Sample records for reacting flow modeling

  1. Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows

    Kerstein, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.

  2. Multiphase reacting flows modelling and simulation

    Marchisio, Daniele L


    The papers in this book describe the most widely applicable modeling approaches and are organized in six groups covering from fundamentals to relevant applications. In the first part, some fundamentals of multiphase turbulent reacting flows are covered. In particular the introduction focuses on basic notions of turbulence theory in single-phase and multi-phase systems as well as on the interaction between turbulence and chemistry. In the second part, models for the physical and chemical processes involved are discussed. Among other things, particular emphasis is given to turbulence modeling strategies for multiphase flows based on the kinetic theory for granular flows. Next, the different numerical methods based on Lagrangian and/or Eulerian schemes are presented. In particular the most popular numerical approaches of computational fluid dynamics codes are described (i.e., Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach). The book will cover particle-based meth...

  3. Chemically reacting supersonic flow calculation using an assumed PDF model

    Farshchi, M.


    This work is motivated by the need to develop accurate models for chemically reacting compressible turbulent flow fields that are present in a typical supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine. In this paper the development of a new assumed probability density function (PDF) reaction model for supersonic turbulent diffusion flames and its implementation into an efficient Navier-Stokes solver are discussed. The application of this model to a supersonic hydrogen-air flame will be considered.

  4. A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows

    Kollmann, W.


    The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.

  5. DNS, LES and Stochastic Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows


    the analytical results derived by Fendell (1965) via the method of matched asymptotic expansions. A typical DNS scatter plot of the product mass...fields. In Buckmaster, J. D., Jackson, T. L., and Kumar, A., editors, Combustion in High-Speed Flows. in press. Fendell , F. E. (1965). Ignition and

  6. Comparison of PDF and Moment Closure Methods in the Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Norris, Andrew T.; Hsu, Andrew T.


    In modeling turbulent reactive flows, Probability Density Function (PDF) methods have an advantage over the more traditional moment closure schemes in that the PDF formulation treats the chemical reaction source terms exactly, while moment closure methods are required to model the mean reaction rate. The common model used is the laminar chemistry approximation, where the effects of turbulence on the reaction are assumed negligible. For flows with low turbulence levels and fast chemistry, the difference between the two methods can be expected to be small. However for flows with finite rate chemistry and high turbulence levels, significant errors can be expected in the moment closure method. In this paper, the ability of the PDF method and the moment closure scheme to accurately model a turbulent reacting flow is tested. To accomplish this, both schemes were used to model a CO/H2/N2- air piloted diffusion flame near extinction. Identical thermochemistry, turbulence models, initial conditions and boundary conditions are employed to ensure a consistent comparison can be made. The results of the two methods are compared to experimental data as well as to each other. The comparison reveals that the PDF method provides good agreement with the experimental data, while the moment closure scheme incorrectly shows a broad, laminar-like flame structure.

  7. Algorithm For Computation Of Chemically Reacting Flow

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Chen, Chein-Pin; Shang, Huan-Min


    Efficient algorithm developed for use in solving differential equations of transient, chemically reacting flows at all speeds from zero to high mach numbers. Mathematical models represent coupling of thermal, chemical, and dynamical effects. Original intended application is numerical simulation of flows in rocket engines; also applicable to other complex flows affected by finite-rate chemistry - for example, flows in turbines and in internal-combustion engines.

  8. A numerical scheme for modelling reacting flow with detailed chemistry and transport.

    Knio, Omar M. (The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Najm, Habib N.; Paul, Phillip H. (Eksigent Technologies LLC, Livermore, CA)


    An efficient projection scheme is developed for the simulation of reacting flow with detailed kinetics and transport. The scheme is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the compressible conservation equations for an ideal gas mixture. It is a modified version of the stiff operator-split scheme developed by Knio, Najm & Wyckoff (1999, J. Comput. Phys. 154, 428). Similar to its predecessor, the new scheme relies on Strang splitting of the discrete evolution equations, where diffusion is integrated in two half steps that are symmetrically distributed around a single stiff step for the reaction source terms. The diffusive half-step is integrated using an explicit single-step, multistage, Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev (RKC) method, which replaces the explicit, multi-step, fractional sub-step approach used in the previous formulation. This modification maintains the overall second-order convergence properties of the scheme and enhances the efficiency of the computations by taking advantage of the extended real-stability region of the RKC scheme. Two additional efficiency-enhancements are also explored, based on an extrapolation procedure for the transport coefficients and on the use of approximate Jacobian data evaluated on a coarse mesh. By including these enhancement schemes, performance tests using 2D computations with a detailed C{sub 1}C{sub 2} methane-air mechanism and a detailed mixture-averaged transport model indicate that speedup factors of about 15 are achieved over the previous split-stiff scheme.

  9. PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows

    Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.


    The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.

  10. Numerical Methods For Chemically Reacting Flows

    Leveque, R. J.; Yee, H. C.


    Issues related to numerical stability, accuracy, and resolution discussed. Technical memorandum presents issues in numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws containing "stiff" (relatively large and rapidly changing) source terms. Such equations often used to represent chemically reacting flows. Usually solved by finite-difference numerical methods. Source terms generally necessitate use of small time and/or space steps to obtain sufficient resolution, especially at discontinuities, where incorrect mathematical modeling results in unphysical solutions.

  11. Combustion characteristics and turbulence modeling of swirling reacting flow in solid fuel ramjet

    Musa, Omer; Xiong, Chen; Changsheng, Zhou


    This paper reviews the historical studies have been done on the solid-fuel ramjet engine and difficulties associated with numerical modeling of swirling flow with combustible gases. A literature survey about works related to numerical and experimental investigations on solid-fuel ramjet as well as using swirling flow and different numerical approaches has been provided. An overview of turbulence modeling of swirling flow and the behavior of turbulence at streamline curvature and system rotation are presented. A new and simple curvature/correction factor is proposed in order to reduce the programming complexity of SST-CC turbulence model. Finally, numerical and experimental investigations on the impact of swirling flow on SFRJ have been carried out. For that regard, a multi-physics coupling code is developed to solve the problems of multi-physics coupling of fluid mechanics, solid pyrolysis, heat transfer, thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics. The connected-pipe test facility is used to carry out the experiments. The results showed a positive impact of swirling flow on SFRJ along with, three correlations are proposed.

  12. On Modeling the Response of Synovial Fluid: Unsteady Flow of a Shear-Thinning, Chemically-Reacting Fluid Mixture

    Bridges, Craig; Rajagopal, K R


    We study the flow of a shear-thinning, chemically-reacting fluid that could be used to model the flow of the synovial fluid. The actual geometry where the flow of the synovial fluid takes place is very complicated, and therefore the governing equations are not amenable to simple mathematical analysis. In order to understand the response of the model, we choose to study the flow in a simple geometry. While the flow domain is not a geometry relevant to the flow of the synovial fluid in the human body it yet provides a flow which can be used to assess the efficacy of different models that have been proposed to describe synovial fluids. We study the flow in the annular region between two cylinders, one of which is undergoing unsteady oscillations about their common axis, in order to understand the quintessential behavioral characteristics of the synovial fluid. We use the three models suggested by Hron et al. [ J. Hron, J. M\\'{a}lek, P. Pust\\v{e}jovsk\\'{a}, K. R. Rajagopal, On concentration dependent shear-thinni...

  13. Laser Diagnostics for Reacting Flows


    absorption diagnostic for vapor-phase measurements in an evaporating n-decane aerosol,” Appied Physics B. 97, 215-225, (2009). 30. J.M. Porter, J.B...fluorescence of toluene for time- resolved imaging of gaseous flows,” Appied Physics B, 2010, in press. 35. J.M. Porter, J.B. Jeffries and R.K. Hanson

  14. Reacting Flow of Hydrogen Chloride and Ammonia in Experimental and Numerical Modelling

    Dariusz Kardas; Katarzyna Falkowska


    The experimental and numerical investigations of the flow with reaction of two gases: hydrogen chloride HCl and ammonia NH_3 were performed.The article contains description of the visualisation method of the formation and flow of particles of ammonia chloride NH_4Cl.Analyses of mean concentration and variance of concentration fluctuations of dispersed phase were performed for different outputs of gases.Numerical calculations were performed for analysed phenomenon. Both numerical and visualisation results were matched and compared.

  15. Species Source Term Mapping for Reacting Flow CFD Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Simulations of reacting flow in applications such as scramjet engines are currently limited in their utility or accuracy by the chemistry sub-models employed....

  16. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    Paul, P.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  17. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part One: Zero-Dimensional Analysis

    Vincent Casseau


    Full Text Available A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrational-electronic temperatures. hy2Foam has the capability to model vibrational-translational and vibrational-vibrational energy exchanges in an eleven-species air mixture. It makes use of either the Park TTv model or the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV model to handle chemistry-vibration coupling and it can simulate flows with or without electronic energy. Verification of the code for various zero-dimensional adiabatic heat baths of progressive complexity has been carried out. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with those given by the CFD code LeMANS (The Michigan Aerothermodynamic Navier-Stokes solver and previously published data. A comparison is also performed with the open-source DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code dsmcFoam. It has been demonstrated that the use of the CVDV model and rates derived from Quantum-Kinetic theory promote a satisfactory consistency between the CFD and DSMC chemistry modules.

  18. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part Two: Multi-Dimensional Analysis †

    Vincent Casseau


    Full Text Available hy2Foam is a newly-coded open-source two-temperature computational fluid dynamics (CFD solver that has previously been validated for zero-dimensional test cases. It aims at (1 giving open-source access to a state-of-the-art hypersonic CFD solver to students and researchers; and (2 providing a foundation for a future hybrid CFD-DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code within the OpenFOAM framework. This paper focuses on the multi-dimensional verification of hy2Foam and firstly describes the different models implemented. In conjunction with employing the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV chemistry–vibration model, novel use is made of the quantum-kinetic (QK rates in a CFD solver. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with previously published data for a Mach 11 nitrogen flow over a blunted cone and with the dsmcFoam code for a Mach 20 cylinder flow for a binary reacting mixture. This latter case scenario provides a useful basis for other codes to compare against.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  20. Measurements of Non-reacting and Reacting Flow Fields of a Liquid Swirl Flame Burner

    CHONG Cheng Tung; HOCHGREB Simone


    The understanding of the liquid fuel spray and flow field characteristics inside a combustor is crucial for designing a fuel efficient and low emission device. Characterisation of the flow field of a model gas turbine liquid swirl burner is performed by using a 2-D particle imaging velocimetry(PIV) system. The flow field pattern of an axial flow burner with a fixed swirl intensity is compared under confined and unconfined conditions, i.e., with and without the combustor wall. The effect of temperature on the main swirling air flow is investigated under open and non-reacting conditions. The result shows that axial and radial velocities increase as a result of decreased flow density and increased flow volume. The flow field of the main swirling flow with liquid fuel spray injection is compared to non-spray swirling flow. Introduction of liquid fuel spray changes the swirl air flow field at the burner outlet, where the radial velocity components increase for both open and confined environment. Under reacting condition, the enclosure generates a corner recirculation zone that intensifies the strength of radial velocity. The reverse flow and corner recirculation zone assists in stabilizing the flame by preheating the reactants. The flow field data can be used as validation target for swirl combustion modelling.

  1. Pdf - Transport equations for chemically reacting flows

    Kollmann, W.


    The closure problem for the transport equations for pdf and the characteristic functions of turbulent, chemically reacting flows is addressed. The properties of the linear and closed equations for the characteristic functional for Eulerian and Lagrangian variables are established, and the closure problem for the finite-dimensional case is discussed for pdf and characteristic functions. It is shown that the closure for the scalar dissipation term in the pdf equation developed by Dopazo (1979) and Kollmann et al. (1982) results in a single integral, in contrast to the pdf, where double integration is required. Some recent results using pdf methods obtained for turbulent flows with combustion, including effects of chemical nonequilibrium, are discussed.

  2. Nonlinear Krylov acceleration of reacting flow codes

    Kumar, S.; Rawat, R.; Smith, P.; Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    We are working on computational simulations of three-dimensional reactive flows in applications encompassing a broad range of chemical engineering problems. Examples of such processes are coal (pulverized and fluidized bed) and gas combustion, petroleum processing (cracking), and metallurgical operations such as smelting. These simulations involve an interplay of various physical and chemical factors such as fluid dynamics with turbulence, convective and radiative heat transfer, multiphase effects such as fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions, and chemical reaction. The governing equations resulting from modeling these processes are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled, thereby rendering their solution by traditional iterative methods (such as nonlinear line Gauss-Seidel methods) very difficult and sometimes impossible. Hence we are exploring the use of nonlinear Krylov techniques (such as CMRES and Bi-CGSTAB) to accelerate and stabilize the existing solver. This strategy allows us to take advantage of the problem-definition capabilities of the existing solver. The overall approach amounts to using the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) method and its variants as nonlinear preconditioners for the nonlinear Krylov method. We have also adapted a backtracking approach for inexact Newton methods to damp the Newton step in the nonlinear Krylov method. This will be a report on work in progress. Preliminary results with nonlinear GMRES have been very encouraging: in many cases the number of line Gauss-Seidel sweeps has been reduced by about a factor of 5, and increased robustness of the underlying solver has also been observed.

