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Sample records for reacting gas particle

  1. COARSE-GRID SIMULATION OF REACTING AND NON-REACTING GAS-PARTICLE FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaran Sundaresan

    2004-03-01

    The principal goal of this project, funded under the ''DOE Vision 21 Virtual Demonstration Initiative'' is virtual demonstration of circulating fluidized bed performance. We had proposed a ''virtual demonstration tool'', which is based on the open-domain CFD code MFIX. The principal challenge funded through this grant is to devise and implement in this CFD code sound physical models for the rheological characteristics of the gas-particle mixtures. Within the past year, which was the third year of the project, we have made the following specific advances. (a) We have completed a study of the impact of sub-grid models of different levels of detail on the results obtained in coarse-grid simulations of gas-particle flow. (b) We have also completed a study of a model problem to understand the effect of wall friction, which was proved in our earlier work to be very important for stable operation of standpipes in a circulating fluidized bed circuit. These are described in a greater detail in this report.

  2. A stochastic model of particle dispersion in turbulent reacting gaseous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David; Hewson, John

    2012-11-01

    We are performing fundamental studies of dispersive transport and time-temperature histories of Lagrangian particles in turbulent reacting flows. The particle-flow statistics including the full particle temperature PDF are of interest. A challenge in modeling particle motions is the accurate prediction of fine-scale aerosol-fluid interactions. A computationally affordable stochastic modeling approach, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT), is a proven method that captures the full range of length and time scales, and provides detailed statistics of fine-scale turbulent-particle mixing and transport. Limited results of particle transport in ODT have been reported in non-reacting flow. Here, we extend ODT to particle transport in reacting flow. The results of particle transport in three flow configurations are presented: channel flow, homogeneous isotropic turbulence, and jet flames. We investigate the functional dependence of the statistics of particle-flow interactions including (1) parametric study with varying temperatures, Reynolds numbers, and particle Stokes numbers; (2) particle temperature histories and PDFs; (3) time scale and the sensitivity of initial and boundary conditions. Flow statistics are compared to both experimental measurements and DNS data.

  3. A computer model for one-dimensional mass and energy transport in and around chemically reacting particles, including complex gas-phase chemistry, multicomponent molecular diffusion, surface evaporation, and heterogeneous reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S. Y.; Yetter, R. A.; Dryer, F. L.

    1992-01-01

    Various chemically reacting flow problems highlighting chemical and physical fundamentals rather than flow geometry are presently investigated by means of a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates multicomponent molecular diffusion, complex chemistry, and heterogeneous processes, in the interest of obtaining sensitivity-related information. The sensitivity equations were decoupled from those of the model, and then integrated one time-step behind the integration of the model equations, and analytical Jacobian matrices were applied to improve the accuracy of sensitivity coefficients that are calculated together with model solutions.

  4. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudinger, G

    1980-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  5. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  6. Heat and mass transfer for turbulent flow of chemically reacting gas in eccentric annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besedina, T.V.; Tverkovkin, B.E.; Udot, A.V.; Yakushev, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the possibility of using dissociating gases as coolants and working bodies of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to develop computational algorithms for calculating heat and mass transfer processes under conditions of nonequilibrium flow of chemically reacting gases not only in axisymmetric channels, but also in channels with a complex transverse cross section (including also in eccentric annular channels). An algorithm is proposed for calculating the velocity, temperature, and concentration fields under conditions of cooling of a cylindrical heat-releasing rod, placed off-center in a circular casing pipe, by a longitudinal flow of chemically reacting gas [N 2 O 4

  7. An LES-PBE-PDF approach for modeling particle formation in turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerin, Fabian; Rigopoulos, Stelios

    2017-10-01

    Many chemical and environmental processes involve the formation of a polydispersed particulate phase in a turbulent carrier flow. Frequently, the immersed particles are characterized by an intrinsic property such as the particle size, and the distribution of this property across a sample population is taken as an indicator for the quality of the particulate product or its environmental impact. In the present article, we propose a comprehensive model and an efficient numerical solution scheme for predicting the evolution of the property distribution associated with a polydispersed particulate phase forming in a turbulent reacting flow. Here, the particulate phase is described in terms of the particle number density whose evolution in both physical and particle property space is governed by the population balance equation (PBE). Based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES), we augment the existing LES-transported probability density function (PDF) approach for fluid phase scalars by the particle number density and obtain a modeled evolution equation for the filtered PDF associated with the instantaneous fluid composition and particle property distribution. This LES-PBE-PDF approach allows us to predict the LES-filtered fluid composition and particle property distribution at each spatial location and point in time without any restriction on the chemical or particle formation kinetics. In view of a numerical solution, we apply the method of Eulerian stochastic fields, invoking an explicit adaptive grid technique in order to discretize the stochastic field equation for the number density in particle property space. In this way, sharp moving features of the particle property distribution can be accurately resolved at a significantly reduced computational cost. As a test case, we consider the condensation of an aerosol in a developed turbulent mixing layer. Our investigation not only demonstrates the predictive capabilities of the LES-PBE-PDF model but also

  8. Inside versus Outside: Ion Redistribution in Nitric Acid Reacted Sea Spray Aerosol Particles as Determined by Single Particle Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, A. P.; Guasco, T.; Ryder, O. S.; Baltrusaitis, J.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Collins, D. B.; Ruppel, M. J.; Bertram, T. H.; Prather, K. A.; Grassian, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles were generated under real-world conditions using natural seawater and a unique ocean-atmosphere facility equipped with actual breaking waves or a marine aerosol reference tank (MART) that replicates those conditions. The SSA particles were exposed to nitric acid in situ in a flow tube and the well-known chloride displacement and nitrate formation reaction was observed. However, as discussed here, little is known about how this anion displacement reaction affects the distribution of cations and other chemical constituents within and phase state of individual SSA particles. Single particle analysis of individual SSA particles shows that cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) within individual particles undergo a spatial redistribution after heterogeneous reaction with nitric acid, along with a more concentrated layer of organic matter at the surface of the particle. These data suggest that specific ion and aerosol pH effects play an important role in aerosol particle structure in ways that have not been previously recognized. The ordering of organic coatings can impact trace gas uptake, and subsequently impact trace gas budgets of O3 and NOx.

  9. From Detailed Description of Chemical Reacting Carbon Particles to Subgrid Models for CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the development and validation of a sub-model for the partial oxidation of a spherical char particle moving in an air/steam atmosphere. The particle diameter is 2 mm. The coal particle is represented by moisture- and ash-free nonporous carbon while the coal rank is implemented using semi-global reaction rate expressions taken from the literature. The submodel includes six gaseous chemical species (O2, CO2, CO, H2O, H2, N2. Three heterogeneous reactions are employed, along with two homogeneous semi-global reactions, namely carbon monoxide oxidation and the water-gas-shift reaction. The distinguishing feature of the subgrid model is that it takes into account the influence of homogeneous reactions on integral characteristics such as carbon combustion rates and particle temperature. The sub-model was validated by comparing its results with a comprehensive CFD-based model resolving the issues of bulk flow and boundary layer around the particle. In this model, the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the energy and species conservation equations were used to solve the problem by means of the pseudo-steady state approach. At the surface of the particle, the balance of mass, energy and species concentration was applied including the effect of the Stefan flow and heat loss due to radiation at the surface of the particle. Good agreement was achieved between the sub-model and the CFD-based model. Additionally, the CFD-based model was verified against experimental data published in the literature (Makino et al. (2003 Combust. Flame 132, 743-753. Good agreement was achieved between numerically predicted and experimentally obtained data for input conditions corresponding to the kinetically controlled regime. The maximal discrepancy (10% between the experiments and the numerical results was observed in the diffusion-controlled regime. Finally, we discuss the influence of the Reynolds number, the ambient O2 mass fraction and the ambient

  10. Modeling study of rarefied gas effects on hypersonic reacting stagnation flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Bao, Lin

    2014-12-01

    Recent development of the near space hypersonic sharp leading vehicles has raised a necessity to fast and accurately predict the aeroheating in hypersonic rarefied flows, which challenges our understanding of the aerothermodynamics and aerothermochemistry. The present flow and heat transfer problem involves complex rarefied gas effects and nonequilibrium real gas effects which are beyond the scope of the traditional prediction theory based on the continuum hypothesis and equilibrium assumption. As a typical example, it has been found that the classical Fay-Riddell equation fails to predict the stagnation point heat flux, when the flow is either rarefied or chemical nonequilibrium. In order to design a more general theory covering the rarefied reacting flow cases, an intuitive model is proposed in this paper to describe the nonequilibrium dissociation-recombination flow along the stagnation streamline towards a slightly blunted nose in hypersonic rarefied flows. Some characteristic flow parameters are introduced, and based on these parameters, an explicitly analytical bridging function is established to correct the traditional theory to accurately predict the actual aeroheating performance. It is shown that for a small size nose in medium density flows, the flow at the outer edge of the stagnation point boundary layer could be highly nonequilibrium, and the aeroheating performance is distinguished from that of the big blunt body reentry flows at high altitudes. As a result, when the rarefied gas effects and the nonequilibrium real gas effects are both significant, the classical similarity law could be questionable, and it is inadequate to directly analogize results from the classical blunt body reentry problems to the present new generation sharp-leading vehicles. In addition, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is also employed to validate the conclusion.

  11. Potential performance improvement using a reacting gas (nitrogin tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an analysis to estimate the performance that could be obtained by using a chemically reacting gas (nitrogen tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle are presented. Compared with data for helium as the working fluid, these results indicate efficiency improvements from 4 to 90 percent, depending on turbine inlet temperature, pressures, and gas residence time in heat transfer equipment.

  12. Silver sulfide nanoparticle assembly obtained by reacting an assembled silver nanoparticle template with hydrogen sulfide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Nuhfer, Noel T; Moussa, Laura; Morris, Hannah R; Whitmore, Paul M

    2008-11-12

    A fast, simple procedure is described for obtaining an assembly of silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag(2)S NPs) on a glass substrate through reaction of a template of an assembled layer of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) gas. The Ag NP template was prepared by assembling a monolayer of spherical Ag NPs (mean diameter of 7.4 nm) on a polyethylenimine-treated glass substrate. Exposure to pure H(2)S for 10 min converted the Ag NPs of the template to Ag(2)S NPs. The resulting Ag(2)S NP assembly, which retains the template nanostructure and particle distribution, was characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning high resolution TEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ag(2)S NPs have a crystal structure of monoclinic acanthite, and while they retained the spherical shape of the original Ag NPs, their mean particle size increased to 8.4 nm due to changes to the crystal structure when the Ag NPs are converted into Ag(2)S NPs. The measured optical absorption edge of the Ag(2)S NP assembly indicated an indirect interband transition with a band gap energy of 1.71 eV. The Ag(2)S NP assembly absorbed light with wavelengths below 725 nm, and the absorbance increased monotonically toward the UV region.

  13. Development of a Reduced-Order Model for Reacting Gas-Solids Flow using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Dwayne [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Dulikravich, George [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Cizmas, Paul [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-11-27

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks and accomplishments made during the three year duration of this research project. The report presents the results obtained by applying advanced computational techniques to develop reduced-order models (ROMs) in the case of reacting multiphase flows based on high fidelity numerical simulation of gas-solids flow structures in risers and vertical columns obtained by the Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges (MFIX) software. The research includes a numerical investigation of reacting and non-reacting gas-solids flow systems and computational analysis that will involve model development to accelerate the scale-up process for the design of fluidization systems by providing accurate solutions that match the full-scale models. The computational work contributes to the development of a methodology for obtaining ROMs that is applicable to the system of gas-solid flows. Finally, the validity of the developed ROMs is evaluated by comparing the results against those obtained using the MFIX code. Additionally, the robustness of existing POD-based ROMs for multiphase flows is improved by avoiding non-physical solutions of the gas void fraction and ensuring that the reduced kinetics models used for reactive flows in fluidized beds are thermodynamically consistent.

  14. Gas-particle interactions in dense gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of heterogeneous flow structures in gas-particle flows seriously affects gas¿solid contacting and transport processes in dense gas-fluidized beds. A computational study, using a discrete particle method based on Molecular Dynamics techniques, has been carried out to explore the

  15. How did the US economy react to shale gas production revolution? An advanced time series approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, Faik; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Sualp, M. Nedim

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at examining the impacts of shale gas revolution on industrial production in the US. To this end, this paper, first, throughout literature review, exposes the features of shale gas revolution in the US in terms of energy technology and energy markets. However, the potential influences of shale gas extraction on the US economy are not explicit in the existing literature. Thus, considering mainly the output of shale gas revolution on the US economy in this research, later, the paper conducts econometric models to reveal if there exists significant effect(s) of shale gas revolution on the US economy. Therefore, the paper employs unit root tests and cointegration tests by following relevant US monthly data from January 2008 to December 2013. Then, this paper observes long run impact of shale gas production on industrial production in the US through dynamic ordinary least squares estimation with dummy structural breaks and conducts Granger causality test based on vector error correction model. The dynamic ordinary least squares estimator explores that shale gas production has a positive effect on industrial production. Besides, the Granger causality test presents that shale gas production Granger causes industrial production in the long run. Based on the findings of the long run estimations, the paper yields that industrial production is positively related to shale gas production. Eventually, upon its findings, this paper asserts that (i) the shale gas revolution in the US has considerable positive effects on the US economy within the scope of the validity of the growth hypothesis, (ii) new technologies might be developed to mitigate the possible negative environmental effects of shale gas production, (iii) the countries having shale gas reserves, as in US, may follow energy policies to utilize their shale reserves more in the future to meet their energy demand and to increase their economic welfare. - Highlights: • Explores the US shale gas revolution

  16. Particle Emissions from Domestic Gas Cookers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Livbjerg, Hans; Wagner, Ayten Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    The authors experimentally studied the formation of submicron particles from a domestic gas cooker in a compartment free from external particle sources. The effects of fuel (methane, natural gas, odorant-free natural gas), primary aeration, flow rate, and fuel sulphur content on particle emissions...... of the emitted particles were found to have a mean value of about 7 nm for partially premixed flames, increasing to ∼10 nm for nonpremixed flames. The quantity of primary air had a strong impact on the particle emissions, showing a minimum at a primary aeration level of 60-65%. Presence of sulphur in small...... quantities may enhance particle formation under some conditions, but results were not conclusive....

  17. Particle emissions from compressed natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristovski, Z.D.; Morawska, L.; Hitchins, J.; Thomas, S.; Greenaway, C.; Gilbert, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements conducted to determine particle and gas emissions from two large compressed natural gas (CNG) spark ignition (SI) engines. Particle size distributions in the range from 0.01-30 μm, and gas composition were measured for five power settings of the engines: 35, 50, 65, 80 and 100% of full power. Particle emissions in the size range between 0.5 and 30 μm, measured by the aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), were very low at a level below two particles cm -3 . These concentrations were comparable with average ambient concentration, and were not considered in the succeeding analysis. Both engines produce significant amounts of particles in the size range between 0.015 and 0.7 μm, measured by the scanning mobility particle size (SMPS). Maximum number of concentrations of about 1 x 10 7 particles cm -3 were very similar for both engines. The CMDs were in the range between 0.020 and 0.060 μm. The observed levels of particulate emission are in terms of number of the same order as emissions from heavy duty diesel engines (Morawska et al., Environ. Sci. Tech. 32, 2033-2042). On the other hand, emissions of CO and NO x of 5.53 and 3.33 g k W h -1 , respectively, for one of the tested engines, were considerably lower than set by the standards. According to the specifications for the gas emissions, provided by the US EPA (US EPA, 1997), this engine can be considered as a 'low-emission' engine, although emissions of submicrometer particles are of the same order as heavy-duty vehicles. (Author)

  18. Dechanneling of particles by gas bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronikier-Polonsky, Danuta.

    1976-01-01

    The dechanneling probability P of a particle hitting a gas bubble in a solid is evaluated theoretically. This probability is found to depend neither on the energy of the particle, nor on the radius of the bubble. A simple expression of P is given in the case of a harmonic channeling potential. Then an experiment is described concerning α particles channeled along (111) planes in aluminium containing helium bubbles. In this particular case, the measured probabilitity (P=0.27+-0.09) is in good agreement with the corresponding theoretical values (0.34 for a harmonic potential and 0.24 for a more realistic potential) [fr

  19. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixture for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below about 0.5 eV; whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  20. Particle tracing code for multispecies gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Fox, R.L.; Vandevender, W.H.

    1979-06-01

    Details are presented for the development of a computer code designed to calculate the flow of a multispecies gas mixture using particle tracing techniques. The current technique eliminates the need for a full simulation by utilizing local time averaged velocity distribution functions to obtain the dynamic properties for probable collision partners. The development of this concept reduces statistical scatter experienced in conventional Monte Carlo simulations. The technique is applicable to flow problems involving gas mixtures with disparate masses and trace constituents in the Knudsen number, Kn, range from 1.0 to less than 0.01. The resulting code has previously been used to analyze several aerodynamic isotope enrichment devices

  1. Apparatus using radioactive particles for measuring gas temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, W.A.; Duffy, T.E.; Seegall, M.I.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus for producing a signal indicative of the temperature of a heated gas is described comprising a beta particle source; a beta particle detector which intercepts particles emitted from said source; circuitry for converting the detector output to a signal indicative of the density of the gas; a pressure transducer for generating a signal indicative of the pressure on the gas; and circuitry for dividing the pressure signal by the density signal to produce a signal indicative of the average temperature of the gas along the path between the beta particle source and the beta particle detector. (auth)

  2. Direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Masaki; Sakurai, Hiromu; Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Günther, Detlef

    2015-09-03

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique was applied to the direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in ambient air. The ultra-trace semiconductor gases such as arsine (AsH3) and phosphine (PH3) were converted to particles by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonia (NH3) gases within a gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The converted particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS through a gas exchange device (GED), which could penetrate the particles as well as exchange to Ar from either non-reacted gases such as an air or remaining gases of O3 and NH3. The particle size distribution of converted particles was measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the results supported the elucidation of particle agglomeration between the particle converted from semiconductor gas and the particle of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which was produced as major particle in GPD. Stable time-resolved signals from AsH3 and PH3 in air were obtained by GPD-GED-ICPMS with continuous gas introduction; however, the slightly larger fluctuation, which could be due to the ionization fluctuation of particles in ICP, was observed compared to that of metal carbonyl gas in Ar introduced directly into ICPMS. The linear regression lines were obtained and the limits of detection (LODs) of 1.5 pL L(-1) and 2.4 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, were estimated. Since these LODs revealed sufficiently lower values than the measurement concentrations required from semiconductor industry such as 0.5 nL L(-1) and 30 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, the GPD-GED-ICPMS could be useful for direct and high sensitive analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in air. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark...... and wood particles treated with additive. A two-color technique with subtraction of the background light was used to estimate particle temperatures during experiments. A transmission-emission technique was used tomeasure the gas temperature in the reactor tube. Gas temperature measurements were in good...... agreement with thermocouple readings. Gas lines and bands from CO, CO2 and H2O can be observed in the spectra. CO was only observed at the first measuring port (100ms) with the strongest CO-signal seen during experiments with straw particles. Variations in gas concentration (CO2 and H2O) and the signal from...

  4. Laminar or turbulent boundary-layer flows of perfect gases or reacting gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. C.; Lewis, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Turbulent boundary layer flows of non-reacting gases are predicted for both interal (nozzle) and external flows. Effects of favorable pressure gradients on two eddy viscosity models were studied in rocket and hypervelocity wind tunnel flows. Nozzle flows of equilibrium air with stagnation temperatures up to 10,000 K were computed. Predictions of equilibrium nitrogen flows through hypervelocity nozzles were compared with experimental data. A slender spherically blunted cone was studied at 70,000 ft altitude and 19,000 ft/sec. in the earth's atmosphere. Comparisons with available experimental data showed good agreement. A computer program was developed and fully documented during this investigation for use by interested individuals.

  5. Improved gas distributor for coating HTGR fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.; Sease, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The important criteria to be considered in design of the gas distributor are: (1) The distributor should ideally spread or disperse the gas over the full area of the coating chamber to maximize the particle gas contact area and thereby increase both particle circulation and the percentage of the input gas that ends up as coating. (2) The gas should not heat up during its passage through the distributor. Otherwise the gas would partially decompose prematurely, causing excessive coating deposition within or on the distributor. (3) The distributor should be designed to minimize accidental drainage of particles from the furnace and blowover of particles into the effluent system. (4) The distributor should be capable of depositing both carbon and SiC coatings of high quality as regards to density, preferred orientation, permeability, defective fraction, and other product attributes. (5) The distributor should be amenable to use with large particle charges and short turnaround times and be simple, inexpensive, and reliable. We have devised a simple distributor that incorporates the five criteria listed above. The new design is termed a blind-hole frit. All the gas passes through the thinned blind-hole regions, and thus the gas velocity is considerably higher than for a flat frit of uniform thickness. Because of its high velocity, the gas does not have time to reach a high enough temperature to cause deposition within the frit. Also most of the resistance to gas flow is provided by the porous distributor and not by the particle bed; therefore, localized variations of the quantity of particles above any particular gas inlet do not significantly alter the flow rate through that inlet

  6. Seasonal and particle size-dependent variations in gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Se-Jin; Ale, Debaki; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Shin, Sun Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    This study monitored particle size-dependent variations in atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Two gas/particle partitioning models, the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L 0 ) and the octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA ) model, were applied to each particle sizes. The regression coefficients of each fraction against the gas/particle partition coefficient (K P ) were similar for separated particles within the same sample set but differed for particles collected during different periods. Gas/particle partitioning calculated from the integral of fractions was similar to that of size-segregated particles and previously measured bulk values. Despite the different behaviors and production mechanisms of atmospheric particles of different sizes, PCDD/F partitioning of each size range was controlled by meteorological conditions such as atmospheric temperature, O 3 and UV, which reflects no source related with certain particle size ranges but mixed urban sources within this city. Our observations emphasize that when assessing environmental and health effects, the movement of PCDD/Fs in air should be considered in conjunction with particle size in addition to the bulk aerosol. - Gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric PCDD/Fs for different particle sizes reflects the impacts of emitters of different size ranges

  7. Study on fine particles influence on sodium sulfite and oxygen gas-liquid reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Shuchang; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Shujuan; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Wet limestone scrubbing is the most common flue gas desulfurization process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and forced oxidation is a key part of the reaction. During the reaction which controlled by gas-liquid mass transfer, the fine particles' characteristic, size, solid loading and temperature has a great influence on gas-liquid mass transfer. In the present work is to explain how these factors influence the reaction between Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and O{sub 2} and find the best react conditions through experiment. The oxidation rate was experimentally studied by contacting pure oxygen with a sodium sulfite solution with active carbon particle in a stirred tank, and the system pressure drop was record by the pressure sensor. At the beginning the pressure is about 215 kPa and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} is about 0.5mol/L. The temperature is 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 C. Compare the results of no particles included, we can conclude that high temperature, proper loadings and smaller particles resulting in higher mass transfer coefficients k{sub L}.

  8. Chemical reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure of reacting gas mixtures in the state-to-state approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustova, Elena V.; Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • State-to-state approach for coupled vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions. • Self-consistent model for rates of non-equilibrium reactions and energy transitions. • In viscous flows mass action law is violated. • Cross coupling between reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure in viscous flow. • Results allow implementing the state-to-state approach for viscous flow simulations. - Abstract: Viscous gas flows with vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in the state-to-state approach are analyzed. A modified Chapman–Enskog method is used for the determination of chemical reaction and vibrational transition rates and non-equilibrium pressure. Constitutive equations depend on the thermodynamic forces: velocity divergence and chemical reaction/transition affinity. As an application, N 2 flow with vibrational relaxation across a shock wave is investigated. Two distinct processes occur behind the shock: for small values of the distance the affinity is large and vibrational relaxation is in its initial stage; for large distances the affinity is small and the chemical reaction is in its final stage. The affinity contributes more to the transition rate than the velocity divergence and the effect of these two contributions are more important for small distances from the shock front. For the non-equilibrium pressure, the term associated with the bulk viscosity increases by a small amount the hydrostatic pressure

  9. Chemical reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure of reacting gas mixtures in the state-to-state approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustova, Elena V., E-mail: e.kustova@spbu.ru [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Universitetskiy pr. 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kremer, Gilberto M., E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-980 Curitiba (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • State-to-state approach for coupled vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions. • Self-consistent model for rates of non-equilibrium reactions and energy transitions. • In viscous flows mass action law is violated. • Cross coupling between reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure in viscous flow. • Results allow implementing the state-to-state approach for viscous flow simulations. - Abstract: Viscous gas flows with vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in the state-to-state approach are analyzed. A modified Chapman–Enskog method is used for the determination of chemical reaction and vibrational transition rates and non-equilibrium pressure. Constitutive equations depend on the thermodynamic forces: velocity divergence and chemical reaction/transition affinity. As an application, N{sub 2} flow with vibrational relaxation across a shock wave is investigated. Two distinct processes occur behind the shock: for small values of the distance the affinity is large and vibrational relaxation is in its initial stage; for large distances the affinity is small and the chemical reaction is in its final stage. The affinity contributes more to the transition rate than the velocity divergence and the effect of these two contributions are more important for small distances from the shock front. For the non-equilibrium pressure, the term associated with the bulk viscosity increases by a small amount the hydrostatic pressure.

  10. Identical Distinguishable Gas Particles in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    particles, it requires more care to identify a gas of identical distinguishable particles ... properties (such as mass, charge, shape, and spin). Adopt an operational ... [6] which might appear to be a physical realization of the proto- typical system of ...

  11. Gas and particle motions in a rapidly decompressed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blair; Zunino, Heather; Adrian, Ronald; Clarke, Amanda

    2017-11-01

    To understand the behavior of a rapidly decompressed particle bed in response to a shock, an experimental study is performed in a cylindrical (D = 4.1 cm) glass vertical shock tube of a densely packed (ρ = 61%) particle bed. The bed is comprised of spherical glass particles, ranging from D50 = 44-297 μm between experiments. High-speed pressure sensors are incorporated to capture shock speeds and strengths. High-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are collected to examine vertical and radial velocities of both the particles and gas to elucidate features of the shock wave and resultant expansion wave in the lateral center of the tube, away from boundaries. In addition to optically analyzing the front velocity of the rising particle bed, interaction between the particle and gas phases are investigated as the flow accelerates and the particle front becomes more dilute. Particle and gas interactions are also considered in exploring mechanisms through which turbulence develops in the flow. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science and Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  12. Numerical Study of Particle Interaction in Gas-Particle and Liquid-Particle Flows: Part II Particle Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanarangam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the numerical model, which was presented in the first paper (Mohanarangam & Tu; 2009 of this series of study, is employed to study the different particle responses under the influence of two carrier phases namely the gas and the liquid. The numerical model takes into consideration the turbulent behaviour of both the carrier and the dispersed phases, with additional equations to take into account the combined fluid particle behaviour, thereby effecting a two-way coupling. The first paper in this series showed the distinct difference in particulate response both at the mean as well as at the turbulent level for two varied carrier phases. In this paper further investigation has been carried out over a broad range of particle Stokes number to further understand their behaviour in turbulent environments. In order to carry out this prognostic study, the backward facing step geometry of Fessler and Eaton (1999 has been adopted, while the inlet conditions for the carrier as well as the particle phases correspond to that of the experiments of Founti and Klipfel (1998. It is observed that at the mean velocity level the particulate velocities increased with a subsequent increase in the Stokes number for both the GP (Gas-Particle as well as the LP (Liquid-Particle flow. It was also observed that across the Stokes number there was a steady increase in the particulate turbulence for the GP flows with successive increase in Stokes number. However, for the LP flows, the magnitude of the increase in the particulate turbulence across the increasing of Stokes number is not as characteristic as the GP flow. Across the same sections for LP flows the majority of the trend shows a decrease after which they remain more or less a constant.

  13. Computational Modelling of Gas-Particle Flows with Different Particle Morphology in the Human Nasal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiao Inthavong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current studies related to numerical gas-particle flows in the human nasal cavity. Of interest are the numerical modelling requirements to consider the effects of particle morphology for a variety of particle shapes and sizes such as very small particles sizes (nanoparticles, elongated shapes (asbestos fibres, rough shapes (pollen, and porous light density particles (drug particles are considered. It was shown that important physical phenomena needed to be addressed for different particle characteristics. This included the Brownian diffusion for submicron particles. Computational results for the nasal capture efficiency for nano-particles and various breathing rates in the laminar regime were found to correlate well with the ratio of particle diffusivity to the breathing rate. For micron particles, particle inertia is the most significant property and the need to use sufficient drag laws is important. Drag correlations for fibrous and rough surfaced particles were investigated to enable particle tracking. Based on the simulated results, semi-empirical correlations for particle deposition were fitted in terms of Peclet number and inertial parameter for nanoparticles and micron particles respectively.

  14. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 15°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 10°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 90% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles suggesting that the ammonia is chemically bound to the montmorillonite particle. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  15. Alpha-Particle Gas-Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M. C.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    An approximate model was developed to establish design curves for the saturation region and a more complete model developed to characterize the current-voltage curves for an alpha-particle pressure sensor. A simple two-parameter current-voltage expression was developed to describe the dependence of the ion current on pressure. The parameters are the saturation-current pressure coefficient and mu/D, the ion mobility/diffusion coefficient. The sensor is useful in the pressure range between 0.1 and 1000 mb using a 1 - mu Ci(241) Am source. Experimental results, taken between 1 and up to 200 mb, show the sensor operates with an anode voltage of 5 V and a sensitivity of 20 fA/mb in nitrogen.

  16. Gas-discharge particle detector with ball-tipped anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travkin, V.I.; Khazins, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new gas-discharge particle detector, whose anode is a set of balls 2mm in diameter is investigated. The chamber is blowing down by the argon-methane-methylal gas mixture with the ratio 3:1:1. The detector operates in the self-quenching streamer mode, has high efficiency and a wide counting characteristic plateau. The maximum counting rate of particles at one ball is ∼ 2.5x10 4 s -1 . The ball-tipped anodes allow making reliable complex-shaped detectors. Two-coordinate detection of multiparticle events can be naturally organized in detectors like that

  17. The variation of particle gas-borne concentration with time in a gas cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J; Hall, D; Reeks, M W [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (United Kingdom)

    1985-07-01

    If volatile fission products are released from fuel during a reactor fault, a significant fraction could become attached to small particles also present in the coolant. In such circumstances the retention of those particles by the reactor circuit will limit the level of gas-borne particle concentration and hence be important in reducing the potential release of fission product activity to the atmosphere. Clearly the retention of particles will be influenced by both the deposition and resuspension of particles from surfaces exposed to the coolant flow. In this paper we consider deposition and resuspension but pay particular attention to the role of resuspension, which in the past has been given little consideration. A recently developed model for the resuspension of small particles by a turbulent flow is outlined. Traditionally, resuspension has been interpreted as a force balance between the aerodynamic removal forces and the surface adhesive forces. In contrast, this new approach embodies an energy balance criterion for particle resuspension. Furthermore, the stochastic nature of this new model has shown that resuspension can be sub-divided into two regimes: (i) initial resuspension (resuspension occurring in times less than a second) which reduces the net deposition of particles to a surface; and (ii) longer term resuspension (resuspension after 1 second) which determines the asymptotic decay of particle gas-borne concentration. It is seen that the asymptotic decay varies almost inversely as the decay time. Force balance models are unsuccessful in accounting for the experimentally observed longer term resuspension. We show that a Volterra integro-differential equation best describes the variation of particle gas-borne concentration with time in a recirculating gas flow such as a gas cooled reactor. It is seen that the longer term resuspension has a major influence in the final decay of particle concentration. (author)

  18. The variation of particle gas-borne concentration with time in a gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.; Hall, D.; Reeks, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    If volatile fission products are released from fuel during a reactor fault, a significant fraction could become attached to small particles also present in the coolant. In such circumstances the retention of those particles by the reactor circuit will limit the level of gas-borne particle concentration and hence be important in reducing the potential release of fission product activity to the atmosphere. Clearly the retention of particles will be influenced by both the deposition and resuspension of particles from surfaces exposed to the coolant flow. In this paper we consider deposition and resuspension but pay particular attention to the role of resuspension, which in the past has been given little consideration. A recently developed model for the resuspension of small particles by a turbulent flow is outlined. Traditionally, resuspension has been interpreted as a force balance between the aerodynamic removal forces and the surface adhesive forces. In contrast, this new approach embodies an energy balance criterion for particle resuspension. Furthermore, the stochastic nature of this new model has shown that resuspension can be sub-divided into two regimes: (i) initial resuspension (resuspension occurring in times less than a second) which reduces the net deposition of particles to a surface; and (ii) longer term resuspension (resuspension after 1 second) which determines the asymptotic decay of particle gas-borne concentration. It is seen that the asymptotic decay varies almost inversely as the decay time. Force balance models are unsuccessful in accounting for the experimentally observed longer term resuspension. We show that a Volterra integro-differential equation best describes the variation of particle gas-borne concentration with time in a recirculating gas flow such as a gas cooled reactor. It is seen that the longer term resuspension has a major influence in the final decay of particle concentration. (author)

  19. Energy loss of charged particles to molecular gas targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1976-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of fast charged particles penetrating a dilute molecular gas target has been analysed theoretically, with a homogeneous gas mixture in the state of complete dissociation as a reference standard. It is shown that the geometrical structure of molecules causes the energy-loss straggling and higher moments over the energy-loss spectrum to be greater than the corresponding quantities for a completely dissociated gas of equal composition. Such deviations from additivity are shown to be most pronounced at energies around the stopping-power maximum. There is found supporting evidence in the experimental literature. (Auth.)

  20. Detection of gas-permeable fuel particles for highl 7490 temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, B.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Costanzo, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) consists of uranium oxide-carbide and thoria microspheres coated with layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. The pyrolytic carbon coatings must be gas-tight to perform properly during irradiation. Therefore, particles must be carefully characterized to determine the number of defective particles (ie bare kernels, and cracked or permeable coatings). Although techniques are available to determine the number of bare kernels or cracked coatings, no reliable technique has been available to measure coating permeability. This work describes a technique recently developed to determine whether coatings for a batch of particles are gas-tight or permeable. Although most of this study was performed on Biso-coated particles, the technique applies equally well to Triso-coated particles. About 150 randomly selected Biso-particle batches were studied in this work. These batches were first subjected to an 18-hr chlorination at 15000C, and the volatile thorium tetrachloride released through cracked or very permeable coatings was measured versus chlorination time. Chlorinated batches were also radiographed to detect any thorium that had migrated from the kernel into the coatings. From this work a technique was developed to determine coating permeability. This consists of an 18-hr chlorination of multiple samples without measurement of the heavy metal released. Each batch is then radiographed and the heavy metal diffusion within each particle is examined so it can be determined if a particle batch is permeable, slightly permeable, or gas-tight. (author)

  1. Mass transfer between gas and particles in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.H.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    Gas-solids mass transfer was studied for counter-current flow of gas and millimetre-sized solid particles over an inert packing at dilute phase or trickle flow conditions. Experimental data were obtained from the adsorption of water vapour on 640 and 2200 ¿m diameter molecular sieve spheres at

  2. Gas supply during fluidization of spherical particles in FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyung Chai; Eom, Sung Ho; Kim, Yeon Ku; Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, Young Min; Lee, Young Woo; Cho, Moon Seong

    2011-11-01

    Calculations of gas flow requirements and of other related parameters in the fluidized-bed process used to coat nuclear fuel particles are presented. These data include: volumes and surfaces of spheres for diameters of 50 to 500μm: number of theses spheres in 1 g for densities of 2 to 11 g/cm 3 : overall densities of coated spheres for initial particle diameters of 50 to 500μm, initial densities of 8 to 11 g/cm 3 , coating densities of 1.0 to 2.2 g/cm 3 , and final particle diameters of 100 to 1000μm: viscosities of Ar, CO 2 , He, and H 2 for temperatures up to 2200 .deg. C: minimum flows of He and Ar necessary to fluidized nuclear fuel particles at 20 .deg. C: coefficients for converting the 20 .deg. C minimum fluidization gas flows to high-temperature flows (up to 2200 .deg. C): variation of particle diameter with time for constant weight deposition rate: variation of coating gas flow for constant linear growth of the coating: comparison of coating time at constant weight deposition rate and at constant coating growth rate

  3. Cloud-particle galactic gas dynamics and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Galactic gas dynamics, spiral structure, and star formation are discussed in the context of N-body computational studies based on a cloud-particle model of the interstellar medium. On the small scale, the interstellar medium appears to be cloud-dominated and supernova-perturbed. The cloud-particle model simulates cloud-cloud collisions, the formation of stellar associations, and supernova explosions as dominant local processes. On the large scale in response to a spiral galactic gravitational field, global density waves and galactic shocks develop with large-scale characteristics similar to those found in continuum gas dynamical studies. Both the system of gas clouds and the system of young stellar associations forming from the clouds share in the global spiral structure. However, with the attributes of neither assuming a continuum of gas (as in continuum gas dynamical studies) nor requiring a prescribed equation of state such as the isothermal condition so often employed, the cloud-particle picture retains much of the detail lost in earlier work: namely, the small-scale features and structures so important in understanding the local, turbulent state of the interstellar medium as well as the degree of raggedness often observed superposed on global spiral structure. (Auth.)

  4. Small metal particles and the ideal Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barma, Mustanpir

    1991-01-01

    Kubo's theoretical model of a small metal particle consists of a number of noninteraction electrons (an ideal Fermi gas) confined to a finite volume. By 'small' it meant that the size of the particle is intermediate between that of a few atoms cluster and the bulk solid, the radius of the particle being 5 to 50 Angstroms. The model is discussed and size dependence of various energy scales is studied. For a fermi gas confined in a sphere or a cube, two size-dependent energy scales are important. The inner scale δ is the mean spacing between successive energy levels. It governs the very low temperature behaviour. The outer scale Δ is associated with the shell structure when δ ≤T<Δ, thermodynamic properties show an oscillatory fluctuations around a smooth background as the size or energy is varied. (M.G.B.) 23 refs

  5. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  6. Physical and chemical characterization of particles in producer gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik B.; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2000-01-01

    ) engines fueled by the gas. The implications of the findings on engine wear are discussed.The majority (85%) of the total particulate matter (TPM) mass was identified, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as mono-sized spherical primary soot particles with diameters of 70 nm. Soot agglomerates, up...... to 30 um were present. 77% of the TPM was determined, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to be carbon structures.The dichloromethane (DCM)-soluble fraction (11% of the TPM) was extracted, separated into fractions of varying polarities using adsorption column chromatography and analyzed using gas...... of the particles showed that a 3-7% of the DCM-insoluble TPM was dissolved using this solvent....

  7. Gas and particle velocity measurements in an induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesinski, J.; Gagne, R.; Boulos, M.I.

    1981-08-01

    Laser doppler anemometry was used for the measurements of the plasma and particle velocity profiles in the coil region of an inductively coupled plasma. Results are reported for a 50 mm ID induction torch operated at atmospheric pressure with argon as the plasma gas. The oscillator frequency was 3 MHz and the power in the coil was varied between 4.6 and 10.5 kW. The gas velocity measurements were made using a fine carbon powder as a tracer (dp approx. = 1 μm). Measurements were also made with larger silicon particles (dp = 33 μm and sigma = 13 μm) centrally injected in the plasma under different operating conditions

  8. CFD simulation of gas and particles combustion in biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griselin, Nicolas

    2000-11-01

    In this thesis, gas and particle combustion in biomass furnaces is investigated numerically. The aim of this thesis is to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology as an effective computer based simulation tool to study and develop the combustion processes in biomass furnaces. A detailed model for the numerical simulation of biomass combustion in a furnace, including fixed-bed modeling, gas-phase calculation (species distribution, temperature field, flow field) and gas-solid two-phase interaction for flying burning particles is presented. This model is used to understand the mechanisms of combustion and pollutant emissions under different conditions in small scale and large scale furnaces. The code used in the computations was developed at the Division of Fluid Mechanics, LTH. The flow field in the combustion enclosure is calculated by solving the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with standard {kappa} - {epsilon} turbulence closure, together with the energy conservation equation and species transport equations. Discrete transfer method is used for calculating the radiation source term in the energy conservation equation. Finite difference is used to solve the general form of the equation yielding solutions for gas-phase temperatures, velocities, turbulence intensities and species concentrations. The code has been extended through this work in order to include two-phase flow simulation of particles and gas combustion. The Favre-averaged gas equations are solved in a Eulerian framework while the submodels for particle motion and combustion are used in the framework of a Lagrangian approach. Numerical simulations and measurement data of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), CO, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and temperature on the top of the fixed bed are used to model the amount of tar and char formed during pyrolysis and combustion of biomass fuel in the bed. Different operating conditions are examined. Numerical calculations are compared with the measured data. It is

  9. Gas interaction effects on lunar bonded particles and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, N.R.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the bonded particles of lunar soil samples separated upon exposure to reactive gases such as oxygen, water vapor, their mixtures, acids and bases have been studied. The bondings between particles susceptible to gas disruption seemed to be generally weak and appeared to have taken place via highly radiation-damaged layers at the particle surfaces. The amorphous layers with an average thickness of about 0.05 μm were produced by the solar wind exposure of about 2000 years. Therefore, the solar wind was responsible for the formation of these weak bondings and also probably responsible for disruption of these bondings. Apollo 11 and 12 landed in the equatorial region and about 1500 km apart. Thus, the solar wind effects on materials at these sites should have been about the same and the proportion of bonded particles separated by reactive gas exposure should also have been about the same; but the number of separations observed was about 2.7 (average) times greater in the Apollo 11 soil sample than in the Apollo 12 soil sample. This finding suggests that the number of weakly bonded particles and probably the solar-wind damaged amorphous layer particles at these sites was about in the same proportion. It is, therefore, considered that materials from certain depth (practically not exposed to the solar wind) of another site were transported and mixed during recent years (considerably less than 2000 years) with the original materials of the Apollo 12 site. This is consistent with the conclusions made by other investigators

  10. Numerical Study of Particle Interaction in Gas-Particle and Liquid-Particle Flows: Part I Analysis and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanarangam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study into the turbulent behaviour of dilute particulate flow under the influence of two carrier phases namely gas and liquid has been carried out behind a sudden expansion geometry. The major endeavour of the study is to ascertain the response of the particles within the carrier (gas or liquid phase. The main aim prompting the current study is the density difference between the carrier and the dispersed phases. While the ratio is quite high in terms of the dispersed phase for the gas-particle flows, the ratio is far more less in terms of the liquid-particle flows. Numerical simulations were carried out for both these classes of flows using an Eulerian two-fluid model with RNG based k-emodel as the turbulent closure. An additional kinetic energy equation to better represent the combined fluid-particle behaviour is also employed in the current set of simulations. In the first part of this two part series, experimental results of Fessler and Eaton (1995 for Gas-Particle (GP flow and that of Founti and Klipfel (1998 for Liquid-Particle (LP flow have been compared and analysed. This forms the basis of the current study which aims to look at the particulate behaviour under the influence of two carrier phases. Further numerical simulations were carried out to test whether the current numerical formulation can used to simulate these varied type of flows and the same were validated against the experimental data of both GP as well LP flow. Qualitative results have been obtained for both these classes of flows with their respective experimental data both at the mean as well as at the turbulence level for carrier as well as the dispersed phases.

  11. Production mechanism of negative pionlike particles in H2 gas discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin.

    1996-04-01

    Negative pionlike and muonlike particles are produced by an electron bunch and a positive ion bunch which are generated controllably from an electron beam and a gas. Physical characteristics of the negative pionlike particles are the same with those of negative pionlike particles extracted from the H 2 gas discharge. Thus, the production mechanism in the H 2 gas discharge is deduced. (author)

  12. Sensitivity of Particle Size in Discrete Element Method to Particle Gas Method (DEM_PGM) Coupling in Underbody Blast Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-12

    Particle Size in Discrete Element Method to Particle Gas Method (DEM_PGM) Coupling in Underbody Blast Simulations Venkatesh Babu, Kumar Kulkarni, Sanjay...buried in soil viz., (1) coupled discrete element & particle gas methods (DEM-PGM) and (2) Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE), are investigated. The...DEM_PGM and identify the limitations/strengths compared to the ALE method. Discrete Element Method (DEM) can model individual particle directly, and

  13. Coated particle fuel for high temperature gas cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl; Nabielek, Heinz [Research Center Julich (FZJ), Julich (Germany); Kendall, James M. [Global Virtual L1c, Prescott (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Roy Huddle, having invented the coated particle in Harwell 1957, stated in the early 1970s that we know now everything about particles and coatings and should be going over to deal with other problems. This was on the occasion of the Dragon fuel performance information meeting London 1973: How wrong a genius be{exclamation_point} It took until 1978 that really good particles were made in Germany, then during the Japanese HTTR production in the 1990s and finally the Chinese 2000-2001 campaign for HTR-10. Here, we present a review of history and present status. Today, good fuel is measured by different standards from the seventies: where 9 x 10{sup -4} initial free heavy metal fraction was typical for early AVR carbide fuel and 3 x 10{sup -4} initial free heavy metal fraction was acceptable for oxide fuel in THTR, we insist on values more than an order of magnitude below this value today. Half a percent of particle failure at the end-of-irradiation, another ancient standard, is not even acceptable today, even for the most severe accidents. While legislation and licensing has not changed, one of the reasons we insist on these improvements is the preference for passive systems rather than active controls of earlier times. After renewed HTGR interest, we are reporting about the start of new or reactivated coated particle work in several parts of the world, considering the aspects of designs/traditional and new materials, manufacturing technologies/ quality control/ quality assurance, irradiation and accident performance, modeling and performance predictions, and fuel cycle aspects and spent fuel treatment. In very general terms, the coated particle should be strong, reliable, retentive, and affordable. These properties have to be quantified and will be eventually optimized for a specific application system. Results obtained so far indicate that the same particle can be used for steam cycle applications with 700-750 .deg. C helium coolant gas exit, for gas turbine

  14. Coated particle fuel for high temperature gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl; Nabielek, Heinz; Kendall, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Roy Huddle, having invented the coated particle in Harwell 1957, stated in the early 1970s that we know now everything about particles and coatings and should be going over to deal with other problems. This was on the occasion of the Dragon fuel performance information meeting London 1973: How wrong a genius be! It took until 1978 that really good particles were made in Germany, then during the Japanese HTTR production in the 1990s and finally the Chinese 2000-2001 campaign for HTR-10. Here, we present a review of history and present status. Today, good fuel is measured by different standards from the seventies: where 9 x 10 -4 initial free heavy metal fraction was typical for early AVR carbide fuel and 3 x 10 -4 initial free heavy metal fraction was acceptable for oxide fuel in THTR, we insist on values more than an order of magnitude below this value today. Half a percent of particle failure at the end-of-irradiation, another ancient standard, is not even acceptable today, even for the most severe accidents. While legislation and licensing has not changed, one of the reasons we insist on these improvements is the preference for passive systems rather than active controls of earlier times. After renewed HTGR interest, we are reporting about the start of new or reactivated coated particle work in several parts of the world, considering the aspects of designs/traditional and new materials, manufacturing technologies/ quality control/ quality assurance, irradiation and accident performance, modeling and performance predictions, and fuel cycle aspects and spent fuel treatment. In very general terms, the coated particle should be strong, reliable, retentive, and affordable. These properties have to be quantified and will be eventually optimized for a specific application system. Results obtained so far indicate that the same particle can be used for steam cycle applications with 700-750 .deg. C helium coolant gas exit, for gas turbine applications at 850-900 .deg. C

  15. Gas lantern mantle: a low activity alpha particle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Manzoor, S.

    1991-01-01

    Commercially available gas lantern mantles contain a substantial amount of radioactive ThO 2 . Gas lantern mantles purchased from a Sydney camping shop were incinerated, deposited as a thin layer on a aluminium planchette, and the emitted alpha spectrum was measured with a silicon surfacer barrier detector. The specific activity of the samples was estimated by high resolution gamma spectroscopy using a high purity germanium detector as well as CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The micro-morphology of the incinerated powder was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The depth dose and LET distribution of alpha particles in soft tissue were calculated from the energy spectrum. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Gas dusulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.E.; Bakhshi, V.S.; Randolph, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for adsorbing sulfur dioxide from a gas comprising contacting a gas containing SO 2 , such as a flue gas, with about stoichiometric amounts of a specially prepared calcium oxide so that substantially all of the sulfur dioxide content is reacted throughout the calcium oxide particle to form a calcium sulfate reaction product. The useful calcium oxide particles comprise a highly voided skeletal structure of very large surface area and large pore volume with numerous macro pores. Such particles are obtained by flash calcining sand-size grains of calcium carbonate, such as aragonite, calcite or dolomite

  17. Radiolytic gas production in the alpha particle degradation of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J.; Hobbs, D.

    1992-01-01

    Net gas generation due to alpha particle irradiation of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride was investigated. Experiments were performed in an air environment at 30, 60, and 100 degree C. The predominant radiolytic degradation products of polyethylene were hydrogen and carbon dioxide with a wide variety of trace organic species noted. Irradiation of polyvinyl chloride resulted in the formation of HCl in addition to the products observed for polyethylene. For both plastic materials, a strong enhancement of net yields was noted at 100 degree C

  18. Nucleation and dissociation of nano-particles in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiden, P.

    2007-09-01

    This work deals with the study of nano-particles formation in gas phase and their dissociation pathways after an optical excitation. The clusters formation decomposes in two steps: a seed is formed (nucleation phase) and sticks atoms during its propagation in a sodium atomic vapor (growth phase). Those two steps have been observed separately for homogeneous Na n and heterogeneous Na n X particles (X = (NaOH) 2 or (Na 2 O) 2 ). The growth mechanism is well interpreted by a Monte Carlo simulation taking into account an accretion mechanism with hard-sphere cross section. The homogeneous nucleation mechanism has been highlighted by a direct comparison with the Classical Nucleation Theory predictions. The clusters fragmentation of ionic Na + (NaOH) p et Na + (NaF) p particles is studied in the second part. The way clusters fragment with size when they are excited optically is compared with theoretical previsions: this highlights the existence of an energetic barrier for special size of clusters. Finally, the fragmentation of doubly charged Na + Na + (NaOH) p clusters shows a competition between the fission into two single charged fragments and the unimolecular evaporation of a neutral fragment. (author)

  19. CFD study of the minimum bubbling velocity of Geldart A particles in gas-fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Junwu; Hoef, van der M.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The minimum bubbling velocity, which demarcates the homogeneous and heterogeneous fluidization regimes, plays a pivotal role in gas fluidization of Geldart A particles. We systematically study the effect of gas and particle properties on the minimum bubbling velocity of Geldart A particles in

  20. Particle fuelling for long pulse with standard gas puff and supersonic pulsed gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucalossi, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Martin, G.

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the standard gas puff and to the technically complex pellet injection, a novel intermediate method, based on the injection of a supersonic high density cloud of neutrals, has been recently implemented on the Tore Supra tokamak. Fuelling efficiency, in the 30-50% range are found while it lies in the 10-20% range for the gas puff. It is not sensitive to the plasma density and to the additional heating. According to modelling, the increased efficiency is attributed to the very short injection duration compared to the particle confinement time and to the strong cooling of the plasma edge resulting from the massive injection of matter. A feedback loop on the frequency of the injector has been successfully implemented to control the plasma density. In long pulse experiments (>200s), wall saturation has not been reached. Gas puffing rate was typically around 1 Pa.m 3 s -1 while dynamic wall retention around 0.6 Pa.m 3 s -1 . Co-deposited carbon layer could trap such large amounts of gas. A discharge fuelled by supersonic pulsed gas injections exhibits lower wall retention than a gas puff fuelled discharge. (author)

  1. Preformed transient gas channels for laser wakefield particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Acceleration of electrons by laser-driven plasma wake fields is limited by the range over which a laser pulse can maintain its intensity. This distance is typically given by the Rayleigh range for the focused laser beam, usually on the order of 0.1 mm to 1 mm. For practical particle acceleration, interaction distances on the order of centimeters are required. Therefore, some means of guiding high intensity laser pulses is necessary. Light intensities on the order of a few times 10 17 W/cm 2 are required for laser wakefield acceleration schemes using near IR radiation. Gas densities on the order of or greater than 10 17 cm -3 are also needed. Laser-atom interaction studies in this density and intensity regime are generally limited by the concomitant problems in beam propagation introduced by the creation of a plasma. In addition to the interaction distance limit imposed by the Rayleigh range, defocusing of the high intensity laser pulse further limits the peak intensity which can be achieved. To solve the problem of beam propagation limitations in laser-plasma wakefield experiments, two potential methods for creating transient propagation channels in gaseous targets are investigated. The first involves creation of a charge-neutral channel in a gas by an initial laser pulse, which then is ionized by a second, ultrashort, high-intensity pulse to create a waveguide. The second method involves the ionization of a gas column by an ultrashort pulse; a transient waveguide is formed by the subsequent expansion of the heated plasma into the neutral gas

  2. Gas-solute dispersivity ratio in granular porous media as related to particle size distribution and particle shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Straface, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of solute dispersion in porous media is generally much more time consuming than gas dispersion measurements performed under equivalent conditions. Significant time savings may therefore, be achieved if solute dispersion coefficients can be estimated based on measured gas dispersion...... data. This paper evaluates the possibility for estimating solute dispersion based on gas dispersion measurements. Breakthrough measurements were carried out at different fluid velocities (covering the same range in Reynolds number), using O2 and NaCl as gas and solute tracers, respectively. Three...... different, granular porous materials were used: (1) crushed granite (very angular particles), (2) gravel (particles of intermediate roundness) and (3) Leca® (almost spherical particles). For each material, 21 different particle size fractions were used. Gas and solute dispersion coefficients were determined...

