population sampled. Such behaviours often run a long-term course and are a major cause of social exclusion. This is an update of a previously published systematic review (see Hassiotis 2004; Hassiotis 2008). To evaluate the efficacy of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural interventions on outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities when compared to standard intervention or wait-list controls. In April 2014 we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and eight other databases. We also searched two trials registers, checked reference lists, and handsearched relevant journals to identify any additional trials. We included studies if more than four participants (children or adults) were allocated by random or quasi-random methods to either intervention, standard treatment, or wait-list control groups. Two review authors independently identified studies and extracted and assessed the quality of the data. We deemed six studies (309 participants), based on adult populations with intellectual disabilities, suitable for inclusion in the current version of this review. These studies examined a range of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches: anger management (three studies (n = 235); one individual therapy and two group-based); relaxation (one study; n = 12), mindfulness based on meditation (one study; n = 34), problem solving and assertiveness training (one study; n = 28). We were unable to include any studies using behavioural interventions. There were no studies of children.Only one study reported moderate quality of evidence for outcomes of interest as assessed by the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We judged the evidence for the remaining studies to be of

  12. Challenging Patriarchy: Trade, outward migration and the internationalization of Commercial sex among Bayang and Ejagham women in Southwest Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngambouk Vitalis Pemunta


    Full Text Available This paper documents the specific local and global socio-economic forces that led to the outward migration of Bayang and Ejagham women to work as commercial sex workers on the Cameroon-Nigeria border regions in the 1980s and 1990s. It demonstrates that these women’s personal accumulation strategies are adaptative- drawing on time and space specific modes of capitalist accumulation and kinship systems of power. The intertwined nature of these forms of accumulation demonstrate that patriarchal forms of power and capitalist forms of accumulation in this region were not competitive, but rather complementary systems. This conjuncture also gave women the latitude to claim some form of sexual and economic agency, suggesting that at least in Africa, patriarchy as a power field is dynamic and relational, simultaneously opening up spaces for both resistance and agency.The impact of sex work is disproportionate since most women of our study were involved in subsistence sex, with the risk of exposure to violence and HIV/AIDS. These women nevertheless sought to reconfigure gender relations.

  13. Moving inwards, moving outwards, moving upwards: the role of spirituality during the early stages of breast cancer. (United States)

    Swinton, J; Bain, V; Ingram, S; Heys, S D


    The paper reflects on a study which explored the role of spirituality in the lives of women during the first year after being diagnosed with breast cancer. The study utilised a qualitative method (hermeneutic phenomenology) designed to provide rich and thick understanding of women's experiences of breast cancer and to explore possible ways in which spirituality may, or may not, be beneficial in enabling coping and enhancing quality of life. The paper draws on the thinking of David Hay and Viktor Frankl to develop a model of spirituality that includes, but is not defined by, religion and that has the possibility to facilitate effective empirical enquiry. It outlines a threefold movement - inwards, outwards and upwards - that emerged from in-depth interviews with women who have breast cancer. This framework captures something of the spiritual movement that women went through on their cancer journeys and offers some pointers and possibilities for better and more person-centred caring approaches that include recognition of the spiritual dimension of women's experiences for the management of those with breast cancer. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Outward particle transport by coherent mode in the H-mode pedestal in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Han, X.; Gao, X.; Liu, H. Q.; Shi, T. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, Y.; Kong, D. F.; Liu, Z. X.; Qu, H.; Xiang, H. M.; Geng, K. N.; Wang, Y. M.; Wen, F.; Zhang, S. B.; Ling, B. L.; the EAST Team


    A coherent mode (CM) in the edge pedestal region has been observed on different fluctuation quantities, including density fluctuation, electron temperature fluctuation and magnetic fluctuation in H mode plasma on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak. Measurements at different poloidal positions show that the local poloidal wavenumber is smallest at the outboard midplane and will increase with poloidal angle. This poloidal asymmetry is consistent with the flute-like assumption (i.e. k// ˜ 0) from which the toroidal mode number of the mode has been estimated as between 12 and 17. It was further found that the density fluctuation amplitude of the CM also demonstrated poloidal asymmetry. The appearance of a CM can clearly decrease or even stop the increase in the edge density, while the disappearance of a CM will lead to an increase in the pedestal density and density gradient. Statistical analysis showed there was a trend that as the CM mode amplitude increased, the rate of increase of the edge density decreased and the particle flux (Γdiv) onto the divertor plate increased. The CM sometimes showed burst behavior, and these bursts led bursts on Γdiv with a time of about 230 μs, which is close to the time for particle flow from the outer midplane to the divertor targets along the scrape-off layer magnetic field line. This evidence showed that the CM had an effect on the outward transport of particles.

  15. Privacy Act (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  16. Motives of Poland’s Outward Direct Investments from the Lodz Region: Results of a Direct Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dorożyński


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the paper is to identify motivation behind FDI followed by enterprises from the Lodz Region and to find out if these motives are similar in companies different in size, share of foreign capital and internationalisation path. Research Design & Methods: Empirical research was based on questionnaire-based interviews and in-depth interviews which covered 80% of outward direct investors from the Lodz Region. It provided grounds to assess the importance of their motives. Findings: Enterprises from the Lodz region which decided to get involved as FDIs most often pointed to market seeking motives. The significance of other motives was secondary. With several exceptions (mainly with respect to cost the size of an enterprise, foreign capital holdings and internationalisation path did not differentiate motives that encouraged respondents to engage their resources abroad. Implications & Recommendations: The study is explorative, and its results should be understood as the starting point for further studies. Results suggest that, firstly, at the present stage of internationalisation the state should offer possible support to all operators on equal conditions. Secondly, if already some enterprises invest abroad seeking better and cheaper employees, it may be profitable for the state to take upgrade the quality of workforce and reduce its relatively high costs in Poland. Contribution & Value Added: The main input delivered by the study to the current body of knowledge about OFDI motives consists in trying to identify relationships between motives followed by the Polish direct investors and their selected characteristics (size of a firm, share of foreign capital holdings, and internationalisation path.

  17. Determinants of Mexico-U.S. Outward and Return Migration Flows: A State-Level Panel Data Analysis. (United States)

    Chort, Isabelle; de la Rupelle, Maëlys


    Using a unique panel data set of state-to-state outward and return migration flows between Mexico and the United States from 1995 to 2012, this study is the first to analyze Mexico-U.S. migration at the state level and explore simultaneously the effect of economic, environmental, and social factors in Mexico over two decades. Pairing origin and destination states and controlling for a rich structure of fixed effects, we find that income positively impacts migration outflows, especially for Mexican states of origin with a recent migration history and for low-educated migrant flows, suggesting the existence of credit constraints. We find evidence that drought causes more out-migration, while other climatic shocks have no effect. Violence is found to increase out-migration flows from border states and to decrease migration from other Mexican states, especially where violence is directed at migrants. Last, return flows are larger when income growth at destination is lower, consistent with the accumulation of savings as a primary motivation of migrants. Exploring the impact of the crisis, we find evidence of significant changes in the geography of migration flows. Traditional flows are drying up, and new migration corridors are rising, with implications on the composition of the Mexican population in the United States. Although the effect of income on flows in both directions is unchanged by the crisis, the negative effect of violence on out-migration tends to reverse at the end of the period. Overall, this study emphasizes the interest of analyzing disaggregated flows at the infra-country level.

  18. Modulation of ventricular transient outward K+ current by acidosis and its effects on excitation-contraction coupling (United States)

    Saegusa, Noriko; Garg, Vivek


    The contribution of transient outward current (Ito) to changes in ventricular action potential (AP) repolarization induced by acidosis is unresolved, as is the indirect effect of these changes on calcium handling. To address this issue we measured intracellular pH (pHi), Ito, L-type calcium current (ICa,L), and calcium transients (CaTs) in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Intracellular acidosis [pHi 6.75 with extracellular pH (pHo) 7.4] reduced Ito by ∼50% in myocytes with both high (epicardial) and low (papillary muscle) Ito densities, with little effect on steady-state inactivation and activation. Of the two candidate α-subunits underlying Ito, human (h)Kv4.3 and hKv1.4, only hKv4.3 current was reduced by intracellular acidosis. Extracellular acidosis (pHo 6.5) shifted Ito inactivation toward less negative potentials but had negligible effect on peak current at +60 mV when initiated from −80 mV. The effects of low pHi-induced inhibition of Ito on AP repolarization were much greater in epicardial than papillary muscle myocytes and included slowing of phase 1, attenuation of the notch, and elevation of the plateau. Low pHi increased AP duration in both cell types, with the greatest lengthening occurring in epicardial myocytes. The changes in epicardial AP repolarization induced by intracellular acidosis reduced peak ICa,L, increased net calcium influx via ICa,L, and increased CaT amplitude. In summary, in contrast to low pHo, intracellular acidosis has a marked inhibitory effect on ventricular Ito, perhaps mediated by Kv4.3. By altering the trajectory of the AP repolarization, low pHi has a significant indirect effect on calcium handling, especially evident in epicardial cells. PMID:23585132

  19. Changes in the action potential and transient outward potassium current in cardiomyocytes during acute cardiac rejection in rats. (United States)

    Luo, Wenqi; Jia, Yixin; Zheng, Shuai; Li, Yan; Han, Jie; Meng, Xu


    Acute cardiac rejection contributes to the changes in the electrophysiological properties of grafted hearts. However, the electrophysiological changes of cardiomyocytes during acute cardiac rejection are still unknown. An understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms of cardiomyocytes could improve the diagnosis and treatment of acute cardiac rejection. So it is important to characterize the changes in the action potential ( AP ) and the transient outward potassium current ( I to ) in cardiomyocytes during acute cardiac rejection. Heterotopic heart transplantation was performed in allogeneic [Brown Norway (BN)-to-Lewis] and isogeneic (BN-to-BN) rats. Twenty models were established in each group. Ten recipients were sacrificed at the 2nd day and the other ten recipients were sacrificed at the 4 th day after the operation in each group. Histopathological examinations of the grafted hearts were performed in half of the recipients in each group randomly. The other half of the grafted hearts were excised rapidly and enzymatically dissociated to obtain single cardiomyocytes. The AP and I to current were recorded using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Forty grafted hearts were successfully harvested and used in experiments. Histologic examination showed mild rejection at the 2 nd day and moderate rejection at the 4 th day in the allogeneic group after cardiac transplantation, while no evidence of histologic lesions of rejection were observed in the isogeneic group. Compared with the isogeneic group, the action potential duration ( APD ) of cardiomyocytes in the allogeneic group was significantly prolonged ( APD 90 was 49.28±5.621 mV in the isogeneic group and 88.08±6.445 mV in the allogeneic group at the 2 nd day, P=0.0016; APD 90 was 59.34±5.183 mV in the isogeneic group and 104.0±9.523 mV in the allogeneic group at the 4 th day, P=0.0064). The current density of I to was significantly decreased at the 4 th day after cardiac transplantation. The APD of

  20. ACT Test (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...

  1. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown.......Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art...

  2. Reaction Automata


    Okubo, Fumiya; Kobayashi, Satoshi; YOKOMORI, Takashi


    Reaction systems are a formal model that has been introduced to investigate the interactive behaviors of biochemical reactions. Based on the formal framework of reaction systems, we propose new computing models called reaction automata that feature (string) language acceptors with multiset manipulation as a computing mechanism, and show that reaction automata are computationally Turing universal. Further, some subclasses of reaction automata with space complexity are investigated and their la...

  3. [Schema therapy - ACT - mindfulness]. (United States)

    Cousineau, Pierre; Ngô, Thanh-Lan


    For schema therapy, significant weight is given to early experiences of social life. They lead to the creation of memories, largely implicit. These memories are reactivated in specific contexts and are often managed through dysfunctional strategies. Schema therapy seeks to modify these memories categorized as patterns. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), meanwhile, aims to transform our reactions linked to our learning history and to develop a greater flexibility taking into account what occurs in the present moment. Several techniques originate from the mindfulness tradition and seek to transform the individual into a witness of his own experience, rather than someone acting out patterns based on his learning history. Despite their different paradigms, it is possible to combine these approaches. As schemas manifest through somatic reactions, thoughts, affects, action tendencies, it becomes possible to try to change the relationship between the individual and these private experiences through the use of mindfulness, philosophical concepts and techniques derived from ACT. This is the aim of this article. Essay presenting the use of a schema mindfulness flash card to help patients tolerate intense affects generated by the activation of schemas and to attain greater adaptive flexibility (Healthy Adult mode). It is possible to integrate ACT techniques and concept to schema therapy in order to facilitate adaptive flexibility.

  4. Drug Reactions (United States)

    ... or diabetes. But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions. One problem is interactions, which may occur between ... more serious. Drug allergies are another type of reaction. They can be mild or life-threatening. Skin ...

  5. Carrier-Mediated Transport of Nicotine Across the Inner Blood-Retinal Barrier: Involvement of a Novel Organic Cation Transporter Driven by an Outward H(+) Gradient. (United States)

    Tega, Yuma; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi


    The present study was carried out to investigate the blood-to-retina transport of nicotine across the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Using the in vivo vascular injection method, the blood-to-retina influx clearance of nicotine across the BRB was determined as 131 μL/(min?g retina), which is much higher than that of a nonpermeable paracellular marker, and blood-to-retina transport of nicotine was inhibited by organic cations such as pyrilamine and verapamil. The nicotine uptake by a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB2 cells), an in vitro model of the inner BRB, exhibited time, temperature, and concentration dependence with a Km of 492 μM. These results suggest the involvement of a carrier-mediated transport process in nicotine transport in the inner BRB. The nicotine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells was stimulated by an outwardly directed H(+) gradient, and the uptake was significantly inhibited by bulky and hydrophobic cationic drugs, whereas inhibitors of organic cation transporters did not show inhibitory effect. These results suggest that the novel organic cation transport system driven by an outwardly directed H(+) gradient is involved in the blood-to-retina transport of nicotine across the inner BRB. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Balancing Acts (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... It was like watching a movie, but every couple of frames were skipping. It was disorienting," the ...

  7. The Glaser–Hay reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Jensen, Jonas; Tortzen, Christian


    . This unfavorable change in reaction profile could be avoided by adding molecular sieves to the reaction mixture, thereby removing the water that is accumulated from the air and produced in the reaction in which dioxygen acts as the oxidizing agent. Not unexpectedly, the stirring rate, and hence uptake of air (O2......), was found to have a significant effect on the rate of the reaction: The percentage of alkyne remaining after a certain time decreased linearly with the rate of stirring. On the basis of systematic studies, the optimized conditions for the coupling reaction using CuCl/TMEDA as the catalyst system......The oxidative Glaser–Hay coupling of two terminal alkynes to furnish a butadiyne is a key reaction for acetylenic scaffolding. Although the reaction is performed under rather simple conditions [CuCl/TMEDA/O2 (air)], the mechanism is still under debate. Herein we present detailed studies...

  8. The Outwardly Rectifying Current of Layer 5 Neocortical Neurons that was Originally Identified as "Non-Specific Cationic" Is Essentially a Potassium Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Revah

    Full Text Available In whole-cell patch clamp recordings from layer 5 neocortical neurons, blockade of voltage gated sodium and calcium channels leaves a cesium current that is outward rectifying. This current was originally identified as a "non-specific cationic current", and subsequently it was hypothesized that it is mediated by TRP channels. In order to test this hypothesis, we used fluorescence imaging of intracellular sodium and calcium indicators, and found no evidence to suggest that it is associated with influx of either of these ions to the cell body or dendrites. Moreover, the current is still prominent in neurons from TRPC1-/- and TRPC5-/- mice. The effects on the current of various blocking agents, and especially its sensitivity to intracellular tetraethylammonium, suggest that it is not a non-specific cationic current, but rather that it is generated by cesium-permeable delayed rectifier potassium channels.

  9. Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry (United States)

    Murov, Steven


    The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry lists all the most commonly studied reactions in organic chemistry on one page. The discussed Reaction-Map will act as another learning aide for the students, making the study of organic chemistry much easier.

  10. Hipersensitivity Reactions to Corticosteroids. (United States)

    Berbegal, L; DeLeon, F J; Silvestre, J F


    Corticosteroids are widely used drugs in the clinical practice, especially by topic application in dermatology. These substances may act as allergens and produce immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most frequent presentation of corticosteroid allergy and it should be studied by patch testing in specific units. The corticosteroids included in the Spanish standard battery are good markers but not ideal. Therefore, if those makers are positive, it is useful to apply a specific battery of corticosteroids and the drugs provided by patients. Immediate reactions are relatively rare but potentially severe, and it is important to confirm the sensitization profile and to guide the use of alternative corticosteroids, because they are often necessary in several diseases. In this article we review the main concepts regarding these two types of hypersensitivity reactions in corticosteroid allergy, as well as their approach in the clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane on Ca2+ current and transient outward K+ current in subendocardial and subepicardial myocytes from the rat left ventricle. (United States)

    Rithalia, Amber; Hopkins, Philip M; Harrison, Simon M


    Halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane abbreviate ventricular action potential duration (APD), and for halothane this effect is greater in the subendocardium than in the subepicardium. In this study we investigated mechanisms underlying the regional effects of these anesthetics on APD. The effect of 0.6 mM halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane on the action potential, L-type Ca(2+) current, transient outward K(+) current (I(to)), and steady-state current was recorded in rat left ventricular subendocardial and subepicardial myocytes. Halothane and isoflurane (but not sevoflurane) reduced APD significantly (P subendocardial than subepicardial myocytes. Peak L-type Ca(2+) current did not differ between regions and, compared with control, was reduced significantly in both regions by 40% (P subendocardial (1.12 +/- 0.05 nA) myocytes. In subepicardial myocytes, peak I(to) was reduced significantly by halothane (P subendocardial myocytes with the three anesthetics. The steady-state current was increased significantly (P subendocardial myocytes by halothane and isoflurane could underlie their transmural effects on APD.

  12. Outward radial transport and drift loss due to ULF waves during an energetic electron dropout during the storm on 1 June 2013 (United States)

    Kang, S. B.; Fok, M. C. H.; Li, W.; Komar, C. M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Glocer, A.; Buzulukova, N.


    A flux dropout is a sudden and considerable decrease in the relativistic electron population of the outer radiation belt occurring over timescales of a few hours. A significant dropout of electrons with energies ranging from 0.1 to 7MeV was observed by Van Allen Probes during the storm on June 1, 2013. To understand the physical mechanisms of this dropout, we simulate flux and phase space density of energetic electrons with event specific plasma waves using the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere and Ionosphere (CIMI) model. We update the magnetic field configuration every 30 seconds using the Tsyganenko 2004 empirical magnetic field model. Likewise, the electric field is updated every 10 seconds using a self-consistent convection potential from ring current pressure to reproduce fluctuations comparable to ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. CIMI reproduces the significant dropout with the last closed drift shell estimated to be L* electrons. We conclude that outward radial transport results from electric and magnetic fluctuations and the Dst effect. These effects combine together and result in electron losses for a wide range of energies to the magnetopause and are the primary driver of the deep dropout over a large range of L values.

  13. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward (United States)

    McDonald, Joseph P.


    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  14. cycloaddition reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    models of regioselectivity in pericyclic reactions. In addition, local hard and soft acid base (HSAB) princi- ples have been also employed to predict the observed regioselectivity.2 In recent years, the conceptual density functional theory has been remarkably successful in explaining the reactivity and site selectivity.3 The.

  15. Sulphation reactions of oxidic dust particles in waste heat boiler environment. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki, T.


    Sulphation of metal oxides has an important role in many industrial processes. In different applications sulphation reactions have different aims and characteristics. In the flash smelting process sulphation of oxidic flue dust is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomena, which takes place in the waste heat boiler (WHB) when cooling down hot dust laden off-gases from sulphide smelters. Oxidic dust particles (size 0 - 50 {mu}m) react with O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} in a certain temperature range (500 - 800 deg C). Sulphation reactions are highly exothermic releasing large amount of heat, which affects the gas cooling and thermal performance of the boiler. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the system have to be known to improve the process and WHB operation. The rate of sulphation is affected by the prevailing conditions (temperature, gas composition) and particle size and microstructure (porosity, surface area). Some metal oxides (CuO) can react readily with SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and act as self-catalysts, but others (NiO) require the presence of an external catalyst to enhance the SO{sub 3} formation and sulphation to proceed. Some oxides (NiO) sulphate directly, some (CuO) may form first intermediate phases (basic sulphates) depending on the reaction conditions. Thus, the reaction mechanisms are very complex. The aim of this report was to search information about the factors affecting the dust sulphation reactions and suggested reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Many investigators have studied sulphation thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and mechanisms of macroscopical metal oxide pieces, but only few articles have been published about sulphation of microscopical particles, like dust. All the found microscale studies dealt with sulphation reactions of calcium oxide, which is not present in the flash smelting process, but used as an SO{sub 2} absorbent in the combustion processes. However, also these investigations may give some hints about the sulphation

  16. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Yu-luan; He, Li [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiao, Jun [Department of Cardiology, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, Chongqing (China); Xia, Shuang; Deng, Song-bai [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiu, Yun [Institute of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); She, Qiang [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)


    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (I{sub to}) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM+TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of I{sub to} was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated I{sub to} reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced I{sub to} of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM.

  17. Glutathione conjugation as a bioactivation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladeren, P.J. van


    In general, glutathione conjugation is regarded as a detoxication reaction. However, depending on the properties of the substrate, bioactivation is also possible. Four types of activation reaction have been recognized: direct-acting compounds, conjugates that are activated through cysteine conjugate

  18. Cyanide reaction with ninhydrin: elucidation of reaction and interference mechanisms. (United States)

    Drochioiu, Gabi; Mangalagiu, Ionel; Avram, Ecaterina; Popa, Karin; Dirtu, Alin Constantin; Druta, Ioan


    A new sensitive spectrophotometric method has recently been developed for the trace determination of cyanide with ninhydrin. Cyanide ion was supposed to act as a specific base catalyst. Nevertheless, this paper demonstrates that the reported assay is based on a novel reaction of cyanide with 2,2-dihydroxy-1,3-indanedione, which affords purple or blue colored salts of 2-cyano-1,2,3-trihydroxy-2H indene. Hydrindantin is merely an intermediary of the reaction. The formation of a stable and isolable ninhydrin-cyanide compound has been confirmed by its preparation in crystalline form. Also, it is thoroughly characterized by elemental as well as MS, IR, UV/VIS and 1H NMR analyses. The Ruhemann's sequence of reactions of cyanide with ninhydrin has been reconsidered and an adequate mechanism of the reaction is proposed. As a consequence, the interference of oxidizers as well as copper, silver and mercury ions with the cyanide determination has been elucidated.

  19. Spallation reactions; Reactions de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugon, J.


    Spallation reactions dominate the interactions of hadrons with nuclei in the GeV range (from {approx} 0.1 to {approx} 10 GeV). They correspond to a sometimes important ejection of light particles leaving most of the time a residue of mass commensurate with the target mass. The main features of the experimental data are briefly reviewed. The most successful theoretical model, namely the intranuclear cascade + evaporation model, is presented. Its physical content, results and possible improvements are critically discussed. Alternative approaches are shortly reviewed. (author). 84 refs.

  20. Application of guanidine and its salts in multicomponent reactions


    RAHIMIFARD, Mahshid; Ziarani,Ghodsi Mohammadi


    This review gives an overview of the application of guanidine and its salts in multicomponent reactions. It can act as a catalyst or solvent for multicomponent reactions or as a reagent for synthesis of substituted diazines, triazines, and macroheterocycles by multicomponent reactions.