  3. Toward parallel, adaptive mesh refinement for chemically reacting flow simulations

    Devine, K.D.; Shadid, J.N.; Salinger, A.G. Hutchinson, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hennigan, G.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    Adaptive numerical methods offer greater efficiency than traditional numerical methods by concentrating computational effort in regions of the problem domain where the solution is difficult to obtain. In this paper, the authors describe progress toward adding mesh refinement to MPSalsa, a computer program developed at Sandia National laboratories to solve coupled three-dimensional fluid flow and detailed reaction chemistry systems for modeling chemically reacting flow on large-scale parallel computers. Data structures that support refinement and dynamic load-balancing are discussed. Results using uniform refinement with mesh sequencing to improve convergence to steady-state solutions are also presented. Three examples are presented: a lid driven cavity, a thermal convection flow, and a tilted chemical vapor deposition reactor.

  4. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...




    The recent developments and advances of studies on multiphase and reacting flows, including gas-solid, gas-liquid, liquid-solid and reacting flows, in China are reviewed. Special emphasis is laid on the fundamental studies and numerical models. Some important experimental results are also reported. But measurement techniques are not covered.

  6. Turbulence-chemistry interactions in reacting flows

    Barlow, R.S.; Carter, C.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    Interactions between turbulence and chemistry in nonpremixed flames are investigated through multiscalar measurements. Simultaneous point measurements of major species, NO, OH, temperature, and mixture fraction are obtained by combining spontaneous Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). NO and OH fluorescence signals are converted to quantitative concentrations by applying shot-to-shot corrections for local variations of the Boltzmann fraction and collisional quenching rate. These measurements of instantaneous thermochemical states in turbulent flames provide insights into the fundamental nature of turbulence-chemistry interactions. The measurements also constitute a unique data base for evaluation and refinement of turbulent combustion models. Experimental work during the past year has focused on three areas: (1) investigation of the effects of differential molecular diffusion in turbulent combustion: (2) experiments on the effects of Halon CF{sub 3}Br, a fire retardant, on the structure of turbulent flames of CH{sub 4} and CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}; and (3) experiments on NO formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames.

  7. Numerical simulation of high speed chemically reacting flows

    Schuricht, Scott Richard

    A single step second-order accurate flux-difference-splitting method has been developed for solving unsteady quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional flows of multispecies fluids with finite rate chemistry. A systematic method for incorporating the source term effects into the wave strength parameters of Roe's linearized approximate Riemann solver is presented that is consistent with characteristic theory. The point implicit technique is utilized to achieve second-order time accuracy of the local area source term The stiffness associated with the chemical reactions is removed by implicitly integrating the kinetics system using the LSODE package. From the implicit integration, values of the species production rates are developed and incorporated into the flux-difference-splitting framework using a source term projection and splitting technique that preserves the upwind nature of source terms. Numerous validation studies are presented to illustrate the capability of the numerical method. Shock tube and converging-diverging nozzle cases show the method is second order accurate in space and time for one-dimensional flows. A supersonic source flow case and a subsonic sink flow case show the method is second order spatially accurate for two-dimensional flows. Static combustion and steady supersonic combustion cases illustrate the ability of the method to accurately capture the ignition delay for hydrogen-air mixtures. Demonstration studies are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the method. One-dimensional flow in a shock tube predicts species dissociation behind the main shock wave. One-dimension flow in supersonic nozzles predicts the well-known chemical freezing effect in an expanding flow. Two-dimensional cases consisted of a model of a scramjet combustor and a rocket motor nozzle. A parametric study was performed on a model of a scramjet combustor. The parameters studied were; wall angle, inlet Mach number, inlet temperature, and inlet equivalence ratio

  8. Numerical Investigation of a Statistically Stationary Turbulent Reacting Flow

    Overholt, Matthew R.; Pope, Stephen B.


    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) has been very useful in the study of inert scalar mixing in turbulent flows, and has recently become feasible for studies of reacting scalars. We have formulated an accessible inhomogeneous nonpremixed turbulent reactive flow for investigating the effects of mixing on reaction and testing mixing models. The mixture fraction-progress variable approach is used with a model single-step reversible finite-rate thermochemistry, yielding non-trivial stationary solutions corresponding to stable reaction and allowing local extinction to occur. A mean gradient in the mixture fraction gives rise to stationarity without forcing, as well as a flame brush. A range of reaction zone thicknesses and Damkohler numbers are examined, yielding a broad spectrum of behavior, ranging from thick to thin flames, and from local extinction to near equilibrium. Based on this study results from full probability density function (PDF) simulations using the IEM and EMST mixing models are evaluated. Conditional moment closure (CMC) results are evaluated as well.

  9. Flow Field Effects on Nucleation in a Reacting Mixture Layer.


    chemically reacting flows has been analysed by Fendell (1965) who considered the effect of the straining motion in a stagnation point flow on ignition...stagnation point diffusion flame ( Fendell , 1965, Linan, 1974). In the present study the effect of the strain rate or velocity gradient on nucleation kinetics...Symposium (International) on Corn- bustion, 799-810, Academic Press. Fendell , F. E. (1965). Ignition and extinction in combustion of initially unmixed

  10. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina


    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  11. High speed turbulent reacting flows: DNS and LES

    Givi, Peyman


    Work on understanding the mechanisms of mixing and reaction in high speed turbulent reacting flows was continued. Efforts, in particular, were concentrated on taking advantage of modern computational methods to simulate high speed turbulent flows. In doing so, two methodologies were used: large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). In the work related with LES the objective is to study the behavior of the probability density functions (pdfs) of scalar properties within the subgrid in reacting turbulent flows. The data base obtained by DNS for a detailed study of the pdf characteristics within the subgrid was used. Simulations are performed for flows under various initializations to include the effects of compressibility on mixing and chemical reactions. In the work related with DNS, a two-dimensional temporally developing high speed mixing layer under the influence of a second-order non-equilibrium chemical reaction of the type A + B yields products + heat was considered. Simulations were performed with different magnitudes of the convective Mach numbers and with different chemical kinetic parameters for the purpose of examining the isolated effects of the compressibility and the heat released by the chemical reactions on the structure of the layer. A full compressible code was developed and utilized, so that the coupling between mixing and chemical reactions is captured in a realistic manner.

  12. Spectral kinetic energy transfer in turbulent premixed reacting flows.

    Towery, C A Z; Poludnenko, A Y; Urzay, J; O'Brien, J; Ihme, M; Hamlington, P E


    Spectral kinetic energy transfer by advective processes in turbulent premixed reacting flows is examined using data from a direct numerical simulation of a statistically planar turbulent premixed flame. Two-dimensional turbulence kinetic-energy spectra conditioned on the planar-averaged reactant mass fraction are computed through the flame brush and variations in the spectra are connected to terms in the spectral kinetic energy transport equation. Conditional kinetic energy spectra show that turbulent small-scale motions are suppressed in the burnt combustion products, while the energy content of the mean flow increases. An analysis of spectral kinetic energy transfer further indicates that, contrary to the net down-scale transfer of energy found in the unburnt reactants, advective processes transfer energy from small to large scales in the flame brush close to the products. Triadic interactions calculated through the flame brush show that this net up-scale transfer of energy occurs primarily at spatial scales near the laminar flame thermal width. The present results thus indicate that advective processes in premixed reacting flows contribute to energy backscatter near the scale of the flame.

  13. 3D Reacting Flow Analysis of LANTR Nozzles

    Stewart, Mark E. M.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Bulman, M. J.


    This paper presents performance predictions for LANTR nozzles and the system implications for their use in a manned Mars mission. The LANTR concept is rocket thrust augmentation by injecting Oxygen into the nozzle to combust the Hydrogen exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket. The performance predictions are based on three-dimensional reacting flow simulations using VULCAN. These simulations explore a range of O2/H2 mixture ratios, injector configurations, and concepts. These performance predictions are used for a trade analysis within a system study for a manned Mars mission. Results indicate that the greatest benefit of LANTR will occur with In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). However, Hydrogen propellant volume reductions may allow greater margins for fitting tanks within the launch vehicle where packaging issues occur.

  14. A Nonlinear Dynamic Subscale Model for Partially Resolved Numerical Simulation (PRNS)/Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) of Internal Non-Reacting Flows

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, nan-Suey


    A brief introduction of the temporal filter based partially resolved numerical simulation/very large eddy simulation approach (PRNS/VLES) and its distinct features are presented. A nonlinear dynamic subscale model and its advantages over the linear subscale eddy viscosity model are described. In addition, a guideline for conducting a PRNS/VLES simulation is provided. Results are presented for three turbulent internal flows. The first one is the turbulent pipe flow at low and high Reynolds numbers to illustrate the basic features of PRNS/VLES; the second one is the swirling turbulent flow in a LM6000 single injector to further demonstrate the differences in the calculated flow fields resulting from the nonlinear model versus the pure eddy viscosity model; the third one is a more complex turbulent flow generated in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor, the calculated result has demonstrated that the current PRNS/VLES approach is capable of capturing the dynamically important, unsteady turbulent structures while using a relatively coarse grid.

  15. Dynamic Load Balancing Strategies for Parallel Reacting Flow Simulations

    Pisciuneri, Patrick; Meneses, Esteban; Givi, Peyman


    Load balancing in parallel computing aims at distributing the work as evenly as possible among the processors. This is a critical issue in the performance of parallel, time accurate, flow simulators. The constraint of time accuracy requires that all processes must be finished with their calculation for a given time step before any process can begin calculation of the next time step. Thus, an irregularly balanced compute load will result in idle time for many processes for each iteration and thus increased walltimes for calculations. Two existing, dynamic load balancing approaches are applied to the simplified case of a partially stirred reactor for methane combustion. The first is Zoltan, a parallel partitioning, load balancing, and data management library developed at the Sandia National Laboratories. The second is Charm++, which is its own machine independent parallel programming system developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The performance of these two approaches is compared, and the prospects for their application to full 3D, reacting flow solvers is assessed.


    Sankaran Sundaresan


    The principal goal of this project, funded under the ''DOE Vision 21 Virtual Demonstration Initiative'' is virtual demonstration of circulating fluidized bed performance. We had proposed a ''virtual demonstration tool'', which is based on the open-domain CFD code MFIX. The principal challenge funded through this grant is to devise and implement in this CFD code sound physical models for the rheological characteristics of the gas-particle mixtures. Within the past year, which was the third year of the project, we have made the following specific advances. (a) We have completed a study of the impact of sub-grid models of different levels of detail on the results obtained in coarse-grid simulations of gas-particle flow. (b) We have also completed a study of a model problem to understand the effect of wall friction, which was proved in our earlier work to be very important for stable operation of standpipes in a circulating fluidized bed circuit. These are described in a greater detail in this report.

  17. A Framework for the Modelling of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Sin, Gürkan; O’Connell, John P.


    Biphasic reacting systems have a broad application range from organic reactions in pharmaceutical and agro-bio industries to CO 2 capture. However, mathematical modelling of biphasic reacting systems is a formidable challenge due to many phenomena underlying the process such as chemical equilibri...... systems: a PTC-based reaction system and pseudo-PTC system....

  18. Numerical simulation of reacting and non-reacting flow in a combustion chamber; Numerisk simulering av reagerande och icke-reagerande stroemning i en braennkammare

    Borg, A.; Revstedt, J.


    The purpose of this work has been to do a preliminary study of how well numerical calculations with different turbulence models can predict the flow and temperature fields of a strongly swirling and combusting flow in an experimental combustion chamber and to see which parameters in the mathematical model are the most important. The combustion chamber on which we have done the calculations is called Validation Rig II and was designed by Volvo Aero Corporation. The main part of the study has been carried out on a non-reacting flow but some work has also been done on reacting flow. In most cases it has not been meaningful to compare the calculations with the measurements because they differ quite a lot from each other. For the non-reacting case the following investigations have been made: * How the solution differs for different turbulence models, * The solutions sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions, * How different types of leakage disturb the flow, and * The difference in results between two different CFD-codes, the commercial code CFDS-Flow3D and a code developed at the department of fluid mechanics. For the reacting cases we have studied the influence of: * one or two reaction steps, * the effects of a change in reaction rate, * the influence of thermal radiation, and * the effects of changing the boundary conditions for temperature on the walls. The results from these calculations show that the inlet turbulence intensity has very little effect on the values of the turbulent quantities as well as the velocity profiles at the outlet. Changing the turbulence model or the outlet boundary conditions gives some change in velocity profiles at the outlet but only marginal effects on the swirl number. 21 refs, 54 figs, 19 tabs

  19. Flow-distributed oscillations: Stationary chemical waves in a reacting flow

    Kærn, Mads; Menzinger, Michael


    A recent prediction of stationary waves in open, reacting flows is experimentally verified. We show that stationary waves are generated by a mechanism whereby the flow carries a time-oscillating subelement, behaving like a batch reactor, through space while a fixed boundary condition at the inflow locks the phase of the oscillation. This mechanism can generate stationary patterns when all diffusion coefficients are equal. The experimental system is the ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in a tubular reactor, fed by the outflow of a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Parameter conditions are such that the concentrations are constant in the CSTR while they oscillate in the flow tube.

  20. Numerical Computation of the Chemically Reacting Flow around the National Aero-Space Plane

    Tannehill, J. C.