  3. A laboratory flow reactor with gas particle separation and on-line MS/MS for product identification in atmospherically important reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Bennett

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A system to study the gas and particle phase products from gas phase hydrocarbon oxidation is described. It consists of a gas phase photochemical flow reactor followed by a diffusion membrane denuder to remove gases from the reacted products, or a filter to remove the particles. Chemical analysis is performed by an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A diffusion membrane denuder is shown to remove trace gases to below detectable limits so the particle phase can be studied. The system was tested by examining the products of the oxidation of m-xylene initiated by HO radicals. Dimethylphenol was observed in both the gas and particle phases although individual isomers could not be identified. Two furanone isomers, 5-methyl-2(3Hfuranone and 3-methyl-2(5Hfuranone were identified in the particulate phase, but the isobaric product 2,5 furandione was not observed. One isomer of dimethyl-nitrophenol was identified in the particle phase but not in the gas phase.

  4. Measurements of non-reacting and reacting flow fields of a liquid swirl flame burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cheng Tung; Hochgreb, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the liquid fuel spray and flow field characteristics inside a combustor is crucial for designing a fuel efficient and low emission device. Characterisation of the flow field of a model gas turbine liquid swirl burner is performed by using a 2-D particle imaging velocimetry(PIV) system. The flow field pattern of an axial flow burner with a fixed swirl intensity is compared under confined and unconfined conditions, i.e., with and without the combustor wall. The effect of temperature on the main swirling air flow is investigated under open and non-reacting conditions. The result shows that axial and radial velocities increase as a result of decreased flow density and increased flow volume. The flow field of the main swirling flow with liquid fuel spray injection is compared to non-spray swirling flow. Introduction of liquid fuel spray changes the swirl air flow field at the burner outlet, where the radial velocity components increase for both open and confined environment. Under reacting condition, the enclosure generates a corner recirculation zone that intensifies the strength of radial velocity. The reverse flow and corner recirculation zone assists in stabilizing the flame by preheating the reactants. The flow field data can be used as validation target for swirl combustion modelling.

  5. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry in a generic can-type gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional flow field inside a generic can-type, forward flow, experimental combustor was measured. A stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to obtain the flow field of the combustor in the non-reacting condition...

  6. Measurement of flow characteristics of solid particles mixed with gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siberev, S P; Nazarov, S I; Soldatkin, G I

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the interaction of solid particles in a gas stream flowing through a pipeline comprises equations for the energy and material balances in the system and for force and energy interactions between the solid particles and transducers located within the pipeline. Soviet researchers confirmed that the average value of stress recorded by a transducer is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles; for a constant particle speed, the stress is proportional to the mass flow of the particles. The analysis and flow transducer measurements are valuable in measuring and controlling flowline sand and soil in natural gas transport from gas wells and undergound storage facilities.

  7. The REACT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid; Byskov, Jens

    decisions; and the provision of leadership and the enforcement of conditions. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study, which started in 2006 testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each...... selected disease and programme interventions and services, within general care and on health systems management. Efforts to improve health sector performance have not yet been satisfactory, and adequate and sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. Priority setting in health systems...... improvements to health systems performance discussed....

  8. Under What Conditions Can Equilibrium Gas-Particle Partitioning Be Expected to Hold in the Atmosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huajun; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-10-06

    The prevailing treatment of secondary organic aerosol formation in atmospheric models is based on the assumption of instantaneous gas-particle equilibrium for the condensing species, yet compelling experimental evidence indicates that organic aerosols can exhibit the properties of highly viscous, semisolid particles, for which gas-particle equilibrium may be achieved slowly. The approach to gas-particle equilibrium partitioning is controlled by gas-phase diffusion, interfacial transport, and particle-phase diffusion. Here we evaluate the controlling processes and the time scale to achieve gas-particle equilibrium as a function of the volatility of the condensing species, its surface accommodation coefficient, and its particle-phase diffusivity. For particles in the size range of typical atmospheric organic aerosols (∼50-500 nm), the time scale to establish gas-particle equilibrium is generally governed either by interfacial accommodation or particle-phase diffusion. The rate of approach to equilibrium varies, depending on whether the bulk vapor concentration is constant, typical of an open system, or decreasing as a result of condensation into the particles, typical of a closed system.

  9. Visual observations of individual particle behaviour in gas and liquid fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartholt, G.P; Hoffmann, A.C; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    The behaviour of the individual particles in dense gas and liquid fluidized beds and the behaviour of the jetsam particles in gas fluidized beds containing binary mixtures of different density group B powders has been observed. These visualizations have been made by means of an optical probe fitted

  10. Compressible Flow Phenomena at Inception of Lateral Density Currents Fed by Collapsing Gas-Particle Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Sweeney, Matthew R.

    2018-02-01

    Many geological flows are sourced by falling gas-particle mixtures, such as during collapse of lava domes, and impulsive eruptive jets, and sustained columns, and rock falls. The transition from vertical to lateral flow is complex due to the range of coupling between particles of different sizes and densities and the carrier gas, and due to the potential for compressible flow phenomena. We use multiphase modeling to explore these dynamics. In mixtures with small particles, and with subsonic speeds, particles follow the gas such that outgoing lateral flows have similar particle concentration and speed as the vertical flows. Large particles concentrate immediately upon impact and move laterally away as granular flows overridden by a high-speed jet of expelled gas. When a falling flow is supersonic, a bow shock develops above the impact zone, and this produces a zone of high pressure from which lateral flows emerge as overpressured wall jets. The jets form complex structures as the mixtures expand and accelerate and then recompress through a recompression zone that mimics a Mach disk shock in ideal gas jets. In mixtures with moderate to high ratios of fine to coarse particles, the latter tend to follow fine particles through the expansion-recompression flow fields because of particle-particle drag. Expansion within the flow fields can lead to locally reduced gas pressure that could enhance substrate erosion in natural flows. The recompression zones form at distances, and have peak pressures, that are roughly proportional to the Mach numbers of impacting flows.

  11. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of airborne particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Susanne V [Berkeley, CA; Goldstein, Allen H [Orinda, CA

    2012-01-03

    A method and apparatus for the in-situ, chemical analysis of an aerosol. The method may include the steps of: collecting an aerosol; thermally desorbing the aerosol into a carrier gas to provide desorbed aerosol material; transporting the desorbed aerosol material onto the head of a gas chromatography column; analyzing the aerosol material using a gas chromatograph, and quantizing the aerosol material as it evolves from the gas chromatography column. The apparatus includes a collection and thermal desorption cell, a gas chromatograph including a gas chromatography column, heated transport lines coupling the cell and the column; and a quantization detector for aerosol material evolving from the gas chromatography column.

  12. Experimental studies on particle deposition by thermophoresis and inertial impaction from particulate high temperature gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Kim, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    In view of fouling and erosion of gas turbine blade, heat exchanger and pipelines, increasing attention has been paid to particle deposition (transport) in high temperature flow systems. This is also necessary to develop a cleaning or filtration devices. Using 'real time' laser-light reflectivity and scanning electron microscope technique, we quantitatively treat particle size effect and the interaction between Brownian diffusion, thermoporesis (particle drift down a temperature gradient), and inertial impaction of particles (0.2 to 30 μm in diameter) in laminar hot combustion gas-particles flow (ca. 1565 K)

  13. CFD study of the heat transfer between a dilute gas particle suspension flow and an obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.V.; Fletcher, C.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect on heat transfer of solid particles suspended in a gas flow is of considerable importance in a number of industrial applications, ranging from coal combustion equipment and heat exchangers to catalytic reaction or cooling of nuclear reactors using gas graphite dust suspensions. Here, the heat transfer process between a dilute gas-particle suspension flow and an obstruction has been numerically investigated employing a novel Eulerian formulation for dilute gas particle suspension flows, which allows interaction of the key mechanisms to be quantified for the first time. As the particle reflection occurs around the obstruction, the heat transfer process has been modeled taking into account the incident and reflected particles explicitly. In the energy equations these particle families are treated separately. Only the effect on the gas convective heat transfer is expected to be of primary significance and investigated. The numerical computation is performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT, with the User Defined Subroutines. The authors study the heat transfer process between a dilute gas particle flow and an obstruction with simple geometries such as a 45 degree ramp and a cylindrical tube. The theoretical results for the latter case are compared with the available experimental data. The numerical simulation shows that both the particle size and the particle concentration (in the thermal boundary layer) affect the heat transfer process. Since both the particle incidence and reflection depend on the particle size and strongly influence the particle concentration distribution, they have to be physically correctly treated in the modeling of the heat transfer, as is demonstrated in the novel formulation. There is an optimum particle size for a maximum enhancement of the heat transfer. The particle concentration increases the efficiency of the heat transfer process expressed in terms of the local Nusselt numbers

  14. Extending the Modelling Framework for Gas-Particle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    , with very good results. Single particle combustion has been tested using a number of different particle combustion models applied to coal and straw particles. Comparing the results of these calculations to measurements on straw burnout, the results indicate that for straw, existing heterogeneous combustion...... models perform well, and may be used in high temperature ranges. Finally, the particle tracking and combustion model is applied to an existing coal and straw co- fuelled burner. The results indicate that again, the straw follows very different trajectories than the coal particles, and also that burnout...

  15. Heat transfer to a particle exposed to a rarefield ionized-gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; He, P.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical results are presented concerning the heat transfer to a spherical particle exposed to a high temperature, ionized- gas flow for the extreme case of free-molecule flow regime. It has been shown that the presence of relative velocity between the particle and the ionized gas reduces the floating potential on the particle, enhances the heat flux and causes appreciably non-uniform distribution of the local heat flux. Pronounced difference is found between metallic and non-metallic particles in the floating potential and the local heat flux distributions, in particular for the case with high gas-flow temperature. Relative contribution of atoms to the total heat flux is dominant for the case of low gas-flow temperature, while the heat flux is mainly caused by ions and electrons for the case of high gas-flow temperature

  16. The impact of aerosol composition on the particle to gas partitioning of reactive mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Andrew P; Schauer, James J

    2007-06-01

    A laboratory system was developed to study the gas-particle partitioning of reactive mercury (RM) as a function of aerosol composition in synthetic atmospheric particulate matter. The collection of RM was achieved by filter- and sorbent-based methods. Analyses of the RM collected on the filters and sorbents were performed using thermal extraction combined with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS), allowing direct measurement of the RM load on the substrates. Laboratory measurements of the gas-particle partitioning coefficients of RM to atmospheric aerosol particles revealed a strong dependence on aerosol composition, with partitioning coefficients that varied by orders of magnitude depending on the composition of the particles. Particles of sodium nitrate and the chlorides of potassium and sodium had high partitioning coefficients, shifting the RM partitioning toward the particle phase, while ammonium sulfate, levoglucosan, and adipic acid caused the RM to partition toward the gas phase and, therefore, had partitioning coefficients that were lower by orders of magnitude.

  17. Quenching of Particle-Gas Combustible Mixtures Using Electric Particulate Suspension (EPS) and Dispersion Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Gerald M.; Goroshin, Samuel; Lee, John H. S.

    2001-01-01

    A cooperative study is being carried out between Iowa State University and McGill University. The new study concerns wall and particle quenching effects in particle-gas mixtures. The primary objective is to measure and interpret flame quenching distances, flammability limits, and burning velocities in particulate suspensions. A secondary objective is to measure particle slip velocities and particle velocity distribution as these influence flame propagation. Two suspension techniques will be utilized and compared: (1) electric particle suspension/EPS; and (2) flow dispersion. Microgravity tests will permit testing of larger particles and higher and more uniform dust concentrations than is possible in normal gravity.

  18. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of [le] 10 [mu]m dia.

  19. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik

    2013-01-01

    microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of sin-gle particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot......This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron...

  20. Modeled heating and surface erosion comparing motile (gas borne) and stationary (surface coating) inert particle additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The unsteady, non-similar, chemically reactive, turbulent boundary layer equations are modified for gas plus dispersed solid particle mixtures, for gas phase turbulent combustion reactions and for heterogeneous gas-solid surface erosive reactions. The exterior (ballistic core) edge boundary conditions for the solutions are modified to include dispersed particle influences on core propellant combustion-generated turbulence levels, combustion reactants and products, and reaction-induced, non-isentropic mixture states. The wall surface (in this study it is always steel) is considered either bare or coated with a fixed particle coating which is conceptually non-reactive, insulative, and non-ablative. Two families of solutions are compared. These correspond to: (1) consideration of gas-borne, free-slip, almost spontaneously mobile (motile) solid particle additives which influence the turbulent heat transfer at the uncoated steel surface and, in contrast, (2) consideration of particle-free, gas phase turbulent heat transfer to the insulated surface coated by stationary particles. Significant differences in erosive heat transfer are found in comparing the two families of solutions over a substantial range of interior ballistic flow conditions. The most effective influences on reducing erosive heat transfer appear to favor mobile, gas-borne particle additives

  1. Adhesion of solid particles to gas bubbles. Part 2: Experimental

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omota, Florin; Dimian, Alexandre C.; Bliek, A.

    2006-01-01

    In slurry bubble columns, the adhesion of solid catalyst particles to bubbles may significantly affect the G–L mass transfer and bubble size distribution. This feature may be exploited in design by modifying the hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the particles used. Previously we have proposed a

  2. Failure mechanisms in high temperature gas cooled reactor fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Uneberg, G.; Sabatini, R.L.; Schweitzer, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    BISO coated UO 2 and ThO 2 particles were heated to high temperatures to determine failure mechanisms during hypothetical loss of coolant scenarios. Rapid failure begins when the oxides are reduced to liquid carbides. Several failure mechanisms are applicable, ranging from hole and crack formation in the coatings to catastrophic particle disintegration

  3. An efficient venturi scrubber system to remove submicron particles in exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wang, Yu-Min; Hunag, Cheng-Hsiung; Li, Shou-Nan; Wu, Zong-Xue; Wang, Feng-Cai

    2005-03-01

    An efficient venturi scrubber system making use of heterogeneous nucleation and condensational growth of particles was designed and tested to remove fine particles from the exhaust of a local scrubber where residual SiH4 gas was abated and lots of fine SiO2 particles were generated. In front of the venturi scrubber, normal-temperature fine-water mist mixes with high-temperature exhaust gas to cool it to the saturation temperature, allowing submicron particles to grow into micron sizes. The grown particles are then scrubbed efficiently in the venturi scrubber. Test results show that the present venturi scrubber system is effective for removing submicron particles. For SiO2 particles greater than 0.1microm, the removal efficiency is greater than 80-90%, depending on particle concentration. The corresponding pressure drop is relatively low. For example, the pressure drop of the venturi scrubber is approximately 15.4 +/- 2.4 cm H2O when the liquid-to-gas ratio is 1.50 L/m3. A theoretical calculation has been conducted to simulate particle growth process and the removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data reasonably well when SiO2 particle diameter is greater than 0.1 microm.

  4. Do the Particles of an Ideal Gas Collide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesk, Arthur M.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the collisional properties as a logically essential component of the ideal gas model since an actual intraparticle process cannot support observable anisotropic velocity distributions without collisions taken into account. (CC)

  5. Modeling random combustion of lycopodium particles and gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bidabadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The random modeling combustion of lycopodium particles has been researched by many authors. In this paper, we extend this model and we also generate a different method by analyzing the effect of random distributed sources of combustible mixture. The flame structure is assumed to consist of a preheat-vaporization zone, a reaction zone and finally a post flame zone. We divide the preheat zone to different parts. We assumed that there is different distribution of particles in sections which are really random. Meanwhile, it is presumed that the fuel particles vaporize first to yield gaseous fuel. In other words, most of the fuel particles are vaporized at the end of the preheat zone. It is assumed that the Zel’dovich number is large; therefore, the reaction term in preheat zone is negligible. In this work, the effect of random distribution of particles in the preheat zone on combustion characteristics such as burning velocity, flame temperature for different particle radius is obtained.

  6. Removal of fine particles in wet flue gas desulfurization system by heterogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.J.; Bao, J.J.; Yan, J.P.; Liu, J.H.; Song, S.J.; Fan, F.X. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2010-01-01

    A novel process to remove fine particles with high efficiency by heterogeneous condensation in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system is presented. A supersaturated vapor phase, necessary for condensational growth of fine particles, was achieved in the SO{sub 2} absorption zone and at the top of the wet FGD scrubber by adding steam in the gas inlet and above the scrubbing liquid inlet of the scrubber, respectively. The condensational grown droplets were then removed by the scrubbing liquid and a high-efficiency demister. The results show that the effectiveness of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles is related to the SO{sub 2} absorbent employed. When using CaCO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas, the fine particle removal efficiencies are lower than those for Na2CO{sub 3} and water, and the morphology and elemental composition of fine particles are changed. This effect can be attributed to the formation of aerosol particles in the limestone and ammonia-based FGD processes. The performance of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles can be significantly improved for both steam addition cases, for which the removal efficiency increases with increasing amount of added steam. A high liquid to gas ratio is beneficial for efficient removal of fine particles by heterogeneous condensation of water vapor.

  7. Properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements for particle detectors in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviano, G.; Ferrini, M.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Colafranceschi, S.; KjØlbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Grassini, S.; Parvis, M.

    2018-03-01

    Gas detectors for elementary particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This work studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements by computing the physical and chemical parameters relevant for use as detector media, and suggests candidates to be considered for experimental investigation.

  8. Effect of Particle Size and Soil Compaction on Gas Transport Parameters in Variably Saturated, Sandy Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The soil gas diffusion coefficient (Dp) and air permeability (ka) and their dependency on soil air content ( ) control gas diffusion and advection in soils. This study investigated the effects of average particle size (D50) and dry bulk density ( b) on Dp and ka for six sandy soils under variably...

  9. Low Temperature Particle Filtration of Producer Gas with Low Tar Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    This report describes the tests of different techniques for removing the particulates from producer gas from the 100 kW two-stage down-draft gasifier at DTU1 . The goal of the tests was to identify and implement methods to remove soot particles from producer gas with low tar content. During the f...

  10. Low Temperature Particle Filtration of Wood Gas with Low Tar Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2002-01-01

    Baghouse filters and cartridge filters were tested online with wood gas from a two stage down draft gasifier. The gas contained soot and very low levels (10-30 mg/Nm³) of tar. Particle collection efficiencies were above 95%. Continuous operation with cheap self cleaning baghouse filters were test...

  11. Kinetics of gas to particle conversion in the NH/sub 3/-Chl system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luria, M; Cohen, B

    1980-01-01

    Particle formation in the reaction of NH/sub 3/ and Chl under 1 atm of N/sub 2/ and at 25/sup 0/C was studied in a flow reactor. The critical concentration below which NO particle can be formed was found to be 3.5 x 10/sup +14/ molecule/CM/sup 3/ for (NH/sub 3/)=(HCl). Above this concentration, gas-particle conversion percentage increases rapidly to approach 100%.

  12. Extraction of K- mesonlike particles from a D2 gas discharge plasma in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin.

    1996-05-01

    From the outside region of D 2 gas discharge plasma along magnetic field, K - mesonlike particles are extracted with D - ions and π - mesonlike particles. Then, a higher positive bias voltage is necessary for the beam collector of magnetic mass analyzer in order to detect the K - mesonlike particles, and we must interrupt the diffusion of the positive ions to the back of the beam collector. (author)

  13. An experimental and computational investigation of gas/particle flow in a vertical lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathisen, Anette

    2010-07-01

    Experimental and computational investigations of dilute gas/particle flow in a vertical lifter are performed. The effect of superficial gas velocity, particle density, particle size distribution and particle loading on particle velocities, particle fluctuations and particle cross-moment have been studied experimentally using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results from the experimental investigation is compared with the computational investigation using FluentR. The experimental measurements are performed on a lab-scale vertical lifter, consisting of a fluidizing silo and a receiving tank with a glass pipe in which the solids phase is transported. The particles are placed in the fluidization tank and transport air enters at the bottom of the silo. The transport pipe is suspended above the inlet and as the transport air passes the opening, the particles are dragged into the air flow and transported upwards to the receiving tank. Fluidizing air is used to control the particle loading in the system and supplied through a distribution plate. The test section of the transport pipe is made of glass to enable the use of the optical laser based investigation techniques, LDA and PIV. Two types of powders are used, ZrO{sub 2} and glass, each with two different particle size distributions, average diameter of 260 and 530 micron and 120 and 518 micron, respectively. The experimental techniques LDA and PIV are used to investigate a dilute gas/particle vertical flow. The two techniques are also evaluated for use on this type of flow. LDA is a single point measurement technique, which means that one point is measured at a time. The acquisition stops when a pre-set criteria is reached, this can either be based on sample number or time. A measurement spanning over the whole cross-section of the pipe consists of several points. These points makes up a cross-sectional profile. PIV on the other hand is a whole field technique and consequently

  14. Modelling of interactions between variable mass and density solid particles and swirling gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardach-Święcicka, I; Kardaś, D; Pozorski, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the solid particles - gas interactions. For this purpose, numerical modelling was carried out by means of a commercial code for simulations of two-phase dispersed flows with the in-house models accounting for mass and density change of solid phase. In the studied case the particles are treated as spherical moving grains carried by a swirling stream of hot gases. Due to the heat and mass transfer between gas and solid phase, the particles are losing their mass and they are changing their volume. Numerical simulations were performed for turbulent regime, using two methods for turbulence modelling: RANS and LES.

  15. Gas-liquid transition in the model of particles interacting at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    2013-01-01

    An application of the ideas of the inertial confinement fusion process in the case of particles interacting at high energy is investigated. A possibility of the gas-liquid transition in the gas is considered using different approaches. In particular, a shock wave description of interactions between particles is studied and a self-similar solution of Euler's equation is discussed. Additionally, the Boltzmann equation is solved for a self-consistent field (Vlasov's equation) in the linear approximation for the case of a gas under external pressure and the corresponding change of the Knudsen number of the system is calculated. (orig.)

  16. Beyond phthalates: Gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossler, Patricia [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schripp, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.schripp@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Bahadir, Muefit [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    The ongoing health debate about polymer plasticizers based on the esters of phthalic acid, especially di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has caused a trend towards using phthalates of lower volatility such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and towards other acid esters, such as adipates, terephthalates, citrates, etc. Probably the most important of these so-called 'alternative' plasticizers is diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH). In the indoor environment, the continuously growing market share of this compound since its launch in 2002 is inter alia apparent from the increasing concentration of DINCH in settled house dust. From the epidemiological point of view there is considerable interest in identifying how semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) distribute in the indoor environment, especially in air, airborne particles and sedimented house dust. This, however, requires reliable experimental concentration data for the different media and good measurements or estimates of their physical and chemical properties. This paper reports on air concentrations for DINP, DINCH, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), diisobutyl adipate (DIBA), diisobutyl succinate (DIBS) and diisobutyl glutarate (DIBG) from emission studies in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). For DINP and DINCH it took about 50 days to reach the steady-state value: for four months no decay in the concentration could be observed. Moreover, vapor pressures p{sub 0} and octanol-air partitioning coefficients K{sub OA} were obtained for 37 phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers from two different algorithms: EPI Suite and SPARC. It is shown that calculated gas/particle partition coefficients K{sub p} and fractions can widely differ due to the uncertainty in the predicted p{sub 0} and K{sub OA} values. For most of the investigated compounds reliable experimental vapor pressures are not available. Rough estimates can be obtained from the measured emission rate of the pure compound in a

  17. Effects of continuum breakdown on hypersonic aerothermodynamics for reacting flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Timothy D.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of continuum breakdown on the surface aerothermodynamic properties (pressure, stress, and heat transfer rate) of a sphere in a Mach 25 flow of reacting air in regimes varying from continuum to a rarefied gas. Results are generated using both continuum [computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] and particle [direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC)] approaches. The DSMC method utilizes a chemistry model that calculates the backward rates from an equilibrium constant. A preferential dissociation model is modified in the CFD method to better compare with the vibrationally favored dissociation model that is utilized in the DSMC method. Tests of these models are performed to confirm their validity and to compare the chemistry models in both numerical methods. This study examines the effect of reacting air flow on continuum breakdown and the surface properties of the sphere. As the global Knudsen number increases, the amount of continuum breakdown in the flow and on the surface increases. This increase in continuum breakdown significantly affects the surface properties, causing an increase in the differences between CFD and DSMC. Explanations are provided for the trends observed.

  18. Heterogeneous reactivity of sea spray particles during the CalNex field campaign: Insight from single particle measurements and correlations with gas phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, C. J.; Riedel, T. P.; Thornton, J. A.; Wagner, N.; Brown, S. S.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea spray particles are ubiquitous in marine environments. Heterogeneous reactions between sea spray particles and gas phase pollutants, such as HNO3(g), and N2O5(g), alter particle composition by displacing particulate phase halogens in sea spray and releasing these halogen species into the gas phase; these halogen-containing gas phase species play a significant role in tropospheric ozone production. Measurements of both gas phase and particle phase species on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNEX 2010 field campaign provided an opportunity to examine the impact of heterogeneous reactivity of marine aerosols along the California coast. During the cruise, coastal measurements were made near the Santa Monica and Port of Los Angeles regions to monitor the chemical processing of marine aerosols. Sea spray particles were analyzed since these particles were the major chloride-containing particles detected. Real-time single particle measurements made using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) revealed the nocturnal processing of sea spray particles through the loss of particulate chloride and a simultaneous gain in particulate nitrate. Gas phase measurements are consistent with the particle phase observations: As N2O5(g) levels rose overnight, the production of ClNO2(g) coincided with the decrease in particulate chloride. These observations provide unique insight into heterogeneous reactivity from both a gas and particle phase perspective. Results from these measurements can be used to better constrain the rate of heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles.

  19. Estimating particle release through gas leaks in dry powder shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.

    1977-06-01

    Information is presented from which an estimate can be made of the release of plutonium oxide from shipping containers. The leak diameter is estimated from gas leak tests of the container and an estimate is made of gas leak rate as a function of pressure over the time of interest in the accident. These calculations are limited in accuracy because of assumptions regarding leak geometry and the basic formulations of hydrodynamic flow for the assumed conditions. Sonic flow is assumed to be the limiting gas flow rate. Particles leaking from the air space above the powder will be limited by the low availability of particles due to rapid settling, the very limited driving force (pressure buildup) during the first minute, and the deposition in the leak channel. Equations are given to estimate deposition losses. Leaks of particles occurring below the level of the bulk powder will be limited by mechanical interference when leaks are of dimension smaller than particle sizes present. Some limiting cases can be calculated. When the leak dimension is large compared to the particle sizes present, maximum particle releases can be estimated, but will be very conservative. Further theoretical and experimental studies are needed to better define the hydrodynamics of gas flow in leaks of the size being considered, and to establish particle transport rates through known geometry leak paths

  20. CFD-DEM based numerical simulation of liquid-gas-particle mixture flow in dam break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Kim, Min Il

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the multiphase flow of a liquid-gas-particle mixture in dam break. The open source codes, OpenFOAM and CFDEMproject, were used to reproduce the multiphase flow. The results of the present study are compared with those of previous results obtained by numerical and experimental methods, which guarantees validity of present numerical method to handle the multiphase flow. The particle density ranging from 1100 to 2500 kg/m3 is considered to investigate the effect of the particle density on the behavior of the free-surface and the particles. The particle density has no effect on the liquid front, but it makes the particle front move with different velocity. The time when the liquid front reach at the opposite wall is independent of particle density. However, such time for particle front decrease as particle density increases, which turned out to be proportional to particle density. Based on these results, we classified characteristics of the movement by the front positions of the liquid and the particles. Eventually, the response of the free-surface and particles to particle density is identified by three motion regimes of the advancing, overlapping and delaying motions.

  1. Chlorine gas processing of oxide nuclear fuel particles containing thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotik, K.; Bildstein, H.; Falta, G.; Wagner, H.

    Experimental studies on the chloride extraction and separation of U and Th from coated Th--U oxide particles are reported. After a description of the chlorination equipment and the experimental procedures, the results are discussed. The yield of U is determined as a function of the reaction temperature. The results of a thermogravimetric analysis of the chlorination of uranium carbide and thorium carbides are reported and used to establish the reaction mechanism for the chlorination

  2. Multi-angle gas and Si detector particle telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A simple gas ΔE and multiple Si E detector telescope (called a WEDGE detector) has been constructed, which is particularly suitable for angular distribution studies of light ion emission from fragments following heavy ion reactions. This inexpensive detector was designed to have a low detection threshold, large dynamic range and constant ΔE path length. The detector has been used in studies of complex fragment emission (typically 2 < Z < 10) following compound nucleus and deep-inelastic heavy ion reactions

  3. Gas suspension flows of a moderately dense binary mixture of solid particles in vertical tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamankhan, P.; Huotari, J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Combustion and Conversion Lab.

    1996-12-01

    The turbulent, steady, fully-developed flow of a moderately dense (solid volume faction >>0.001) binary mixture of spherical particles in a gaseous carrier is investigated for the case of flow in a vertical riser. The suspended particles are considered to be in turbulent motion, driven by random aerodynamic forces acting between the particle and the gaseous carrier as well as particle-particle interactive forces. A model is constructed based on the combination of the time-averaged after volume-averaged conservation equations of mass, momentum and mechanical energy of the gas phase in the continuum theory and the corresponding equations for the solid particles obtained using the recently developed Enskog theory for dense multi-component mixtures of slightly inelastic spherical particles. The model properly takes into account the contributions of particle-particle collisions, as well as the fluid-dynamic fluctuating forces on individual particles. To demonstrate the validity of this approach, the fully-developed steady-state mean velocity and concentration distributions of a moderately dense binary mixture of solid particles in a turbulent vertical flow calculated by the present model are compared with available experimental measurements. The results provide a qualitative description of the experimentally observed motion of coarse particles in a fast bed of fine solids. (author)

  4. CFD simulation of gas-liquid floating particles mixing in an agitated vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liangchao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas dispersion and floating particles suspension in an agitated vessel were studied numerically by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The Eulerian multi-fluid model along with standard k-ε turbulence model was used in the simulation. A multiple reference frame (MRF approach was used to solve the impeller rotation. The velocity field, gas and floating particles holdup distributions in the vessel were first obtained, and then, the effects of operating conditions on gas dispersion and solid suspension were investigated. The simulation results show that velocity field of solid phase and gas phase are quite different in the agitated vessel. Floating particles are easy to accumulate in the center of the surface region and the increasing of superficial gas velocity is in favor of floating particles off-surface suspension. With increasing solids loading, the gas dispersion becomes worse, while relative solid holdup distribution changes little. The limitations of the present modeling are discussed and further research in the future is proposed.

  5. Characterizing gas-particle interactions of phthalate plasticizer emitted from vinyl flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Jennifer L; Liu, Zhe; Tiwari, Andrea; Little, John C; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-03-19

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers, and improved ability to predict emissions of phthalates is of interest because of concern about their health effects. An experimental chamber was used to measure emissions of di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring, with ammonium sulfate particles introduced to examine their influence on the emission rate and to measure the partitioning of DEHP onto airborne particles. When particles were introduced to the chamber at concentrations of 100 to 245 μg/m(3), the total (gas + particle) DEHP concentrations increased by a factor of 3 to 8; under these conditions, emissions were significantly enhanced compared to the condition without particles. The measured DEHP partition coefficient to ammonium sulfate particles with a median diameter of 45 ± 5 nm was 0.032 ± 0.003 m(3)/μg (95% confidence interval). The DEHP-particle sorption equilibration time was demonstrated to be less than 1 min. Both the partition coefficient and equilibration time agree well with predictions from the literature. This study represents the first known measurements of the particle-gas partition coefficient for DEHP. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the emission rate of DEHP is substantially enhanced in the presence of particles. The particles rapidly sorb DEHP from the gas phase, allowing more to be emitted from the source, and also appear to enhance the convective mass-transfer coefficient itself. Airborne particles can influence SVOC fate and transport in the indoor environment, and these mechanisms must be considered in evaluating exposure and human health.

  6. Gas-particle phase partitioning and particle size distribution of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Hongbo; Yang, Lili; Wu, Xiaolin; Xu, Yang; Liu, Guorui

    2017-12-01

    Chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl/Br-PAHs) are emerging semi-volatile organic pollutants in haze-associated particulate matter (PM). Their gas-particle phase partitioning and distribution among PM fractions have not been clarified. Clarification would increase understanding of atmospheric behavior and health risks of Cl/Br-PAHs. In this study, samples of the gas phase and 4 PM phases (aerodynamic diameters (d ae ) > 10 μm, 2.5-10 μm, 1.0-2.5 μm, and <1.0 μm) were collected simultaneously during haze events in Beijing and analyzed. Normalized histogram distribution indicated that the Cl/Br-PAHs tended to adhere to fine particles. Over 80% of the Cl-PAHs and 70% of the Br-PAHs were associated with fine PM (d ae  < 2.5 μm). The gas-particle phase partitioning and PM distribution of Cl/Br-PAHs when heating of buildings was required, which was associated with haze events, were obviously different from those when heating was not required. The relationship between the logarithmic geometric mean diameters of the Cl/Br-PAH congeners and reciprocal of the temperature (1/T) suggested that low air temperatures during the heating period could lead to high proportions of Cl/Br-PAHs in the fine particles. Increased coal burning during the heating period also contributed to high Cl/Br-PAH loads in the fine particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On gas and particle radiation in pulverized fuel combustion furnaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer in a combustor. This paper presents a refined weighted sum of gray gases model for computational fluid dynamics modelling of conventional air-fuel combustion, which has greater accuracy and completeness than the existing gaseous radiative property...... models. This paper also presents new conversion-dependent models for particle emissivity and scattering factor, instead of various constant values in literature. The impacts of the refined or new models are demonstrated via computational fluid dynamics simulation of a pulverized coal-fired utility boiler...

  8. Drift of a flat particle at longitudinal oscillations of gas in an open tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaripov, R G; Tkachenko, L A; R, Shaydullin L

    2014-01-01

    The particle motion is experimentally investigated at nonlinear oscillations of gas in the tube and in the external field near the open end in the shock-free mode. Dependence is obtained for the coordinates of the particle along the tube from time for various frequencies and amplitudes of displacement of the piston. Drift is set for a particle from the open end of the tube to the piston. It is determined that the particle moves into an external field at the open end outside the tube without appreciable oscillations. Detected position of the particle at the open end, wherein the particle does not perform drift towards the inside and outside of the tube

  9. Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-06-30

    One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed

  10. Gas/particle partitioning behaviour of azaarenes in an urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Y; Preston, M R

    1997-01-01

    The gas/particle partitioning of azaarenes in the Liverpool urban atmosphere was measured from May 1995 to April 1996. This period included one of the hottest summers and coldest winters recorded in the UK. The changes of the relative proportions of particulate and vapour phases showed a strong seasonal variation in which over 80% of azaarene compounds are associated with the particles in the winter and over 60% of azaarene compounds exist as vapour phase during the summer. The results are fitted into a gas/particle partitioning equation. Calculated vapour pressures, vaporization and desorption enthalpies are also given. Azaarene partitioning behaviour is modelled at a variety of aerosol concentrations and over a temperature range which includes normal ambient temperatures. It is hypothesised that three ring azaarene species are more likely to undergo changes in the relative proportions of particle and vapour phase material than either two or four ring compounds.

  11. Ultrafine particles and nitrogen oxides generated by gas and electric cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Dennekamp, M; Howarth, S; Dick, C; Cherrie, J; Donaldson, K; Seaton, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To measure the concentrations of particles less than 100 nm diameter and of oxides of nitrogen generated by cooking with gas and electricity, to comment on possible hazards to health in poorly ventilated kitchens.
METHODS—Experiments with gas and electric rings, grills, and ovens were used to compare different cooking procedures. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) were measured by a chemiluminescent ML9841A NOx analyser. A TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure average nu...

  12. Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Gil, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Gómez, H; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

  13. Investigation of the diffusion of a massive particle in a one-dimensional ideal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazin, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical methods have been used to investigate the dependence of the diffusion coefficient of a massive particle in a one-dimensional ideal gas on its mass. It is shown that the lower limit for the diffusion coefficient obtained by Sinai and Soloveichick and Szasz and Toth is a greatest lower bound. In addition, application of Pearson's x 2 test showed that the limit distribution of a massive particle is not Gaussian with a high significance level

  14. Study on the dynamics of charged particles in a rarefied gas of thermonuclear reactor injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, P.N.; Svistunov, Yu.A.; Sidorov, V.P.; Udovichenko, S.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    The motion of an ion beam directly beyond the source is considered in the assumption of homogeneous density of rarefied gas along the injector. Using numerical simulation the dynamics of fast particles in plasma electric field, created by the beam as a result of gas neutral atom ionization, is investigated. It is shown that stationary ambipolar electric field of ''plasma lens'' can affect considerably the beam transverse dynamics

  15. An improved particle filtering algorithm for aircraft engine gas-path fault diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihang Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved particle filter with electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm is proposed for aircraft engine gas-path component abrupt fault diagnosis. In order to avoid the particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment of normal particle filter, the electromagnetism-like mechanism optimization algorithm is introduced into resampling procedure, which adjusts the position of the particles through simulating attraction–repulsion mechanism between charged particles of the electromagnetism theory. The improved particle filter can solve the particle degradation problem and ensure the diversity of the particle set. Meanwhile, it enhances the ability of tracking abrupt fault due to considering the latest measurement information. Comparison of the proposed method with three different filter algorithms is carried out on a univariate nonstationary growth model. Simulations on a turbofan engine model indicate that compared to the normal particle filter, the improved particle filter can ensure the completion of the fault diagnosis within less sampling period and the root mean square error of parameters estimation is reduced.

  16. Biofilter media gas pressure loss as related to media particle size and particle shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Røjgaard Andreasen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Pressure loss (ΔP) is a key parameter for estimating biofilter energy consumption. Accurate predictions of ΔP as a function of air velocity (V) are therefore essential, to assess energy consumption and minimize operation costs. This paper investigates the combined impact of medium particle size...

  17. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  18. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges and Irradiated Metallic Uranium Fuel Particles Series III Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Elmore, Monte R.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2003-01-01

    The path forward for managing of Hanford K Basin sludge calls for it to be packaged, shipped, and stored at T Plant until final processing at a future date. An important consideration for the design and cost of retrieval, transportation, and storage systems is the potential for heat and gas generation through oxidation reactions between uranium metal and water. This report, the third in a series (Series III), describes work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess corrosion and gas generation from irradiated metallic uranium particles (fuel particles) with and without K Basin sludge addition. The testing described in this report consisted of 12 tests. In 10 of the tests, 4.3 to 26.4 g of fuel particles of selected size distribution were placed into 60- or 800-ml reaction vessels with 0 to 100 g settled sludge. In another test, a single 3.72-g fuel fragment (i.e., 7150-mm particle) was placed in a 60 ml reaction vessel with no added sludge. The twelfth test contained only sludge. The fuel particles were prepared by crushing archived coupons (samples) from an irradiated metallic uranium fuel element. After loading the sludge materials (whether fuel particles, mixtures of fuel particles and sludge, or sludge-only) into reaction vessels, the solids were covered with an excess of K Basin water, the vessels closed and connected to a gas measurement manifold, and the vessels back-flushed with inert neon cover gas. The vessels were then heated to a constant temperature. The gas pressures and temperatures were monitored continuously from the times the vessels were purged. Gas samples were collected at various times during the tests, and the samples analyzed by mass spectrometry. Data on the reaction rates of uranium metal fuel particles with water as a function of temperature and particle size were generated. The data were compared with published studies on metallic uranium corrosion kinetics. The effects of an intimate overlying sludge layer

  19. The ionisation loss of relativistic charged particles in thin gas samples and its use for particle identification. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.H.; Allison, W.W.M.; Bunch, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review shows a significant discrepancy between available data and theoretical predictions on the ionisation loss of charged particles in thin gas-filled proportional counters. The discrepancy related both to the increase of the most probable loss at relativistic velocities (relativistic rise) and to the spectrum of such losses at a given velocity (the Landau distribution). The origin of this relativistic rise is discussed in simple terms and related to the phenomena of transition radiation and Cherenkov radiation. It is shown that the failure of the prediction is due to the small number of ionising collisions in a gas. This problem is overcome by using a Monte Carlo method rather than a continuous integral over the spectrum of single collision processes. A specific mode of the atomic form factors is used with a modified Born approximation to yield the differential cross sections needed for the calculation. The new predictions give improved agreement with experiment and are used to investigate the problem of identifying particles of known momenta in the relativistic region. It is shown that by measuring the ionisation loss of each particle several hundred times over 5m or more, kaon, pion and proton separation with good confidence level may be achieved. Many gases are considered and a comparison is made. The results are also compared with the velocity resolution achievable by measuring primary ionisation. (Auth.)

  20. Quantum mechanics of lattice gas automata: One-particle plane waves and potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Classical lattice gas automata effectively simulate physical processes, such as diffusion and fluid flow (in certain parameter regimes), despite their simplicity at the microscale. Motivated by current interest in quantum computation we recently defined quantum lattice gas automata; in this paper we initiate a project to analyze which physical processes these models can effectively simulate. Studying the single particle sector of a one-dimensional quantum lattice gas we find discrete analogs of plane waves and wave packets, and then investigate their behavior in the presence of inhomogeneous potentials. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure.

  2. Gas dynamics considerations in a non-invasive profile monitor for charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Tzoganis, Vasilis; Welsch, Carsten P

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive, gas jet-based, beam profile monitor has been developed in the QUASAR Group at the Cockcroft Institute, UK. This allows on-line measurement of the 2-dimensional transverse profile of particle beams with negligible disturbance to either primary beam or accelerator vacuum. The monitor is suitable for use with beams across a wide range of energies and intensities. In this setup a nozzle-skimmer system shapes a thin supersonic gas jet into a curtain. However, the small dimensions of the gas inlet nozzle and subsequent skimmers were shown to be the cause of many operational problems. In this paper, the dynamics of gas jet formation transport and shaping is discussed before an image-processing based alignment technique is introduced. Furthermore, experimental results obtained with a 5 keV electron beam are discussed and the effects of gas stagnation pressure on the acquired beam are presented.

  3. Study of the motion and deposition of micro particles in a vertical tube containing uniform gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolpour, Bahador; Afsahi, M. Mehdi; Soltani Goharrizi, Ataallah; Azizkarimi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    In this study, effects of a gaseous jet, formed in a vertical tube containing a uniform gas flow, on the injected micro particles have been investigated. A CFD model has been developed to simulate the particle motion in the tube. This simulation is very close to the experimental data. The results show that, increasing the flow rate of carrier gas or decreasing the flow rate of surrounding gas increases the effect of gaseous jet and also increases trapping rate of the particles by the tube wall. The minimum and maximum residence times of particles approach together with increasing the size of solid particles. Particles larger than 60 μm have a certain and fixed residence time at different flow rates of the carrier or surrounding gas. About 40 μm particle size has minimal trapping by the tube wall at various experimental conditions.

  4. Rapid injection of particles and gas into non-fluidized granular material, and some volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; Zimanowski, Bernd; Büttner, Ralf

    2008-10-01

    In diatremes and other volcanic vents, steep bodies of volcaniclastic material having differing properties (particle size distribution, proportion of lithic fragments, etc.) from those of the surrounding vent-filling volcaniclastic material are often found. It has been proposed that cylindrical or cone-shaped bodies result from the passage of “debris jets” generated after phreatomagmatic explosions or other discrete subterranean bursts. To learn more about such phenomena, we model experimentally the injection of gas-particulate dispersions through other particles. Analogue materials (glass beads or sand) and a finite amount of compressed air are used in the laboratory. The gas is made available by rapidly opening a valve—therefore the injection of gas and coloured particles into a granular host is a brief (non-erupting injections produce cylindrical bodies of coloured beads whereas erupting runs produce flaring upward or conical deposits. Changing the particle size of the host glass beads does not have a large effect under the size range investigated (100 200 to 300 400 μm). Doubling the host thickness (injection depth) requires a doubling of the initial gas pressure to produce similar phenomena. Such injections—whether erupting or wholly subterranean—provide a compelling explanation for the origin and characteristics of multiple cross-cutting bodies that have been documented for diatreme and other vent deposits.

  5. The influence of gas-to-particle conversion on measurements of ammonia exchange over forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oss, R. van; Duyzer, J.; Wyers, P.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of vertical gradients of ammonium nitrate aerosol and NH3 are used together with HNO3 concentrations to study the influence of gas-to-particle conversion (gtpc) on surface exchange processes above a forest. A numerical model of surface exchange, in which a description of gtpc was

  6. Direct Measurements of Gas/Particle Partitioning and Mass Accommodation Coefficients in Environmental Chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechmer, Jordan E; Day, Douglas A; Ziemann, Paul J; Jimenez, Jose L

    2017-10-17

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a major contributor to fine particulate mass and wield substantial influences on the Earth's climate and human health. Despite extensive research in recent years, many of the fundamental processes of SOA formation and evolution remain poorly understood. Most atmospheric aerosol models use gas/particle equilibrium partitioning theory as a default treatment of gas-aerosol transfer, despite questions about potentially large kinetic effects. We have conducted fundamental SOA formation experiments in a Teflon environmental chamber using a novel method. A simple chemical system produces a very fast burst of low-volatility gas-phase products, which are competitively taken up by liquid organic seed particles and Teflon chamber walls. Clear changes in the species time evolution with differing amounts of seed allow us to quantify the particle uptake processes. We reproduce gas- and aerosol-phase observations using a kinetic box model, from which we quantify the aerosol mass accommodation coefficient (α) as 0.7 on average, with values near unity especially for low volatility species. α appears to decrease as volatility increases. α has historically been a very difficult parameter to measure with reported values varying over 3 orders of magnitude. We use the experimentally constrained model to evaluate the correction factor (Φ) needed for chamber SOA mass yields due to losses of vapors to walls as a function of species volatility and particle condensational sink. Φ ranges from 1-4.

  7. Three-component particle image velocimetry in a generic can-type gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, Bronwyn C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available -1 Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy November 2012/ Vol. 226(7) Three-componentParticle Image Velocimetry in a Generic Can-type Gas Turbine Combustor B C Meyers 1, 2* , G C Snedden 1 , J P...

  8. Investigation of interface boundary occurring during cold gas-dynamic spraying of metallic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bolesta, A V; Sharafutdinov, M R; Tolochko, B P

    2001-01-01

    An interface boundary occurring during cold gas dynamic spraying of aluminum particles on a nickel substrate has been studied by the method of X-ray grazing diffraction. Presence of boundary phase of the intermetallic compound Ni sub 3 Al was found.

  9. Behaviour of particles in a commercial advanced gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.; Wells, A.C.; Hedgecock, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Certain hypothetical fault conditions cause fission products to escape from a fraction of the fuel to an intact coolant circuit. A significant fraction of the activity, including iodine isotopes, is expected to attach to small particles suspended in the gas coolant, and the fate of the particles may influence the fraction of the activity available to escape to the environment with the small amount of gas that leaks continuously from the coolant circuit. A series of experiments has provided an understanding of the behaviour of such particles. Tracer particles of 0.6, 2, 5 and 17 μm diameter, labelled with 59 Fe, were dispersed as aerosols in the reactor coolant, and the subsequent variation of concentration was observed by measurement of a sequence of filter samples of the coolant gas. The changes in concentration were influenced by mixing processes, but showed clearly that loss processes reduced the burden in the coolant by two or three orders of magnitude within 3 h. The concentration did not follow a simple exponential decrease. Small particles deposited more rapidly than the largest size studied. These observations imply that particles both impact onto, and also bounce and resuspend from, the internal surfaces of the coolant circuit. Although the physical mechanisms of the particle-surface interaction cannot be described in detail, the results clearly demonstrate a large benefit due to deposition reducing the amount of circulating activity. The quantity of particle-borne activity available for escape with leaking coolant during 24 h following a release from fuel is reduced by a factor ranging from several hundred to a few thousand. (author)

  10. Temperature dependence of the particle/gas partition coefficient: An application to predict indoor gas-phase concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wenjuan, E-mail: Wenjuan.Wei@cstb.fr [University of Paris-Est, Scientific and Technical Center for Building (CSTB), Health and Comfort Department, French Indoor Air Quality Observatory (OQAI), 84 Avenue Jean Jaurès, Champs sur Marne, 77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Mandin, Corinne [University of Paris-Est, Scientific and Technical Center for Building (CSTB), Health and Comfort Department, French Indoor Air Quality Observatory (OQAI), 84 Avenue Jean Jaurès, Champs sur Marne, 77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); LERES-Environment and Health Research Laboratory (Irset and EHESP Technologic Platform), Rennes (France); Blanchard, Olivier [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); Mercier, Fabien [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); LERES-Environment and Health Research Laboratory (Irset and EHESP Technologic Platform), Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); Pelletier, Maud [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); Le Bot, Barbara [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); LERES-Environment and Health Research Laboratory (Irset and EHESP Technologic Platform), Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); and others

    2016-09-01

    The indoor gas-phase concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) can be predicted from their respective concentrations in airborne particles by applying the particle/gas partitioning equilibrium. The temperature used for partitioning is often set to 25 °C. However, indoor temperatures frequently differ from this reference value. This assumption may result in errors in the predicted equilibrium gas-phase SVOC concentrations. To improve the prediction model, the temperature dependence of the particle/gas partition coefficient must be addressed. In this paper, a theoretical relationship between the particle/gas partition coefficient and temperature was developed based on the SVOC absorptive mechanism. The SVOC particle/gas partition coefficients predicted by employing the derived theoretical relationship agree well with the experimental data retrieved from the literature (R > 0.93). The influence of temperature on the equilibrium gas-phase SVOC concentration was quantified by a dimensionless analysis of the derived relationship between the SVOC particle/gas partition coefficient and temperature. The predicted equilibrium gas-phase SVOC concentration decreased by between 31% and 53% when the temperature was lowered by 6 °C, while it increased by up to 750% when the indoor temperature increased from 15 °C to 30 °C. - Highlights: • A theoretical relationship between K{sub p} and temperature was developed. • The relationship was based on the SVOC absorptive mechanism. • The temperature impact was quantified by a dimensionless analysis.

  11. On the dilute gas two particle density matrices of p--H2 and He4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weres, O.

    1976-01-01

    In the preceding paper we demonstrated that the reduced two- particle density matrix of simple quantum liquids could profitably be re-expressed in terms of a Taylor expansion of its logarithm about the diagonal. In the present publication we examine the Taylor coefficients which arise when the dilute gas two particle density matrix is expanded in this way. In particular, we evaluate the leading coefficients of p-H 2 and He 4 exactly and extend the Wigner--Kirkwood approximation to provided approximate expressions for them. We demonstrate how these approximate expressions may be applied to yield results superior to those yielded by the ordinary Wigner--Kirkwood approximation. In an appendix we demonstrate how the Block equation for the dilute gas two particle density matrix may be reduced to an equivalent closed set of equations for the leading Taylor coefficients

  12. Characterisation of gas and particle emissions from wildfires =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Ana Margarida Proenca

    Os incendios florestais sao uma importante fonte de emissao de compostos gasosos e de aerossois. Em Portugal, onde a maioria dos incendios ocorre no norte e centro do pais, os incendios destroem todos os anos milhares de hectares, com importantes perdas em termos economicos, de vidas humanas e qualidade ambiental. As emissoes podem alterar consideravelmente a quimica da atmosfera, degradar a qualidade do ar e alterar o clima. Contudo, a informacao sobre as carateristicas das emissoes dos incendios florestais nos paises do Mediterrâneo e limitada. Tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, existe um interesse crescente na elaboracao de inventarios de emissoes e de regulamentos sobre as emissoes de carbono para a atmosfera. Do ponto de vista atmosferico da monitorizacao atmosferica, os incendios sao considerados um desafio, dada a sua variabilidade temporal e espacial, sendo de esperar um aumento da sua frequencia, dimensao e severidade, e tambem porque as estimativas de emissoes dependem das carateristicas dos biocombustiveis e da fase de combustao. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar e caraterizar as emissoes de gases e aerossois de alguns dos mais representativos incendios florestais que ocorreram no centro de Portugal nos veroes de 2009 e de 2010. Efetuou-se a colheita de amostras de gases e de duas fracoes de particulas (PM2.5 e PM2.5-10) nas plumas de fumo em sacos Tedlar e em filtros de quartzo acoplados a um amostrador de elevado volume, respetivamente. Os hidrocarbonetos totais (THC) e oxidos de carbono (CO e CO2) nas amostras gasosas foram analisados em instrumentos automaticos de ionizacao de chama e detetores nao dispersivos de infravermelhos, respetivamente. Para algumas amostras, foram tambem quantificados alguns compostos de carbonilo apos reamostragem do gas dos sacos Tedlar em cartuchos de silica gel revestidos com 2,4-dinitrofenilhidrazina (DNPH), seguida de analise por cromatografia liquida de alta resolucao. Nas particulas, analisou-se o

  13. Separation of silicon carbide-coated fertile and fissile particles by gas classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1976-07-01

    The separation of 235 U and 233 U in the reprocessing of HTGR fuels is a key feature of the feed-breed fuel cycle concept. This is attained in the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reactor by coating the fissile (Th- 235 U) particles and the fertile (Th- 233 U) particles separately with silicon carbide (SiC) layers to contain the fission products and to protect the kernels from burning in the head-end reprocessing steps. Pneumatic (gas) classification based on size and density differences is the reference process for separating the SiC-coated particles into fissile and fertile streams for subsequent handling. Terminal velocities have been calculated for the +- 2 sigma ranges of particle sizes and densities for ''Fissile B''--''Fertile A'' particles used in the FSV reactor. Because of overlapping particle fractions, a continuous pneumatic separator appears infeasible; however, a batch separation process can be envisioned. Changing the gas from air to CO 2 and/or the temperature to 300 0 C results in less than 10 percent change in calculated terminal velocities. Recently reported work in gas classification is discussed in light of the theoretical calculations. The pneumatic separation of fissile and fertile particles needs more study, specifically with regard to (1) measuring the recoveries and separation efficiencies of actual fissile and fertile fractions in the tests of the pneumatic classifiers; and (2) improving the contactor design or flowsheet to avoid apparent flow separation or flooding problems at the feed point when using the feed rates required for the pilot plant

  14. Instellar Gas Experiment (IGE): Testing interstellar gas particles to provide information on the processes of nucleosynthesis in the big bang stars and supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Don

    1985-01-01

    The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) is designed to collect particles of the interstellar gas - a wind of interstellar media particles moving in the vicinity of the solar system. These particles will be returned to earth where the isotopic ratios of the noble gases among these particles will be measured. IGE was designed and programmed to expose 7 sets of six copper-beryllium metallic collecting foils to the flux of neutral interstellar gas particles which penetrate the heliosphere to the vicinity of the earth's orbit. These particles are trapped in the collecting foils and will be returned to earth for mass-spectrographic analysis when Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) on which IGE was launched, is recovered.