  1. Reações adversas causadas por fármacos que atuam no sistema nervoso: análise de registros de um centro de farmacovigilância do Brasil Adverse reaction caused by drugs acting in nervous system: records analysis of a farmacovigilance center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria de França Fonteles


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A morbimortalidade por uso de medicamentos é um grande problema de saúde. As reações adversas a medicamentos podem resultar em óbito, aumento de internações hospitalares e dos custos com a saúde. OBJETIVOS: Descrever e analisar as notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas causadas por medicamentos que atuam no sistema nervoso (RAM-SN, registradas no Centro de Farmacovigilância do Ceará, de janeiro de 1997 a março de 2008. MÉTODOS: As RAM-SN foram classificadas segundo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Uma relação de causalidade entre o fármaco administrado e a reação adversa identificada foi realizada, bem como a análise da reação quanto à gravidade. RESULTADOS: Foram registradas 176 notificações de RAM-SN. A maioria (n = 145; 82,4% ocorreu no ambiente hospitalar. O principal notificador foi o farmacêutico. As RAM-SN foram classificadas como: possíveis (n = 110, prováveis (n = 37 e definidas (n = 17. Quanto à gravidade, foram consideradas: leves (n = 21, moderadas (n = 127, graves (n = 15 e fatais (n = 1. O caso fatal foi notificado por médico e envolveu medicamentos anestésicos. Geralmente, as reações adversas observadas foram causadas predominantemente por analgésicos, anestésicos e antiepilépticos. DISCUSSÃO: Os dados demonstram o valor potencial de se ter acesso a sistemas de farmacovigilância local para registrar possíveis riscos com o uso de fármacos.BACKGROUND: The morbi-mortality by the use of medicines is a major health problem. The drug adverse reactions may result in death, increased hospitalizations and healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: Describe and analyze reports of suspected adverse reactions caused by drugs that act on the nervous system (SN-ADR, registered in the database of the Pharmacovigilance Centre of Ceará, from January 1997 to March 2008. METHODS: All the NS-ADRs were classified according to criteria of the World Health Organization. The causality

  2. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids (United States)

    Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL


    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  3. Autism: Why Act Early? (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that affects the pancreas and other organs, and how to treat and live with this chronic disease. Role ... of your CF care team can show you how to perform many different ACTs and recommend specific ACTs ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ... for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can ...

  7. Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... exposed to a foreign substance, some people suffer reactions identical to anaphylaxis, but no allergy (IgE antibody) ...

  8. Catalysis of Photochemical Reactions. (United States)

    Albini, A.


    Offers a classification system of catalytic effects in photochemical reactions, contrasting characteristic properties of photochemical and thermal reactions. Discusses catalysis and sensitization, examples of catalyzed reactions of excepted states, complexing ground state substrates, and catalysis of primary photoproducts. (JM)

  9. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates


    Haubold, H. J.; Mathai, A. M.


    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution of galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the cases of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are als...

  10. Atmospheric gas phase reactions (United States)

    Platt, Ulrich

    This chapter introduces the underlying physicochemical principles and the relevance of atmospheric gas phase reactions. In particular, reaction orders, the concept of elementary reactions, definition of and factors determining reaction rates (kinetic theory of chemical reactions), and photochemical reactions are discussed. Sample applications of the pertinent reaction pathways in tropospheric chemistry are presented, particularly reactions involving free radicals (OH, NO3, halogen oxides) and their roles in the self-cleaning of the troposphere. The cycles of nitrogen and sulfur species as well as the principles of tropospheric ozone formation are introduced. Finally, the processes governing the stratospheric ozone layer (Chapman Cycle and extensions) are discussed.

  11. Palladium nanoparticle-graphene hybrids as active catalysts for the Suzuki reaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yang; Fan, Xiaobin; Qi, Junjie; Ji, Junyi; Wang, Shulan; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao


    .... We demonstrate that the Pd-graphene hybrids can act as an efficient catalyst for the Suzuki reaction under aqueous and aerobic conditions, with the reaction reaching completion in as little as 5 min...

  12. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act). (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88 Stat...

  13. [Adverse reactions to insulin]. (United States)

    Liñana, J J; Montoro, F J; Hernández, M D; Basomba, A


    The prevalence of allergic reactions to insuline has decreased during the last few years. Probably this is due to the use of the newly-developed recombinant human insuline. At present, adverse reactions to insuline occur in 5-10% of patients on therapy with insuline. Adverse reactions may be local (more frequent) or systemic (rare). Insuline resistance consists in a different type of immunological reaction. Diagnosis of allergy to insuline is based on clinical history and cutaneous and serological tests. Treatment depends upon the severity of the reaction. When insuline is indispensable despite a previous allergic reaction, a desensitization protocol may be implemented.

  14. Evaluation of Adverse Drug Reactions to Artemisinin-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to evaluate the incidence of adverse reactions to antimalarial drugs among residents of a Nigeria university community with a focus on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Specifically, the profile of use, and the reporting culture of people with respect to experienced reactions were noted. Method: Questionnaires ...

  15. Studies on electron transfer reactions of Keggin-type mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    (PV2) in aqueous phosphate buffer of pH 6 at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and optical studies show that the stoichiometry of the reaction is 1: 2 (NADH : HPA). EPR and optical studies show that HPA act as one electron acceptor and the products of electron transfer reactions are one elec- tron reduced heteropoly ...

  16. The Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 16, 1995 ... I want to express my gratitude to them all. 1 In the past a few different categories of young offenders were specifically addressed in our law. For example, s 290 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 (before its repeal by the Child. Justice Act 75 of 2008) had specific provisions for "young offenders" under ...

  17. ACT and College Success (United States)

    Bleyaert, Barbara


    What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…

  18. Marine Mammal Protection Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  19. Transitions as Speech Acts. (United States)

    Fesmire, Alice Ann


    Reviews speech act theory to explain the function of writing transitions in terms of the illocutionary and perlocutionary effect of explicit performatives. Identifies explicit performatives in samples of professional writing in technical and academic areas. Suggest ways to revise textbooks to include the findings from speech act theory. (SR)

  20. Oxidative hemoglobin reactions: Applications to drug metabolism. (United States)

    Spolitak, Tatyana; Hollenberg, Paul F; Ballou, David P


    Hb is a protein with multiple functions, acting as an O2 transport protein, and having peroxidase and oxidase activities with xenobiotics that lead to substrate radicals. However, there is a lack of evidence for intermediates involved in these reactions of Hb with redox-active compounds, including those with xenobiotics such as drugs, chemical carcinogens, and sulfides. In particular, questions exist as to what intermediates participate in reactions of either metHb or oxyHb with sulfides. The studies presented here elaborate kinetics and intermediates involved in the reactions of Hb with oxidants (H2O2 and mCPBA), and they demonstrate the formation of high valent intermediates, providing insights into mechanistic issues of sulfur and drug oxidations. Overall, we propose generalized mechanisms that include peroxidatic reactions using H2O2 generated from the autooxidation of oxyHb, with involvement of substrate radicals in reactions of Hb with oxidizable drugs such as metyrapone or 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and with sulfides. We identify ferryl intermediates (with a Soret band at 407 nm) in oxidative reactions with all of the above-mentioned reactions. These spectral properties are consistent with a protonated ferryl heme, such as Cpd II or Cpd ES-like species (Spolitak et al., JIB, 2006, 100, 2034-2044). Mechanism(s) of Hb oxidative reactions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction. (United States)

    Buchanan, Kathryn E; Bardi, Anat


    The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction.

  2. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng [Irvine, CA; Sui, Guodong [Los Angeles, CA; Elizarov, Arkadij [Valley Village, CA; Kolb, Hartmuth C [Playa del Rey, CA; Huang, Jiang [San Jose, CA; Heath, James R [South Pasadena, CA; Phelps, Michael E [Los Angeles, CA; Quake, Stephen R [Stanford, CA; Tseng, Hsian-rong [Los Angeles, CA; Wyatt, Paul [Tipperary, IE; Daridon, Antoine [Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH


    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  3. Allergic reactions (image) (United States)

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as ... mildew, dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  4. Cosmetic tattoo pigment reaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R


    BackgroundCutaneous reactions to tattoos are most commonly granulomatous or lichenoid.PurposeWe describe a woman who developed a lymphocytic reaction following a cosmetic tattoo procedure with black dye...

  5. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald


    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  6. Reaction Time (Polish language)


    Iermakov, Sergii


    Reaction time is the interval time between the presentation of a stimulus and the initiation of the muscular response to that stimulus.If there is only one possible response (simple reaction time) it will only take a short time to react. If there are several possible responses (choice reaction time) then it will take longer to determine which response to carry out.

  7. Laser enhanced chemical reactions (United States)

    Included is the discussion of infrared diode lasers used to study time dependent dynamic events. Also, hot atom excitation of vibrational states of polyatomic molecules, bimolecular quenching and reactions of O(sup 1)D, bimolecular reaction studies of the OH + CO yields H + CO2 system, and the chemical dynamics of the reaction between chlorine atoms and deuterated cyclohexane are covered briefly.

  8. (MIRC) reaction w

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudesh Kumari

    as eco-friendly reaction media in catalyst free organic synthesis.7 Ethylene glycol has promising physical ... these properties it is used as a promising green media in many catalysed/ uncatalysed organic reactions ..... Ruijter E, Scheffelaar R and Orru R V A 2011 Multi- component Reaction Design in the Quest for Molecular ...

  9. Draconian dress act repealed. (United States)

    Mhone, C


    The Dress Act was put into place in Malawi by the government of President Kamuzu Banda after the long period of direct colonialism. The act made it illegal for women in Malawi to be seen publicly wearing dresses which did not completely cover their knees or wearing pants; men had to wear their hair short. Police officers even scrutinized women's attire at private house parties and in homes. The autocratic political structure established by Banda, however, was voted out in a referendum June 14, 1993. Pressure by opposition forces such as the United Democratic Front forced a repeal of the act on November 16 of the same year. The repeal was vigorously attacked by female Parliament members as a move which would result in moral degradation and an increase in the level of sexual harassment against women. Other citizens and tourists have generally detested the act. The act has most certainly kept many potential visitors from vacationing in Malawi. Some expert observers think that repeals of the Dress Act, the Forfeiture Act, and legislation which allowed the government to detain opposition figures without trial were done to garner support from the Paris Club for the resumption of balance of payments support suspended due to the country's poor human rights record.

  10. Transport and reaction processes affecting the attenuation of landfill gas in cover soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.U.; Scheutz, Charlotte


    to the atmosphere. Oxygen supply into the soil column is driven exclusively by diffusion, whereas advection outward offsets part of the diffusive contribution. In the reaction zone, methane consumption reduces the pressure gradient, further decreasing the significance of advection near the top of the column......Methane and trace organic gases produced in landfill waste are partly oxidized in the top 40 cm of landfill cover soils under aerobic conditions. The balance between the oxidation of landfill gases and the ingress of atmospheric oxygen into the soil cover determines the attenuation of emissions...... of methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons to the atmosphere. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxidation reactions on the overall gas transport regime and to evaluate, the contributions of various gas transport processes on methane attenuation in landfill cover soils...

  11. Sarbanes Oxley Act


    Těšínský, Josef


    The diploma thesis is focused on corporate fraud problematic, on The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and on problematics of internal control systems and corporate governance, which relate closely with the Sarbanes-Oxley act. The goal of my diploma thesis is to highlight the significance of corporate fraud problematic and create an integrated summary of requirements placed on companies, which either have to or want to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley act. The opening part of the diploma thesis is foc...

  12. The Experiment as Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    to identify and locate the experiments of POEX65 as acts; and to ask the questions: what constitutes those acts as experiments? and how do we possibly archive them? My purpose, then, is to define the methodologies to obtain the contours of a post-phenomenology of experimental artistic production in order...... to be able to analyse the phenomena found at POEX65. Here I will use the notion of the ‘ontological theatre’ (Pickering), which, according to Pickering, is acted out in experimental art productions. The experiment could thus be seen as an ‘agency-realism’ – as an ‘act’ of relations across the aesthetics...

  13. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation (United States)


    ... CFR Part 261a Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulation implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act..., and applicants for Board employment, for access to their records under the Privacy Act; the amendment...

  14. Energy Policy Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  15. Clean Water Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  16. Affordable Care Act (ACA) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  17. Endangered Species Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CYSTIC FIBROSIS Learn about cystic fibrosis, a genetic lung disorder that affects the pancreas and other organs, ... Clearance Techniques (ACTs) Autogenic Drainage (AD) Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High- ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resources you need to continuously build upon this work. Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  20. Abandoned Shipwreck Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  1. Act250 Permits (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The dataset includes the geographic location for Act 250 permits issued since the inception of the law in 1970. Base permit numbers only are included; permit...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear ...

  5. DREAM Act, Part II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miranda, María Eugenia


    .... For nearly a decade Congress has failed to pass a bill - the Development Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act - that would grant AJulema legal residence and free her from a life in the shadows...

  6. Clean Water Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  7. ACT250 Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What to Consider Regarding a Lung Transplant Medications Antibiotics Bronchodilators Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care at Home Vascular ... that help thin and move the mucus, and antibiotics. Bronchodilators should be inhaled before you start ACTs. ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an eCard Submit Your Artwork Honor a Loved One Create a Tribute Page Find a Tribute Page ... to try. However, the best ACT is the one that you are most likely to perform as ...

  10. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...... place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...... with an awareness of larger political, economic, geographical and art-related aspects. The concept of ‘acts of research’ is suggested as a way to understand knowledge production as a creative act in which research carried out in relation to a specific material challenges and resists the protocols of conventional...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C. Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC ... you clear the thick, sticky mucus from your lungs. ACTs are often used with other treatments, including ...

  12. Marine Pollution Prevention Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  13. National Environmental Policy Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  14. Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian


    Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here...... for ~66% of total cyanide removal. Simulations of our updated computational model show that intracellular cyanide reactions increase the amplitude of oscillations and that cyanide addition lowers [ACA] instantaneously. We conclude that cyanide provides the following means of inducing global oscillations......: a) by reducing [ACAx] relative to oscillation amplitude, b) by targeting multiple intracellular carbonyl compounds during fermentation, and c) by acting as a phase resetting stimulus....

  15. Hypersensitivity reactions to heparins. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Purificación; Fernandez, Javier


    This article provides an update on hypersensitivity reactions to heparins and novel oral anticoagulants, with special emphasis on diagnostic methods and management of patients. Although heparins are drugs widely used, hypersensitivity reactions are uncommon. Cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reactions after subcutaneous administration affects up to 7.5% of patients. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is another unusual but severe condition in which early recognition is crucial. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to heparins have been also reported, but with the novel oral anticoagulants are much more uncommon, although reports of exanthemas have been notified.Skin tests and subcutaneous provocation test are useful tools in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions, except in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in which biopsy of lesional skin and in-vitro tests are the modalities of choice to confirm the diagnosis.Management of hypersensitivity reactions includes finding an alternative depending on the type of reaction. Fondaparinux and novel oral anticoagulants may be safe alternatives. Delayed skin lesions after subcutaneous heparin are the most common type of hypersensitivity reactions, followed by life-threatening heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Immediate reactions are uncommon. Allergologic studies may be useful to find an alternative option in patients with skin lesions in which heparin-induced thrombocytopenia has been previously excluded, as well as in heparin immediate reactions.

  16. Metathesis and hydroformylation reactions in ionic liquids.



    Ionic liquids (ILs), consisting of ions that are liquid at ambient temperatures, can act as solvents for a broad spectrum of chemical processes. These ionic liquids are attracting increasing attention from industry because they promise significant environmental as well as product and process benefits. ILs were used as solvents for two industrially important homogeneous reactions namely metathesis of 1-octene and the hydroformylation of vinyl acetate. In the metathesis of 1-octene, several rea...

  17. Reaction kinetics of polybutylene terephthalate polycondensation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darda, P. J.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.; Souren, F.


    The kinetics of the forward polycondensation reaction of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) has been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PBT - prepolymer with an initial degree of polymerization of 5.5 was used as starting material. The PBT prepolymer was prepared from dimethyl

  18. Reactions at Solid Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ertl, Gerhard


    Expanding on the ideas first presented in Gerhard Ertl's acclaimed Baker Lectures at Cornell University, Reactions at Solid Surfaces comprises an authoritative, self-contained, book-length introduction to surface reactions for both professional chemists and students alike. Outlining our present understanding of the fundamental processes underlying reactions at solid surfaces, the book provides the reader with a complete view of how chemistry works at surfaces, and how to understand and probe the dynamics of surface reactions. Comparing traditional surface probes with more modern ones, and brin

  19. Desosamine in multicomponent reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achatz, Sepp; Dömling, Alexander


    Desosamine occurring ubiquitously in natural products is introduced into isocyanide based multicomponent reaction chemistry. Corresponding products are of potential interest for the design of novel antibiotics. © 2006.

  20. Looking Outward: Archival Research as Community Engagement (United States)

    Douglas, Whitney


    This article examines archival research as a generative community literacy practice. Through the example of a community-based project centered on archival research, I examine the increased possibility the archives hold as a site for rhetorical invention based on collaboration that includes contemporary community members "and" the…


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard J. Dooley


    ...; rise in the global shipbuilding market; and efforts to develop a "blue water" navy. This paper will examine how, starting with Deng Xiaoping's reforms in 1978, China has developed a comprehensive strategy for maritime growth...

  2. Reactions to Attitudinal Deviancy. (United States)

    Levine, John M.; Allen, Vernon L.

    This paper presents a critical review of empirical and theoretical treatments of group reaction to attitudinal deviancy. Inspired by Festinger's (1950) ideas on resolution of attitudinal discrepancies in groups, Schachter (1951) conducted an experiment that has greatly influenced subsequent research and theory concerning reaction to attitudinal…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Chemists, educators and students are entitled to their mental constructs about reaction mechanism in the classroom. What pedagogical implications have these knowledge claims for teaching and learning reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry? This is the main interest of the paper. Thus three questions were critically ...

  4. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan


    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  5. Applications of Reaction Rate (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin


    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACTIONS Health Care Reform Priorities for the CF Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy ... We recognize the value of tapping into the ...

  7. Special Appropriation Act Projects (United States)

    EPA is sometimes directed to provide funding to a specific entity for study, purpose, or activity.This information will be of interest to a community or other entity that has been identified in one of EPA's appropriations acts to receive such funding.

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their ... (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  9. Respiratory transfusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Marić


    Full Text Available Respiratory transfusion-related reactions are not very frequent, partly also because recognition and reporting transfusion reactions is still underemphasized. Tis article describes the most important respiratory transfusion reactions, their pathophysiology, clinical picture and treatment strategies. Respiratory transfusion related reactions can be primary or secondary. The most important primary transfusion-related reactions are TRALI - transfusion-related acute lung injury, TACO – transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and TAD - transfusion-associated dyspnea. TRALI is immuneassociated injury of alveolar basal membrane, which becomes highly permeable and causes noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Treatment of TRALI is mainly supportive with oxygen, fluids (in case of hypotension and in cases of severe acute respiratory failure also mechanic ventilation. TACO is caused by volume overload in predisposed individuals, such as patients with heart failure, the elderly, infants, patients with anemia and patients with positive fluid balance. Clinical picture is that of a typical pulmonary cardiogenic edema, and the therapy is classical: oxygen and diuretics, and in severe cases also non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. TAD is usually a mild reaction of unknown cause and cannot be classified as TACO or TRALI, nor can it be ascribed to patient’s preexisting diseases. Although the transfusion-related reactions are not very common, knowledge about them can prevent serious consequences. On the one hand preventive measures should be sought, and on the other early recognition is beneficial, so that proper treatment can take place.

  10. Autocatalysis in Reaction Networks


    Deshpande, Abhishek; Gopalkrishnan, Manoj


    The persistence conjecture is a long-standing open problem in chemical reaction network theory. It concerns the behavior of solutions to coupled ODE systems that arise from applying mass-action kinetics to a network of chemical reactions. The idea is that if all reactions are reversible in a weak sense, then no species can go extinct. A notion that has been found useful in thinking about persistence is that of "critical siphon." We explore the combinatorics of critical siphons, with a view to...

  11. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W


    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  12. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D


    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  13. Enantioselective aldol reactions catalyzed by chiral phosphine oxides. (United States)

    Kotani, Shunsuke; Sugiura, Masaharu; Nakajima, Makoto


    The development of enantioselective aldol reactions catalyzed by chiral phosphine oxides is described. The aldol reactions presented herein do not require the prior preparation of the masked enol ethers from carbonyl compounds as aldol donors. The reactions proceed through a trichlorosilyl enol ether intermediate, formed in situ from carbonyl compounds, which then acts as the aldol donor. Phosphine oxides activate the trichlorosilyl enol ethers to afford the aldol adducts with high stereoselectivities. This procedure was used to realize a directed cross-aldol reaction between ketones and two types of double aldol reactions (a reaction at one/two α position(s) of a carbonyl group) with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Copyright © 2013 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Stance limb ground reaction forces in high functioning stroke and healthy subjects during gait initiation. (United States)

    Sharma, Sheena; McMorland, Angus J C; Stinear, James W


    Following stroke, little is known about ground reaction forces during gait initiation. To compare stroke patients' with healthy subjects' anterior, medial, and lateral ground reaction forces generated during gait initiation. Patients with left paresis, right paresis, and age-similar healthy subjects were recruited. During gait initiation the average peak anterior, medial, and lateral ground reaction forces acting on each lower limb were calculated when it was the stance limb. Anterior ground reaction forces acting on the right and left stance limbs of healthy subjects were greater than anterior forces acting on the nonparetic and paretic limbs of stroke patients. Medial ground reaction forces for the nonparetic and paretic limbs of stroke patients and for the right and left stance limbs of healthy subjects were equivalent. While lateral ground reaction forces acting on the nonparetic and paretic limbs were equivalent for left paretic patients, for right paretic patients lateral forces acting on the nonparetic limb were greater compared to the paretic limb and also greater compared to the left limb of healthy subjects. An effect of side-of-lesion was revealed in average peak lateral ground reaction force data. Larger lateral ground reaction forces acting on the left nonparetic stance limb of right paretic patients compared to the right nonparetic stance limb of left paretic patients during gait initiation may be an indication of differing adaptations that depend on the side-of-lesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Color Red Supports Avoidance Reactions to Unhealthy Food. (United States)

    Rohr, Michaela; Kamm, Friederike; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk


    Empirical evidence suggests that the color red acts like an implicit avoidance cue in food contexts. Thus specific colors seem to guide the implicit evaluation of food items. We built upon this research by investigating the implicit meaning of color (red vs. green) in an approach-avoidance task with healthy and unhealthy food items. Thus, we examined the joint evaluative effects of color and food: Participants had to categorize food items by approach-avoidance reactions, according to their healthfulness. Items were surrounded by task-irrelevant red or green circles. We found that the implicit meaning of the traffic light colors influenced participants' reactions to the food items. The color red (compared to green) facilitated automatic avoidance reactions to unhealthy foods. By contrast, approach behavior toward healthy food items was not moderated by color. Our findings suggest that traffic light colors can act as implicit cues that guide automatic behavioral reactions to food.

  16. Dreams and acting out. (United States)

    Grinberg, L


    Dreams can be used as containers that free patients from increased tension. This may be the principal function of certain types of dreams, called "evacuative dreams." They are dreams used for getting rid of unbearable affects and unconscious fantasies, or as a safety valve for partial discharge of instinctual drives. These dreams are observed primarily in borderline and psychotic patients, but can also be seen in the regressive states of neurotic patients during weekends and other periods of separation. Such dreams have to be differentiated from "elaborative dreams," which have a working-through function and stand in an inverse relationship to acting out: the greater the production of elaborative dreams, the less the tendency to act out, and vice versa.