    This final report summarizes the research accomplished. The research performed during the grant period can be divided into the following major areas: (1) Computation of chemically reacting Supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) flowfields. (2) Application of a two-equation turbulence model to supersonic combustion flowfields. (3) Computation of the integrated aerodynamic and propulsive flowfields of a generic hypersonic space plane. (4) Computation of hypersonic flows with finite-catalytic walls. (5) Development of an upwind Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code for thermo-chemical nonequilibrium flows.

  1. Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers

    Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab


    We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.

  2. Ensemble Averaged Probability Density Function (APDF) for Compressible Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey


    In this paper, we present a concept of the averaged probability density function (APDF) for studying compressible turbulent reacting flows. The APDF is defined as an ensemble average of the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF) with a mass density weighting. It can be used to exactly deduce the mass density weighted, ensemble averaged turbulent mean variables. The transport equation for APDF can be derived in two ways. One is the traditional way that starts from the transport equation of FG-PDF, in which the compressible Navier- Stokes equations are embedded. The resulting transport equation of APDF is then in a traditional form that contains conditional means of all terms from the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations except for the chemical reaction term. These conditional means are new unknown quantities that need to be modeled. Another way of deriving the transport equation of APDF is to start directly from the ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting transport equation of APDF derived from this approach appears in a closed form without any need for additional modeling. The methodology of ensemble averaging presented in this paper can be extended to other averaging procedures: for example, the Reynolds time averaging for statistically steady flow and the Reynolds spatial averaging for statistically homogeneous flow. It can also be extended to a time or spatial filtering procedure to construct the filtered density function (FDF) for the large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent reacting flows.

  3. Adaptive methods in computational fluid dynamics of chemically reacting flows

    Rogg, B.


    Possible approaches to fully implicit adaptive algorithms suitable for the numerical simulation of unsteady two-dimensional reactive flows are examined. Emphasis is placed on self-adaptive gridding procedures applicable to time-dependent two-dimensional reactive flows. Pulsating flame propagation, autoignition in a nonpremixed flow, flame propagation in a strained mixing layer, and hot-spot-like self-ignition are considered as examples.

  4. Rule-Based Multidisciplinary Tool for Unsteady Reacting Real-Fluid Flows Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A design and analysis computational tool is proposed for simulating unsteady reacting flows in combustor devices used in reusable launch vehicles. Key aspects...

  5. Non-reacting Flow Analysis from Combustor Inlet to Outlet using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    G. Ananda Reddy


    Full Text Available This paper describes non-reacting flow analysis of a gas turbine combustion system. The method is based on the solution of Navier-Strokes equations using generalised non-orthogonal coordinate system. The turbulence effects are modelled through the renormalisation group k-E model. The method has been applied to a practical gas turbine combustor. The combustionsystem includes swirler vane passages, fuel nozzles, rotor bleed, customer bleed, air-blast atomiser, swirl cone, and all holes in primary , dilution , dome, flare, and cooling ring. Thetotal geometry has been created using the pre-processors GAMBIT and CATIA, and the meshing has been done using GAMBIT, and the analysis carried out in a FLUENT solver. The interaction between the diffuser and the combustor external flows plays a key role in controlling the pressure loss, air flow distribution around the combustor liner, durability, and stability. The aero gas turbine combustor designs are generally guided by experimental methods and past experience; however, experimental methods are inherently slow, costly, especially at hightemperature engine-operating conditions. These drawbacks and the growing need to understand the complex flow-field phenomenon involved, have led to the development of a numericalmodel for predicting flow in the gas turbine combustor. These models are used to optimise the design of the combustor and its subcomponents, and reduce cost, time, and the number ofexperiments.

  6. Methods for Prediction of High-Speed Reacting Flows in Aerospace Propulsion

    Drummond, J. Philip


    Research to develop high-speed airbreathing aerospace propulsion systems was underway in the late 1950s. A major part of the effort involved the supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, engine. Work had also begun to develop computational techniques for solving the equations governing the flow through a scramjet engine. However, scramjet technology and the computational methods to assist in its evolution would remain apart for another decade. The principal barrier was that the computational methods needed for engine evolution lacked the computer technology required for solving the discrete equations resulting from the numerical methods. Even today, computer resources remain a major pacing item in overcoming this barrier. Significant advances have been made over the past 35 years, however, in modeling the supersonic chemically reacting flow in a scramjet combustor. To see how scramjet development and the required computational tools finally merged, we briefly trace the evolution of the technology in both areas.

  7. Navier-Stokes Solvers and Generalizations for Reacting Flow Problems

    Elman, Howard C


    This is an overview of our accomplishments during the final term of this grant (1 September 2008 -- 30 June 2012). These fall mainly into three categories: fast algorithms for linear eigenvalue problems; solution algorithms and modeling methods for partial differential equations with uncertain coefficients; and preconditioning methods and solvers for models of computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  8. A new computational method for reacting hypersonic flows

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Pricop, M. V.; Fadgyas, M. C.; Pepelea, D.; Stoican, M. G.


    Hypersonic gas dynamics computations are challenging due to the difficulties to have reliable and robust chemistry models that are usually added to Navier-Stokes equations. From the numerical point of view, it is very difficult to integrate together Navier-Stokes equations and chemistry model equations because these partial differential equations have different specific time scales. For these reasons, almost all known finite volume methods fail shortly to solve this second order partial differential system. Unfortunately, the heating of Earth reentry vehicles such as space shuttles and capsules is very close linked to endothermic chemical reactions. A better prediction of wall heat flux leads to smaller safety coefficient for thermal shield of space reentry vehicle; therefore, the size of thermal shield decreases and the payload increases. For these reasons, the present paper proposes a new computational method based on chemical equilibrium, which gives accurate prediction of hypersonic heating in order to support the Earth reentry capsule design.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of reacting stagnation flow

    Bergthorson, Jeff; Dimotakis, Paul


    Planar laminar premixed flames are stabilized in the stagnation flowfield of an impinging jet. These flames are studied experimentally through measurements of the axial velocity and CH radical profiles, the equivalence ratio, plate temperature, and the static (Bernoulli) pressure drop across the nozzle. The velocity measurements are performed using Particle Streak Velocimetry (PSV), a technique valuable in flame measurements due to the low particle-mass loading, high accuracy and short run times possible. The CH radical profile is measured using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), which provides a very accurate marker for the reaction zone location. The experimental results are compared to predictions by a one-dimensional simulation which incorporates full chemistry. Difficulties in performing detailed comparisons between one-dimensional simulations and finite-nozzle-diameter experiments are discussed in the context of validating chemical kinetics models. To further investigate the validity of these chemical kinetics models, global flame properties such as extinction strain-rates are also investigated.

  10. Prediction of engine and near-field plume reacting flows in low-thrust chemical rockets

    Weiss, Jonathan M.; Merkle, Charles L.


    A computational model is employed to study the reacting flow within the engine and near-field plumes of several small gaseous hydrogen-oxygen thrusters. The model solves the full Navier-Stokes equations coupled with species diffusion equations for a hydrogen-oxygen reaction kinetics system and includes a two-equation q-omega model for turbulence. Predictions of global performance parameters and localized flowfield variables are compared with experimental data in order to assess the accuracy with which these flowfields are modeled and to identify aspects of the model which require improvement. Predicted axial and radial velocities 3 mm downstream of the exit plane show reasonable agreement with the measurements. The predicted peak in axial velocity in the hydrogen film coolant along the nozzle wall shows the best agreement; however, predictions within the core region are roughly 15 percent below measured values, indicating an underprediction of the extent to which the hydrogen diffuses and mixes with the core flow. There is evidence that this is due to three-dimensional mixing processes which are not included in the axisymmetric model.

  11. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others


    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  12. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others


    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  13. Simulation of the Partially Ionized Reacting Plasma Flow in a Negative Hydrogen Ion Source

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos; Averkin, Sergey; Olson, Lynn


    A High Pressure Discharge Negative Ion Source (HPDNIS) operating on hydrogen is been under investigation. The Negative Ion Production (NIP) section of the HPDNIS attaches to the 10-100 Torr RF-discharge chamber with a micronozzle and ends with a grid that extracts the negative ion beam. The partially ionized and reacting plasma flow in the NIP section is simulated using an unstructured three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (U3DSMC) code. The NIP section contains a low-pressure plasma that includes H2, vibrationally-rotationally excited H2^*, negative hydrogen atoms H^-, and electrons. Primary reactions in the NIP section are dissociate attachment, H2^*+e->H^0+H^-and electron collisional detachment, e+H^-->H+2e. The U3DSMC computational domain includes the entrance to the NIP nozzle and the extraction grid at the exit. The flow parameters at the entrance are based on conditions in the RF-discharge chamber and are implemented in U3DSMC using a Kinetic-Moment subsonic boundary conditions method. The rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom in U3DSMC are implemented using the Larsen-Borgnakke model. Chemical reactions are implemented in U3DSMC using the Quantum-Kinetic model. Simulations cover the regime of operation of the HPDNIS and examine the flow characteristics inside the NIP section.

  14. Facilities GIS Modeling for the REACT System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Real-Time Emergency Action Coordination Tool (REACT) was developed under contract to NASA and deployed for use by the entire agency.  NASA REACT is a...

  15. Heat and mass transfer for turbulent flow of chemically reacting gas in eccentric annular channels

    Besedina, T. V.; Tverkovkin, B. E.; Udot, A. V.; Yakushev, A. P.


    An algorithm is proposed for calculating the velocity, temperature, and concentration fields under conditions of cooling of a cylindrical heat-releasing rod, placed off-center in a circular casing pipe, by a longitudinal flow of chemically reacting gas [N2O4].

  16. Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.


    A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air

  17. A numerical study of mixing in stationary, nonpremixed, turbulent reacting flows

    Overholt, Matthew Ryan


    In this work a detailed numerical study is made of a statistically-stationary, non-premixed, turbulent reacting model flow known as Periodic Reaction Zones. The mixture fraction-progress variable approach is used, with a mean gradient in the mixture fraction and a model, single-step, reversible, finite-rate thermochemistry, yielding both stationary and local extinction behavior. The passive scalar is studied first, using a statistical forcing scheme to achieve stationarity of the velocity field. Multiple independent direct numerical simulations (DNS) are performed for a wide range of Reynolds numbers with a number of results including a bilinear model for scalar mixing jointly conditioned on the scalar and x2-component of velocity, Gaussian scalar probability density function tails which were anticipated to be exponential, and the quantification of the dissipation of scalar flux. A new deterministic forcing scheme for DNS is then developed which yields reduced fluctuations in many quantities and a more natural evolution of the velocity fields. This forcing method is used for the final portion of this work. DNS results for Periodic Reaction Zones are compared with the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model, the Quasi-Equilibrium Distributed Reaction (QEDR) model, and full probability density function (PDF) simulations using the Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree (EMST) and the Interaction by Exchange with the Mean (IEM) mixing models. It is shown that CMC and QEDR results based on the local scalar dissipation match DNS wherever local extinction is not present. However, due to the large spatial variations of scalar dissipation, and hence local Damkohler number, local extinction is present even when the global Damkohler number is twenty-five times the critical value for extinction. Finally, in the PDF simulations the EMST mixing model closely reproduces CMC and DNS results when local extinction is not present, whereas the IEM model results in large error.

  18. High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows: Intrinsic Flame Instability and its Effects on the Turbulent Cascade

    Poludnenko, Alexei


    Turbulent reacting flows are pervasive both in our daily lives on Earth and in the Universe. They power modern society being at the heart of many energy generation and propulsion systems, such as gas turbines, internal combustion and jet engines. On astronomical scales, thermonuclear turbulent flames are the driver of some of the most powerful explosions in the Universe, knows as Type Ia supernovae. Despite this ubiquity in Nature, turbulent reacting flows still pose a number of fundamental questions often exhibiting surprising and unexpected behavior. In this talk, we will discuss several such phenomena observed in direct numerical simulations of high-speed, premixed, turbulent flames. We show that turbulent flames in certain regimes are intrinsically unstable even in the absence of the surrounding combustor walls or obstacles, which can support the thermoacoustic feedback. Such instability can fundamentally change the structure and dynamics of the turbulent cascade, resulting in a significant (and anisotropic) redistribution of kinetic energy from small to large scales. In particular, three effects are observed. 1) The turbulent burning velocity can develop pulsations with significant peak-to-peak amplitudes. 2) Unstable burning can result in pressure build-up and the formation of pressure waves or shocks when the flame speed approaches or exceeds the speed of a Chapman-Jouguet deflagration. 3) Coupling of pressure and density gradients across the flame can lead to the anisotropic generation of turbulence inside the flame volume and flame acceleration. We extend our earlier analysis, which relied on a simplified single-step reaction model, by demonstrating existence of these effects in realistic chemical flames (hydrogen and methane) and in thermonuclear flames in degenerate, relativistic plasmas found in stellar interiors. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for subgrid-scale LES combustion models. This work was supported by the Air Force

  19. Recent progress of laser metrology in chemically reacting flows at onera

    Mohamed, A.; Dorval, N.; Vilmart, G.; Orain, M.; George, R.; Scherman, M.; Nafa, M.; Bresson, A.; Attal-Tretout, B.; Lefebvre, M.