  15. Fluctuations in non-ideal pion gas with dynamically fixed particle number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a non-ideal hot pion gas with the dynamically fixed number of particles in the model with the λϕ4 interaction. The effective Lagrangian for the description of such a system is obtained after dropping the terms responsible for the change of the total particle number. Reactions π+π- ↔π0π0, which determine the isospin balance of the medium, are permitted. Within the self-consistent Hartree approximation we compute the effective pion mass, thermodynamic characteristics of the system and the variance of the particle number at temperatures above the critical point of the induced Bose-Einstein condensation when the pion chemical potential reaches the value of the effective pion mass. We analyze conditions for the condensate formation in the process of thermalization of an initially non-equilibrium pion gas. The normalized variance of the particle number increases with a temperature decrease but remains finite in the critical point of the Bose-Einstein condensation. This is due to the non-perturbative account of the interaction and is in contrast to the ideal-gas case. In the kinetic regime of the condensate formation the variance is shown to stay finite also.

  16. Influence of shielding gas on fume formation rate and particle size distribution for optimised GMAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, K.R.; Monaghan, B.J.; Nicholson, A.; Cuiuri, D.; Norrish, J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of shielding gas on fume formation rate (FFR) and particle size distribution has been investigated by using a technique developed for automatic control of the welding voltage in gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The results for automatic control are compared with the use of a fixed voltage. Significant reductions in FFR and a general decrease in average particle size were observed using the automatic control technique. This reduction in FFR was attributed to improved metal transfer stability, via a reduction in the occurrence of repelled globular transfer, by promoting the 'drop-spray' transfer condition, together with a reduction in the arc length. FFR and particle size were strongly related to the C O2 content of the shielding gas, where FFR increased as percent C 02 increased, due mainly to the dominant influence of C O2 on weld transfer and arc characteristics. The results indicate that FFR for GMAW in the spray regime should be determined by using optimised welding conditions for each shielding gas composition.

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of the Gas- and Particle-Phase Products of VOC Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker-Arkema, J.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled environmental chamber studies are important for determining atmospheric reaction mechanisms and gas and aerosol products formed in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Such information is necessary for developing detailed chemical models for use in predicting the atmospheric fate of VOCs and also secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, complete characterization of atmospheric oxidation reactions, including gas- and particle-phase product yields, and reaction branching ratios, are difficult to achieve. In this work, we investigated the reactions of terminal and internal alkenes with OH radicals in the presence of NOx in an attempt to fully characterize the chemistry of these systems while minimizing and accounting for the inherent uncertainties associated with environmental chamber experiments. Gas-phase products (aldehydes formed by alkoxy radical decomposition) and particle-phase products (alkyl nitrates, β-hydroxynitrates, dihydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls, and dihydroxycarbonyls) formed through pathways involving addition of OH to the C=C double bond as well as H-atom abstraction were identified and quantified using a suite of analytical techniques. Particle-phase products were analyzed in real time with a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer; and off-line by collection onto filters, extraction, and subsequent analysis of functional groups by derivatization-spectrophotometric methods developed in our lab. Derivatized products were also separated by liquid chromatography for molecular quantitation by UV absorbance and identification using chemical ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. Gas phase aldehydes were analyzed off-line by collection onto Tenax and a 5-channel denuder with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography, or by collection onto DNPH-coated cartridges and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography. The full product identification and quantitation, with careful

  18. Online Measurements of Highly Oxidized Organics in the Gas and Particle phase during SOAS and SENEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Thornton, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    We present measurements of a large suite of gas and particle phase organic compounds made with a Filter Inlet for Gas and AEROsol (FIGAERO) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington and with airborne HR-ToF-CIMS measurements. The FIGAERO instrument was deployed on the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber to study α-pinene oxidation, and subsequently at the SMEAR II forest station in Hyytiälä, Finland and the SOAS ground site, in Brent Alabama. During the Southern Atmosphere Study, a gas-phase only version of the HR-ToF-CIMS was deployed on the NOAA WP-3 aircraft as part of SENEX. We focus here on highly oxygenated organic compounds derived from monoterpene oxidation detected both aloft during SENEX and at the ground-based site during SOAS. In both chamber and the atmosphere, many highly oxidized, low volatility compounds were observed in the gas and particles and many of the same compositions detected in the gas-phase were detected in the particles upon temperature programmed thermal desorption. The fraction of a given compound measured in the particle phase follows expected trends with elemental composition such as O/C ratios, but many compounds would not be well described by an absorptive partitioning model assuming unity activity coefficients. The detailed structure in the thermograms reveals a significant contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers in both chamber and ambient aerosol samples. Approximately 50% of the measured organics in the particle phase are associated with compounds having effective vapour pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. We discuss the implications of these findings for measurements of gas-particle partitioning and for evaluating the contribution of monoterpene oxidation to organic aerosol formation and growth. We also use the aircraft measurements and a

  19. Characteristics and settling behaviour of particles from blast furnace flue gas washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiventerä, Jenni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Keski-Ruismäki, Kirsi; Tanskanen, Juha

    2016-05-01

    A lot of particles from iron-making are removed with blast furnace off-gas and routed to the gas cleaning system. As water is used for cleaning the gas, the produced wash water contains a large amount of particles such as valuable Fe and C. However, the presence of zinc prevents recycling. In addition, the high amount of calcium results in uncontrolled scaling. Therefore, the properties of the wash water from scrubber and sludge, from the Finnish metal industry (SSAB Raahe), were evaluated in this study. Size fractionation of wash water revealed that Fe, Zn, Al, Mn, V, Cr and Cd appeared mainly in the larger fractions (>1.2 μm) and Na, Mg, Si, Ni, K, Cu and As appeared mainly in the smaller fractions (<1.2 μm) or in dissolved form. Calcium was found both in the larger fractions and dissolved (∼60 mg/L). Most of the particles in wash water were included in the 1.2-10 μm particle size and were settled effectively. However, a clear benefit was observed when using a chemical to enhance particle settling. In comparison to 2.5 h of settling without chemical, the turbidity was further decreased by about 94%, iron 85% and zinc 50%. Coagulation-flocculation experiments indicated that both low and high molecular weight cationic polymers could provide excellent purification results in terms of turbidity. Calcium should be removed by other methods. The particles in sludge were mostly in the 2-4 μm or 10-20 μm fractions. Further sludge settling resulted in high solids removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PM1 particles at coal- and gas-fired power plant work areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jeffrey B; McCarthy, Sheila A; Mezei, Gabor; Sayes, Christie M

    2012-03-01

    With the increased interest in the possible adverse health effects attributed to inhalation of fine particle matter, this study was conducted to gather preliminary information about workplace exposures at coal- and gas-fired power plants to fine particles (PM(1); i.e. <1 μm) and ultrafine particles (i.e. <0.1 μm). Combustion of fossil fuel is known to produce fine particles, and due to their proximity and durations of exposure, power plant workers could be a group of individuals who experience high chronic exposures to these types of particles. The results of a series of real-time instrument measurements showed that concentrations of PM(1) were elevated in some locations in power plants. The highest concentrations were in locations near combustion sources, indicating that combustion materials were leaking from conventional fossil fuel-fired boilers or it was associated with emission plume downwash. Concentrations were the lowest inside air-conditioned control rooms where PM(1) were present at levels similar to or lower than upwind concentrations. Microscopic examinations indicate that PM(1) at the coal-fired plants are dominated by vitrified spheres, although there were also unusual elongated particles. Most of the PM(1) were attached to larger coal fly ash particles that may affect where and how they could be deposited in the lung.

  1. Statistics of an ideal homogeneous Bose gas with a fixed number of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, Vladimir A

    2001-01-01

    The distribution function w 0 (n 0 ) of the number n 0 of particles is found for the condensate of an ideal gas of free bosons with a fixed total number N of particles. It is shown that above the critical temperature (T > T c ) this function has the usual form w 0 (n 0 ) = (1 - e μ )e μn 0 , where μ is the chemical potential in temperature units. In a narrow vicinity of the critical temperature |T/T c - 1| ≤ N -1/3 , this distribution changes and at T c acquires the form of a resonance. The width of the resonance depends on the shape of the volume occupied by the gas and it has exponential (but not the Gaussian) wings. As the temperature is lowered, the resonance maximum shifts to larger values of n 0 and its width tends to zero, which corresponds to the suppression of fluctuations. For N → ∞, this change occurs abruptly. The distribution function of the number of particles in excited states for the systems with a fixed and a variable number of particles (when only a mean number of particles is fixed) prove to be identical and have the usual form. (physical basis of quantum electronics)

  2. Charged particle transport and extraction studies in the NSCL gas cell for stopping radioactive fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facina, M.; Bachelet, C.; Block, M.; Bollen, G.; Davies, D.; Folden, C.M.; Guenaut, C.; Huikari, J.; Kwan, E.; Morrissey, D.J.; Pang, G.K.; Prinke, A.; Ringle, R.; Savory, J.; Schury, P.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Sun, T.

    2008-01-01

    The NSCL gas-stopping station thermalizes high-energy projectile fragments for study in the low energy beam and ion trap (LEBIT) facility. The stopping and extraction of fast beams has been studied extensively and the extracted short-lived ions have been used in a series of mass measurements of exotic nuclei. Particle-in-cell simulations of ion drift in the gas cell have been performed. In the present paper calculation results are presented and compared to experimental data obtained with neutron-deficient and neutron-rich As and Se isotopes recently measured at LEBIT. Good agreement between the theoretical and experimental extraction efficiency was found.

  3. Effects of particle mixing and scattering in the dusty gas flow through moving and stationary cascades of airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirkunov, Yu. M.; Romanyuk, D. A.; Panfilov, S. V.

    2011-10-01

    Time-dependent two-dimensional (2D) flow of dusty gas through a set of two cascades of airfoils (blades) has been studied numerically. The first cascade was assumed to move (rotor) and the second one to be immovable (stator). Such a flow can be considered, in some sense, as a flow in the inlet stage of a turbomachine, for example, in the inlet compressor of an aircraft turbojet engine. Dust particle concentration was assumed to be very low, so that the interparticle collisions and the effect of the dispersed phase on the carrier gas were negligible. Flow of the carrier gas was described by full Navier-Stokes equations. In calculations of particle motion, the particles were considered as solid spheres. The particle drag force, transverse Magnus force, and damping torque were taken into account in the model of gas-particle interaction. The impact interaction of particles with blades was considered as frictional and partly elastic. The effects of particle size distribution and particle scattering in the course of particle-blade collisions were investigated. Flow fields of the carrier gas and flow patterns of the particle phase were obtained and discussed.

  4. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  5. hydrodynamic behavior of particles in a Jet flow of a gas fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirmomen, L.; Alavi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous investigations have been devoted towards understanding the hydrodynamics of gas jets in fluidized beds. However, most of them address the problem from macroscopic point of view, which does not reveal the true behavior in the jet region at the single particle level. The present work aims to understand the jet behavior from a more fundamental level, i.e. the individual particle level. A thin rectangular gas fluidized bed, constructed from acrylic glass, with a vertical jet nozzle located at the center of the distributor was used in the work. A high speed camera with a speed up to 10,000 frames per second was used to observe the jet behavior . Analysis of large quantity of images allowed determination of solids flux, solids Velocity and solids concentration in the jet region . The model present in this work has shown better agreement with the experimental data in compare with the previous models presented in the literature

  6. Pharmaceutical production of nano particles using supercritical or dense gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regtop, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The primary aim of our proposed research is to develop pharmaceutical formulations with enhanced pharmacokinetics and increased bioavailability. The particular drug delivery systems of interest are, oral, aerosols, injectable and topical with well-recognised and distinct problems of bioavailability. More than 40% of all drugs in the USP or BP are insoluble or have some problem with solubility. It is estimated in 2000, the total combined sales of drugs that are insoluble or poorly soluble was US$37 billion. Precise and predictable drug delivery is made more possible by producing uniform micron size particles or powders, which can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of therapeutical formulations. Hence the purpose of micronisation is to increase bioavailability and also to allow other modes of administration, eg insulin is a protein, which is an injectable for the treatment of diabetes, but recently particles of 1-4 microns of insulin are in phase 3 clinical trials to deliver the drug to diabetics as an inhalant. In addition aerosolised drugs such as mucolytics, antibiotics, antiinflammatory drugs and hormones have recently been trailed. Finely powdered pharmaceuticals are however difficult to process by current techniques. In spray drying the operating temperatures are often too high for heat sensitive drugs. Thermal degradation of compounds can also be experienced in milling due to high rates of shear and requires high energy inputs and do not produce particles within a narrow range distribution. A relatively new technique which has been used and developed by Eiffel Technologies to produce uniform micron and sub micron size particles is a dense gas process in which the gas is used as an antisolvent to precipitate compounds from solution. Pharmaceutical processing with dense gas is relatively new and is an efficient process for producing high purity micronised particles with defined morphological structures and with a narrow size distribution rate

  7. Statistical distribution for generalized ideal gas of fractional-statistics particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the occupation-number distribution in a generalized ideal gas of particles obeying fractional statistics, including mutual statistics, by adopting a state-counting definition. When there is no mutual statistics, the statistical distribution interpolates between bosons and fermions, and respects a fractional exclusion principle (except for bosons). Anyons in a strong magnetic field at low temperatures constitute such a physical system. Applications to the thermodynamic properties of quasiparticle excitations in the Laughlin quantum Hall fluid are discussed

  8. Heavy particle detection characteristics of an MWPC operating at low (1 <= p <= 30 mbar) gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, G.; Presser, G.; Staehler, J.

    1981-01-01

    Pulse heights, timing properties and detection efficiencies of an MWPC were measured with 5.5 MeV alpha particles for different counting gases at low pressures. The pulse heights show a striking nonmonotonic dependence on the gas pressure that can be explained by a simple model of the amplification process at high reduced electric fields. The consequences of the observed pressure dependence of pulse heights for the detection of heavy ions with low pressure MWPCs are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Bose gas with two- and three-particle interaction: evolution of soliton-like bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, I.V.; Kholmurodov, Kh.T.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions of the non-linear Schroedinger equation (NSE) for the Bose gas with two- and three-particle interaction are considered. Problems of soliton-like bubble existence, stability and evolution of the moving soliton are studied. It is shown that at D=2.3 for low-amplitude waves propagating at the transonic velocity the NSE is reduced to a two- and three-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation and the NSE bubble soliton transfers to the KP one

  10. Laboratory investigations of Titan haze formation: In situ measurement of gas and particle composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; Yoon, Y. Heidi; Ugelow, Melissa S.; Parker, Alex H.; Li, Rui; de Gouw, Joost A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2018-02-01

    Prior to the arrival of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft, aerosol production in Titan's atmosphere was believed to begin in the stratosphere where chemical processes are predominantly initiated by far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. However, measurements taken by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) indicate that haze formation initiates in the thermosphere where there is a greater flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons and energetic particles available to initiate chemical reactions, including the destruction of N2. The discovery of previously unpredicted nitrogen species in measurements of Titan's atmosphere by the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) indicates that nitrogen participates in the chemistry to a much greater extent than was appreciated before Cassini. The degree of nitrogen incorporation in the haze particles is important for understanding the diversity of molecules that may be present in Titan's atmosphere and on its surface. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments using either spark discharge (Tesla coil) or FUV photons (deuterium lamp) to initiate chemistry in CH4/N2 gas mixtures ranging from 0.01% CH4/99.99% N2 to 10% CH4/90% N2. We obtained in situ real-time measurements using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) to measure the particle composition as a function of particle size and a proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) to measure the composition of gas phase products. These two techniques allow us to investigate the effect of energy source and initial CH4 concentration on the degree of nitrogen incorporation in both the gas and solid phase products. The results presented here confirm that FUV photons produce not only solid phase nitrogen bearing products but also gas phase nitrogen species. We find that in both the gas and solid phase, nitrogen is found in nitriles rather than amines and that both the

  11. Atmospheric occurrence, transport and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls over the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Tianfeng; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    Ship-board air samples were collected during March to May 2015 from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) to explore the atmospheric occurrence and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when the westerly East Asian Monsoon prevailed. Total PCB concentrations in the atmosphere ranged from 56.8 to 261 pg m-3. Higher PCB levels were observed off the coast and minor temperature-induced changes showed that continuous emissions from East Asia remain as an important source to the regional atmosphere. A significant relationship between Koa (octanol-air partition coefficient) and KP (gas-particle partition coefficient) for PCBs was observed under continental air masses, suggesting that land-derived organic aerosols affected the PCB gas-particle partitioning after long-range transport, while an absence of this correlation was identified in marine air masses. The PCB partitioning cannot be fully explained by the absorptive mechanism as the predicted KP were found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the measured Kp, while the prediction was closely matched when soot adsorption was considered. The results suggested the importance of soot carbon as a transport medium for PCBs during their long-range transport and considerable impacts of continental outflows on PCBs across the downwind area. The estimated transport mass of particulate PCBs into the ECS and NWP totals 2333 kg during the spring, constituting ca. 17% of annual emission inventories of unintentionally produced PCB in China.

  12. Gas-liquid phase coexistence in a tetrahedral patchy particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Flavio; Tartaglia, Piero; Sciortino, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the location of the gas-liquid coexistence line and of the associated critical point for the primitive model for water (PMW), introduced by Kolafa and Nezbeda (1987 Mol. Phys. 61 161). Besides being a simple model for a molecular network forming liquid, the PMW is representative of patchy proteins and novel colloidal particles interacting with localized directional short-range attractions. We show that the gas-liquid phase separation is metastable, i.e. it takes place in the region of the phase diagram where the crystal phase is thermodynamically favoured, as in the case of particles interacting via short-range attractive spherical potentials. We do not observe crystallization close to the critical point. The region of gas-liquid instability of this patchy model is significantly reduced as compared to that from equivalent models of spherically interacting particles, confirming the possibility of observing kinetic arrest in a homogeneous sample driven by bonding as opposed to packing. (fast track communication)

  13. Universal stability curve for pattern formation in pulsed gas-solid fluidized beds of sandlike particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martín, Lilian; Ottevanger, Coen; van Ommen, J. Ruud; Coppens, Marc-Olivier

    2018-03-01

    A granular layer can form regular patterns, such as squares, stripes, and hexagons, when it is fluidized with a pulsating gas flow. These structures are reminiscent of the well-known patterns found in granular layers excited through vibration, but, contrarily to them, they have been hardly explored since they were first discovered. In this work, we investigate experimentally the conditions leading to pattern formation in pulsed fluidized beds and the dimensionless numbers governing the phenomenon. We show that the onset to the instability is universal for Geldart B (sandlike) particles and governed by the hydrodynamical parameters Γ =ua/(utϕ ¯) and f /fn , where ua and f are the amplitude and frequency of the gas velocity, respectively, ut is the terminal velocity of the particles, ϕ ¯ is the average solids fraction, and fn is the natural frequency of the bed. These findings suggest that patterns emerge as a result of a parametric resonance between the kinematic waves originating from the oscillating gas flow and the bulk dynamics. Particle friction plays virtually no role in the onset to pattern formation, but it is fundamental for pattern selection and stabilization.

  14. Multiphase reacting flows modelling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisio, Daniele L

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this book describe the most widely applicable modeling approaches and are organized in six groups covering from fundamentals to relevant applications. In the first part, some fundamentals of multiphase turbulent reacting flows are covered. In particular the introduction focuses on basic notions of turbulence theory in single-phase and multi-phase systems as well as on the interaction between turbulence and chemistry. In the second part, models for the physical and chemical processes involved are discussed. Among other things, particular emphasis is given to turbulence modeling strategies for multiphase flows based on the kinetic theory for granular flows. Next, the different numerical methods based on Lagrangian and/or Eulerian schemes are presented. In particular the most popular numerical approaches of computational fluid dynamics codes are described (i.e., Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach). The book will cover particle-based meth...

  15. The excitation of an independent-particle gas by a time dependent potential well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Błocki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The order-to-chaos transition in the dynamics of independent classical particles gas was studied by means of the numerical simulations. The excitation of the gas for containers whose surfaces are rippled according to Legendre polynomials P2 , P3, P4 , P5 , P6 was followed for ten periods of oscillations. Spheroidal deformations were also considered. Poincare sections and Lyapunov exponents have been calculated showing different degrees of chaoticity depending on the shape and amplitude of oscillations. For 2 P polynomial the reaction of a gas to the periodic container deformation is mostly elastic as 2 P deformation especially for not very big deformations is almost like an integrable spheroid. For other polynomials the situation is more or less chaotic with a chaoticity increasing with the increasing order of the polynomial.

  16. Hydrodynamic and thermal modelling of gas-particle flow in fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkawi, O.S; Abdalla, A.M.; Atwan, E.F; Abdelmonem, S.A.; Elshazly, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study a mathematical model has been developed to simulate two dimensional fluidized bed with uniform fluidization. The model consists of two sub models for hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of fluidized bed on which a FORTRAN program entitled (NEWFLUIDIZED) is devolved. The program is used to predict the volume fraction of gas and particle phases, the velocity of the two phases, the gas pressure and the temperature distribution for two phases. Also the program calculates the heat transfer coefficient. Besides the program predicts the fluidized bed stability and determines the optimum input gas velocity for fluidized bed to achieve the best thermal behavior. The hydrodynamic model is verified by comparing its results with the computational fluid dynamic code MFIX . While the thermal model was tested and compared by the available previous experimental correlations.The model results show good agreement with MFIX results and the thermal model of the present work confirms Zenz and Gunn equations

  17. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  18. Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrendele, C.; Okonski, K.; Melymuk, L.; Landlová, L.; Kukučka, P.; Audy, O.; Kohoutek, J.; Čupr, P.; Klánová, J.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, gas-particle partitioning, and particle-phase size distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air. Two years (2012/2013) of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size distribution, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. Major differences were found in the atmospheric distribution of OCPs and CUPs. The atmospheric concentrations of CUPs were driven by agricultural activities while secondary sources such as volatilization from surfaces governed the atmospheric concentrations of OCPs. Moreover, clear differences were observed in gas-particle partitioning; CUP partitioning was influenced by adsorption onto mineral surfaces while OCPs were mainly partitioning to aerosols through absorption. A predictive method for estimating the gas-particle partitioning has been derived and is proposed for polar and non-polar pesticides. Finally, while OCPs and the majority of CUPs were largely found on fine particles, four CUPs (carbendazim, isoproturon, prochloraz, and terbuthylazine) had higher concentrations on coarse particles ( > 3.0 µm), which may be related to the pesticide application technique. This finding is particularly important and should be further investigated given that large particles result in lower risks from inhalation (regardless the toxicity of the pesticide) and lower potential for long-range atmospheric transport.

  19. Supersonic beams at high particle densities: model description beyond the ideal gas approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Wolfgang; Rademann, Klaus; Even, Uzi

    2010-10-28

    Supersonic molecular beams constitute a very powerful technique in modern chemical physics. They offer several unique features such as a directed, collision-free flow of particles, very high luminosity, and an unsurpassed strong adiabatic cooling during the jet expansion. While it is generally recognized that their maximum flow velocity depends on the molecular weight and the temperature of the working fluid in the stagnation reservoir, not a lot is known on the effects of elevated particle densities. Frequently, the characteristics of supersonic beams are treated in diverse approximations of an ideal gas expansion. In these simplified model descriptions, the real gas character of fluid systems is ignored, although particle associations are responsible for fundamental processes such as the formation of clusters, both in the reservoir at increased densities and during the jet expansion. In this contribution, the various assumptions of ideal gas treatments of supersonic beams and their shortcomings are reviewed. It is shown in detail that a straightforward thermodynamic approach considering the initial and final enthalpy is capable of characterizing the terminal mean beam velocity, even at the liquid-vapor phase boundary and the critical point. Fluid properties are obtained using the most accurate equations of state available at present. This procedure provides the opportunity to naturally include the dramatic effects of nonideal gas behavior for a large variety of fluid systems. Besides the prediction of the terminal flow velocity, thermodynamic models of isentropic jet expansions permit an estimate of the upper limit of the beam temperature and the amount of condensation in the beam. These descriptions can even be extended to include spinodal decomposition processes, thus providing a generally applicable tool for investigating the two-phase region of high supersaturations not easily accessible otherwise.

  20. A multilevel particle method for gas dynamics: application to multi-fluids simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weynans, Lisl

    2006-12-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, laser implosions require to know hydrodynamic flow in presence of shocks. This work is devoted to the evaluation of the ability of a particle-mesh method, inspired from Vortex-In-Cell methods, to simulate gas dynamics, especially multi-fluids. First, we develop a particle method, associated with a conservative re-meshing step, which is performed with high order interpolating kernels. We study theoretically and numerically this method. This analysis gives evidence of a strong relationship between the particle method and high order Lax-Wendroff-like finite difference schemes. We introduce a new scheme for the advection of particles. Then we implement a multilevel technique, inspired from AMR, which allows us to increase locally the accuracy of the computations. Finally we develop a level set-like technique, discretized on the particles, to simulate the interface between compressible flows. We use the multilevel technique to improve the interface resolution and the conservation of partial masses. (author)

  1. Confined dense particle-gas flow, application to nuclear fuel relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we investigate particle-gas two-phase flows in the jamming regime where the flow stops in finite time. In this regime, which occurs quite often in nature and industrial applications, the flow is stochastic and needs therefore to be characterized by the jamming probability as well as the flow rate and its fluctuations that depend on the confining geometry, granular microstructure and gas properties. We developed a numerical approach based on the coupling of the Non Smooth Contact Dynamics for the solid phase and a mesoscopic method for the gas phase. We find that the flow rate as a function of the opening is well fit by a power law in agreement with reported experimental data. The presence of a gas affects only the mean flow rate, the flow statistics being sensibly the same as in the absence of the gas. We apply our quantitative statistical results in order to estimate the relocation rate of fragmented nuclear fuel inside its cladding tube as a result of a local balloon caused by an accident (loss-of-coolant accident). (author)

  2. Real-Time Measurements of Gas/Particle Partitioning of Semivolatile Organic Compounds into Different Probe Particles in a Teflon Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Day, D. A.; Ziemann, P. J.; Krechmer, J. E.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) into and out of particles plays an essential role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and evolution. Most atmospheric models treat the gas/particle partitioning as an equilibrium between bulk gas and particle phases, despite potential kinetic limitations and differences in thermodynamics as a function of SOA and pre-existing OA composition. This study directly measures the partitioning of oxidized compounds in a Teflon chamber in the presence of single component seeds of different phases and polarities, including oleic acid, squalane, dioctyl sebacate, pentaethylene glycol, dry/wet ammonium sulfate, and dry/wet sucrose. The oxidized compounds are generated by a fast OH oxidation of a series of alkanols under high nitric oxide conditions. The observed SOA mass enhancements are highest with oleic acid, and lowest with wet ammonium sulfate and sucrose. A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) was used to measure the decay of gas-phase organic nitrates, which reflects uptake by particles and chamber walls. We observed clear changes in equilibrium timescales with varying seed concentrations and in equilibrium gas-phase concentrations across different seeds. In general, the gas evolution can be reproduced by a kinetic box model that considers partitioning and evaporation with particles and chamber walls, except for the wet sucrose system. The accommodation coefficient and saturation mass concentration of each species in the presence of each seed are derived using the model. The changes in particle size distributions and composition monitored by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) are investigated to probe the SOA formation mechanism. Based on these results, the applicability of partitioning theory to these systems and the relevant quantitative parameters, including the dependencies on seed particle composition, will

  3. Formation of oxides particles in ferritic steel by using gas-atomized powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Fang Jinghua; Liu Donghua; Lu Zhi; Liu Feng; Chen Shiqi; Liu, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Oxides dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was prepared by using gas-atomized pre-alloyed powder, without the conventional mechanical alloying process. By adjusting the volume content of O 2 in the gas atmosphere Ar, the O level in the ferritic powder can be well controlled. The O dissolves uniformly in the ferritic powder, and a very thin layer of oxides forms on the powder surface. After hot deformation, the primary particle boundaries, which retain after sintering, can be disintegrated and near fully dense materials can be obtained. The oxide layer on the powder surface has a significant effect on the microstructural evolution. It may prevent the diffusion in between the primary particles during sintering, and may dissolve and/or induce the nucleation of new oxides in the ferritic matrix during recrystallization. Two kinds of oxide particles are found in the ferritic steel: large (∼100 nm) Ti-rich and fine (10-20 nm) Y-Ti-rich oxides. The hardness of the ferritic steel increases with increasing annealing temperatures, however, decreases at 1400 deg. C, due to the coarsening of precipitates and the recrystallization microstructure.

  4. Lattice gas automaton scheme with stochastic particle movement for a rotated fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Misako

    2002-01-01

    Lattice gas automaton (LGA) models developed so far are just for Cartesian geometries, and no direct approach to rotated fluid flows is found. In this paper, LGA method is applied to model a two-dimensional rotated flow. Several problems specific to the rotated flow are to be solved: hexagonal lattice geometry to effectively identify the neighbors, boundary condition for irregular walls, multi-speed scheme to represent angular-oriented fluid velocity υ θ ≅γω, shape of macroscopic domain for statistics, formula to obtain macroscopic quantities such as density and mean fluid velocities, application method of Fermi-Dirac function to the initial particle arrangement. For this purpose, FHP-I type hexagonal lattice model is revised and a new LGA model with stochastic particle movement is proposed. The results of the trial calculation are shown. It is also investigated whether or not the underlying microscopic Boolean equations newly introduced leads to Navier-Stokes equation. (author)

  5. Gas and particle phase chemical characterization of photochemical smog in Beijing and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Mattias; Le Breton, Michael; Guo, Song; Zhen Yu, Jian; Hallquist, Åsa. M.; Pathak, Ravi K.; Liu, Qianyun; Wang, Yuchen; Li, Jinjian; Chan, Chak K.; Wang, Yujue; Zheng, Jing; Yang, Yudong; Lu, Keding; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Min

    2017-04-01

    Secondary chemistry transforming primary pollutants is of high relevance for Chinese photochemical smog. In particular, formation of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM), including Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA), are of major concern regarding impacts on health, climate and ecosystems. The atmospheric oxidation processes leading to SOA formation are complex and involves thousands of different compounds, both of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore, for a thorough understanding both the gas and the particle phase need to be considered. As part of an intercollaborative project to assess the photochemical smog in China, two major field campaigns were arranged in 2016; in Changping, Bejing during springtime and at HKUST, Hong Kong during the autumn. Alongside with other advanced instrumentations, a Time of Flight Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (ToF CIMS) utilising the Filiter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) was used to chemically characterize the gas and the particle phase. This specific instrument applies soft ionization limiting the fragmentation and one can usually identify molecular composition of hundreds of different parent molecules. In both Beijing and Hong Kong the iodide ionization scheme was utilised, making it possible to specifically detect oxygenated compounds such as carboxylic acids, organic nitrates and sulphates as well as some inorganic compounds e.g. N2O5, ClNO2, and HONO. For numerous compounds significant levels were detected in both the gas and particle phase enabling evaluation of partitioning and gas-to-particle transformation and its relationship to atmospheric conditions and estimated vapour pressures. Furthermore, the detection of molecular markers such as levoglucosan, C6H5NO3, C10H16NSO7, C5H8SO7, C5H8O4 can support source apportionment and atmospheric process description. In order to further investigate atmospheric ageing/processing a portable laminar flow reactor (Go:PAM) was for selected periods utilized to

  6. Sound Propagation in Gas-Vapor-Droplet Suspensions with Evaporation and Nonlinear Particle Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2012-01-01

    The Sound attenuation and dispersion in saturated gas-vapor-droplet mixture in the presence of evaporation has been investigated theoretically. The theory is based on an extension of the work of Davidson to accommodate the effects of nonlinear particle relaxation processes of mass, momentum and energy transfer on sound attenuation and dispersion. The results indicate the existence of a spectral broadening effect in the attenuation coefficient (scaled with respect to the peak value) with a decrease in droplet mass concentration. It is further shown that for large values of the droplet concentration the scaled attenuation coefficient is characterized by a universal spectrum independent of droplet mass concentration.

  7. Hot gas path component cooling system having a particle collection chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2018-02-20

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component includes a substrate having an outer surface and an inner surface. The inner surface defines at least one interior space. A passage is formed in the substrate between the outer surface and the inner surface. An access passage is formed in the substrate and extends from the outer surface to the inner space. The access passage is formed at a first acute angle to the passage and includes a particle collection chamber. The access passage is configured to channel a cooling fluid to the passage. Furthermore, the passage is configured to channel the cooling fluid therethrough to cool the substrate.

  8. Calcination of calcium acetate and calcium magnesium acetate: effect of the reacting atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adanez, J.; Diego, L.F. de; Garcia-Labiano, F. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    1999-04-01

    The calcination process of the calcium acetate (CA) and calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was investigated as a previous step for coal gas desulfurisation during sorbent injection at high temperatures because the excellent results demonstrated by these sorbents as sulfur removal agents both in combustion and gasification processes. As pore structure developed during calcination is one of the most important characteristics of the sorbent related with the later reaction with the gaseous pollutants, several calcination tests were conducted in a drop tube reactor at temperatures from 700{degree}C to 1100{degree}C, and residence times from 0.8 to 2.4 s. Four different gas atmospheres were used for comparative purposes: inert, oxidising, reducing, and non-calcining (pure CO{sub 2}). Despite the advantage of the high porous cenospheric structure developed by these sorbents during their injection at high temperature, calcination of the CaCO{sub 3} was not complete even at the longest residence time, 2.4 s, and the highest temperature, 1100{degree}C, tested. An important effect of the reacting atmosphere on the calcination conversion and on the sorbent pore structure was detected. The CO{sub 2} concentration around the particle, both that fed in the reacting gases or that generated by organic material combustion, seems to be responsible for the final calcination conversions obtained in each case, also affecting the sintering suffered by the sorbents. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Quantum particle-number fluctuations in a two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, Pawel; Oles, Bartlomiej; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    A two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential with repulsive interactions may undergo a phase separation transition if the interspecies interactions outweigh the intraspecies ones. We analyze the transition in the strong interaction limit within the two-mode approximation. Numbers of particles in each potential well are equal and constant. However, at the transition point, the ground state of the system reveals huge fluctuations of numbers of particles belonging to the different gas components; that is, the probability for observation of any mixture of particles in each potential well becomes uniform.

  10. Gas-to-particle conversion in the atmospheric environment by radiation-induced and photochemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    During the last few years a fascinating new area of research involving ionizing radiations and photochemistry in gas-to-particle conversion in the atmosphere has been developing at a rapid pace. Two problems of major interest and concern in which this is of paramount importance are: (1) radiation induced and photochemical aerosol formation in the stratosphere and, (2) role of radiations and photochemistry in smog formation. The peak in cosmic ray intensity and significant solar UV flux in the stratosphere lead to complex variety of reactions involving major and trace constituents in this region of the atmosphere, and some of these reactions are of vital importance in aerosol formation. The problem is of great current interest because the pollutant gases from industrial sources and future SST operations entering the stratosphere could increase the aerosol burden in the stratosphere and affect the solar energy input of the troposphere with consequent ecological and climatic changes. On the other hand, in the nuclear era, the atmospheric releases from reactors and processing plants could lead to changes in the cloud nucleation behaviour of the environment and possible increase in smog formation in the areas with significant levels of radiations and conventional pollutants. A review of the earlier work, current status of the problem, and conventional pollutants. A review of the earlier work, current status of the problem, and some recent results of the experiments conducted in the author's laboratory are presented. The possible mechanisms of gas-to-particle conversion in the atmosphere have been explained

  11. Kinetics of charged particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in a nonuniform electrostatic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpakov, V. A., E-mail: kolpakov683@gmail.com; Krichevskii, S. V.; Markushin, M. A. [Korolev Samara National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    A high-voltage gas discharge is of interest as a possible means of generating directed flows of low-temperature plasma in the off-electrode space distinguished by its original features [1–4]. We propose a model for calculating the trajectories of charges particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.15 Torr existing in a nonuniform electrostatic field and the strength of this field. Based on the results of our calculations, we supplement and refine the extensive experimental data concerning the investigation of such a discharge published in [1, 2, 5–8]; good agreement between the theory and experiment has been achieved. The discharge burning is initiated and maintained through bulk electron-impact ionization and ion–electron emission. We have determined the sizes of the cathode surface regions responsible for these processes, including the sizes of the axial zone involved in the discharge generation. The main effect determining the kinetics of charged particles consists in a sharp decrease in the strength of the field under consideration outside the interelectrode space, which allows a free motion of charges with specific energies and trajectories to be generated in it. The simulation results confirm that complex electrode systems that allow directed plasma flows to be generated at a discharge current of hundreds or thousands of milliamperes and a voltage on the electrodes of 0.3–1 kV can be implemented in practice [3, 9, 10].

  12. An efficient particle Fokker–Planck algorithm for rarefied gas flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorji, M. Hossein; Jenny, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the algorithmic improvement and careful analysis of the Fokker–Planck kinetic model derived by Jenny et al. [1] and Gorji et al. [2]. The motivation behind the Fokker–Planck based particle methods is to gain efficiency in low Knudsen rarefied gas flow simulations, where conventional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) becomes expensive. This can be achieved due to the fact that the resulting model equations are continuous stochastic differential equations in velocity space. Accordingly, the computational particles evolve along independent stochastic paths and thus no collision needs to be calculated. Therefore the computational cost of the solution algorithm becomes independent of the Knudsen number. In the present study, different computational improvements were persuaded in order to augment the method, including an accurate time integration scheme, local time stepping and noise reduction. For assessment of the performance, gas flow around a cylinder and lid driven cavity flow were studied. Convergence rates, accuracy and computational costs were compared with respect to DSMC for a range of Knudsen numbers (from hydrodynamic regime up to above one). In all the considered cases, the model together with the proposed scheme give rise to very efficient yet accurate solution algorithms.

  13. Modeling blast waves, gas and particles dispersion in urban and hilly ground areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hank, S.; Saurel, R.; Le Metayer, O.; Lapebie, E.

    2014-01-01

    The numerical simulation of shock and blast waves as well as particles dispersion in highly heterogeneous media such as cities, urban places, industrial plants and part of countries is addressed. Examples of phenomena under study are chemical gas products dispersion from damaged vessels, gas dispersion in urban places under explosion conditions, shock wave propagation in urban environment. A three-dimensional simulation multiphase flow code (HI2LO) is developed in this aim. To simplify the consideration of complex geometries, a heterogeneous discrete formulation is developed. When dealing with large scale domains, such as countries, the topography is considered with the help of elevation data. Meteorological conditions are also considered, in particular regarding complex temperature and wind profiles. Heat and mass transfers on sub-scale objects, such as buildings, trees and other obstacles are considered as well. Particles motion is addressed through a new turbulence model involving a single parameter to describe accurately plumes. Validations against experiments in basic situations are presented as well as examples of industrial and environmental computations. (authors)

  14. Chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from different gas cooking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.

  15. Eulerian numerical simulation of gas-solid flows with several particles species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino-Palacios, G.

    2007-11-01

    The simulation of the multiphase flows is currently an important scientific, industrial and economic challenge. The objective of this work is to improve comprehension via simulations of poly-dispersed flows and contribute the modeling and characterizing of its hydrodynamics. The study of gas-solid systems involves the models that takes account the influence of the particles and the effects of the collisions in the context of the momentum transfer. This kind of study is covered on the framework of this thesis. Simulations achieved with the Saturne-polyphasique-Tlse code, developed by Electricite de France and co-worked with the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, allowed to confirm the feasibility of approach CFD for the hydrodynamic study of the injectors and dense fluidized beds. The stages of validation concern, on the one hand, the placement of the tool for simulation in its current state to make studies of validation and sensitivity of the models and to compare the numerical results with the experimental data. In addition, the development of new physical models and their establishments in the code Saturne will allow the optimization of the industrial process. To carry out this validation in a satisfactory way, a key simulation is made, in particular a monodisperse injection and the radial force of injection in the case of a poly-disperse flow, as well as the fluidization of a column made up of solid particles. In this last case, one approached three configurations of dense fluidized beds, in order to study the influence of the grid on simulations; then, one simulates the operation of a dense fluidized bed with which one characterizes the segregation between two various species of particles. The study of the injection of the poly-disperse flows presents two configurations; a flow Co-current gas-particle in gas (Case Hishida), and in addition, a poly-phase flow in a configuration of the jet type confined with zones of recirculation and stagnation (case

  16. Carbonyl compounds in gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiaobing, E-mail: pangxbyuanj@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lewis, Alastair C., E-mail: ally.lewis@york.ac.uk [National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-01

    Carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) are important constituents of cigarette smoke and some are toxic and may be carcinogenic or mutagenic to humans. In this study carbonyl emissions in the gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke were assessed by GC-MS with pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH) derivatization. Seven brands of cigarettes and one brand of cigar common in the UK market and having differing nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide yields were investigated. Sixteen carbonyl components were identified in gaseous emissions and twenty in the particle phase. In the gaseous emissions, acetaldehyde presented as the predominant species, followed by formaldehyde, 2-propenal, and pentanal. In the particulate emissions, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone was the most abundant followed by formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde. Significant differences were found in carbonyl emissions among the brands of cigarettes. The gaseous carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 216-405 {mu}g cigarette{sup -1} ({mu}g cig{sup -1}) and the particulate carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 23-127 {mu}g cig{sup -1}. Positive correlations were found between the total emission of carbonyls, tar yield and carbon monoxide yield. Similar gas/particle (G/P) partitioning ratios of carbonyls were found among all cigarettes, which implies that G/P partitions of carbonyls in smoke mainly depend on the physical properties of the carbonyls. The gaseous carbonyl emissions were enhanced by 40% to 130% when some of the water, accounting for 8-12% of cigarettes in mass, was removed from the tobacco. Non-filtered cigarettes showed significantly higher carbonyl emissions compared to their filtered equivalents. Carbonyl particulate accounted for 11-19% by mass of total particulate matter from tobacco smoke. The cigar generated 806 {mu}g cig{sup -1} gaseous and 141 {mu}g cig{sup -1} particulate carbonyls, which is 2-4 times greater than the cigarettes. - Highlights: {yields} Carbonyl

  17. Carbonyl compounds in gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Lewis, Alastair C.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) are important constituents of cigarette smoke and some are toxic and may be carcinogenic or mutagenic to humans. In this study carbonyl emissions in the gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke were assessed by GC-MS with pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH) derivatization. Seven brands of cigarettes and one brand of cigar common in the UK market and having differing nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide yields were investigated. Sixteen carbonyl components were identified in gaseous emissions and twenty in the particle phase. In the gaseous emissions, acetaldehyde presented as the predominant species, followed by formaldehyde, 2-propenal, and pentanal. In the particulate emissions, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone was the most abundant followed by formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde. Significant differences were found in carbonyl emissions among the brands of cigarettes. The gaseous carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 216-405 μg cigarette -1 (μg cig -1 ) and the particulate carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 23-127 μg cig -1 . Positive correlations were found between the total emission of carbonyls, tar yield and carbon monoxide yield. Similar gas/particle (G/P) partitioning ratios of carbonyls were found among all cigarettes, which implies that G/P partitions of carbonyls in smoke mainly depend on the physical properties of the carbonyls. The gaseous carbonyl emissions were enhanced by 40% to 130% when some of the water, accounting for 8-12% of cigarettes in mass, was removed from the tobacco. Non-filtered cigarettes showed significantly higher carbonyl emissions compared to their filtered equivalents. Carbonyl particulate accounted for 11-19% by mass of total particulate matter from tobacco smoke. The cigar generated 806 μg cig -1 gaseous and 141 μg cig -1 particulate carbonyls, which is 2-4 times greater than the cigarettes. - Highlights: → Carbonyl emission factors in both gas (16 species) and

  18. Characterization of FeCo particles synthesized via co-precipitation, particle growth using flux treatment and reduction in hydrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Mikio, E-mail: kishimoto.mikio.gb@u.tsukuba.ac.jp; Latiff, Hawa; Kita, Eiji; Yanagihara, Hideto

    2017-06-15

    The possibility of high coercive force in FeCo particles was examined focusing on distortion introduced in the particles. The particles were synthesized via co-precipitation of Fe and Co ions, heat-treatment in potassium bromide flux for particle growth, and reduction using hydrogen gas. The particle shape was spherical or a slightly elongated with the size of approximately 30–200 nm, and the composition with approximately Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 40} was determined from the D-spacing of (110) peak. The coercive force of approximately 90 kA/m was obtained in particles with the saturation magnetization of approximately 150 Am{sup 2}/kg. The coercive force was higher than those in reported FeCo particles with same level of saturation magnetization. As one of the reason of high coercive force, we expected the possibility of occurrence of magnetic anisotropy based on the anisotropic distortion generated between FeCo alloy and surface oxides in a slightly elongated particles. - Highlights: • FeCo particles synthesized via Fe/Co:1/1, flux treated, and reduction. • Spherical or slightly elongated shape with size of approximately 30–200 nm. • Composition with Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 40} determined from D-spacing of (110) peak. • Coercive force of 90 kA/m and saturation magnetization of 150 Am{sup 2}/kg.

  19. Is the kinetic equation for turbulent gas-particle flows ill posed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeks, M; Swailes, D C; Bragg, A D

    2018-02-01

    This paper is about the kinetic equation for gas-particle flows, in particular its well-posedness and realizability and its relationship to the generalized Langevin model (GLM) probability density function (PDF) equation. Previous analyses, e.g. [J.-P. Minier and C. Profeta, Phys. Rev. E 92, 053020 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.053020], have concluded that this kinetic equation is ill posed, that in particular it has the properties of a backward heat equation, and as a consequence, its solution will in the course of time exhibit finite-time singularities. We show that this conclusion is fundamentally flawed because it ignores the coupling between the phase space variables in the kinetic equation and the time and particle inertia dependence of the phase space diffusion tensor. This contributes an extra positive diffusion that always outweighs the negative diffusion associated with the dispersion along one of the principal axes of the phase space diffusion tensor. This is confirmed by a numerical evaluation of analytic solutions of these positive and negative contributions to the particle diffusion coefficient along this principal axis. We also examine other erroneous claims and assumptions made in previous studies that demonstrate the apparent superiority of the GLM PDF approach over the kinetic approach. In so doing, we have drawn attention to the limitations of the GLM approach, which these studies have ignored or not properly considered, to give a more balanced appraisal of the benefits of both PDF approaches.

  20. A pilot study of the behavior of gas- and particle-phase ETS tracers in residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael; Gundel, Lara; Dod, Raymond; Chang, Gee-Min; Sextro, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a three-room environmental chamber showed that smoking history significantly influenced inter-room ETS transport, particularly of gas-phase nicotine. We conducted a three-home pilot study where smoking was limited to one room. Single-smoker residences were monitored during five one-week periods while the smoker participated in a smoking cessation program. Nicotine traced ETS particles were detected reliably in the smoking rooms (SRs) and unreliably in the non-smoking rooms (NSRs). On average, the ventilation- and volume-normalized smoking rate, 0.1 Cigarette-h(sup -1) m(sup -3), added about 17 and 4(micro)g m(sup -3) of ETS particles into the SR and NSR, while average nicotine concentration increases were 2 and 0.06(micro)g m(sup -3), respectively. Thus, nicotine tracers may underestimate ETS particle exposure in a NSR (e.g., a child's bedroom) by a factor of 2 to 8. In other words, ETS exposure predicted from nicotine concentrations could be almost an order of magnitude lower than actual exposure

  1. Quality control of coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Mitsunobu

    1987-01-01

    The quality control of the coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactors is characterized by the fact that the size of the target product to be controlled is very small, and the quantity is very large. Accordingly, the sampling plan and the method of evaluating the population through satisfically treating the measured data of the samples are the important subjects to see and evaluate the quality of a batch or a lot. This paper shows the fabrication process and the quality control procedure for the coated fuel particles. The development work of a HTGR was started by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1969, and as for the production technology for coated fuel particles, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. has continued the development work. The pilot plan with the capacity of about 40 kg/year was established in 1972. The fuel product fabricated in this plant was put to the irradiation experiment and out-of-pile evaluation test. In 1983, the production capacity was expanded to 200 kg/year, and the fuel compacts for the VHTRC in JAERI were produced for two years. The basic fuel design, the fabrication process, the quality control, the process control and the quality assurance are reported. For the commercial product, the studies from the viewpoint of production and quality control costs are required. (Kako, I.)

  2. Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Degrendele

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, gas-particle partitioning, and particle-phase size distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and current-use pesticides (CUPs in air. Two years (2012/2013 of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size distribution, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. Major differences were found in the atmospheric distribution of OCPs and CUPs. The atmospheric concentrations of CUPs were driven by agricultural activities while secondary sources such as volatilization from surfaces governed the atmospheric concentrations of OCPs. Moreover, clear differences were observed in gas-particle partitioning; CUP partitioning was influenced by adsorption onto mineral surfaces while OCPs were mainly partitioning to aerosols through absorption. A predictive method for estimating the gas-particle partitioning has been derived and is proposed for polar and non-polar pesticides. Finally, while OCPs and the majority of CUPs were largely found on fine particles, four CUPs (carbendazim, isoproturon, prochloraz, and terbuthylazine had higher concentrations on coarse particles ( >  3.0 µm, which may be related to the pesticide application technique. This finding is particularly important and should be further investigated given that large particles result in lower risks from inhalation (regardless the toxicity of the pesticide and lower potential for long-range atmospheric transport.

  3. Experimental study for the use of sulfur hexafluoride as dielectric gas in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candanedo y Bernabe, C.

    1993-01-01

    The sulfur hexafluoride is the better dielectric gas in the world. It is used in particle accelerator, power stations and high voltage transformators. This is a high stable gas, but when is used as dielectric is degraded in toxic and corrosive fluorides this degradation of sulfur hexafluoride is a function of the voltaic arc, crown effect, pressure, temperature and radiation. The purification of the sulfur fluoride permitted to work in safe form and without the risks as contaminant. The objective of the work is the development of a process for the separation of the wastes from the fabrication of sulphur fluoride and the products of degradation. This process used adsorbents when this gas is used as dielectric. The methodology employed was bibliography research, experimental design of the equipment, construction of the experimental equipment, selection and use of adsorbents, installation of the adsorption columns for the experimentation, flow of the sulfur hexafluoride through the adsorbents, searching of the fluoride hexafluoride before and after of the step through the adsorption columns and writing of the results. In base to the results we conclude that the process is good. The work could be advantage using chromatographic techniques with adequate standards. Is possible to extend the study using an additional number of adsorbents. (Author). 34 refs, 7 graphs, 3 tabs

  4. Locating hazardous gas leaks in the atmosphere via modified genetic, MCMC and particle swarm optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ru; Yan, Yuting; Dong, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jun Ming

    2017-05-01

    Hazardous gas leaks in the atmosphere can cause significant economic losses in addition to environmental hazards, such as fires and explosions. A three-stage hazardous gas leak source localization method was developed that uses movable and stationary gas concentration sensors. The method calculates a preliminary source inversion with a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) and has the potential to crossover with eliminated individuals from the population, following the selection of the best candidate. The method then determines a search zone using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, utilizing a partial evaluation strategy. The leak source is then accurately localized using a modified guaranteed convergence particle swarm optimization algorithm with several bad-performing individuals, following selection of the most successful individual with dynamic updates. The first two stages are based on data collected by motionless sensors, and the last stage is based on data from movable robots with sensors. The measurement error adaptability and the effect of the leak source location were analyzed. The test results showed that this three-stage localization process can localize a leak source within 1.0 m of the source for different leak source locations, with measurement error standard deviation smaller than 2.0.

  5. Discrete particle simulation of bubble and slug formation in a two-dimensional gas-fluidised bed: A hard-sphere approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoomans, B.P.B.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Briels, Willem J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    A discrete particle model of a gas-fluidised bed has been developed and in this the two-dimensional motion of the individual, spherical particles was directly calculated from the forces acting on them, accounting for the interaction between the particles and the interstitial gas phase. Our collision

  6. Colloidal gas-liquid condensation of polystyrene latex particles with intermediate kappa a values (5 to 160, a > kappa(-1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masamichi; Kitano, Ryota

    2010-02-16

    Polystyrene latex particles showed gas-liquid condensation under the conditions of large particle radius (a > kappa(-1)) and intermediate kappa a, where kappa is the Debye-Hückel parameter and a is the particle radius. The particles were dissolved in deionized water containing ethanol from 0 to 77 vol %, settled to the bottom of the glass plate within 1 h, and then laterally moved toward the center of a cell over a 20 h period in reaching a state of equilibrium condensation. All of the suspensions that were 1 and 3 microm in diameter and 0.01-0.20 vol % in concentration realized similar gas-liquid condensation with clear gas-liquid boundaries. In 50 vol % ethanol solvent, additional ethanol was added to enhance the sedimentation force so as to restrict the particles in a monoparticle layer thickness. The coexistence of gas-liquid-solid (crystalline solid) was microscopically recognized from the periphery to the center of the condensates. A phase diagram of the gas-liquid condensation was created as a function of KCl concentration at a particle diameter of 3 microm, 0.10 vol % concentration, and 50:50 water/ethanol solvent at room temperature. The miscibility gap was observed in the concentration range from 1 to 250 microM. There was an upper limit of salt concentration where the phase separation disappeared, showing nearly critical behavior of macroscopic density fluctuation from 250 microM to 1 mM. These results add new experimental evidence to the existence of colloidal gas-liquid condensation and specify conditions of like-charge attraction between particles.