  17. ST–ACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    hot issue in the area of spatio–temporal databases [7]. While existing Moving Object Simulators (MOSs) address different physical aspects of mobility, they neglect the important social and geo–demographical aspects of it. This paper presents ST–ACTS, a Spatio–Temporal ACTivity Simulator that, usi......–temporal distributions of activities, which make it essential for the development of adequate spatiotemporal data management and data mining techniques....... various geo–statistical data sources and intuitive principles, models the so far neglected aspects. ST–ACTS considers that (1) objects (representing mobile users) move from one spatio–temporal location to another with the objective of performing a certain activity at the latter location; (2) not all users...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Kaburise


    Full Text Available Speech Act Theory (SAT, a theory in pragmatics, is an attempt to describe what happens during linguistic interactions. Inherent within SAT is the idea that language forms and intentions are relatively formulaic and that there is a direct correspondence between sentence forms (for example, in terms of structure and lexicon and the function or meaning of an utterance. The contention offered in this paper is that when such a correspondence does not exist, as in indirect speech utterances, this creates challenges for English second language speakers and may result in miscommunication. This arises because indirect speech acts allow speakers to employ various pragmatic devices such as inference, implicature, presuppositions and context clues to transmit their messages. Such devices, operating within the non-literal level of language competence, may pose challenges for ESL learners.

  19. Autocatalysis in reaction networks. (United States)

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Gopalkrishnan, Manoj


    The persistence conjecture is a long-standing open problem in chemical reaction network theory. It concerns the behavior of solutions to coupled ODE systems that arise from applying mass-action kinetics to a network of chemical reactions. The idea is that if all reactions are reversible in a weak sense, then no species can go extinct. A notion that has been found useful in thinking about persistence is that of "critical siphon." We explore the combinatorics of critical siphons, with a view toward the persistence conjecture. We introduce the notions of "drainable" and "self-replicable" (or autocatalytic) siphons. We show that: Every minimal critical siphon is either drainable or self-replicable; reaction networks without drainable siphons are persistent; and nonautocatalytic weakly reversible networks are persistent. Our results clarify that the difficulties in proving the persistence conjecture are essentially due to competition between drainable and self-replicable siphons.

  20. [Adverse reactions to vaccines]. (United States)

    Ito Tsuchiya, F M; Rosas Vargas, M A; Zepeda Ortega, B; Río del Navarro, Blanca Estela; Sienra Monge, Juan José Luis


    Vaccination is one of the medicine's achievements to control and/or eradicate certain infectious diseases. Vaccines contain antigenic doses derived from microorganisms and/or its toxins, besides they are composed of other substances such as aluminum, gelatin, egg proteins, mercury components (as thimerosal), and antibiotics; therefore, these substances can produce hypersensitivity reactions. The above-mentioned reactions can be evidenced with itch, edema, hives, asthmatic crisis, hypotension and even anaphylactic shock. Due to the importance of vaccination, especially in childhood, it is essential to know the benefits of vaccines, their impact in morbidity and mortality decrease of certain infected-contagious diseases, as well as the adverse effects and the allergic reactions to their application. As immunizations prevent natural infections, they might contribute to a free infectious environment that would allow atopic response. This paper reviews the allergic reactions to vaccines and their influence on the development of atopic disease.

  1. Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? (United States)

    ... Consumers Protect Yourself Health Fraud Bad Reactions to Cosmetics? Tell FDA! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  2. Reactor for exothermic reactions (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.


    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of to F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  3. Firefighter Nozzle Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Selena K.; Sunderland, Peter B.; Jomaas, Grunde


    to anchor forces, the hose becomes straight. The nozzle reaction is found to equal the jet momentum flow rate, and it does not change when an elbow connects the hose to the nozzle. A forward force must be exerted by a firefighter or another anchor that matches the forward force that the jet would exert...... on a perpendicular wall. Three reaction expressions are derived, allowing it to be determined in terms of hose diameter, jet diameter, flow rate, and static pressure upstream of the nozzle. The nozzle reaction predictions used by the fire service are 56% to 90% of those obtained here for typical firefighting hand......Nozzle reaction and hose tension are analyzed using conservation of fluid momentum and assuming steady, inviscid flow and a flexible hose in frictionless contact with the ground. An expression that is independent of the bend angle is derived for the hose tension. If this tension is exceeded owing...

  4. Chemical burn or reaction (United States)

    ... this page: // Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on ... the burned area from pressure and friction. Minor chemical burns will generally heal without further treatment. However, if ...

  5. A Vanishing Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Anders; Hecht, Janus; Stilling, Maria Kirstine


    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has played an important role in the reforms that have taken place in Western welfare societies over the past two decades. ICT is regarded as a way to provide transparency and information exchange among providers, users and politicians. Thi...... internal contradictions in the organization of elderly home care services so that key processes have become outright invisible. This trick, the paper argues, is essentially an act of what Bourdieu calls social magic....

  6. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  7. Adverse reaction to tetrazepam. (United States)

    Palacios Benito, R; Domínguez Ortega, J; Alonso Llamazares, A; Rodríguez Morales, A; Plaza Díaz, A; Chamorro Gómez, M; Martínez-Cócera, C


    Adverse reactions caused by benzodiazepines rarely occur. We present a case of a 70-year-old man who developed a maculopapular exanthema after the ingestion of tetrazepam. For his diagnosis, skin tests were performed, including prick and patch tests, not only with the benzodiazepine implicated in the reaction, but also with benzodiazepines of other groups. Single-blind oral challenge tests were also performed in the patient, in order to assess his tolerance to other benzodiazepines.

  8. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis (United States)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.


    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  9. Photoinduced Multicomponent Reactions. (United States)

    Garbarino, Silvia; Ravelli, Davide; Protti, Stefano; Basso, Andrea


    The combination of multicomponent approaches with light-driven processes opens up new scenarios in the area of synthetic organic chemistry, where the need for sustainable, atom- and energy-efficient reactions is increasingly urgent. Photoinduced multicomponent reactions are still in their infancy, but significant developments in this area are expected in the near future. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Williamson Act - The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 - commonly referred to as the Williamson Act - is the State's primary program for the conservation of private land in...

  11. Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions (United States)

    ... drug allergic reactions TTR Share | Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... your symptoms are severe, seek medical help immediately. Allergic Reactions Allergy symptoms are the result of a chain ...

  12. Calculation of reaction energies and adiabatic temperatures for waste tank reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.


    Continual concern has been expressed over potentially hazardous exothermic reactions that might occur in Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. These tanks contain many different oxidizable compounds covering a wide range of concentrations. The chemical hazards are a function of several interrelated factors, including the amount of energy (heat) produced, how fast it is produced, and the thermal absorption and heat transfer properties of the system. The reaction path(s) will determine the amount of energy produced and kinetics will determine the rate that it is produced. The tanks also contain many inorganic compounds inert to oxidation. These compounds act as diluents and can inhibit exothermic reactions because of their heat capacity and thus, in contrast to the oxidizable compounds, provide mitigation of hazardous reactions. In this report the energy that may be released when various organic and inorganic compounds react is computed as a function of the reaction-mix composition and the temperature. The enthalpy, or integrated heat capacity, of these compounds and various reaction products is presented as a function of temperature; the enthalpy of a given mixture can then be equated to the energy release from various reactions to predict the maximum temperature which may be reached. This is estimated for several different compositions. Alternatively, the amounts of various diluents required to prevent the temperature from reaching a critical value can be estimated. Reactions taking different paths, forming different products such as N{sub 2}O in place of N{sub 2} are also considered, as are reactions where an excess of caustic is present. Oxidants other than nitrate and nitrite are considered briefly.

  13. Teaching Speech Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teaching Speech Acts


    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that pragmatic ability must become part of what we teach in the classroom if we are to realize the goals of communicative competence for our students. I review the research on pragmatics, especially those articles that point to the effectiveness of teaching pragmatics in an explicit manner, and those that posit methods for teaching. I also note two areas of scholarship that address classroom needs—the use of authentic data and appropriate assessment tools. The essay concludes with a summary of my own experience teaching speech acts in an advanced-level Portuguese class.

  14. The Act of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg


    perception of ‘walkability’ is based upon a subjective judgement of different physical factors, such as sidewalk width, traffic volumes and building height (Ewing and Handy 2009:67). And iIn order to understand the act of walking it is therefore necessary to create a vocabulary to understand how and why...... internalize the common norms and values of pedestrian culture and are influenced by their physical environment when walking. In conclusion the chapter questions and discusses how this knowledge could be used in future planning practices....

  15. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrat'Ev, V N


    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  16. Self-expanding nitinol stents of high versus low chronic outward force in de novo femoropopliteal occlusive arterial lesions (BIOFLEX-COF trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Wressnegger, Alexander; Kaider, Alexandra; Funovics, Martin A


    Self-expanding nitinol stents must be oversized at least by a minimal amount to ensure contact with the vessel wall and prevent migration. Once the stent is deployed it exerts a continuous force upon the vascular wall, termed chronic outward force (COF). Animal studies have found an increased neointimal hyperplasia in stents with high oversizing and thus high COF. Data about correlation between COF and neointimal hyperplasia in humans are currently lacking. The objective of the BIOFLEX-COF trial is to prospectively investigate differences in formation of intimal hyperplasia at 1 and 2 years after implantation of nitinol stents with high versus low COF in de novo femoropopliteal occlusive arterial lesions. The BIOFLEX-COF trial is a prospective, quantitative, randomized study. Eighty subjects with symptomatic peripheral arterial lesions eligible for endovascular stent implantation will be enrolled and randomly assigned to either a high COF group (LifeStent Flexstar, Bard Peripheral Vascular Inc., Tempe, AZ, USA) or low COF group (Pulsar, Biotronik AG, Bülach, Switzerland) using an online randomization program to generate a random 1:1 group allocation (block randomization). After implantation and dilatation, COF at every 2 mm along the stent axis will be calculated from the actual stent diameter versus its nominal diameter. There will be two follow-up evaluations at 12 and 24 months. Primary endpoint is the amount of in-stent neointima at 1 year, assessed by contrast-enhanced CT angiography (CTA). In the control examinations, stent diameter and true lumen diameter will be measured on DICOM images every 2 mm along the stent axis to quantify the relative amount of in-stent restenosis. Secondary objectives are the amount of in-stent neointima at 2 years, device- and procedure-related adverse events and target lesion revascularization (TLR) rate. The scheduled time for recruitment is 2 years. Recruitment is expected to be complete in October 2017. This trial is the

  17. Reaction Qualifications Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper


    of merit. Specifically, it preserves symmetry between negative evaluations of antimeritocratic bases of selection and negative evaluations of qualifications rooted in comparable antimeritocratic reactions. So if employers should not select among applicants on the basis of their (the employers') racial...... preferences, recipients should not respond to the applicant actually hired on the basis of their (the recipients') racial preferences. My account decomposes the meritocratic ideal into four separate norms, one of which applies to recipients rather than to selectors. Finally, it defends the view that reaction...... reaction-qualifications are entirely irrelevant from the point of view of merit, the view expounded here implies that the ideal of meritocracy and the norm of non-discrimination are less closely tied than theorists like Andrew Mason and David Miller believe.  ...

  18. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T


    BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective survey of possible allergic reactions during anaesthesia was to investigate whether the cause suspected by anaesthetists involved corresponded with the cause found on subsequent investigation in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre (DAAC). METHODS: Case...... notes and anaesthetic charts from 111 reactions in 107 patients investigated in the DAAC were scrutinized for either suspicions of or warnings against specific substances stated to be the cause of the supposed allergic reaction. RESULTS: In 67 cases, one or more substances were suspected. In 49...... of these (73%) the suspected cause did not match the results of subsequent investigation, either a different substance being the cause or no cause being found. Only five cases (7%) showed a complete match between suspected cause and investigation result. In the remaining 13 cases (19%) there was a partial...

  19. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip (United States)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  20. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A


    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  1. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act (United States)


    ... 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has undertaken and completed a... Act (PA), the CIA has undertaken and completed a review of its public PA regulations. As a result of...

  2. 78 FR 73466 - Privacy Act (United States)


    ... CORPORATION 22 CFR Part 707 Privacy Act AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation. ACTION: Notice of... (``OPIC'') Privacy Act (``PA'') regulations by making substantive and administrative changes. These... confidential or inappropriate for public disclosure. Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) Pursuant...

  3. Speech Acts and Rhetorical Action. (United States)

    Steinmann, Martin, Jr.

    Some authorities wish to persuasively define rhetoric as formal or public speeches, while others hold to a more traditional and broader definition pointing to the relevance of speech-act theory to support them. Central to speech-act theory is the illocutionary act (uttering at least one sentence of some language under certain conditions). Two…

  4. Speech Acts and Conversational Interaction. (United States)

    Geis, Michael L.

    This book unites speech act theory and conversation analysis to advance a theory of conversational competence, called the Dynamic Speech Act Theory (DSAT). In contrast to traditional speech act theory that focuses almost exclusively on intuitive assessments of isolated, constructed examples, this theory is predicated on the assumption that speech…

  5. Velocity pump reaction turbine (United States)

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  6. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)


    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  7. Acrosome reaction: relevance of zona pellucida glycoproteins


    Gupta, Satish K; Bhandari, Beena


    During mammalian fertilisation, the zona pellucida (ZP) matrix surrounding the oocyte is responsible for the binding of the spermatozoa to the oocyte and induction of the acrosome reaction (AR) in the ZP-bound spermatozoon. The AR is crucial for the penetration of the ZP matrix by spermatozoa. The ZP matrix in mice is composed of three glycoproteins designated ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3, whereas in humans, it is composed of four (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4). ZP3 acts as the putative primary sperm receptor a...

  8. Embolia cutis medicamentosa: an unusual adverse reaction to terlipressin (United States)

    Gatos-Gatopoulos, Polychronis; Kostantoudakis, Stephanos; Panayiotides, Ioannis G.; Dimitriadis, George D.; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos


    Terlipressin is a synthetic long-acting analog of vasopressin widely used to control variceal bleeding by lowering portal venous pressure. We report an unusual adverse reaction to terlipressin in a 78-year-old patient with esophageal variceal bleeding who developed skin necrosis soon after treatment initiation. Skin biopsy revealed embolia cutis medicamentosa. PMID:29118569

  9. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction against Nexplanon®. (United States)

    Serati, Maurizio; Bogani, Giorgio; Kumar, Sanjeev; Cromi, Antonella; Ghezzi, Fabio


    Nexplanon® is an etonogestrel implant with a long-acting contraceptive effect. Although several studies underlined its safety profile, its implant can rarely lead to moderate or severe adverse event. Here, we presented a case of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction against Nexplanon® that resolved after its removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Transgressors' Affective Reaction on Children's Moral Judgments. (United States)

    Rybash, John M.; Roodin, Paul A.


    Describes a study which showed that a transgressor's affective reactions significantly influenced children's moral judgments. Children in grades 1-3 told stories in which a transgressor acted out of good or bad intent, produced low or high levels of damage, and displayed various emotions because of the outcomes he produced. (RM)

  11. cyclopropanation reaction with ketene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Smith. 15. This has motivated a large number of research groups to develop new and wide-range methods to produce cyclopropanated products. Methylene insertion by a carbenoid species into the. C=C bond is one of the most widely used methods since the recognition of the Simmons–Smith reac- tion, which is a reaction ...

  12. Reaction product imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  13. Reaction Formulation: A Bibliography. (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Reaction formation was studied by Sigmund Freud. This defense mechanism may be related to repression, substitution, reversal, and compensation (or over-compensation). Alfred Adler considered compensation a basic process in his individual psychology. Anna Freud discussed some defense mechanisms, and Bibring, Dwyer, Huntington, and Valenstein…

  14. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive

  15. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 7, 2014 ... Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it ...

  16. Conversation, speech acts, and memory. (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas


    Speakers frequently have specific intentions that they want others to recognize (Grice, 1957). These specific intentions can be viewed as speech acts (Searle, 1969), and I argue that they play a role in long-term memory for conversation utterances. Five experiments were conducted to examine this idea. Participants in all experiments read scenarios ending with either a target utterance that performed a specific speech act (brag, beg, etc.) or a carefully matched control. Participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize speech act verbs after having read the speech act version than after having read the control version, and the speech act verbs served as better recall cues for the speech act utterances than for the controls. Experiment 5 documented individual differences in the encoding of speech act verbs. The results suggest that people recognize and retain the actions that people perform with their utterances and that this is one of the organizing principles of conversation memory.

  17. Triple acting radial seal (United States)

    Ebert, Todd A [West Palm Beach, FL; Carella, John A [Jupiter, FL


    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  18. Normative acts management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ardeleanu


    Full Text Available The presence of the normative act amongst the formal law sources system is the result of the constructive activity of specialized bodies, designated by the Constitution, by laws or by regulations of normative power (having the right of drafting norms of generally mandatory power. Such bodies are named lawgiving bodies (also referred to as the "lawgiver" or "lawmaker" and they are first of all the bodies of the lawgiving power, entitled to issue on a primary and originator level the fundamental social relations in a society, to organize the juridical order of a nation or of a community of nations. The activity of these bodies is carried out under rules of juridical technique and in accordance with the general purposes imposed by the proper functioning of the social mechanism regarding the coexistence of social freedoms.

  19. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed


    This paper presents an analysis of official documents and white papers pertaining to the two web-portals The Policy Grid Project and FEED that are launched by the UK and the EU respectively. The aim of the portals is to filter and synthesize information relevant for policy discussions and thereby...... Construction of Technology' and it shows how the framing of the portals and the concrete digital choices taken in relation to the infrastructure are influenced by the social intentions of relevant social groups as well as by the technical limitations on computers abilities to process semantic data....... It is especially emphasized how technical web-ontologies implicitly carries with them deeper philosophical ontologies about phanomena such as 'politic', 'scientific intentionality' and 'freedom'. The compromise between these technical influences and the social intentions is described as a 'virtual act of balance...

  20. Transfer reactions with HELIOS (United States)

    Wuosmaa, Alan H.


    Nucleon-transfer reactions have formed the backbone of nuclear-structure studies for several decades, providing a wealth of information about the energies, quantum numbers, and wave functions of single-particle states in nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. Current trends in nuclear-structure physics and the modern emphasis on properties of neutron-rich nuclei far from stability have renewed interest in such transfer reactions with radioactive beams. Here, the usual combination of light beam and heavy target cannot be used, and measurements must be performed in ``inverse kinematics,'' with a heavy, unstable beam incident on a light target. This arrangement introduces several technical difficulties, including the identification of the reaction products and the resolution of the states of interest in the residual nuclei. A new device, HELIOS (the HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer) at the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory, solves many of the problems encountered with inverse kinematics including particle identification and energy resolution in the center-of-mass frame. The device utilizes the uniform magnetic field of a large, superconducting solenoid to transport light reaction products from the target to a linear array of position-sensitive silicon detectors. The properties of HELIOS will be described, and examples from the initial research program that focuses on neutron transfer with the (d,p) reaction, using both stable and unstable beams with mass A = 11 to 136, will be presented. Work supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract numbers DE-FG02-04ER41320 (WMU) and DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL).

  1. Multicomponent reactions in polymer synthesis. (United States)

    Kakuchi, Ryohei


    More participants, yet efficient reactions: Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have found application in polymer chemistry both in the synthesis of multifunctional monomers and in post-polymerization modification. Examples include the Passerini three-component reaction, the Ugi four-component reaction, and the copper-catalyzed MCR. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Kinetics of Bio-Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John


    his chapter predicts the specific rates of reaction by means of a mathematical expression, the kinetics of the reaction. This expression can be derived through a mechanistic interpretation of an enzymatically catalyzed reaction, but it is essentially of empirical nature for cell reactions. The mo...

  3. What Is a Reaction Rate? (United States)

    Schmitz, Guy


    The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.

  4. Reaction mechanism of WGS and PROX reactions catalyzed by Pt/oxide catalysts revealed by an FeO(111)/Pt(111) inverse model catalyst. (United States)

    Xu, Lingshun; Wu, Zongfang; Jin, Yuekang; Ma, Yunsheng; Huang, Weixin


    We have employed XPS and TDS to study the adsorption and surface reactions of H2O, CO and HCOOH on an FeO(111)/Pt(111) inverse model catalyst. The FeO(111)-Pt(111) interface of the FeO(111)/Pt(111) inverse model catalyst exposes coordination-unsaturated Fe(II) cations (Fe(II)CUS) and the Fe(II)CUS cations are capable of modifying the reactivity of neighbouring Pt sites. Water facilely dissociates on the Fe(II)CUS cations at the FeO(111)-Pt(111) interface to form hydroxyls that react to form both water and H2 upon heating. Hydroxyls on the Fe(II)CUS cations can react with CO(a) on the neighbouring Pt(111) sites to produce CO2 at low temperatures. Hydroxyls act as the co-catalyst in the CO oxidation by hydroxyls to CO2 (PROX reaction), while they act as one of the reactants in the CO oxidation by hydroxyls to CO2 and H2 (WGS reaction), and the recombinative reaction of hydroxyls to produce H2 is the rate-limiting step in the WGS reaction. A comparison of reaction behaviors between the interfacial CO(a) + OH reaction and the formate decomposition reaction suggest that formate is the likely surface intermediate of the CO(a) + OH reaction. These results provide some solid experimental evidence for the associative reaction mechanism of WGS and PROX reactions catalyzed by Pt/oxide catalysts.

  5. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  6. Reactions to dietary tartrazine. (United States)

    David, T J


    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either by the parents or the nursing staff after the administration of placebo or active substances. Twenty two patients returned to a normal diet without problems, but the parents of two children insisted on continuing the diet. While popular belief has it that additives may have harmful behavioural effects, objective verification is required to prevent overdiagnosis. PMID:3548601

  7. Enzyme catalysed tandem reactions. (United States)

    Oroz-Guinea, Isabel; García-Junceda, Eduardo


    To transfer to the laboratory, the excellent efficiency shown by enzymes in Nature, biocatalysis, had to mimic several synthetic strategies used by the living organisms. Biosynthetic pathways are examples of tandem catalysis and may be assimilated in the biocatalysis field for the use of isolated multi-enzyme systems in the homogeneous phase. The concurrent action of several enzymes that work sequentially presents extraordinary advantages from the synthetic point of view, since it permits a reversible process to become irreversible, to shift the equilibrium reaction in such a way that enantiopure compounds can be obtained from prochiral or racemic substrates, reduce or eliminate problems due to product inhibition or prevent the shortage of substrates by dilution or degradation in the bulk media, etc. In this review we want to illustrate the developments of recent studies involving in vitro multi-enzyme reactions for the synthesis of different classes of organic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CMLSnap : Animated reaction mechanisms


    Holliday, Gemma L; Mitchell, John BO; Murray-Rust, Peter


    The authors thank the EPSRC for financial support of this project and Unilever for their support of the Centre for Molecular Science Informatics. Reactions with many steps can be represented by a single XML-based table of the atoms, bonds and electrons. For each step the complete Chemical Markup Language 1 representation of all components is obtained and a snapshot representing the end point of the step is generated. These snapshots can then be combined to give an animated description of t...