    This paper presents some of the development actions performed these last years at ONERA using laser spectroscopic techniques to probe chemically reacting flows. Techniques like laser absorption, laser induced fluorescence (LIF), and Raman scattering will be described with focus on present drawbacks as well as expectations from new laser technologies (Interband Cascade Lasers (ICL) diodes, Optical Parametrical Oscillators (OPO), frequency comb, and femto/picosecond lasers) before showing some results of recent applications in ground facilities.

  20. A 65+ Gflop/s unstructured finite element simulation of chemically reacting flows on the Intel Paragon

    Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Moffat, H.K.; Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hennigan, G.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    Many scientific and engineering applications require a detailed analysis of complex systems with strongly coupled fluid flow, thermal energy transfer, mass transfer and non-equilibrium chemical reactions. Here they describe the performance of a newly developed application code, SALSA, designed to simulate these complex flows on large-scale parallel machines such as the Intel Paragon. SALSA uses 3D unstructure finite element methods to model geometrically complex flow systems. Fully implicit time integration multicomponent mass transport and general gas phase and surface species non-equilibrium chemical kinetics are employed. Using these techniques they have obtained over 65 Gflop/s on a 3D chemically reacting flow CVD problem for Silicon Carbide (SiC) deposition. This represents 46% of the peak performance of the 1904 node Intel Paragon, an outstanding computational rate in view of the required unstructured data communication.

  1. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas


    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  2. Modeling and design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    Piccolo, Chiara; Hodges, George; Piccione, Patrick M.;


    , some of the design issues related to improved reaction operation are analyzed. Since the solubility of the different forms of the PTC in the organic solvent affects ultimately the catalyst partition coefficients, therefore, the organic solvent plays an important role in the design of PTC-based reacting...

  3. A Reacting-Shrinking Core Model for Pyrolysis and Combustion of a Single Biomass Particle

    Gordon, Alfredo L.; Avila, Claudio R.; Garcia, Ximena A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Concepcion (Chile)). e-mail:


    Consecutive heating and pyrolysis of the solid due to incident heat flow represented by a shrinking reacting core approximation and combustion, described by a shrinking unreacting core description, allow modeling the combustion of a cylindrical biomass particle. A bi-dimensional approach (radial and axial) describes mass and heat balances and first order kinetics characterizes the reaction rates. A finite differences algorithm numerically solved the model. Results showed good agreement with available experimental data. The parameter analysis for the pyrolysis step shows high sensibility to the kinetic constants, the incident heat flow, the initial moisture and particle size. Parameters with a significant effect on combustion are the concentration and effective diffusivity of the oxidizing agent in the atmosphere around the reaction surface

  4. Combined LAURA-UPS solution procedure for chemically-reacting flows. M.S. Thesis

    Wood, William A.


    A new procedure seeks to combine the thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver LAURA with the parabolized Navier-Stokes solver UPS for the aerothermodynamic solution of chemically-reacting air flowfields. The interface protocol is presented and the method is applied to two slender, blunted shapes. Both axisymmetric and three dimensional solutions are included with surface pressure and heat transfer comparisons between the present method and previously published results. The case of Mach 25 flow over an axisymmetric six degree sphere-cone with a noncatalytic wall is considered to 100 nose radii. A stability bound on the marching step size was observed with this case and is attributed to chemistry effects resulting from the noncatalytic wall boundary condition. A second case with Mach 28 flow over a sphere-cone-cylinder-flare configuration is computed at both two and five degree angles of attack with a fully-catalytic wall. Surface pressures are seen to be within five percent with the present method compared to the baseline LAURA solution and heat transfers are within 10 percent. The effect of grid resolution is investigated and the nonequilibrium results are compared with a perfect gas solution, showing that while the surface pressure is relatively unchanged by the inclusion of reacting chemistry the nonequilibrium heating is 25 percent higher. The procedure demonstrates significant, order of magnitude reductions in solution time and required memory for the three dimensional case over an all thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution.

  5. MP Salsa: a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 1--theoretical development

    Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.


    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.

  6. Comment on "Flow-distributed oscillations: Stationary chemical waves in a reacting flow"

    Andresen, Peter Ragnar; Mosekilde, Erik; Dewel, G.;


    In a recent paper by Kern and Menzinger [Phys. Rev. E 60, R3471 (1999)] a successful verification of the stationary space-periodic structures predicted by Andresen et al. [Phys. Rev. E 60, 297 (1999)] was reported. Kaern and Menzinger suggest a mechanism for the formation of such structures...... that yields a linear relationship between the selected wavelength and the flow rate. We find this mechanism too simple and produce numerical simulations that support the original interpretation of these structures....

  7. Parallelization of Lower-Upper Symmetric Gauss-Seidel Method for Chemically Reacting Flow

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Jost, Gabriele; Chang, Sherry


    Development of technologies for exploration of the solar system has revived an interest in computational simulation of chemically reacting flows since planetary probe vehicles exhibit non-equilibrium phenomena during the atmospheric entry of a planet or a moon as well as the reentry to the Earth. Stability in combustion is essential for new propulsion systems. Numerical solution of real-gas flows often increases computational work by an order-of-magnitude compared to perfect gas flow partly because of the increased complexity of equations to solve. Recently, as part of Project Columbia, NASA has integrated a cluster of interconnected SGI Altix systems to provide a ten-fold increase in current supercomputing capacity that includes an SGI Origin system. Both the new and existing machines are based on cache coherent non-uniform memory access architecture. Lower-Upper Symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) relaxation method has been implemented into both perfect and real gas flow codes including Real-Gas Aerodynamic Simulator (RGAS). However, the vectorized RGAS code runs inefficiently on cache-based shared-memory machines such as SGI system. Parallelization of a Gauss-Seidel method is nontrivial due to its sequential nature. The LU-SGS method has been vectorized on an oblique plane in INS3D-LU code that has been one of the base codes for NAS Parallel benchmarks. The oblique plane has been called a hyperplane by computer scientists. It is straightforward to parallelize a Gauss-Seidel method by partitioning the hyperplanes once they are formed. Another way of parallelization is to schedule processors like a pipeline using software. Both hyperplane and pipeline methods have been implemented using openMP directives. The present paper reports the performance of the parallelized RGAS code on SGI Origin and Altix systems.

  8. Tomographic imaging of reacting flows in 3D by laser absorption spectroscopy

    Foo, J.; Martin, P. A.


    This paper describes the development of an infrared laser absorption tomography system for the 3D volumetric imaging of chemical species and temperature in reacting flows. The system is based on high-resolution near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) for the measurement of water vapour above twin, mixed fuel gas burners arranged with an asymmetrical output. Four parallel laser beams pass through the sample region and are rotated rapidly in a plane to produce a wide range of projection angles. A rotation of 180° with 0.5° sampling was achieved in 3.6 s. The effects of changes to the burner fuel flow were monitored in real time for the 2D distributions. The monitoring plane was then moved vertically relative to the burners enabling a stack of 2D images to be produced which were then interpolated to form a 3D volumetric image of the temperature and water concentrations above the burners. The optical transmission of each beam was rapidly scanned around 1392 nm and the spectrum was fitted to find the integrated absorbance of the water transitions and although several are probed in each scan, two of these transitions possess opposite temperature dependencies. The projections of the integrated absorbances at each angle form the sinogram from which the 2D image of integrated absorbance of each line can be reconstructed by the direct Fourier reconstruction based on the Fourier slice theorem. The ratio of the integrated absorbances of the two lines can then be related to temperature alone in a method termed, two-line thermometry. The 2D temperature distribution obtained was validated for pattern and accuracy by thermocouple measurements. With the reconstructed temperature distribution, the temperature-dependent line strengths could be determined and subsequently the concentration distribution of water across the 2D plane whilst variations in burner condition were carried out. These results show that the measurement system based on TDLAS can be

  9. Reacting to "Reacting"

    Houle, Amanda


    This article describes the author's experiences as a student participating in a general education program called "Reacting to the Past," in which college students play elaborate games set at pivotal moments in the past, their roles informed by great texts. She found that the experience of reenacting pivotal historical moments produced an intensely…

  10. CFD prediction of the reacting flow field inside a subscale scramjet combustor

    Chitsomboon, T.; Northam, G. B.; Rogers, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.


    A three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD code has been used to calculate the reacting flowfield inside a hydrogen-fueled, subscale scramjet combustor. Pilot fuel was injected transversely upstream of the combustor and the primary fuel was injected transversely downstream of a backward facing step. A finite rate combustion model with two-step kinetics was used. The CFD code used the explicit MacCormack algorithm with point-implicit treatment of the chemistry source terms. Turbulent mixing of the jets with the airstream was simulated by a simple mixing length scheme, whereas near wall turbulence was accounted for by the Baldwin-Lomax model. Computed results were compared with experimental wall pressure measurements.

  11. Computational studies of reacting flows with applications to zinc selenide nanoparticle synthesis and methane/hydrogen separation

    Koutsona, Maria

    This work is a numerical study of the design and operation of two reacting flow systems, each with great potential in their fields. The design of reacting flow systems by computer simulations are successfully used in science and engineering to evaluate design geometries and operation, without resorting to experimental trial and error that is expensive, time consuming and, in some cases, dangerous. The models of the two systems described in this work are based on fundamental conservation equations for momentum and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction kinetics and particle dynamics. The first part of this work is a study aiming to elucidate the transport phenomena and chemical reactions that control the size of ZnSe nanoparticles formed by a new vapor-phase synthesis route. The nanoparticles are synthesized by reacting vapors of (CH3)2Zn:N(C2H 5)3 adduct with H2Se gas (diluted in hydrogen) fed continuously from opposite sides into a counterflow jet reactor. The nuclei of the nanocrystals are formed by a direct condensation reaction near the stagnation point. The nuclei grow into nanoparticles by coalescence/coagulation and by surface growth reactions. A 2D model of an axially symmetric reactor was developed that includes descriptions of flow, mass transfer by convection and diffusion, chemical kinetics, particle nucleation, coagulation and surface growth. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of the model were solved using the Galerkin Finite Element Method. The model was used to study the relative importance of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena in controlling particle size and particle size distribution. Model predictions compared well with the limited experimental data available for this system. The model was also used for model-assisted design of the experimental counterflow jet reactor, where vapor-phase synthesis of ZnSe nanoparticles was demonstrated for the first time. The second part of this work involves the development of

  12. Fundamental Structure of High-Speed Reacting Flows: Supersonic Combustion and Detonation


    supersonic. Oblique Shock Interface Inert Reactants β θ P1 P2e P3eUCJ P1 UCJ P2i Detonation Figure 3. Idealized flow model of a detonation wave with an...Propagation With No Confinement But With Transvers Flow A consistent cross-flow was established by calibrating the height of the gases in time the controller commands, and then staggering the triggering of the gases such that each species – hydrogen, helium, and oxygen – independently

  13. Computation of Non-Equilibrium Chemically Reacting Hypersonic Flow from a Cartesian Mesh with Near Wall Viscous Resolution

    V. Ashok


    Full Text Available A hybrid solution methodology has been developed to solve chemically reacting laminar hypersonic flow in chemical Non-equilibrium and thermal equilibrium, by a Cartesian mesh based hybrid solution methodology, which uses an unstructured prism layer solution near the wall and a Cartesian mesh solution away from the wall. The unstructured prism layer for near wall solution is obtained from the normal projection of wall panels of the Cartesian mesh and are stitched with the outer Cartesian mesh. The solver, developed based on this approach when compared with other chemically reacting CFD codes and limited experimental results show good comparison. This procedure has a good potential to handle near-wall resolution for chemically reacting flows with a Cartesian mesh for complex geometries as well.

  14. A Semi-Implicit, Fourier-Galerkin/B-Spline Collocation Approach for DNS of Compressible, Reacting, Wall-Bounded Flow

    Oliver, Todd; Ulerich, Rhys; Topalian, Victor; Malaya, Nick; Moser, Robert


    A discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations appropriate for efficient DNS of compressible, reacting, wall-bounded flows is developed and applied. The spatial discretization uses a Fourier-Galerkin/B-spline collocation approach. Because of the algebraic complexity of the constitutive models involved, a flux-based approach is used where the viscous terms are evaluated using repeated application of the first derivative operator. In such an approach, a filter is required to achieve appropriate dissipation at high wavenumbers. We formulate a new filter source operator based on the viscous operator. Temporal discretization is achieved using the SMR91 hybrid implicit/explicit scheme. The linear implicit operator is chosen to eliminate wall-normal acoustics from the CFL constraint while also decoupling the species equations from the remaining flow equations, which minimizes the cost of the required linear algebra. Results will be shown for a mildly supersonic, multispecies boundary layer case inspired by the flow over the ablating surface of a space capsule entering Earth's atmosphere. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  15. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows

    Givi, Peyman; Madnia, Cyrus K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Frankel, S. H.


    The principal objective is to extend the boundaries within which large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) can be applied in computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. A summary of work accomplished during the last six months is presented.

  16. LES, DNS, and RANS for the Analysis of High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Colucci, P. J.; Jaberi, F. A.; Givi, P.


    A filtered density function (FDF) method suitable for chemically reactive flows is developed in the context of large eddy simulation. The advantage of the FDF methodology is its inherent ability to resolve subgrid scales (SGS) scalar correlations that otherwise have to be modeled. Because of the lack of robust models to accurately predict these correlations in turbulent reactive flows, simulations involving turbulent combustion are often met with a degree of skepticism. The FDF methodology avoids the closure problem associated with these terms and treats the reaction in an exact manner. The scalar FDF approach is particularly attractive since it can be coupled with existing hydrodynamic computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes.