  7. Velocity of a single gas plug rising through a particle-gas-liquid three-phase flow (In the case that particles updrift in a stagnant liquid column)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Shimada, Jun; Ohtake, Hiroyasu

    1999-01-01

    The velocity of a single air plug rising through a stagnant water column in a pipe with updrifting particles has been examined at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The particles used were polymer balls with a diameter of 3.18 mm and a density of 0.835 x 10 -3 kg/m 3 . The water velocity in a film around the plug and a wake region behind the plug was measured by a laser Doppler velocimeter. The thickness of the film was also measured with a dye-fluoresce-method by a laser ray. When the updrifting particles were introduced, the rising velocity of the plug became fast a little. However, the velocity was considerably slower than that in the falling particle case and independent on the particle introduction rate. The film around the plug was thicker a little than that in the no particle case, however considerably thinner than that in the falling particle case. The water velocity in the film around the plug was slower a little than that in the no particle case, and not dependent on the particle introduction rate contrary to that in the falling particle case. The vortex size behind the plug was almost the same as that in the no particle case although the vortex region was spread downward in the falling particle case. (author)

  8. Seasonal variation, sources and gas/particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yunyun; Guo, Pengran; Zhang, Qian; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lan; Mu, Dehai

    2010-01-01

    Air samples were collected weekly at an urban site and a suburban site in Guangzhou City, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning, origins and sources. The concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs (particle + gas) were 129.9 ± 73.1 ng m -3 at the urban site and 120.4 ± 48.5 ng m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. It was found that there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the urban and suburban sites. Seasonal variations of PAH concentrations at the two sampling sites were similar, with higher levels in the winter that gradually decreased to the lowest levels in the summer. The average concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs in the winter samples were approximately three times higher than those of the summer samples because in the summer local emissions dominated, and in the winter the contribution from outside sources or transported PAHs is increased. The plot of logK p versus logP L 0 for the data sets of summer and winter season samples had significantly different slopes at both sampling sites. The slopes for the winter samples were steeper than those for the summer samples. It was also observed that gas/particle partitioning of PAHs showed different characteristics depending on air parcel trajectories. Steeper slopes were obtained for an air parcel that traveled across the continent to the sampling site from the northern or northeastern sector, whereas shallower slopes were obtained for air masses that traveled across the sea from the southern or eastern sector. Diagnostic ratio analytical results imply that the origins of PAHs were mainly from petroleum combustion and coal/biomass burning. The anthracene/phenanthrene and benzo[a]anthracene/chrysene ratios in the winter were significantly lower than those in the summer, which indicate that there might be long-range transported PAH input to Guangzhou in

  9. Measurements of gas and particle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air at urban, rural and near-roadway sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G. C.; Herbrandson, C.; Krause, M. J.; Schmitt, C.; Lippert, C. J.; McMahon, C. R.; Ellickson, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas and particle phases over two years using high volume samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters and XAD-4 at a rural site, an urban site, and a site adjacent to a heavily trafficked roadway. Overall results were generally as expected, in that concentrations increased from rural to urban to near-roadway sites, and PAHs with high vapor pressures (liquid subcooled, PoL) and low octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were mainly in the gas phase, while those with low PoL and high Koa were predominantly in the particle phase. Intermediate PAHs existed in both phases with the phase distribution following a seasonal pattern of higher gas phase concentrations in summer due to temperature effects. The overall pattern of phase distribution was consistent with PAH properties and ambient conditions and was similar at all three sites. The particle-bound fraction (ϕ) was well-described empirically by nonlinear regressions with log Koa and log PoL as predictors. Adsorption and absorption models underestimated the particle-bound fraction for most PAHs. The dual aerosol-air/soot-air model generally represented the gas-particle partitioning better than the other models across all PAHs, but there was a tendency to underestimate the range in the particle-bound fraction seen in measurements. There was a statistically insignificant tendency for higher PAHs in the particle phase at the near roadway site, and one piece of evidence that PAHs may be enriched on ultrafine particles at the near roadway site. Understanding the phase and particle size distributions of PAHs in highly polluted, high exposure microenvironments near traffic sources will help shed light on potential health effects.

  10. Hazardous gas production by alpha particles in solid organic transuranic waste matrices. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVerne, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    with particle energy and charge, allows for accurate determination of dose. A stream of gas, such as nitrogen, flows between the sample and the beam exit window to flush away gaseous products that evolve from the sample surface. The gas steam is sampled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. By monitoring the desired mass peak with the spectrometer it is possible to quantitatively determine a number of different products on line.'

  11. Characterization of forced response of density stratified reacting wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Samadhan A.; Sujith, Raman I.; Emerson, Benjamin; Lieuwen, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of a reacting wake depends primarily on the density ratio [i.e., ratio of unburnt gas density (ρu) to burnt gas density (ρb)] of the flow across the wake. The variation of the density ratio from high to low value, keeping ρ u / ρ b > 1 , transitions dynamical characteristics of the reacting wake from a linearly globally stable (or convectively unstable) to a globally unstable mode. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze the effect of harmonic forcing on the deterministic and synchronization characteristics of reacting wakes. Using the recurrence quantification analysis of the forced wake response, we show that the deterministic behaviour of the reacting wake increases as the amplitude of forcing is increased. Furthermore, for different density ratios, we found that the synchronization of the top and bottom branches of the wake with the forcing signal is dependent on whether the mean frequency of the natural oscillations of the wake (fn) is lesser or greater than the frequency of external forcing (ff). We notice that the response of both branches (top and bottom) of the reacting wake to the external forcing is asymmetric and symmetric for the low and high density ratios, respectively. Furthermore, we characterize the phase-locking behaviour between the top and bottom branches of the wake for different values of density ratios. We observe that an increase in the density ratio results in a gradual decrease in the relative phase angle between the top and bottom branches of the wake, which leads to a change in the vortex shedding pattern from a sinuous (anti-phase) to a varicose (in-phase) mode of the oscillations.

  12. Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstein, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.

  13. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, EUAT, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: cshoyo@us.es

    2008-10-21

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  14. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F

    2008-01-01

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  15. Statefinder diagnostic for modified Chaplygin gas cosmology in f(R,T) gravity with particle creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. K.; Nagpal, Ritika; Pacif, S. K. J.

    In this paper, we have studied flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model with modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) having equation of state pm = Aρ ‑ B ργ, where 0 ≤ A ≤ 1, 0 ≤ γ ≤ 1 and B is any positive constant in f(R,T) gravity with particle creation. We have considered a simple parametrization of the Hubble parameter H in order to solve the field equations and discussed the time evolution of different cosmological parameters for some obtained models showing unique behavior of scale factor. We have also discussed the statefinder diagnostic pair {r,s} that characterizes the evolution of obtained models and explore their stability. The physical consequences of the models and their kinematic behaviors have also been scrutinized here in some detail.

  16. Gas production due to alpha particle degradation of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J.; Okajima, S.; Krause, T.

    1998-07-01

    Alpha particle degradation experiments were performed on polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic samples typical of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) transuranic (TRU) waste. This was done to evaluate the effects of sealing TRU waste during shipment. Experiments were conducted at three temperatures using low dose rates. Predominant products from both plastics were hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and various organic species, with the addition of hydrochloric acid from PVC. In all experiments, the total pressure decreased. Irradiation at 30 and 60 C and at various dose rates caused small changes for both plastics, but at 100 C coupled thermal-radiolytic effects included discoloration of the material as well as large differences in the gas phase composition

  17. Particle-in-cell modeling of streamer branching in CO2 gas

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry

    2017-07-07

    The mechanism of streamer branching remains one of the unsolved problems of low-temperature plasma physics. The understanding of this phenomenon requires very high-fidelity models that include, for instance, the kinetic description of electrons. In this paper, we use a two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisional model to study the branching of anode-directed streamers propagating through short cathode-anode gap filled with atmospheric-pressure CO2 gas. We observe three key phenomena leading to the streamer branching at the considered conditions: flattening of the streamer head, the decrease of the streamer head thickness, and the generation at the streamer head of electrons having the energy larger than 50 eV. For the conditions of our studies, the non-homogeneous distribution of such energetic electrons at the streamer head is probably the primary mechanism responsible for the streamer branching.

  18. Smelting reduction rate of fine Wustite particles in a CO gas-conveyed bed; CO gas yuso sonai Wustite biryushi no yoyu kangen sokudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S; Iguchi, Y [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Using a laboratory scale fine particles-gas conveyed bed, the reduction rates of liquid wustite with CO gas were measured. CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures having various flow rates and compositions were flowed downward through a cylindrical reactor maintained at a constant temperature of 1,723 to 1,823K. A batch of pure spherical wustite particles (mean dia.: 48.5 {mu}m) was concurrently fed into the reactor at a small constant rate and reduced in a hot zone. The reduction process was found to proceed in such a manner that metallic iron particles were enclosed inside a wustite droplet. Rate analysis was made of one dimensional mass balance equations for particles and gas in a steady moving bed under an isothermal condition using the reaction rate for a single particle taking the shrinkage into consideration. Under relatively small reducing potentials, it was concluded that the major fraction of overall reaction resistance is attributable to chemical reaction. However, under higher reducing potentials, the reduction process was estimated to include some mass transfer resistances within the liquid oxide phase. From the temperature dependence of forward chemical reaction rate constants, the activation energy was evaluated to be 90.6 kJ/mol. (author)

  19. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a two-phase gas-liquid flow upward through a fixed bed of spherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELIZAR D. STANKOVIC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an electrochemically generated gas phase on the hydrodynamic characteristics of a three-phase system has been examined. The two-phase fluid, (gas-liquid, in which the liquid phase is the continuous one, flows through a packed bed with glass spheres. The influence of the liquid velocity was examined, as well as the gas velocity and particle diameter on the pressure drop through the fixed bed. It was found that with increasing liquid velocity (wl = 0.0162–0.03 m/s, the relative pressure drop decreases through the fixed bed. With increasing current density, the pressure drop increases, since greater gas quantities stay behind in the fixed bed. Besides, it was found that with decreasing diameter of the glass particles, the relative pressure drop also decreases. The relationship betweeen the experimentally obtained friction factor and the Reynolds number was established.

  20. An investigation of particle behavior in gas-solid horizontal pipe flow by an extended LDA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong Lu; Donald H. Glass; William J. Easson [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Institute for Materials and Processes

    2009-12-15

    An extended Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique has been developed to measure the distributions of particle velocities and particle number rates over a whole pipe cross-section in a dilute pneumatic conveying system. The first extension concentrates on the transform matrix for predicting the laser beams' cross point in a pipe according to the shift coordinate of the 3D computer-controlled traverse system on which the probes of the LDA system were mounted. The second focuses on the proper LDA sample rate for the measurement of gas-solid pipe flow with polydisperse particles. A suitable LDA sample rate should ensure that enough data is recorded in the measurement interval to precisely calculate the particle mean velocity or other statistical values at every sample point. The present study explores the methodology as well as the fundamentals of measurements, using a laser facility, of the cross-sectional distributions of solid phase. In the horizontal gas-solid pipe flow (glass beads less than 110 {mu}m), the experimental data show that the cross-sectional flow patterns of the solid phase can be classified by annulus-like flow describing the axial particle velocity contours and stratified flow characterising particle number rate distribution over a cross-section. Thus, the cross-sectional flow pattern of the solid phase in a horizontal pipe may be annular or stratified dependent on whether the axial particle velocity or particle number rate is the phenomenon studied. 13 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Particle contamination in gas-insulated systems: new control methods and optimum SF6/N2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, M.O.; Adcock, J.L.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibilities of two new separate techniques to control particle contamination in practical gas-insulated sytems were tested in a small-scale concentric cylinder geometry. In one technique an insulating coating was first formed on the particles in a contaminated system by low-pressure discharges in appropriate gases such as 1-C 3 F 6 and c-C 4 F 8 . When SF 6 was subsequently introduced into the same system at practical pressure as the operating insulation, the considerable harm ordinarily caused by particles was found to be eliminated. The nature of the coating formed also on the electrodes in this process was studied, with the conclusion that the observed benefits were primarily due to coating on particles, not on electrodes. In the second technique the particles, moved randomly by electrical stress, struck and adhered to the surface of a tacky insulating solid material; they were subsequently encapsulated in a melt-resolidify cycle without electrical stress. This trapping technique was also found to eliminate the harmful effects of particles in SF 6 at practical pressure. A technique for producing a trapping material with temperature characteristics appropriate for practical apparatus was devised. The effect of particle contamination on the dielectric strength of SF 6 /N 2 mixtures was studied as a function of total pressure and percentage of each gas. Optimum total pressure (approx. 6 atm) and optimum percentages (60% SF 6 /40% N 2 ) were observed in breakdown tests in particle-contaminated concentric cylinder geometry

  2. Large-Eddy Simulations of Reacting Liquid Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederlin, Thomas; Sanjose, Marlene; Gicquel, Laurent; Cuenot, Benedicte; Pitsch, Heinz; Poinsot, Thierry

    2008-11-01

    Numerical simulation, which is commonly used in many stages of aero-engine design, still has to demonstrate its predictive capability for two-phase reacting flows. This study is a collaboration between Stanford University and CERFACS to perform LES of a realistic spray combustor installed at ONERA, Toulouse. The experimental configuration is computed on the same unstructured mesh with two different solvers: Stanford's CDP code and CERFACS's AVBP code. CDP uses a low-Mach, variable-density solver with implicit time advancement. Droplets are tracked in a Lagrangian point-particle framework. The combustion model uses a flamelet approach, based on two transported scalars, mixture fraction and reaction progress variable. AVBP is a fully compressible solver with explicit time advancement. The liquid phase is described with an Eulerian method. The flame-turbulence interaction is modeled using a dynamically-thickened flame. Results are compared with experimental data for three regimes: purely gaseous non-reacting flow, non-reacting flow with evaporating droplets, reacting flow with droplets. Both simulations show a good agreement with experimental data and also stress the difference and relative advantages of the numerical methods.

  3. Element composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow in the vicinity of gas-fired heating plant

    OpenAIRE

    Talovskaya, Anna Valerievna; Yazikov, Yegor (Egor) Grigoryevich; Filimonenko, Ekaterina Anatolievna; Samokhina, Nataljya Pavlovna; Shakhova, Tatiana Sergeevna; Parygina, Irina Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Local heating plants are the main pollution source of rural areas. Currently, there are few studies on the composition of local heating plants emissions. The article deals with the research results of air pollution level with solid airborne particles in the vicinity of local gas-fired heating plants of some districts of Tomsk region. The snow sampling was conducted for the purpose of solid airborne particles extraction from snow cover. The content of 28 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare e...

  4. Characterization of condensed phase nitric acid particles formed in the gas phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Jia; Yongfu Xu

    2011-01-01

    The formation of nitric acid hydrates has been observed in a chamber during the dark reaction of NO2 with O3 in the presence of air.The size of condensed phase nitric acid was measured to be 40-100 nm and 20-65 nm at relative humidity (RH) ≤ 5% and RH = 67% under our experimental conditions, respectively.The nitric acid particles were collected on the glass fiber membrane and their chemical compositions were analyzed by infrared spectrum.The main components of nitric acid hydrates in particles are HNO3·3H2O and NO3-·xH2O (x≥ 4) at low RH, whereas at high RH HNO3·H2O, HNO3·2H2O, HNO3·3H2O and NO3-·xH2O (x≥ 4) all exist in the condensed phase.At high RH HNO3·xH2O (x ≤ 3) collected on the glass fiber membrane is greatly increased, while NO3-·xH2O (x ≥4) decreased, compared with low RH.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report that condensed phase nitric acid can be generated in the gas phase at room temperature.

  5. Self-Organized Patterns in Gas-Discharge: Particle-Like Behaviour and Dissipative Solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwins, H.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of self-organise patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems (SOPs) is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. In the last 20 years it turned out that research in the field of low temperature gas-discharge can help to obtain insight into important aspect of SOPs. At the same time, due to the practical relevance of plasma systems one might expect interesting applications. In the present paper the focus is on self-organised filamentary patterns in planar dc and ac systems with high ohmic and dielectric barrier, respectively. - In the discharge plane of these systems filaments show up as spots which are also referred to as dissipative solitons (DSs). In many respect experimentally detected DSs exhibit particle-like behaviour. Among other things, isolated stationary or travelling DSs, stationary, travelling or rotating 'molecules' and various kinds of many-body systems have been observed. Also scattering, generation and annihilation of DSs are frequent phenomena. - At least some of these patterns can be described quantitatively in terms of a drift diffusion model. It is also demonstrated that a simple reaction diffusion model allows for an intuitive understanding of many of the observed phenomena. At the same time this model is the basis for a theoretical foundation of the particle picture and the experimentally observed universal behaviour of SOPs. - Finally some hypothetical applications are discussed

  6. Is the gas-particle partitioning in alpha-pinene secondary organic aerosol reversible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Andrew P.; Donahue, Neil M.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the reversibility of gas-particle partitioning in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from α-pinene ozonolysis in a smog chamber. Previously, phase partitioning has been studied quantitatively via SOA production experiments and qualitatively by perturbing temperature and observing particle evaporation. In this work, two methods were used to isothermally dilute the SOA: an external dilution sampler and an in-chamber technique. Dilution caused some evaporation of SOA, but repartitioning took place on a time scale of tens of minutes to hours-consistent with an uptake coefficient on the order of 0.001-0.01. However, given sufficient time, α-pinene SOA repartitions reversibly based on comparisons with data from conventional SOA yield experiments. Further, aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data indicate that the composition of SOA varies with partitioning. These results suggest that oligomerization observed in high-concentration laboratory experiments may be a reversible process and underscore the complexity of the kinetics of formation and evaporation of SOA.

  7. Primary and secondary organic aerosol origin by combined gas-particle phase source apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a prominent fraction of particulate organic mass (OA, remains poorly constrained. Its formation involves several unknown precursors, formation and evolution pathways and multiple natural and anthropogenic sources. Here a combined gas-particle phase source apportionment is applied to wintertime and summertime data collected in the megacity of Paris in order to investigate SOA origin during both seasons. This was possible by combining the information provided by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. A better constrained apportionment of primary OA (POA sources is also achieved using this methodology, making use of gas-phase tracers. These tracers made possible the discrimination between biogenic and continental/anthropogenic sources of SOA. We found that continental SOA was dominant during both seasons (24–50% of total OA, while contributions from photochemistry-driven SOA (9% of total OA and marine emissions (13% of total OA were also observed during summertime. A semi-volatile nighttime component was also identified (up to 18% of total OA during wintertime. This approach was successfully applied here and implemented in a new source apportionment toolkit.

  8. Neutral gas transport and particle recycling in the W VII-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardei, F.; Ringler, H.; Dodhy, A.; Kuehner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Neutral gas transport simulations with the 3D DEGAS code were applied to model plasmas before the W VII-AS operation was started. For a source of neutrals due to limiter recycling the calculated neutral density distribution is strongly affected by the asymmetries of the magnetic flux surfaces, limiter and wall structures. For a typical ECF heated deuterium discharge from the first months of W VII-AS operation the time histories of H α signals at five toroidal positions provide information about the neutral fluxes due to limiter and wall recycling and to gas puffing. The H α signals are used to scale the calculated 3D distributions of the neutrals and the radial profiles of the ion sources as obtained from the DEGAS code. By comparing the results for the three different neutral sources the limiter is found to provide more than 80% of the plasma refuelling, with a recycling coefficient of about 95%. The calculated total particle fluxes resulting from the integrated ion sources are consistent with neoclassical predictions in the temperature gradient region. Near the plasma edge, however, the fluxes are strongly anomalous. The diffusion coefficient estimated from the fluxes and the measured density gradients (with z eff approx. 3) is about 1/10 - 1/20 of the electron heat conductivity. (author). 6 refs, 10 figs

  9. PAHs levels in gas and particle-bound phase in schools at different locations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated seasonal variation of PAHs and their partition between gas and particulate-bounded phases in indoor and outdoor air in 4 schools in Serbia located at different locations. The sampling campaigns were conducted during one workweek at each school successively. Campaigns were conducted in schools during heating and non-heating seasons in December 2011 and June 2012. Seasonal variations of gas and particle-bounded PAHs concentrations were observed with higher levels during heating season. The highest total PAH values were associated with the gas phase in both sampling periods. The total PAHs concentration at indoor and at the outdoor sites, during heating season, ranged from 88.45 to 447.72 ng/m3 and 201.69 to 1017.15 ng/m3, respectively. During non-heating season, the total PAHs concentration ranged from 36.91 to 271.57 ng/m3 in indoor environment and 27.00 to 132.32 ng/m3 in outdoor environment. Most of the I/O ratios were less than 1, which indicated that the indoor PAHs were mostly from outdoor sources. The use of diagnostic ratio showed that traffic emission and coal combustion are the major sources of PAHs. Only the diagnostic ratios for the school, located near the industrial area, showed significant deviation compared to other schools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036: Development of new meteorological mast for turbulence parameters characterization and br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health

  10. Analytical solutions for non-linear conversion of a porous solid particle in a gas–I. Isothermal conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brem, Gerrit; Brouwers, J.J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical description are presented for non-linear heterogeneous conversion of a porous solid particle reacting with a surrounding gas. Account has been taken of a reaction rate of general order with respect to gas concentration, intrinsic reaction surface area and pore diffusion, which change with

  11. Nonlinear Krylov acceleration of reacting flow codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Rawat, R.; Smith, P.; Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We are working on computational simulations of three-dimensional reactive flows in applications encompassing a broad range of chemical engineering problems. Examples of such processes are coal (pulverized and fluidized bed) and gas combustion, petroleum processing (cracking), and metallurgical operations such as smelting. These simulations involve an interplay of various physical and chemical factors such as fluid dynamics with turbulence, convective and radiative heat transfer, multiphase effects such as fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions, and chemical reaction. The governing equations resulting from modeling these processes are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled, thereby rendering their solution by traditional iterative methods (such as nonlinear line Gauss-Seidel methods) very difficult and sometimes impossible. Hence we are exploring the use of nonlinear Krylov techniques (such as CMRES and Bi-CGSTAB) to accelerate and stabilize the existing solver. This strategy allows us to take advantage of the problem-definition capabilities of the existing solver. The overall approach amounts to using the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) method and its variants as nonlinear preconditioners for the nonlinear Krylov method. We have also adapted a backtracking approach for inexact Newton methods to damp the Newton step in the nonlinear Krylov method. This will be a report on work in progress. Preliminary results with nonlinear GMRES have been very encouraging: in many cases the number of line Gauss-Seidel sweeps has been reduced by about a factor of 5, and increased robustness of the underlying solver has also been observed.

  12. In-situ ambient quantification of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related oxygenated compounds during BEARPEX 2007: implications for gas- and particle-phase chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Bouvier-Brown

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We quantified ambient mixing ratios of 9 monoterpenes, 6 sesquiterpenes, methyl chavicol, the oxygenated terpene linalool, and nopinone using an in-situ gas chromatograph with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-MS. These measurements were a part of the 2007 Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX at Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first direct in-situ ambient quantification of the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, longifolene, α-farnesene, and β-farnesene. From average diurnal mixing ratio profiles, we show that α-farnesene emissions are dependent mainly on temperature whereas α-bergamotene and β-farnesene emissions are temperature- and light-dependent. The amount of sesquiterpene mass quantified above the canopy was small (averaging a total of 3.3 ppt during the day, but nevertheless these compounds contributed 7.6% to the overall ozone-olefin loss rate above the canopy. Assuming that the monoterpene-to-sesquiterpene emission rate in the canopy is similar to that observed in branch enclosure studies at the site during comparable weather conditions, and the average yield of aerosol mass from these sesquiterpenes is 10–50%, the amount of sesquiterpene mass reacted within the Blodgett Forest canopy alone accounts for 6–32% of the total organic aerosol mass measured during BEARPEX. The oxygenated monoterpene linalool was also quantified for the first time at Blodgett Forest. The linalool mass contribution was small (9.9 ppt and 0.74 ppt within and above the canopy, respectively, but it contributed 1.1% to the total ozone-olefin loss rate above the canopy. Reactive and semi-volatile compounds, especially sesquiterpenes, significantly impact the gas- and particle-phase chemistry of the atmosphere at Blodgett Forest and should be included in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry

  13. Phenomenological in-situ TEM gas exposure studies of palladium particles on MgO at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.; Osaka, T.

    1983-01-01

    It has been found that very small vapor-deposited catalytically active metal particles in the 1-2 nm size range on metal oxide substrates can undergo significant changes when they are exposed to gases such as oxygen or air, or even when allowed to 'anneal' at room temperature (RT) under vacuum conditions. The present investigation is concerned with continued in-situ gas exposures of as-deposited, 1 to 2 nm size palladium particles on MgO to air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, CO, and water vapor at RT. It is found that the low-pressure exposure to various gases at RT can significantly affect small palladium particles supported on MgO surfaces. Exposure to oxygen for 3 min at 0.0002 m bar produces a considerable amount of coalescence, flattening of the particles, and some distinct crystallographic particle shapes.

  14. Predicting the Agglomeration of Cohesive Particles in a Gas-Solid Flow and its Effect on the Solids Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Kevin; Liu, Peiyuan; Lamarche, Casey; Hrenya, Christine

    2017-11-01

    In flows of cohesive particles, agglomerates will readily form and break. These agglomerates are expected to complicate how particles interact with the surrounding fluid in multiphase flows, and consequently how the solids flow. In this work, a dilute flow of particles driven by gas against gravity is studied. A continuum framework, composed of a population balance to predict the formation of agglomerates, and kinetic-theory-based balances, is used to predict the flow of particles. The closures utilized for the birth and death rates due to aggregation and breakage in the population balance take into account how the impact velocity (the granular temperature) affects the outcome of a collision as aggregation, rebound, or breakage. The agglomerate size distribution and solids velocity predicted by the continuum framework are compared to discrete element method (DEM) simulations, as well to experimental results of particles being entrained from the riser of a fluidized bed. Dow Corning Corporation.

  15. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Jenni; Simonen, Pauli; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kangasniemi, Oskari; Saukko, Erkka; Hillamo, Risto; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-07-01

    Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6-268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential was measured to be 9-20 mg kgfuel-1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize - more than half an hour - which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission source and system temperatures. Sulfate was

  16. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  17. Computational Investigation of Soot and Radiation in Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalit, Harshad

    This study delves into computational modeling of soot and infrared radiation for turbulent reacting flows, detailed understanding of both of which is paramount in the design of cleaner engines and pollution control. In the first part of the study, the concept of Stochastic Time and Space Series Analysis (STASS) as a numerical tool to compute time dependent statistics of radiation intensity is introduced for a turbulent premixed flame. In the absence of high fidelity codes for large eddy simulation or direct numerical simulation of turbulent flames, the utility of STASS for radiation imaging of reacting flows to understand the flame structure is assessed by generating images of infrared radiation in spectral bands dominated by radiation from gas phase carbon dioxide and water vapor using an assumed PDF method. The study elucidates the need for time dependent computation of radiation intensity for validation with experiments and the need for accounting for turbulence radiation interactions for correctly predicting radiation intensity and consequently the flame temperature and NOx in a reacting fluid flow. Comparison of single point statistics of infrared radiation intensity with measurements show that STASS can not only predict the flame structure but also estimate the dynamics of thermochemical scalars in the flame with reasonable accuracy. While a time series is used to generate realizations of thermochemical scalars in the first part of the study, in the second part, instantaneous realizations of resolved scale temperature, CO2 and H2O mole fractions and soot volume fractions are extracted from a large eddy simulation (LES) to carry out quantitative imaging of radiation intensity (QIRI) for a turbulent soot generating ethylene diffusion flame. A primary motivation of the study is to establish QIRI as a computational tool for validation of soot models, especially in the absence of conventional flow field and measured scalar data for sooting flames. Realizations of

  18. Investigation of mass and energy coupling between soot particles and gas species in modelling ethylene counterflow diffusion flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, L.; Pereira, F.M.; van Oijen, J.A.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model is developed aiming at investigating soot formation in ethylene counterflow diffusion flames. The mass and energy coupling between soot solid particles and gas-phase species is investigated in detail. A semi-empirical two-equation model is chosen for predicting soot mass fraction

  19. Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air

  20. Application of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to nanoscale heat transfer between a soot particle and the surrounding gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.; Liu, F.; Smallwood, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) technique has been widely used to measure soot volume fraction and primary particle size in flames and engine exhaust. Currently there is lack of quantitative understanding of the shielding effect of aggregated soot particles on its conduction heat loss rate to the surrounding gas. The conventional approach for this problem would be the application of the Monte Carlo (MC) method. This method is based on simulation of the trajectories of individual molecules and calculation of the heat transfer at each of the molecule/molecule collisions and the molecule/particle collisions. As the first step toward calculating the heat transfer between a soot aggregate and the surrounding gas, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used in this study to calculate the heat transfer rate between a single spherical aerosol particle and its cooler surrounding gas under different conditions of temperature, pressure, and the accommodation coefficient. A well-defined and simple hard sphere model was adopted to describe molecule/molecule elastic collisions. A combination of the specular reflection and completely diffuse reflection model was used to consider molecule/particle collisions. The results obtained by DSMC are in good agreement with the known analytical solution of heat transfer rate for an isolated, motionless sphere in the free-molecular regime. Further the DSMC method was applied to calculate the heat transfer in the transition regime. Our present DSMC results agree very well with published DSMC data. (author)

  1. Enhanced Removal of Hydrophobic Gas by Aerial Ultrasonic Waves and Two Kinds of Water Mists of Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keisuke; Miura, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    Air pollutants can cause health problems, such as bronchitis and cancer, and are now recognized as a social problem. Hence, a method is proposed for the collection and removal of gaseous air pollutants by aerial ultrasonic waves and water mist. Typically, gas removal effects are studied using lemon oil vapor (“lemon gas”), which is a hydrophobic gas. Previous experiments using lemon gas have shown that a removal rate of up to 40% can be achieved in an intense standing wave at 20 kHz, for an amount of water mist of 1.39 cm3/s and an electrical input power of 50 W. Increasing the surface area of the water mist leads to greater removal of hydrophobic gas. In this study, the effects of gas removal are examined by conducting experiments using intense aerial ultrasonic waves to disperse two kinds of water mists, each composed of particles of different sizes: small particles (diameter: ≈3 µm) and conventional large particles (diameter: ≈60 µm).

  2. Variability in the primary emissions and secondary gas and particle formation from vehicles using bioethanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, E; Papapostolou, V; Reyes, F; Vásquez, Y; Castillo, M; Oyola, P; López, G; Cádiz, A; Ferguson, S; Wolfson, M; Lawrence, J; Koutrakis, P

    2018-04-01

    Bioethanol for use in vehicles is becoming a substantial part of global energy infrastructure because it is renewable and some emissions are reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and total hydrocarbons (THC) are reduced, but there is still controversy regarding emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), aldehydes, and ethanol; this may be a concern because all these compounds are precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The amount of emissions depends on the ethanol content, but it also may depend on the engine quality and ethanol origin. Thus, a photochemical chamber was used to study secondary gas and aerosol formation from two flex-fueled vehicles using different ethanol blends in gasoline. One vehicle and the fuel used were made in the United States, and the others were made in Brazil. Primary emissions of THC, CO, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from both vehicles decreased as the amount of ethanol in gasoline increased. NO x emissions in the U.S. and Brazilian cars decreased with ethanol content. However, emissions of THC, CO, and NO x from the Brazilian car were markedly higher than those from the U.S. car, showing high variability between vehicle technologies. In the Brazilian car, formation of secondary nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) was lower for higher ethanol content in the fuel. In the U.S. car, NO 2 and O 3 had a small increase. Secondary particle (particulate matter [PM]) formation in the chamber decreased for both vehicles as the fraction of ethanol in fuel increased, consistent with previous studies. Secondary to primary PM ratios for pure gasoline is 11, also consistent with previous studies. In addition, the time required to form secondary PM is longer for higher ethanol blends. These results indicate that using higher ethanol blends may have a positive impact on air quality. The use of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Given the extent of

  3. Application of particle swarm optimization in gas turbine engine fuel controller gain tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri-Gh, M.; Jafari, S.; Ilkhani, M. R.

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the application of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for gain tuning of the gas turbine engine (GTE) fuel controller. For this purpose, the structure of a fuel controller is firstly designed based on the GTE control requirements and constraints. The controller gains are then tuned by PSO where the tuning process is formulated as an engineering optimization problem. In this study, the response time during engine acceleration and deceleration as well as the engine fuel consumption are considered as the objective functions. A computer simulation is also developed to evaluate the objective values for a single spool GTE. The GTE model employed for the simulation is a Wiener model, the parameters of which are extracted from experimental tests. In addition, the effect of neighbour acceleration on PSO results is studied. The results show that the neighbour acceleration factor has a considerable effect on the convergence rate of the PSO process. The PSO results are also compared with the results obtained through a genetic algorithm (GA) to show the relative merits of PSO. Moreover, the PSO results are compared with the results obtained from the dynamic programming (DP) method in order to illustrate the ability of proposed method in finding the global optimal solution. Furthermore, the objective function is also defined in multi-objective manner and the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is applied to find the Pareto-front for the problem. Finally, the results obtained from the simulation of the optimized controller confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach to design an optimal fuel controller resulting in an improved GTE performance as well as protection against the physical limitations.

  4. Gas/particle partitioning of carbonyls in the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new denuder-filter sampling technique has been used to investigate the gas/particle partitioning behaviour of the carbonyl products from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. A series of experiments was performed in two atmospheric simulation chambers at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature in the presence of NOx and at a relative humidity of approximately 50%. The denuder and filter were both coated with the derivatizing agent O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl-hydroxylamine (PFBHA to enable the efficient collection of gas- and particle-phase carbonyls respectively. The tubes and filters were extracted and carbonyls identified as their oxime derivatives by GC-MS. The carbonyl products identified in the experiments accounted for around 5% and 10% of the mass of secondary organic aerosol formed from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene respectively.

    Experimental gas/particle partitioning coefficients were determined for a wide range of carbonyl products formed from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and compared with the theoretical values based on standard absorptive partitioning theory. Photooxidation products with a single carbonyl moiety were not observed in the particle phase, but dicarbonyls, and in particular, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, exhibited gas/particle partitioning coefficients several orders of magnitude higher than expected theoretically. These findings support the importance of heterogeneous and particle-phase chemical reactions for SOA formation and growth during the atmospheric degradation of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons.

  5. Gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric aerosols: interplay of physical state, non-ideal mixing and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Zuend, Andreas; Bertram, Allan K; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-21

    Atmospheric aerosols, comprising organic compounds and inorganic salts, play a key role in air quality and climate. Mounting evidence exists that these particles frequently exhibit phase separation into predominantly organic and aqueous electrolyte-rich phases. As well, the presence of amorphous semi-solid or glassy particle phases has been established. Using the canonical system of ammonium sulfate mixed with organics from the ozone oxidation of α-pinene, we illustrate theoretically the interplay of physical state, non-ideality, and particle morphology affecting aerosol mass concentration and the characteristic timescale of gas-particle mass transfer. Phase separation can significantly affect overall particle mass and chemical composition. Semi-solid or glassy phases can kinetically inhibit the partitioning of semivolatile components and hygroscopic growth, in contrast to the traditional assumption that organic compounds exist in quasi-instantaneous gas-particle equilibrium. These effects have significant implications for the interpretation of laboratory data and the development of improved atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  6. Surface area-dependence of gas-particle interactions influences pulmonary and neuroinflammatory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R; Zychowski, Katherine E; Sanchez, Bethany N; Rivero, Valeria; Lucas, Selita; Herbert, Guy; Liu, June; Irshad, Hammad; McDonald, Jacob D; Bleske, Barry E; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    particles is an important determinant of toxic responses. As such, freshly generated UFP, in the presence of combustion-derived gas phase pollutants, may be a greater health hazard than would be predicted from PM concentration, alone, lending support for epidemiological findings of adverse neurological outcomes associated with roadway proximity.

  7. Numerical schemes for the hybrid modeling approach of gas-particle turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid Moments/PDF methods have shown to be well suitable for the description of poly-dispersed turbulent two-phase flows in non-equilibrium which are encountered in some industrial situations involving chemical reactions, combustion or sprays. They allow to obtain a fine enough physical description of the poly-dispersity, non-linear source terms and convection phenomena. However, their approximations are noised with the statistical error, which in several situations may be a source of a bias. An alternative hybrid Moments-Moments/PDF approach examined in this work consists in coupling the Moments and the PDF descriptions, within the description of the dispersed phase itself. This hybrid method could reduce the statistical error and remove the bias. However, such a coupling is not straightforward in practice and requires the development of accurate and stable numerical schemes. The approaches introduced in this work rely on the combined use of the up-winding and relaxation-type techniques. They allow to obtain stable unsteady approximations for a system of partial differential equations containing non-smooth external data which are provided by the PDF part of the model. A comparison of the results obtained using the present method with those of the 'classical' hybrid approach is presented in terms of the numerical errors for a case of a co-current gas-particle wall jet. (author)

  8. The effect of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the formation and properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Imre, Dan G. [Imre Consulting; USA; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Suski, Kaitlyn J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Beránek, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Alexander, M. Lizabeth [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Kramer, Amber L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Massey Simonich, Staci L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Environmental and Molecular Toxicology; Oregon State University

    2017-01-01

    When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to ‘pure’ SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.

  9. Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-09-01

    A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the

  10. Influence of the particle morphology on the Cold Gas Spray deposition behaviour of titanium on aluminum light alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinca, N.; Rebled, J.M.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Fernández, J.; Guilemany, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of the particle–substrate and particle–particle interfaces in the cold spray process. ► Use of irregular feedstock particles whereas normally FIB studies have been undergone for spherical particles. ► Deep Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of the interfaces and within the particle. -- Abstract: The present work evaluates the deposition behaviour of irregular titanium powder particles impinged by Cold Gas Spraying onto an aluminium 7075-T6 alloy substrate. The influence of their irregular shape on the bonding phenomena, in particle–substrate and particle–particle interfaces are discussed in view of Transmission Electron Microscopy examinations of a Focused Ion Beam lift-out prepared sample. Key aspects will be the jetting-out, the occurrence of oxide layers and grain size refinement. Different structural morphologies could be featured; at the particle–substrate interface, both the aluminium alloy and the titanium side exhibit recrystallization. Titanium particles in intimate contact in small agglomerates during deposition, on the other hand, show grain refinement at their interfaces whereas the original structure is maintained outside those boundaries

  11. Fission Product Release Behavior of Individual Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Koya, Toshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Tomita, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Ishikawa, Akiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Baldwin, Charles A; Gabbard, William Alexander [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Malone, Charlie M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2000-07-15

    Postirradiation heating tests of TRISO-coated UO{sub 2} particles at 1700 and 1800degC were performed to understand fission product release behavior at accident temperatures. The inventory measurements of the individual particles were carried out before and after the heating tests with gamma-ray spectrometry to study the behavior of the individual particles. The time-dependent release behavior of {sup 85}Kr, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 154}Eu were obtained with on-line measurements of fission gas release and intermittent measurements of metallic fission product release during the heating tests. The inventory measurements of the individual particles revealed that fission product release behavior of the individual particles was not uniform, and large particle-to-particle variations in the release behavior of {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 154}Eu were found. X-ray microradiography and ceramography showed that the variations could not be explained by only the presence or absence of cracks in the SiC coating layer. The SiC degradation may have been related to the variations.

  12. Fission Product Release Behavior of Individual Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Koya, Toshio; Tomita, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Akiyoshi; Baldwin, Charles A.; Gabbard, William Alexander; Malone, Charlie M.

    2000-01-01

    Postirradiation heating tests of TRISO-coated UO 2 particles at 1700 and 1800degC were performed to understand fission product release behavior at accident temperatures. The inventory measurements of the individual particles were carried out before and after the heating tests with gamma-ray spectrometry to study the behavior of the individual particles. The time-dependent release behavior of 85 Kr, 110m Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 154 Eu were obtained with on-line measurements of fission gas release and intermittent measurements of metallic fission product release during the heating tests. The inventory measurements of the individual particles revealed that fission product release behavior of the individual particles was not uniform, and large particle-to-particle variations in the release behavior of 110m Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 154 Eu were found. X-ray microradiography and ceramography showed that the variations could not be explained by only the presence or absence of cracks in the SiC coating layer. The SiC degradation may have been related to the variations

  13. Effective ionization coefficients, electron drift velocities, and limiting breakdown fields for gas mixtures of possible interest to particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datskos, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the gas-density, N, normalized effective ionization coefficient, bar a/N, and the electron drift velocity, w, as a function of the density-reduced electric field, E/N, and obtained the limiting, (E/N) lim , value of E/N for the unitary gases Ar, CO 2 , and CF 4 , the binary gas mixtures CO 2 :Ar (20: 80), CO 2 :CH 4 (20:80), and CF 4 :Ar (20:80), and the ternary gas mixtures CO 2 :CF 4 :Ar (10:10:80) and H 2 O: CF 4 :Ar (2:18:80). Addition of the strongly electron thermalizing gas CO 2 or H 2 O to the binary mixture CF 4 :Ar (1)''cools'' the mixture (i.e., lowers the electron energies), (2) has only a small effect on the magnitude of w(E/N) in the E/N range employed in the particle detectors, and (3) increases bar a/N for E/N ≥ 50 x 10 -17 V cm 2 . The increase in bar a/N, even though the electron energies are lower in the ternary mixture, is due to the Penning ionization of CO 2 (or H 2 O) in collisions with excited Ar* atoms. The ternary mixtures -- being fast, cool, and efficient -- have potential for advanced gas-filled particle detectors such as those for the SCC muon chambers. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Development of a gas-to-particle conversion model for use in three-dimensional global sulfur budget studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreidenweis, S.M.

    1993-08-01

    A fully-parameterized model for the formation and growth of aerosols via gas-to-particle conversion has been developed and tested. A particularly significant contribution is a new method for the prediction of numbers of particles nucleated using information on the vapor source rate, relative humidity, and preexisting aerosol alone, thus eliminating the need to solve a system of coupled ODEs. Preliminary tests indicate substantial reduction in computational costs, but it is recommended that the BIMODAM model be incorporated into a large-scale model of the sulfur cycle in order to more fully test its computational feasibility

  15. Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O' hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie

    2005-06-04

    Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at

  16. Calorimetry of non-reacting systems

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, John P

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume 1: Calorimetry of Non-Reacting Systems covers the heat capacity determinations for chemical substances in the solid, liquid, solution, and vapor states, at temperatures ranging from near the absolute zero to the highest at which calorimetry is feasible.This book is divided into 14 chapters. The first four chapters provide background information and general principles applicable to all types of calorimetry of non-reacting systems. The remaining 10 chapters deal with specific types of calorimetry. Most of the types of calorimetry treated are developed over a c

  17. Reacting plasma project at IPP Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, A.; Momota, H.; Hamada, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Akimune, H.

    1981-01-01

    Contributed papers of the seminar on burning plasma held at UCLA are collected. Paper on ''overview of reacting plasma project'' described aim and philosophy of R-Project in Japan. Paper on ''Burning plasma and requirements for design'' gave theoretical aspect of reacting plasma physics while paper on ''plasma container, heating and diagnostics'' treated experimental aspect. Tritium handling is essential for the next step experiment; therefore, paper on ''Tritium problems in burning plasma experiments'' took an important part of this seminar. As appendix, paper on ''a new type of D - ion source using Si-semiconductor'' was added because such an advanced R and D work is essential for R-Project. (author)

  18. A study on the gas-solid particle flows in a needle-free drug delivery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasel, Md. Alim Iftekhar; Taher, Md. Abu; Kim, H. D.

    2013-08-01

    Different systems have been used over the years to deliver drug particles to the human skin for pharmaceutical effect. Research has been done to improve the performance and flexibility of these systems. In recent years a unique system called the transdermal drug delivery has been developed. Transdermal drug delivery opened a new door in the field of drug delivery as it is more flexible and offers better performance than the conventional systems. The principle of this system is to accelerate drug particles with a high speed gas flow. Among different transdermal drug delivery systems we will concentrate on the contour shock tube system in this paper. A contoured shock tube is consists of a rupture chamber, a shock tube and a supersonic nozzle section. The drug particles are retained between a set of bursting diaphragm. When the diaphragm is ruptured at a certain pressure, a high speed unsteady flow is initiated through the shock tube which accelerates the particles. Computational fluid dynamics is used to simulate and analyze the flow field. The DPM (discrete phase method) is used to model the particle flow. As an unsteady flow is initiated though the shock tube the drag correlation proposed by Igra et al is used other than the standard drag correlation. The particle velocities at different sections including the nozzle exit are investigated under different operating conditions. Static pressure histories in different sections in the shock tube are investigated to analyze the flow field. The important aspects of the gas and particle dynamics in the shock tube are discussed and analyzed in details.

  19. X-ray emission of the hot gas and of accelerated particles in supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, F.

    2008-09-01

    The current observations seem to support the theory that the shock wave of supernova remnants accelerate electrons (representing about 1% of cosmic rays) of the interstellar medium up to energies of about 10 15 eV. However there is still no solid evidence that supernova remnants also accelerate protons (major component of cosmic rays). The X-ray observations of those supernova remnants with the satellite XMM-Newton can provide crucial information on the acceleration mechanisms and on this population of accelerated particles. This thesis presents the X-ray analysis of the supernova remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and SN 1006 for which it has been shown that they accelerate electrons efficiently. As a result, these objects are very good targets to compare the theoretical models of acceleration to the observation. For the first object, I constructed through new XMM-Newton observations, the first high-angular resolution mosaic of the entire supernova remnant. I then compared the X- and gamma-ray emission of this object in order to understand the nature of the gamma-ray emission. This spectral and morphological comparison allowed me to discuss the two possible origins of the gamma-ray radiation (issued by electrons or by protons). For SN 1006, I studied the density of the ambient medium in which the shock wave propagates. This density is a key parameter for the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant and for studying a future gamma-ray emission. The study of X-ray emission of the gas heated by the shock wave allowed me to better estimate of the value of the density so far poorly constrained for this object. (author)

  20. Comparison of Mixing Calculations for Reacting and Non-Reacting Flows in a Cylindrical Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsle, V. L.; Mongia, H. C.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    A production 3-D elliptic flow code has been used to calculate non-reacting and reacting flow fields in an experimental mixing section relevant to a rich burn/quick mix/lean burn (RQL) combustion system. A number of test cases have been run to assess the effects of the variation in the number of orifices, mass flow ratio, and rich-zone equivalence ratio on the flow field and mixing rates. The calculated normalized temperature profiles for the non-reacting flow field agree qualitatively well with the normalized conserved variable isopleths for the reacting flow field indicating that non-reacting mixing experiments are appropriate for screening and ranking potential rapid mixing concepts. For a given set of jet momentum-flux ratio, mass flow ratio, and density ratio (J, MR, and DR), the reacting flow calculations show a reduced level of mixing compared to the non-reacting cases. In addition, the rich-zone equivalence ratio has noticeable effect on the mixing flow characteristics for reacting flows.

  1. The erosion performance of particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings produced by co-deposition cold gas dynamic spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on the erosion performance of three particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings, co-deposited with an aluminium binder via cold-gas dynamic spraying. The deposition of ceramic particles is difficult to achieve with typical cold spray techniques due to the absence of particle deformation. This issue has been overcome in the present study by simultaneously spraying the reinforcing particles with a ductile metallic binder which has led to an increased level of ceramic/cermet particles deposited on the substrate with thick (>400 μm) coatings produced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the erosion performance of the co-deposited coatings within a slurry environment. The study also incorporated standard metallographic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of reinforcing particles within the aluminium matrix. All coatings exhibited poorer erosion performance than the uncoated material, both in terms of volume loss and mass loss. The Al2O3 reinforced coating sustained the greatest amount of damage following exposure to the slurry and recorded the greatest volume loss (approx. 2.8 mm3) out of all of the examined coatings. Despite the poor erosion performance, the WC-CoCr reinforced coating demonstrated a considerable hardness increase over the as-received AA5083 (approx. 400%) and also exhibited the smallest free space length between adjacent particles. The findings of this study reveal that the removal of the AA5083 matrix by the impinging silicon carbide particles acts as the primary wear mechanism leading to the degradation of the coating. Analysis of the wear scar has demonstrated that the damage to the soft matrix alloy takes the form of ploughing and scoring which subsequently exposes carbide/oxide particles to the impinging slurry.

  2. Equilibrium of particle nitrite with gas phase HONO: Tropospheric measurements in the high Arctic during polar sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Meng

    1994-12-01

    Gas phase HONO(g) and nitrite in particles of formation rate from HONO(g) photolysis was greater than from the photolysis of both O3 and CH2O by more than one order of magnitude during the sunlit period and led to moderately high levels of OH, e.g., 3×105 molecules cm-3 OH at noontime on April 5. Particle nitrite measurements showed a gradual increase in concentrations with increasing solar insolation, but the concentrations were generally less than 10 ppt. The pH and the sulfate molar concentrations of the particles and the water vapor mixing ratio indicate that the particles were highly acidic being approximately 70% (W/W) H2SO4 solution. In such highly concentrated H2SO4 solution, most particle nitrite should exist as hydrated nitrosonium ion H2ONO+. Taking this into consideration, the particle nitrite was in an approximate equilibrium with the measured HONO(g). This equilibrium, with HONO(g) rapidly photolyzed, was a good indication that the particles were effective sources of HONO(g) and implied rapid production of particle N(+III) during this period. Two possible pathways leading to the formation of particle N(+III) species are suggested, i.e., reduction of HNO3(aq) by SO2(g) and reduction of NO3-; (aq) by Br- (aq). However, N2O5 reaction with NaBr cannot be ruled out as the alternative HONO(g) formation mechanism which bypasses the equilibrium.

  3. A comparison between tracer gas and aerosol particles distribution indoors: The impact of ventilation rate, interaction of airflows, and presence of objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Ondráček, Jakub; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2017-01-01

    for the exposure to all different-sized test particles. A change in the ventilation rate did not affect the difference in concentration distribution between tracer gas and larger particle sizes. Increasing the room surface area did not influence the similarity in the dispersion of the aerosol particles...... room with mixing ventilation. Three layouts were arranged: an empty room, an office room with an occupant sitting in front of a table, and a single-bed hospital room. The room occupant was simulated by a thermal manikin. Monodisperse particles of three sizes (0.07, 0.7, and 3.5 μm) and nitrous oxide...... tracer gas were generated simultaneously at the same location in the room. The particles and gas concentrations were measured in the bulk room air, in the breathing zone of the manikin, and in the exhaust air. Within the breathing zone of the sitting occupant, the tracer gas emerged as reliable predictor...

  4. Scenario Analysis of Natural Gas Consumption in China Based on Wavelet Neural Network Optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyun Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas consumption has increased with an average annual growth rate of about 10% between 2012 and 2017. Total natural gas consumption accounted for 6.4% of consumed primary energy resources in 2016, up from 5.4% in 2012, making China the world’s third-largest gas user. Therefore, accurately predicting natural gas consumption has become very important for market participants to organize indigenous production, foreign supply contracts and infrastructures in a better way. This paper first presents the main factors affecting China’s natural gas consumption, and then proposes a hybrid forecasting model by combining the particle swarm optimization algorithm and wavelet neural network (PSO-WNN. In PSO-WNN model, the initial weights and wavelet parameters are optimized using PSO algorithm and updated through a dynamic learning rate to improve the training speed, forecasting precision and reduce fluctuation of WNN. The experimental results show the superiority of the proposed model compared with ANN and WNN based models. Then, this study conducts the scenario analysis of the natural gas consumption from 2017 to 2025 in China based on three scenarios, namely low scenario, reference scenario and high scenario, and the results illustrate that the China’s natural gas consumption is going to be 342.70, 358.27, 366.42 million tce (“standard” tons coal equivalent in 2020, and 407.01, 437.95, 461.38 million tce in 2025 under the low, reference and high scenarios, respectively. Finally, this paper provides some policy suggestions on natural gas exploration and development, infrastructure construction and technical innovations to promote a sustainable development of China’s natural gas industry.

  5. Brominated flame retardants in the urban atmosphere of Northeast China: Concentrations, temperature dependence and gas-particle partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Hong; Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Wan-Li, E-mail: mawanli002@163.com; Li, Yi-Fan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com

    2014-09-01

    57 pairs of air samples (gas and particle phases) were collected using a high volume air sampler in a typical city of Northeast China. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, including BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, 183, and 209) and 9 alternative BFRs (p-TBX, PBBZ, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, HBBZ, γ-HBCD, BTBPE, and DBDPE) were analyzed. The annual average total concentrations of the 13 PBDEs and the 9 alternative BFRs were 69 pg/m{sup 3} and 180 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively. BDE 209 and γ-HBCD were the dominant congeners, according to the one-year study. The partial pressure of BFRs in the gas phase was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature, except for BDE 85, γ-HBCD and DBDPE, indicating the important influence of ambient temperature on the behavior of BFRs in the atmosphere. It was found that the gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) for most low molecular weight BFRs were highly temperature dependent as well. Gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) also correlated with the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o}). Our results indicated that absorption into organic matter is the main control mechanism for the gas–particle partitioning of atmospheric PBDEs. - Highlights: • Both PBDEs and alternative BFRs were analyzed in the atmosphere of Northeast China. • Partial pressure of BFRs was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature. • A strong temperature dependence of gas-particle partitioning was found. • Absorption into organic matter was the control mechanism for G-P partitioning.