  9. Exclusive reactions in QCD


    Pire, Bernard


    We review the theory of hard exclusive scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics. After recalling the classical counting rules which describe the leading scale dependence of form factors and exclusive cross-sections at fixed angle, the pedagogical example of the pion form factor is developped in some detail in order to show explicitely what factorization means in the QCD framework. The picture generalizes to many hard reactions which are at the heart of the ELFE project. We briefly present the con...

  10. Photochemical reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The purpose of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of unimolecular and bimolecular reaction dynamics with application in combustion and energy systems. The energy dependence in ketene isomerization, ketene dissociation dynamics, and carbonyl substitution on organometallic rhodium complexes in liquid xenon have been studied. Future studies concerning unimolecular processes in ketene as well as energy transfer and kinetic studies of methylene radicals are discussed.

  11. Cryochemical chain reactions (United States)

    Barkalov, I. M.; Kiryukhin, D. P.

    The possibility of a chemical reaction near absolute zero has appeared doubtful since the beginning of the 1970s. The existing ideas must be revised after the radiation polymerization of formaldehyde at 4.2 K has been observed. In glassy systems, we have examined chain processes that occur under sharp (by five to six orders) changes in molecular mobility of the medium in the region of matrix devitrification. Quite unusual mechano-energetic chains of chemical conversion arise in the studied systems submerged in liquid helium. The chemical transformation initiated by local brittle fracture travels over the sample as an autowave. A series of experimental and theoretical investigations devoted to this interesting phenomenon are described. There is no generalization in this new region of chemistry up to this time. Many journal articles and reviews have been previously published only in Russian. The cycles of investigations of chain cryochemical reactions are the subject of this review. We hope that the investigation of the extraordinary peculiarities of chain cryochemical reactions should produce new ideas in chemical theory and industry.

  12. Adverse cutaneous drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Surajit


    Full Text Available In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

  13. Modelling Tethered Enzymatic Reactions (United States)

    Solis Salas, Citlali; Goyette, Jesse; Coker-Gordon, Nicola; Bridge, Marcus; Isaacson, Samuel; Allard, Jun; Maini, Philip; Dushek, Omer

    Enzymatic reactions are key to cell functioning, and whilst much work has been done in protein interaction in cases where diffusion is possible, interactions of tethered proteins are poorly understood. Yet, because of the large role cell membranes play in enzymatic reactions, several reactions may take place where one of the proteins is bound to a fixed point in space. We develop a model to characterize tethered signalling between the phosphatase SHP-1 interacting with a tethered, phosphorylated protein. We compare our model to experimental data obtained using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We show that a single SPR experiment recovers 5 independent biophysical/biochemical constants. We also compare the results between a three dimensional model and a two dimensional model. The work gives the opportunity to use known techniques to learn more about signalling processes, and new insights into how enzyme tethering alters cellular signalling. With support from the Mexican Council for Science and Technology (CONACyT), the Public Education Secretariat (SEP), and the Mexican National Autonomous University's Foundation (Fundacion UNAM).

  14. Electromagnetic Radiation Reaction in General Relativity. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Nuala

    certain amount of history dependence in curved spacetime which is absent in flat spacetime where the Abraham-Lorentz reaction force acts equally on both particles. ftn ^1C. M. DeWitt and B. S. Brehme, Falling Charges, Phys., 1, 3 (1964). ^2B. F. Schutz, Statistical Formulation of Gravitational Radiation Reaction, Phys. Rev. D., 22, 249 (1980). ^3See for example A. Z. Petrov, Einstein Spaces, p.33, Pergamon Press (1969).

  15. Well sealing via thermite reactions (United States)

    Lowry, William Edward; Dunn, Sandra Dalvit


    A platform is formed in a well below a target plug zone by lowering a thermite reaction charge into the well and igniting it, whereby the products of the reaction are allowed to cool and expand to form a platform or support in the well. A main thermite reaction charge is placed above the platform and ignited to form a main sealing plug for the well. In some embodiments an upper plug is formed by igniting an upper thermite reaction charge above the main thermite reaction charge. The upper plug confines the products of ignition of the main thermite reaction charge.

  16. [Euthanasia and medical act]. (United States)


    Right to life -as the prohibition of intentionally and arbitrarily taking life, even with authorization of the concerned one- is an internationally recognized right. In many countries, debate regarding euthanasia is more centered in its convenience, social acceptability and how it is regulated, than in its substantial legitimacy. Some argue that euthanasia should be included as part of clinical practice of health professionals, grounded on individual's autonomy claims-everyone having the liberty to choose how to live and how to die. Against this, others sustain that life has a higher value than autonomy, exercising autonomy without respecting the right to life would become a serious moral and social problem. Likewise, euthanasia supporters some-times claim a 'right to live with dignity', which must be understood as a personal obligation, referred more to the ethical than to the strictly legal sphere. In countries where it is already legalized, euthanasia practice has extended to cases where it is not the patient who requests this but the family or some healthcare professional, or even the legal system-when they think that the patient is living in a condition which is not worthy to live. Generalization of euthanasia possibly will end in affecting those who need more care, such as elder, chronically ill or dying people, damaging severely personal basic rights. Nature, purpose and tradition of medicine rule out the practice of euthanasia, which ought not be considered a medical act or legitimately compulsory for physicians. Today's medicine counts with effective treatments for pain and suffering, such as palliative care, including sedative therapy, which best preserves persons dignity and keeps safe the ethos of the medical profession.

  17. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh


    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  18. 7 CFR 65.100 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 65.100 Section 65.100 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.100 Act. Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of...

  19. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.


    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  20. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as... 1954.'' are added at the end of the definition of Act. BILLING CODE 1505-01-D ...

  1. Bath salts components mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) act synergistically at the human dopamine transporter. (United States)

    Cameron, Krasnodara N; Kolanos, Renata; Solis, Ernesto; Glennon, Richard A; De Felice, Louis J


    Bath salts is the street name for drug combinations that contain synthetic cathinone analogues, among them possibly mephedrone (MEPH) and certainly methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). In animal studies, cathinone and certain cathinone analogues release dopamine (DA), similar to the action of amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH). AMPH and METH act on the human DA transporter (hDAT); thus, we investigated MEPH and MDPV acting at hDAT. We recorded electrical currents mediated by hDAT expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and exposed to: DA, METH, a known hDAT stimulant and DA releaser, MEPH, MDPV, MEPH + MDPV, or cocaine, a known hDAT inhibitor. DA, METH and MEPH induce an inward current (depolarizing) when the oocyte is held near the resting potential (-60 mV), therefore acting as excitatory hDAT substrates. Structurally analogous MDPV induces an outward (hyperpolarizing) current similar to cocaine, therefore acting as an inhibitory non-substrate blocker. Two components of bath salts, MEPH and MDPV, produce opposite effects at hDAT that are comparable with METH and cocaine, respectively. In our assay, MEPH is nearly as potent as METH; however, MDPV is much more potent than cocaine and its effect is longer lasting. When applied in combination, MEPH exhibits faster kinetics than MDPV, viz., the MEPH depolarizing current occurs seconds before the slower MDPV hyperpolarizing current. Bath salts containing MEPH (or a similar drug) and MDPV might then be expected initially to release DA and subsequently prevent its reuptake via hDAT. Such combined action possibly underlies some of the reported effects of bath salts abuse. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction. (United States)

    DeCoursey, W. J.


    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  3. Anaphylactic reactions to novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballardini, Natalia; Nopp, Anna; Hamsten, Carl


    an anaphylactic reaction. Cross-reactivity between chicken and crocodile meat was suspected to have triggered this reaction. Basophil activation and immunoglobulin E testing confirmed the boy's allergic reaction to crocodile meat proteins. Molecular analysis identified a crocodile a-parvalbumin, with extensive...

  4. Reactions inside nanoscale protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, Saskia A.; Minten, Inge J.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria


    Chemical reactions are traditionally carried out in bulk solution, but in nature confined spaces, like cell organelles, are used to obtain control in time and space of conversion. One way of studying these reactions in confinement is the development and use of small reaction vessels dispersed in

  5. Manual control of catalytic reactions: Reactions by an apoenzyme gel and a cofactor gel (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Takashima, Yoshinori; Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira


    Enzymes play a vital role in catalysing almost all chemical reactions that occur in biological systems. Some enzymes must form complexes with non-protein molecules called cofactors to express catalytic activities. Although the control of catalytic reactions via apoenzyme–cofactor complexes has attracted significant attention, the reports have been limited to the microscale. Here, we report a system to express catalytic activity by adhesion of an apoenzyme gel and a cofactor gel. The apoenzyme and cofactor gels act as catalysts when they form a gel assembly, but they lose catalytic ability upon manual dissociation. We successfully construct a system with switchable catalytic activity via adhesion and separation of the apoenzyme gel with the cofactor gel. We expect that this methodology can be applied to regulate the functional activities of enzymes that bear cofactors in their active sites, such as the oxygen transport of haemoglobin or myoglobin and the electron transport of cytochromes. PMID:26537172

  6. Long-acting insulin allergy in a diabetic child. (United States)

    Mastrorilli, Carla; Rizzuti, Laura; Cangelosi, Antonina Marta; Iovane, Brunella; Chiari, Giovanni; Caffarelli, Carlo


    Insulin allergy has been uncommon since the introduction of human recombinant insulin preparations; the prevalence is 2.4%. Insulin injection could elicit immediate reactions, which are usually induced by an IgE-mediated mechanism, within the first hour after drug administration. In the present study, we describe the case of a child who experienced immediate urticaria after long-acting insulin injection. A 9-year-old girl affected by type I diabetes mellitus referred a history of three episodes of urticaria 30 min after insulin subcutaneous injection. During the first week of insulin therapy, she developed generalized immediate urticaria twice after long-acting insulin glargine first and then once after insulin degludec administration. Symptoms resolved within a few hours after treatment with oral antihistamine. She tolerated rapid insulin lispro. Her personal allergological history was negative. Skin prick tests with degludec, glargine and detemir were performed, showing negative results. Intradermal 1:100000-diluted tests were immediately positive for both degludec and glargine but not for detemir. In light of these findings, detemir was administered without any reaction. Our results show that detemir is tolerated by patients with clinical hypersensitivity reactions to degludec and glargine. Although reactions could be attributable to additives allergy, such as zinc or metacresol, this was excluded since all three preparations contain the same components. So, insulin itself acted as offending allergen. Detemir differs from degludec and glargine in a few aminoacids. Therefore, it is possible that the conformational rather than the linear epitope may be responsible for the reaction. This result suggests integrating intradermal tests in the diagnostic flowchart for insulin allergy. Insulin allergy should always be suspected in patients with immediate symptoms after drug injection. As allergologic work-up, prick by prick test and intradermal test to insulin

  7. Nuclear reactions an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans


    Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown – mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos – to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.   The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no ...

  8. Reaction Time for Trimolecular Reactions in Compartment-based Reaction-Diffusion Models


    Li, F; Chen, M; Erban, R; Cao, Y


    Trimolecular reaction models are investigated in the compartment-based (lattice-based) framework for stochastic reaction-diffusion modelling. The formulae for the first collision time and the mean reaction time are derived for the case where three molecules are present in the solution.

  9. Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics. (United States)

    Meyer, Jennifer; Wester, Roland


    We review the recent advances in the investigation of the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. During the past decade, the combination of single-collision experiments in crossed ion and neutral beams with the velocity map ion imaging detection technique has enabled a wealth of studies on ion-molecule reactions. These methods, in combination with chemical dynamics simulations, have uncovered new and unexpected reaction mechanisms, such as the roundabout mechanism and the subtle influence of the leaving group in anion-molecule nucleophilic substitution reactions. For this important class of reactions, as well as for many fundamental cation-molecule reactions, the information obtained with crossed-beam imaging is discussed. The first steps toward understanding micro-solvation of ion-molecule reaction dynamics are presented. We conclude with the presentation of several interesting directions for future research.

  10. Stimulating kinetic of aerobic reactions skilled athlete in sport dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo


    Full Text Available Changes speed of development of reaction of frequency of heart-throbs are appraised under act of the program of trainings facilities. Directions stimulation of the cardiorespiratory system of sportsmen are rotined. In research took part 2 homogeneous groups of sportsmen for 12 sportsmen (6 pair. It is set that the high-rate of development of reactions of aerobic power providing reflects reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system and influences on efficiency of functional preparation on the whole. Possibilities of estimation of reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system are rotined in the natural terms of training process.

  11. The influence of the sequence of nanoparticles injection to solution on the rate of fibrinogen-thrombin reaction (United States)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Krivokhiza, S. V.; Chaikov, L. L.; Bulychev, N. A.


    The influence of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on the rate of fibrinogen-thrombin reaction is studied. The nanoparticles were obtained in acoustoplasma discharge with cavitation. The sequence of nanoparticles injection appeared to change dramatically the rate and result of enzymatic reaction. In case of nanoparticles injection to fibrinogen before thrombin addition, enzymatic reaction practically stopped at the first stage. The mixing of nanoparticles with thrombin before its addition to fibrinogen leads to acceleration of gel formation in comparison with reaction without nanoparticles. We believe that Fe2O3 nanoparticles can modify the rate of enzymatic reaction, in one case acting as inhibitors of the reaction and as activators in other.

  12. Mathematical Model of the Biosensors Acting in a Trigger Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliksas Ivanauskas


    Full Text Available Abstract: A mathematical model of biosensors acting in a trigger mode has been developed. One type of the biosensors utilized a trigger enzymatic reaction followed by the cyclic enzymatic and electrochemical conversion of the product (CCE scheme. Other biosensors used the enzymatic trigger reaction followed by the electrochemical and enzymatic product cyclic conversion (CEC scheme. The models were based on diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reactions. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The influence of the substrate concentration, the maximal enzymatic rate as well as the membrane thickness on the biosensor response was investigated. The numerical experiments demonstrated a significant gain (up to dozens of times in biosensor sensitivity when the biosensor response was under diffusion control. In the case of significant signal amplification, the response time with triggering was up to several times longer than that of the biosensor without triggering.

  13. VT Act 174 Wind Potential (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The statewide wind potential layer used in the Act 174 effort represents three combined wind resource layers: Potential Residential and Small and...

  14. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  15. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth


    ... (the Iran Freedom Support Act, P.L. 109-293) extended it until December 31, 2011, terminated application to Libya, and added provisions, although with substantial Administration flexibility in implementation...

  16. 7 CFR 35.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 35.1 Section 35.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... Definitions § 35.1 Act. Act or Export Grape and Plum Act means “An Act to promote the foreign trade of the...

  17. 7 CFR 922.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 922.2 Section 922.2 Agriculture Regulations of... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  18. 7 CFR 948.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 948.2 Section 948.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (sections 1-19, 48...

  19. 7 CFR 987.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 987.2 Section 987.2 Agriculture Regulations of... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  20. 7 CFR 981.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 981.2 Section 981.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 981.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended...

  1. 7 CFR 984.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 984.2 Section 984.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 984.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  2. 7 CFR 915.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 915.2 Section 915.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  3. 7 CFR 993.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 993.2 Section 993.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  4. 7 CFR 932.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 932.2 Section 932.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 932.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933) as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31...

  5. 7 CFR 925.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 925.2 Section 925.2 Agriculture Regulations of... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.128 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1260.128 Section 1260.128 Agriculture... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.128 Act. Act means the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985, Title XVI, Subtitle A of the Food Security Act of 1985, Pub. L. 99-198 and any amendments thereto. ...

  7. 7 CFR 916.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 916.2 Section 916.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  8. 7 CFR 927.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 927.2 Section 927.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  9. 7 CFR 983.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 983.2 Section 983.2 Agriculture Regulations of... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73rd Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Order Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat...

  10. 7 CFR 906.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 906.2 Section 906.2 Agriculture Regulations of... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  11. 7 CFR 917.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 917.2 Section 917.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as...

  12. 7 CFR 956.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 956.2 Section 956.2 Agriculture Regulations of... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10... Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (Sec. 1-19, 48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  13. 7 CFR 923.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 923.2 Section 923.2 Agriculture Regulations of... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d... Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.; 68 Stat. 906, 1047). ...

  14. 7 CFR 959.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 959.2 Section 959.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 959.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (sections 1-19, 48 Stat...

  15. 7 CFR 966.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 966.2 Section 966.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 966.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended...

  16. 7 CFR 930.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 930.1 Section 930.1 Agriculture Regulations of... Definitions § 930.1 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as...

  17. 7 CFR 982.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 982.2 Section 982.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C...

  18. 7 CFR 989.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 989.2 Section 989.2 Agriculture Regulations of... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended, and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended...

  19. 7 CFR 1170.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1170.2 Section 1170.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.2 Act. Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq., as amended by the Dairy Market Enhancement Act of...

  20. 7 CFR 946.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 946.2 Section 946.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as...

  1. New rubrolide analogues as inhibitors of photosynthesis light reactions. (United States)

    Varejão, Jodieh O S; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Ramos, Gabriela Álvarez; Varejão, Eduardo V V; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas


    Natural products called rubrolides have been investigated as a model for the development of new herbicides that act on the photosynthesis apparatus. This study comprises a comprehensive analysis of the photosynthesis inhibitory ability of 27 new structurally diverse rubrolide analogues. In general, the results revealed that the compounds exhibited efficient inhibition of the photosynthetic process, but in some cases low water solubility may be a limiting factor. To elucidate their mode of action, the effects of the compounds on PSII and PSI, as well as their partial reaction on chloroplasts and the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were measured. Our results showed that some of the most active rubrolide analogues act as a Hill reaction inhibitors at the QB level by interacting with the D1 protein at the reducing side of PSII. All of the active analogues follow Tice's rule of 5, which indicates that these compounds present physicochemical properties suitable for herbicides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preaggregation reactions of platelets. (United States)

    Gear, A R


    Whether platelet volume increases during the morphological changes preceding aggregation has been investigated. Previous research is controversial; resistive-counting techniques reveal an increase, centrifugal methods do not. Platelets were sized with a computerized, resistive-particle counter before and after incubation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Resistive volume increased by 14% (p less than 0.001) in the absence of EDTA, and only 7% in its presence (ADP, 10 micro M). EDTA inhibited platelet volume changes, whether these were shrinking induced by warming or swelling by ADP. Handling of platelets, such as during centrifugation, also caused particle swelling. Particle density decreased after ADP exposure, without release of serotonin, suggesting uptake of water. Platelet shape was experimentally manipulated to test the hypothesis that resistive volume changes stem from artifacts of particle shape. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that colchicine, chlorpromazine, and a temperature cycle of 0 degrees to 37 degrees all caused extensive alteration from the disc shape. Subsequent exposure to ADP increased resistive volume, and in the case of chlorpromazine, no long pseudopodia were extruded. It is concluded that preaggregation reactions of platelets can be associated with an increase in particle volume, and that earlier research based on centrifugation and the presence of ETA failed to reveal the increase because of inhibitory and apparent swelling effects.

  3. Colors as catalysts in enzymatic reactions. (United States)

    Azeemi, Samina T Yousuf; Raza, Syed Mohsin; Yasinzai, Masoom


    We studied the effects of visible range irradiation (in vitro) on the enzyme solutions (glucose oxidase, cholesterol oxidase + cholesterol esterase and lipase) in order to infer the changes produced in the human body after chromotherapy. The glucose oxidase showed enhanced activity to the color purple (464 nm), while the activity of the other enzymes, cholesterol esterase + cholesterol oxidase and lipase, increased when exposed to dark violet (400 nm). Purple is being used in conventional chromotherapy for diabetes, as supported by the experimental observation in which purple enhanced the activity of enzymes responsible for the oxidation of glucose. Specific wavelengths regulate living processes by acting as catalysts in enzyme activity, while some wavelengths may reduce enzyme activity. The irradiation of specific wavelengths effect enzymatic processes, which as a consequence, accelerated biochemical reactions. This particular frequency when provided to the enzymes (in vitro) lead to changes which may well be occurring in vivo.

  4. Adverse Reactions to Biologic Therapy. (United States)

    Patel, Sheenal V; Khan, David A


    Biologic therapies are emerging as a significant therapeutic option for many with debilitating inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. As expansion in the number of FDA-approved agents continue to be seen, more unanticipated adverse reactions are likely to occur. Currently, the diagnostic tools, including skin testing and in vitro testing, to evaluate for immediate hypersensitivity reactions are insufficient. In this review, management strategies for common acute infusion reactions, injection site reactions, and immediate reactions suggestive of IgE-mediated mechanisms are discussed. Desensitization can be considered for reactions suggestive of IgE-mediated mechanisms, but allergists/immunologists should be involved in managing these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Progression of Sequential Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack McGeachy


    Full Text Available Sequential reactions consist of linked reactions in which the product of the first reaction becomes the substrate of a second reaction. Sequential reactions occur in industrially important processes, such as the chlorination of methane. A generalized series of three sequential reactions was analyzed in order to determine the times at which each chemical species reaches its maximum. To determine the concentration of each species as a function of time, the differential rate laws for each species were solved. The solution of each gave the concentration curve of the chemical species. The concentration curves of species A1 and A2 possessed discreet maxima, which were determined through slope-analysis. The concentration curve of the final product, A3, did not possess a discreet maximum, but rather approached a finite limit.

  6. The Paterno-Buchi reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Rasmus Yding; Schalk, Oliver; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.


    The Paternò-Büchi (PB) reaction between an excited carbonyl compound and an alkene has been widely studied, but so far little is known about the excited-state dynamics of the reaction. In this investigation, we used a compound in which a formyl and a vinyl group are attached to a [2.......2]paracyclophane in order to obtain a model system in pre-reactive conformation for the PB reaction. We studied the excited-state dynamics of the isolated molecule in a molecular beam using femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The results show that inter-system crossing...... within two picoseconds competes efficiently with the reaction in the singlet manifold. Thus, the PB reaction in this model system takes place in the triplet state on a time scale of nanoseconds. This result stresses the importance of triplet states in the excited-state pathway of the PB reaction...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwono


    Full Text Available The nucleophilic substitution reaction to quaternary Mannich base from vanillin has been investigated. Mannich reaction to vanillin was carried out by refluxing mixture of vanillin, formaldehyde and dimethyl amine. Quaternary ammonium halide salt was obtained from reaction of Mannich vanillin base with methyl iodide in THF solvents and yielded 93.28 %. Nucleophilic substituion to the halide salts with cyanide nucleophile produced 4-hidroxy-3-methoxy-5-(cyanomethylbenzaldehyde in 54.39% yield. Reaction with methoxyde ion yielded 4-hydroxy- 3-methoxy-5-(methoxy -methylbenzaldehyde in 67.80% yield. The nucleophilic substitution reaction showed that trimethylamino substituent of quaternary Mannich base can act as a good leaving group on nucleophilic substitution reactions. Keywords: Mannich reaction, vanillin, nucleophilic substitution

  8. Nuclear astrophysics from direct reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, C. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States)]. e-mail:


    Accurate nuclear reaction rates are needed for primordial nucleosynthesis and hydrostatic burning in stars. The relevant reactions are extremely difficult to measure directly in the laboratory at the small astrophysical energies. In recent years direct reactions have been developed and applied to extract low-energy astrophysical S-factors. These methods require a combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical efforts, which are the subject of this presentation. (Author)

  9. Stochastic Modeling Of Biochemical Reactions (United States)


    STOCHASTIC MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS Abhyudai Singh and João Pedro Hespanha* Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of...procedure for con- structing approximate stochastic models for chemical reactions used for modeling biochemical processes such as gene regulatory networks... biochemical reactions , the modeling tools developed in this paper can be applied to a very general class of stochastic systems, in particular

  10. [Situational reactions in suicidologic practice]. (United States)

    Ambrumova, A G; Vrono, E M


    The paper is devoted to the description of suicidal manifestations in mentally normal adolescents among typical behavioural disorders characteristic of situational reactions of this age. Three types of suicido-dangerous situational responses of adolescents were specified with regard to their age and auto-and heteaggressiveness ratio: reaction of deprivation, explosive reaction and reaction of auto-elimination. Suicidogenic conflicts were analyzed and spheres of age-specific suicidal conflicts were defined. It is advisable that outpatient management of mentally normal adolescents with a history of a suicidal attempt be conducted in a special room of presentive suicidological service.