  17. Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows

    Roy, Sukesh [Spectral Energies, LLC, 5100 Springfield Street, Ste. 301, Dayton, OH 45431 (United States); Gord, James R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Patnaik, Anil K. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Department of Physics, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)


    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is widely used for measuring temperature and species concentration in reacting flows. This paper reviews the advances made over the last twelve years in the development and application of CARS spectroscopy in gas-phase reacting flows. The advent of high-power nanosecond (ns) lasers and off-the-shelf compact picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs) lasers is enabling the rapid expansion of the application of single-shot or high-bandwidth CARS spectroscopy in a way that would have been quite unimaginable two decades ago. Furthermore, compact ps lasers are paving the way for the development of a fiber-based CARS system for use in harsh environments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of recent progresses in ns-, ps-, and fs-CARS spectroscopy for gas-phase thermometry and species-concentration measurements since the second edition of A.C. Eckbreth's book entitled Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, which was published in 1996. During the last two decades, four encompassing issues have driven the fundamental development and application of CARS spectroscopy in reacting flows: 1) measurement of temperature and concentration of multiple species with one CARS system, 2) extension of the application of traditional ns-CARS to challenging reacting flow environments, 3) performance of nonresonant background-free and collision-free measurements in high-pressure reacting flows, and 4) measurement of temperature and species concentration at high bandwidth, typically 1 kHz or greater, to address the instability and transient phenomena associated with turbulent reacting flows in the combustors and augmentors of modern propulsion systems. This review is focused on identifying and discussing the recent results of gas-phase CARS spectroscopy related to the four issues mentioned above. The feasibility of performing high-bandwidth CARS spectroscopy with one laser beam as well as the

  18. Simulations of Spray Reacting Flows in a Single Element LDI Injector With and Without Invoking an Eulerian Scalar PDF Method

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey


    This paper presents the numerical simulations of the Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single element lean direct injection (LDI) injector by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) with and without invoking the Eulerian scalar probability density function (PDF) method. The flow field is calculated by using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS and URANS) with nonlinear turbulence models, and when the scalar PDF method is invoked, the energy and compositions or species mass fractions are calculated by solving the equation of an ensemble averaged density-weighted fine-grained probability density function that is referred to here as the averaged probability density function (APDF). A nonlinear model for closing the convection term of the scalar APDF equation is used in the presented simulations and will be briefly described. Detailed comparisons between the results and available experimental data are carried out. Some positive findings of invoking the Eulerian scalar PDF method in both improving the simulation quality and reducing the computing cost are observed.

  19. Effect of the nature of vitiated crossflow on the flow-field of a transverse reacting jet

    Panda, Pratikash P.; Busari, Oluwatobi; Lucht, Robert P.; Laster, Walter R.


    The effect of the nature of vitiated crossflow on the structure and dynamics of non-reacting/reacting transverse jets is investigated. In this study, the vitiated crossflow is produced either by a low-swirl burner (LSB) that adds a swirling component to the crossflow or a bluff-body burner (BBB) that produces a uniform crossflow. The jet fluid is injected through a contoured injector, which provides a top-hat velocity profile. The swirling crossflow exhibits considerable swirl at the point of injection of the transverse jet. Two component high-repetition-rate PIV measurements demonstrate the influence of a vitiated crossflow generated by a low-swirl/bluff-body burner on the near-wake flow-field of the jet. Measurements at a plane below the injection location of the jet indicate that there is a continuous entrainment of PIV particles in case of swirling crossflow. The time-averaged flow-field shows that the velocity field for reacting/non-reacting jets in the LSB crossflow exhibits higher velocity gradients, in the measurement plane along jet cross section, as compared to BBB crossflow. It is found that the vorticity magnitude is lower in case of jets in the BBB crossflow and there is a delay in the formation of the wake vortex structure. The conditional turbulent statistics of the jet flow-field in the two crossflows shows that there is a higher degree of intermittency related to the wake vortex structure in case of a BBB crossflow, which results in a non-Gaussian distribution of the turbulent statistics. The wake Strouhal number calculation shows the influence of the nature of crossflow on the rate of wake vortex shedding. The wake Strouhal number for the jets in BBB crossflow is found to be lower than for the LSB crossflow. A decrease in the wake Strouhal number is observed with an increase in the nozzle separation distance. There is an increase in the dilatation rate owing to heat release which results in higher wake Strouhal number for reacting jets as compared

  20. Sound attenuation in rectangular and circular cross-section ducts with flow and bulk-reacting liner

    Bies, D. A.; Hansen, C. H.; Bridges, G. E.


    A generalized theory is presented for sound propagation in lined ducts of arbitrary cross-section where acoustic wave propagation in the lining is also taken into account. The effects of a mean fluid flow in the duct airway, an anisotropic bulk reacting liner and a limp, impervious membrane covering the liner are all taken into account. Simple extension of the formalism to include the effect of a perforated facing is also provided. Bulk reacting and locally reacting liners are treated as limiting cases. The general analysis is applied to ducts of both rectangular and circular cross-section, taking into account higher order modes as well as plane wave sound propagation. Design charts for duct attenuation in octave frequency band averages and in terms of dimensionless parameters are presented.

  1. Mathematical modeling of turbulent reacting plumes - I. General theory and model formulation

    Georgopoulos, P.G.; Seinfeld, J.H.


    A new, comprehensive model for a chemically reacting plume is presented that accounts for the effects of incomplete turbulent macro- and micromixing on chemical reactions between plume and atmospheric constituents. The model is modular in nature, allowing for the use of different levels of approximation of the phenomena involved. The core of the model consists of the evolution equations for reaction progress variables appropriate for evolving spatially varying systems. These equations estimate the interaction of mixing and chemical reaction and require input parameters characterizing internal plume behavior, such as relative dispersion and fine scale plume segregation. The model addresses deficiencies in previous reactive plume models. Part II is devoted to atmospheric application of the model. (authors).

  2. A Study of Acoustic Forcing on Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial Reacting Flows (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)


    other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...Conference Paper with Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 December 2016 – 11 January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Study of collaboration with Sierra Lobo , Inc., UCLA; Conference Paper with Briefing Charts 14. ABSTRACT The reacting flow from a single gas-centered

  3. Effects of precursor heating on radiative and chemically reacting viscous flow around a Jovian entry body

    Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.


    The influence of change in the precursor region flow properties on the entire shock layer flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body was investigated. The flow in the shock layer was assumed to be steady, axisymmetric, and viscous. Both the chemical equilibrium and the nonequilibrium composition of the shock layer gas were considered. The effects of transitional range behavior were included in the analysis of high altitude entry conditions. Realistic thermophysical and radiation models were used, and results were obtained by employing the implicit finite difference technique in the shock layer and an iterative procedure for the entire shock layer precursor zone. Results obtained for a 45 degree angle hyperboloid blunt body entering Jupiter's atmosphere at zero angle of attack indicates that preheating the gas significantly increases the static pressure and temperature ahead of the shock for entry velocities exceeding 36 km/sec. The nonequilibrium radiative heating rate to the body is found to be significantly higher than the corresponding equilibrium heating. The precursor heating generally increases the radiative and convective heating of a body. That increase is slightly higher for the nonequilibrium conditions.

  4. State of the Art of Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Engine Reacting Flows État de l'art de la modélisation multidimensionnelle pour les écoulements réactifs dans les moteurs

    Gosman A. D.


    Full Text Available An overview is provided of the state of art and future prospects for the use of CFD simulation in engine analysis and design. The aspects covered include geometry handling and mesh generation, numerical solvers, mathematical modeling of key physical phenomena, exploitation of parallel computers and industrial application. The main conclusions are that:- solver and mesh generation methodology developments, allied to parallel computing technology, now enable much more rapid turnaround in CFD simulations than hitherto;- physics modeling is at an advanced stage for most aspects of SI combustion simulation, but less so for Diesel combustion and for spray-related processes generally;- the overall picture is one of rapidly-increasing use of CFD for engine design;- future developments, including the use of LES, promise even better results. Cet article dresse un aperçu de l'état de l'art et des perspectives de l'utilisation de la modélisation 3D pour l'analyse et le développement des moteurs. Les aspects abordés comprennent l'acquisition des géométries, la génération des maillages, les méthodologies numériques, la modélisation mathématique des phénomènes physiques importants, l'exploitation des calculateurs parallèles et l'application industrielle. Les conclusions principales de cette analyse font apparaître les points suivants : - les méthodologies numériques et la génération des maillages, associées au calcul parallèle, permettent maintenant de raccourcir notablement le cycle total de simulation ; - la modélisation physique a atteint sa maturité dans la plupart des aspects relatifs à la simulation de la combustion en allumage commandé ; en revanche, elle reste encore à acquérir en ce qui concerne la combustion Diesel et certains aspects des processus reliés aux sprays ; - globalement, l'utilisation de la simulation 3D pour la conception des moteurs est en forte augmentation ; - les développements futurs, dont l

  5. Development of Comprehensive Reduced Kinetic Models for Supersonic Reacting Shear Layer Simulations

    Zambon, A. C.; Chelliah, H. K.; Drummond, J. P.


    Large-scale simulations of multi-dimensional unsteady turbulent reacting flows with detailed chemistry and transport can be computationally extremely intensive even on distributed computing architectures. With the development of suitable reduced chemical kinetic models, the number of scalar variables to be integrated can be decreased, leading to a significant reduction in the computational time required for the simulation with limited loss of accuracy in the results. A general MATLAB-based automated mechanism reduction procedure is presented to reduce any complex starting mechanism (detailed or skeletal) with minimal human intervention. Based on the application of the quasi steady-state (QSS) approximation for certain chemical species and on the elimination of the fast reaction rates in the mechanism, several comprehensive reduced models, capable of handling different fuels such as C2H4, CH4 and H2, have been developed and thoroughly tested for several combustion problems (ignition, propagation and extinction) and physical conditions (reactant compositions, temperatures, and pressures). A key feature of the present reduction procedure is the explicit solution of the concentrations of the QSS species, needed for the evaluation of the elementary reaction rates. In contrast, previous approaches relied on an implicit solution due to the strong coupling between QSS species, requiring computationally expensive inner iterations. A novel algorithm, based on the definition of a QSS species coupling matrix, is presented to (i) introduce appropriate truncations to the QSS algebraic relations and (ii) identify the optimal sequence for the explicit solution of the concentration of the QSS species. With the automatic generation of the relevant source code, the resulting reduced models can be readily implemented into numerical codes.

  6. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    Doisneau, François; Arienti, Marco; Oefelein, Joseph C.


    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier-Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle-particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  7. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    Doisneau, François, E-mail:; Arienti, Marco, E-mail:; Oefelein, Joseph C., E-mail:


    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier–Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle–particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  8. Improved Modeling Tools For High Speed Reacting Flows


    putting the tools in place and operating them as a single system on the Beowulf cluster which was purposely built by Blue Blanket LLC (BBLLC) for this...a commercial tool, available from the Program Development Company (PDC). Computational Cluster An eight processor cluster was leased from BBLLC...SBIR I - FA8650-05-M-2594 3 Software Installation Once this cluster was in place, the off-the-shelf software was installed and tested

  9. Chemically reacting dusty viscoelastic fluid flow in an irregular channel with convective boundary

    R. Sivaraj


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the combined effects of free convective heat and mass transfer on an unsteady MHD dusty viscoelastic (Walters liquid model-B fluid flow between a vertical long wavy wall and a parallel flat wall saturated with porous medium subject to the convective boundary condition. The coupled partial differential equations are solved analytically using perturbation technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration fields have been studied for various combinations of physical parameters such as magnetic field, heat absorption, thermal radiation, radiation absorption, Biot number and chemical reaction parameters. The skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also presented and displayed graphically. Further, it is observed that the velocity profiles of dusty fluid are higher than the dust particles.

  10. A Unified Gaskinetic Methodology for Full-Knudsen-Range Flows with Chemically Reacting Effects Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA proposes a Unified Gas Kinetic Scheme (UGKS) to cover the full Knudsen number range from the continuum flow to free molecular flow that can simultaneously exist...

  11. An improved high-order scheme for DNS of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows based on stiff chemistry solver

    Yu, Rixin; Yu, Jiangfei; Bai, Xue-Song


    We present an improved numerical scheme for numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows with detailed chemistry and transport. The method is based on a semi-implicit operator-splitting scheme with a stiff solver for integration of the chemical kinetic rates, developed by Knio et al. [O.M. Knio, H.N. Najm, P.S. Wyckoff, A semi-implicit numerical scheme for reacting flow II. Stiff, operator-split formulation, Journal of Computational Physics 154 (2) (1999) 428-467]. Using the material derivative form of continuity equation, we enhance the scheme to allow for large density ratio in the flow field. The scheme is developed for direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flow by employing high-order discretization for the spatial terms. The accuracy of the scheme in space and time is verified by examining the grid/time-step dependency on one-dimensional benchmark cases: a freely propagating premixed flame in an open environment and in an enclosure related to spark-ignition engines. The scheme is then examined in simulations of a two-dimensional laminar flame/vortex-pair interaction. Furthermore, we apply the scheme to direct numerical simulation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) process in an enclosure studied previously in the literature. Satisfactory agreement is found in terms of the overall ignition behavior, local reaction zone structures and statistical quantities. Finally, the scheme is used to study the development of intrinsic flame instabilities in a lean H2/air premixed flame, where it is shown that the spatial and temporary accuracies of numerical schemes can have great impact on the prediction of the sensitive nonlinear evolution process of flame instability.