  6. Emission of Gas and Al2O3 Smoke in Gas-Al Particle Deflagration: Experiments and Emission Modeling for Explosive Fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranc-Darbord, Isabelle; Baudin, Gérard; Genetier, Marc; Ramel, David; Vasseur, Pierre; Legrand, Julien; Pina, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    Emission of gas and Al2O3 smoke within the deflagration of H2{-}O2-{N2{-}CO2}-Al particles has been studied in a closed combustion chamber at pressures of up to 18 bar and at gas temperatures of up to 3700 K. Measurements of radiance intensity were taken using a five wavelength pyrometer (0.660 μ m, 0.850 μ m, 1.083 μ m, 1.260 μ m, 1.481 μ m) and a grating spectrometer in the range (4.10 μ m to 4.30 μ m). In order to characterize the aluminum oxide smoke size and temperature, an inversion method has been developed based on the radiation transfer equation and using pyrometer measurements and thermochemical calculations of Al2O3 smoke volume fractions. Temperatures in combustion gas have been determined using a method based on the assumed blackbody head of the 4.26 μ m CO2 emission line and on its spectral shift with pressure and temperature. For validation purpose, this method has been applied to measurements obtained when calibrated alumina particles are injected in a combustion chamber prior to gaseous deflagrations. This mathematical inversion method was developed to investigate explosive fireballs.

  7. Production of solid lipid submicron particles for protein delivery using a novel supercritical gas-assisted melting atomization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Stefano; Elvassore, Nicola; Bertucco, Alberto; Caliceti, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    A supercritical carbon dioxide micronization technique based on gas-assisted melting atomization has been designed to prepare protein-loaded solid lipid submicron particles. The supercritical process was applied to homogeneous dispersions of insulin in lipid mixtures: (1) tristearin, Tween-80, phosphatidylcholine and 5 kDa PEG (1:0.1:0.9:1 and 1:0.1:0.9:2 weight ratio); and (2) tristearin, dioctyl sulfosuccinate and phosphatidylcholine (1:1:0.5 weight ratio). Optimized process conditions yielded dry nonagglomerated powders with high product recovery (70%, w/w). Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy showed that two size fractions of particles, with 80-120 and 200-400 nm diameters, were produced. In all final products, dimethylsulfoxide used to prepare the insulin/lipid mixture was below 20 ppm. Protein encapsulation efficiency increased up to 80% as the DMSO content in the insulin/lipid mixture increased. Compared to the particles without PEG, the polymer-containing particles dispersed rapidly in water, and the dispersions were more stable under centrifugation as less than 20% of suspended particles precipitated after extensive centrifugation. In vitro, the protein was slowly released from the formulation without PEG, while a burst and faster release were obtained from the formulations containing PEG. Subcutaneous injection to diabetic mice of insulin extracted from the particles showed that the supercritical process did not impair the protein hypoglycemic activity.

  8. Investigation of nucleation kinetics in H2SO4 vapor through modeling of gas phase kinetics coupled with particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Philip T. M.; Zeuch, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a new model utilizing our existing kinetic gas phase models to simulate experimental particle size distributions emerging in dry supersaturated H2SO4 vapor homogeneously produced by rapid oxidation of SO2 through stabilized Criegee-Intermediates from 2-butene ozonolysis. We use a sectional method for simulating the particle dynamics. The particle treatment in the model is based on first principles and takes into account the transition from the kinetic to the diffusion-limited regime. It captures the temporal evolution of size distributions at the end of the ozonolysis experiment well, noting a slight underrepresentation of coagulation effects for larger particle sizes. The model correctly predicts the shape and the modes of the experimentally observed particle size distributions. The predicted modes show an extremely high sensitivity to the H2SO4 evaporation rates of the initially formed H2SO4 clusters (dimer to pentamer), which were arbitrarily restricted to decrease exponentially with increasing cluster size. In future, the analysis presented in this work can be extended to allow a direct validation of quantum chemically predicted stabilities of small H2SO4 clusters, which are believed to initiate a significant fraction of atmospheric new particle formation events. We discuss the prospects and possible limitations of the here presented approach.

  9. Acceleration of Vaporization, Atomization, and Ionization Efficiencies in Inductively Coupled Plasma by Merging Laser-Ablated Particles with Hydrochloric Acid Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takashi; Izumo, Saori; Furuta, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    To accelerate the vaporization, atomization, and ionization efficiencies in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we merged HCl gas with laser-ablated particles before introduction into the plasma, to convert their surface constituents from oxides to lower-melting chlorides. When particles were merged with HCl gas generated from a HCl solution at 200°C, the measured concentrations of elements in the particles were 135% higher on average than the concentrations in particles merged with ultrapure water vapor. Particle corrosion and surface roughness were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and oxide conversion to chlorides was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of measured elements improved by 23% on average, and the recoveries of elements with high-melting oxides (Sr, Zr, and Th) improved by as much as 36%. These results indicate that vaporization, atomization, and ionization in the ICP improved when HCl gas was merged with the ablated particles.

  10. Measurement of phase interaction in dispersed gas-particle two-phase flow by phase-doppler anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergheni Ali Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For simultaneous measurement of size and velocity distributions of continuous and dispersed phases in a two-phase flow a technique phase-Doppler anemometry was used. Spherical glass particles with a particle diameter range from 102 up to 212 µm were used. In this two-phase flow an experimental results are presented which indicate a significant influence of the solid particles on the flow characteristics. The height of influence of these effects depends on the local position in the jet. Near the nozzle exit high gas velocity gradients exist and therefore high turbulence production in the shear layer of the jet is observed. Here the turbulence intensity in the two-phase jet is decreased compared to the single-phase jet. In the developed zone the velocity gradient in the shear layer is lower and the turbulence intensity reduction is higher. .

  11. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  12. Relativistic effects in the energy loss of a fast charged particle moving parallel to a two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Zoran L.; Akbari, Kamran; Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L.; Arista, Néstor R.

    2018-05-01

    We present a fully relativistic formulation for the energy loss rate of a charged particle moving parallel to a sheet containing two-dimensional electron gas, allowing that its in-plane polarization may be described by different longitudinal and transverse conductivities. We apply our formulation to the case of a doped graphene layer in the terahertz range of frequencies, where excitation of the Dirac plasmon polariton (DPP) in graphene plays a major role. By using the Drude model with zero damping we evaluate the energy loss rate due to excitation of the DPP, and show that the retardation effects are important when the incident particle speed and its distance from graphene both increase. Interestingly, the retarded energy loss rate obtained in this manner may be both larger and smaller than its non-retarded counterpart for different combinations of the particle speed and distance.

  13. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of insulin and recombinant human growth hormone loaded lipid submicron particles produced by supercritical gas micro-atomisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Stefano; Bersani, Sara; Elvassore, Nicola; Bertucco, Alberto; Caliceti, Paolo

    2009-09-08

    Homogeneous dispersions of insulin and recombinant human growth hormone (rh-GH) in tristearin/phosphatidylcholine/PEG mixtures (1.3:1.3:0.25:0.15 w/w ratio) were processed by supercritical carbon dioxide gas micro-atomisation to produce protein-loaded lipid particles. The process yielded spherical particles, with a 197+/-94 nm mean diameter, and the insulin and rh-GH recovery in the final product was 57+/-8% and 48+/-5%, respectively. In vitro, the proteins were slowly released for about 70-80 h according to a diffusive mechanism. In vivo, the insulin and glucose profiles in plasma obtained by subcutaneous administration of a dose of particles containing 2 microg insulin to diabetic mice overlapped that obtained with 2 microg of insulin in solution. Administration of a dose of particles containing 5 microg insulin resulted in faster and longer glycaemia reduction. Oral administration of 20 and 50 microg insulin equivalent particles produced a significant hypoglycaemic effect. The glucose levels decreased since 2h after administration, reaching about 50% and 70% glucose reduction in 1-2h with the lower and higher dose, respectively. As compared to subcutaneous administration, the relative pharmacological bioavailability obtained with 20 and 50 microg equivalent insulin particles was 7.7% and 6.7%, respectively. Daily subcutaneous administration of 40 microg of rh-GH-loaded particles to hypophysectomised rats induced similar body weight increase as 40 microg rh-GH in solution. The daily oral administration of 400 microg rh-GH equivalent particles elicited a slight body weight increase, which corresponded to a relative pharmacological bioavailability of 3.4% compared to subcutaneous administration.

  14. Coefficient of solid-gas heat transfer in particle fixed bed; Coeficiente de transferencia de calor gas-solido em leito fixo de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Filho, Francisco

    1991-03-01

    The work presents a study on heat transfer between gas and solid phases for fixed beds in the absence of mass transfer and chemical reactions. Mathematical models presented in the literature were analyzed concerning to the assumptions made on axial dispersion in the fluid phase and interparticle thermal conductivity. Heat transfer coefficients and their dependency on flow conditions, particles and packed bed characteristics were experimentally determined through the solution of the previous mathematical models. Pressure drop behaviour for the packed beds used for the heat transfer study was also included. (author) 32 refs., 12 figs.

  15. A detection method of negative pionlike particles from a H2 gas discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin.

    1996-02-01

    The negative pionlike particles π - penetrate a metal (or insulator) plate if positive ions produced secondarily by H - ions, diffuse to the back of the plate. Thus, the π - particles are not detected by a usual beam collector of mass analyzer using a metal plate. In order to detect the π - particles, we must interrupt the diffusion of the positive ions to the back of the beam collector while the π - particles are confined inside the beam collector and changed into a multiplied electron current. (author)

  16. Measurements of ultrafine particles from a gas-turbine burning biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allouis, C.; Beretta, F.; Minutolo, P.; Pagliara, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, M.; Sgro, L.A.; D' Anna, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements of ultrafine particles have been performed at the exhaust of a low emission microturbine for power generation. This device has been fuelled with liquid fuels, including a commercial diesel oil, a mixture of the diesel oil with a biodiesel and kerosene, and tested under different loads. Primarily attention has been focused on the measurements of the size distribution functions of the particles emitted from the system by using particle differential mobility analysis. A bimodal size distribution function of the particle emitted has been found in all the examined conditions. Burning diesel oil, the first mode of the size distribution function of the combustion-formed particles is centered at around 2-3 nm, whereas the second mode is centered at about 20-30 nm. The increase of the turbine load and the addition of 50% of biodiesel has not caused changes in the shape of size distribution of the particles. A slightly decrease of the amount of particle formed has been found. By using kerosene the amount of emitted particles increases of more than one order of magnitude. Also the shape of the size distribution function changes with the first mode shifted towards larger particles of the order of 8-10 nm but with a lower emission of larger 20-30 nm particles. Overall, in this conditions, the mass concentration of particles is increased respect to the diesel oil operation. Particle sizes measured with the diesel oil have been compared with the results on a diesel engine operated in the same power conditions and with the same fuel. Measurements have showed that the mean sizes of the formed particles do not change in the two combustion systems. However, diesel engine emits a number concentration of particles more than two orders of magnitude higher in the same conditions of power and with the same fuel. By running the engine in more premixed-like conditions, the size distribution function of the particles approaches that measured by burning kerosene in the

  17. Size distribution of alkyl amines in continental particulate matter and their online detection in the gas and particle phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. VandenBoer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An ion chromatographic method is described for the quantification of the simple alkyl amines: methylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA, trimethylamine (TMA, ethylamine (EA, diethylamine (DEA and triethylamine (TEA, in the ambient atmosphere. Limits of detection (3σ are in the tens of pmol range for all of these amines, and good resolution is achieved for all compounds except for TMA and DEA. The technique was applied to the analysis of time-integrated samples collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI with ten stages for size resolution of particles with aerodynamic diameters between 56 nm and 18 μm. In eight samples from urban and rural continental airmasses, the mass loading of amines consistently maximized on the stage corresponding to particles with aerodynamic diameters between 320 and 560 nm. The molar ratio of amines to ammonium (R3NH+/NH4+ in fine aerosol ranged between 0.005 and 0.2, and maximized for the smallest particle sizes. The size-dependence of the R3NH+/NH4+ ratio indicates differences in the relative importance of the processes leading to the incorporation of amines and ammonia into secondary particles. The technique was also used to make simultaneous hourly online measurements of amines in the gas phase and in fine particulate matter using an Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC. During a ten day campaign in downtown Toronto, DMA, TMA + DEA, and TEA were observed to range from below detection limit to 2.7 ppt in the gas phase. In the particle phase, MAH+ and TMAH+ + DEAH+ were observed to range from below detection limit up to 15 ng m−3. The presence of detectable levels of amines in the particle phase corresponded to periods with higher relative humidity and higher mass loadings of nitrate. While the hourly measurements made using the AIM-IC provide data that can

  18. Total Particle Number Emissions from Modern Diesel, Natural Gas, and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicles During On-Road Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Quiros, David C; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Pradhan, Saroj; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-06-20

    Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study. Fuel-based PNEFs were consistent with previous studies measuring plume exhaust in the ambient air. Meanwhile, on-road PNEF shows route and technology dependence. For vehicles with OEM DPFs and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, PNEFs under highway driving (i.e., 3.34 × 10 12 to 2.29 × 10 13 particles/mile) were larger than those measured on urban and drayage routes (i.e., 5.06 × 10 11 to 1.31 × 10 13 particles/mile). This is likely because a significant amount of nucleation mode volatile particles were formed when the DPF outlet temperature reached a critical value, usually over 310 °C, which was commonly achieved when vehicle speed sustained over 45 mph. A model year 2013 diesel HDV produced approximately 10 times higher PNEFs during DPF active regeneration events than nonactive regeneration.

  19. Automatic X-ray inspection for escaped coated particles in spherical fuel elements of high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Hongsheng; Li, Ziqiang; Liu, Bing; Li, Xingdong; Meng, Fanyong

    2014-01-01

    As a core unit of HTGRs (high-temperature gas-cooled reactors), the quality of spherical fuel elements is directly related to the safety and reliability of HTGRs. In line with the design and performance requirements of the spherical fuel elements, no coated fuel particles are permitted to enter the fuel-free zone of a spherical fuel element. For fast and accurate detection of escaped coated fuel particles, X-ray DR (digital radiography) imaging with a step-by-step circular scanning trajectory was adopted for Chinese 10 MW HTGRs. The scanning parameters dominating the volume of the blind zones were optimized to ensure the missing detection of the escaped coated fuel particles is as low as possible. We proposed a dynamic calibration method for tracking the projection of the fuel-free zone accurately, instead of using a fuel-free zone mask of fixed size and position. After the projection data in the fuel-free zone were extracted, image and graphic processing methods were combined for automatic recognition of escaped coated fuel particles, and some practical inspection results were presented. - Highlights: • An X-ray DR imaging system for quality inspection of spherical fuel elements was introduced. • A method for optimizing the blind-zone-related scanning parameter was proposed. • A dynamic calibration method for tracking the fuel-free zone accurately was proposed. • Some inspection results of the disqualified spherical fuel elements with escaped coated fuel particles were presented

  20. Elemental and organic carbon in flue gas particles of various wood combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaegauf, C.; Schmid, M.; Guentert, P.

    2005-12-15

    The airborne particulate matter (PM) in the environment is of ever increasing concern to authorities and the public. The major fractions of particles in wood combustion processes are in the size less than 1 micron, typically in the range of 30 to 300 nm. Of specific interest is the content of the elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the particles since these substances are known for its particular potential as carcinogens. Various wood combustion systems have been analysed (wood chip boiler, pellet boiler, wood log boiler, wood stove and open fire). The sampling of the particles was done by mean of a multi-stage particle sizing sampler cascade impactor. The impactor classifies the particles collected according to their size. The 7 stages classify the particles between 0.4 and 9 microns aerodynamic diameter. The analytical method for determining the content of EC and OC in the particles is based on coulometry. The coulometer measures the conductivity of CO{sub 2} released by oxidation of EC in the samples at 650 {sup o}C. The OC content is determined by pyrolysis of the particle samples in helium atmosphere.

  1. Effect of delta wing on the particle flow in a novel gas supersonic separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Chuang; Yang, Yan; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    The present work presents numerical simulations of the complex particle motion in a supersonic separator with a delta wing located in the supersonic flow. The effect of the delta wing on the strong swirling flow is analysed using the Discrete Particle Method. The results show that the delta wings...

  2. Partitioning of phthalates among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Salthammer, Tunga; Fromme, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    (s)) or the octanol/air partition coefficient (K-OA). For each phthalate in each apartment, the ratio of its particle concentration to its dust concentration (C-particle/C-Dust) was calculated, The median values of this ratio were within an order of magnitude of one another for five of the phthalate esters despite...

  3. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  4. Gas-particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) on mixtures of aerosols in a smog chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Bharadwaj; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M

    2003-09-15

    The partitioning behavior of a set of diverse SOCs on two and three component mixtures of aerosols from different sources was studied using smog chamber experimental data. A set of SOCs of different compound types was introduced into a system containing a mixture of aerosols from two or more sources. Gas and particle samples were taken using a filter-filter-denuder sampling system, and a partitioning coefficient Kp was estimated using Kp = Cp/(CgTSP). Particle size distributions were measured using a differential mobility analyzer and a light scattering detector. Gas and particle samples were analyzed using GCMS. The aerosol composition in the chamber was tracked chemically using a combination of signature compounds and the organic matter mass fraction (f(om)) of the individual aerosol sources. The physical nature of the aerosol mixture in the chamber was determined using particle size distributions, and an aggregate Kp was estimated from theoretically calculated Kp on the individual sources. Model fits for Kp showed that when the mixture involved primary sources of aerosol, the aggregate Kp of the mixture could be successfully modeled as an external mixture of the Kp on the individual aerosols. There were significant differences observed for some SOCs between modeling the system as an external and as an internal mixture. However, when one of the aerosol sources was secondary, the aggregate model Kp required incorporation of the secondary aerosol products on the preexisting aerosol for adequate model fits. Modeling such a system as an external mixture grossly overpredicted the Kp of alkanes in the mixture. Indirect evidence of heterogeneous, acid-catalyzed reactions in the particle phase was also seen, leading to a significant increase in the polarity of the resulting aerosol mix and a resulting decrease in the observed Kp of alkanes in the chamber. The model was partly consistent with this decrease but could not completely explain the reduction in Kp because of

  5. Tuning the structure of platinum particles on ceria in situ for enhancing the catalytic performance of exhaust gas catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaenzler, Andreas M.; Casapu, Maria; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Vernoux, Philippe; Loridant, Stephane; Cadete Santos Aires, Francisco J.; Epicier, Thierry; Betz, Benjamin; Hoyer, Ruediger

    2017-01-01

    A dynamic structural behavior of Pt nanoparticles on the ceria surface under reducing/oxidizing conditions was found at moderate temperatures (<500 C) and exploited to enhance the catalytic activity of Pt/CeO 2 -based exhaust gas catalysts. Redispersion of platinum in an oxidizing atmosphere already occurred at 400 C. A protocol with reducing pulses at 250-400 C was applied in a subsequent step for controlled Pt-particle formation. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy unraveled the different extent of reduction and sintering of Pt particles: The choice of the reductant allowed the tuning of the reduction degree/particle size and thus the catalytic activity (CO>H 2 >C 3 H 6 ). This dynamic nature of Pt on ceria at such low temperatures (250-500 C) was additionally confirmed by in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy. A general concept is proposed to adjust the noble metal dispersion (size, structure), for example, during operation of an exhaust gas catalyst. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Experimental investigation of attrition resistance of zeolite catalysts in two particle gas-solid-solid fluidization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Z.; Ziaoping, T.; Shu, Q.; Wei, F.; Naveed, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the study of mechanical degradation of 34 ZSM-5 and SAPO catalysts, using the gas jet attrition - ASTM standard fluidized bed test (D-5757), the effect of particle size and its quantitative analysis in co-fluidization environment was investigated on the air jet index (AJI) basis. In gas-solid-solid fluidized bed reactors (GSS-FBR), two different sized particles were fluidized under isothermal conditions. In case of ZSM-5 and SAPO-34, significant attrition resistance was observed, which was attributed to small pore size and specific structural strength of the mobile framework image (MFI) and chabasite (CHA) structures, respectively. The optimum AJI for SAPO-34 and ZSM-5 (of particle size 0.2 mm) in GSS-fluidization system was observed to be 0.0118 and 0.0062, respectively. In co-fluidization, deviations from Gwyn relationship were observed due to change in impact of collision. Therefore, zeolites are recommended as suitable catalysts or catalytic supports (for doping of expensive metals) and for commercial use in GSS-FBR. (author)

  7. Tuning the structure of platinum particles on ceria in situ for enhancing the catalytic performance of exhaust gas catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenzler, Andreas M.; Casapu, Maria; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Vernoux, Philippe; Loridant, Stephane; Cadete Santos Aires, Francisco J. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, UMR 5256, CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Epicier, Thierry [Materiaux, Ingenierie et Science, UMR 5510, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Betz, Benjamin [Umicore AG and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany); Ernst-Berl Institut, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Hoyer, Ruediger [Umicore AG and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2017-10-09

    A dynamic structural behavior of Pt nanoparticles on the ceria surface under reducing/oxidizing conditions was found at moderate temperatures (<500 C) and exploited to enhance the catalytic activity of Pt/CeO{sub 2}-based exhaust gas catalysts. Redispersion of platinum in an oxidizing atmosphere already occurred at 400 C. A protocol with reducing pulses at 250-400 C was applied in a subsequent step for controlled Pt-particle formation. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy unraveled the different extent of reduction and sintering of Pt particles: The choice of the reductant allowed the tuning of the reduction degree/particle size and thus the catalytic activity (CO>H{sub 2}>C{sub 3}H{sub 6}). This dynamic nature of Pt on ceria at such low temperatures (250-500 C) was additionally confirmed by in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy. A general concept is proposed to adjust the noble metal dispersion (size, structure), for example, during operation of an exhaust gas catalyst. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Experiments on sedimentation of particles in a water pool with gas inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ho; Jung, Woo Hyun; Park, Jin Ho; Park, Hyun Suk; Moriyama, Kiyofumi [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    During the late phase of severe accidents of light water reactors, a porous debris bed is expected to develop on the bottom of the flooded reactor cavity after breakup of the melt in water. The geometrical configuration, i.e., internal and external characteristics, of the debris bed is significant for the adequate assessment of the coolability of the relocated corium. The internal structure of a debris bed was investigated experimentally using the DAVINCI (Debris bed research Apparatus for Validation of the bubble-Induced Natural Convection effect Issue) test facility. Particle sedimentation under the influence of a two-phase natural convection flow due to the decay heat in the debris bed was simulated by dropping various sizes of particles into a water vessel with air bubble injection from the bottom. Settled particles were collected and sieved to obtain the particle mass, size distribution in the radial and axial positions, and the bed porosity and permeability. The experimental results showed that the center part of the particle bed tended to have larger particles than the peripheral area. For the axial distribution, the lower layer had a higher fraction of larger particles. As the sedimentation progressed, the size distribution in the upper layers can shift to larger sizes because of the higher vapor generation rate and stronger flow intensity.

  9. Atmospheric concentration characteristics and gas-particle partitioning of PCBs in a rural area of eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 14 successive daytime and nighttime air samples collected from Melpitz, a rural site in eastern Germany. The average total concentration of PCBs was 110+/-80pgm -3 and they were predominately present in the gas phase (∼95%). Composition of individual congeners closely resembled those of Clophen A30 and Aroclor 1232. Partial vapor pressures of PCBs were well correlated with temperature and the steep slopes obtained from Clausius-Clapeyron plots (-4500 to -8000) indicated that evaporation from adjacent land surfaces still controls the atmospheric levels of these pollutants. Particle-gas partitioning coefficients (K P ) of PCBs were well correlated with the respective sub-cooled vapor pressures (P L o ), but the slopes obtained from logK P versus logP L o plots (-0.16 to -0.59) deviated significantly from the expected value of -1. Overall, gas-particle partitioning of PCBs was better simulated by Junge-Pankow than octanol/air partition coefficient-based model

  10. Fine particle pH and gas-particle phase partitioning of inorganic species in Pasadena, California, during the 2010 CalNex campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Liu, Jiumeng; Froyd, Karl D.; Roberts, James M.; Veres, Patrick R.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney J.

    2017-05-01

    pH is a fundamental aerosol property that affects ambient particle concentration and composition, linking pH to all aerosol environmental impacts. Here, PM1 and PM2. 5 pH are calculated based on data from measurements during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) study from 15 May to 15 June 2010 in Pasadena, CA. Particle pH and water were predicted with the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic model and validated by comparing predicted to measured gas-particle partitioning of inorganic nitrate, ammonium, and chloride. The study mean ± standard deviation PM1 pH was 1.9 ± 0.5 for the SO42--NO3--NH4+-HNO3-NH3 system. For PM2. 5, internal mixing of sea salt components (SO42--NO3--NH4+-Na+-Cl--K+-HNO3-NH3-HCl system) raised the bulk pH to 2.7 ± 0.3 and improved predicted nitric acid partitioning with PM2. 5 components. The results show little effect of sea salt on PM1 pH, but significant effects on PM2. 5 pH. A mean PM1 pH of 1.9 at Pasadena was approximately one unit higher than what we have reported in the southeastern US, despite similar temperature, relative humidity, and sulfate ranges, and is due to higher total nitrate concentrations (nitric acid plus nitrate) relative to sulfate, a situation where particle water is affected by semi-volatile nitrate concentrations. Under these conditions nitric acid partitioning can further promote nitrate formation by increasing aerosol water, which raises pH by dilution, further increasing nitric acid partitioning and resulting in a significant increase in fine particle nitrate and pH. This study provides insights into the complex interactions between particle pH and nitrate in a summertime coastal environment and a contrast to recently reported pH in the eastern US in summer and winter and the eastern Mediterranean. All studies have consistently found highly acidic PM1 with pH generally below 3.

  11. Development of Improved Models and Designs for Coated-Particle Gas Reactor Fuels -- Final Report under the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Martin, Philippe [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Phelip, Mayeul [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ballinger, Ronald [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this INERI project was to develop improved fuel behavior models for gas reactor coated-particle fuels and to explore improved coated-particle fuel designs that could be used reliably at very high burnups and potentially in gas-cooled fast reactors. Project participants included the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), Centre Étude Atomique (CEA), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). To accomplish the project objectives, work was organized into five tasks.

  12. Study on flow characteristics of chemically reacting liquid jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Seon Dae; Okamoto, Koji; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2004-07-01

    Tube rupture accidents in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors are important for safety because the rupture may propagates to neighboring tubes due to sodium-water reaction. In order to clarify the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the accidents, the flow pattern and the interface in multi-phase flow must be investigated. The JNC cooperative research scheme on the nuclear fuel cycle with the University of Tokyo has been carried to develop a simultaneous measurement system of concentration and velocity profiles and to evaluate influence of chemical reaction on mixing phenomena. In the experiments, aqueous liquor of acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide are selected as a simulant fluid instead of liquid sodium and water vapor. The following conclusions are obtained in this research. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was adopted to measure reacting zone and pH distribution in chemically reacting liquid round free jet. As a result, it was found that the chemical reaction, which took place at the interface between the jet and outer flow, suppressed the mixing phenomenon (in 2001 research). Dynamic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method was developed to measure instantaneous velocity profile with high temporal resolution. In the Dynamic PIV, a high-speed video camera coupled with a high-speed laser pulse generator was implemented. A time-line trend of interfacial area in the free jet was investigated with the Dynamic PIV. This technique was also applied to a complicated geometry (in 2002 research). A new algorithms for image analysis was developed to evaluated the Dynamic PIV data in detail. The characteristics of the mixing phenomenon with reacting jet such as the turbulent kinetic energy and the Reynolds stress were estimated in a spatial and temporal spectrum (in 2003 research). (author)

  13. Modeling the gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol: the importance of liquid-liquid phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds between the gas phase and aerosol particles is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Gas-particle partitioning of organic and inorganic species is influenced by the physical state and water content of aerosols, and therefore ambient relative humidity (RH, as well as temperature and organic loading levels. We introduce a novel combination of the thermodynamic models AIOMFAC (for liquid mixture non-ideality and EVAPORATION (for pure compound vapor pressures with oxidation product information from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for the computation of gas-particle partitioning of organic compounds and water. The presence and impact of a liquid-liquid phase separation in the condensed phase is calculated as a function of variations in relative humidity, organic loading levels, and associated changes in aerosol composition. We show that a complex system of water, ammonium sulfate, and SOA from the ozonolysis of α-pinene exhibits liquid-liquid phase separation over a wide range of relative humidities (simulated from 30% to 99% RH. Since fully coupled phase separation and gas-particle partitioning calculations are computationally expensive, several simplified model approaches are tested with regard to computational costs and accuracy of predictions compared to the benchmark calculation. It is shown that forcing a liquid one-phase aerosol with or without consideration of non-ideal mixing bears the potential for vastly incorrect partitioning predictions. Assuming an ideal mixture leads to substantial overestimation of the particulate organic mass, by more than 100% at RH values of 80% and by more than 200% at RH values of 95%. Moreover, the simplified one-phase cases stress two key points for accurate gas-particle partitioning calculations: (1 non-ideality in the condensed phase needs to be considered and (2 liquid-liquid phase separation is a consequence of considerable deviations

  14. Why the two-fluid model fails to predict the bed expansion characteristics of Geldart A particles in gas-fluidized beds: A tentative answers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Hoef, van der M.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that two-fluid models (TFMs) can successfully predict the hydrodynamics of Geldart B and D particles. However, up to now, TFM have failed to accurately describe the hydrodynamics of Geldart A particles inside bubbling gas-fluidized beds: Researchers have reported that bed expansions

  15. Why the two-fluid model fails to predict the bed expansion characteristics of Geldart A particles in gas-fluidized beds: A tentative answer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that two-fluid models (TFMs) can successfully predict the hydrodynamics of Geldart B and D particles. However, up to now, TFM have failed to accurately describe the hydrodynamics of Geldart A particles inside bubbling gas-fluidized beds: Researchers have reported that bed expansions

  16. A Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of Gas-Particle Flow and Chemical Reactions in Circulating Fluidised Bed Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Granly

    Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of Circulating Fluidized Beds (CFB's) have been performed. The computations are performed using a 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics code with an Eulerian description of both gas and particle phases. The turbulent motion...... implemented in the CFD code FLOTRACS-MP-3D. The decomposition reaction is studied in a 3D representation of a 0.254 m i.d. riser, which has been studied experimentally by Ouyang et al. (1993). Comparison between measured and simulated time-averaged ozone concentration at different elevations in the riser...

  17. Performance Characterization of Gas-Solid Cyclone for Separation of Particle from Syngas Produced from Food Waste Gasifier Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osezua O. Ibhadode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A biofuel from any biodegradable formation process such as a food waste bio-digester plant is a mixture of several gases such as methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, ammonia (NH3 and impurities like water and dust particles. The results are reported of a parametric study of the process of separation of methane, which is the most important gas in the mixture and usable as a biofuel, from particles and H2S. A cyclone, which is a conventional, economic and simple device for gas-solid separation, is considered based on the modification of three Texas A&M cyclone designs (1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D by the inclusion of an air inlet tube. A parametric sizing is performed of the cyclone for biogas purification, accounting for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and dust particles from the biofuel. The stochiometric oxidation of H2S to form elemental sulphur is considered a useful cyclone design criterion. The proposed design includes geometric parameters and several criteria for quantifying the performance of cyclone separators such as the Lapple Model for minimum particle diameter collected, collection efficiency and pressure drop. For biogas volumetric flow rates between 0 and 1 m/s and inlet flow velocities of 12 m/s, 15 m/s and 18 m/s for the 1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D cyclones, respectively, it is observed that the 2D2D configuration is most economic in terms of sizing (total height and diameter of cyclone. The 1D2D configuration experiences the lowest pressure drop. A design algorithm coupled with a user-friendly graphics interface is developed on the MATLAB platform, providing a tool for sizing and designing suitable cyclones.

  18. Numerical study on the two-dimensional flows of plasma and ionizing gas using trial particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brushlinskij, K.V.; Kozlov, A.N.; Morozov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Two-dimensional flows of plasma and ionized αs in a channel between two coaxial electrodes are considered in the MHD-model with account of Hall effect. Stationary solutions of the problem on the flow are obtained either analytically in approximation of a ''smooth'' channel - for ideal conducting plasma, or numerically using the methos of establishment - in the ge-neral case of finite conductivity. A method of further numerical analysis of some peculiarities of flow is suggested in the paper. It is based on studying dynamics of single ''test'' particles in fields of the main MHD plasma flow. Trajectory of the test ion is calculated with account for interaction forces with earlier determined electromagentic field and friction responsible for Coulomb collisions with particles of the background flow. The calculations display trajectories of test particles with different masses, initial positions and initial rates. They are shown to be dose to current lines of background medium in plasma of finite conductivity, that testified to the virtue of effectiveness of the MHD-model. In case of ideal conductivity trajectories of test and background particles can noticeably differ from one another. Stabilization effects of motion of particles accidentally knocked out from the flow and separation of pariticles of different mass by electromao.netic forces are considered

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere of Guangzhou, China: Size distribution characteristics and size-resolved gas-particle partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2012-07-01

    Size distributions of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) in the range of 0.01-18 μm were measured using a nano Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) in an urban location in Guangzhou, China in July 2006. PAH size distributions were fit with five modes and the respective mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) are: Aitken mode (MMAD: ˜0.05 μm), three accumulation modes AMI, AMII, AMIII (MMAD: 0.13-0.17 μm, 0.4-0.45 μm, and 0.9-1.2 μm, respectively), and coarse mode (MMAD: 4-6 μm). Seven-ring PAH was mainly in AMII and AMIII. Five- and six-ring PAHs were found to be abundant in all the three AM. Three- and four-ring PAHs had a significant presence in the coarse mode in addition to the three AM. Size-resolved gas-particle partition coefficients of PAHs (Kp) were estimated using measured EC and OC data. The Kp values of a given PAH could differ by a factor of up to ˜7 on particles in different size modes, with the highest Kp associated with the AMI particles and the lowest Kp associated with the coarse mode particles. Comparison of calculated overall Kp with measured Kp values in Guangzhou by Yang et al. (2010) shows that adsorption on EC appeared to be the dominant mechanism driving the gas-particle partitioning of three- and four-ring PAHs while absorption in OM played a dominant role for five- and six-ring PAHs. The calculated equilibrium timescales of repartitioning indicate that five- to seven-ring PAHs could not achieve equilibrium partitioning within their typical residence time in urban atmospheres, while three- and four-ring PAHs could readily reach new equilibrium states in particles of all sizes. A partitioning flux is therefore proposed to replace the equilibrium assumption in modeling PAH transport and fate.

  20. Development of Improved Models and Designs for Coated-Particle Gas Reactor Fuels (I-NERI Annual Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David Andrew; Maki, John Thomas; Languille, Alain; Martin, Philippe; Ballinger, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this INERI project is to develop improved fuel behavior models for gas reactor coated particle fuels and to develop improved coated-particle fuel designs that can be used reliably at very high burnups and potentially in fast gas-cooled reactors. Thermomechanical, thermophysical, and physiochemical material properties data were compiled by both the US and the French and preliminary assessments conducted. Comparison between U.S. and European data revealed many similarities and a few important differences. In all cases, the data needed for accurate fuel performance modeling of coated particle fuel at high burnup were lacking. The development of the INEEL fuel performance model, PARFUME, continued from earlier efforts. The statistical model being used to simulate the detailed finite element calculations is being upgraded and improved to allow for changes in fuel design attributes (e.g. thickness of layers, dimensions of kernel) as well as changes in important material properties to increase the flexibility of the code. In addition, modeling of other potentially important failure modes such as debonding and asphericity was started. A paper on the status of the model was presented at the HTR-2002 meeting in Petten, Netherlands in April 2002, and a paper on the statistical method was submitted to the Journal of Nuclear Material in September 2002. Benchmarking of the model against Japanese and an older DRAGON irradiation are planned. Preliminary calculations of the stresses in a coated particle have been calculated by the CEA using the ATLAS finite element model. This model and the material properties and constitutive relationships will be incorporated into a more general software platform termed Pleiades. Pleiades will be able to analyze different fuel forms at different scales (from particle to fuel body) and also handle the statistical variability in coated particle fuel. Diffusion couple experiments to study Ag and Pd transport through SiC were

  1. Elimination of effect of α-particles in tritium gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yuzuru; Asaoka, Koichi; Manako, Hiroaki; Kumabe, Isao

    1982-01-01

    In order to obtain the high sensitivity in a tritium monitor, a cancellation circuit for α-particles emitted by Rn in air was designed and constructed. The cancellation circuit consists of a differentiating circuit, discriminator, peak-hold circuit and difference amplifier. Pulsed signals induced by α-particles are separated from tritium #betta#-signals by the differentiating circuit and the discriminator. After being shaped by the peak-hold circuit with the same decay time constant as that of the initial α-signals, the α-signals are subtracted from the initial signals by the difference amplifier. The experimental test of this system was carried out, and it was confirmed that the elimination of the effect of α-particles was achieved successfully by the use of this cancellation circuit. (author)

  2. Production of microscale particles from fish bone by gas flow assisted laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquinos, F.; Comesana, R.; Riveiro, A.; Quintero, F.; Pou, J.

    2007-01-01

    Recycled wastes from fish and seafood can constitute a source of precursor material for different applications in the biomedical field such as bone fillers or precursor material for bioceramic coatings to improve the osteointegration of metallic implants. In this work, fish bones have been used directly as target in a laser ablation system. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to ablate the fish bone material and a transverse air flow was used to extract the ablated material out of the interaction zone. The particles collected at a filter were in the micro and nanoscale range. The morphology as well as the composition of the obtained particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the composition of the analyzed particles is similar to that of the inorganic part of the fish bone

  3. Production of microscale particles from fish bone by gas flow assisted laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Comesaña, R.; Riveiro, A.; Quintero, F.; Pou, J.

    2007-12-01

    Recycled wastes from fish and seafood can constitute a source of precursor material for different applications in the biomedical field such as bone fillers or precursor material for bioceramic coatings to improve the osteointegration of metallic implants. In this work, fish bones have been used directly as target in a laser ablation system. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to ablate the fish bone material and a transverse air flow was used to extract the ablated material out of the interaction zone. The particles collected at a filter were in the micro and nanoscale range. The morphology as well as the composition of the obtained particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the composition of the analyzed particles is similar to that of the inorganic part of the fish bone.

  4. Statistical correlations in an ideal gas of particles obeying fractional exclusion statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, F M D; Angilella, G G N; March, N H; Pucci, R

    2007-12-01

    After a brief discussion of the concepts of fractional exchange and fractional exclusion statistics, we report partly analytical and partly numerical results on thermodynamic properties of assemblies of particles obeying fractional exclusion statistics. The effect of dimensionality is one focal point, the ratio mu/k_(B)T of chemical potential to thermal energy being obtained numerically as a function of a scaled particle density. Pair correlation functions are also presented as a function of the statistical parameter, with Friedel oscillations developing close to the fermion limit, for sufficiently large density.

  5. An experimental and numerical study of confined non-reacting and reacting turbulent jets to facilitate homogeneous combustion in industrial furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Insu

    Confined non-reacting turbulent jets are ideal for recirculating the hot flue gas back into the furnace from an external exhaust duct. Such jets are also used inside the furnace to internally entrain and recirculate the hot flue gas to preheat and dilute the reactants. Both internal and external implementation of confined turbulent jets increase the furnace thermal efficiency. For external implementation, depending on the circumstances, the exhaust gas flow may be co- or counter-flow relative to the jet flow. Inside the furnaces, fuel and air jets are injected separately. To create a condition which can facilitate near homogeneous combustion, these jets have to first mix with the burned gas inside the furnace and simultaneously being heated and diluted prior to combustion. Clearly, the combustion pattern and emissions from reacting confined turbulent jets are affected by jet interactions, mixing and entrainment of hot flue gas. In this work, the flow and mixing characteristics of a non-reacting and reacting confined turbulent jet are investigated experimentally and numerically. This work consists of two parts: (i) A study of flow and mixing characteristics of non-reacting confined turbulent jets with co- or counter-flowing exhaust/flue gas. Here the axial and radial distributions of temperature, velocity and NO concentration (used as a tracer gas) were measured. FLUENT was used to numerically simulate the experimental results. This work provides the basic understanding of the flow and mixing characteristics of confined turbulent jets and develops some design considerations for recirculating flue gas back into the furnace as expressed by the recirculation zone and the stagnation locations. (ii) Numerical calculations of near homogeneous combustion are performed for the existing furnace. The exact geometry of the furnace in the lab is used and the real dimensional boundary conditions are considered. The parameters such as air nozzle diameter (dair), fuel nozzle

  6. Summer–winter concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of short chain chlorinated paraffins in the atmosphere of an urban setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Thanh; Han Shanlong; Yuan Bo; Zeng Lixi; Li Yingming; Wang Yawei; Jiang Guibin

    2012-01-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are semi-volatile chemicals that are considered persistent in the environment, potential toxic and subject to long-range transport. This study investigates the concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of SCCPs at an urban site in Beijing during summer and wintertime. The total atmospheric SCCP levels ranged 1.9–33.0 ng/m 3 during wintertime. Significantly higher levels were found during the summer (range 112–332 ng/m 3 ). The average fraction of total SCCPs in the particle phase (φ) was 0.67 during wintertime but decreased significantly during the summer (φ = 0.06). The ten and eleven carbon chain homologues with five to eight chlorine atoms were the predominant SCCP formula groups in air. Significant linear correlations were found between the gas-particle partition coefficients and the predicted subcooled vapor pressures and octanol–air partition coefficients. The gas-particle partitioning of SCCPs was further investigated and compared with both the Junge–Pankow adsorption and K oa -based absorption models. - Highlights: ► Short chain chlorinated paraffins were investigated in air samples from Beijing. ► Higher levels of SCCPs were found in air during summertime than wintertime. ► Relevant physical–chemical properties were estimated by SPARC and EPI Suite. ► Obtained data were used to model the gas-particle partitioning of SCCPs. - Atmospheric levels and gas-particle partitioning of SCCPs in Beijing, China.

  7. MULTIGRAIN: a smoothed particle hydrodynamic algorithm for multiple small dust grains and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mark; Price, Daniel J.; Laibe, Guillaume

    2018-05-01

    We present a new algorithm, MULTIGRAIN, for modelling the dynamics of an entire population of small dust grains immersed in gas, typical of conditions that are found in molecular clouds and protoplanetary discs. The MULTIGRAIN method is more accurate than single-phase simulations because the gas experiences a backreaction from each dust phase and communicates this change to the other phases, thereby indirectly coupling the dust phases together. The MULTIGRAIN method is fast, explicit and low storage, requiring only an array of dust fractions and their derivatives defined for each resolution element.

  8. Volcanic ash ingestion by a large gas turbine aeroengine: fan-particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Andreas; Clarkson, Rory; Durant, Adam; Cassiani, Massimo; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Airborne particles from explosive volcanic eruptions are a major safety threat for aviation operations. The fine fraction of the emitted particles (fan blades and rotor-path components, and can also cause contamination or blockage of electrical systems and the fuel system such as fuel nozzles and air bleed filters. Ash particles that enter the hot-section of the engine (combustor and turbine stages; temperature between 1400-1800°C) are rapidly heated above the glass transition temperature (about 650-1000°C) and become soft (or form a melt) and can stick as re-solidified deposits on nozzle guide vanes. The glass deposits change the internal aerodynamic airflow in the engine and can affect the cooling capability of the different components by clogging the cooling inlets/outlets, which can lead to a loss of power or flame-out. The nature of volcanic ash ingestion is primarily influenced by the fan at the front of the engine which produces the thrust that drives the aircraft. The ingested air is split between the core (compressor/combustor/turbine) and bypass (thrust) at a ratio of typically between, 1:5-10 on modern engines. Consequently, the ash particles are fractionated between the core and bypass by the geometry and dynamics of the fan blades. This study uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of particle-laden airflows into a turbofan engine under different atmospheric and engine operation conditions. The main aim was to investigate the possible centrifugal effect of the fan blades as a function of particle size, and to relate this to the core intake concentration. We generated a generic 3D axial high-bypass turbofan engine using realistic dimensions of the turbofan, engine intake and other aerodynamically relevant parts. The CFD experiments include three scenarios of aircraft performance (climb, cruise and descent) and for two different typical altitude ranges (10000 and 39000 ft). The fluid dynamics simulations were carried out using a commercial

  9. Structural characterization and gas reactions of small metal particles by high-resolution TEM and TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, K.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of 100 and 200 keV electron beams with amorphous alumina, titania, and aluminum nitride substrates and nanometer-size palladium particulate deposits was investigated for the two extreme cases of (1) large-area electron-beam flash-heating and (2) small-area high-intensity electron-beam irradiation. The former simulates a short-term heating effect with minimum electron irradiation exposure, the latter simulates high-dosage irradiation with minimum heating effect. All alumina and titania samples responded to the flash-heating treatment with significant recrystallization. However, the size, crystal structure, shape, and orientation of the grains depended on the type and thickness of the films and the thickness of the Pd deposit. High-dosage electron irradiation also readily crystallized the alumina substrate films but did not affect the titania films. The alumina recrystallization products were usually either all in the alpha phase, or they were a mixture of small grains in a number of low-temperature phases including gamma, delta, kappa, beta, theta-alumina. Palladium deposits reacted heavily with the alumina substrates during either treatment, but they were very little effected when supported on titania. Both treatments had the same, less prominent localized crystallization effect on aluminum nitride films.

  10. Supercurrent and quasi-particle transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with superconducting electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWees, BJ

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated supercurrent and quasi-particle transport in the 2DEG present in InAs/Al(Ga)Sb quantum wells. The physics of these systems will be discussed with two examples: (i) supercurrent transport in Nb/InAs/Nb junctions, and (ii) phase-dependent resistance in a superconductor-2DEG

  11. Tailoring MCM-41 mesoporous silica particles through modified sol-gel process for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wong Yean; Ching, Oh Pei

    2017-10-01

    Mobil Composition of Matter-41 (MCM-41) is recognized as a potential filler to enhance permeability of mixed matrix membrane (MMM). However, the required loading for available micron-sized MCM-41 was considerably high in order to achieve desired separation performance. In this work, reduced-size MCM-41 was synthesized to minimize filler loading, improve surface modification and enhance polymer-filler compatibility during membrane fabrication. The effect of reaction condition, stirring rate and type of post-synthesis washing solution used on particle diameter of resultant MCM-41 were investigated. It was found that MCM-41 produced at room temperature condition yield particles with smaller diameter, higher specific surface area and enhanced mesopore structure. Increase of stirring rate up to 500 rpm during synthesis also reduced the particle diameter. In addition, replacing water with methanol as the post-synthesis washing solution to remove bromide ions from the precipitate was able to further reduce the particle size by inhibiting polycondensation reaction.

  12. CFD modeling of particle behavior in supersonic flows with strong swirls for gas separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Wen, Chuang

    2017-01-01

    flow from the dry gas outlet. The separation efficiency reached over 80%, when the droplet diameter was more than 1.5 μm. The optimum length of the cyclonic separation section was approximate 16–20 times of the nozzle throat diameter to obtain higher collection efficiency for the supersonic separator...

  13. A long-term study of new particle formation in a coastal environment: Meteorology, gas phase and solar radiation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorribas, M., E-mail: sorribas@ugr.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, 18006 (Spain); Adame, J.A. [‘El Arenosillo’ — Atmospheric Sounding Station, Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation Branch, National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA), Mazagón, Huelva, 21130 (Spain); Olmo, F.J. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, 18006 (Spain); Vilaplana, J.M.; Gil-Ojeda, M. [‘El Arenosillo’ — Atmospheric Sounding Station, Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation Branch, National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA), Mazagón, Huelva, 21130 (Spain); Alados-Arboledas, L. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, 18006 (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    New particle formation (NPF) was investigated at a coastal background site in Southwest Spain over a four-year period using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). The goals of the study were to characterise the NPF and to investigate their relationship to meteorology, gas phase (O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, CO and NO{sub 2}) and solar radiation (UVA, UVB and global). A methodology for identifying and classifying the NPF was implemented using the wind direction and modal concentrations as inputs. NPF events showed a frequency of 24% of the total days analysed. The mean duration was 9.2 ± 4.2 h. Contrary to previous studies conducted in other locations, the NPF frequency reached its maximum during cold seasons for approximately 30% of the days. The lowest frequency took place in July with 10%, and the seasonal wind pattern was found to be the most important parameter influencing the NPF frequency. The mean formation rate was 2.2 ± 1.7 cm{sup −3} s{sup −1}, with a maximum in the spring and early autumn and a minimum during the summer and winter. The mean growth rate was 3.8 ± 2.4 nm h{sup −1} with higher values occurring from spring to autumn. The mean and seasonal formation and growth rates are in agreement with previous observations from continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. NPF classification of different classes was conducted to explore the effect of synoptic and regional-scale patterns on NPF and growth. The results show that under a breeze regime, the temperature indirectly affects NPF events. Higher temperatures increase the strength of the breeze recirculation, favouring gas accumulation and subsequent NPF appearance. Additionally, the role of high relative humidity in inhibiting the NPF was evinced during synoptic scenarios. The remaining meteorological variables (RH), trace gases (CO and NO), solar radiation, PM{sub 10} and condensation sink, showed a moderate or high connection with both formation and growth rates. - Highlights: • New

  14. Particle deposition and resuspension in gas-cooled reactors—Activity overview of the two European research projects THINS and ARCHER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, T., E-mail: t.barth@hzdr.de [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Lecrivain, G. [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Jayaraju, S.T. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hampel, U. [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A summary on particle deposition and resuspension experiments is provided. • Similarities between single and multilayer particle deposits are found. • Numerical models for simulation of particle deposits are successfully developed. - Abstract: The deposition and resuspension behaviour of radio-contaminated aerosol particles is a key issue for the safety assessment of depressurization accidents of gas-cooled high temperature reactors. Within the framework of two European research projects, namely Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS) and Advanced High-Temperature Reactors for Cogeneration of Heat and Electricity R&D (ARCHER), a series of investigations was performed to investigate the transport, the deposition and the resuspension of aerosol particles in turbulent flows. The experimental and numerical tests can be subdivided into four different parts: (1) Monolayer particle deposition, (2) Monolayer particle resuspension, (3) Multilayer particle deposition and (4) Multilayer particle resuspension. The experimental results provide a new insight into the formation and removal of aerosol particle deposits in turbulent flows and are used for the development and validation of numerical procedures in gas-cooled reactors. Good agreement was found between the numerical and the experimental results.

  15. Application of structured illumination to gas phase thermometry using thermographic phosphor particles: a study for averaged imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, Florian; Stephan, Michael; Berrocal, Edouard; Albert, Barbara; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) is combined with gas phase thermometry measurements using thermographic phosphor (TGP) particles. The technique is applied to a heated jet surrounded by a coflow which is operated at ambient temperature. The respective air flows are seeded with a powder of BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BAM) which is used as temperature-sensitive gas phase tracer. Upon pulsed excitation in the ultraviolet spectral range, the temperature is extracted based on the two-color ratio method combined with SLIPI. The main advantage of applying the SLIPI approach to phosphor thermometry is the reduction of particle-to-particle multiple light scattering and diffuse wall reflections, yielding a more robust calibration procedure as well as improving the measurement accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. For demonstration, this paper focuses on sample-averaged measurements of temperature fields in a jet-in-coflow configuration. Using the conventional approach, which in contrast to SLIPI is based on imaging with an unmodulated laser light sheet, we show that for the present setup typically 40% of the recorded signal is affected by the contribution of multiply scattered photons. At locations close to walls even up to 75% of the apparent signal is due to diffuse reflection and wall luminescence of BAM sticking at the surface. Those contributions lead to erroneous temperature fields. Using SLIPI, an unbiased two-color ratio field is recovered allowing for two-dimensional mean temperature reconstructions which exhibit a more realistic physical behavior. This is in contrast to results deduced by the conventional approach. Furthermore, using the SLIPI approach it is shown that the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by a factor of up to 2 at 270 °C. Finally, an outlook towards instantaneous SLIPI phosphorescence thermometry is provided.

  16. Common y-intercept and single compound regressions of gas-particle partitioning data vs 1/T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.

    Confidence intervals are placed around the log Kp vs 1/ T correlation equations obtained using simple linear regressions (SLR) with the gas-particle partitioning data set of Yamasaki et al. [(1982) Env. Sci. Technol.16, 189-194]. The compounds and groups of compounds studied include the polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons phenanthrene + anthracene, me-phenanthrene + me-anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[ a]fluorene + benzo[ b]fluorene, chrysene + benz[ a]anthracene + triphenylene, benzo[ b]fluoranthene + benzo[ k]fluoranthene, and benzo[ a]pyrene + benzo[ e]pyrene (note: me = methyl). For any given compound, at equilibrium, the partition coefficient Kp equals ( F/ TSP)/ A where F is the particulate-matter associated concentration (ng m -3), A is the gas-phase concentration (ng m -3), and TSP is the concentration of particulate matter (μg m -3). At temperatures more than 10°C from the mean sampling temperature of 17°C, the confidence intervals are quite wide. Since theory predicts that similar compounds sorbing on the same particulate matter should possess very similar y-intercepts, the data set was also fitted using a special common y-intercept regression (CYIR). For most of the compounds, the CYIR equations fell inside of the SLR 95% confidence intervals. The CYIR y-intercept value is -18.48, and is reasonably close to the type of value that can be predicted for PAH compounds. The set of CYIR regression equations is probably more reliable than the set of SLR equations. For example, the CYIR-derived desorption enthalpies are much more highly correlated with vaporization enthalpies than are the SLR-derived desorption enthalpies. It is recommended that the CYIR approach be considered whenever analysing temperature-dependent gas-particle partitioning data.

  17. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, Danny S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pazuchanics, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Randall P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Malone, R. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaufman, M. I. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tibbitts, A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tunnell, T. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marks, D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capelle, G. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Grover, M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Marshall, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Stevens, G. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); LaLone, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-06-25

    An Ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles will also be described. Finally, results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn ejecta experiments will be presented. Particle size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double pulsed experiment will be described.