  11. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions (United States)

    Schultz, Emeric


    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  12. Progress in microscopic direct reaction modeling of nucleon induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.; Hilaire, S.; Lechaftois, F.; Peru, S.; Pillet, N.; Robin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)


    A microscopic nuclear reaction model is applied to neutron elastic and direct inelastic scatterings, and pre-equilibrium reaction. The JLM folding model is used with nuclear structure information calculated within the quasi-particle random phase approximation implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The folding model for direct inelastic scattering is extended to include rearrangement corrections stemming from both isoscalar and isovector density variations occurring during a transition. The quality of the predicted (n,n), (n,n{sup '}), (n,xn) and (n,n{sup '}γ) cross sections, as well as the generality of the present microscopic approach, shows that it is a powerful tool that can help improving nuclear reactions data quality. Short- and long-term perspectives are drawn to extend the present approach to more systems, to include missing reactions mechanisms, and to consistently treat both structure and reaction problems. (orig.)

  13. 7 CFR 33.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 33.1 Section 33.1 Agriculture Regulations of the... AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.1 Act. Act and Export Apple Act are synonymous and mean “An act to promote the foreign trade of the United States in apples to protect the reputation of...

  14. User’s Guide for Biodegradation Reactions in TMVOCBio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yoojin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Battistelli, Alfredo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    TMVOCBio is an extended version of the TMVOC numerical reservoir simulator, with the capability of simulating multiple biodegradation reactions mediated by different microbial populations or based on different redox reactions, thus involving different electron acceptors. This modeling feature is implemented within the existing TMVOC module in iTOUGH2. TMVOCBio, originally developed by Battistelli (2003; 2004), uses a general modified form of the Monod kinetic rate equation to simulate biodegradation reactions, which effectively simulates the uptake of a substrate while accounting for various limiting factors (i.e., the limitation by substrate, electron acceptor, or nutrients). Two approaches are included: 1) a multiple Monod kinetic rate equation, which assumes all the limiting factors simultaneously affect the substrate uptake rate, and 2) a minimum Monod model, which assumes that the substrate uptake rate is controlled by the most limiting factor among those acting for the specific substrate. As the limiting factors, biomass growth inhibition, toxicity effects, as well as competitive and non-competitive inhibition effects are included. The temperature and moisture dependence of biodegradation reactions is also considered. This report provides mathematical formulations and assumptions used for modeling the biodegradation reactions, and describes additional modeling capabilities. Detailed description of input format for biodegradation reactions is presented along with sample problems.

  15. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs. (United States)

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  16. Pharmacogenetics of hypersensitivity drug reactions. (United States)

    Negrini, Simone; Becquemont, Laurent


    Adverse drug reactions are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and represent a major burden on the healthcare system. Some of those reactions are immunologically mediated (hypersensitivity reactions) and can be clinically subdivided into two categories: immediate reactions (IgE-related) and delayed reactions (T-cell-mediated). Delayed hypersensitivity reactions include both systemic syndromes and organ-specific toxicities and can be triggered by a wide range of chemically diverse drugs. Recent studies have demonstrated a strong genetic association between human leukocyte antigen alleles and susceptibility to delayed drug hypersensitivity. Most notable examples include human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*57:01 allele and abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome or HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-B*58:01 alleles related to severe cutaneous reactions induced by carbamazepine and allopurinol, respectively. This review aims to explore our current understanding in the field of pharmacogenomics of HLA-associated drug hypersensitivities and its translation into clinical practice for predicting adverse drug reactions. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is ...

  18. Incomplete fusion reactions in Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is now generally recognized that several reaction mechanisms are operative in heavy- ion-induced reactions below 10 MeV/amu. Predominant among these are, complete fusion. (CF), deep-inelastic collision (DIC), and quasi-elastic collisions. As the projectile energy increases to 5–10 MeV/amu and above, it turns out that ...

  19. Free Radical Reactions in Food. (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.


    Discusses reactions of free radicals that determine the chemistry of many fresh, processed, and stored foods. Focuses on reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals as representative radicals derived from a vitamin, metallo-protein, and saturated lipid. Basic concepts related to free radical structure, formation, and…

  20. Trauma exposure and psychological reactions to genocide among Rwandan children. (United States)

    Dyregrov, A; Gupta, L; Gjestad, R; Mukanoheli, E


    A total of 3030 children age 8-19 years from Rwanda was interviewed about their war experiences and reactions approximately 13 months after the genocide that started in April 1994. Rwandan children had been exposed to extreme levels of violence in the form of witnessing the death of close family members and others in massacres, as well as other violent acts. A majority of these children (90%) believed that they would die; most had to hide to survive, and 15% had to hide under dead bodies to survive. A shortened form of the Impact of Event Scale used in a group of 1830 of these children documented high levels of intrusion and avoidance. While children living in shelters were exposed to more trauma, they evidenced less posttraumatic reactions. Analyses showed that reactions were associated with loss, violence exposure, and, most importantly, feeling their life was in danger.

  1. Anti-damping effect of radiation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G; Yuan, X Z [School of Physics and Electric Information, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Li, H [Department of Physics, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Shen, Y F [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); Zi, J [National Laboratory of Surface Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail:


    The anti-damping effect of radiation reaction, which means the radiation reaction does non-negative work on a radiating charge, is investigated at length by using the Lorentz-Dirac equation (LDE) for the motion of a point charge respectively acted on by (a) a pure electric field, (b) a pure magnetic field and (c) the fields of an electromagnetic wave. We found that the curvature of the charge's trajectory plays an important role in the radiation reaction force, and the anti-damping effect cannot take place for the real macroscopic motions of a point charge. The condition for this anti-damping effect to take place is that the gradient of the external force field must exceed a certain value over the region of magnitude of the classical radius of massive charges ({approx}10{sup -15} m). Our results are potentially helpful to lessen the controversy on LDE and justify it as the correct classical equation describing the radiating charge's motion. If this anti-damping effect of LDE were a real existing physical process, it could serve as a mechanism within the context of classical electrodynamics for the stability of hydrogen atoms. Using the picture of an electron in quantum electrodynamics, namely the negative bare charge surrounded by the polarized positive charges of vacuum, we can obtain a reasonable explanation for the energy transferred to the electron during the occurrence of the anti-damping effect, on which the venerable work of Wheeler and Feynman has thrown some light.

  2. Limits for Stochastic Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelletti, Daniele

    Reaction systems have been introduced in the 70s to model biochemical systems. Nowadays their range of applications has increased and they are fruitfully used in dierent elds. The concept is simple: some chemical species react, the set of chemical reactions form a graph and a rate function...... of reactions. Let the rates of degradation of the intermediate species be functions of a parameter N that tends to innity. We consider a reduced system where the intermediate species have been eliminated, and nd conditions on the degradation rate of the intermediates such that the behaviour of the reduced...... is stated in the setting of multiscale reaction systems: the amounts of all the species and the rates of all the reactions of the original model can scale as powers of N. A similar result also holds for the deterministic case, as shown in Appendix IA. In Paper II, we focus on the stationary distributions...

  3. Reaction rates for reaction-diffusion kinetics on unstructured meshes (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda


    The reaction-diffusion master equation is a stochastic model often utilized in the study of biochemical reaction networks in living cells. It is applied when the spatial distribution of molecules is important to the dynamics of the system. A viable approach to resolve the complex geometry of cells accurately is to discretize space with an unstructured mesh. Diffusion is modeled as discrete jumps between nodes on the mesh, and the diffusion jump rates can be obtained through a discretization of the diffusion equation on the mesh. Reactions can occur when molecules occupy the same voxel. In this paper, we develop a method for computing accurate reaction rates between molecules occupying the same voxel in an unstructured mesh. For large voxels, these rates are known to be well approximated by the reaction rates derived by Collins and Kimball, but as the mesh is refined, no analytical expression for the rates exists. We reduce the problem of computing accurate reaction rates to a pure preprocessing step, depending only on the mesh and not on the model parameters, and we devise an efficient numerical scheme to estimate them to high accuracy. We show in several numerical examples that as we refine the mesh, the results obtained with the reaction-diffusion master equation approach those of a more fine-grained Smoluchowski particle-tracking model.

  4. Effective reaction rates for diffusion-limited reaction cycles. (United States)

    Nałęcz-Jawecki, Paweł; Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miękisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz


    Biological signals in cells are transmitted with the use of reaction cycles, such as the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which substrate is modified by antagonistic enzymes. An appreciable share of such reactions takes place in crowded environments of two-dimensional structures, such as plasma membrane or intracellular membranes, and is expected to be diffusion-controlled. In this work, starting from the microscopic bimolecular reaction rate constants and using estimates of the mean first-passage time for an enzyme-substrate encounter, we derive diffusion-dependent effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients (EMRRC) for a generic reaction cycle. Each EMRRC was found to be half of the harmonic average of the microscopic rate constant (phosphorylation c or dephosphorylation d), and the effective (crowding-dependent) motility divided by a slowly decreasing logarithmic function of the sum of the enzyme concentrations. This implies that when c and d differ, the two EMRRCs scale differently with the motility, rendering the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules diffusion-dependent. Analytical predictions are verified using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the two-dimensional triangular lattice at the single-molecule resolution. It is demonstrated that the proposed formulas estimate the steady-state concentrations and effective reaction rates for different sets of microscopic reaction rates and concentrations of reactants, including a non-trivial example where with increasing diffusivity the fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules changes from 10% to 90%.

  5. Reaction rates for reaction-diffusion kinetics on unstructured meshes. (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda


    The reaction-diffusion master equation is a stochastic model often utilized in the study of biochemical reaction networks in living cells. It is applied when the spatial distribution of molecules is important to the dynamics of the system. A viable approach to resolve the complex geometry of cells accurately is to discretize space with an unstructured mesh. Diffusion is modeled as discrete jumps between nodes on the mesh, and the diffusion jump rates can be obtained through a discretization of the diffusion equation on the mesh. Reactions can occur when molecules occupy the same voxel. In this paper, we develop a method for computing accurate reaction rates between molecules occupying the same voxel in an unstructured mesh. For large voxels, these rates are known to be well approximated by the reaction rates derived by Collins and Kimball, but as the mesh is refined, no analytical expression for the rates exists. We reduce the problem of computing accurate reaction rates to a pure preprocessing step, depending only on the mesh and not on the model parameters, and we devise an efficient numerical scheme to estimate them to high accuracy. We show in several numerical examples that as we refine the mesh, the results obtained with the reaction-diffusion master equation approach those of a more fine-grained Smoluchowski particle-tracking model.

  6. Automatic determination of reaction mappings and reaction center information. 2. Validation on a biochemical reaction database. (United States)

    Apostolakis, Joannis; Sacher, Oliver; Körner, Robert; Gasteiger, Johann


    The correct identification of the reacting bonds and atoms is a prerequisite for the analysis of the reaction mechanism. We have recently developed a method based on the Imaginary Transition State Energy Minimization approach for automatically determining the reaction center information and the atom-atom mapping numbers. We test here the accuracy of this ITSE approach by comparing the predictions of the method against more than 1500 manually annotated reactions from BioPath, a comprehensive database of biochemical reactions. The results show high agreement between manually annotated mappings and computational predictions (98.4%), with significant discrepancies in only 24 cases out of 1542 (1.6%). This result validates both the computational prediction and the database, at the same time, as the results of the former agree with expert knowledge and the latter appears largely self-consistent, and consistent with a simple principle. In 10 of the discrepant cases, simple chemical arguments or independent literature studies support the predicted reaction center. In five reaction instances the differences in the automatically and manually annotated mappings are described in detail. Finally, in approximately 200 cases the algorithm finds alternate reaction centers, which need to be studied on a case by case basis, as the exact choice of the alternative may depend on the enzyme catalyzing the reaction.

  7. Sport supporting act: terminology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The text deals with terminology issues from an interdisciplinary point of view. It is based on two different disciplines, law and kinanthropology, in an area of their overlap. AIM: The aim of the author is to point out some possible legislative problems, which could arise due to the current reading of the sport supporting act (Act no. 115/2001. The second aim of the author is to contribute to the discussion of kinantropologists (possibly also the educational researchers and lawyers and to stress the importance of the systematic approach to terminology formulation. METHODS: The author uses the method of language interpretation. We also use the basic analytical methods, induction and deduction, while we stress the systematic approach to the term formulation. RESULTS: The analysis of the sport supporting act terminology shows some specific legislative problems, which could arise due to the definition of sport in the sport supporting act. The author discusses a possible alternative solution. CONCLUSION: According to the opinion of the author, clear, obvious and unified terminology of kinantropologists as specialists in their discipline should represent a source, from which other sciences could derive their terminology. Defined and inexpert terminology used in other disciplines should not be used as an argument for its adopting in kinanthropology.

  8. Indirect speech acts in English


    Василина, Владимир Николаевич


    The article deals with indirect speech acts in Englishspeaking discourse. Different approaches to their analysis and the reasons for their use are discussed. It is argued that the choice of the form of speech actsdepends on the parameters of communicative partners.

  9. Paraconsistent semantics of speech acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Kȩplicz, Barbara; Strachocka, Alina; Szałas, Andrzej; Verbrugge, Rineke


    This paper discusses an implementation of four speech acts: assert, concede, request and challenge in a paraconsistent framework. A natural four-valued model of interaction yields multiple new cognitive situations. They are analyzed in the context of communicative relations, which partially replace

  10. The Ontogenesis of Speech Acts (United States)

    Bruner, Jerome S.


    A speech act approach to the transition from pre-linguistic to linguistic communication is adopted in order to consider language in relation to behavior and to allow for an emphasis on the use, rather than the form, of language. A pilot study of mothers and infants is discussed. (Author/RM)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they offer into the way in which cultural differences are encoded in speech act performance, has important implica- tions for first and second language teaching in linguistically and culturally diverse societies. A brief look at some of ..... or not to use slang, etc. The question, then, is whether and to what extent the rela- tionship.

  12. Acting against one's best judgement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, Adriana Johanna Maria


    Handelen tegen beter weten in (Acting Against One’s Best Judgment) heeft als ondertitel Een onderzoek naar praktisch redeneren, disposities en wilszwakte. De laatste term is daarbij cruciaal. Wat is wilszwakte - in het oud-Grieks akrasia of akrateia - en hoe valt het te verklaren? Wat gebeurt er

  13. Acting White: A Critical Review (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae


    The hypothesis of acting White has been heatedly debated and influential over the last 20 years or so in explaining the Black-White test score gap. Recently, economists have joined the debate and started providing new theoretical and empirical analyses of the phenomenon. This paper critically reviews the arguments that have been advanced to…

  14. Rapid biocatalytic polytransesterification: reaction kinetics in an exothermic reaction (United States)

    Chaudhary; Beckman; Russell


    Biocatalytic polytransesterification at high concentrations of monomers proceeds rapidly and is accompanied by an increase in the temperature of the reaction mixture due to liberation of heat of reaction during the initial phase. We have used principles of reaction calorimetry to monitor the kinetics of polymerization during this initial phase, thus relating the temperature to the extent of polymerization. Rate of polymerization increases with the concentration of monomers. This is also reflected by the increase in the temperature of the reaction mixture. Using time-temperature-conversion contours, a differential method of kinetic analysis was used to calculate the energy of activation ( approximately 15.1 Kcal/mol). Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. 7 CFR 1230.601 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1230.601 Section 1230.601 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.601 Act. The term Act means the Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act of 1985 (7 U.S.C. 4801-4819) and any...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Agriculture Regulations of... Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.1 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425; Public Law 104-127; 110 Stat. 1029...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.101 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1220.101 Section 1220.101 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.101 Act. The term Act means the Soybean Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act, subtitle E of title XIX, of the Food...

  18. 7 CFR 1219.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1219.1 Section 1219.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.1 Act. Act means the Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 2000, Public Law 106-387, 7 U.S.C. 7801-7813...

  19. 7 CFR 1280.101 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1280.101 Section 1280.101 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.101 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425; Pub. L. 104-127; 110 Stat...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.302 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1250.302 Section 1250.302 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.302 Act. Act means the Egg Research and Consumer Information Act and as it may be amended (Pub. L. 93-428). ...

  1. 7 CFR 958.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 958.2 Section 958.2 Agriculture Regulations of... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing...

  2. 22 CFR 901.10 - Act. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Act. 901.10 Section 901.10 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.10 Act. Act means the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-465, October 17, 1980), as amended. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1218.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1218.1 Section 1218.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.1 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7401-7425; Pub. L. 104-127; 110 Stat...

  4. 7 CFR 945.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 945.2 Section 945.2 Agriculture Regulations of... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing...

  5. 34 CFR 300.4 - Act. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 300.4 Section 300.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES... Definitions Used in This Part § 300.4 Act. Act means the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, as...

  6. 7 CFR 926.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 926.2 Section 926.2 Agriculture Regulations of... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress , as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing...

  7. 25 CFR 700.103 - Uniform Act. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform Act. 700.103 Section 700.103 Indians THE OFFICE... and Instructions Definitions § 700.103 Uniform Act. The term Uniform Act means the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1894; 42 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.; Pub. L...

  8. 7 CFR 1221.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1221.1 Section 1221.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.1 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425), and any amendments thereto. ...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1230.1 Section 1230.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.1 Act. Act means the Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act of 1985 (7 U.S.C. 4801-4819) and any amendments...

  10. 7 CFR 985.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 985.2 Section 985.2 Agriculture Regulations of... SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended, and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.302 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1205.302 Section 1205.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.302 Act. Act means the Cotton Research and Promotion Act...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.302 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1210.302 Section 1210.302 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.302 Act. Act means the Watermelon Research and Promotion Act of 1985 (Title XVI, Subtitle C of Pub. L. 99-198, 99th Congress, effective...

  13. 34 CFR 303.6 - Act. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 303.6 Section 303.6 Education Regulations of the..., Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.6 Act. As used in this part, Act means the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1400) ...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1216.1 Section 1216.1 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.1 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7401-7425; Public Law 104-127, 110 Stat...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1212.1 Section 1212.1 Agriculture Regulations of..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.1 Act. “Act” means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996, (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425), and any amendments to that Act. ...

  16. 40 CFR 1508.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 1508.2 Section 1508.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.2 Act. Act means the National Environmental Policy Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.) which is also referred to as “NEPA.” ...

  17. 7 CFR 924.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 924.2 Section 924.2 Agriculture Regulations of... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural...

  18. 7 CFR 1215.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1215.1 Section 1215.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.1 Act. Act means the Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act of 1995, Subtitle E of Title V of the...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.302 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1207.302 Section 1207.302 Agriculture... Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.302 Act. Act means the Potato Research and Promotion Act, Title III of Public Law 91-670, 91st Congress, approved January 11, 1971, 84 Stat. 2041, as...

  20. 29 CFR 401.17 - Act. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 401.17 Section 401.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.17 Act. Act means the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.10 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1205.10 Section 1205.10 Agriculture Regulations... for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.10 Act. The term Act means the Cotton Research and Promotion Act, as amended . ...

  2. 12 CFR 541.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 541.2 Section 541.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.2 Act. The term Act means the Home Owners' Loan Act of 1933, as amended. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.101 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1150.101 Section 1150.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 1150.101 Act. Act means Title I, Subtitle B, of the Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983...

  4. 76 FR 25665 - No Fear Act (United States)


    ... COMMISSION No Fear Act AGENCY: American Battle Monuments Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American... FEAR Act), as implemented by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) regulations at 5 CFR part 724... Retaliation Act of 2002,'' which is now known as the No FEAR Act. See Public Law 107-174, codified at 5 U.S.C...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino... (United States)


    ... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl....10145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT...

  6. Immunopharmacology and adverse drug reactions. (United States)

    Rieder, M J


    Adverse drug reactions are common and troublesome complications of contemporary pharmacotherapy. Adverse drug reactions are frequently, and often incorrectly, referred to as "allergy". Although there are multiple mechanisms for adverse drug reactions, adverse drug reactions mediated by the immune system account for a disproportionate number of fatal and serious adverse reactions, and constitute a major clinical problem for patients and physicians. The immune system has evolved in multicellular organisms as a defence against infection. Interactions between drugs and the immune system occur as inadvertent consequences of the protective function of the immune system, with drug molecules or drug-carrier haptens being recognized as "non-self" by the immune system. The classical mechanisms for drug hypersensitivity described by Gell and Coombs (Types 1 to 4) include IgE-mediated, cytotoxic, immune complex-mediated and delayed mechanism. These mechanisms provide elegant models for drug-immune interactions that can provide mechanistic explanations for events such as urticaria associated with penicillins. However, these mechanisms do not account for many of the immunologically mediated adverse reactions commonly encountered in clinical practice. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing awareness of the importance of reactive drug metabolites and drug-protein interactions in the initiation of immunologic events mediating adverse drug reactions. Reactive drug metabolites may produce direct and profound effects on various functions of the immune system. Although some adverse reactions mediated by the immune system occur with equal frequency among adults and children, some of these reactions appear to be markedly more common among children than adults.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Explicit formulas for reaction probability in reaction-diffusion experiments


    Feres, Renato; Wallace, Matthew; Stern, Ari; Yablonsky, Gregory


    A computational procedure is developed for determining the conversion probability for reaction-diffusion systems in which a first-order catalytic reaction is performed over active particles. We apply this general method to systems on metric graphs, which may be viewed as 1-dimensional approximations of 3-dimensional systems, and obtain explicit formulas for conversion. We then study numerically a class of 3-dimensional systems and test how accurately they are described by model formulas obtai...

  8. Nitropyrroles, Diels-Alder reactions assisted by microwave irradiation and solvent effect. An experimental and theoretical study (United States)

    Mancini, Pedro M. E.; Kneeteman, María N.; Cainelli, Mauro; Ormachea, Carla M.; Domingo, Luis R.


    The behaviors of N-tosylnitropyrroles acting as electrophilic dienophiles in polar Diels-Alder reactions joint to different dienes of increeased nucleophilicity are analyzed. The reactions were developed under microwave irradiation using toluene or protic ionic liquids (PILs) as solvents and in free solvent conditions. In all the cases explored we observed good yields in short reaction times. For these reactions, the free solvent condition and the use of protic ionic liquids as solvents offer similar results. However, the free solvent conditions favor environmental sustainability. The role of PILs in these polar Diels-Alder reactions has been theoretically studied within the Molecular Electron Density Theory.