  12. On a consistent high-order finite difference scheme with kinetic energy conservation for simulating turbulent reacting flows

    Trisjono, Philipp; Kang, Seongwon; Pitsch, Heinz


    The main objective of this study is to present an accurate and consistent numerical framework for turbulent reacting flows based on a high-order finite difference (HOFD) scheme. It was shown previously by Desjardins et al. (2008) [4] that a centered finite difference scheme discretely conserving the kinetic energy and an upwind-biased scheme for the scalar transport can be combined into a useful scheme for turbulent reacting flows. With a high-order spatial accuracy, however, an inconsistency among discretization schemes for different conservation laws is identified, which can disturb a scalar field spuriously under non-uniform density distribution. Various theoretical and numerical analyses are performed on the sources of the unphysical error. From this, the derivative of the mass-conserving velocity and the local Péclet number are identified as the primary factors affecting the error. As a solution, an HOFD stencil for the mass conservation is reformulated into a flux-based form that can be used consistently with an upwind-biased scheme for the scalar transport. The effectiveness of the proposed formulation is verified using two-dimensional laminar flows such as a scalar transport problem and a laminar premixed flame, where unphysical oscillations in the scalar fields are removed. The applicability of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in an LES of a turbulent stratified premixed flame.

  13. Large Eddy Simulation of Spatially Developing Turbulent Reacting Shear Layers with the One-Dimensional Turbulence Model

    Hoffie, Andreas Frank

    model. The chemical reaction is simulated with a global single-step, second-order equilibrium reaction with an Arrhenius reaction rate. The two benchmark cases of constant density reacting and variable density non-reacting shear layers used to determine ODT parameters yield perfect agreement with regards to first and second-order flow statistics as well as shear layer growth rate. The variable density non-reacting shear layer also serves as a testing case for the LES-ODT model to simulate passive scalar mixing. The variable density, reacting shear layer cases only agree reasonably well and indicate that more work is necessary to improve variable density coupling of ODT and LES. The disagreement is attributed to the fact that the ODT filtered density is kept constant across the Runge-Kutta steps. Furthermore, a more in-depth knowledge of large scale and subgrid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) spectra at several downstream locations as well as TKE budgets need to be studied to obtain a better understanding about the model as well as about the flow under investigation. The local Reynolds number based on the one-percent thickness at the exit is Redelta ≈ 5300, for the constant density reacting and for the variable density non-reacting case. For the variable density reacting shear layer, the Reynolds number based on the 1% thickness is Redelta ≈ 2370. The variable density reacting shear layers show suppressed growth rates due to density variations caused by heat release. This has also been reported in literature. A Lewis number parameter study is performed to extract non-unity Lewis number effects. An increase in the Lewis number leads to a further suppression of the growth rate, however to an increase spread of second-order flow statistics. Major focus and challenge of this work is to improve and advance the three-dimensional coupling of the one-dimensional ODT domains while keeping the solution correct. This entails major restructuring of the model. The turbulent

  14. Very Large Eddy Simulations of a Jet-A Spray Reacting Flow in a Single Element LDI Injector With and Without Invoking an Eulerian Scalar DWFDF Method

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey


    This paper presents the very large eddy simulations (VLES) of a Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single element lean direct injection (LDI) injector by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) with and without invoking the Eulerian scalar DWFDF method, in which DWFDF is defined as the density weighted time filtered fine grained probability density function. The flow field is calculated by using the time filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations (TFNS) with nonlinear subscale turbulence models, and when the Eulerian scalar DWFDF method is invoked, the energy and species mass fractions are calculated by solving the equation of DWFDF. A nonlinear subscale model for closing the convection term of the Eulerian scalar DWFDF equation is used and will be briefly described in this paper. Detailed comparisons between the results and available experimental data are carried out. Some positive findings of invoking the Eulerian scalar DWFDF method in both improving the simulation quality and maintaining economic computing cost are observed.

  15. 1982 AFOSR Research Meeting on Diagnostics of Reacting Flow, 25-26 February 1982.


    observations and computer deconvolution methods. * COHERENT ANTI-STOKES RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY (Byer) - Development of tech- niques and measurements of species...of axial velocities for both cold and combusting flows, comparisons of velocity data with FREP and TEACH code predictions, the successful evalua- tion...of laser induced fluorescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure trace species concentrations in flames. The Ramjet Division is also sponsoring

  16. AFOSR/ONR Contractors Meeting - Combustion, Rocket Propulsion, Diagnostics of Reacting Flow


    Section, The Combustion Institute, Oct. 1989. 5. McMillin, B. K., Lee, M. P., Palmer, J. L., Paul , P. H. and Hanson, R. K., "Planar Laser- Induced...K., Chang, A. Y., Seitzman, J. M., Lee, M. P., Paul , P. H. and Battles, B. E., "Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostics for Supersonic Flows," AIAA-90...916)355-3087 289 I Dr Leanne Pitchford Dr Robert L Poeschel GTE Laboratories Plasma Physics Department 40 Sylvan Road Hughes Research Laboratories

  17. Comparing Spray Characteristics from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) National Combustion Code (NCC) Calculations Against Experimental Data for a Turbulent Reacting Flow

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Moder, Jeffery P.


    Developing physics-based tools to aid in reducing harmful combustion emissions, like Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Unburnt Hydrocarbons (UHC s), and Sulfur Dioxides (SOx), is an important goal of aeronautics research at NASA. As part of that effort, NASA Glenn Research Center is performing a detailed assessment and validation of an in-house combustion CFD code known as the National Combustion Code (NCC) for turbulent reacting flows. To assess the current capabilities of NCC for simulating turbulent reacting flows with liquid jet fuel injection, a set of Single Swirler Lean Direct Injection (LDI) experiments performed at the University of Cincinnati was chosen as an initial validation data set. This Jet-A/air combustion experiment operates at a lean equivalence ratio of 0.75 at atmospheric pressure and has a 4 percent static pressure drop across the swirler. Detailed comparisons of NCC predictions for gas temperature and gaseous emissions (CO and NOx) against this experiment are considered in a previous work. The current paper is focused on detailed comparisons of the spray characteristics (radial profiles of drop size distribution and at several radial rakes) from NCC simulations against the experimental data. Comparisons against experimental data show that the use of the correlation for primary spray break-up implemented by Raju in the NCC produces most realistic results, but this result needs to be improved. Given the single or ten step chemical kinetics models, use of a spray size correlation gives similar, acceptable results

  18. A second-order coupled immersed boundary-SAMR construction for chemically reacting flow over a heat-conducting Cartesian grid-conforming solid

    Kedia, Kushal S.


    In this paper, we present a second-order numerical method for simulations of reacting flow around heat-conducting immersed solid objects. The method is coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) framework and a low-Mach number operator-split projection algorithm. A "buffer zone" methodology is introduced to impose the solid-fluid boundary conditions such that the solver uses symmetric derivatives and interpolation stencils throughout the interior of the numerical domain; irrespective of whether it describes fluid or solid cells. Solid cells are tracked using a binary marker function. The no-slip velocity boundary condition at the immersed wall is imposed using the staggered mesh. Near the immersed solid boundary, single-sided buffer zones (inside the solid) are created to resolve the species discontinuities, and dual buffer zones (inside and outside the solid) are created to capture the temperature gradient discontinuities. The development discussed in this paper is limited to a two-dimensional Cartesian grid-conforming solid. We validate the code using benchmark simulations documented in the literature. We also demonstrate the overall second-order convergence of our numerical method. To demonstrate its capability, a reacting flow simulation of a methane/air premixed flame stabilized on a channel-confined bluff-body using a detailed chemical kinetics model is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Development of a Chemically Reacting Flow Solver on the Graphic Processing Units


    been implemented on the GPU by Schive et al. (2010). The outcome of their work is the GAMER code for astrophysical simulation. Thibault and...model all the elementary reactions and their reverse processes. 4.2 Chemistry Model An elementary reaction takes the form       N s sr K...are read from separated data files which contain all the species information used for the computation along with the elementary reactions. 4.3

  20. Efficient numerical methods for the instationary solution of laminar reacting gas flow problems

    Van Veldhuizen, S.


    In production processes of micro-electronics, optical and mechanical coatings and solar cells, high-purity materials in the form of a powder or a thin film are significant importance. The deposition of thin films on irregularly shaped surfaces can be done by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Computer simulations are widely used to design CVD reactors and to optimize the process itself. The core of a computer simulation is a mathematical model of the gasflow and all chemical processes within th...

  1. Lie Group Solution for Free Convective Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Chemically Reacting Horizontal Plate in a Porous Media

    M. M. Rashidi


    Full Text Available The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM is employed to investigate the steady laminar incompressible free convective flow of a nanofluid past a chemically reacting upward facing horizontal plate in a porous medium taking into account heat generation/absorption and the thermal slip boundary condition. Using similarity transformations developed by Lie group analysis, the continuity, momentum, energy, and nanoparticle volume fraction equations are transformed into a set of coupled similarity equations. The OHAM solutions are obtained and verified by numerical results using a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. The effect of the emerging flow controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction have been presented graphically and discussed. Good agreement is found between analytical and numerical results of the present paper with published results. This close agreement supports our analysis and the accuracy of the numerical computations. This paper also includes a representative set of numerical results for reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in a table for various values of the parameters. It is concluded that the reduced Nusselt number increases with the Lewis number and reaction parameter whist it decreases with the order of the chemical reaction, thermal slip, and generation parameters.

  2. Chemically Reacting Turbulent Flow.


    two stages of gen I tubes equipped with P-47 phosphor screens The detector chosen for the camera was a Reticon RL128S* line detectoI- .,hich consists...the Stud’, of Turbulent Mixing," William M. Pitts, Nuclear Engineering Seminar of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of

  3. Semi-implicit iterative methods for low Mach number turbulent reacting flows: Operator splitting versus approximate factorization

    MacArt, Jonathan F.; Mueller, Michael E.


    Two formally second-order accurate, semi-implicit, iterative methods for the solution of scalar transport-reaction equations are developed for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows. The first is a monolithic scheme based on a linearly implicit midpoint method utilizing an approximately factorized exact Jacobian of the transport and reaction operators. The second is an operator splitting scheme based on the Strang splitting approach. The accuracy properties of these schemes, as well as their stability, cost, and the effect of chemical mechanism size on relative performance, are assessed in two one-dimensional test configurations comprising an unsteady premixed flame and an unsteady nonpremixed ignition, which have substantially different Damköhler numbers and relative stiffness of transport to chemistry. All schemes demonstrate their formal order of accuracy in the fully-coupled convergence tests. Compared to a (non-)factorized scheme with a diagonal approximation to the chemical Jacobian, the monolithic, factorized scheme using the exact chemical Jacobian is shown to be both more stable and more economical. This is due to an improved convergence rate of the iterative procedure, and the difference between the two schemes in convergence rate grows as the time step increases. The stability properties of the Strang splitting scheme are demonstrated to outpace those of Lie splitting and monolithic schemes in simulations at high Damköhler number; however, in this regime, the monolithic scheme using the approximately factorized exact Jacobian is found to be the most economical at practical CFL numbers. The performance of the schemes is further evaluated in a simulation of a three-dimensional, spatially evolving, turbulent nonpremixed planar jet flame.

  4. Modeling Multiphase Chemical Kinetics of OH Radical Reacting with Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol

    Arangio, Andrea; Slade, Jonathan H.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Knopf, Daniel A.; Shiraiwa, Manabu


    Levoglucosan, abietic acid and nitroguaiacol are commonly used as molecular tracers of biomass burning in source apportionment. Recent studies have demonstrated the decay of levoglucosan when the particles were exposed to atmospherically relevant concentration of OH radicals [1-3]. However, multiphase chemical kinetics of OH radical reacting with such compounds has not fully understood. Here we apply the kinetic multi-layer model for gas-particle interactions (KM-GAP) [4] to experimental data of OH exposure to levoglucosan, abietic acid and nitroguaiacol [1]. KM-GAP resolves the following mass transport and chemical reactions explicitly: gas-phase diffusion, reversible surface adsorption, surface reaction, surface-bulk transport, bulk diffusion and reaction. The particle shrink due to the evaporation of volatile reaction products is also considered. The time- and concentration-dependence of reactive uptake coefficient of OH radicals were simulated by KM-GAP. The measured OH uptake coefficients were fitted by a Monte Carlo (MC) filtering coupled with a genetic algorithm (GA) to derive physicochemical parameters such as bulk diffusion coefficient, Henry's law coefficient and desorption lifetime of OH radicals. We assessed the relative contribution of surface and bulk reactions to the overall uptake of OH radicals. Chemical half-life and the evaporation time scale of these compounds are estimated in different scenarios (dry, humid and cloud processing conditions) and at different OH concentrations. REFERENCES [1] J. H. Slade, D. A. Knopf, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 5898. [2] S. H. Kessler, J. D. Smith, D.L. Che, D.R. Worsnop, K. R. Wilson, J. H. Kroll, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010, 44, 7005. [3] C. J. Hennigan, A. P. Sullivan, J. L. Collett Jr, A. L. Robinson, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2010, 37, L09806. [4] M. Shiraiwa, C. Pfrang, T. Koop, U. Pöschl, Atmos. Chem. Phys, 2012, 12, 2777.