  18. Design optimization of single mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction process using the particle swarm paradigm with nonlinear constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohd Shariq; Lee, Moonyong

    2013-01-01

    The particle swarm paradigm is employed to optimize single mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction process. Liquefaction design involves multivariable problem solving and non-optimal execution of these variables can waste energy and contribute to process irreversibilities. Design optimization requires these variables to be optimized simultaneously; minimizing the compression energy requirement is selected as the optimization objective. Liquefaction is modeled using Honeywell UniSim Design ™ and the resulting rigorous model is connected with the particle swarm paradigm coded in MATLAB. Design constraints are folded into the objective function using the penalty function method. Optimization successfully improved efficiency by reducing the compression energy requirement by ca. 10% compared with the base case. -- Highlights: ► The particle swarm paradigm (PSP) is employed for design optimization of SMR NG liquefaction process. ► Rigorous SMR process model based on UniSim is connected with PSP coded in MATLAB. ► Stochastic features of PSP give more confidence in the optimality of complex nonlinear problems. ► Optimization with PSP notably improves energy efficiency of the SMR process.

  19. Nucleation and dissociation of nano-particles in gas phase; Nucleation et evaporation de nanoparticules en phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, P

    2007-09-15

    This work deals with the study of nano-particles formation in gas phase and their dissociation pathways after an optical excitation. The clusters formation decomposes in two steps: a seed is formed (nucleation phase) and sticks atoms during its propagation in a sodium atomic vapor (growth phase). Those two steps have been observed separately for homogeneous Na{sub n} and heterogeneous Na{sub n}X particles (X = (NaOH){sub 2} or (Na{sub 2}O){sub 2}). The growth mechanism is well interpreted by a Monte Carlo simulation taking into account an accretion mechanism with hard-sphere cross section. The homogeneous nucleation mechanism has been highlighted by a direct comparison with the Classical Nucleation Theory predictions. The clusters fragmentation of ionic Na{sup +}(NaOH){sub p} et Na{sup +}(NaF){sub p} particles is studied in the second part. The way clusters fragment with size when they are excited optically is compared with theoretical previsions: this highlights the existence of an energetic barrier for special size of clusters. Finally, the fragmentation of doubly charged Na{sup +} Na{sup +} (NaOH){sub p} clusters shows a competition between the fission into two single charged fragments and the unimolecular evaporation of a neutral fragment. (author)

  20. Molecular Simulation of Reacting Systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THOMPSON, AIDAN P.

    2002-01-01

    The final report for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project entitled, Molecular Simulation of Reacting Systems is presented. It describes efforts to incorporate chemical reaction events into the LAMMPS massively parallel molecular dynamics code. This was accomplished using a scheme in which several classes of reactions are allowed to occur in a probabilistic fashion at specified times during the MD simulation. Three classes of reaction were implemented: addition, chain transfer and scission. A fully parallel implementation was achieved using a checkerboarding scheme, which avoids conflicts due to reactions occurring on neighboring processors. The observed chemical evolution is independent of the number of processors used. The code was applied to two test applications: irreversible linear polymerization and thermal degradation chemistry

  1. Materials study for reacting plasma machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kohji; Hamada, Yasuji

    1982-01-01

    A new reacting plasma machine is designed, and will be constructed at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University. It is important to avoid the activation of the materials for the machine, accordingly, aluminum alloy has been considered as the material since the induced activity of aluminum due to 14 MeV neutrons is small. The vacuum chamber of the new machine consists of four modules, and the remote control of each module is considered. However, the cost of the remote control of modules is expensive. To minimize the dependence on the remote control, the use of aluminum alloy is considered as the first step. The low electrical resistivity, over-ageing, weak mechanical strength and eddy current characteristics of aluminum alloy must be improved. The physical and electrical properties of various aluminum alloys have been investigated. Permeability of hydrogen through aluminum, the recycling characteristics and surface coating materials have been also studied. (Kato, T.)

  2. Mathematical aspects of reacting and diffusing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fife, Paul C

    1979-01-01

    Modeling and analyzing the dynamics of chemical mixtures by means of differ- tial equations is one of the prime concerns of chemical engineering theorists. These equations often take the form of systems of nonlinear parabolic partial d- ferential equations, or reaction-diffusion equations, when there is diffusion of chemical substances involved. A good overview of this endeavor can be had by re- ing the two volumes by R. Aris (1975), who himself was one of the main contributors to the theory. Enthusiasm for the models developed has been shared by parts of the mathematical community, and these models have, in fact, provided motivation for some beautiful mathematical results. There are analogies between chemical reactors and certain biological systems. One such analogy is rather obvious: a single living organism is a dynamic structure built of molecules and ions, many of which react and diffuse. Other analogies are less obvious; for example, the electric potential of a membrane can diffuse like a chemical, and ...

  3. Surface area-dependence of gas-particle interactions influences pulmonary and neuroinflammatory outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Christina R.; Zychowski, Katherine E.; Sanchez, Bethany N.; Rivero, Valeria; Lucas, Selita; Herbert, Guy; Liu, June; Irshad, Hammad; McDonald, Jacob D.; Bleske, Barry E.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE?/?) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, ge...

  4. Particle filter for the adsorption of radioactive impurities of a gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The filter casing having several filter beds with e.g. activated carbon adsorbs iodine and methyl iodide from the off-gas of a safety room. The lid of the casing has numerous right-angled charging holes for the activated carbon filter beds which are closed during operation. The filter beds consist of perforated side walls opposite one another which form chambers for the activated carbon as well as limit the alternating gas inflow and outlet channels. Collector troughs for the used activated carbon are at the lower end of the filter beds; the former can be removed from the collector troughs by a suction blower without endangering the personal operating. (DG) [de

  5. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  6. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  7. Sensitive Diagnostics for Chemically Reacting Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    This talk will feature latest diagnostic developments for sensitive detection of gas temperature and important combustion species. Advanced optical strategies, such as intrapulse chirping, wavelength modulation, and cavity ringdown are employed.

  8. Sensitive Diagnostics for Chemically Reacting Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2015-11-02

    This talk will feature latest diagnostic developments for sensitive detection of gas temperature and important combustion species. Advanced optical strategies, such as intrapulse chirping, wavelength modulation, and cavity ringdown are employed.

  9. Large eddy simulation of a two-phase reacting swirl flow inside a cement cyclone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Ashhab, Moh'd Sami; Duić, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the highly swirled gas–solid flow inside a cement cyclone. The computational fluid dynamics – CFD simulation for continuum fluid flow and heat exchange was used for the investigation. The Eulearian–Lagrangian approach was used to describe the two-phase flow, and the large eddy simulation – LES method was used for correctly obtaining the turbulent fluctuations of the gas phase. A model describing the reaction of the solid phase, e.g. the calcination process, has been developed and implemented within the commercial finite volume CFD code FIRE. Due to the fact that the calcination process has a direct influence on the overall energy efficiency of the cement production, it is of great importance to have a certain degree of limestone degradation at the cyclone's outlet. The heat exchange between the gas and solid phase is of particular importance when studying cement cyclones, as it has a direct effect on the calcination process. In order to study the heat exchange phenomena and the flow characteristics, a three dimensional geometry of a real industrial scroll type cyclone was used for the CFD simulation. The gained numerical results, characteristic for cyclones, such as the pressure drop, and concentration of particles can thus be used for better understanding of the complex swirled two-phase flow inside the cement cyclone and also for improving the heat exchange phenomena. - Highlights: • CFD (computational fluid dynamics) is being increasingly used to enhance efficiency of reacting multi-phase flows. • Numerical model of calcination process was presented. • A detailed industrial geometry was used for the CFD simulation. • Presented model and measurement data are in good agreement

  10. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  11. A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissari, Jarkko; Hytönen, Kati; Lyyränen, Jussi; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    Emission data from residential wood combustion are usually obtained on test stands in the laboratory but these measurements do not correspond to the operational conditions in the field because of the technological boundary conditions (e.g. testing protocol, environmental and draught conditions). The field measurements take into account the habitual practice of the operators and provide the more reliable results needed for emission inventories. In this study, a workable and compact method for measuring emissions from residential wood combustion in winter conditions was developed. The emissions for fine particle, gaseous and PAH compounds as well as particle composition in real operational conditions were measured from seven different appliances. The measurement technique worked well and was evidently suitable for winter conditions. It was easy and fast to use, and no construction scaffold was needed. The dilution of the sample with the combination of a porous tube diluter and an ejector diluter was well suited to field measurement. The results indicate that the emissions of total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) (17 g kg -1 (of dry wood burned)), carbon monoxide (CO) (120 g kg -1) and fine particle mass (PM 1) (2.7 g kg -1) from the sauna stove were higher than in the other measured appliances. In the masonry heaters, baking oven and stove, the emissions were 2.9-9 g kg -1 TVOC, 28-68 g kg -1 CO and 0.6-1.6 g kg -1 PM 1. The emission of 12 PAHs (PAH 12) from the sauna stove was 164 mg kg -1 and consisted mainly of PAHs with four benzene rings in their structure. PAH 12 emission from other appliances was, on average, 21 mg kg -1 and was dominated by 2-ring PAHs. These results indicate that despite the non-optimal operational practices in the field, the emissions did not differ markedly from the laboratory measurements.

  12. Gas phase deposition of oxide and metal-oxide coatings on fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, A.P.; Khrebtov, V.L.; Shirokov, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production processes and properties of oxide (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and metal-oxide (Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Mo-ZrO 2 , W-Al 2 O 3 , W-ZrO 2 ) coatings on molybdenum substrates and uranium dioxide fuel particles were investigated. It is shown that the main factors that have an effect on the deposition rate, density, microstructure and other properties of coatings are the deposition temperature, the ratio of H 2 and CO 2 flow rates, the total reactor pressure and the ratio of partial pressures of corresponding metal chlorides during formation of metal-oxide coatings

  13. Gas injection in EBT-S for assessment of particle loading effects of neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, K.H.; Glowienka, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments have begun to examine the physics of neutral beam injection on EBT-S. Preliminary experiments have been limited to a calibrated gas puffing experiment which simulates the effects of a pulsed beam with zero energy. These experiments begin to address some of the compatibility problems that exist for future beam heating experiments on EBT devices. In particular, neutral beams are to be a significant part of the planned EBT-II experiment which is designed to demonstrate steady-state, reactor-like conditions with both electron cyclotron heating and neutral beam heating

  14. Simulation of gas and particle flow in a circulating fluidized bed; Kaasu- ja kiintoainevirtauksen simulointi kiertoleijukattilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, S. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Inst. of Heat Engineering

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of different parameters on the flow behaviour in a CFB riser by means of empirical models based on measurement data and a computer code based on macroscopic equations for multiphase flow. The effects of primary air velocity and riser geometry have been observed in the results. Simulation of secondary air flow proved to be problematic with the software used. In the project, also analyses of measurement data from cold model experiments has been performed. Moreover, the possibilities to use commercial CFD codes for simulation of gas-solids flow were investigated. The code FLUENT seemed promising. (author)

  15. Free Cooling of a Granular Gas of Rodlike Particles in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Kirsten; Trittel, Torsten; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    Granular gases as dilute ensembles of particles in random motion are at the basis of elementary structure-forming processes in the Universe, involved in many industrial and natural phenomena, and also excellent models to study fundamental statistical dynamics. The essential difference to molecular gases is the energy dissipation in particle collisions. Its most striking manifestation is the so-called granular cooling, the gradual loss of mechanical energy E (t ) in the absence of external excitation. We report an experimental study of homogeneous cooling of three-dimensional granular gases in microgravity. The asymptotic scaling E (t )∝t-2 obtained by Haff's minimal model [J. Fluid Mech. 134, 401 (1983), 10.1017/S0022112083003419] proves to be robust, despite the violation of several of its central assumptions. The shape anisotropy of the grains influences the characteristic time of energy loss quantitatively but not qualitatively. We compare kinetic energies in the individual degrees of freedom and find a slight predominance of translational motions. In addition, we observe a preferred rod alignment in the flight direction, as known from active matter or animal flocks.

  16. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  17. Numerical study of the effect of gas temperature on the time for onset of particle nucleation in argon-silane low-pressure plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bhandarkar, U; Girshick, S L

    2003-01-01

    Particle nucleation in silane plasmas has attracted interest for the past decade, both due to the basic problems of plasma chemistry involved and the importance of silane plasmas for many applications. A better understanding of particle nucleation may facilitate the avoidance of undesirable particle contamination as well as enable the controlled production of nanoparticles for novel applications. While understanding of particle nucleation has significantly advanced over the past years, a number of questions have not been resolved. Among these is the delay of particle nucleation with an increasing gas temperature, which has been observed in experiments in argon-silane plasmas. We have developed a quasi-one-dimensional model to simulate particle nucleation and growth in silane containing plasmas. In this paper we present a comparative study of the various effects that have been proposed as explanations for the nucleation delay. Our results suggest that the temperature dependence of the Brownian diffusion coeffi...

  18. Synthesis, characterization and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing properties of WO3 nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Subhash; Majumder, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    Metal oxide sensors, such as ZnO, SnO2, and WO3 etc. have been utilized for several decades for low-costd etection of combustible and toxic gases. In the present work tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles have been prepared by using an economic wet chemical synthesis route. To understand the phase formation behavior of the synthesized powders, X-ray diffraction analysis has been performed. The microstructure evolution of the synthesized powders was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The calcined phase pure WO3 nanoparticles are investigated in terms of LPG gas sensing properties. The gas sensing measurements has been done in two different mode of operation (namely static and dynamic measurements). The degree of oxygen deficiency in the WO3 sensor also affected the sensor properties and the optimum oxygen content of WO3 was necessary to get high sensitivity for LPG. The WO3 sensor shows the excellent sensor properties for LPG at the operating temperature of 250°C.

  19. The excitation of an independent-particle gas - classical or quantal - by a time-dependent potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Skalski, J.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic numerical investigation of the excitation of a classical or quantal gas of non-interacting particles in a time-dependent potential well is described. The excitation energy was followed in time for one oscillation around the sphere for six types of deformation: spheroidal shapes and Legendre polynomial ripples P 2 , P 3 , P 4 , P 5 , P 6 , with relative rms amplitudes of 0.2. Ten different speeds of deformation and eleven different values of the diffuseness of the potential well were studied, making altogether 660 quantal and 660 classical time-dependent calculations. In the upper range of deformation speeds the quantal results for the non-integrable shapes P 3 -P 6 agree approximately with the wall formula for dissipation, the deviations being largely accounted for by the wave-mechanical suppression factor of Koonin et al. For low deformation speeds the dissipation becomes dominated by one or two avoided level crossings. (orig.)

  20. Atmospheric dispersion prediction and source estimation of hazardous gas using artificial neural network, particle swarm optimization and expectation maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Sihang; Chen, Bin; Wang, Rongxiao; Zhu, Zhengqiu; Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2018-04-01

    Hazardous gas leak accident has posed a potential threat to human beings. Predicting atmospheric dispersion and estimating its source become increasingly important in emergency management. Current dispersion prediction and source estimation models cannot satisfy the requirement of emergency management because they are not equipped with high efficiency and accuracy at the same time. In this paper, we develop a fast and accurate dispersion prediction and source estimation method based on artificial neural network (ANN), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and expectation maximization (EM). The novel method uses a large amount of pre-determined scenarios to train the ANN for dispersion prediction, so that the ANN can predict concentration distribution accurately and efficiently. PSO and EM are applied for estimating the source parameters, which can effectively accelerate the process of convergence. The method is verified by the Indianapolis field study with a SF6 release source. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  1. Sub-doppler spectroscopy based on the transit relaxation of atomic particles in a thin gas cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmailov, Azad

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the review of methods, achievements and possibilities of the recently elaborated high-resolution laser spectroscopy based on sub-doppler absorption, fluorescence and polarization resonances, which arise because of the specific optical selection of comparatively slow-speed atoms in a thin cell with rarefied gas. It was considered two following mechanisms of such a velocity selection of atomic particles connected with their flight durations between walls of the thin cell : 1) optical pumping of sublevels of the ground atomic term and 2) optical excitation of long-lived quantum levels. Theoretical bases of elaborated spectroscopy methods are presented. In case of the optical pumping mechanism, experimental technique and results on the record of sub-doppler spectral structure of Cs and Rb atoms and on the frequency stabilization of diode lasers by given methods are described. Perspectives of further development and applications of this new direction of the high-resolution spectroscopy are discussed

  2. On the maximum-entropy method for kinetic equation of radiation, particle and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Madkour, M.A.; Degheidy, A.R.; Machali, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The maximum-entropy approach is used to calculate some problems in radiative transfer and reactor physics such as the escape probability, the emergent and transmitted intensities for a finite slab as well as the emergent intensity for a semi-infinite medium. Also, it is employed to solve problems involving spherical geometry, such as luminosity (the total energy emitted by a sphere), neutron capture probability and the albedo problem. The technique is also employed in the kinetic theory of gases to calculate the Poiseuille flow and thermal creep of a rarefied gas between two plates. Numerical calculations are achieved and compared with the published data. The comparisons demonstrate that the maximum-entropy results are good in agreement with the exact ones. (orig.)

  3. arXiv Simulation of gain stability of THGEM gas-avalanche particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, P.M.M.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Breskin, A.; Bressler, S.; Oliveira, C.A.B.; Silva, A.L.M.; Veenhof, R.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.

    2018-01-19

    Charging-up processes affecting gain stability in Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) were studied with a dedicated simulation toolkit. Integrated with Garfield++, it provides an effective platform for systematic phenomenological studies of charging-up processes in MPGD detectors. We describe the simulation tool and the fine-tuning of the step-size required for the algorithm convergence, in relation to physical parameters. Simulation results of gain stability over time in THGEM detectors are presented, exploring the role of electrode-thickness and applied voltage on its evolution. The results show that the total amount of irradiated charge through electrode's hole needed for reaching gain stabilization is in the range of tens to hundreds of pC, depending on the detector geometry and operational voltage. These results are in agreement with experimental observations presented previously.

  4. Microstructural characterisation of Ni75Al25 and Ni31.5Al68.5 powder particles produced by gas atomisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Escorial, A.; Lieblich, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlight: ► Successful production of gas atomised Ni75Al25 and Ni31.5Al68.5 powder particles. ► Characterization of the as-solidified microstructure of 75 Al 25 and Ni 31.5 Al 68.5 at.% powder particles below 100 μm in size have been studied. The gas atomised Ni 75 Al 25 powder particles are mainly spherical. The solidification of this alloy is very fast, and its microstructure consists of a dendrite and lamellar structure of partially ordered γ-(Ni), γ′-Ni 3 Al L1 2 phase, and β-NiAl phase. The order increases with the powder particle size. The gas atomised Ni 31.5 Al 68.5 powder particles are also spherical in shape. The microstructure consists of Ni 2 Al 3 dendrites with interdendritic peritectic NiAl 3 and eutectic NiAl 3 + α-Al. The amount of the Ni 2 Al 3 increases as the cooling rate increases. NiAl phase is absent in the gas atomised Ni 31.5 Al 68.5 powder

  5. The influence of gas-particle partitioning and surface-atmosphere exchange on ammonia during BAQS-Met

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Border Air Quality and Meteorology study (BAQS-Met was an intensive field campaign conducted in Southwestern Ontario during the summer of 2007. The focus of BAQS-Met was determining the causes of the formation of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5, and of the regional significance of trans-boundary transport and lake breeze circulations on that formation. Fast (1 Hz measurements of ammonia were acquired using a Quantum Cascade Laser Tunable Infrared Differential Absorption Spectrometer (QC-TILDAS at the Harrow supersite. Measurements of PM2.5 ammonium, sulfate and nitrate were made using an Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC with hourly time resolution. The median mixing ratio of ammonia was 2.5 ppb, with occasional high spikes at night resulting from local emissions. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions of NH3, diurnal profiles and gas-particle partitioning. The measurements were compared with results from A Unified Regional Air-quality Modelling System (AURAMS. While the fraction of total ammonia (NHx≡NH3 + NH4+ observed in the gas phase peaks between 0.1 and 0.8, AURAMS tended to predict fractions of either less than 0.05 or greater than 0.8. The model frequently predicted acidic aerosol, in contrast with observations wherein NHx almost always exceeded the observed equivalents of sulfate. One explanation for our observations is that the net flux of ammonia from the land surface to the atmosphere increases when aerosol sulfate is present, effectively buffering the mixing ratio of gas phase ammonia, a process not included in the model. A simple representation of an offline bi-directional flux parameterization using the ISORROPIA thermodynamic model was successful at reducing the population of zero gas fraction points, but not the higher gas fraction points.

  6. Direct measurement of the concentration of metastable ions produced from neutral gas particles using laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng; Skiff, Fred; Berumen, Jorge; Mattingly, Sean; Hood, Ryan

    2017-10-01

    Extensive information can be obtained on wave-particle interactions and wave fields by direct measurement of perturbed ion distribution functions using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). For practical purposes, LIF is frequently performed on metastables that are produced from neutral gas particles and existing ions in other electronic states. We numerically simulate the ion velocity distribution measurement and wave-detection process using a Lagrangian model for the LIF signal. The results show that under circumstances where the metastable ion population is coming directly from the ionization of neutrals (as opposed to the excitation of ground-state ions), the velocity distribution will only faithfully represent processes which act on the ion dynamics in a time shorter than the metastable lifetime. Therefore, it is important to know the ratio of metastable population coming from neutrals to that from existing ions to correct the LIF measurements of plasma ion temperature and electrostatic waves. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the ratio of these two populations by externally launching an ion acoustic wave and comparing the wave amplitudes that are measured with LIF and a Langmuir probe using a lock-in amplifier. DE-FG02-99ER54543.

  7. Diffusion and release of noble gas and halogen fission products with several days half-life in UO2 particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Chao

    2013-01-01

    The exact solutions of diffusion and release model of noble gas and halogen fission products in UO 2 particle of HTGR were built under the conditions of adsorption effect and other physical processes. The corresponding release fractions (F(t)) and the ratio of release and productive amounts (R(t)/B (t)) of fission products were also derived. Furthermore, the F(t) and R(t)/B(t) of 131 I, 131 IXe m , 133 Xe and 133 Xe m whose half-lifes are several days in UO 2 particle with the exact solutions, approximate solutions and corresponding numerical solutions under different temperature histories of reactor core were investigated. The results show that the F(t) and R(t)/B(t) are different in numerical values unless the time of release is long enough. The properties of conservation of exact solutions are much more reasonable than the ones of approximate solutions. It is also found that the results of exact solutions approach the actual working conditions more than the approximate and numerical solutions. (author)

  8. The Prediction of the Gas Utilization Ratio based on TS Fuzzy Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Jiang, Haihe; Yin, Yixin; Xiao, Wendong; Zhao, Baoyong

    2018-02-20

    Gas utilization ratio (GUR) is an important indicator that is used to evaluate the energy consumption of blast furnaces (BFs). Currently, the existing methods cannot predict the GUR accurately. In this paper, we present a novel data-driven model for predicting the GUR. The proposed approach utilized both the TS fuzzy neural network (TS-FNN) and the particle swarm algorithm (PSO) to predict the GUR. The particle swarm algorithm (PSO) is applied to optimize the parameters of the TS-FNN in order to decrease the error caused by the inaccurate initial parameter. This paper also applied the box graph (Box-plot) method to eliminate the abnormal value of the raw data during the data preprocessing. This method can deal with the data which does not obey the normal distribution which is caused by the complex industrial environments. The prediction results demonstrate that the optimization model based on PSO and the TS-FNN approach achieves higher prediction accuracy compared with the TS-FNN model and SVM model and the proposed approach can accurately predict the GUR of the blast furnace, providing an effective way for the on-line blast furnace distribution control.

  9. Antimatter persuaded to react with matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Noorden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "Matter and antimatter usually destroy each other in a flash of energy and a spray of exotic particles when they meet. Yet the two have been coaxed into a chemical reaction by the international research group Athena." (2/3 page)

  10. Linking particle and pore-size distribution parameters to soil gas transport properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    , respectively) and the Campbell water retention parameter b were used to characterize particle and pore size distributions, respectively. Campbell b yielded a wide interval (4.6–26.2) and was highly correlated with α, β, and volumetric clay content. Both Dp/Do and ka followed simple power-law functions (PLFs......) of air-filled porosity (εa). The PLF tortuosity–connectivity factors (X*) for Dp/Do and ka were both highly correlated with all basic soil characteristics, in the order of volumetric clay content = Campbell b > gravimetric clay content > α > β. The PLF water blockage factors (H) for Dp/Do and ka were...... also well (but relatively more weakly) correlated with the basic soil characteristics, again with the best correlations to volumetric clay content and b. As a first attempt at developing a simple Dp/Do model useful at the field scale, we extended the classical Buckingham Dp/Do model (εa2) by a scaling...

  11. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doisneau, François, E-mail: fdoisne@sandia.gov; Arienti, Marco, E-mail: marient@sandia.gov; Oefelein, Joseph C., E-mail: oefelei@sandia.gov

    2017-01-15

    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier–Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle–particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  12. Multiscale image-based modeling and simulation of gas flow and particle transport in the human lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    is distributed to the peripheral tissue. The human airway structure spans more than 20 generations, beginning with the extra-thoracic airways (oral or nasal cavity, and through the pharynx and larynx to the trachea), then the conducting airways, the respiratory airways, and to the alveoli. The airways in individuals and sub-populations (by gender, age, ethnicity, and normal vs. diseased states) may exhibit different dimensions, branching patterns and angles, and thickness and rigidity. At the local level, one would like to capture detailed flow characteristics, e.g. local velocity profiles, shear stress, and pressure, for prediction of particle transport in an airway (lung structure) model that is specific to the geometry of an individual, to understand how inter-subject variation in airway geometry (normal or pathological) influences the transport and deposition of particles. In a systems biology – or multiscale modeling – approach, these local flow characteristics can be further integrated with epithelial cell models for the study of mechanotransduction. At the global (organ) level, one would like to match regional ventilation (lung function) that is specific to the individual, thus ensuring that the flow that transports inhaled particles is appropriately distributed throughout the lung model. Computational models that do not account for realistic distribution of ventilation are not capable of predicting realistic particle distribution or targeted drug deposition. Furthermore, the flow in the human lung can be transitional or turbulent in the upper and proximal airways, and becomes laminar in the distal airways. The flows in the laminar, transitional and turbulent regimes have different temporal and spatial scales. Therefore, modeling airway structure and predicting gas flow and particle transport at both local and global levels require image-guided multiscale modeling strategies. In this article, we will review the aforementioned three key aspects of CFD

  13. A Comparison between Tracer Gas and Aerosol Particles Distribution Indoors: The Impact of Ventilation Rate, Interaction of Airflows, and Presence of Objects.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bivolarova, M.; Ondráček, Jakub; Melikov, A.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2017), s. 1201-1212 ISSN 0905-6947 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : tracer gas * particles * transport behaviour Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Public and environmental health Impact factor: 4.383, year: 2016

  14. Analytical solutions for non-linear conversion of a porous solid particle in a gas : II. non-isothermal conversion and numerical verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brem, G.; Brouwers, J.J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In Part I, analytical solutions were given for the non-linear isothermal heterogeneous conversion of a porous solid particle. Account was taken of a reaction rate of general order with respect to the gas reactant, intrinsic reaction surface area and effective pore diffusion, which change with solid

  15. Motivation, procedures and aims of reacting plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Akira

    1982-01-01

    A project of reacting plasma experiment (R-project) was proposed at the Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP), Nagoya University. It is necessary to bridge plasma physics and fusion engineering by means of a messenger wire like burning plasma experiment. This is a motivation of the R-project. The university linkage organization of Japan for fusion engineering category carried out a lot of contribution to R-tokamak design. The project consists of four items, namely, R-tokamak design, research and development (R and D), site and facilities, and international collaboration. The phase 1 experiment (R 1 - phase) corresponds to burning plasma experiment without D + T fuel, while the phase-2 experiment (R 2 -phase) with D + T fuel. One reference design was finished. Intensive efforts have been carried out by the R and D team on the following items, wall material, vacuum system, tritium system, neutronics, remote control system, pulsed superconducting magnet development, negative ion source, and alpha-particle diagnostics. The problems concerning site and major facilities are also important, because tritium handling, neutron and gamma-ray sky shines and the activation of devices cause impact to surrounding area. The aims of burning plasma experiment are to enter tritium into the fusion device, and to study burning plasma physics. (Kato, T.)

  16. A long-term study of new particle formation in a coastal environment: meteorology, gas phase and solar radiation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorribas, M; Adame, J A; Olmo, F J; Vilaplana, J M; Gil-Ojeda, M; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2015-04-01

    New particle formation (NPF) was investigated at a coastal background site in Southwest Spain over a four-year period using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). The goals of the study were to characterise the NPF and to investigate their relationship to meteorology, gas phase (O3, SO2, CO and NO2) and solar radiation (UVA, UVB and global). A methodology for identifying and classifying the NPF was implemented using the wind direction and modal concentrations as inputs. NPF events showed a frequency of 24% of the total days analysed. The mean duration was 9.2±4.2 h. Contrary to previous studies conducted in other locations, the NPF frequency reached its maximum during cold seasons for approximately 30% of the days. The lowest frequency took place in July with 10%, and the seasonal wind pattern was found to be the most important parameter influencing the NPF frequency. The mean formation rate was 2.2±1.7 cm(-3) s(-1), with a maximum in the spring and early autumn and a minimum during the summer and winter. The mean growth rate was 3.8±2.4 nm h(-1) with higher values occurring from spring to autumn. The mean and seasonal formation and growth rates are in agreement with previous observations from continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. NPF classification of different classes was conducted to explore the effect of synoptic and regional-scale patterns on NPF and growth. The results show that under a breeze regime, the temperature indirectly affects NPF events. Higher temperatures increase the strength of the breeze recirculation, favouring gas accumulation and subsequent NPF appearance. Additionally, the role of high relative humidity in inhibiting the NPF was evinced during synoptic scenarios. The remaining meteorological variables (RH), trace gases (CO and NO), solar radiation, PM10 and condensation sink, showed a moderate or high connection with both formation and growth rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor fuelled with different types of fertile TRISO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gudowski, Waclaw

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed on operation of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) with a thorium based fuel. The major options for a thorium fuel are a mixture with light water reactors spent fuel, mixture with military plutonium or with with fissile isotopes of uranium. Consequently, we assumed three models of the fuel containing a mixture of thorium with 239 Pu, 233 U or 235 U in TRISO particles with a different kernel radius keeping constant the packing fraction at the level of 37.5%, which corresponds to the current compacting process limit. In order to allow thorium to act as a breeder of fissile uranium and ensure conditions for a self-sustaining fission chain, the fresh fuel must contain a certain quantity of fissile isotope at beginning of life; we refer to the initial fissile nuclide as triggering isotope. The small capture cross-section of 232 Th in the thermal neutron energy range, compared to the fission one of the common fissile isotopes ( 239 Pu, 233 U and 235 U), requires a quantity of thorium 25-30 times greater than that one of the triggering isotope in order to equilibrate the reaction rates. At the same time, the amount of the triggering isotope must be enough to set the criticality condition of the reactor. These two conditions must be simultaneously satisfied. The necessity of a large mass of fuel forces to utilize TRISO particles with a large radius of the kernel, 300 μm. Moreover, in order to improve the neutron economics, a fuel cycle based on thorium requires a low capture to fission ratio of the triggering isotope. Amid the common fissile isotopes, 233 U, 235 U and 239 Pu, we have found that only the uranium nuclides have shown to have the suitable neutronic features to enable the GT-MHR to work on a fuel based on thorium

  18. Performance of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor fuelled with different types of fertile TRISO particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: alby@neutron.kth.se; Gudowski, Waclaw [Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    Preliminary studies have been performed on operation of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) with a thorium based fuel. The major options for a thorium fuel are a mixture with light water reactors spent fuel, mixture with military plutonium or with with fissile isotopes of uranium. Consequently, we assumed three models of the fuel containing a mixture of thorium with {sup 239}Pu, {sup 233}U or {sup 235}U in TRISO particles with a different kernel radius keeping constant the packing fraction at the level of 37.5%, which corresponds to the current compacting process limit. In order to allow thorium to act as a breeder of fissile uranium and ensure conditions for a self-sustaining fission chain, the fresh fuel must contain a certain quantity of fissile isotope at beginning of life; we refer to the initial fissile nuclide as triggering isotope. The small capture cross-section of {sup 232}Th in the thermal neutron energy range, compared to the fission one of the common fissile isotopes ({sup 239}Pu, {sup 233}U and {sup 235}U), requires a quantity of thorium 25-30 times greater than that one of the triggering isotope in order to equilibrate the reaction rates. At the same time, the amount of the triggering isotope must be enough to set the criticality condition of the reactor. These two conditions must be simultaneously satisfied. The necessity of a large mass of fuel forces to utilize TRISO particles with a large radius of the kernel, 300 {mu}m. Moreover, in order to improve the neutron economics, a fuel cycle based on thorium requires a low capture to fission ratio of the triggering isotope. Amid the common fissile isotopes, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu, we have found that only the uranium nuclides have shown to have the suitable neutronic features to enable the GT-MHR to work on a fuel based on thorium.

  19. Molecular Characterization of the Gas-Particle Interface of Soot Sampled from a Diesel Engine Using a Titration Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, A; Salgado, M S; Martín, María Pilar; Lapuerta, M; Rodríguez-Fernández, J; Rossi, M J; Cabañas, B

    2016-03-15

    Surface functional groups of two different types of combustion aerosols, a conventional diesel (EN 590) and a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) soot, have been investigated using heterogeneous chemistry (i.e., gas-particle surface reactions). A commercial sample of amorphous carbon (Printex XE2-B) was analyzed as a reference substrate. A Knudsen flow reactor was used to carry out the experiments under molecular flow conditions. The selected gases for the titration experiments were: N(CH3)3 for the identification of acidic sites, NH2OH for the presence of carbonyl groups, CF3COOH and HCl for basic sites of different strength, and O3 and NO2 for reducing groups. Reactivity with N(CH3)3 indicates a lower density of acidic functionalities for Printex XE2-B in relation to diesel and HVO soot. Results for NH2OH experiments indicates that commercial amorphous carbon exhibits a lower abundance of available carbonyl groups at the interface compared to the results from diesel and HVO soot, the latter being the one with the largest abundance of carbonyl functions. Reactions with acids indicate the presence of weak basic oxides on the particle surface that preferentially interact with the strong acid CF3COOH. Finally, reactions with O3 and NO2 reveal that diesel and especially HVO have a significantly higher reactivity with both oxidizers compared to that of Printex XE2-B because they have more reducing sites by roughly a factor of 10 and 30, respectively. The kinetics of titration reactions have also been investigated.

  20. Effect of isothermal dilution on emission factors of organic carbon and n-alkanes in the particle and gas phases of diesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Shuich; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Furuyama, Akiko; Hirano, Seishiro; Takami, Akinori

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effect of isothermal dilution (30 °C) on emission factors (EFs) of semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds of heavy-duty diesel exhaust, we measured EFs for particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle phase, and EFs for n-alkanes in both the particle phase and the gas phase of exhaust produced under high-idle engine operating conditions at dilution ratios (DRs) ranging from 8 to 1027. The EC EFs did not vary with DR, whereas the OC EFs in the particle phase determined at DR = 1027 were 13% of the EFs determined at DR = 8, owing to evaporation of organic compounds. Using partitioning theory and n-alkane EFs measured at DR = 14 and 238, we calculated the distributions of compounds between the particle and gas phases at DR = 1760, which corresponds to the DR for tailpipe emissions as they move from the tailpipe to the roadside atmosphere. The gas-phase EF of a compound with a vapor pressure of 10-7 Pa was 0.01 μg kg-1-fuel at DR = 14, and this value is 1/330 the value derived at DR = 1760. Our results suggest that the EFs of high-volatility compounds in the particle phase will be overestimated and that the EFs of low-volatility compounds in the gas phase will be underestimated if the estimates are derived from data obtained at the low DRs and they are applied to the real world. Therefore, extrapolation from EFs derived at low DR values to EFs at atmospherically relevant DRs will be a source of error in predictions of the concentrations of particulate matter and gas-phase precursors to secondary organic aerosols in air quality models.

  1. Hot and Dry Cleaning of Biomass-Gasified Gas Using Activated Carbons with Simultaneous Removal of Tar, Particles, and Sulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Sakanishi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a gas-cleaning process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds, tar, and particles from biomass-gasified gas using Fe-supported activated carbon and a water-gas shift reaction. On a laboratory scale, the simultaneous removal of H2S and COS was performed under a mixture of gases (H2/CO/CO2/CH4/C2H4/N2/H2S/COS/steam. The reactions such as COS + H2 → H2S + CO and COS + H2O → H2S + CO2 and the water-gas shift reaction were promoted on the Fe-supported activated carbon. The adsorption capacity with steam was higher than that without steam. On a bench scale, the removal of impurities from a gas derived from biomass gasification was investigated using two activated filters packed with Fe-supported activated carbon. H2S and COS, three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and particles were removed and a water-gas shift reaction was promoted through the first filter at 320–350 °C. The concentrations of H2S and COS decreased to less than 0.1 ppmv. Particles and the one- and two-ring PAHs, except for benzene, were then removed through the second filter at 60–170 °C. The concentration of tar and particles decreased from 2428 to 102 mg Nm−3 and from 2244 to 181 mg Nm−3, respectively.

  2. Reacting fluids analysis and polluting emissions; Analisis de fluidos reactivos y emisiones contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo, Ramon; Ley Koo, Marcos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Varela Ham, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    A problem is set up of a reacting flow which occurs in a gas exhausting duct, which is boiled down to a problem of initial conditions (temperature, pressure and concentration of species) freeing the selection of reaction mechanisms. Through some pre-established algorithms calculation routines can be programmed in specific problems of chemistry kinetics. With the calculation routines set forth in base of the selected mechanism, the temperature, pressure, etc., conditions, a general program is obtained containing the differential equations for the mechanisms, and with its solution, with a certain degree of uncertainty, the gases at a duct outlet can be predicted. The exhaust gases will carry unburned particles and products that can be polluting or not. If we vary the working conditions, we can find the optimum values to work with equipment that produces exhaust gases, anticipating with it the more efficient utilization of the equipment and the energy with the least possible pollution. [Espanol] Se plantea un problema de un flujo reactivo que se lleva a cabo en un ducto de salida de gases de escape, para lo cual se reduce a un problema de condiciones iniciales (temperatura, presion y concentracion de especies), y dejando en libertad la seleccion de mecanismos de reaccion. Mediante algunos algoritmos preestablecidos se pueden programar las rutinas de calculo en problemas especificos de cinetica quimica. Con las rutinas de calculo planteadas en base al mecanismo seleccionado, las condiciones de temperatura, presion, etc. se obtiene un programa general que contiene las ecuaciones diferenciales para el mecanismo y con su solucion se puede predecir con cierto grado de incertidumbre los gases a la salida de un ducto, los gases de salida llevaran particulas inquemadas y productos que pueden ser contaminantes o no, si hacemos variacion en las condiciones de trabajo podemos encontrar los valores optimos para trabajar con equipos que producen gases de escape, previendo con ello

  3. Reacting fluids analysis and polluting emissions; Analisis de fluidos reactivos y emisiones contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo, Ramon; Ley Koo, Marcos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Varela Ham, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    A problem is set up of a reacting flow which occurs in a gas exhausting duct, which is boiled down to a problem of initial conditions (temperature, pressure and concentration of species) freeing the selection of reaction mechanisms. Through some pre-established algorithms calculation routines can be programmed in specific problems of chemistry kinetics. With the calculation routines set forth in base of the selected mechanism, the temperature, pressure, etc., conditions, a general program is obtained containing the differential equations for the mechanisms, and with its solution, with a certain degree of uncertainty, the gases at a duct outlet can be predicted. The exhaust gases will carry unburned particles and products that can be polluting or not. If we vary the working conditions, we can find the optimum values to work with equipment that produces exhaust gases, anticipating with it the more efficient utilization of the equipment and the energy with the least possible pollution. [Espanol] Se plantea un problema de un flujo reactivo que se lleva a cabo en un ducto de salida de gases de escape, para lo cual se reduce a un problema de condiciones iniciales (temperatura, presion y concentracion de especies), y dejando en libertad la seleccion de mecanismos de reaccion. Mediante algunos algoritmos preestablecidos se pueden programar las rutinas de calculo en problemas especificos de cinetica quimica. Con las rutinas de calculo planteadas en base al mecanismo seleccionado, las condiciones de temperatura, presion, etc. se obtiene un programa general que contiene las ecuaciones diferenciales para el mecanismo y con su solucion se puede predecir con cierto grado de incertidumbre los gases a la salida de un ducto, los gases de salida llevaran particulas inquemadas y productos que pueden ser contaminantes o no, si hacemos variacion en las condiciones de trabajo podemos encontrar los valores optimos para trabajar con equipos que producen gases de escape, previendo con ello

  4. COMPARISON OF THE OCTANOL-AIR PARTITION COEFFICIENT AND LIQUID-PHASE VAPOR PRESSURE AS DESCRIPTORS FOR PARTICLE/GAS PARTITIONING USING LABORATORY AND FIELD DATA FOR PCBS AND PCNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conventional Junge-Pankow adsorption model uses the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (pLo) as a correlation parameter for gas/particle interactions. An alternative is the octanol-air partition coefficient (Koa) absorption model. Log-log plots of the particle-gas partition c...

  5. Ultrasonic levitation for the examination of gas/solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouras, A.; Krammer, G.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental setup based on acoustic levitation for the examination of gas/solid reactions is presented. In this setup single particles in the diameter range 1 mm-30 μm can be held against gravity for any wanted time in a defined gas atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The change of particle size, shape, and position can be measured and recorded using an optical device, consisting of a camera and a long range microscope. Basic experiments with inert particles of different shape and solid density have shown that the axial position of a reacting particle can be employed to derive its weight change. A method to evaluate this change of the recorded position for the according weight change is proposed. Exemplary results in the context of dry flue gas cleaning using Ca(OH) 2 powder are presented. Single Ca(OH) 2 particles are exposed to a well defined gas atmosphere and after some time these particles are retrieved from the ultrasonic field for further analyses. Only an in situ measurement of the particle weight change (i.e., without removing the particle from the well defined reactive atmosphere) brings information regarding the uptake of water by the sorbent, which accompanies SO 2 and HCl absorption

  6. Climate changes - To understand and to react

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this report recalls the definition of the greenhouse effect, comments the climate past variations, outlines that climate changes are already here and that greenhouse effect has a human origin, and discusses the expected impacts during the 21. century. The second part presents the basis of international action in the struggle against climate change, outlines the necessity to strengthen this international action, describes the role of Europe in international negotiations on climate, outlines the need of an international agreement on climate, proposes an overview of the French climate policy (national and local actions), and outlines that some political responses do not match with sustainable development (nuclear energy, agro-fuels, carbon capture and storage, shale gas and oil). The third part indicates how one can compute his own impact on climate, and presents some collective and citizen innovative initiatives in the fields of agriculture and food, of energy, of transports and mobility, and of wastes

  7. OpenFOAM Modeling of Particle Heating and Acceleration in Cold Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, K.-H.; O'Sullivan, M.; Plankensteiner, A.; Kestler, H.; Sigl, L. S.

    2018-01-01

    In cold spraying, a powder material is accelerated and heated in the gas flow of a supersonic nozzle to velocities and temperatures that are sufficient to obtain cohesion of the particles to a substrate. The deposition efficiency of the particles is significantly determined by their velocity and temperature. Particle velocity correlates with the amount of kinetic energy that is converted to plastic deformation and thermal heating. The initial particle temperature significantly influences the mechanical properties of the particle. Velocity and temperature of the particles have nonlinear dependence on the pressure and temperature of the gas at the nozzle entrance. In this contribution, a simulation model based on the reactingParcelFoam solver of OpenFOAM is presented and applied for an analysis of particle velocity and temperature in the cold spray nozzle. The model combines a compressible description of the gas flow in the nozzle with a Lagrangian particle tracking. The predictions of the simulation model are verified based on an analytical description of the gas flow, the particle acceleration and heating in the nozzle. Based on experimental data, the drag model according to Plessis and Masliyah is identified to be best suited for OpenFOAM modeling particle heating and acceleration in cold spraying.

  8. Decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers (BDE-209) in Chinese and Global Air: Levels, Gas/Particle Partitioning, and Long-Range Transport: Is Long-Range Transport of BDE-209 Really Governed by the Movement of Particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fan; Qiao, Li-Na; Ren, Nan-Qi; Sverko, Ed; Mackay, Donald; Macdonald, Robie W

    2017-01-17

    In this paper, we report air concentrations of BDE-209 in both gas- and particle-phases across China. The annual mean concentrations of BDE-209 were from below detection limit (BDL) to 77.0 pg·m -3 in the gas-phase and 1.06-728 pg·m -3 in the particle-phase. Among the nine PBDEs measured, BDE-209 is the dominant congener in Chinese atmosphere in both gas and particle phases. We predicted the partitioning behavior of BDE-209 in air using our newly developed steady state equation, and the results matched the monitoring data worldwide very well. It was found that the logarithm of the partition quotient of BDE-209 is a constant, and equal to -1.53 under the global ambient temperature range (from -50 to +50 °C). The gaseous fractions of BDE-209 in air depends on the concentration of total suspended particle (TSP). The most important conclusion derived from this study is that, BDE-209, like other semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), cannot be sorbed entirely to atmospheric particles; and there is a significant amount of gaseous BDE-209 in global atmosphere, which is subject to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Therefore, it is not surprising that BDE-209 can enter the Arctic through LRAT mainly by air transport rather than by particle movement. This is a significant advancement in understanding the global transport process and the pathways entering the Arctic for chemicals with low volatility and high octanol-air partition coefficients, such as BDE-209.

  9. Identification of transformer fault based on dissolved gas analysis using hybrid support vector machine-modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Early detection of power transformer fault is important because it can reduce the maintenance cost of the transformer and it can ensure continuous electricity supply in power systems. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) technique is commonly used to identify oil-filled power transformer fault type but utilisation of artificial intelligence method with optimisation methods has shown convincing results. In this work, a hybrid support vector machine (SVM) with modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation (EPSO) algorithm was proposed to determine the transformer fault type. The superiority of the modified PSO technique with SVM was evaluated by comparing the results with the actual fault diagnosis, unoptimised SVM and previous reported works. Data reduction was also applied using stepwise regression prior to the training process of SVM to reduce the training time. It was found that the proposed hybrid SVM-Modified EPSO (MEPSO)-Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient (TVAC) technique results in the highest correct identification percentage of faults in a power transformer compared to other PSO algorithms. Thus, the proposed technique can be one of the potential solutions to identify the transformer fault type based on DGA data on site. PMID:29370230

  10. Identification of transformer fault based on dissolved gas analysis using hybrid support vector machine-modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlee Azil Illias

    Full Text Available Early detection of power transformer fault is important because it can reduce the maintenance cost of the transformer and it can ensure continuous electricity supply in power systems. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA technique is commonly used to identify oil-filled power transformer fault type but utilisation of artificial intelligence method with optimisation methods has shown convincing results. In this work, a hybrid support vector machine (SVM with modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation (EPSO algorithm was proposed to determine the transformer fault type. The superiority of the modified PSO technique with SVM was evaluated by comparing the results with the actual fault diagnosis, unoptimised SVM and previous reported works. Data reduction was also applied using stepwise regression prior to the training process of SVM to reduce the training time. It was found that the proposed hybrid SVM-Modified EPSO (MEPSO-Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient (TVAC technique results in the highest correct identification percentage of faults in a power transformer compared to other PSO algorithms. Thus, the proposed technique can be one of the potential solutions to identify the transformer fault type based on DGA data on site.

  11. Production of secondary particles and nuclei in cosmic rays collisions with the interstellar gas using the FLUKA code

    CERN Document Server

    Mazziotta, M N; Ferrari, A; Gaggero, D; Loparco, F; Sala, P R

    2016-01-01

    The measured fluxes of secondary particles produced by the interactions of Cosmic Rays (CRs) with the astronomical environment play a crucial role in understanding the physics of CR transport. In this work we present a comprehensive calculation of the secondary hadron, lepton, gamma-ray and neutrino yields produced by the inelastic interactions between several species of stable or long-lived cosmic rays projectiles (p, D, T, 3He, 4He, 6Li, 7Li, 9Be, 10Be, 10B, 11B, 12C, 13C, 14C, 14N, 15N, 16O, 17O, 18O, 20Ne, 24Mg and 28Si) and different target gas nuclei (p, 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg, 28Si and 40Ar). The yields are calculated using FLUKA, a simulation package designed to compute the energy distributions of secondary products with large accuracy in a wide energy range. The present results provide, for the first time, a complete and self-consistent set of all the relevant inclusive cross sections regarding the whole spectrum of secondary products in nuclear collisions. We cover, for the projectiles, a ki...

  12. Identification of transformer fault based on dissolved gas analysis using hybrid support vector machine-modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, Hazlee Azil; Zhao Liang, Wee

    2018-01-01

    Early detection of power transformer fault is important because it can reduce the maintenance cost of the transformer and it can ensure continuous electricity supply in power systems. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) technique is commonly used to identify oil-filled power transformer fault type but utilisation of artificial intelligence method with optimisation methods has shown convincing results. In this work, a hybrid support vector machine (SVM) with modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation (EPSO) algorithm was proposed to determine the transformer fault type. The superiority of the modified PSO technique with SVM was evaluated by comparing the results with the actual fault diagnosis, unoptimised SVM and previous reported works. Data reduction was also applied using stepwise regression prior to the training process of SVM to reduce the training time. It was found that the proposed hybrid SVM-Modified EPSO (MEPSO)-Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient (TVAC) technique results in the highest correct identification percentage of faults in a power transformer compared to other PSO algorithms. Thus, the proposed technique can be one of the potential solutions to identify the transformer fault type based on DGA data on site.

  13. Sub-doppler spectroscopy based on the transit relaxation of atomic particles in a thin gas cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Izmailov

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the review of methods, achievements, and possibilities of the recently elaborated high-resolution laser spectroscopy based on sub-doppler absorption, fluorescence and polarization resonances (on centers of quantum transitions), which arise because of the specific optical selection of comparatively slow-speed atoms or molecules in a thin cell with a rarefied gas. It is considered two following mechanisms of such velocity selection of atomic particles connected with their flight durations between walls of the thin cell : 1) optical pumping of sublevels of the ground atomic term and 2) optical excitation of long-lived metastable quantum levels. Theoretical bases of elaborated spectroscopy methods are presented. In case of the optical pumping mechanism, experimental technique and results on the record of sub-doppler spectral structure of Cs and Rb atoms and on the frequency stabilization of diode lasers by given methods are described. Perspectives of further development and applications of this new direction of the high-resolution spectroscopy are discussed

  14. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008. This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal, corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal, and further thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six

  15. In-vehicle measurement of ultrafine particles on compressed natural gas, conventional diesel, and oxidation-catalyst diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Jones, Steven; Lalor, Melinda

    2007-02-01

    Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (vehicle particle number concentration measurements on conventional diesel, oxidation-catalyst diesel and compressed natural gas transit buses are compared to estimate relative in-vehicle particulate exposures. Two primary consistencies are observed from the data: the CNG buses have average particle count concentrations near the average concentrations for the oxidation-catalyst diesel buses, and the conventional diesel buses have average particle count concentrations approximately three to four times greater than the CNG buses. Particle number concentrations are also noticeably affected by bus idling behavior and ventilation options, such as, window position and air conditioning.

  16. Effect of annealing on particle size, microstructure and gas sensing properties of Mn substituted CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E. Ranjith, E-mail: ranjueaswar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamil Nadu (India); Kamzin, A.S. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Janani, K. [Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-11-01

    Microstructure, morphological and gas sensor studies of Mn substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by a simple evaporation method and auto- combustion method. The influence of heat treatment on phase and particle size of spinel ferrite nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The XRD study reveals that the lattice constant and crystallite size of the samples increases with the increase of annealing temperature. Last one was confirmed by Mossbauer data. The lowest size of particles of MnCoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (~3 nm) is obtained by auto combustion method. The spherical shaped nanoparticles are recorded by TEM. Furthermore, conductance response of Mn–Co ferrite nanomaterial was measured by exposing the material to reducing gas like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) which showed a sensor response of ~0.19 at an optimum operating temperature of 250 °C. - Highlights: • ~3 nm sized particles were prepared by auto combustion method. • Mossbauer study was analyzed for different annealed samples. • The size of the particles increased with increasing annealing temperature.

  17. Summer-winter concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of short chain chlorinated paraffins in the atmosphere of an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Lixi; Li, Yingming; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-12-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are semi-volatile chemicals that are considered persistent in the environment, potential toxic and subject to long-range transport. This study investigates the concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of SCCPs at an urban site in Beijing during summer and wintertime. The total atmospheric SCCP levels ranged 1.9-33.0 ng/m(3) during wintertime. Significantly higher levels were found during the summer (range 112-332 ng/m(3)). The average fraction of total SCCPs in the particle phase (ϕ) was 0.67 during wintertime but decreased significantly during the summer (ϕ = 0.06). The ten and eleven carbon chain homologues with five to eight chlorine atoms were the predominant SCCP formula groups in air. Significant linear correlations were found between the gas-particle partition coefficients and the predicted subcooled vapor pressures and octanol-air partition coefficients. The gas-particle partitioning of SCCPs was further investigated and compared with both the Junge-Pankow adsorption and K(oa)-based absorption models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and Characterization of Defect-Free Matrimid® Mixed-Matrix Membranes Containing Activated Carbon Particles for Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fynn Weigelt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs for gas separation in the form of thick films were prepared via the combination of the polymer Matrimid® 5218 and activated carbons (AC. The AC particles had a mean particle size of 1.5 μm and a mean pore diameter of 1.9 nm. The films were prepared by slow solvent evaporation from casting solutions in chloroform, which had a varying polymer–AC ratio. It was possible to produce stable films with up to a content of 50 vol % of AC. Thorough characterization experiments were accomplished via differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the morphology of the MMMs was also investigated via scanning electron microscopy. The gas transport properties were revealed by employing time-lag measurements for different pure gases as well as sorption balance experiments for the filler particles. It was found that defect free Matrimid® MMMs with AC were prepared and the increase of the filler content led to a higher effective permeability for different gases. The single gas selectivity αij of different gas pairs maintained stable values with the increase of AC content, regardless of the steep increase in the effective permeability of the pure gases. Estimation of the solubilities and the diffusivities of the Matrimid®, AC, and MMMs allowed for the explanation of the increasing permeabilities of the MMMs, with the increase of AC content by modelling.