  9. Direct reactions with exotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obertelli A.


    Full Text Available Direct reactions have been a unique tool to address the nuclear many-body problem from the experimental side. They are now routinely used in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams (RIB. However, weakly bound nuclei have recently raised questions on the applicability of reaction formalisms benchmarked on stable nuclei to the study of single-particle properties and correlations in these unstable systems. The study of the most exotic species produced at low intensity have triggered new technical developments to increase the sensitivity of the setup, with a focused attention to direct reactions such as transfer at low incident energy or knockout at intermediate energies.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Molnár, Árpád


    This handbook and ready reference brings together all significant issues of practical importance for interested readers in one single volume. While covering homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, the text is unique in focusing on such important aspects as using different reaction media, microwave techniques or catalyst recycling. It also provides a comprehensive treatment of modern-day coupling reactions and emphasizes those topics that show potential for future development, such as continuous flow systems, water as a reaction medium, and catalyst immobilization, among others. With i

  11. [Suicide, a philosophical act or an act of depression?]. (United States)

    Heslon, Christian


    Suicide is more frequent in people aged over 75 than in the rest of the population. Is it the fact of feeling too old or of being alone? Is the person fully lucid? The question of responsibility is raised, as is the meaning of the act: the ultimate living gesture or capitulation in the face of death? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 929.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 929.2 Section 929.2 Agriculture Regulations of... ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.2 Act. Act means Public Act... Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (secs. 1-19, 48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601-674). ...

  13. 7 CFR 905.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 905.2 Section 905.2 Agriculture Regulations of... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10... Agreement Act of 1937, as amended. (48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.; 68 Stat. 906, 1047.) ...

  14. 7 CFR 1160.101 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1160.101 Section 1160.101 Agriculture Regulations... Definitions § 1160.101 Act. Act means the Fluid Milk Promotion Act of 1990, Subtitle H of Title XIX of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, Public Law 101-624, 7 U.S.C. 6401-6417, and any...

  15. 7 CFR 947.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 947.2 Section 947.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Definitions § 947.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et...

  16. 29 CFR 4.103 - The Act. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true The Act. 4.103 Section 4.103 Labor Office of the Secretary... Contract Act Introductory § 4.103 The Act. The McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act of 1965 (Pub. L. 89-286, 79 Stat. 1034, 41 U.S.C. 351 et seq.), hereinafter referred to as the Act, was approved by the...

  17. 7 CFR 953.2 - Act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 953.2 Section 953.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C...

  18. Structural construction of law enforcement acts


    Пунько, Оксана Віталіївна


    The article investigates the problematic issue of structural construction of law enforcement acts, its components, internal and external form of construction. The task of this article is outlining the theoretical position of structural construction of law enforcement acts.  Law enforcement act is the legal result of law enforcement activities. These acts are fixed, issued decisions that were taken in law enforcement activity. Analysis of law enforcement practices shows that most acts are iss...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwono


    Full Text Available The nucleophilic substitution reaction to quaternary Mannich base from vanillin has been investigated. Mannich reaction to vanillin was carried out by refluxing mixture of vanillin, formaldehyde and dimethyl amine. Quaternary ammonium halide salt was obtained from reaction of Mannich vanillin base with methyl iodide in THF solvents and yielded  93.28%. Nucleophilic substituion to the halide salts with cyanide nucleophile produced 4-hidroxy-3-methoxy-5-(cyanomethylbenzaldehyde in 54.39% yield, with methoxyde ion obtained  4-hidroxy- 3-methoxy-5-(methoxy-methyl-benzaldehide in 67.80% yield. The nucleophilic substitution reaction showed that substituen of trimethylamino quaternary Mannich base can act as a good leaving on nucleophilic reaction substitutions.   Keywords: Mannich Reaction, Vanillin, nucleophilic substitution.

  20. Educational Stress: Sources, Reactions, Preventions. (United States)

    Kaiser, Jeffrey S.; Polczynski, James J.


    Effects of stress on educators and efforts to understand and cope with stress are discussed. Sources of stress, common reactions to stress, the effects of stress on educator performance, and suggested preventive methods are examined. (JN)

  1. Reactions with light exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenthäler, R.; Faria, P.N. de; Pires, K.C.C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Assuncao, M.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M.C.; Camargo Junior, O.; Alcantara Nuñez, J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Moro, A.M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio Tandar, Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rodriguez-Gallardo, M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)


    Experimental cross sections for the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn are analysed. Elastic scattering angular distributions and alpha particle production cross sections have been measured and are compared with the total reaction cross sections. (author)

  2. Fluctuations in catalytic surface reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Imbihl, R


    The internal reaction-induced fluctuations which occur in catalytic CO oxidation on a Pt field emitter tip have been studied using field electron microscopy (FEM) as a spatially resolving method. The structurally heterogeneous Pt tip consists of facets of different orientations with nanoscale dimensions. The FEM resolution of roughly 2 nm corresponds to a few hundred reacting adsorbed particles whose variations in the density are imaged as brightness fluctuations. In the bistable range of the reaction one finds fluctuation-induced transitions between the two stable branches of the reaction kinetics. The fluctuations exhibit a behaviour similar to that of an equilibrium phase transition, i.e. the amplitude diverges upon approaching the bifurcation point terminating the bistable range of the reaction. Simulations with a hybrid Monte Carlo/mean-field model reproduce the experimental observations. Fluctuations on different facets are typically uncorrelated but within a single facet a high degree of spatial cohere...

  3. Transfer reactions in nuclear astrophysics (United States)

    Bardayan, D. W.


    To a high degree many aspects of the large-scale behavior of objects in the Universe are governed by the underlying nuclear physics. In fact the shell structure of nuclear physics is directly imprinted into the chemical abundances of the elements. The tranquility of the night sky is a direct result of the relatively slow rate of nuclear reactions that control and determines a star’s fate. Understanding the nuclear structure and reaction rates between nuclei is vital to understanding our Universe. Nuclear-transfer reactions make accessible a wealth of knowledge from which we can extract much of the required nuclear physics information. A review of transfer reactions for nuclear astrophysics is presented with an emphasis on the experimental challenges and opportunities for future development.

  4. Analysis of kinetic reaction mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Turányi, Tamás


    Chemical processes in many fields of science and technology, including combustion, atmospheric chemistry, environmental modelling, process engineering, and systems biology, can be described by detailed reaction mechanisms consisting of numerous reaction steps. This book describes methods for the analysis of reaction mechanisms that are applicable in all these fields. Topics addressed include: how sensitivity and uncertainty analyses allow the calculation of the overall uncertainty of simulation results and the identification of the most important input parameters, the ways in which mechanisms can be reduced without losing important kinetic and dynamic detail, and the application of reduced models for more accurate engineering optimizations. This monograph is invaluable for researchers and engineers dealing with detailed reaction mechanisms, but is also useful for graduate students of related courses in chemistry, mechanical engineering, energy and environmental science and biology.

  5. Method for conducting exothermic reactions (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.


    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of to F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  6. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Engineering and Process Development Division, CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory,. Pune 411 008, India ... Abstract. Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. ... strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  7. Thermodynamics of random reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Fischer

    Full Text Available Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa -1.5 for linear and -1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks.

  8. Thermodynamics of Random Reaction Networks (United States)

    Fischer, Jakob; Kleidon, Axel; Dittrich, Peter


    Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha) and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa −1.5 for linear and −1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks. PMID:25723751

  9. Drug Reactions in Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Derviş


    Full Text Available Both immunologic and nonimmunologic drug reactions can be seen in oral mucosa. Since considerable number of these reactions heals spontaneously without being noticed by the patients, exact frequency of the lesions is unknown. Most common lesions are xerostomia, taste disorders, mucosal ulcerations and edema. In this article, oral lesions resulting from drug intake similar to those from oral lesions of local and systemic diseases, and diagnostic problems caused by these similarities, have been reviewed.

  10. Radiation reaction and relativistic hydrodynamics. (United States)

    Berezhiani, V I; Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M


    By invoking the radiation reaction force, first perturbatively derived by Landau and Lifschitz, and later shown by Rohrlich to be exact for a single particle, we construct a set of fluid equations obeyed by a relativistic plasma interacting with the radiation field. After showing that this approach reproduces the known results for a locally Maxwellian plasma, we derive and display the basic dynamical equations for a general magnetized plasma in which the radiation reaction force augments the direct Lorentz force.

  11. Late reaction, persistent reaction and doubtful allergic reaction: The problems of interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu


    Full Text Available The standard method of patch test reading is to read the test site for any positive allergy at 48hr and then again at 72/96 hr. A late reading on the seventh day is also advised to exclude the irritant reaction (IR and to notice some delayed development of allergic reaction. However, multiple visits are often difficult for the patient; therefore, this late reading is sometimes omitted. Here a case of plantar hyperkeratosis, due to allergic contact dermatitis, is reported with some insight into interpretation of the patch test. The patient showed delayed patch test reaction to formaldehyde and colophony, which has never been reported before.

  12. Clay-catalyzed reactions of coagulant polymers during water chlorination (United States)

    Lee, J.-F.; Liao, P.-M.; Lee, C.-K.; Chao, H.-P.; Peng, C.-L.; Chiou, C.T.


    The influence of suspended clay/solid particles on organic-coagulant reactions during water chlorination was investigated by analyses of total product formation potential (TPFP) and disinfection by-product (DBP) distribution as a function of exchanged clay cation, coagulant organic polymer, and reaction time. Montmorillonite clays appeared to act as a catalytic center where the reaction between adsorbed polymer and disinfectant (chlorine) was mediated closely by the exchanged clay cation. The transition-metal cations in clays catalyzed more effectively than other cations the reactions between a coagulant polymer and chlorine, forming a large number of volatile DBPs. The relative catalytic effects of clays/solids followed the order Ti-Mont > Fe-Mont > Cu-Mont > Mn-Mont > Ca-Mont > Na-Mont > quartz > talc. The effects of coagulant polymers on TPFP follow the order nonionic polymer > anionic polymer > cationic polymer. The catalytic role of the clay cation was further confirmed by the observed inhibition in DBP formation when strong chelating agents (o-phenanthroline and ethylenediamine) were added to the clay suspension. Moreover, in the presence of clays, total DBPs increased appreciably when either the reaction time or the amount of the added clay or coagulant polymer increased. For volatile DBPs, the formation of halogenated methanes was usually time-dependent, with chloroform and dichloromethane showing the greatest dependence. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cholangiocarcinoma with respect to IgG4 Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Harada


    Full Text Available IgG4 reactions marked by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in affected organs occur in cancer patients and in patients with IgG4-related diseases. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas including gall bladder cancer are often accompanied by significant IgG4 reactions; these reactions show a negative correlation with CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, suggesting that the evasion of immune surveillance is associated with cytotoxic T cells. The regulatory cytokine IL-10 may induce IgG4-positive plasma cell differentiation or promote B cell switching to IgG4 in the presence of IL-4. Cholangiocarcinoma cells may function as nonprofessional antigen presenting cells that indirectly induce IgG4 reactions via the IL-10-producing cells and/or these may act as Foxp3-positive and IL-10-producing cells that directly induce IgG4 reactions. Moreover, IgG4-related disease is a high-risk factor for cancer development; IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC cases associated with cholangiocarcinoma or its precursor lesion biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN have been reported. IgG4-positive cell infiltration is an important finding of IgG4-SC but is not a histological hallmark of IgG4-SC. For the diagnosis of IgG4-SC, its differentiation from cholangiocarcinoma remains important.

  14. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busse, William W; Dahl, Ronald; Jenkins, Christine


    -acting anticholinergics as bronchodilators in the treatment of asthma, with results published from clinical trials of glycopyrrolate, umeclidinium and tiotropium. The tiotropium clinical trial programme is the most advanced, with data available from a number of phase II and III studies of tiotropium as an add......-on to inhaled corticosteroid maintenance therapy, with or without a long-acting β2-agonist, in patients across asthma severities. Recent studies using the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler have identified 5 µg once daily as the preferred dosing regimen, which has shown promising results in adults, adolescents...... and children with asthma. Tiotropium Respimat has recently been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Asthma 2015 treatment strategy as a recommended alternative therapy at steps 4 and 5 in adult patients with a history of exacerbations. The increasing availability of evidence from ongoing and future...

  15. Synthesis of Guanidines via Reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides in the Presence of Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Shaghayeghi Toosi


    Full Text Available Different ionic liquids (ILs were synthesized and evaluated for the preparation of substituted guanidines from the reaction of amines and carbodiimides. 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [HMIm]BF4 was found to be the best ionic liquid for this reaction. This IL acted as a promoter for the addition of primary and secondary amines to carbodiimides. By this efficient approach, various guanidines were prepared in excellent yields.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction. Ni and Pb are metals with several suggested mechanisms for their toxicity on the biological systems. We have recently investigated involvement of DNA in an electron transfer reaction as an enzyme. In this reaction non- fluorescent dichlorofluorescin (LDCF is converted to the dichlorofluorescein (DCF in the presence of peroxides and hematin. Methods. The fluorometric technique was used in this study. The pH effect on the reaction rate was investigated. The results showed that DCF has the maximum emission on tris buffer 0.05 Mat pH 8.4. Results. DNA and carnosine catalyze the reaction, which proceeds by the electron transfer mechanism. The presence of carnosine is necessary for the catalytic action of DNA as a cofactor. Ni (II and Pb (11 are the potent inhibitors of the reaction. The kinetic parameters and determined in the presence and absence of the above ligands. Discussion. DNA, which has the electrical properties only in the double helical forms, acts as a catalyst in the conversion of LDCF to DCF. The existence of the carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide with antioxidant and free radical scavenging roles, is an important factor for the progress of the reaction. Both Ni (11 and Pb (II inhibit the reaction. These metals could act as the electron pool to cause inhibition in such electron transfer reaction. This phenomenon could be related to the carcinogenic effect of these metals.

  17. From Speech Acts to Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Jim


    Full Text Available Frege introduced the notion of pragmatic force as what distinguishes statements from questions. This distinction was elaborated by Wittgenstein in his later works, and systematised as an account of different kinds of speech acts in formal dialogue theory by Hamblin. It lies at the heart of the inferential semantics more recently developed by Brandom. The present paper attempts to sketch some of the relations between these developments.

  18. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  19. SCADA Application for ACTS Technology (United States)

    Fairbanks, Barry


    The results of a system level study done by Hughes Network Systems for NASA are presented. For the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) application, use of Ka-band spot beam satellite technology associated with NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) offers a reduction in Earth station antenna size and transmitter power that may translate into lower system costs. The approaches taken to determine commercial potential of the system are described.

  20. Long acting methods of contraception. (United States)

    Newton, J


    Long acting methods of contraception have been developed and refined over the last 10 years. From the classical long acting progestogen-only depot preparations we now have a range of delivery systems including both combined and progestogen only injection systems and vaginal rings also containing either progestogen only or oestrogen and progestogen in combination. Subcutaneous implants at present containing only a progestogen, offer a range of durations from 2-5 years. The efficacy of these methods is high, with failure rates as low as 0.1 per 100 woman years. However, with progestogen only systems a significant proportion of women develop unpredictable menstrual bleeding, which with counselling is acceptable. The commonest reason for discontinuation still remains menstrual disorders and recent WHO workshops have investigated the cause of this bleeding and refined the reference periods of analysis. The method of action of progestogen-only systems is primarily cervical mucus blockade and prevention of sperm penetration. However, they also tend to produce a thinned atrophic endometrium. Ovarian effects ranging from complete anovulation to disordered luteal phase, persistent follicles and disorganised hormone production add to the contraceptive effect in more than half of the treatment cycles, but cause some of the menstrual disturbance. All these long acting methods are essential to family planning programmes, offering highly acceptable, and in some cases novel methods with high efficacy.

  1. Reaction rates for mesoscopic reaction-diffusion kinetics. (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda


    The mesoscopic reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a popular modeling framework frequently applied to stochastic reaction-diffusion kinetics in systems biology. The RDME is derived from assumptions about the underlying physical properties of the system, and it may produce unphysical results for models where those assumptions fail. In that case, other more comprehensive models are better suited, such as hard-sphere Brownian dynamics (BD). Although the RDME is a model in its own right, and not inferred from any specific microscale model, it proves useful to attempt to approximate a microscale model by a specific choice of mesoscopic reaction rates. In this paper we derive mesoscopic scale-dependent reaction rates by matching certain statistics of the RDME solution to statistics of the solution of a widely used microscopic BD model: the Smoluchowski model with a Robin boundary condition at the reaction radius of two molecules. We also establish fundamental limits on the range of mesh resolutions for which this approach yields accurate results and show both theoretically and in numerical examples that as we approach the lower fundamental limit, the mesoscopic dynamics approach the microscopic dynamics. We show that for mesh sizes below the fundamental lower limit, results are less accurate. Thus, the lower limit determines the mesh size for which we obtain the most accurate results.

  2. Reaction rates for a generalized reaction-diffusion master equation. (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda


    It has been established that there is an inherent limit to the accuracy of the reaction-diffusion master equation. Specifically, there exists a fundamental lower bound on the mesh size, below which the accuracy deteriorates as the mesh is refined further. In this paper we extend the standard reaction-diffusion master equation to allow molecules occupying neighboring voxels to react, in contrast to the traditional approach, in which molecules react only when occupying the same voxel. We derive reaction rates, in two dimensions as well as three dimensions, to obtain an optimal match to the more fine-grained Smoluchowski model and show in two numerical examples that the extended algorithm is accurate for a wide range of mesh sizes, allowing us to simulate systems that are intractable with the standard reaction-diffusion master equation. In addition, we show that for mesh sizes above the fundamental lower limit of the standard algorithm, the generalized algorithm reduces to the standard algorithm. We derive a lower limit for the generalized algorithm which, in both two dimensions and three dimensions, is of the order of the reaction radius of a reacting pair of molecules.

  3. Perspective: Vibrational-induced steric effects in bimolecular reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kopin, E-mail: [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences (IAMS), Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-166, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)


    The concept of preferred collision geometry in a bimolecular reaction is at the heart of reaction dynamics. Exemplified by a series of crossed molecular beam studies on the reactions of a C–H stretch-excited CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) with F, Cl, and O({sup 3}P) atoms, two types of steric control of chemical reactivity will be highlighted. A passive control is governed in a reaction with strong anisotropic entry valley that can significantly steer the incoming trajectories. This disorientation effect is illustrated by the F and O({sup 3}P) + CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) reactions. In the former case, the long-range anisotropic interaction acts like an optical “negative” lens by deflecting the trajectories away from the favored transition-state geometry, and thus inhibiting the bond rupture of the stretch-excited CHD{sub 3}. On the contrary, the interaction between O({sup 3}P) and CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) behaves as a “positive” lens by funneling the large impact-parameter collisions into the cone of acceptance, and thereby enhances the reactivity. As for reactions with relatively weak anisotropic interactions in the entry valley, an active control can be performed by exploiting the polarization property of the infrared excitation laser to polarize the reactants in space, as demonstrated in the reaction of Cl with a pre-aligned CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) reactant. A simpler case, the end-on versus side-on collisions, will be elucidated for demonstrating a means to disentangle the impact-parameter averaging. A few general remarks about some closely related issues, such as mode-, bond-selectivity, and Polanyi’s rules, are made.

  4. Carbonitriding reactions of diatomaceous earth: phase evolution and reaction mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The possibility of using diatomaceous earth as Si precursor for low temperature synthesis of non-oxide powders by carbothermal reduction-nitridation was studied. It was found that carbonitriding reactions produce phases of the Si–Al–O–N system. Already at 1300 °C, nanosized, non-oxide powders were obtained. The comparatively low reaction temperatures is attributred to the nano-porous nature of the raw material. The evolution of crystalline phases proceeded via many intermediate stages. The powders were characterized by X-ray and SEM investigations. The results showed that diatomaceous earth can be a very effective source for obtaining non-oxide powders.

  5. A comprehensive survey of nuclear reactions; Panorama des reactions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugnon, J. [Liege Univ., IFPA, AGO Dept. (Belgium)


    The various mechanisms of nuclear reactions are surveyed and classified in different regimes, based on the notions of coherent mechanisms and hard versus soft processes. The emphasis is put on the concepts at the basis of the understanding of these regimes and on the elements of nuclear structure which are involved in these different regimes, as well as the on the possibility of extracting this information. Due to lack of space and for pedagogical reasons, the discussion is limited to nucleon-induced and light-ion-induced reactions. However, a few remarks are given concerning some specific probes, such as weakly bound projectiles or neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  6. Biomarkers of adverse drug reactions. (United States)

    Carr, Daniel F; Pirmohamed, Munir


    Adverse drug reactions can be caused by a wide range of therapeutics. Adverse drug reactions affect many bodily organ systems and vary widely in severity. Milder adverse drug reactions often resolve quickly following withdrawal of the casual drug or sometimes after dose reduction. Some adverse drug reactions are severe and lead to significant organ/tissue injury which can be fatal. Adverse drug reactions also represent a financial burden to both healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, a number of stakeholders would benefit from development of new, robust biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognostication of adverse drug reactions. There has been significant recent progress in identifying predictive genomic biomarkers with the potential to be used in clinical settings to reduce the burden of adverse drug reactions. These have included biomarkers that can be used to alter drug dose (for example, Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and azathioprine dose) and drug choice. The latter have in particular included human leukocyte antigen (HLA) biomarkers which identify susceptibility to immune-mediated injuries to major organs such as skin, liver, and bone marrow from a variety of drugs. This review covers both the current state of the art with regard to genomic adverse drug reaction biomarkers. We also review circulating biomarkers that have the potential to be used for both diagnosis and prognosis, and have the added advantage of providing mechanistic information. In the future, we will not be relying on single biomarkers (genomic/non-genomic), but on multiple biomarker panels, integrated through the application of different omics technologies, which will provide information on predisposition, early diagnosis, prognosis, and mechanisms. Impact statement • Genetic and circulating biomarkers present significant opportunities to personalize patient therapy to minimize the risk of adverse drug reactions. ADRs are a significant heath issue

  7. Fatal anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izidor Kern


    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of anaphylactic reactions occuring during anesthesia is not known. They occur most often in the induction  phase and can present with different levels of severity, also as an anaphylactic shock. Neuromuscular blocking drugs are the most frequently involved substances.Case presentation: We  report a case of a 77-year old female patient with granulomatous inflammation of unknown etiology. Surgical  biopsy of a neck lymph node was indicated. During the induction of anesthesia using propofol and succinylcholine she developed severe anaphylactic reaction presented with bronchospasm and cardiac arrest. Despite 80 min continous cardiopulmonary resuscitation the patient died. Elevated tryptase level in the patient’s blood sample taken before death confirmed anaphylactic reaction. On autopsy we confirmed the tuberculous etiology of generalized granulomatous inflammation.Conclusions: It is important to recognize anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia early and to take adequate measures in order to prevent unfavorable outcome. Tryptase assay of a blood sample taken during life or postmortem may help to identify anaphylactic reaction.

  8. [Histopathology of cutaneous drug reactions]. (United States)

    Ortonne, Nicolas


    There are many different types of cutaneous adverse reactions. The most classical reactions are driven by T lymphocytes that specifically react towards a drug, with an individual genetic susceptibility linked to certain type I major histocompatibility complex alleles. These reactions are characterized by a wide variety of clinical and histopathological presentations, and a wide range of severity. The most frequent entity is the maculopapular rash, while the most aggressive forms are the Steven-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS-TEN). The histopathological alterations associated to each of these syndromes have been better described in the literature during the past 10 years, encompassing non-specific lesions, as in most drug induced maculopapular rashes, to more specific inflammatory patterns. The finding of confluent apoptotic keratinocytes with epidermal detachment is the prototypical aspect of SJS-TEN. There are however numerous pitfalls, and a similar aspect to those observed in each cutaneous drug reactions entities can be found in other diseases. DRESS syndrome can indeed present with dense and epidermotropic T-cell infiltrate, sometimes with nuclear atypias, and thus can be difficult to distinguish from a primary or secondary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnosis of cutaneous adverse reactions relies on a clinical-pathological confrontation and requires an accurate evaluation of drug imputability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)


    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  10. Electrocardiographic changes in lepra reaction. (United States)

    Zawar, P B; Chawhan, R N; Swami, R M


    The electrocardiographic (E.C.G.) changes were evaluated in 54 patients of lepra reaction. Abnormalities of the E.C.G. observed were in the form of prolongation of QTc in 24 (44.44%), ST-T changes in a (16.66%), bundle branch block and ventricular extrasystoles in 2 each (3.70%). The mean QTc interval in 64 normal adults was 0.41 second (S.D. +/- 0.03, range 0.36 to 0.44 second). It was 0.44 second (S.D. +/- 0.05, range 0.38 to 0.52 second) in patients of lepra reaction. The difference in the QTc values in the two groups was statistically significant (P less than 0.01). The E.C.G. abnormalities in patients of lepra reaction appears to be due to myocardial involvement.