  5. Assessment of the Partially Resolved Numerical Simulation (PRNS) Approach in the National Combustion Code (NCC) for Turbulent Nonreacting and Reacting Flows

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey


    This paper describes an approach which aims at bridging the gap between the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach and the traditional large eddy simulation (LES) approach. It has the characteristics of the very large eddy simulation (VLES) and we call this approach the partially-resolved numerical simulation (PRNS). Systematic simulations using the National Combustion Code (NCC) have been carried out for fully developed turbulent pipe flows at different Reynolds numbers to evaluate the PRNS approach. Also presented are the sample results of two demonstration cases: nonreacting flow in a single injector flame tube and reacting flow in a Lean Direct Injection (LDI) hydrogen combustor.

  6. Using conversions of chemically reacting tracers for numerical determination of temperature profiles in flowing systems and temperature histories in batch systems

    Brown, L.F.; Chemburkar, R.M.; Robinson, B.A.; Travis, B.J.


    This report presents the mathematical bases for measuring internal temperatures within batch and flowing systems using chemically reacting tracers. This approach can obtain temperature profiles of plug-flow systems and temperature histories within batch systems. The differential equations for reactant conversion can be converted into Fredholm integral equations of the first kind. The experimental variable is the tracer-reaction activation energy. When more than one tracer is used, the reactions must have different activation energies to gain information. In systems with temperature extrema, multiple solutions for the temperature profiles or histories can exist, When a single parameter in the temperature distribution is needed, a single-tracer test may furnish this information. For multi-reaction tracer tests, three Fredholm equations are developed. Effects of tracer-reaction activation energy, number of tracers used, and error in the data are evaluated. The methods can determine temperature histories and profiles for many existing systems, and can be a basis for analysis of the more complicated dispersed-flow systems. An alternative to using the Fredholm-equation approach is the use of an assumed temperature- distribution function and incorporation of this function into the basic integral equation describing tracer behavior. The function contains adjustable parameters which are optimized to give the temperature distribution. The iterative Fredholm equation method is tested to see what is required to discriminate between two models of the temperature behavior of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal reservoirs. Experimentally, ester and amide hydrolyses are valid HDR tracer reactions for measuring temperatures in the range 75-100{degrees}C. Hydrolyses of bromobenzene derivatives are valid HDR tracer reactions for measuring temperatures in the range 150-275{degrees}C.

  7. Validated dynamic flow model

    Knudsen, Torben


    The purpose with this deliverable 2.5 is to use fresh experimental data for validation and selection of a flow model to be used for control design in WP3-4. Initially the idea was to investigate the models developed in WP2. However, in the project it was agreed to include and focus on a additive...... model turns out not to be useful for prediction of the flow. Moreover, standard Box Jenkins model structures and multiple output auto regressive models proves to be superior as they can give useful predictions of the flow....

  8. Data flow modeling techniques

    Kavi, K. M.


    There have been a number of simulation packages developed for the purpose of designing, testing and validating computer systems, digital systems and software systems. Complex analytical tools based on Markov and semi-Markov processes have been designed to estimate the reliability and performance of simulated systems. Petri nets have received wide acceptance for modeling complex and highly parallel computers. In this research data flow models for computer systems are investigated. Data flow models can be used to simulate both software and hardware in a uniform manner. Data flow simulation techniques provide the computer systems designer with a CAD environment which enables highly parallel complex systems to be defined, evaluated at all levels and finally implemented in either hardware or software. Inherent in data flow concept is the hierarchical handling of complex systems. In this paper we will describe how data flow can be used to model computer system.

  9. Mathematical modeling of turbulent reacting plumes - II. Application to the NO-NO/sub 2/-O/sub 3/ system

    Georgopoulos, P.G.; Seinfeld, J.H.


    Calculations performed with the Turbulent Reacting plume model (TPRM) developed in Part I are compared with the experimental data of Builtjes (1981, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Div. of Technology for Soc., Ref. No. 81-013563) for the reaction between NO in a point source plume and ambient O/sub 3/, taking place in a wind tunnel simulating a neutral atmospheric boundary layer. The comparison shows the TRPM capable of quantitatively predicting the retardation imposed on the evolution of nonlinear plume chemistry by incomplete mixing. (authors).

  10. Multicomponent flow modeling

    GIOVANGIGLI; Vincent


    We present multicomponent flow models derived from the kinetic theory of gases and investigate the symmetric hyperbolic-parabolic structure of the resulting system of partial differential equations.We address the Cauchy problem for smooth solutions as well as the existence of deflagration waves,also termed anchored waves.We further discuss related models which have a similar hyperbolic-parabolic structure,notably the SaintVenant system with a temperature equation as well as the equations governing chemical equilibrium flows.We next investigate multicomponent ionized and magnetized flow models with anisotropic transport fluxes which have a different mathematical structure.We finally discuss numerical algorithms specifically devoted to complex chemistry flows,in particular the evaluation of multicomponent transport properties,as well as the impact of multicomponent transport.

  11. Numerical study of chemically reacting unsteady Casson fluid flow past a stretching surface with cross diffusion and thermal radiation

    Pushpalatha, K.; Ramana Reddy, J. V.; Sugunamma, V.; Sandeep, N.


    The problem of an unsteady MHD Casson fluid flow towards a stretching surface with cross diffusion effects is considered. The governing partial differential equations are converted into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable similarity transformations. Further, these equations have been solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique. Finally, we studied the influence of various non-dimensional governing parameters on the flow field through graphs and tables. Results indicate that Dufour and Soret numbers have tendency to enhance the fluid velocity. It is also found that Soret number enhances the heat transfer rate where as an opposite result is observed with Casson parameter. A comparison of the present results with the previous literature is also tabulated to show the accuracy of the results.

  12. A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures

    Meier, E T; Shumlak, U


    A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.

  13. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-specific electrochemiluminescence and lateral flow device assays cross-react with staphylococcal enterotoxin D.

    Tallent, Sandra M; Hait, Jennifer; Bennett, Reginald W


    Guam school children and faculty members experienced symptoms of vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea shortly after eating breakfast prepared by contracted caterers. The first illness was reported within an hour after breakfast, affecting 295 students and two faculty members. Local hospitals treated 130 people, and 61 were admitted for further treatment. Reported symptoms were consistent with staphylococcal food poisoning. Initial food testing using a lateral flow device and electrochemiluminescence method incorrectly implicated staphylococcal enterotoxin B as the causative agent, prompting partial activation of Guam's Emergency Response Center. Traditional ELISAs proved that the food poisoning agent was staphylococcal enterotoxin D. More specific and sensitive assays would have alleviated the issues and confusion that surrounded the reporting and investigation of this outbreak.

  14. Efficient partially implicit integration method for stiff chemistry in high-fidelity simulations of turbulent reacting flows

    Wu, Hao; Ihme, Matthias


    High-fidelity turbulent reactive flow simulations are typically associated with small time step sizes (h combustion simulations due to the reduced number of internal iterations and excessive implicitness. In this study, an improved 4th-order Rosenbrock-Krylov (ROK4L) scheme is developed for the system of chemical reactions. This class of schemes replaces the Jacobian matrix by its low-rank Krylov approximation, thus introducing partial implicitness. The scheme is improved in both accuracy and efficiency by fulfilling additional order conditions and reducing the number of function evaluations. The ROK4L scheme is demonstrated to possess superior efficiency in comparison to CVODE due to the minimal degree of implicitness for small time-step sizes and the avoidance of other overhead associated with the start-up process of multi-step methods. Financial support from NASA Transformational Tools and Technologies Project with Award No. NNX15AV04A.

  15. "A Context-Adaptive Model for Program Evaluation": A Reader Reacts.

    Meinke, Mark W.


    Discusses a model of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program evaluation and suggests ESL professionals begin to see themselves within the wider context of training and development and begin applying useful disciplines of the business world to their activities. (four references) (JL)

  16. From Detailed Description of Chemical Reacting Carbon Particles to Subgrid Models for CFD

    Schulze S.; Kestel M.; Nikrityuk P. A.; Safronov D.


    This work is devoted to the development and validation of a sub-model for the partial oxidation of a spherical char particle moving in an air/steam atmosphere. The particle diameter is 2 mm. The coal particle is represented by moisture- and ash-free nonporous carbon while the coal rank is implemented using semi-global reaction rate expressions taken from the literature. The submodel includes six gaseous chemical species (O2, C...

  17. Chemically reacting micropolar fluid flow and heat transfer between expanding or contracting walls with ion slip, Soret and Dufour effects

    Odelu Ojjela


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the Hall and ion slip currents on an incompressible free convective flow, heat and mass transfer of a micropolar fluid in a porous medium between expanding or contracting walls with chemical reaction, Soret and Dufour effects. Assume that the walls are moving with a time dependent rate of the distance and the fluid is injecting or sucking with an absolute velocity. The walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and concentrations. The governing partial differential equations are reduced into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and then the resultant equations are solved numerically by quasilinearization technique. The results are analyzed for velocity components, microrotation, temperature and concentration with respect to different fluid and geometric parameters and presented in the form of graphs. It is noticed that with the increase in chemical reaction, Hall and ion slip parameters the temperature of the fluid is enhanced whereas the concentration is decreased. Also for the Newtonian fluid, the numerical values of axial velocity are compared with the existing literature and are found to be in good agreement.

  18. Transport hub flow modelling

    Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...

  19. An evaluation of mathematical models of the transport of biologically reacting solutes in saturated soils and aquifers

    Baveye, Philippe; Valocchi, Albert


    Three different conceptual frameworks have been adopted in the past for the development of mathematical models of bacterial growth and biologically reacting solute transport in saturated porous media. Two schools of thought are based upon assuming that the pore scale geometrical configuration of the attached bacteria consists of biofilms or microcolonies; the third school of thought represents the traditional approach where pore scale processes are neglected and the bacteria are assumed to respond to the macroscopic bulk fluid substrate concentration. On the basis of a schematic block diagram representation of a saturated porous medium hosting a microbial population, it is shown that these frameworks share a common theoretical foundation, and that they differ only by the choice of particular constitutive equations for several transfer parameters. Using one possible option in this respect, we derive a mathematical model that involves no unwarranted assumption about the distribution of the microorganisms in the pore space. The governing equations of this latter model are shown to be formally identical to those obtained by F.J. Molz et al. (1986), using the concept of microcolony, and to those that would result from adopting a simple form of biofilm model to describe bacterial growth in the pore space. Some of the consequences of this formal similarity between macroscopic transport equations obtained in different conceptual frameworks are discussed from an operational standpoint and in terms of model validation.

  20. Reacting flow simulations of supercritical water oxidation of PCB-contaminated transformer oil in a pilot plant reactor

    V. Marulanda


    Full Text Available The scale-up of a supercritical water oxidation process, based on recent advancements in kinetic aspects, reactor configuration and optimal operational conditions, depends on the research and development of simulation tools, which allow the designer not only to understand the complex multiphysics phenomena that describe the system, but also to optimize the operational parameters to attain the best profit for the process and guarantee its safe operation. Accordingly, this paper reports a multiphysics simulation with the CFD software Comsol Multiphysics 3.3 of a pilot plant reactor for the supercritical water oxidation of a heavily PCB-contaminated mineral transformer oil. The proposed model was based on available information for the kinetic aspects of the complex mixture and the optimal operational conditions obtained in a lab-scale continuous supercritical water oxidation unit. The pilot plant simulation results indicate that it is not feasible to scale-up directly the optimal operational conditions obtained in the isothermal lab-scale experiments, due to the excess heat released by the exothermic oxidation reactions that result in outlet temperatures higher than 600°C, even at reactor inlet temperatures as low as 400°C. Consequently, different alternatives such as decreasing organic flowrates or a new reactor set-up with multiple oxidant injections should be considered to guarantee a safe operation.

  1. Advanced Diagnostics for Reacting Flows


    Ingeniera Mecanica , 17-19 Dec. 1990, Zaragosa, Spain; published in Congress Proceedings. 19. D. F. Davidson, A. Y. Chang, M. D. DiRosa and R. K. Hanson... Mecanica , 17-19 Dec. 1990, Zaragosa, Spain; published in Congress Proceedings. 14. D. F. Davidson, A. Y. Chang, M. D. DiRosa and R. K. Hanson

  2. A three-dimensional fully coupled thermo-mechanical model for Self-reacting Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium AA6061 sheets

    Singh, Piyush; Biswas, Pankaj; Kore, Sachin D.


    In the present work a three dimensional model of self-reacting friction stir welding in aluminium alloy AA6061 has been developed based on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The temperature dependent material properties have been incorporated in the model from available literature. A slip-stick contact between the workpiece and tool surface has been considered with the slip factor varying linearly with distance. The methodology adopted has been validated with experimental results available in the literature. The temperature distribution observed has been found to be asymmetric about the weld centre line. The maximum temperature has been observed on the advancing side of the weld. However, the temperature distribution across the thickness has been found to be almost symmetric about the mid thickness plane. An hourglass shaped temperature distribution has been observed across the cross-section of the weld. The material flow velocity distribution shows that the deformation zone is limited to a very small region around the tool.