  19. Modeling reacting gases and aftertreatment devices for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depcik, Christopher David

    As more emphasis is placed worldwide on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, automobile manufacturers have to create more efficient engines. Simultaneously, legislative agencies want these engines to produce fewer problematic emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. In response, newer combustion methods, like homogeneous charge compression ignition and fuel cells, are being researched alongside the old standard of efficiency, the compression ignition or diesel engine. These newer technologies present a number of benefits but still have significant challenges to overcome. As a result, renewed interest has risen in making diesel engines cleaner. The key to cleaning up the diesel engine is the placement of aftertreatment devices in the exhaust. These devices have shown great potential in reducing emission levels below regulatory levels while still allowing for increased fuel economy versus a gasoline engine. However, these devices are subject to many flow control issues. While experimental evaluation of these devices helps to understand these issues better, it is impossible to solve the problem through experimentation alone because of time and cost constraints. Because of this, accurate models are needed in conjunction with the experimental work. In this dissertation, the author examines the entire exhaust system including reacting gas dynamics and aftertreatment devices, and develops a complete numerical model for it. The author begins by analyzing the current one-dimensional gas-dynamics simulation models used for internal combustion engine simulations. It appears that more accurate and faster numerical method is available, in particular, those developed in aeronautical engineering, and the author successfully implements one for the exhaust system. The author then develops a comprehensive literature search to better understand the aftertreatment devices. A number of these devices require a secondary injection of fuel or reductant in the exhaust stream

  20. Air-sea exchange and gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Role of East Asian continental outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three- to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution. In addition, air-sea exchange fluxes of gaseous PAHs were estimated to be -54.2 to 107.4 ng m-2 d-1, and was indicative of variations of land-based PAH inputs. The logarithmic gas-particle partition coefficient (logKp) of PAHs regressed linearly against the logarithmic subcooled liquid vapor pressure, with a slope of -0.25. This was significantly larger than the theoretical value (-1), implying disequilibrium between the gaseous and particulate PAHs over the NWP. The non-equilibrium of PAH gas-particle partitioning was shielded from the volatilization of three-ring gaseous PAHs from seawater and lower soot concentrations in particular when the oceanic air masses prevailed. Modeling PAH absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto soot carbon revealed that the status of PAH gas-particle partitioning deviated more from the modeling Kp for oceanic air masses than those for continental air masses, which coincided with higher volatilization of three-ring PAHs and confirmed the influence of air-sea exchange. Meanwhile, significant linear regressions between logKp and logKoa (logKsa) for PAHs were observed for continental air masses, suggesting the dominant effect of East Asian continental outflow on atmospheric PAHs over the NWP during the sampling campaign.

  1. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The overall goal of this research project has been to formulate a model describing effects of flue gas conditioning on particulate properties. By flue gas conditioning we mean any process by which solids, gases, or liquids are added to the combustor and/or the exhaust stream to the extent that flue gas and particulate properties may be altered. Our modeling efforts, which are included in our Final Report, are based on an understanding of how ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Flue gas conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of forces acting on the fly ash particles, and can take place through many different methods. Modification of particulate properties can alter ash resistivity or ash cohesivity and result in improved or degraded control device performance. Changes to the flue gas, addition or particulate matter such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sorbents, or the addition of reactive gases or liquids can modify these properties. If we can better understand how conditioning agents react with fly ash particles, application of appropriate conditioning agents or processes may result in significantly improved fine particle collection at low capital and operating costs.

  2. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-05

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  3. Emanation of /sup 232/U daughter products from submicrometer particles of uranium oxide and thorium dioxide by nuclear recoil and inert gas diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, M.A.; Cuddihy, R.G. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.)

    1983-01-01

    Emanation of /sup 232/U daughter products by nuclear recoil and inert gas diffusion from spherical, submicrometer particles of uranium oxide and thorium dioxide was studied. Monodisperse samples of particles containing 1% /sup 232/U and having physical diameters between 0.1 and 1 ..mu..m were used for the emanation measurements. Thorium-228 ions recoiling from the particles after alpha-decay of /sup 232/U were collected electrostatically on a recoil cathode. Radon-220 diffusing from the particles was swept by an airstream into a 4 l. chamber where the /sup 220/Rn daughters were collected on a second cathode. Mathematical models of radionuclide emanation from spherical particles were used to calculate the recoil range of /sup 228/Th and the diffusion coefficient of /sup 220/Rn in the particle matrix. A /sup 228/Th recoil range of 0.02 ..mu..m and a /sup 220/Rn diffusion coefficient of 3 x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2//sec were obtained in both uranium oxide and thorium dioxide particles.

  4. A three-dimensional simulation of gas/particle flow and ozone decomposition in the riser of a circulating fluidized bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Granly; Solberg, Tron; Hjertager, Bjørn Helge

    2004-01-01

    The isothermal decomposition of ozone has been implemented in the CFD code FLOTRACS-MP-3D. The code is a 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics code with an Eulerian description of both gas and particle phase. The turbulent motion of the particulate phase is modeled using the kinetic theory...... for granular flow, and the gas phase turbulence is modeled using a Sub-Grid-Scale model, cf. Ibsen et al. (2001). The decomposition reaction is studied in a 3D representation of a 0.254 m i.d. riser, which has been studied experimentally by Ouyang et al. (1993). The authors obtained profiles of ozone...

  5. Performance limits of coated particle fuel. Part II. Mechanical failure of coated particles due to internal gas pressure and kernel swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hick, H.; Nabielek, H.; Harrison, T. A.

    1973-10-15

    This report presents a summary of experimental results and their theoretical explanation with regard to the "Pressure Failure" of coated particle fuel. While the experimental results refer mainly to the Dragon Reference Particle as proposed for typical Low Enriched Homogeneous Prismatic Steam Cycle HTR Power Reactors, the theoretical understanding of the phenomena and the mathematical models for their description are not limited to a specific design line.

  6. 燃气喷射推力矢量喷管气固两相流数值模拟%Numerical simulation of gas-particle flow in hot gas injection thrust vector nozzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 邢玉明

    2013-01-01

    利用Euler-Lagrangian方法模拟了固体火箭发动机燃气喷射推力矢量喷管气固两相内流场,研究了固体颗粒对喷管推力矢量性能的影响,气相采用Roe格式和MUSCL (monotone upstream-centred schemes for conservation laws)插值进行空间2阶迎风离散,时间推进采用隐式时间格式;固体颗粒相采用随机轨道模型计算颗粒轨迹,并与气相进行双向耦合.结果表明:固体颗粒的存在使弓形激波强度增强,但降低了推力矢量角和推力系数;颗粒质量分数相同时,粒径越大,推力矢量角和推力系数越大;颗粒直径相同时,颗粒质量分数越大,推力矢量角和推力系数越小.%The gas-particle inner flowfield of gas injection thrust vector nozzle in solid rocket engine was simulated using Euler-Lagrangian method, and the effect of solid particle on thrust vector performance was studied. The Roe scheme and monotone upstream-centred schemes for conservation laws (MUSCL) method were used for secondary-order accuracy spatial discretization for gas phase, and the implicit scheme was employed for time marching. The stochastic trajectory model and two-way coupled with gas phase were employed for particle phase. The results indicate that the strength of bow shock is increased due to solid particles, but the thrust vector angle and thrust coefficient are decreased; thrust vector angle and thrust coefficient increase with the particle diameter increasing under the same mass fraction of particle condition; thrust vector angle and thrust coefficient decrease with the mass fraction of particle increasing under the same particle diameter condition.

  7. Molecular characterization of primary humic-like substances in fine smoke particles by thermochemolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingjun; Wei, Siye; Zhu, Mengbo; Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the molecular structures of primary humic-like substances (HULIS) in fine smoke particles emitted from the combustion of biomass materials (including rice straw, corn straw, and pine branches) and coal, and atmospheric HULIS were determined by off-line tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (TMAH-GC/MS). A total of 89 pyrolysates were identified by the thermochemolysis of primary and atmospheric HULIS. The main groups were polysaccharide derivatives, N-containing compounds, lignin derivatives, aromatic acid methyl ester, aliphatic acid methyl ester, and diterpenoid derivatives. Both the type and distribution of pyrolysates among primary HULIS were comparable to those in atmospheric HULIS. This indicates that primary HULIS from combustion processes are important contributors to atmospheric HULIS. Some distinct differences were also observed. The aromatic compounds, including lignin derivatives and aromatic acid methyl ester, were the major pyrolysates (53.0%-84.9%) in all HULIS fractions, suggesting that primary HULIS significantly contributed aromatic structures to atmospheric HULIS. In addition, primary HULIS from biomass burning (BB) contained a relatively high abundance of lignin and polysaccharide derivatives, which is consistent with the large amounts of lignin and cellulose structures contained in biomass materials. Aliphatic acid methyl ester and benzyl methyl ether were prominent pyrolysates in atmospheric HULIS. Moreover, some molecular markers of specific sources were obtained from the thermochemolysis of primary and atmospheric HULIS. For example, polysaccharide derivatives, pyridine and pyrrole derivatives, and lignin derivatives can be used as tracers of fresh HULIS emitted from BB. Diterpenoid derivatives are important markers of HULIS from pine wood combustion sources. Finally, the differences in pyrolysate types and the distributions between primary and atmospheric HULIS

  8. Prediction of gas/particle partitioning of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in global air: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-F.; Ma, W.-L.; Yang, M.

    2015-02-01

    Gas/particle (G/P) partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) is an important process that primarily governs their atmospheric fate, long-range atmospheric transport, and their routes of entering the human body. All previous studies on this issue are hypothetically based on equilibrium conditions, the results of which do not predict results from monitoring studies well in most cases. In this study, a steady-state model instead of an equilibrium-state model for the investigation of the G/P partitioning behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was established, and an equation for calculating the partition coefficients under steady state (KPS) of PBDEs (log KPS = log KPE + logα) was developed in which an equilibrium term (log KPE = log KOA + logfOM -11.91 where fOM is organic matter content of the particles) and a non-equilibrium term (log α, caused by dry and wet depositions of particles), both being functions of log KOA (octanol-air partition coefficient), are included. It was found that the equilibrium is a special case of steady state when the non-equilibrium term equals zero. A criterion to classify the equilibrium and non-equilibrium status of PBDEs was also established using two threshold values of log KOA, log KOA1, and log KOA2, which divide the range of log KOA into three domains: equilibrium, non-equilibrium, and maximum partition domain. Accordingly, two threshold values of temperature t, tTH1 when log KOA = log KOA1 and tTH2 when log KOA = log KOA2, were identified, which divide the range of temperature also into the same three domains for each PBDE congener. We predicted the existence of the maximum partition domain (the values of log KPS reach a maximum constant of -1.53) that every PBDE congener can reach when log KOA ≥ log KOA2, or t ≤ tTH2. The novel equation developed in this study was applied to predict the G/P partition coefficients of PBDEs for our Chinese persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Soil and Air Monitoring

  9. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  10. Enhancing the activation of silicon carbide tracer particles for PEPT applications using gas-phase deposition of alumina at room temperature and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdesueiro, D. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Garcia-Triñanes, P., E-mail: p.garcia@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Meesters, G.M.H.; Kreutzer, M.T. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Gargiuli, J.; Leadbeater, T.W.; Parker, D.J. [Positron Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Seville, J.P.K. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Ommen, J.R. van, E-mail: j.r.vanommen@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-01-21

    We have enhanced the radio-activation efficiency of SiC (silicon carbide) particles, which by nature have a poor affinity towards {sup 18}F ions, to be employed as tracers in studies using PEPT (Positron Emission Particle Tracking). The resulting SiC–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} core–shell structure shows a good labelling efficiency, comparable to γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tracer particles, which are commonly used in PEPT. The coating of the SiC particles was carried at 27±3 °C and 1 bar in a fluidized bed reactor, using trimethylaluminium and water as precursors, by a gas phase technique similar to atomic layer deposition. The thickness of the alumina films, which ranged from 5 to 500 nm, was measured by elemental analysis and confirmed with FIB-TEM (focused ion beam – transmission electron microscope), obtaining consistent results from both techniques. By depositing such a thin film of alumina, properties that influence the hydrodynamic behaviour of the SiC particles, such as size, shape and density, are hardly altered, ensuring that the tracer particle shows the same flow behaviour as the other particles. The paper describes a general method to improve the activation efficiency of materials, which can be applied for the production of tracer particles for many other applications too. - Highlights: • We deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on SiC particles at ambient conditions in a fluidized bed. • The affinity of {sup 18}F ions towards Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiC particle was improved compared to SiC. • We used the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiC activated particle as tracer in a PEPT experiment. • Tracer particles have suitable activity for accurate tracking. • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is thin enough not to alter the particle size, shape and density.

  11. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...

  12. Continuum-Kinetic Hybrid Framework for Chemically Reacting Flows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Predictive modeling of chemically reacting flows is essential for the design and optimization of future hypersonic vehicles. During atmospheric re-entry, complex...

  13. Relative impact of short-term emissions controls on gas and particle-phase oxidative potential during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Fang, Dongqing; Shang, Jing; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Yang; Huo, Peng; Liu, Zhaoying; Schauer, James J.; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2018-06-01

    A field observation focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS) was conducted before, during, and after the 2015 China Victory Day Parade to understand the influence of short-term emissions controls on atmospheric oxidative activity. The hourly average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3, as well as gas and particle-phase ROS, were measured using a series of online instruments. PM2.5 concentrations during control days were significantly lower than non-control days, which directly lead to the "Parade Blue", yet reductions of most gaseous pollutants except SO2 were not so obvious as PM. Similarly, the control measures also led to a great loss of particle-phase ROS throughout the control period, while the reduction of ROS in gas phase was not obvious until the more stringent measures implemented since September 1. Furthermore, only weak positive correlations were observed among ROS and some other measured species, indicating ROS concentrations were affected by a number of comprehensive factors that single marker could not capture. Meanwhile, meteorological condition and regional transportation were also shown to be the minor factors affecting atmospheric oxidizing capacity. The results of this observation mainly revealed the control measures were conducive to reducing particle-related ROS. However, the reduction of gas-phase ROS activity was less effective given the menu of controls employed for the 2015 China Victory Day Parade. Therefore, short-term emissions controls only aimed to PM reduction and visibility improvement will produce the blue sky but will not equivalently reduce the gas-phase ROS. Supplemental control measures will be needed to further reduce gas-phase ROS concentrations.

  14. Occurrence and gas/particle partitioning of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in the atmosphere of Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhou, Hongqiang; Na, Guangshui; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Chen; Chen, Jingwen; Chen, Jiping

    2014-06-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were measured in air samples at a remote air monitoring site established in Georgia King Island, Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica (Great Wall Station, China) to study the long-range atmospheric transport of these anthropogenic pollutants to the Antarctic. Gas- and particle-phase CPs were collected using polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) and glass fiber filters (GFF) respectively during summertime of 2012. The total atmospheric levels of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from 9.6 to 20.8 pg m-3 (average: 14.9 pg m-3) and 3.7-5.2 pg m-3 (average: 4.5 pg m-3), respectively. C10 and C11 carbon chain homologues with Cl5 and Cl6 chlorine atoms predominated in SCCP formula groups both in gas- and particle-phase. Significant linear correlation was found between gas/particle partition coefficients (KP) and sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures (pL°) (R2 = 0.437, p chlorinated CPs and overestimate the sorption of highly chlorinated CPs.

  15. Numerical Investigation into CO Emission, O Depletion, and Thermal Decomposition in a Reacting Slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Makinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 is closely associated with oxygen (O2 depletion, and thermal decomposition in a reacting stockpile of combustible materials like fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, and natural gas. Moreover, it is understood that proper assessment of the emission levels provides a crucial reference point for other assessment tools like climate change indicators and mitigation strategies. In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model for estimating the CO2 emission, O2 depletion, and thermal stability of a reacting slab is presented and tackled numerically using a semi-implicit finite-difference scheme. It is assumed that the slab surface is subjected to a symmetrical convective heat and mass exchange with the ambient. Both numerical and graphical results are presented and discussed quantitatively with respect to various parameters embedded in the problem.

  16. Ionization current in N2 gas. Part 7. ; Diffusion and reflection of metastable particles. N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 7. ; Jun antei reiki ryushi no kakusan to hansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H. (Chiba Inst. of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Ikuta, N. (Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    The energy loss process in quenching of excited particles by collision to other ones and solid surfaces was investigated with metastable excited particles formed in weakly ionized gases. The measured lifetime of N2 metastable particles in N2, N2/CO, N2/CH3 gases during Townsent discharge did not agree with the Molnar's theoretical value which was obtained by solving diffusion equations using the boundary condition that assumes the density of excited particles to be zero at electrodes and tube walls. Strange behavior was observed too, that is, coefficients of diffusion and reaction rate determined by the theoretical lifetime change systematically with the distance between electrodes. Then, the novel boundary condition that takes reflection coefficient into account was applied to solve diffusion equations. The results obtained could account for experimental results without any discrepancy. The analysis of results clarified the dependence of various parameters of metastable excited particles on the reflection coefficient. The increase of reflection coefficient decreases the surface quenching of excited particles at electrodes and elongs effectively excited lifetime and increases the number of collisional quenching in gas phases. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  18. Use of a generalized Stokes number to determine the aerodynamic capture efficiency of non-Stokesian particles from a compressible gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, R.; Rosner, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic capture efficiency of small but nondiffusing particles suspended in a high-speed stream flowing past a target is known to be influenced by parameters governing small particle inertia, departures from the Stokes drag law, and carrier fluid compressibility. By defining an effective Stokes number in terms of the actual (prevailing) particle stopping distance, local fluid viscosity, and inviscid fluid velocity gradient at the target nose, it is shown that these effects are well correlated in terms of a 'standard' (cylindrical collector, Stokes drag, incompressible flow, sq rt Re much greater than 1) capture efficiency curve. Thus, a correlation follows that simplifies aerosol capture calculations in the parameter range already included in previous numerical solutions, allows rational engineering predictions of deposition in situations not previously specifically calculated, and should facilitate the presentation of performance data for gas cleaning equipment and aerosol instruments.

  19. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  20. Experimental Research of Influence of a Relative Particles Positioning in a Gas Stream on Characteristics of their Aerodynamic Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Roman S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cycle of experimental studies on determination of length of aerodynamic traces of the particles which are flowed round by an air stream is executed. When carrying out researches, panoramic optical methods for diagnostics of multiphase flows of PIV and PTV were used. Velocities of an air flow were varied in the range of 1-3 m/s. The sizes of particles changed from 1mm to 5 mm. The defining influence of the sizes of particles and velocities of an air stream on length of aerodynamic traces is established. Influence of a relative positioning of particles on features of formation of an aerodynamic trace is shown.

  1. Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard; Bucher, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A mechanism has been designed to apply the loads (the stirring and the resection forces and torques) in self-reacted friction stir welding. This mechanism differs somewhat from mechanisms used in conventional friction stir welding, as described below. The tooling needed to apply the large reaction loads in conventional friction stir welding can be complex. Self-reacted friction stir welding has become popular in the solid-state welding community as a means of reducing the complexity of tooling and to reduce costs. The main problems inherent in self-reacted friction stir welding originate in the high stresses encountered by the pin-and-shoulder assembly that produces the weld. The design of the present mechanism solves the problems. The mechanism includes a redesigned pin-and-shoulder assembly. The welding torque is transmitted into the welding pin by a square pin that fits into a square bushing with set-screws. The opposite or back shoulder is held in place by a Woodruff key and high-strength nut on a threaded shaft. The Woodruff key reacts the torque, while the nut reacts the tensile load on the shaft.

  2. Air-sea exchange and gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Role of East Asian continental outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Jiang, Yuqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Huiwang; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three-to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution. In addition, air-sea exchange fluxes of gaseous PAHs were estimated to be -54.2-107.4 ng m -2 d -1 , and was indicative of variations of land-based PAH inputs. The logarithmic gas-particle partition coefficient (logK p ) of PAHs regressed linearly against the logarithmic subcooled liquid vapor pressure (logP L 0 ), with a slope of -0.25. This was significantly larger than the theoretical value (-1), implying disequilibrium between the gaseous and particulate PAHs over the NWP. The non-equilibrium of PAH gas-particle partitioning was shielded from the volatilization of three-ring gaseous PAHs from seawater and lower soot concentrations in particular when the oceanic air masses prevailed. Modeling PAH absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto soot carbon revealed that the status of PAH gas-particle partitioning deviated more from the modeling K p for oceanic air masses than those for continental air masses, which coincided with higher volatilization of three-ring PAHs and confirmed the influence of air-sea exchange. Meanwhile, significant linear regressions between logK p and logK oa (logK sa ) for PAHs were observed for continental air masses, suggesting the dominant effect of East Asian continental outflow on atmospheric PAHs over the NWP during the sampling campaign. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of alcohols on gas holdup and volumetric liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient in gel-particle-suspended bubble column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvacion, J.; Murayama, M.; Otaguchi, K.; Koide, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    The effects of alcohols, column dimensions, gas velocity, physical properties of liquids, and gel particles on the gas holdup e{sub G} and the volumetric liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient k{sub L}a in a gel-particle-suspended bubble column under liquid-solid batch operation were studied experimentally. It was shown that addition of at alcohols to water generally increases e{sub G}. However, k{sub L}a values in aqueous solutions of alcohols became larger or smaller than those in water, according to the kind and concentration of the alcohol added to water. It was also shown that the presence of suspended gel-particles in the bubble column reduces values of e{sub G} and k{sub L}a. Based on these observations, empirical equations for e{sub G} in the transition regime in an ethanol solution, for e{sub G} in the heterogeneous now regime applicable to various alcohol solutions and for k{sub L}a in both now regimes were proposed. 18 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Review of experimental studies of zirconium carbide coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Ogawa, Toru; Fukuda, Kousaku

    1995-03-01

    Experimental studies of zirconium carbide(ZrC) coated fuel particles were reviewed from the viewpoints of fuel particle designs, fabrication, characterization, fuel performance, and fission product retentiveness. ZrC is known as a refractory and chemically stable compound, so ZrC is a candidate to replace the silicon carbide(SiC) coating layer of the Triso-coated fuel particles. The irradiation experiments, the postirradiation heating tests, and the out-of-reactor experiments showed that the ZrC layer was less susceptible than the SiC layer to chemical attack by fission products and fuel kernels, and that the ZrC-coated fuel particles performed better than the standard Triso-coated fuel particles at high temperatures, especially above 1600degC. The ZrC-coated fuel particles demonstrated better cesium retention than the standard Triso-coated fuel particles though the ZrC layer showed a less effective barrier to ruthenium than the SiC layer. (author) 51 refs

  5. Uncertainty in particle number modal analysis during transient operation of compressed natural gas, diesel, and trap-equipped diesel transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Qu, Yingge

    2004-04-15

    The relationships between transient vehicle operation and ultrafine particle emissions are not well-known, especially for low-emission alternative bus technologies such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel buses equipped with particulate filters/traps (TRAP). In this study, real-time particle number concentrations measured on a nominal 5 s average basis using an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for these two bus technologies are compared to that of a baseline catalyst-equipped diesel bus operated on ultralow sulfur fuel (BASE) using dynamometer testing. Particle emissions were consistently 2 orders of magnitude lower for the CNG and TRAP compared to BASE on all driving cycles. Time-resolved total particle numbers were examined in terms of sampling factors identified as affecting the ability of ELPI to quantify the particulate matter number emissions for low-emitting vehicles such as CNG and TRAP as a function of vehicle driving mode. Key factors were instrument sensitivity and dilution ratio, alignment of particle and vehicle operating data, sampling train background particles, and cycle-to-cycle variability due to vehicle, engine, after-treatment, or driver behavior. In-cycle variability on the central business district (CBD) cycle was highest for the TRAP configuration, but this could not be attributed to the ELPI sensitivity issues observed for TRAP-IDLE measurements. Elevated TRAP emissions coincided with low exhaust temperature, suggesting on-road real-world particulate filter performance can be evaluated by monitoring exhaust temperature. Nonunique particle emission maps indicate that measures other than vehicle speed and acceleration are necessary to model disaggregated real-time particle emissions. Further testing on a wide variety of test cycles is needed to evaluate the relative importance of the time history of vehicle operation and the hysteresis of the sampling train/dilution tunnel on ultrafine particle emissions. Future studies should

  6. Effects of radiative heat transfer on the turbulence structure in inert and reacting mixing layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Friedrich, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    We use large-eddy simulation to study the interaction between turbulence and radiative heat transfer in low-speed inert and reacting plane temporal mixing layers. An explicit filtering scheme based on approximate deconvolution is applied to treat the closure problem arising from quadratic nonlinearities of the filtered transport equations. In the reacting case, the working fluid is a mixture of ideal gases where the low-speed stream consists of hydrogen and nitrogen and the high-speed stream consists of oxygen and nitrogen. Both streams are premixed in a way that the free-stream densities are the same and the stoichiometric mixture fraction is 0.3. The filtered heat release term is modelled using equilibrium chemistry. In the inert case, the low-speed stream consists of nitrogen at a temperature of 1000 K and the highspeed stream is pure water vapour of 2000 K, when radiation is turned off. Simulations assuming the gas mixtures as gray gases with artificially increased Planck mean absorption coefficients are performed in which the large-eddy simulation code and the radiation code PRISSMA are fully coupled. In both cases, radiative heat transfer is found to clearly affect fluctuations of thermodynamic variables, Reynolds stresses, and Reynolds stress budget terms like pressure-strain correlations. Source terms in the transport equation for the variance of temperature are used to explain the decrease of this variance in the reacting case and its increase in the inert case

  7. Measurement of phase interaction in dispersed gas-particle two-phase flow by phase-doppler anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mergheni Ali Mohamed; Ben Ticha Hmaied; Sautet Jen-Charles; Godard Gille; Ben Nasrallah Sassi

    2008-01-01

    For simultaneous measurement of size and velocity distributions of continuous and dispersed phases in a two-phase flow a technique phase-Doppler anemometry was used. Spherical glass particles with a particle diameter range from 102 up to 212 µm were used. In this two-phase flow an experimental results are presented which indicate a significant influence of the solid particles on the flow characteristics. The height of influence of these effects depends on the local position in the jet. Near t...

  8. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms were centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure was 1/3 kbar. All prisms showed large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration reacted readily to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms were coated with a calcium smectite, and the last two prisms were covered with discrete patches of potassium-rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The results indicated that clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  9. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms are centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure is 1/3 kbar. All prisms show large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration readily reacts to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms are coated with a Ca-smectite while the last two prisms are covered with discrete patches of K rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  10. Structural characterizaiton and gas reactions of small metal particles by high-resolution, in-situ TEM and TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The existing in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) facility was improved by adding a separately pumped mini-specimen chamber. The chamber contains wire-evaporation sources for three metals and a specimen heater for moderate substrate temperatures. A sample introduction device was constructed, installed, and tested, facilitating rapid introduction of a specimen into the mini-chamber while maintaining the background pressure in that chamber in the 10(-9) millibar range. Small particles and clusters of Pd, grown by deposition from the vapor phase in an in-situ TEM facility on amorphous and crystalline support films of alumina and on ultra-thin carbon films, were analyzed by conventional high-resolution TEM and image analysis in terms of detectability, number density, and size distribution. The smallest particles that could be detected and counted contained no more than 6 atoms; size determinations could be made for particles 1 nm in diameter. The influence of various oxygen plasma treatments, annealing treatments, and of increasing the substrate temperature during deposition was investigated. The TEM technique was employed to demonstrate that under otherwise identica l conditions the lattice parameter of Pd particles in the 1 to 2 nm size range and supported in random orientation on ex-situ prepared mica films is expanded by some 3% when compared to 5 nm size particles. It is believed that this expansion is neither a small-particle diffraction effect nor due to pseudomorphism, but that it is due to a annealing-induced transformation of the small as-deposited particles with predominantly composite crystal structures into larger particles with true f.c.c. structure and thus inherently smaller lattice parameter.

  11. Momentum transfer theory of non-conservative charged particle transport in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovac, S.B.; Petrovic, Z.Lj.

    1995-01-01

    Momentum - transfer approximation is applied to momentum and energy balance equations describing reacting particle swarms in gases in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Transport coefficients of charged particles undergoing both inelastic and reactive, non-particle-conserving collisions with a gas of neutral molecules are calculated. Momentum - transfer theory (MTT) has been developed mainly by Robson and collaborators. It has been applied to a single reactive gas and mixtures of reactive gases in electric field only. MTT has also been applied in crossed electric and magnetic fields recently and independently of our work but the reactive collisions were not considered. Consider a swarm of electrons of charge e and mass m moving with velocity rvec v through a neutral gas under the influence of an applied electric rvec E and magnetic rvec B field. The collision processes which we shall investigate are limited to elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions of electrons with gas molecules. Here we interpret reactive collisions as collisions which produce change in number of the swarm particles. Reactive collisions involve creation (ionization by electron impact) or loss (electron attachment) of swarm particles. We consider only single ionization in approximation of the mass ratio m/m 0 0 are masses of electrons and neutral particles, respectively. We assume that the stage of evolution of the swarm is the hydrodynamic limit (HDL). In HDL, the space - time dependence of all properties is carried by the number density n of swarm particles

  12. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: Gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Taicheng; Zhang Delin; Li Guiying; Mai Bixian; Fu Jiamo

    2011-01-01

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m 3 and 27-2975 ng/m 3 at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ΣPBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD. - Highlights: → On- and off-site atmospheric PBDEs was monitored in e-waste dismantling workshops in south China. → The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for some samples. → Exposure assessment revealed that workers in I-EDWD were the highest exposure population. - The findings of this study may serve as a valuable reference for future risk assessment and environmental management in Guiyu, South China.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot particles and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingxun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Tiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Besides gas species concentrations, soot volume fractions are also important data in the study of flames. This work describes the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames by in situ sampling and mass spectrometry (MS).The reaction medium was frozen by sampling into a very low-pressure tube, and the soot selectivity (proportion of carbon atoms in the reactant converted to soot) was determined from the C and H mass balances using the measured concentrations of the gas species and the mass of soot present per unit gas volume. The H/C ratio of the soot was measured by a thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry combination. The soot volume fraction was calculated from the soot selectivity and density of the soot. The soot selectivity measured by this reduced pressure sampling mass spectrometry (RPSMS) method was verified by measurements using the gravimetric sampling technique where the mass of soot collected in a volume of gas was weighed by a high precision balance. For most of the measurements, the uncertainty in the soot volume fraction was ±5%, but this would be larger when the soot volume fractions are less than 1 ppm. For demonstration, the RPSMS method was used to study a methane fuel-rich flame where the soot volume fractions were 1–5 ppm. The simultaneous measurement of concentrations of soot and gas species is useful for the quantitative study of flames. (paper)

  14. The influence of diffusion and of reabsorption of radiation on the particle and energy balance of an infinitely long quasi-cylindrical discharge in hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedheer, W.J.

    1978-09-01

    A numerical study of the pressure and temperature profiles of an infinitely long quasi-cylindrical discharge in hydrogen gas is presented. In particular the influence of the diffusion of atoms in the ground state and the reabsorption of Lyman-α and Lyman-β radiation on both the particle balance and the energy balance of the discharge is studied. Because the transport of the charged particles is corrected for toroidal effects in the regime of high collisionality which is present in the discharge, the model is quasi-cylindrical. The results obtained show an increase of the neutral density on the axis and of the ion and electron density near the wall of the discharge, as compared with earlier calculations in which both diffusion and reabsorption of radiation were neglected. The results are in agreement with measurements in the 'Ringboog' experiment. (Auth.)

  15. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetens, T.; Guo, M.; Van Acker, K.; Blanpain, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • EAF dust was characterized with particle size analysis, XRF, and EPMA. • Slag particles showed no sign of reaction with Zn vapor. • Fe 2 O 3 particles showed different degrees of reaction based on their size. • The thermodynamic stability of Zn vapor in EAF off-gas ducts was reevaluated. • In presence of Fe 2 O 3 , Zn vapor reacts to form ZnFe 2 O 4 and ZnO. - Abstract: To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe 2 O 4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe 2 O 4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe 2 O 4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation – a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology – was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe 2 O 4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber

  16. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions - Part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U.; Rudich, Y.; Ammann, M.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It enables a detailed description of mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface, and it allows linking aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined and consistent rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependences (transient and steady-state conditions); flexible addition of unlimited numbers of chemical species and physicochemical processes; optional aggregation or resolution

  17. Design of an Online Fission Gas Monitoring System for Post-irradiation Examination Heating Tests of Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn Scates

    2010-10-01

    A new Fission Gas Monitoring System (FGMS) has been designed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for use of monitoring online fission gas-released during fuel heating tests. The FGMS will be used with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) within the INL campus. Preselected Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) TRISO (Tri-isotropic) fuel compacts will undergo testing to assess the fission product retention characteristics under high temperature accident conditions. The FACS furnace will heat the fuel to temperatures up to 2,000ºC in a helium atmosphere. Released fission products such as Kr and Xe isotopes will be transported downstream to the FGMS where they will accumulate in cryogenically cooledcollection traps and monitored with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors during the heating process. Special INL developed software will be used to monitor the accumulated fission products and will report data in near real-time. These data will then be reported in a form that can be readily available to the INL reporting database. This paper describes the details of the FGMS design, the control and acqusition software, system calibration, and the expected performance of the FGMS. Preliminary online data may be available for presentation at the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) conference.

  18. Estimation of gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous aerosols collected at Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji

    2013-01-01

    To assess environmental contamination with carcinogens, carbonaceous compounds, water-soluble ionic species and trace gaseous species were identified and quantified every three hours for three days at three different atmospheric layers at the heart of Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai from December 2006 to February 2007. A DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with the IMPROVE thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) protocol was used to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents in PM10. Diurnal and vertical variability was also carefully investigated. In general, OC and EC mass concentration showed the highest values at the monitoring period of 21.00-00.00 as consequences of human activities at night bazaar coupled with reduction of mixing layer, decreased wind speed and termination of photolysis at nighttime. Morning peaks of carbonaceous compounds were observed during the sampling period of 06:00-09:00, emphasizing the main contribution of traffic emission in the three cities. The estimation of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) raises concern of high risk of carbonaceous accumulation over workers and residents living close to the observatory sites. The average values of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) of total carbon at Baiyoke Suit Hotel and Baiyoke Sky Hotel are approximately ten times higher than those air samples collected at Prince of Songkla University Hat-Yai campus corpse incinerator and fish-can manufacturing factory but only slightly higher than those of rice straw burning in Songkla province. This indicates a high risk of developing lung cancer and other respiratory diseases across workers and residents living in high buildings located in Pratunam area. Using knowledge of carbonaceous fractions in PM10, one can estimate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Dachs-Eisenreich model highlights the crucial role of adsorption in gas-particle

  19. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - gas-particle partitioning, mass size distribution, and formation along transport in marine and continental background air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Mulder, Marie D.; Shahpoury, Pourya; Kukučka, Petr; Lišková, Hana; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) are ubiquitous in polluted air but little is known about their abundance in background air. NPAHs were studied at one marine and one continental background site, i.e. a coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea (summer 2012) and a site in the central Great Hungarian Plain (summer 2013), together with the parent compounds, PAHs. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used to track air mass history. Based on Lagrangian particle statistics, the urban influence on samples was quantified for the first time as a fractional dose to which the collected volume of air had been exposed. At the remote marine site, the 3-4-ring NPAH (sum of 11 targeted species) concentration was 23.7 pg m-3 while the concentration of 4-ring PAHs (6 species) was 426 pg m-3. The most abundant NPAHs were 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFLT) and 3-nitrophenanthrene. Urban fractional doses in the range of air are the lowest ever reported and remarkably lower, by more than 1 order of magnitude, than 1 decade before. Day-night variation of NPAHs at the continental site reflected shorter lifetime during the day, possibly because of photolysis of some NPAHs. The yields of formation of 2NFLT and 2-nitropyrene (2NPYR) in marine air seem to be close to the yields for OH-initiated photochemistry observed in laboratory experiments under high NOx conditions. Good agreement is found for the prediction of NPAH gas-particle partitioning using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free-energy relationship. Sorption to soot is found to be less significant for gas-particle partitioning of NPAHs than for PAHs. The NPAH levels determined in the south-eastern outflow of Europe confirm intercontinental transport potential.

  20. Study of Particle Rotation Effect in Gas-Solid Flows using Direct Numerical Simulation with a Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyung [Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhou, Qiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yang, Hui [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-09-30

    A new and efficient direct numerical method with second-order convergence accuracy was developed for fully resolved simulations of incompressible viscous flows laden with rigid particles. The method combines the state-of-the-art immersed boundary method (IBM), the multi-direct forcing method, and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). First, the multi-direct forcing method is adopted in the improved IBM to better approximate the no-slip/no-penetration (ns/np) condition on the surface of particles. Second, a slight retraction of the Lagrangian grid from the surface towards the interior of particles with a fraction of the Eulerian grid spacing helps increase the convergence accuracy of the method. An over-relaxation technique in the procedure of multi-direct forcing method and the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme in the coupled fluid-particle interaction were applied. The use of the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme helps the overall IB-LBM achieve the second order accuracy and provides more accurate predictions of the translational and rotational motion of particles. The preexistent code with the first-order convergence rate is updated so that the updated new code can resolve the translational and rotational motion of particles with the second-order convergence rate. The updated code has been validated with several benchmark applications. The efficiency of IBM and thus the efficiency of IB-LBM were improved by reducing the number of the Lagragian markers on particles by using a new formula for the number of Lagrangian markers on particle surfaces. The immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) has been shown to predict correctly the angular velocity of a particle. Prior to examining drag force exerted on a cluster of particles, the updated IB-LBM code along with the new formula for the number of Lagrangian markers has been further validated by solving several theoretical problems. Moreover, the unsteadiness of the drag force is examined when a

  1. Particle swarm optimization for the design of natural gas networks; Otimizacao por nuvens de particulas para o problema da configuracao do tracado de redes de distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbarg, Elizabeth Ferreira Gouvea; Goldbarg, Marco Cesar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica e Matematica Aplicada; Monteiro, Silvia Maria Diniz [ Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the design of natural gas networks. In order to understand the relevance of the problem and also the approach of solution, the problem is defined and modeled by the Prize Collection Steiner Tree Problem. (PCSTP). The fundamentals of the metaheuristics is presented and the state-of-art for PCSTP is discussed. The algorithm developed was tested for known and very used instances of literature that will be also presented. The results obtained were comparable to other results. (author)

  2. Second law analysis of a reacting temperature dependent viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, entropy generation during the flow of a reacting viscous fluid through an inclined Channel with isothermal walls are investigated. The coupled energy and momentum equations were solved numerically. Previous results in literature (Adesanya et al 2006 [[17]) showed both velocity and temperature have two ...

  3. Three-dimensional reacting shock–bubble interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diegelmann, Felix; Hickel, S.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a reacting shock–bubble interaction through three-dimensional numerical simulations with detailed chemistry. The convex shape of the bubble focuses the shock and generates regions of high pressure and temperature, which are sufficient to ignite the diluted stoichiometric

  4. Humidity influence on gas-particle phase partitioning of α-pinene + O3 secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisle, N. L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Bilde, M.; Donahue, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Water vapor uptake to particles could potentially affect organic-aerosol mass in three ways: first, water in the organic phase could reduce organic (equilibrium) partial pressures according to Raoult's law; second, an aqueous phase could attract water soluble organics according to Henry's law; finally, deliquescence of inorganic particle cores could mix the organic and inorganic particle phases, significantly diluting the organics and again reducing organic partial pressures according to Raoult's law. We present experiments using initially dry α-pinene + ozone secondary organic aerosol (SOA) on ammonium sulfate (AS) seeds at atmospheric concentrations in a smog chamber. After SOA formation, the chamber relative humidity is increased steadily by addition of steam to near 100%. Little subsequent SOA mass growth is observed, suggesting that none of these potential effects play a strong role in this system.

  5. Influence of gas-particle partitioning on ammonia and nitric acid fluxes above a deciduous forest in the Midwestern USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Hornsby, Karen E.

    to bi-directionality of the flux, and the dynamics of the chemical gas/aerosol equilibrium of NH3 and HNO3 (or other atmospheric acids) with aerosol-phase ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). NH3 and HNO3 are both very reactive and typically exhibit higher deposition velocities than aerosol NH4...... diffusion denuders with detection by florescence and half-hourly flux measurements are calculated. HNO3 REA system is based on gas capture on sodium chloride (NaCl) coated denuders with subsequent analysis by ion-chromatography, and the resulting fluxes have a resolution of 3-4 hours. CO2 fluxes...

  6. Experimental investigation of a reacting transverse jet in a high pressure oscillating vitiated crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugger, Christopher A.

    Staged combustion is one design approach in a gas turbine engine to reduce pollutant emission levels. In axially staged combustion, portions of the air and fuel are injected downstream of a lean premixed low NOx primary combustion zone. The gas residence time at elevated temperatures is decreased resulting in lower thermal NOx, and the reduced oxygen and high temperature vitiated primary zone flow further help to reduce pollutant emissions and quickly complete combustion. One implementation of axially staged combustion is transverse fuel jet injection. An important consideration for staged combustion systems, though, is how the primary and secondary combustion zones can couple through the acoustic resonances of the chamber. These couplings can lead to additional source terms that pump energy into the resonant acoustic field and help sustain the high-amplitude combustor pressure oscillations. An understanding of these couplings is important so that it may be possible to design a secondary combustion system that provides inherent damping to the combustor system. To systematically characterize the coupling of a reacting jet in unsteady crossflow in detail, the effects of an an unsteady pressure flowfield and an unsteady velocity flowfield are separately investigated. An optically accessible resonant combustion chamber was designed and built as part of this work to generate a standing wave unsteady vitiated crossflow at a chamber pressure of 0.9 MPa. The location of transverse jet injection corresponds to one of two locations, where one location is the pressure node and the other location the pressure anti-node of the resonant chamber acoustic mode. The injection location is optically accessible, and the dynamic interactions between the transverse jet flow and the 1st and 2nd axial combustor modes are measured using 10 kHz OH-PLIF and 2D PIV. This document analyzes five test cases: two non-reacting jets and three reacting jets. All cases correspond to jet injection

  7. DEM Study of Wet Cohesive Particles in the Presence of Liquid Bridges in a Gas Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified discrete element method (DEM was constructed by compositing an additional liquid-bridge module into the traditional soft-sphere interaction model. Simulations of particles with and without liquid bridges are conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed. The geometry of the simulated bed is the same as the one in Müller’s experiment (Müller et al., 2008. A comparison between the dry and the wet particular systems is carried out on the bubble behavior, the bed fluctuation, and the mixing process. The bubble in the dry system possesses a regular round shape and falling of scattered particles exists while the bubble boundary of the wet particles becomes rough with branches of agglomerates stretching into it. The mixing of the dry system is quicker than that of the wet system. Several interparticle liquid contents are applied in this work to find their influence on the kinetic characteristic of the wet particle flow. With an increase of liquid content, the mixing process costs more time to be completed. Symmetrical profiles of the velocity and granular temperature are found for two low liquid contents (0.001% and 0.01%, while it is antisymmetrical for the highest liquid content (0.1%.

  8. Preliminary observations of organic gas-particle partitioning from biomass combustion smoke using an aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Lee; S. M. Kreidenweis; J. L. Collett; A. P. Sullivan; C. M. Carrico; J. L. Jimenez; M. Cubison; S. Saarikoski; D. R. Worsnop; T. B. Onasch; E. Fortner; W. C. Malm; E. Lincoln; Cyle Wold; WeiMin Hao

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols play important roles in adverse health effects, indirect and direct forcing of Earth’s climate, and visibility degradation. Biomass burning emissions from wild and prescribed fires can make a significant contribution to ambient aerosol mass in many locations and seasons. In order to better understand the chemical properties of particles produced by combustion...

  9. Composition and properties of atmospheric particles in the eastern Atlantic and impacts on gas phase uptake rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine aerosol composition continues to represent a large source of uncertainty in the study of climate and atmospheric chemistry. In addition to their physical size and chemical composition, hygroscopicity plays a significant role, increasing the particles' surface areas and scattering potential. Simultaneous aerosol measurements were performed on board the RRS Discovery and at the Cape Verde atmospheric observatory during the Aerosol Composition and Modelling in the Marine Environment (ACMME and Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHAMBLE experiments. These included online measurements of number and dry size and bulk collection for offline analysis of aqueous ions. In addition, the measurements on board the Discovery included online measurements of composition using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, optical absorption using a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer, ambient humidity size distribution measurements using a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS and optical particle counter (OPC and hygroscopicity measurements with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA.

    Good agreement between platforms in terms of the sea salt (ss and non sea salt (nss modes was found during the period when the Discovery was in close proximity to Cape Verde and showed a composition consistent with remote marine air. As the Discovery approached the African coast, the aerosol showed signs of continental influence such as an increase in particle number, optical absorption, enhancement of the nss mode and dust particles. The Cape Verde site was free of this influence during this period. Chloride and bromide showed concentrations with significant deviations from seawater relative to sodium, indicating that atmospheric halogen processing (and/or acid displacement for chloride had taken place. The time dependent ambient size distribution was synthesised using humidified DMPS and OPC data, corrected to ambient

  10. Experimental and modeling study of flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay particles in a gas suspension calciner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    gas suspension calciner, with the aim to derive useful guidelines on smart calcination for obtaining products of the best pozzolanic properties. Calcination tests are performed in the calciner under six different operation conditions. The raw feed and the calcined clay samples are all characterized...

  11. Eulerian numerical simulation of gas-solid flows with several particles species; Modelisation numerique eulerienne des ecoulements gaz-solide avec plusieurs especes de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino-Palacios, G

    2007-11-15

    The simulation of the multiphase flows is currently an important scientific, industrial and economic challenge. The objective of this work is to improve comprehension via simulations of poly-dispersed flows and contribute the modeling and characterizing of its hydrodynamics. The study of gas-solid systems involves the models that takes account the influence of the particles and the effects of the collisions in the context of the momentum transfer. This kind of study is covered on the framework of this thesis. Simulations achieved with the Saturne-polyphasique-Tlse code, developed by Electricite de France and co-worked with the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, allowed to confirm the feasibility of approach CFD for the hydrodynamic study of the injectors and dense fluidized beds. The stages of validation concern, on the one hand, the placement of the tool for simulation in its current state to make studies of validation and sensitivity of the models and to compare the numerical results with the experimental data. In addition, the development of new physical models and their establishments in the code Saturne will allow the optimization of the industrial process. To carry out this validation in a satisfactory way, a key simulation is made, in particular a monodisperse injection and the radial force of injection in the case of a poly-disperse flow, as well as the fluidization of a column made up of solid particles. In this last case, one approached three configurations of dense fluidized beds, in order to study the influence of the grid on simulations; then, one simulates the operation of a dense fluidized bed with which one characterizes the segregation between two various species of particles. The study of the injection of the poly-disperse flows presents two configurations; a flow Co-current gas-particle in gas (Case Hishida), and in addition, a poly-phase flow in a configuration of the jet type confined with zones of recirculation and stagnation (case

  12. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode or/and with gas amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G; Benaben, P; Breuil, P; Peskov, V

    2008-01-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are attractive due to their simplicity and low cost and are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and so on. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification which potentially offers the highest possible sensitivity in applications like alpha particle detection or high energy X-ray photon or electron detection. To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of one (pulse ionization chamber). This detector was readout by a custom made wide -band charge sensitive amplifier able to deal with slow induced signals generated by slow motion of negative and positive ions. The multiwire detector was able to detect alpha particles with an efficiency close to 22%. The second type of an alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 10 4 ). This detector can also operate in a cascaded mode or being combined with other detectors, for example with MICROMEGAS. This detector was readout by a conventional charge -sensitive amplifier and was able to detect alpha particles with 100% efficiency. This detector could also detect X-ray photons or fast electrons. A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as a comparison with commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible applications of these new detectors is alpha particle background monitors which, due to their low cost can find wide application not only in houses, but

  13. Effects of particle size of processed barley grain, enzyme addition and microwave treatment on disappearance and gas production for feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Tagawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The effects of particle size of processed barley grain, enzyme addition and microwave treatment on in vitro dry matter (DM disappearance (DMD, gas production and fermentation pH were investigated for feedlot cattle. Methods Rumen fluid from four fistulated feedlot cattle fed a diet of 860 dry-rolled barley grain, 90 maize silage and 50 supplement g/kg DM was used as inoculum in 3 batch culture in vitro studies. In Experiment 1, dry-rolled barley and barley ground through a 1-, 2-, or 4-mm screen were used to obtain four substrates differing in particle size. In Experiment 2, cellulase enzyme (ENZ from Acremonium cellulolyticus Y-94 was added to dry-rolled and ground barley (2-mm at 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/g, while Experiment 3 examined the interactions between microwaving (0, 30, and 60 s microwaving and ENZ addition (0, 1, and 2 mg/g using dry-rolled barley and 2-mm ground barley. Results In Experiment 1, decreasing particle size increased DMD and gas production, and decreased fermentation pH (p<0.01. The DMD (g/kg DM of the dry-rolled barley after 24 h incubation was considerably lower (p<0.05 than that of the ground barley (119.1 dry-rolled barley versus 284.8 for 4-mm, 341.7 for 2-mm; and 358.6 for 1-mm. In Experiment 2, addition of ENZ to dry-rolled barley increased DMD (p<0.01 and tended to increase (p = 0.09 gas production and decreased (p<0.01 fermentation pH, but these variables were not affected by ENZ addition to ground barley. In Experiment 3, there were no interactions between microwaving and ENZ addition after microwaving for any of the variables. Microwaving had minimal effects (except decreased fermentation pH, but consistent with Experiment 2, ENZ addition increased (p<0.01 DMD and gas production, and decreased (p<0.05 fermentation pH of dry-rolled barley, but not ground barley. Conclusion We conclude that cellulase enzymes can be used to increase the rumen disappearance of barley grain when it is coarsely processed

  14. Direct deposition of gas phase generated aerosol gold nanoparticles into biological fluids--corona formation and particle size shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R Svensson

    Full Text Available An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs.

  15. Direct Deposition of Gas Phase Generated Aerosol Gold Nanoparticles into Biological Fluids - Corona Formation and Particle Size Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Christian R.; Messing, Maria E.; Lundqvist, Martin; Schollin, Alexander; Deppert, Knut; Pagels, Joakim H.; Rissler, Jenny; Cedervall, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity) to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs. PMID:24086363

  16. Effects of particle size of processed barley grain, enzyme addition and microwave treatment on in vitro disappearance and gas production for feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Shin-Ichi; Holtshausen, Lucia; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Wen Zhu; Beauchemin, Karen Ann

    2017-04-01

    The effects of particle size of processed barley grain, enzyme addition and microwave treatment on in vitro dry matter (DM) disappearance (DMD), gas production and fermentation pH were investigated for feedlot cattle. Rumen fluid from four fistulated feedlot cattle fed a diet of 860 dry-rolled barley grain, 90 maize silage and 50 supplement g/kg DM was used as inoculum in 3 batch culture in vitro studies. In Experiment 1, dry-rolled barley and barley ground through a 1-, 2-, or 4-mm screen were used to obtain four substrates differing in particle size. In Experiment 2, cellulase enzyme (ENZ) from Acremonium cellulolyticus Y-94 was added to dry-rolled and ground barley (2-mm) at 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/g, while Experiment 3 examined the interactions between microwaving (0, 30, and 60 s microwaving) and ENZ addition (0, 1, and 2 mg/g) using dry-rolled barley and 2-mm ground barley. In Experiment 1, decreasing particle size increased DMD and gas production, and decreased fermentation pH (pgas production and decreased (pgas production, and decreased (p<0.05) fermentation pH of dry-rolled barley, but not ground barley. We conclude that cellulase enzymes can be used to increase the rumen disappearance of barley grain when it is coarsely processed as in the case of dry-rolled barley. However, microwaving of barley grain offered no further improvements in ruminal fermentation of barley grain.

  17. Volcanic Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offensive odor. It is sometimes referred to as sewer gas. Interestingly, the human nose is more sensitive ... the atmosphere where they can potentially cause acid rain. In an ash -producing eruption, ash particles are ...

  18. Application of common y-intercept regression parameters for log Kp vs 1/ T for predicting gas-particle partitioning in the urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.

    Gas-particle partitioning is examined using a partitioning constant Kp = ( F/ TSP)/ A, where F (ng m -3) and A (ng m -3) are the particulate-associated and gas-phase concentrations, respectively, and TSP is the total suspended particulate matter level (μg m -3). Compound-dependent values of Kp depend on temperature ( T) according to Kp = mp/ T + bp. Limitations in data quality can cause errors in estimates of mp and bp obtained by simple linear regression (SLR). However, within a group of similar compounds, the bp values will be similar. By pooling data, an improved set of mp and a single bp can be obtained by common y-intercept regression (CYIR). SLR estimates for mp and bp for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbing to urban Osaka particulate matter are available (Yamasaki et al., 1982, Envir. Sci. Technol.16, 189-194), as are CYIR estimates for the same particulate matter (Pankow, 1991, Atmospheric Environment25A, 2229-2239). In this work, a comparison was conducted of the ability of these two sets of mp and bp to predict A/ F ratios for PAHs based on measured T and TSP values for data obtained in other urban locations, specifically: (1) in and near the Baltimore Harbor Tunnel by Benner (1988, Ph.D thesis, University of Maryland) and Benner et al. (1989, Envir. Sci. Technol.23, 1269-1278); and (2) in Chicago by Cotham (1990, Ph.D. thesis, University of South Carolina). In general, the CYIR estimates for mp and bp obtained for Osaka particulate matter were found to be at least as reliable, and for some compounds more reliable than their SLR counterparts in predicting gas-particle ratios for PAHs. This result provides further evidence of the utility of the CYIR approach in quantitating the dependence of log Kp values on 1/ T.