  11. Modification as a propositional act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan


    A complete functional theory of grammar should be able to specify the communicative function of each constituent in a sentence (or rather ‘Discourse Act’). Whereas predicating and referring have been given due attention in functional approaches to grammar, the modifying function of linguistic...... material in a Discourse Act has been largely ignored. This chapter argues (i) that modifying is no less actional than predicating or referring in the process of verbal communication and (ii) that the modifying function of linguistic material should be specified at the highest level of representation...

  12. Preventive Care Benefits (Affordable Care Act) (United States)

    ... For children Footer Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ... gov Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ...

  13. Speech Act Theory and Business Communication Conventions. (United States)

    Ewald, Helen Rothschild; Stine, Donna


    Applies speech act theory to business writing to determine why certain letters and memos succeed while others fail. Specifically, shows how speech act theorist H. P. Grice's rules or maxims illuminate the writing process in business communication. (PD)

  14. Clean Water Act Section 404 and Agriculture (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and EPA have longstanding programs to promote water quality and broader environmental goals identified in both the Agriculture Act of 2014 and the Clean Water Act.

  15. Effective dynamics along given reaction coordinates, and reaction rate theory. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Hartmann, Carsten; Schütte, Christof


    In molecular dynamics and related fields one considers dynamical descriptions of complex systems in full (atomic) detail. In order to reduce the overwhelming complexity of realistic systems (high dimension, large timescale spread, limited computational resources) the projection of the full dynamics onto some reaction coordinates is examined in order to extract statistical information like free energies or reaction rates. In this context, the effective dynamics that is induced by the full dynamics on the reaction coordinate space has attracted considerable attention in the literature. In this article, we contribute to this discussion: we first show that if we start with an ergodic diffusion process whose invariant measure is unique then these properties are inherited by the effective dynamics. Then, we give equations for the effective dynamics, discuss whether the dominant timescales and reaction rates inferred from the effective dynamics are accurate approximations of such quantities for the full dynamics, and compare our findings to results from approaches like Mori-Zwanzig, averaging, or homogenization. Finally, by discussing the algorithmic realization of the effective dynamics, we demonstrate that recent algorithmic techniques like the "equation-free" approach and the "heterogeneous multiscale method" can be seen as special cases of our approach.

  16. Miniaturized continuous flow reaction vessels: influence on chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brivio, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David


    This review offers an overview of the relatively young research area of continuous flow lab-on-a-chip for synthetic applications. A short introduction on the basic aspects of lab-on-a-chip is given in the first part. Subsequently, the effects of downscaling reaction vessels as well as the advantages

  17. Reaction rate of propene pyrolysis. (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Su, Kehe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Qingfeng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Litong


    The reaction rate of propene pyrolysis was investigated based on the elementary reactions proposed in Qu et al., J Comput Chem 2009, 31, 1421. The overall reaction rate was developed with the steady-state approximation and the rate constants of the elementary reactions were determined with the variational transition state theory. For the elementary reaction having transition state, the vibrational frequencies of the selected points along the minimum energy path were calculated with density functional theory at B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level and the energies were improved with the accurate model chemistry method G3(MP2). For the elementary reaction without transition state, the frequencies were calculated with CASSCF/6-311G(d,p) and the energies were refined with the multireference configuration interaction method MRCISD/6-311G(d,p). The rate constants were evaluated within 200-2000 K and the fitted three-parameter expressions were obtained. The results are consistent with those in the literatures in most cases. For the overall rate, it was found that the logarithm of the rate and the reciprocal temperature have excellent linear relationship above 400 K, predicting that the rate follows a typical first-order law at high temperatures of 800-2000 K, which is also consistent with the experiments. The apparent activation energy in 800-2000 K is 317.3 kJ/mol from the potential energy surface of zero Kelvin. This value is comparable with the energy barriers, 365.4 and 403.7 kJ/mol, of the rate control steps. However, the apparent activation energy, 215.7 kJ/mol, developed with the Gibbs free energy surface at 1200 K is consistent with the most recent experimental result 201.9 ± 0.6 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Vision 2020. Reaction Engineering Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klipstein, David H. [Reaction Design, San Diego, CA (United States); Robinson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Reaction Engineering Roadmap is a part of an industry- wide effort to create a blueprint of the research and technology milestones that are necessary to achieve longterm industry goals. This report documents the results of a workshop focused on the research needs, technology barriers, and priorities of the chemical industry as they relate to reaction engineering viewed first by industrial use (basic chemicals; specialty chemicals; pharmaceuticals; and polymers) and then by technology segment (reactor system selection, design, and scale-up; chemical mechanism development and property estimation; dealing with catalysis; and new, nonstandard reactor types).

  19. 34 CFR 5.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 5.1 Section 5.1 Education Office of the Secretary...-10) Definitions § 5.1 Act. As used in this part, Act means section 552 of title 5, United States Code, as amended by Pub. L. 90-23, codifying the Act of July 4, 1966, sometimes referred to as the “Freedom...

  20. Peptide Bond Synthesis by a Mechanism Involving an Enzymatic Reaction and a Subsequent Chemical Reaction. (United States)

    Abe, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Zhuang, Ye; Ge, Yin; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko


    We recently reported that an amide bond is unexpectedly formed by an acyl-CoA synthetase (which catalyzes the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond) when a suitable acid and l-cysteine are used as substrates. DltA, which is homologous to the adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase, belongs to the same superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes, which includes many kinds of enzymes, including the acyl-CoA synthetases. Here, we demonstrate that DltA synthesizes not only N-(d-alanyl)-l-cysteine (a dipeptide) but also various oligopeptides. We propose that this enzyme catalyzes peptide synthesis by the following unprecedented mechanism: (i) the formation of S-acyl-l-cysteine as an intermediate via its "enzymatic activity" and (ii) subsequent "chemical" S → N acyl transfer in the intermediate, resulting in peptide formation. Step ii is identical to the corresponding reaction in native chemical ligation, a method of chemical peptide synthesis, whereas step i is not. To the best of our knowledge, our discovery of this peptide synthesis mechanism involving an enzymatic reaction and a subsequent chemical reaction is the first such one to be reported. This new process yields peptides without the use of a thioesterified fragment, which is required in native chemical ligation. Together with these findings, the same mechanism-dependent formation of N-acyl compounds by other members of the above-mentioned superfamily demonstrated that all members most likely form peptide/amide compounds by using this novel mechanism. Each member enzyme acts on a specific substrate; thus, not only the corresponding peptides but also new types of amide compounds can be formed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    12 janv. 2012 ... recours à la TEP-FDG couplée au scanner serait d'un grand apport, en différenciant masse splénique bénigne et maligne, et en identifiant d'autres sites métastatiques hypermétaboliques insoupçonnées sur l'imagerie conventionnelle. L'imagerie de la métastase splénique pourrait également bénéficier de ...

  2. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 11, 2011 ... Open-heart surgery and coronary artery bypass grafting in Western Africa. Frank Edwin1,2,&, Kwabena Frimpong-Boateng1 .... Frimpong-Boateng K, Amoah AG, Barwasser HM, Kallen C. Cardiopulmonary bypass in sickle cell anaemia without exchange transfusion.Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1998 Nov ...

  3. Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten


    ) museum. Augmentation, in this expanding digital field, is part of a production of new public spaces, as well as a new reality that affects and traverses art and institutions immanently and througout. The expanding digital field is transforming art and the art museum in a number of fundamental ways, a few...... of which I will look into in this paper. It has been suggested that ... we are in the midst of an explosion of emerging human-computer interaction techniques that redefine our understanding of both computers and interaction. We propose the notion of Reality-Based Interaction (RBI) as a unifying concept...... that ties together ... (Robert J.K. Jacob, 2008) I suggest that a negotiation between reality-based interaction and a digital dialectic (Lunenfeld, 1999)(Søndergaard M. o., 2008) is becoming still more evident, on two levels: 1) As an investigation into (the visuality of) a digital reality under...

  4. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  5. The 2014 Budget Act: Selected Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo


    Full Text Available The Budget Act for the year 2014 raises legal questions in the context of the provisions of the Constitution as well as the Public Finance Act from 2009. Polish constitutional provisions relating to the state budget may be described as too general. They specify the requirements with regard to the Budget Act only to a limited extent.

  6. Academic Development Is a Creative Act (United States)

    Budge, Kylie; Clarke, Angela


    This paper argues that academic development is a creative act. Creative acts have potential to inspire, critique, inform and in many cases to change. The creativity literature identifies a number of core features of creative acts that assist in developing independent creative practitioners. Those features are observing, attending to relationships,…

  7. 12 CFR 619.9000 - The Act. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Act. 619.9000 Section 619.9000 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9000 The Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971; Pub. L. 92-181 and amendments. ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper critically assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the Tanzania's Records and Archives Management Act of 2002. The Act repeals the 1931 Records Disposal Ordinance 9 (Cap.9), the 1965 National Archives Act no. 33 and the Presidential Circular no.7 of 1963 on the Care and Disposal of Public Records.

  9. 29 CFR 1614.203 - Rehabilitation Act. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation Act. 1614.203 Section 1614.203 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.203 Rehabilitation Act. (a... Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 791), has been violated in a complaint alleging nonaffirmative...

  10. 31 CFR 0.216 - Privacy Act. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act. 0.216 Section 0.216... RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.216 Privacy Act. Employees involved in the design, development, operation, or maintenance of any system of records or in maintaining records subject to the Privacy Act of...

  11. 12 CFR 268.203 - Rehabilitation Act. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rehabilitation Act. 268.203 Section 268.203... Rehabilitation Act. (a) Model employer. The Board shall be a model employer of individuals with disabilities. The... Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 791), has been violated in a complaint alleging nonaffirmative...

  12. 7 CFR 29.13 - The act. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The act. 29.13 Section 29.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.13 The act. The Tobacco Inspection Act, approved August 23, 1935. (7...

  13. 3 CFR - The Endangered Species Act (United States)


    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Endangered Species Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 3, 2009 The Endangered Species Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...

  14. 3 CFR - Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freedom of Information Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 21, 2009 Freedom of Information Act Memorandum for... disinfectants.” In our democracy, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which encourages accountability through...

  15. Uproar over Milk Substitutes Act. (United States)


    Health policy activists lobbied 7 years for the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Bill. Proponents of the bill say that it basically curtails unethical marketing practices, not the sales of baby foods, and argue that it was conceived to reduce the trend of mothers over-diluting commercial milk in order to reduce household expenses as well as stem the potential erosion of knowledge on locally available weaning foods. Even though the bill will become an Act only after its rules and regulations have been finalized, the government has already banned baby food advertisements on television and in other electronic media under its control. Women's groups now argue that the bill tends to focus almost exclusively upon the welfare of children and compromises the position of women who can not lactate adequately. Moreover, they hold that the bill may be used to compel wives to stay out of the formal workforce so that they may feed their babies. The intention of the bill may be meaningless without complementary legislation addressing the problems of working mothers. Specifically, amendments to the Maternity Benefits Act of 1961 would extend maternity leave to 4 months after delivery and lengthen the duration of nursing breaks. It is, however, feared that these changes may reduce employment prospects for women.

  16. Granulomatous tattoo reaction induced by intense pulse light treatment. (United States)

    Tourlaki, Athanasia; Boneschi, Vinicio; Tosi, Diego; Pigatto, Paolo; Brambilla, Lucia


    Cosmetic tattooing involves implantation of pigments into the dermis in order to create a permanent makeup. Here, we report a case of sarcoidal granulomatous reaction to old cosmetic tattoos after an intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment for facial skin rejuvenation. We consider this case as a peculiar example of photo-induced reaction to tattoo. In addition, we hypothesize that an underlying immune dysfunction was present, and acted as a predisposing factor for this unusual response, as the patient had suffered from an episode of acute pulmonary sarcoidosis 15 years before. Overall, our observation suggests that IPL treatment should be used cautiously in patients with tattoos, especially when a history of autoimmune disease is present. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Biochemical reactions in crowded environments: Revisiting the effects of volume exclusion with simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGomez


    Full Text Available Molecular crowding is ubiquitous within cells and affects many biological processes including protein-protein binding, enzyme activities and gene regulation. Here we revisit some generic effects of crowding using a combination of lattice simulations and reaction-diffusion simulations with the program ReaDDy. Specifically, we implement three reactions, simple binding, a diffusion-limited reaction and a reaction with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Histograms of binding and unbinding times provide a detailed picture how crowding affects these reactions and how the separate effects of crowding on binding equilibrium and on diffusion act together. In addition, we discuss how crowding affects processes related to gene expression such as RNA polymerase-promoter binding and translation elongation.

  18. Affective and Attributional Reactions to Sexual Harassment as Determined by Outcome. (United States)

    Carducci, Bernardo J.

    In research on media depiction of violence against women, two variables that have been identified as important in predicting affective and attributional responses are the sex of the subject and the victim's affective reaction to the outcome of sexual aggression. In most previous research the act of sexual aggression has involved rape. In this…

  19. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic). 721.4461 Section 721.4461 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 72...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic). (United States)


    .... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... modified alkoxysilane salt (generic). 721.9514 Section 721.9514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  1. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride. (United States)


    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... provisions of subpart A of this part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1...

  2. Stability results for a reaction-diffusion system with a single measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramoul, Hichem [Centre universitaire de Khenchela, Route de Batna, BP 1252, Liberte, 40004 Khenchela (Algeria); Gaitan, Patricia [Laboratoire d' analyse, topologie, probabilites CNRS UMR 6632, Marseille (France) and Universite Aix-Marseille II (France); Cristofol, Michel [Laboratoire d' analyse, topologie, probabilites CNRS UMR 6632, Marseille, France and Universite Aix-Marseille III (France)


    For a two by two reaction-diffusion system on a bounded domain we give a simultaneous stability result for one coefficient and for the initial conditions. The key ingredient is a global Carleman-type estimate with a single observation acting on a subdomain.

  3. Follow-Up Study to Family Members' Reactions to the Initial Special Education Meeting (United States)

    Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Paez, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ivan


    Family involvement is a central component of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Family members are to be integrated in all aspects of the special education process. At the onset, of family involvement, it is imperative for educators to be aware of possible reactions family members may experience in this initial stage. This…

  4. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik


    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  5. Reaction modeling in geothermal systems (United States)

    Stefansson, A.


    Natural volcanic geothermal systems are open systems in term of matter and energy. Such systems are complex to model in terms of fluid chemistry, fluid flow and energy budget. Reaction modeling may be used to gain insight and possibly quantify chemical processes occurring within a system, for example fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction. Methods have been developed within the WATCH (Bjarnason, 1994; Arnórsson et al., 2007) and PHREEQC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999) programs to simulate reactions of multicomponent and multiphase systems to 300°C. The models include boiling and phase segregation (open system boiling), fluid-fluid mixing and fluid-rock interaction (gas-water-rock interaction). The models have been applied to quantify processes within the Hellisheidi geothermal system, Iceland. Open system boiling and fluid-rock interaction were simulated as a function of temperature, initial fluid composition and extent of reaction (T-X-ξ). In addition the interactions of magmatic gases with geothermal fluids and rocks were modeled. In this way various component behavior has been traced within the geothermal system and compared with observations of fluid composition and mineralogy. In addition, the reaction models have been used to evaluate the geochemical feasibility and best conditions of gas (CO2 and H2S) and waste water injection into geothermal system.

  6. Isotachophoresis applied to biomolecular reactions. (United States)

    Eid, C; Santiago, J G


    This review discusses research developments and applications of isotachophoresis (ITP) to the initiation, control, and acceleration of chemical reactions, emphasizing reactions involving biomolecular reactants such as nucleic acids, proteins, and live cells. ITP is a versatile technique which requires no specific geometric design or material, and is compatible with a wide range of microfluidic and automated platforms. Though ITP has traditionally been used as a purification and separation technique, recent years have seen its emergence as a method to automate and speed up chemical reactions. ITP has been used to demonstrate up to 14 000-fold acceleration of nucleic acid assays, and has been used to enhance lateral flow and other immunoassays, and even whole bacterial cell detection assays. We here classify these studies into two categories: homogeneous (all reactants in solution) and heterogeneous (at least one reactant immobilized on a solid surface) assay configurations. For each category, we review and describe physical modeling and scaling of ITP-aided reaction assays, and elucidate key principles in ITP assay design. We summarize experimental advances, and identify common threads and approaches which researchers have used to optimize assay performance. Lastly, we propose unaddressed challenges and opportunities that could further improve these applications of ITP.

  7. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye


    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  8. The Pitfalls of Precipitation Reactions. (United States)

    Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W.


    Described are some of the difficulties presented in these reactions by competing equilibria that are usually ignored. Situations involving acid-base equilibria, solubility product calculations, the use of ammonia as a complexing agent, and semiquantitative comparisons of solubility product values are discussed. (CW)

  9. Reactants encapsulation and Maillard Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.


    In the last decades many efforts have been addressed to the control of Maillard Reaction products in different foods with the aim to promote the formation of compounds having the desired color and flavor and to reduce the concentration of several potential toxic molecules. Encapsulation, already


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    some confectionery groundnut accessions reactions to plant parasitic nematodes infection. .... The soil samples, 200 cm3 per treatment were extracted using the ..... 15. Osei et al, 2013. Table 7.Days to maturity of Accessions at the four locations. Accessions. Fumesua. Wenchi. Ejura. Atebubu. ICGV 97040. 101a. 109a. 93 e.

  11. Apparent tunneling in chemical reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Billing, G. D.


    A necessary condition for tunneling in a chemical reaction is that the probability of crossing a barrier is non-zero, when the energy of the reactants is below the potential energy of the barrier. Due to the non-classical nature (i.e, momentum uncertainty) of vibrational states this is, however...

  12. Allergic reactions to natural rubber. (United States)

    Slater, J E


    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber pose a significant risk to patients with spina bifida and urogenital abnormalities, health care workers, and rubber industry workers. Other patients, outside of these high risk groups, have experienced severe allergic reactions to natural rubber as well. Awareness of this life-threatening condition by health care providers is essential if reactions are to be prevented. History alone is inadequate to identify all patients at risk, and reliable testing materials are not yet approved or widely available. Nonrubber medical devices are readily available for most uses; however, the only rubber-free condoms currently on the market do not prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted disease. The identification and detection of rubber antigens, along with mandated labeling for rubber antigen content, will contribute to the care of this growing population of patients. Efforts by the rubber industry to decrease the antigen content of natural rubber products will decrease the risk of reaction among sensitized patients and will, very likely, decrease the rate of sensitization in the future.

  13. Organic Reaction Mechanism Controversy: Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated the pedagogical implications of the controversy generated by the nature of reaction mechanism in organic chemistry as to whether it can be proven or not. A conference of a chemist, chemical educator, a graduate chemistry teacher and a graduate assistant was organized. The conference lasted for ...

  14. Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate


    Reimann, Peter


    Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate : a path integral approach / P. Hänggi and P. Reimann. - In: International Conference on Path Integrals from peV to TeV : Proceedings of the ... / eds.: R. Casalbuoni ... - Singapore u.a. : World Scientific, 1999. - S. 407-409

  15. Palladium-Catalysed Coupling Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Beller, M; Blaser, HU


    Palladium-catalysed coupling reactions have gained importance as a tool for the production of pharmaceutical intermediates and to a lesser extent also for the production of agrochemicals, flavours and fragrances, and monomers for polymers. In this review only these cases are discussed where it seems

  16. Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Solvation. (United States)

    Kim, Seong Keun

    A potential energy surface was constructed for the triatomic molecule Li_2H using a semiempirical method akin to the diatomics-in-molecules theory. Valence bond configurations were chosen to include the major ionic contributions in the ground state potential energy. Quasiclassical trajectories were run on this potential energy surface. The results of these calculations are shown to be generally in accord with the experimental investigations of analogous reactions of H atoms with bigger alkali dimer molecules. Certain aspects of chemical reaction dynamics which have been largely overlooked were examined. These involve correlations of vector properties in chemical reactions. Specifically, the strong correlation between orbital and rotational angular momenta in the product channel of this reaction was shown to be the reason for a seemingly contradictory set of distributions of different angles. Gas phase solvation of nucleic acid base molecules was studied using clusters produced by supersonic expansion. Relative stabilities of the species with different numbers of solvent molecules were studied by varying the expansion conditions. The ionization potentials were measured as a function of the number of solvent molecules. Rather distinct effects of hydration were observed for the ionization potentials of adenine and thymine.

  17. Cutaneous adverse drug reaction in a dog associated with imepitoin. (United States)

    Royaux, Emilie; Bhatti, Sofie; De Cock, Hilde; Van Ham, Luc; Kitshoff, Adriaan; Vandenabeele, Sophie


    The macroscopic appearance of cutaneous adverse drug reactions can be similar to a plethora of skin diseases and in particular may resemble autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders. The reaction can occur after single or multiple administrations, with the latter varying in durations of up to years of treatment. These reactions are mostly self-limiting with cessation of the offending drug. To report a cutaneous adverse drug reaction associated with chronic administration of imepitoin. A 4-year-old, Jack Russell terrier dog was presented with progressive skin lesions of 1-week duration. The dog had a 6 month history of idiopathic epilepsy treated with imepitoin for the previous 5 months. Imepitoin is an anti-epileptic drug that acts as a low-affinity partial agonist of the benzodiazepine site at the GABAA receptor. The dosage of imepitoin was increased from 20 mg/kg twice daily to 30 mg/kg twice daily, 3 days before the onset of skin lesions, due to uncontrolled seizures. [Correction added on 15 February 2016 after first online publication: In the preceding sentence, the dosage of imepitoin was previously incorrect and has been amended in this current version.] Dermatological examination revealed erythema and exfoliation at the mucocutaneous junctions of the lips, lip folds, philtrum, ears, axillae and the ventral abdomen. Small erosions and depigmentation were visible on the oral mucosa, lip folds and philtrum. Histopathology was supportive of a lupoid drug reaction. Complete resolution of skin lesions was seen after discontinuation of imepitoin and low dose of prednisolone during a period of 4 weeks. No recrudescence of skin lesions was observed during a 6 month follow-up period. Imepitoin may result in cutaneous adverse drug reactions in dogs. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.


    Anderson, James M.; Rodriguez, Analiz; Chang, David T.


    The foreign body reaction composed of macrophages and foreign body giant cells is the end-stage response of the inflammatory and wound healing responses following implantation of a medical device, prosthesis, or biomaterial. A brief, focused overview of events leading to the foreign body reaction is presented. The major focus of this review is on factors that modulate the interaction of macrophages and foreign body giant cells on synthetic surfaces where the chemical, physical, and morphological characteristics of the synthetic surface are considered to play a role in modulating cellular events. These events in the foreign body reaction include protein adsorption, monocyte/macrophage adhesion, macrophage fusion to form foreign body giant cells, consequences of the foreign body response on biomaterials, and cross-talk between macrophages/foreign body giant cells and inflammatory/wound healing cells. Biomaterial surface properties play an important role in modulating the foreign body reaction in the first two to four weeks following implantation of a medical device, even though the foreign body reaction at the tissue/material interface is present for the in vivo lifetime of the medical device. An understanding of the foreign body reaction is important as the foreign body reaction may impact the biocompatibility (safety) of the medical device, prosthesis, or implanted biomaterial and may significantly impact short- and long-term tissue responses with tissue-engineered constructs containing proteins, cells, and other biological components for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Our perspective has been on the inflammatory and wound healing response to implanted materials, devices, and tissue-engineered constructs. The incorporation of biological components of allogeneic or xenogeneic origin as well as stem cells into tissue-engineered or regenerative approaches opens up a myriad of other challenges. An in depth understanding of how the immune system

  19. Numerical modelling of hydration reactions (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; John, Timm


    Mineral reactions are generally accompanied by volume changes. Observations in rocks and thin section indicate that this often occurred by replacement reactions involving a fluid phase. Frequently, the volume of the original rock or mineral seems to be conserved. If the density of the solid reaction products is higher than the reactants, the associated solid volume decrease generates space for a fluid phase. In other words, porosity is created. The opposite is true for an increase in solid volume during reaction, which leads to a porosity reduction. This slows down and may even stop the reaction if it needs fluid as a reactant. Understanding the progress of reactions and their rates is important because reaction generally changes geophysical and rock mechanical properties which will therefore affect geodynamical processes and seismic properties. We studied the case of hydration of eclogite to blueschist in a subduction zone setting. Eclogitized pillow basalt structures from the Tian-Shan orogeny are transformed to blueschist on the rims of the pillow (van der Straaten et al., 2008). Fluid pathways existed between the pillow structures. The preferred hypothesis of blueschist formation is to supply the fluid for hydration from the pillow margins progressing inward. Using numerical modelling we simulate this coupled reaction-diffusion process. Porosity and fluid pressure evolution are coupled to local thermodynamic equilibrium and density changes. The first rim of blueschist that forms around the eclogite pillow increases volume to such a degree that the system is clogged and the reaction stops. Nevertheless, the field evidence suggests the blueschist formation continued. To prevent the system from clogging, a high incoming pore fluid pressure on the pillow boundaries is needed along with removal of mass from the system to accommodate the volume changes. The only other possibility is to form blueschist from any remaining fluid stored in the core of the pillow

  20. Experimental Demonstrations in Teaching Chemical Reactions. (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi


    Presents demonstrations of chemical reactions by employing different features of various compounds that can be altered after a chemical change occurs. Experimental activities include para- and dia-magnetism in chemical reactions, aluminum reaction with base, reaction of acid with carbonates, use of electrochemical cells for demonstrating chemical…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For both Nile blue and Meldola\\'s blue reactions the rates have first-order dependence on each substrate, chlorite and acid. Both reactions showed negative salt effect indicating the reaction is between the oppositely charged species, likely the substrate cation and chlorite anion. The acidic chlorite reaction with MB+ was ...

  2. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.


    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  3. 76 FR 67763 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National...

  4. 76 FR 64112 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Revisions of NASA Appendices to Privacy Act System of... publishes with the Agency's systems of records under the Privacy Act of 1974. This notice publishes those...

  5. 76 FR 64115 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of the retirement of one Privacy Act system of records notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, NASA is giving notice that it proposes to...

  6. 76 FR 64114 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National...

  7. 75 FR 81205 - Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice to Revise Privacy Act Systems of Records. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proposes to revise two Privacy Act Systems of...

  8. 78 FR 77719 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is...

  9. ACT Reporting Category Interpretation Guide: Version 1.0. ACT Working Paper 2016 (05) (United States)

    Powers, Sonya; Li, Dongmei; Suh, Hongwook; Harris, Deborah J.


    ACT reporting categories and ACT Readiness Ranges are new features added to the ACT score reports starting in fall 2016. For each reporting category, the number correct score, the maximum points possible, the percent correct, and the ACT Readiness Range, along with an indicator of whether the reporting category score falls within the Readiness…

  10. 12 CFR 741.214 - Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance. 741.214 Section 741.214 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... Unions § 741.214 Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance. Any credit union...

  11. 77 FR 34179 - Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act Procedures (United States)


    ... RECONSTRUCTION 5 CFR Chapter LXXXIII 5 Part 9301 RIN 3460-AA00 Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act... Reconstruction under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and the Privacy Act of 1974. These procedures will... 9301 Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of information, Privacy. Accordingly, the interim...

  12. 32 CFR 2400.22 - Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act requests. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 2400.22 Freedom of Information Act and Privacy... that are submitted under the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act, as amended, or the Privacy...

  13. Mechanistic insights into the dehalogenation reaction of fluoroacetate/fluoroacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Rojas, Sebastián, E-mail: [Chemical Processes and Catalysis (CPC), Departamento de Ciencias Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avenida República 275, Santiago (Chile); Toro-Labbé, Alejandro [Laboratorio de Química Teórica Computacional (QTC), Facultad de Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)


    Fluoroacetate is a toxic compound whose environmental accumulation may represent an important contamination problem, its elimination is therefore a challenging issue. Fluoroacetate dehalogenase catalyzes its degradation through a two step process initiated by an S{sub N}2 reaction in which the aspartate residue performs a nucleophilic attack on the carbon bonded to the fluorine; the second step is hydrolysis that releases the product as glycolate. In this paper, we present a study based on density functional theory calculations of the S{sub N}2 initiation reaction modeled through the interaction between the substrate and the propionate anion as the nucleophile. Results are analyzed within the framework of the reaction force and using the reaction electronic flux to identify and characterize the electronic activity that drives the reaction. Our results reveal that the selective protonation of the substrate catalyzes the reaction by decreasing the resistance of the structural and electronic reorganization needed to reach the transition state. Finally, the reaction energy is modulated by the degree of stabilization of the fluoride anion formed after the S{sub N}2 reaction. In this way, a site-induced partial protonation acts as a chemical switch in a key process that determines the output of the reaction.

  14. Personal Information as Communicative Acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik


    The paper extends previous accounts of informational privacy as a contextual notion. Where previous accounts have focused on interpretations of the privacy context itself as being contextual and open for negotiation and interpretation, this paper extends those analyses and shows that personal...... information itself is in fact best understood as contextual and situational—and as such open for interpretation. The paper reviews the notion of information as it has been applied in informational privacy and philosophy of information, and suggests that personal information ought to be regarded...... as communicative acts. The paper suggests a reconceptualization of informational privacy from having its focus on controlling, limiting, and restricting access to material carriers of information to a focus on a regulation of the use, analysis, and interpretation of personal information....

  15. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix


    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  16. Acting Antarctica: science on stage (United States)

    Ciceri, Piera; Tizzoni, Paola; Pierro, Luigia


    Key-words: Polar science, Earth science, Theatre, Hands on activities The legendary Antarctic Expedition of sir E. Shackleton and his crew of 27 aboard the Endurance (1914/16) trapped in the Antarctic ice has become the starting point to learn about Polar Science and Climate Change. While the students were involved into this incredible adventure by the astonishing images of the Australian photographer Frank Hurley (who joined the crew), they discovered the world in which this story happened. Students were then involved in hands-on activities and role plays and have become the writers of the play "Uomini a scienza ai confini del mondo". They act the story of Shackelton's expedition and they tell at the same time to the audience about ice pack, ice cores and their role in understanding the past of the climate, physical and geographical characteristic of polar regions, thermal phenomena related to adaptations of polar animals, solar radiation at different latitude, day/night duration. The theater was the place to "stage" some scientific experiments and to explain the current research carried out in polar regions and their importance in climate change studies and to stress some similarities between Antarctica and space. The project was carried out from teachers of science, letters and geography and was born in collaboration with the "Piccolo Teatro di Milano" and the association "Science Under 18" with the support of a professional actor and director and was played for other schools at "EXPO 2015" in Milano (Italy). In our opinion drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills. To be able to write and to act, students need a deep understanding of contents. Arts, including theatre, are a good key to involve emotionally students. To have an audience different from their own teachers and classmates offers a real task and the opportunity to play and let grow real skills.

  17. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (United States)

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  18. Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System (United States)

    Barry, Frank


    Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…

  19. Universities Reaching Outwards: Science Education Partnerships with Urban School Systems (United States)

    Sandifer, Cody


    The goals of this talk are to: (1) describe how universities, physics departments, and individual faculty can partner with urban school systems to benefit K-16 students, teacher education programs, and university instructors, (2) summarize research on effective university-school system education partnerships, and (3) offer advice and share lessons learned so that university partners can avoid common pitfalls and maximize the potential for collaborative success. Possible areas of university-school collaboration include resident teachers, curricular review, early teaching experiences, demo sharing sessions, ongoing professional development, on- and off-campus science outreach, RET programs, science education resource centers, and others. University-school educational partnerships offer numerous benefits but can be challenging to implement and maintain. Research shows that most successful partnerships possess the following characteristics: mutual self-interest, participant commitment, mutual trust and respect, shared decision-making, information sharing, and ongoing evaluation. K-16 course and curriculum redesign is a specific issue that has its own unique set of contextual factors that impact the project's chance at success, including available materials, administrative support, formative assessments, pilot-testing and instructor feedback, and ongoing professional development. I have learned a number of lessons in own science education collaborations with the Baltimore City Public School System, which is an urban school system with 200 schools, 84,000 students, and 10,700 teachers and administrators. These lessons pertain to: communication, administrative power, and the structure of the school system; relevant contextual factors in the university and K-12 schools; and good old-fashioned common sense.Specific advice on K-16 science education partnerships will be provided to help universities increase student and instructor satisfaction with their physics and teacher education programs, maintain a positive and mutually beneficial relationship with local schools, and improve science education at all levels of instruction. Common sense is encouraged, but not required, to attend the invited talk.

  20. Outward migration may alter population dynamics and income inequality (United States)

    Shayegh, Soheil


    Climate change impacts may drive affected populations to migrate. However, migration decisions in response to climate change could have broader effects on population dynamics in affected regions. Here, I model the effect of climate change on fertility rates, income inequality, and human capital accumulation in developing countries, focusing on the instrumental role of migration as a key adaptation mechanism. In particular, I investigate how climate-induced migration in developing countries will affect those who do not migrate. I find that holding all else constant, climate change raises the return on acquiring skills, because skilled individuals have greater migration opportunities than unskilled individuals. In response to this change in incentives, parents may choose to invest more in education and have fewer children. This may ultimately reduce local income inequality, partially offsetting some of the damages of climate change for low-income individuals who do not migrate.

  1. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions (United States)

    Imbihl, R.


    The electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became feasible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. With the O 2- conducting yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the Na + conducting β″-Al 2O 3 (β-alumina), and several other types of solid electrolytes the EPOC effect has been demonstrated for about 100 reaction systems in studies conducted mainly in the mbar range. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of oxygen and alkali metal, respectively, onto the surface of the metal electrodes. For the catalytic promotion effect general concepts and mechanistic schemes were proposed but these concepts and schemes are largely speculative. Applying surface analytical tools to EPOC systems the proposed mechanistic schemes can be verified or invalidated. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.

  2. Theoretical aspects of surface reactions (United States)

    Nørskov, J. K.; Stoltze, P.


    A short review is given of our present understanding of the trends in the chemisorption energies and activation energies for dissociation of simple gas molecules on the transition metals. The effect of adsorbed alkali atoms on the activation energy for dissociation is also discussed. This is then used to explain the trends in activity along the transition metal rows and the promoting effect of K for the ammonia synthesis reaction. The basis for the description is the development of a kinetic model for the ammonia synthesis which can describe quantitatively the macroscopic kinetics of a commercial catalyst under industrial conditions. The model relates the reaction rate directly to the properties of the chemisorbed reactants, intermediates and product as measured for model single crystal systems under ultrahigh vacuum conditions.

  3. Investigating Reaction-Driven Cracking (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.; Savage, H. M.


    Many metamorphic reactions lead to large volume changes, and potentially to reaction-driven cracking [1,2]. Large-scale hydration of mantle peridotite to produce serpentine or talc is invoked to explain the rheology of plate boundaries, the nature of earthquakes, and the seismic properties of slow-spread ocean crust and the 'mantle wedge' above subduction zones. Carbonation of peridotite may be an important sink in the global carbon cycle. Zones of 100% magnesite + quartz replacing peridotite, up to 200 m thick, formed where oceanic mantle was thrust over carbonate-bearing metasediments in Oman. Talc + carbonate is an important component of the matrix in subduction mélanges at Santa Catalina Island , California, and the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, Japan. Engineered systems to emulate natural mineral carbonation could provide relatively inexpensive CO2 capture and storage [3]. More generally, engineered reaction-driven cracking could supplement or replace hydraulic fracture in geothermal systems, solution mining, and extraction of tight oil and gas. The controls on reaction-driven cracking are poorly understood. Hydration and carbonation reactions can be self-limiting, since they potentially reduce permeability and armor reactive surfaces [4]. Also, in some cases, hydration or carbonation may take place at constant volume. Small changes in volume due to precipitation of solid products increases stress, destabilizing solid reactants, until precipitation and dissolution rates become equal at a steady state stress [5]. In a third case, volume change due to precipitation of solid products causes brittle failure. This has been invoked on qualitative grounds to explain, e.g., complete serpentinization of mantle peridotite [6]. Below ~ 300°C, the available potential energy for hydration and carbonation of olivine could produce stresses of 100's of MPa [2], sufficient to fracture rocks to 10 km depth or more, causing brittle failure below the steady state stress required

  4. Partner reaction following ostomy surgery. (United States)

    Gloeckner, M R


    This study was conducted to obtain information regarding sexual adjustment following ostomy surgery and to explore the spouse/partner's reaction upon resuming sexual activities following surgery. Home interviews were conducted with 40 subjects who had a permanent stoma, where the mean length of time since surgery averaged 4.6 years. Retrospective perceptions of the spouse/partner's reactions were varied. A majority reported that their spouses reacted positively to the first sexual experience following ostomy surgery. However a substantial number of subjects stated that their sexual partner reacted with caution ("fear of hurting me") or in a negative manner. This and previous studies indicate that the sexual partner plays a key role in helping the person adjust following ostomy surgery.

  5. Stickland reactions of dental plaque. (United States)

    Curtis, M A; Kemp, C W; Robrish, S A; Bowen, W H


    Dental plaque samples from monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were shown to contain proline reduction activity in coupled Stickland reactions with other amino acids and also with certain end products of bacterial glucose metabolism. The unusually high concentration of bound and free proline in the oral environment may be of importance in both the production of base and in the removal of acid from the tooth surface after dietary carbohydrate ingestion. PMID:6618673

  6. Siphons in chemical reaction networks. (United States)

    Shiu, Anne; Sturmfels, Bernd


    Siphons in a chemical reaction system are subsets of the species that have the potential of being absent in a steady state. We present a characterization of minimal siphons in terms of primary decomposition of binomial ideals, we explore the underlying geometry, and we demonstrate the effective computation of siphons using computer algebra software. This leads to a new method for determining whether given initial concentrations allow for various boundary steady states.

  7. Modeling the enzyme kinetic reaction. (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon


    The Enzymatic control reactions model was presented within the scope of fractional calculus. In order to accommodate the usual initial conditions, the fractional derivative used is in Caputo sense. The methodologies of the three analytical methods were used to derive approximate solution of the fractional nonlinear system of differential equations. Two methods use integral operator and the other one uses just an integral. Numerical results obtained exhibit biological behavior of real world problem.

  8. Multicomponent reactions in nucleoside chemistry (United States)

    Buchowicz, Włodzimierz


    Summary This review covers sixty original publications dealing with the application of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) in the synthesis of novel nucleoside analogs. The reported approaches were employed for modifications of the parent nucleoside core or for de novo construction of a nucleoside scaffold from non-nucleoside substrates. The cited references are grouped according to the usually recognized types of the MCRs. Biochemical properties of the novel nucleoside analogs are also presented (if provided by the authors). PMID:25161730

  9. Tuberculin reaction and BCG scar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter


    rate ratio (MRR) comparing children with a BCG scar with those without was 0.42 (95% CI = 0.19; 0.93). There was a similar tendency for TST positivity: MRR = 0.47 (95% CI = 0.14; 1.54). For LBW children who had both a positive TST reaction and a scar, the MRR was 0.22 (95% CI = 0.05; 0.87). For NBW...

  10. Reaction Selectivity in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Kliewer, Christopher J.


    The understanding of selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is of paramount importance to our society today. In this review we outline the current state of the art in research on selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Current in-situ surface science techniques have revealed several important features of catalytic selectivity. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy has shown us the importance of understanding the reaction intermediates and mechanism of a heterogeneous reaction, and can readily yield information as to the effect of temperature, pressure, catalyst geometry, surface promoters, and catalyst composition on the reaction mechanism. DFT calculations are quickly approaching the ability to assist in the interpretation of observed surface spectra, thereby making surface spectroscopy an even more powerful tool. HP-STM has revealed three vitally important parameters in heterogeneous selectivity: adsorbate mobility, catalyst mobility, and selective site-blocking. The development of size controlled nanoparticles from 0.8 to 10 nm, of controlled shape, and of controlled bimetallic composition has revealed several important variables for catalytic selectivity. Lastly, DFT calculations may be paving the way to guiding the composition choice for multi-metallic heterogeneous catalysis for the intelligent design of catalysts incorporating the many factors of selectivity we have learned.

  11. Chlorination of Amino Acids: Reaction Pathways and Reaction Rates. (United States)

    How, Zuo Tong; Linge, Kathryn L; Busetti, Francesco; Joll, Cynthia A


    Chlorination of amino acids can result in the formation of organic monochloramines or organic dichloramines, depending on the chlorine to amino acid ratio (Cl:AA). After formation, organic chloramines degrade into aldehydes, nitriles and N-chloraldimines. In this paper, the formation of organic chloramines from chlorination of lysine, tyrosine and valine were investigated. Chlorination of tyrosine and lysine demonstrated that the presence of a reactive secondary group can increase the Cl:AA ratio required for the formation of N,N-dichloramines, and potentially alter the reaction pathways between chlorine and amino acids, resulting in the formation of unexpected byproducts. In a detailed investigation, we report rate constants for all reactions in the chlorination of valine, for the first time, using experimental results and modeling. At Cl:AA = 2.8, the chlorine was found to first react quickly with valine (5.4 × 10 4 M -1 s -1 ) to form N-monochlorovaline, with a slower subsequent reaction with N-monochlorovaline to form N,N-dichlorovaline (4.9 × 10 2 M -1 s -1 ), although some N-monochlorovaline degraded into isobutyraldehyde (1.0 × 10 -4 s -1 ). The N,N-dichlorovaline then competitively degraded into isobutyronitrile (1.3 × 10 -4 s -1 ) and N-chloroisobutyraldimine (1.2 × 10 -4 s -1 ). In conventional drinking water disinfection, N-chloroisobutyraldimine can potentially be formed in concentrations higher than its odor threshold concentration, resulting in aesthetic challenges and an unknown health risk.

  12. Act of 15 July 1987. (United States)


    The text of this Act on artificial insemination is as follows: "1. If, under the supervision of a licensed physician and with the consent of her husband, a wife is inseminated artificially with semen donated by a man not her husband, the husband is treated in law as if he were the natural father of a child thereby conceived. The husband's consent must be in writing and signed by him and his wife. The physician shall certify their signatures and the date of the insemination, and file the husband's consent with the bureau, where it shall be kept confidential and in a sealed file. The physician's failure to comply with this section shall not affect the father and child relationship. All papers and records pertaining to the insemination, whether part of the permanent record of a court or of a file held by the supervising physician or elsewhere, are subject to inspection only upon an order of the court for good cause shown. 2. The donor of semen provided to a licensed physician for use in artificial insemination of a married woman other than the donor's wife is treated in law as if he were not the natural father of a child thereby conceived." full text

  13. [Paradoxical aggressive reactions to benzodiazepine use: a review]. (United States)

    Saïas, T; Gallarda, T


    With growing prescription and availability, benzodiazepine usage in France is on the increase among the general population. Although its anxiolytic action has long been proven, many side effects can be observed. TYPOLOGY AND PREVALENCE: Paradoxical reactions of aggressiveness under benzodiazepines have been discussed in the scientific literature since the 1960s. This term was introduced to describe reactions of agitation and disinhibition occurring during anxiolytic or hypnotic treatment. Physical aggression, rape, impulsive decision-making and violence have been reported, as well as autoaggressiveness and suicide. General population studies indicate a prevalence of these reactions of less than 1%, and meta-analysis has shown that use of benzodiazepines generates aggressiveness more frequently than it reduces it. It has also been shown that long-term memory (anterograde amnesia) can be impaired following the ingestion of a benzodiazepine. Benzodiazepine-linked disinhibition, auto and heteroaggressiveness, anxiety and criminal acts have been associated with various vulnerability factors. Although the risk of these paradoxical reactions depends on the number of such factors present in a single patient, the effects of the type and dose of benzodiazepine on the frequency and the intensity of paradoxical symptoms are not clear. In terms of personality, several studies have demonstrated the role of low-stress control (specifically high-trait anxiety) on aggressiveness under benzodiazepines. Other authors underline the role of borderline personality disorder as a major risk factor predicting paradoxical reactions. Results of a study on borderline patients show a prevalence of benzodiazepine-linked disinhibition of 58%. On a neuropharmacological level, the influence of the GABA system on the serotonin control and the impact of alcohol seem to be established. Benzodiazepines, specifically when associated with alcohol, seem to facilitate GABAergic transmission, which can be

  14. ACT++: Building a Concurrent C++ with Actors


    Kafura, Dennis G.; Lee, Keung Hae


    ACT++ (Actors in C++) is a concurrent object-oriented language being designed for distributed real-time applications. The language is a hybrid of the actor kernel language and the object-oriented language C++. The concurrency abstraction of ACT++ is derived from the actor model as defined by Agha. This paper discusses our experience in building a concurrent extension of C++ with the concurrency abstraction of the actor model. The current design of ACT++ and its implementation are described. S...

  15. Metal-catalyzed asymmetric aldol reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luiz C.; Lucca Junior, Emilio C. de; Ferreira, Marco A. B.; Polo, Ellen C., E-mail: [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    The aldol reaction is one of the most powerful and versatile methods for the construction of C-C bonds. Traditionally, this reaction was developed in a stoichiometric version; however, great efforts in the development of chiral catalysts for aldol reactions were performed in recent years. Thus, in this review article, the development of metal-mediated chiral catalysts in Mukaiyama-type aldol reaction, reductive aldol reaction and direct aldol reaction are discussed. Moreover, the application of these catalysts in the total synthesis of complex molecules is discussed. (author)

  16. Chemical reactions in solvents and melts

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G


    Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts discusses the use of organic and inorganic compounds as well as of melts as solvents. This book examines the applications in organic and inorganic chemistry as well as in electrochemistry. Organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general properties and the different types of reactions, including acid-base reactions, complex formation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. This text then describes the properties of inert and active solvents. Other chapters consider the proton transfer reactions in

  17. 75 FR 65229 - Privacy Act; Implementation (United States)


    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dale Underwood, Privacy Act officer, Department of the Treasury, . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Department of the Treasury is publishing separately...

  18. BBG 2009 Freedom of Information Act Repot (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  19. BBG 2008 Freedom of Information Act Report (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) system contains information reported to the state environmental programs on activities and cleanup...