  19. Detection and control of as-produced pyrocarbon permeability in biso-coated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.; Thiele, B.A.; Lackey, W.J.; Morgan, C.S.

    1980-05-01

    About 60 Biso-coated particle batches with coatings deposited in either 0.13- or 0.24-m dia coaters were studied in this work. These batches were carefully characterized for permeability by neon-helium intrusion, long-term chlorination followed by radiography, and fission gas release. These methods of permeability measurement were compared and correlated with deposition conditions as well as pyrocarbon properties. The results from several irradiation tests were also used to evaluate the validity of the permeability measurements. The neon-helium and long-term chlorination techniques correlated very clearly. Coatings with neon-to-helium ratios below 0.3 were gastight by the chlorination procedure, whereas those with ratios above 0.4 were permeable. The fission gas release technique was unable to distinguish between slightly permeable coatings and gastight ones. Therefore, neon-helium and long-term chlorination procedures are preferred over the fission gas release technique. Results from several irradiation tests verified that coatings with neon-to-helium ratios below 0.3 were gastight, whereas those with ratios above about 0.4 were permeable. 10 figures, 2 tables

  20. Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator (FINS): A particle-based model of juvenile salmonid movement and dissolved gas exposure history in the Columbia River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model of juvenile salmonid migration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, employs a discrete, particle-based approach to simulate the migration and history of exposure to dissolved gases of individual fish. FINS is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories can be input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. Therefore, FINS serves as a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological impacts. FINS was parameterized and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998 . A quasi-inverse approach was used to decouple fish swimming movements from advection with the local water velocity, allowing inference of time series of non-advective displacements of individual fish from the radiotelemetry data. Statistical analyses of these displacements are presented, and confirm that strong temporal correlation of fish swimming behavior persists in some cases over several hours. A correlated random-walk model was employed to simulate the observed migration behavior, and parameters of the model were estimated that lead to close correspondence between predictions and observations

  1. A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.

  2. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    material extracted from MSW ash particles using a six-stage leaching process is studied using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The produced results provide useful information regarding the composition of the salt material and its melting behavior that is considered to play an important role...... to deposition and corrosion problems at MSW incinerators. The results may be used to model the deposition process and to the better understanding of the corrosion process during MSW incineration....

  3. Low Mach number asymptotics for reacting compressible fluid flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Petzeltová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2010), s. 455-480 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : low Mach number * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * reacting fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4660

  4. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  5. Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy for laser-ablated silicon particles in xenon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makimura, Tetsuya; Sakuramoto, Tamaki; Murakami, Kouichi

    1996-01-01

    We developed a laboratory-scale in situ apparatus for soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a time resolution of 10 ns and a space resolution of 100 μm. Utilizing this spectrometer, we have investigated the dynamics of silicon atoms formed by laser ablation in xenon gas. It was found that 4d-electrons in the xenon atoms are excited through collision with electrons in the laser-generated silicon plasma. (author)

  6. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs.

  7. Mathematical modeling and numerical study of a spray in a rarefied gas. Application to the simulation of dust particle transport in ITER in case of vacuum loss accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, F.

    2009-11-01

    The thesis deals with kinetic models describing a rarefied spray. These models rely on coupling two Partial Differential Equations which describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the distribution of molecules and dust particles. The model presented in the first part is described by two Boltzmann-type equations where collisions between molecules and particles are modeled by two collision operators. We suggest two models of this collision operators. In the first one, collisions between dust particles and molecules are supposed to be elastic. In the second one, we assume those collisions are inelastic and given by a diffuse reflexion mechanism on the surface of dust specks. This leads to establish non classical collision operators. We prove that in the case of elastic collisions, the spatially homogeneous system has weak solutions which preserve mass and energy, and which satisfy an entropy inequality. We then describe the numerical simulation of the inelastic model, which is based on a Direct Simulation Method. This brings to light that the numerical simulation of the system becomes too expensive because the typical size of a dust particle is too large. We therefore introduce in the second part of this work a model constituted of a coupling (by a drag force term) between a Boltzmann equation and a Vlasov equation. To this end, we perform a scaling of the Boltzmann/Boltzmann system and an asymptotic expansion of one of the dimensionless collision operators with respect to the ratio of mass between a molecule of gas and a particle. A rigorous proof of the passage to the limit is given in the spatially homogeneous setting, for the elastic model of collision operators. It includes a new variant of Povzner's inequality in which the vanishing mass ratio is taken into account. Moreover, we numerically compare the Boltzmann/Boltzmann and Vlasov/Boltzmann systems with the inelastic collision operators. The simulation of the Vlasov equation is performed with a Particle

  8. Formation of the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suetens, T., E-mail: thomas.suetens@mtm.kuleuven.be; Guo, M., E-mail: muxing.guo@mtm.kuleuven.be; Van Acker, K., E-mail: karel.vanacker@lrd.kuleuven.be; Blanpain, B., E-mail: bart.blanpain@mtm.kuleuven.be

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • EAF dust was characterized with particle size analysis, XRF, and EPMA. • Slag particles showed no sign of reaction with Zn vapor. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles showed different degrees of reaction based on their size. • The thermodynamic stability of Zn vapor in EAF off-gas ducts was reevaluated. • In presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Zn vapor reacts to form ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnO. - Abstract: To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation – a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology – was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber.

  9. Combining discrete equations method and upwind downwind-controlled splitting for non-reacting and reacting two-fluid computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, K.

    2012-01-01

    When numerically investigating multiphase phenomena during severe accidents in a reactor system, characteristic lengths of the multi-fluid zone (non-reactive and reactive) are found to be much smaller than the volume of the reactor containment, which makes the direct modeling of the configuration hardly achievable. Alternatively, we propose to consider the physical multiphase mixture zone as an infinitely thin interface. Then, the reactive Riemann solver is inserted into the Reactive Discrete Equations Method (RDEM) to compute high speed combustion waves represented by discontinuous interfaces. An anti-diffusive approach is also coupled with RDEM to accurately simulate reactive interfaces. Increased robustness and efficiency when computing both multiphase interfaces and reacting flows are achieved thanks to an original upwind downwind-controlled splitting method (UDCS). UDCS is capable of accurately solving interfaces on multi-dimensional unstructured meshes, including reacting fronts for both deflagration and detonation configurations. (author)

  10. One-year study of polycyclic aromatic compounds at an urban site in Grenoble (France): Seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning and cancer risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaz, Sophie [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Shahpoury, Pourya [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysiques de l' Environnement (LGGE), Université de Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS, Grenoble (France); Lammel, Gerhard [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Masaryk University, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Brno (Czech Republic); Perraudin, Emilie; Villenave, Eric [CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Albinet, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.albinet@gmail.com [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2016-09-15

    21 PAHs, 27 oxy-PAHs and 32 nitro-PAHs were measured every third day over a year in both gaseous (G) and particulate PM{sub 10} (P) phases in ambient air of Grenoble (France). Mean total concentrations (G + P) of PAHs and oxy-PAHs were in the same range and about 10 ng m{sup −3}. Nitro-PAHs were 50 to 100 times less concentrated averaging 100 pg m{sup −3}. Polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) concentrations were 5 to 7 times higher in “cold” period (October to March) than in “warm” period (April to September). Seasonal variations may be explained by higher primary emissions from residential heating, especially biomass burning in “cold” season. Meteorological conditions and influence of the geomorphology around Grenoble, with the formation of thermal inversion layers leading to the stagnation of pollutants, were additional key parameters. Maximum individual PAC concentrations were observed during two PM{sub 10} pollution events in December and February–March. Chemical processes and secondary formation of oxy- and nitro-PAH were probably enhanced by the accumulation of the pollutants during these events. PAC gas/particle partitioning depended on compound molecular weight and vapour pressure. Gas/particle partitioning of oxy- and nitro-PAHs were evaluated using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free energy relationship model. The PAC cancer risk was assessed using toxic equivalency factors available in the literature (19 PAHs, 10 nitro-PAHs and 1 oxy-PAH). Overall, particle-bound PACs contributed about 76% of the cancer risk. While PAHs accounted for most of the total PAC cancer risk, oxy- and nitro-PAHs could account for up to 24%. The risk quantification across substance classes is limited by toxicological data availability. - Highlights: • The most comprehensive study about PAH, nitro- and oxy-PAH in ambient air. • 80 species studied in gaseous and particle phases over a year at French urban site. • Concentration seasonality governed by

  11. Gas-discharge sources with charged particle emission from the plasma of glow discharge with a hollow cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, A P

    2001-01-01

    One studied properties of a magnetron discharge with a cold hollow and uncooled rod cathodes. One demonstrated the dominant effect of thermoelectron emission of a rod cathode heated in a discharge on characteristics of discharge and on emission properties of a gas-discharge plasma and the possibility pf a smooth transition of glow discharge to diffusion mode of arc discharge combustion. Paper describes sources of ions and electrons with improved physical and generalized design and engineering parameters. One shows the promise of the electrode structure of a hollow cathode magnetron discharge to be used as a source, in particular, of the atomic hydrogen and of atom flow of a working rod cathode

  12. Synthesis of Aluminum-Aluminum Nitride Nanocomposites by a Gas-Liquid Reaction II. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Cecilia; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2016-04-01

    In situ fabrication of the reinforcing particles in the metal matrix is an answer to many of the challenges encountered in manufacturing aluminum matrix nanocomposites. In this method, the nanoparticles are formed directly within the melt by means of a chemical reaction between a specially designed aluminum alloy and a gas. In this publication, we describe a process for synthesizing aluminum-aluminum nitride nanocomposites by reacting a nitrogen-containing gas with a molten aluminum-lithium alloy. We quantify the effect of the process parameters on the average particle size and particle distribution, as well as on the tendency of the particles to cluster in the alloy matrix, is quantified. Also in this publication, we present the measured room temperature and elevated temperature tensile properties of the nanocomposite material as well as its measured room temperature impact toughness.

  13. The physico-chemical evolution of atmospheric aerosols and the gas-particle partitioning of inorganic aerosol during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Park, T.; Lee, J. B.; Lim, Y. J.; Ahn, J.; Park, J. S.; Soo, C. J.; Desyaterik, Y.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols influence climate change directly by scattering and absorption and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and some of the effects of aerosols are reduction in visibility, deterioration of human health, and deposition of pollutants to ecosystems. Urban area is large source of aerosols and aerosol precursors. Aerosol sources are both local and from long-range transport. Long-range transport processed aerosol are often dominant sources of aerosol pollution in Korea. To improve our knowledge of aerosol chemistry, Korea and U.S-Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) of Aircraft-based aerosol measurement took place in and around Seoul, Korea during May and June 2016. KORUS-AQ campaigns were conducted to study the chemical characterization and processes of pollutants in the Seoul Metropolitan area to regional scales of Korean peninsula. Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed on aircraft platforms on-board DC-8 (NASA) aircraft. We characterized aerosol chemical properties and mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organics in polluted air plumes and investigate the spatial and vertical distribution of the species. The results of studies show that organics is predominant in Aerosol and a significant fraction of the organics is oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) at the high altitude. Both Nitrate and sulfate can partition between the gas and particle phases. The ratios for HNO3/(N(V) (=gaseous HNO3 + particulate Nitrate) and SO2/(SO2+Sulfate) were found to exhibit quite different distributions between the particles and gas phase for the locations during KORUS-AQ campaign, representing potential for formation of additional particulate nitrate and sulfate. The results of those studies can provide highly resolved temporal and spatial air pollutant, which are valuable for air quality model input parameters for aerosol behaviour.

  14. Gas and particle concentrations in horse stables with individual boxes as a function of the bedding material and the mucking regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, K; Hessel, E F; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different types of bedding and mucking regimens used in horse stables on the generation of airborne particulate matter bedding material (wheat straw, straw pellets, and wood shavings) used for horses were assessed according to their ammonia generation. Each type of bedding was used for 2 wk, with 3 repetitions. The mean ammonia concentrations within the stable were 3.07 +/- 0.23 mg/m(3) for wheat straw, 4.79 +/- 0.23 mg/m(3) for straw pellets, and 4.27 +/- 0.17 mg/m(3) for wood shavings. In Exp. 2, the effects of the mucking regimen on the generation of ammonia and PM10 from wheat straw (the bedding with the least ammonia generation in the previous experiment) were examined using 3 different daily regimens: 1) no mucking out, 2) complete mucking out, and 3) partial mucking out (removing only feces). The mean ammonia concentrations in the stable differed significantly among all 3 mucking regimens (P bedding regimen without mucking out was evaluated with regard to gas and airborne particle generation. The ammonia values were found not to increase constantly during the course of the 6-wk period. The average weekly values for PM10 also did not increase constantly but varied between approximately 90 and 140 microg/m. It can be concluded from the particle and gas generation patterns found in the results of all 3 experiments that wheat straw was the most suitable bedding of the 3 types investigated and that mucking out completely on a daily basis should not be undertaken in horse stables.

  15. Efficient removal of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) through reacting with recycled electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Ji Zhi; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2013-06-18

    This paper reports that recycled electroplating sludge is able to efficiently remove greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The removal process involves various reactions of SF6 with the recycled sludge. Remarkably, the sludge completely removed SF6 at a capacity of 1.10 mmol/g (SF6/sludge) at 600 °C. More importantly, the evolved gases were SO2, SiF4, and a limited amount of HF, with no toxic SOF4, SO2F2, or SF4 being detected. These generated gases can be readily captured and removed by NaOH solution. The reacted solids were further found to be various metal fluorides, thus revealing that SF6 removal takes place by reacting with various metal oxides and silicate in the sludge. Moreover, the kinetic investigation revealed that the SF6 reaction with the sludge is a first-order chemically controlled process. This research thus demonstrates that the waste electroplating sludge can be potentially used as an effective removal agent for one of the notorious greenhouse gases, SF6.

  16. Combined LAURA-UPS solution procedure for chemically-reacting flows. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure seeks to combine the thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver LAURA with the parabolized Navier-Stokes solver UPS for the aerothermodynamic solution of chemically-reacting air flowfields. The interface protocol is presented and the method is applied to two slender, blunted shapes. Both axisymmetric and three dimensional solutions are included with surface pressure and heat transfer comparisons between the present method and previously published results. The case of Mach 25 flow over an axisymmetric six degree sphere-cone with a noncatalytic wall is considered to 100 nose radii. A stability bound on the marching step size was observed with this case and is attributed to chemistry effects resulting from the noncatalytic wall boundary condition. A second case with Mach 28 flow over a sphere-cone-cylinder-flare configuration is computed at both two and five degree angles of attack with a fully-catalytic wall. Surface pressures are seen to be within five percent with the present method compared to the baseline LAURA solution and heat transfers are within 10 percent. The effect of grid resolution is investigated and the nonequilibrium results are compared with a perfect gas solution, showing that while the surface pressure is relatively unchanged by the inclusion of reacting chemistry the nonequilibrium heating is 25 percent higher. The procedure demonstrates significant, order of magnitude reductions in solution time and required memory for the three dimensional case over an all thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution.

  17. Approximate method of calculation of non-equilibrium flow parameters of chemically reacting nitrogen tetroxide in the variable cross-section channels with energy exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, M.A.; Fedosenko, G.Eh.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Mal'ko, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that adiabatic non-equilibrium chemically reacting gas flow with energy exchange in a variable cross-section channel may be subdivided into five possible types: 1) quasi-equilibrium flow; 2) flow in the linear region of deviation from equilibrium state; 3) quasi-frozen flow; 4) flow in the linear region of deviation from frozen state; 5) non-equilibrium flow. Criteria of quasi-equilibrium and quazi-frozen flows, including factors of external action of chemically reacting gas on flow, allow to obtain simple but sufficiently reliable approximate method of calculation of flow parameters. The considered method for solving the problem of chemically reacting nitrogen tetroxide in the variable cross-section channel with energy exchange can be used for evaluation of chemical reaction kinetics on the flow parameter in the stages of axial-flow and radial-flow turbines and in another practical problems

  18. SQL Triggers Reacting on Time Events: An Extension Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Andreas; Dorau, Christian; Manthey, Rainer

    Being able to activate triggers at timepoints reached or after time intervals elapsed has been acknowledged by many authors as a valuable functionality of a DBMS. Recently, the interest in time-based triggers has been renewed in the context of data stream monitoring. However, up till now SQL triggers react to data changes only, even though research proposals and prototypes have been supporting several other event types, in particular time-based ones, since long. We therefore propose a seamless extension of the SQL trigger concept by time-based triggers, focussing on semantic issues arising from such an extension.

  19. Tax havens under international pressure: How do they react?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Pieretti; Giuseppe Pulina

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature about tax havens by providing a more comprehensive analysis of their role. The aim is to analyze how low-tax jurisdictions can react to growing international pressure exerted, by high-tax countries, to enforce compliance with anti aggressive tax planning standards. To this end, we model how a small tax haven tries to be attractive to multinationals located in a high-tax region by providing aggressive tax planning services and/or a favorable environment...

  20. ReACT Methodology Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) funded INL Researchers to evaluate a novel process for assessing and mitigating cyber security risks. The proof of concept level of the method was tested in an industry environment. This case study, plus additional case studies will support the further development of the method into a tool to assist industry in securing their critical networks. This report provides an understanding of the process developed in the Response Analysis and Characterization Tool (ReACT) project. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these tools for use by industry.

  1. Numerical simulation of low Mach number reacting flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J B; Aspden, A J; Day, M S; Lijewski, M J

    2007-01-01

    Using examples from active research areas in combustion and astrophysics, we demonstrate a computationally efficient numerical approach for simulating multiscale low Mach number reacting flows. The method enables simulations that incorporate an unprecedented range of temporal and spatial scales, while at the same time, allows an extremely high degree of reaction fidelity. Sample applications demonstrate the efficiency of the approach with respect to a traditional time-explicit integration method, and the utility of the methodology for studying the interaction of turbulence with terrestrial and astrophysical flame structures

  2. Modeling and design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Hodges, George; Piccione, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Issues related to the design of biphasic (liquid) catalytic reaction operations are discussed. A chemical system involving the reaction of an organic-phase soluble reactant (A) with an aqueous-phase soluble reactant (B) in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) is modeled and based on it......, some of the design issues related to improved reaction operation are analyzed. Since the solubility of the different forms of the PTC in the organic solvent affects ultimately the catalyst partition coefficients, therefore, the organic solvent plays an important role in the design of PTC-based reacting...

  3. Measurement of interactions between solid particles, liquid droplets, and/or gas bubbles in a liquid using an integrated thin film drainage apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Louxiang; Sharp, David; Masliyah, Jacob; Xu, Zhenghe

    2013-03-19

    A novel device was designed to measure drainage dynamics of thin liquid films confined between a solid particle, an immiscible liquid droplet, and/or gas bubble. Equipped with a bimorph force sensor, a computer-interfaced video capture, and a data acquisition system, the newly designed integrated thin film drainage apparatus (ITFDA) allows for the direct and simultaneous measurements of force barrier, true film drainage time, and bubble/droplet deformation under a well-controlled external force, receding and advancing contact angles, capillary force, and adhesion (detachment) force between an air bubble or oil droplet and a solid, a liquid, or an air bubble in an immiscible liquid. Using the diaphragm of a high-frequency speaker as the drive mechanism for the air bubble or oil droplet attached to a capillary tube, this newly designed device is capable of measuring forces over a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, including bubble approach and retract velocities up to 50 mm/s and displacement range up to 1 mm. The results showed that the ITFDA was capable of measuring hydrodynamic resistance, film drainage time, and other important physical parameters between air bubbles and solid particles in aqueous solutions. As an example of illustrating the versatility, the ITFDA was also applied to other important systems such as interactions between air bubble and oil droplet, two air bubbles, and two oil droplets in an aqueous solution.

  4. Erosion of common structural materials and the degradation of suspended particles in flowing suspension of graphite powder in carbon dioxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, D.A.; Hawes, R.I.; Rose, P.W.

    1968-06-01

    Experiments have been performed to examine the erosion of common materials of construction by a flowing suspension of graphite powder in carbon dioxide gas and the degradation of the graphite powder in the suspension. The suspension was circulated through a stainless steel loop at a pressure of 200 p.s.i.g. and bulk fluid temperature of 100-150 deg. C. No change in the weight of pins of mild steel, stainless steel and zircaloy, which were placed across the flow stream in a region where the velocity approached 100 ft./sec, could be detected after 350 hours of circulation. Examination of micro-photographs of the cross sections of the specimens showed no change in the structure of the metals. Considerable erosion of graphite pins producing a 6% decrease in the weight was observed under similar conditions. Detailed spectrographic analysis of the suspended powder taken at various times during the experiment showed no noticeable increase in the impurity content which could be attributed to erosion of the test specimens. A considerable increase in the tungsten, tin and cobalt concentration was observed and this is attributed to wear of the pump seal surfaces. The mean particle size of the suspended graphite powder was observed to decrease rapidly from 5 microns to 3 microns after only a few hours of circulation in the loop. After this initial period there was little further change in the particle size, the mean diameter being 2.85 microns after 167 hours of circulation. (author)

  5. Characterisation of organic compounds in aerosol particles from a finnish forest by on-line coupled supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimmo, Masahiko; Jaentti, Jaana; Hartonen, Kari; Hyoetylaeinen, Tuulia; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, 00014, Helsinki (Finland); Aalto, Pasi; Kulmala, Markku [Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-04-01

    During the European Union project Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary Layer (QUEST), which began in spring 2003, atmospheric aerosol particles were collected in a Finnish Scots pine forest using a high-volume sampler. The organic compounds in the filter samples were then analysed by on-line coupled supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SFE-LC-GC-MS). The sample was first extracted by SFE. During LC the extracts were fractionated into three fractions according to polarity. The final separation was carried out by GC-MS. A fraction volume as high as 840 {mu}L was transferred to the GC, using the partial concurrent eluent evaporation technique. The same instrumentation, with an in-situ SFE derivatisation method, was used to analyse organic acids. Major compounds such as n-alkanes and PAH were analysed quantitatively. Their concentrations were lower than those usually observed in urban areas or in other forest areas in Europe. The wind direction was one of the most important factors affecting changes in the daily concentrations of these compounds. Scots pine needles were analysed with the same system to obtain reference data for identification of biogenic compounds in aerosol particles. Other organic compounds found in this study included hopanes, steranes, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, oxy-PAH, and alkyl-PAH; some biogenic products, including oxidation products of monoterpenes, were also identified. (orig.)

  6. Solutions for correlations along the coexistence curve and at the critical point of a kagomé lattice gas with three-particle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J. H.; Muttalib, K. A.; Tanaka, T.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (d=2) kagomé lattice gas model with attractive three-particle interactions around each triangular face of the kagomé lattice. Exact solutions are obtained for multiparticle correlations along the liquid and vapor branches of the coexistence curve and at criticality. The correlation solutions are also determined along the continuation of the curvilinear diameter of the coexistence region into the disordered fluid region. The method generates a linear algebraic system of correlation identities with coefficients dependent only upon the interaction parameter. Using a priori knowledge of pertinent solutions for the density and elementary triplet correlation, one finds a closed and linearly independent set of correlation identities defined upon a spatially compact nine-site cluster of the kagomé lattice. Resulting exact solution curves of the correlations are plotted and discussed as functions of the temperature and are compared with corresponding results in a traditional kagomé lattice gas having nearest-neighbor pair interactions. An example of application for the multiparticle correlations is demonstrated in cavitation theory.

  7. Separation of submicron particles from biofuel combustion with flue gas condensation or wet condensing electrostatic precipitator. Analysis of possibilities; Avskiljning av submikrona partiklar vid biobraenslefoerbraenning med roekgaskondensering eller kondenserande vaata elfilter. Analys av moejligheterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Gustavsson, Lennart [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Dust particles in flue gas larger than 1 {mu}m are well separated by conventional techniques, while submicron particles are poorly separated. As the use of biofuels with high ash content is increasing, as well as knowledge about negative health effects from inhalation of submicron particles, the interest for reduction of emissions of submicron particles will probably increase. The aim of this project is to investigate possible techniques for separation of submicron particles during flue gas condensation through modification of conventional technique, or with available techniques not usually used with combustion of biofuels, e.g. a wet electrostatic precipitator. Mechanisms for separation of dust particles are briefly described. Cyclones separates particles larger than about 1 {mu}m. Fabric filters separates all particles sizes, but the efficiency reduces as the size reduces. In flue gas condensers and scrubbers the speed and size of water droplets are important for the reduction efficiency. Dry electrostatic precipitators work for all particle sizes, but with reduced efficiency for sizes between 0.1 and 3 {mu}m. Wet electrostatic precipitators separates submicron particles much better. One reason for this is that the potential between the electrodes can be higher. Among conventional flue gas condensers and scrubbers there are two types that, properly designed, can separate submicron particles, namely 'type venturi scrubbers', i.e. a scrubber where a high flue gas velocity is used to form many, small water droplets by friction forces in a nozzle, and 'type scrubber with nozzles', i.e. a scrubber where nozzles supply droplets to the flue gas. For a scrubber with nozzles, the falling velocity of the droplets must be lower and the size smaller than is common today. Also the wet electrostatic precipitator separates submicron particles with high efficiency. They are used today mainly for problematic particles, e.g. sticky or corrosive ones, or for

  8. On the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process with added energetic solid particles for pulse detonation engines (PDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V. B.; Li, J.; Chang, P.-H.; Phan, Q. T.; Teo, C. J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations are performed to study the dynamics of the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in pulse detonation engines (PDE) using energetic aluminum particles. The DDT process and detonation wave propagation toward the unburnt hydrogen/air mixture containing solid aluminum particles is numerically studied using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. A hybrid numerical methodology combined with appropriate sub-models is used to capture the gas dynamic characteristics, particle behavior, combustion characteristics, and two-way solid-particle-gas flow interactions. In our approach, the gas mixture is expressed in the Eulerian frame of reference, while the solid aluminum particles are tracked in the Lagrangian frame of reference. The implemented computer code is validated using published benchmark problems. The obtained results show that the aluminum particles not only shorten the DDT length but also reduce the DDT time. The improvement of DDT is primarily attributed to the heat released from surface chemical reactions on the aluminum particles. The temperatures associated with the DDT process are greater than the case of non-reacting particles added, with an accompanying rise in the pressure. For an appropriate range of particle volume fraction, particularly in this study, the higher volume fraction of the micro-aluminum particles added in the detonation chamber can lead to more heat energy released and more local instabilities in the combustion process (caused by the local high temperature), thereby resulting in a faster DDT process. In essence, the aluminum particles contribute to the DDT process of successfully transitioning to detonation waves for (failure) cases in which the fuel gas mixture can be either too lean or too rich. With a better understanding of the influence of added aluminum particles on the dynamics of the DDT and detonation process, we can apply it to modify the geometry of the detonation chamber (e.g., the length of

  9. Steam bubble growth in the bulk of overheated N2O4-NO chemically reacting solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtsev, V.A.; Cherkashin, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A mathematical model and numerical investigation of the vapour bubble growth that begins from the bubble critical size at the positive radius fluctuation during the initial moment in the bulk of the overheated N 2 O 4 -NO liquid solution are presented. The mathematical model has been stated under the following assumptions: the movement of a bubble wall and surrounding liquid is spherically symmetrical; thermal parameters in the bubble are distributed uniformly; the vapour phase follows the ideal gas law; heat transfer is not affected by the compressibility of liquid; if dissolution of light components is determined by Henry's law, then Hertz-Knudsen's equation determines the velocity of phase transition for a N 2 O 4 component. The mathematical model presented can be applied to another fluids, including chemically reacting ones

  10. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2010-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO3-, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB), then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5) for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2-10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6-9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for biomass burning, so it could be a source of interference in some areas when using

  11. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC, anhydrosugars, Cl, NO3, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB, then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5 for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2–10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6–9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for

  12. Nb3Sn dipole magnet reacted after winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Scanlan, R.; Peters, C.; Wolgast, R.; Gilbert, W.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.

    1984-09-01

    A 5 cm bore dia., 1-m-long dipole model magnet was constructed by winding un-reacted cable, followed by reaction and epoxy-impregnation. Experience and test results are described on the 1.7 mm dia. internal-tin wire, the eleven-strand flattened cable, fiberglass insulation, and construction of the magnet. Each half of the magnet has two double-pancake-type windings that were reacted in a single operation. The two double-pancakes were then separately vacuum impregnated after soldering the flexible Nb-Ti leads to the Nb 3 Sn conductors. No iron flux return yoke was used. In initial tests a central field of 8.0 T was reached at 4.4 K. However, evidence from training behavior, and 1.8 K tests indicate that premature quenching, rather than critical current of the cable, limited the field intensity. The magnet was reassembled and more rigidly clamped; additional test results are reported

  13. Sticky tunes: how do people react to involuntary musical imagery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Williamson

    Full Text Available The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI or 'earworms'; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies.

  14. Sticky Tunes: How Do People React to Involuntary Musical Imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Liikkanen, Lassi A.; Jakubowski, Kelly; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI) or ‘earworms’; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies. PMID:24497938

  15. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jeffrey Joseph

    This dissertation: (i) develops a novel numerical method for DNS/LES of compressible, turbulent reacting flows, (ii) performs several validation simulations, (iii) studies auto-ignition of a hydrogen vortex ring in air and (iv) studies a hydrogen/air turbulent diffusion flame. The numerical method is spatially non-dissipative, implicit and applicable over a range of Mach numbers. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are rescaled so that the zero Mach number equations are discretely recovered in the limit of zero Mach number. The dependent variables are co--located in space, and thermodynamic variables are staggered from velocity in time. The algorithm discretely conserves kinetic energy in the incompressible, inviscid, non--reacting limit. The chemical source terms are implicit in time to allow for stiff chemical mechanisms. The algorithm is readily applicable to complex chemical mechanisms. Good results are obtained for validation simulations. The algorithm is used to study auto-ignition in laminar vortex rings. A nine species, nineteen reaction mechanism for H2/air combustion proposed by Mueller et al. [37] is used. Diluted H 2 at ambient temperature (300 K) is injected into hot air. The simulations study the effect of fuel/air ratio, oxidizer temperature, Lewis number and stroke ratio (ratio of piston stroke length to diameter). Results show that auto--ignition occurs in fuel lean, high temperature regions with low scalar dissipation at a 'most reactive' mixture fraction, zeta MR (Mastorakos et al. [32]). Subsequent evolution of the flame is not predicted by zetaMR; a most reactive temperature TMR is defined and shown to predict both the initial auto-ignition as well as subsequent evolution. For stroke ratios less than the formation number, ignition in general occurs behind the vortex ring and propagates into the core. At higher oxidizer temperatures, ignition is almost instantaneous and occurs along the entire interface between fuel and oxidizer. For stroke

  16. Quantum-size effects in the energy loss of charged particles interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A. G.; Juaristi, J. I.; Muino, R. Diez; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Echenique, P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory is used to calculate quantum-size effects in the energy loss of antiprotons interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas. The antiprotons follow a trajectory normal to jellium circular clusters of variable size, crossing every cluster at its geometrical center. Analysis of the characteristic time scales that define the process is made. For high-enough velocities, the interaction time between the projectile and the target electrons is shorter than the time needed for the density excitation to travel along the cluster. The finite-size object then behaves as an infinite system, and no quantum-size effects appear in the energy loss. For small velocities, the discretization of levels in the cluster plays a role and the energy loss does depend on the system size. A comparison to results obtained using linear theory of screening is made, and the relative contributions of electron-hole pair and plasmon excitations to the total energy loss are analyzed. This comparison also allows us to show the importance of a nonlinear treatment of the screening in the interaction process

  17. A study of an optimal technological solution for the electronics of particle position sensitive gas detectors (multiwire proportional chambers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zojceski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This work aims at optimizing the electronics for position sensitive gas detectors. The first part is a review of proportional chamber operation principles and presents the different possibilities for the architecture of the electronics. The second part involves electronic signal processing for best signal-to-noise ratio. We present a time-variant filter based on a second order base line restorer.It allows a simple pole-zero and tail cancellation at high counting rates. Also, various interpolating algorithms for cathode strip chambers have been studied. The last part reports the development of a complete electronic system, from the preamplifiers up to the readout and control interface, for the cathode strip chambers in the focal plane of the BBS Spectrometer at KVI, Holland. The system is based on application specific D-size VXI modules. In all modules, the 16-bit ADCs and FIFO memory are followed by a Digital Signal Processor, which performs data filtering and cathode induced charge interpolation. Very good analog noise performance is obtained in a multi-processor environment. (author)

  18. Effect of pH on particles size and gas sensing properties of In_2O_3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, Kanica; Thangaraj, Rengasamy; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2016-01-01

    In this work, indium oxide (In_2O_3) nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation method and the effect of pH on the structural and sensor response values of In_2O_3 nanoparticles has been reported. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) revealed the formation of cubic phase In_2O_3 nanoparticles. FESEM results indicate the formation of nearly spherical shape In_2O_3 nanoparticles. The band gap energy value changed with change in pH value and found to have highest value at pH 9. Indium oxide nanoparticles thus prepared were deposited as thick films on alumina substrates to act as gas sensors and their sensing response to ethanol vapors and LPG at 50 ppm was investigated at different operating temperatures. It has been observed that all sensors exhibited optimum response at 300°C towards ethanol and at 400°C towards LPG. In_2O_3 nanoparticles prepared at pH 9, being smallest in size as compared to other, exhibit highest sensor response (SR).

  19. Greenhouse gas network design using backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling - Part 1: Methodology and Australian test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, T.; Nickless, A.; Rayner, P. J.; Law, R. M.; Roff, G.; Fraser, P.

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the generation of optimal atmospheric measurement networks for determining carbon dioxide fluxes over Australia using inverse methods. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to calculate the relationship between weekly surface fluxes, comprising contributions from the biosphere and fossil fuel combustion, and hourly concentration observations for the Australian continent. Meteorological driving fields are provided by the regional version of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) at 12 km resolution at an hourly timescale. Prior uncertainties are derived on a weekly timescale for biosphere fluxes and fossil fuel emissions from high-resolution model runs using the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model and the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) respectively. The influence from outside the modelled domain is investigated, but proves to be negligible for the network design. Existing ground-based measurement stations in Australia are assessed in terms of their ability to constrain local flux estimates from the land. We find that the six stations that are currently operational are already able to reduce the uncertainties on surface flux estimates by about 30%. A candidate list of 59 stations is generated based on logistic constraints and an incremental optimisation scheme is used to extend the network of existing stations. In order to achieve an uncertainty reduction of about 50%, we need to double the number of measurement stations in Australia. Assuming equal data uncertainties for all sites, new stations would be mainly located in the northern and eastern part of the continent.

  20. Greenhouse gas network design using backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling − Part 1: Methodology and Australian test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziehn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the generation of optimal atmospheric measurement networks for determining carbon dioxide fluxes over Australia using inverse methods. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to calculate the relationship between weekly surface fluxes, comprising contributions from the biosphere and fossil fuel combustion, and hourly concentration observations for the Australian continent. Meteorological driving fields are provided by the regional version of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS at 12 km resolution at an hourly timescale. Prior uncertainties are derived on a weekly timescale for biosphere fluxes and fossil fuel emissions from high-resolution model runs using the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE model and the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS respectively. The influence from outside the modelled domain is investigated, but proves to be negligible for the network design. Existing ground-based measurement stations in Australia are assessed in terms of their ability to constrain local flux estimates from the land. We find that the six stations that are currently operational are already able to reduce the uncertainties on surface flux estimates by about 30%. A candidate list of 59 stations is generated based on logistic constraints and an incremental optimisation scheme is used to extend the network of existing stations. In order to achieve an uncertainty reduction of about 50%, we need to double the number of measurement stations in Australia. Assuming equal data uncertainties for all sites, new stations would be mainly located in the northern and eastern part of the continent.

  1. Swirl and blade wakes in the interaction between gas turbines and exhaust diffusers investigated by endoscopic particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opilat, Victor

    2011-10-21

    Exhaust diffusers studied in this thesis are installed behind the last turbine stage of gas turbines, including those used in combined cycle power plants. Extensive research made in recent years proved that effects caused by an upstream turbine need to be taken into account when designing efficient diffusers. Under certain conditions these effects can stabilize the boundary layer in diffusers and prevent separation. In this research the impact of multiple parameters, such as tip leakage flow, swirl, and rotating blade wakes, on the performance of a diffuser is studied. Experiments were conducted using a diffuser test rig with a rotating bladed wheel as a turbine effect generator and with an additional tip leakage flow insert. The major advantages of this test rig are modularity and easy variation of the main parameters. To capture the complexity and understand the physics of diffuser flow, and to clarify the phenomenon of the flow stabilisation, the 2D endoscopic laser optical measurement technique Partide Image Velocimetry (PIV) was adopted to the closed ''rotating'' diffuser test rig. Intensity and distribution of vortices in the blade tip area are decisive for diffuser performance. Large vortices in the annular diffuser inlet behind the blade tips interact with the boundary layer in diffusers. At design point these vortices are very early suppressed by the main flow. For the operating point with a low value of the flow coefficient (negative swirl), vortices are ab out two tim es stronger than for design point and the boundary layer is destabilized. V mtices develop in the direction contrary to swirl in the main flow and just cause flow destabilization. Coherent back flow zones are induced and reduction of diffuser performance occurs. For the operating point with positive swirl (for a high flow coefficient value), these vortices are also strong but do not counteract the main flow because they develop in the same direction with the swirl in the

  2. Application of FIGAERO (Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsol) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to field and chamber organic aerosol: Implications for carboxylic acid formation and gas-particle partitioning from monoterpene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Thornton, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present measurements of a large suite of gas and particle phase carboxylic acid containing compounds made with a Filter Inlet for Gas and AEROsol (FIGAERO) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. A prototype operated with acetate negative ion proton transfer chemistry was deployed on the Julich Plant Atmosphere Chamber to study a-pinene oxidation, and a modified version was deployed at the SMEAR II forest station in Hyytiälä, Finland and SOAS, in Brent Alabama. We focus here on results from JPAC and Hyytiälä, where we utilized the same ionization method most selective towards carboxylic acids. In all locations, 100's of organic acid compounds were observed in the gas and particles and many of the same composition acids detected in the gas-phase were detected in the particles upon temperature programmed thermal desorption. Particulate organics detected by FIGAERO are highly correlated with organic aerosol mass measured by an AMS, providing additional volatility and molecular level information about collected aerosol. The fraction of a given compound measured in the particle phase follows expected trends with elemental composition, but many compounds would not be well described by an absorptive partitioning model assuming unity activity coefficients. Moreover the detailed structure in the thermal desorption signals reveals a contribution from thermal decomposition of large molecular weight organics and or oligomers with implications for partitioning measurements and model validation

  3. Vorticity Dynamics in Single and Multiple Swirling Reacting Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Travis; Aguilar, Michael; Emerson, Benjamin; Noble, David; Lieuwen, Tim

    2015-11-01

    This presentation describes an analysis of the unsteady flow structures in two multinozzle swirling jet configurations. This work is motivated by the problem of combustion instabilities in premixed flames, a major concern in the development of modern low NOx combustors. The objective is to compare the unsteady flow structures in these two configurations for two separate geometries and determine how certain parameters, primarily distance between jets, influence the flow dynamics. The analysis aims to differentiate between the flow dynamics of single nozzle and triple nozzle configurations. This study looks at how the vorticity in the shear layers of one reacting swirling jet can affect the dynamics of a nearby similar jet. The distance between the swirling jets is found to have an effect on the flow field in determining where swirling jets merge and on the dynamics upstream of the merging location. Graduate Student, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

  4. Optimal stretching in the reacting wake of a bluff body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinge; Tithof, Jeffrey; Nevins, Thomas D; Colón, Rony O; Kelley, Douglas H

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally study spreading of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction behind a bluff body in a laminar flow. Locations of reacted regions (i.e., regions with high product concentration) correlate with a moderate range of Lagrangian stretching and that range is close to the range of optimal stretching previously observed in topologically different flows [T. D. Nevins and D. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 164502 (2016)]. The previous work found optimal stretching in a closed, vortex dominated flow, but this article uses an open flow and only a small area of appreciable vorticity. We hypothesize that optimal stretching is common in advection-reaction-diffusion systems with an excitation threshold, including excitable and bistable systems, and that the optimal range depends on reaction chemistry and not on flow shape or characteristic speed. Our results may also give insight into plankton blooms behind islands in ocean currents.

  5. Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting flows: Theory and numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Liberman, M; Lipatnikov, A N; Rogachevskii, I; Yu, R

    2017-11-01

    The theory of turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures developed previously [T. Elperin et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 053001 (2014)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.90.053001] is generalized for large yet finite Reynolds numbers and the dependence of turbulent diffusion coefficient on two parameters, the Reynolds number and Damköhler number (which characterizes a ratio of turbulent and reaction time scales), is obtained. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a finite-thickness reaction wave for the first-order chemical reactions propagating in forced, homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible turbulence are performed to validate the theoretically predicted effect of chemical reactions on turbulent diffusion. It is shown that the obtained DNS results are in good agreement with the developed theory.

  6. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  7. LES-ODT Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Shear Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffie, Andreas; Echekki, Tarek

    2012-11-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) simulations of a spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layer with heat release and high Reynolds numbers were conducted and compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the same configuration. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine ODT grid, which is embedded in the LES computational domain. The shear layer is simulated with a single-step, second-order reaction with an Arrhenius reaction rate. The transport equations are solved using a low Mach number approximation. The LES-ODT simulations yield reasonably accurate predictions of turbulence and passive/reactive scalars' statistics compared to DNS results.

  8. How preschoolers react to norm violations is associated with culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, Anja; Daum, Moritz M

    2018-01-01

    Children from the age of 3years understand social norms as such and enforce these norms in interactions with others. Differences in parental and institutional education across cultures make it likely that children receive divergent information about how to act in cases of norm violations. In the current study, we investigated whether cultural values are associated with the ways in which children react to norm violations. We tested 80 bicultural 3-year-olds with a norm enforcement paradigm and analyzed their reactions to norm violations. The reactions were correlated to the children's parental cultural values using the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) scales, and these results show that parental culture was associated with children's reactions to norm violations. The three strongest correlations were found for institutional collectivism, performance orientation, and assertiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  10. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetens, T; Guo, M; Van Acker, K; Blanpain, B

    2015-04-28

    To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe2O4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe2O4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe2O4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation - a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology - was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe2O4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fungal decay resistance of wood reacted with phosphorus pentoxide-amine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of wood reacted in situ with phosphorus pentoxide-amine to the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was examined. Wood reacted with either octyl, tribromo, or nitro derivatives were more resistant to both fungi. Threshold retention values of phosphoramide-reacted wood to white-rot fungus T. versicolor ranged from 2.9...

  12. Gas attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, D.

    1977-08-01

    Consumersfirst Ltd. is reacting to deregulation with a massive advertising campaign. The gas utility is owned by Consumers Gas Energy Inc., and is struggling to hold onto its 35 per cent share of Ontario`s two million residential natural gas buyers. An industry analyst pointed out that deregulation could mean that Consumers` Gas has much to lose: customers, market share, control of the assets and control of the process. The Ontario Energy Board (OEB) however, had specified that Consumersfirst is not to proceed with paperwork to sign up new customers until the OEB issues a draft code-of-conduct that would prevent cross-subsidizing between regulated franchise holders. This has now been done, and several heavyweights such as Calgary-based Suncor Energy Inc., Union Gas of Chatham, Ontario, and the US-based Enron Corp. of Houston, have started campaigns to sign up potential consumers. It is predicted that brand loyalty will be a factor, but in the end, like long distance telephone rates, it will all come down to pricing, and a winning formula is not easy to find.

  13. The formation of aerosol particles during combustion of biomass and waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerrild Zeuthen, J

    2007-05-15

    This thesis describes the formation of aerosol particles during combustion of biomass and waste. The formation of aerosol particles is investigated by studying condensation of alkali salts from synthetic flue gasses in a laboratory tubular furnace. In this so-called laminar flow aerosol condenser-furnace gaseous alkali chlorides are mixed with sulphur dioxide, water vapour and oxygen. At high temperatures the alkali chloride reacts with sulphur dioxide to form alkali sulphate. During subsequent cooling of the synthetic flue gas the chlorides and sulphates condense either as deposits on walls or on other particles or directly from the gas phase by homogenous nucleation. A previously developed computer code for simulation of one-component nucleation of particles in a cylindrical laminar flow is extended to include a homogeneous gas phase reaction to produce gaseous alkali sulphate. The formation of aerosol particles during full-scale combustion of wheat straw is investigated in a 100 MW grate-fired boiler. Finally, aerosols from incineration of waste are investigated during full-scale combustion of municipal waste in a 22 MW grate-fired unit. (BA)

  14. MP Salsa: a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 1--theoretical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.

  15. Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO: an improved state to state approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Capitelli, M.

    2017-12-01

    Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO for conditions typically met in microwave discharges have been developed based on the coupling of excited state kinetics and the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Particular attention is given to the insertion in the vibrational kinetics of a complete set of electron molecule resonant processes linking the whole vibrational ladder of the CO molecule, as well as to the role of Boudouard reaction, i.e. the process of forming CO2 by two vibrationally excited CO molecules, in shaping the vibrational distribution of CO and promoting reaction channels assisted by vibrational excitation (pure vibrational mechanisms, PVM). PVM mechanisms can become competitive with electron impact dissociation processes (DEM) in the activation of CO. A case study reproducing the conditions of a microwave discharge has been considered following the coupled kinetics also in the post discharge conditions. Results include the evolution of EEDF in discharge and post discharge conditions highlighting the role of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions in shaping the EEDF. Moreover, PVM rate coefficients and DEM ones are studied as a function of gas temperature, showing a non-Arrhenius behavior, i.e. the rate coefficients increase with decreasing gas temperature as a result of a vibrational-vibrational (V-V) pumping up mechanism able to form plateaux in the vibrational distribution function. The accuracy of the results is discussed in particular in connection to the present knowledge of the activation energy of the Boudouard process.

  16. Analysis of the trend to equilibrium of a chemically reacting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M; Bianchi, Miriam Pandolfi; Soares, Ana Jacinta

    2007-01-01

    In this present paper, a quaternary gaseous reactive mixture, for which the chemical reaction is close to its final stage and the elastic and reactive frequencies are comparable, is modelled within the Boltzmann equation extended to reacting gases. The main objective is a detailed analysis of the non-equilibrium effects arising in the reactive system A 1 + A 2 ↔ A 3 + A 4 , in a flow regime which is considered not far away from thermal, mechanical and chemical equilibrium. A first-order perturbation solution technique is applied to the macroscopic field equations for the spatially homogeneous gas system, and the trend to equilibrium is studied in detail. Adopting elastic hard-spheres and reactive line-of-centres cross sections and an appropriate choice of the input distribution functions-which allows us to distinguish the two cases where the constituents are either at same or different temperatures-explicit computations of the linearized production terms for mass, momentum and total energy are performed for each gas species. The departures from the equilibrium states of densities, temperatures and diffusion fluxes are characterized by small perturbations of their corresponding equilibrium values. For the hydrogen-chlorine system, the perturbations are plotted as functions of time for both cases where the species are either at the same or different temperatures. Moreover, the trend to equilibrium of the reaction rates is represented for the forward and backward reaction H 2 + Cl ↔ HCl + H

  17. Nuclear fuel element containing particles of an alloyed Zr, Ti, and Ni getter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles of alloy. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (Official Gazette)

  18. An experimental study on downstream of the transition of the chemically reacting liquid round free jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.D.; Sugii, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Madarame, H.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on the chemically reacting liquid round free jet, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was adopted to evaluate the diffusion width of the jet into liquid streams. In the fluid engineering, it is very important to evaluate the characteristics of reacting jet for the safety of the nuclear reactor. In this study, the jet profile of downstream region far away from the transition point was evaluated, providing comparisons between reacting and non-reacting jet case. The concentration of the jet solution was varied from 0.01 mol/L to 0.5 mol/L in reacting cases. In the downstream far away from the transition point, the jet profiles between reacting cases and non-reacting cases were visualized quite different. It was concluded that the chemical reaction affects the momentum diffusion of the jet in the downstream region. (author)

  19. Nonlinear Stability and Structure of Compressible Reacting Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M. J.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used to investigate issues of nonlinear flow development and mixing in compressible reacting shear layers. Particular interest is placed on investigating the change in flow structure that occurs when compressibility and heat release are added to the flow. These conditions allow the 'outer' instability modes- one associated with each of the fast and slow streams-to dominate over the 'central', Kelvin-Helmholtz mode that unaccompanied in incompressible nonreacting mixing layers. Analysis of scalar probability density functions in flows with dominant outer modes demonstrates the ineffective, one-sided nature of mixing that accompany these flow structures. Colayer conditions, where two modes have equal growth rate and the mixing layer is formed by two sets of vortices, offer some opportunity for mixing enhancement. Their extent, however, is found to be limited in the mixing layer's parameter space. Extensive validation of the PSE technique also provides a unique perspective on central- mode vortex pairing, further supporting the view that pairing is primarily governed perspective sheds insight on how linear stability theory is able to provide such an accurate prediction of experimentally-observed, fully nonlinear flow phenomenon.

  20. CERN reacts to increased costs to completion of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Aspects of LHC construction. The CERN Council, where the representatives of the 20 Member States of the Organization decide on scientific programmes and financial resources, held its 120th session on 14 December under the chairmanship of Prof. Maurice Bourquin (CH). CERN adjusts to the LHC Director-General, Luciano Maiani, stressed that CERN was now fully engaged in the LHC and outlined the first moves to react to the increased cost to completion of the LHC. The new accelerator is an extremely complex, high-tech project which CERN is building under very severe conditions. However, the technical challenges are solved and industrial production of accelerator elements, and installation are starting. Professor Maiani said that 2001 had been a very hard but decisive year for CERN. An important milestone had been passed during this meeting with the approval of the LHC dipole magnets contract, the last major contract for the accelerator. The new costs to completion of the LHC project are now clear. A first propos...

  1. The chilling effect: how do researchers react to controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kempner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can political controversy have a "chilling effect" on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Drawing on interview (n = 30 and survey data (n = 82, this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were "a waste of taxpayer money." The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.

  2. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  3. Particle acceleration by plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    2006-01-01

    In an advanced particle accelerator particles are driven near by light velocity through ionized gas. Such plasma devices are compact, cost efficient and usable in many fields. Examples are given in detail. (GL)

  4. Evolution of a chemically reacting plume in a ventilated room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, D. T.; Smith, Stefan G. Llewellyn; Caulfield, C. P.

    2005-08-01

    The dynamics of a second-order chemical reaction in an enclosed space driven by the mixing produced by a turbulent buoyant plume are studied theoretically, numerically and experimentally. An isolated turbulent buoyant plume source is located in an enclosure with a single external opening. Both the source and the opening are located at the bottom of the enclosure. The enclosure is filled with a fluid of a given density with a fixed initial concentration of a chemical. The source supplies a constant volume flux of fluid of different density containing a different chemical of known and constant concentration. These two chemicals undergo a second-order non-reversible reaction, leading to the creation of a third product chemical. For simplicity, we restrict attention to the situation where the reaction process does not affect the density of the fluids involved. Because of the natural constraint of volume conservation, fluid from the enclosure is continually vented. We study the evolution of the various chemical species as they are advected by the developing ventilated filling box process within the room that is driven by the plume dynamics. In particular, we study both the mean and vertical distributions of the chemical species as a function of time within the room. We compare the results of analogue laboratory experiments with theoretical predictions derived from reduced numerical models, and find excellent agreement. Important parameters for the behaviour of the system are associated with the source volume flux and specific momentum flux relative to the source specific buoyancy flux, the ratio of the initial concentrations of the reacting chemical input in the plume and the reacting chemical in the enclosed space, the reaction rate of the chemicals and the aspect ratio of the room. Although the behaviour of the system depends on all these parameters in a non-trivial way, in general the concentration within the room of the chemical input at the isolated source passes

  5. Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab

    2016-12-01

    We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.

  6. Gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organics on organic aerosols using a predictive activity coefficient model: analysis of the effects of parameter choices on model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Bharadwaj; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M.

    The partitioning of a diverse set of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) on a variety of organic aerosols was studied using smog chamber experimental data. Existing data on the partitioning of SOCs on aerosols from wood combustion, diesel combustion, and the α-pinene-O 3 reaction was augmented by carrying out smog chamber partitioning experiments on aerosols from meat cooking, and catalyzed and uncatalyzed gasoline engine exhaust. Model compositions for aerosols from meat cooking and gasoline combustion emissions were used to calculate activity coefficients for the SOCs in the organic aerosols and the Pankow absorptive gas/particle partitioning model was used to calculate the partitioning coefficient Kp and quantitate the predictive improvements of using the activity coefficient. The slope of the log K p vs. log p L0 correlation for partitioning on aerosols from meat cooking improved from -0.81 to -0.94 after incorporation of activity coefficients iγ om. A stepwise regression analysis of the partitioning model revealed that for the data set used in this study, partitioning predictions on α-pinene-O 3 secondary aerosol and wood combustion aerosol showed statistically significant improvement after incorporation of iγ om, which can be attributed to their overall polarity. The partitioning model was sensitive to changes in aerosol composition when updated compositions for α-pinene-O 3 aerosol and wood combustion aerosol were used. The octanol-air partitioning coefficient's ( KOA) effectiveness as a partitioning correlator over a variety of aerosol types was evaluated. The slope of the log K p- log K OA correlation was not constant over the aerosol types and SOCs used in the study and the use of KOA for partitioning correlations can potentially lead to significant deviations, especially for polar aerosols.

  7. Gas-particle interactions abo