  3. Traffic flow modeling: a Genealogy

    Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Vuik, C.; Van Lint, J.W.C.


    80 years ago, Bruce Greenshields presented the first traffic flow model at the Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board. Since then, many models and simulation tools have been developed. We show a model tree with four families of traffic flow models, all descending from Greenshields' model. The

  4. Flow Element Models

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  5. Non-travelling wave solutions to a (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation and a simplified model for reacting mixtures

    Zhang Tingxuan [Huaian University of Radio and TV, Huaian, Jiangsu 223005 (China); Xuan, Heng-Nong [School of Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210003 (China)]. E-mail:; Zhang Dafang [School of Software, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang Changji [Computer Science Department, Sun Yet-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)


    In the paper, the generalized projective Riccati equation method is extended to construct some non-travelling wave solutions to a (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation and a simplified model for reacting mixtures. When some arbitrary functions included in these solutions are taken as some special functions, these solutions possess abundant structures.

  6. Modification and Improvement of Software for Modeling Multidimensional Reacting Fuel Flow.


    block Gauss- Seidel method for F(u) = 0. NLGMR provides a means of accelerating the TEACH iterations as follows (see [16]). - . -Throughout we and thermodynamic coefficients. and the velocity-dependent turbulent transport properties. A multistage variation of the block Gauss- Seidel ... method is used to solve this nonlinear ;vstem. The outermost stage consists of cycling between a Poisson-like pressure correction J (pilation (derived

  7. Numerical Simulation of Reacting Flow in a Thermally Choked Ram Accelerator - Model Development and Validation


    Carnahan, B., Lathet, II.A., and Wilkes, J.O., Applied Numerical Methods , John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1969. 16 stream. In the streamwise direction... Numerical Methods , John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1969. 45 INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 46 List of Symbols A cross sectional area of launch tube cp specific...41st Meeting of the Aeroballistic Range Association, San Diego, CA, Oct. 22-25, 1990. 33. Carnahan, B., Luther, H.A., and Wilkes, J.O., Applied

  8. Application of the e-KT-UNIFAC Model for the Improved and Innovative Design of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Kim, Sun H.; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio


    Biphasic reacting systems contain effectively immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases in which reactants, products, and catalysts can partition. These conditions allow novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product(s) separation. A systematic modeli...... of epoxidation of palm oil and production of furan derivatives....

  9. Stochastic power flow modeling


    The stochastic nature of customer demand and equipment failure on large interconnected electric power networks has produced a keen interest in the accurate modeling and analysis of the effects of probabilistic behavior on steady state power system operation. The principle avenue of approach has been to obtain a solution to the steady state network flow equations which adhere both to Kirchhoff's Laws and probabilistic laws, using either combinatorial or functional approximation techniques. Clearly the need of the present is to develop sound techniques for producing meaningful data to serve as input. This research has addressed this end and serves to bridge the gap between electric demand modeling, equipment failure analysis, etc., and the area of algorithm development. Therefore, the scope of this work lies squarely on developing an efficient means of producing sensible input information in the form of probability distributions for the many types of solution algorithms that have been developed. Two major areas of development are described in detail: a decomposition of stochastic processes which gives hope of stationarity, ergodicity, and perhaps even normality; and a powerful surrogate probability approach using proportions of time which allows the calculation of joint events from one dimensional probability spaces.

  10. Turbomachinery Flows Modeled

    Adamczyk, John J.


    Last year, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center used the average passage code APNASA to complete the largest three-dimensional simulation of a multistage axial flow compressor to date. Consisting of 29 blade rows, the configuration is typical of those found in aeroengines today. The simulation, which was executed on the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program IBM SP2 parallel computer located at the NASA Ames Research Center, took nearly 90 hr to complete. Since the completion of this activity, a fine-grain, parallel version of APNASA has been written by a team of researchers from General Electric, NASA Lewis, and NYMA. Timing studies performed on the SP2 have shown that, with eight processors assigned to each blade row, the simulation time is reduced by a factor of six. For this configuration, the simulation time would be 15 hr. The reduction in computing time indicates that an overnight turnaround of a multistage configuration simulation is feasible. In addition, average passage forms of two-equation turbulence models were formulated. These models are currently being incorporated into APNASA.

  11. REACT-Mod: a mathematical model for transient calculation of chemical reactions with U-Pu-Np-Tc in the aqueous nitric acid solution

    Tachimori, Shoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kitamura, Tatsuaki


    A computer code REACT-Mod which simulates various chemical reactions in an aqueous nitric acid solution involving uranium, plutonium, neptunium, technetium etc. e.g., redox, radiolytic and disproportionation reactions of 68, was developed based on the kinetics model. The numerical solution method adopted in the code are two, a kinetics model totally based on the rate law of which differential equations are solved by the modified Porsing method, and a two-step model based on both the rate law and equilibrium law. Only the former treats 27 radiolytic reactions. The latter is beneficially used to have a quick and approximate result by economical computation. The present report aims not only to explain the concept, chemical reactions treated and characteristics of the model but also to provide details of the program for users of the REACT-Mod code. (author)

  12. UZ Flow Models and Submodels

    P. Dixon


    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid flow and tracer transport models and submodels as well as the flow fields generated utilizing the UZ Flow and Transport Model of Yucca Mountain (UZ Model), Nevada. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10, Work Package AUZM06). The UZ Model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ Flow Model REV 00 ICN 01 (BSC 2001 [158726]) by incorporation of the conceptual repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These 3-D UZ flow fields are used directly by Performance Assessment (PA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, this Model Report supports several PA activities, including abstractions, particle-tracking transport simulations, and the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model.

  13. Heat and mass transfer effects on the mixed convective flow of chemically reacting nanofluid past a moving/stationary vertical plate

    B. Mahanthesh


    Full Text Available The problem of conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer over a moving/stationary vertical plate has been studied under the influence of applied magnetic field, thermal radiation, internal heat generation/absorption and first order chemical reaction. The fluid is assumed to be electrically conducting water based Cu-nanofluid. The Tiwari and Das model is used to model the nanofluid, whereas Rosseland approximation is used for thermal radiation effect. Unified closed form solutions are obtained for the governing equations using Laplace transform method. The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are expressed graphically for different flow pertinent parameters. The physical quantities of engineering interest such as skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also computed. The obtained analytical solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and they can be reduced to known previous results in some limiting cases. It is found that, by varying nanoparticle volume fraction, the flow and heat transfer characteristics could be controlled.

  14. UZ Flow Models and Submodels

    Y. Wu


    The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

  15. Chemically Reacting MHD Boundary Layer Flow of Heat and Mass Transfer over a Moving Vertical Plate in a Porous Medium with Suction



    Full Text Available A mathematical model is presented for a two-dimensional, steady, incompressible electrically conducting, laminar free convection boundary layer flow of a continuously moving vertical porous plate in a chemically reactive and porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The basic equations governing the flow are in the form of partial differential equations and have been reduced to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformations. The problem is tackled numerically using shooting techniques with the forth order Runga-Kutta method. Pertinent results with respect to embedded parameters are displayed graphically for the velocity,temperature and concentration profiles and were discussed quantitatively.

  16. Turbulence Characteristics of Swirling Reacting Flow in a Combustor with Staged Air Injection%分级进风燃烧室内旋流反应流的湍流特性

    张健; 普勇; 周力行


    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the turbulent reacting flow in a swirl combustor with staged air injection. The air injected into the combustor is composed of the primary swirling jet and the secondary non-swirling jet. A three dimension-laser particle dynamic analyzer (PDA) was employed to measure the instantaneous gas velocity. The probability density functions (PDF) for the instantaneous gas axial and tangential velocities at each measuring location, as well as the radial profiles of the root mean square of fluctuating gas axial and tangential velocities and the second-order moment for the fluctuating gas axial and tangential velocities are obtained. The measured results delineate the turbulence properties of the swirling reacting flow under the conditions of staged combustion.

  17. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Tsz Leung Yip


    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  18. Flow Over a Model Submarine

    Jiménez, Juan; Smits, Alexander


    Experimental investigation over a DARPA SUBOFF submarine model (SUBOFF Model) was performed using flow visualization and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The model has an axisymmetric body with sail and fins, and it was supported by a streamlined strut that was formed by the extension of the sail appendage. The range of flow conditions studied correspond to a Reynolds numbers based on model length, Re_L, of about 10^5. Velocity vector fields, turbulence intensities, vorticity fields, and flow visualization in the vicinity of the junction flows are presented. In the vicinity of the control surface and sail hull junctions, the presence of streamwise vortices in the form of horseshoe or necklace vortices locally dominates the flow. The effects of unsteady motions about an axis passing through the sail are also investigated to understand the evolution of the unsteady wake.

  19. Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures

    Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Liberman, M.; Rogachevskii, I.


    We study turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures in a developed turbulence. In our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 69 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.69] using a path-integral approach for a delta-correlated in a time random velocity field, we demonstrated a strong modification of turbulent transport in fluid flows with chemical reactions or phase transitions. In the present study we use the spectral τ approximation that is valid for large Reynolds and Peclet numbers and show that turbulent diffusion of the reacting species can be strongly depleted by a large factor that is the ratio of turbulent and chemical times (turbulent Damköhler number). We have demonstrated that the derived theoretical dependence of a turbulent diffusion coefficient versus the turbulent Damköhler number is in good agreement with that obtained previously in the numerical modeling of a reactive front propagating in a turbulent flow and described by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. We have found that turbulent cross-effects, e.g., turbulent mutual diffusion of gaseous admixtures and turbulent Dufour effect of the chemically reacting gaseous admixtures, are less sensitive to the values of stoichiometric coefficients. The mechanisms of the turbulent cross-effects differ from the molecular cross-effects known in irreversible thermodynamics. In a fully developed turbulence and at large Peclet numbers the turbulent cross-effects are much larger than the molecular ones. The obtained results are applicable also to heterogeneous phase transitions.

  20. Modeling Size Polydisperse Granular Flows

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Isner, Austin B.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.


    Modeling size segregation of granular materials has important applications in many industrial processes and geophysical phenomena. We have developed a continuum model for granular multi- and polydisperse size segregation based on flow kinematics, which we obtain from discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The segregation depends on dimensionless control parameters that are functions of flow rate, particle sizes, collisional diffusion coefficient, shear rate, and flowing layer depth. To test the theoretical approach, we model segregation in tri-disperse quasi-2D heap flow and log-normally distributed polydisperse quasi-2D chute flow. In both cases, the segregated particle size distributions match results from full-scale DEM simulations and experiments. While the theory was applied to size segregation in steady quasi-2D flows here, the approach can be readily generalized to include additional drivers of segregation such as density and shape as well as other geometries where the flow field can be characterized including rotating tumbler flow and three-dimensional bounded heap flow. Funded by The Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.

  1. Modeling of curvilinear suspension flows

    Morris, Jeffrey F.; Boulay, Fabienne


    The curvilinear parallel-plate and cone-and-plate rheometric flows of monodisperse noncolloidal suspensions have been modeled. Although nonuniform in shear rate, dotγ, the parallel-plate flow has been shown experimentally(A. W. Chow, S. W. Sinton, J. H. Iwayima & T. S. Stephens 1994 Phys. Fluids) 6, 2561. not to exhibit particle migration, contrary to predictions of prior suspension-flow modeling. Predictions of nonuniform particle volume fraction, φ, by the suspension-balance model(P. R. Nott & J. F. Brady 1994 J. Fluid Mech.) 275, 157. for parallel-plate and cone-and-plate flow without normal stress differences are presented. The ``nonmigration'' in parallel-plate flow may be attributed to bulk suspension normal stress differences: assuming the bulk stress has the form Σ ~ η dotγ Q(φ) with η the fluid viscosity, nonmigration is predicted for parallel-plate flow provided that Q_33 = (1/2) Q_11 at the bulk φ of interest, with 1 the flow direction and 3 the vorticity direction. Extending the model to include normal stress differences satisfying this requirement, a range of migration behavior is predicted for the cone-and-plate flow depending upon the ratio Q_11/Q_22.

  2. Base Flow Model Validation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program focuses on turbulence modeling enhancements for predicting high-speed rocket base flows. A key component of the effort is the collection of high-fidelity...

  3. Numerical experiments modelling turbulent flows

    Trefilík Jiří


    Full Text Available The work aims at investigation of the possibilities of modelling transonic flows mainly in external aerodynamics. New results are presented and compared with reference data and previously achieved results. For the turbulent flow simulations two modifications of the basic k – ω model are employed: SST and TNT. The numerical solution was achieved by using the MacCormack scheme on structured non-ortogonal grids. Artificial dissipation was added to improve the numerical stability.

  4. Computational modeling of concrete flow

    Roussel, Nicolas; Geiker, Mette Rica; Dufour, Frederic


    This paper provides a general overview of the present status regarding computational modeling of the flow of fresh concrete. The computational modeling techniques that can be found in the literature may be divided into three main families: single fluid simulations, numerical modeling of discrete...

  5. The REACT Project

    Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid; Byskov, Jens;

    selected disease and programme interventions and services, within general care and on health systems management. Efforts to improve health sector performance have not yet been satisfactory, and adequate and sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. Priority setting in health systems...... decisions; and the provision of leadership and the enforcement of conditions. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study, which started in 2006 testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each...... in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. Qualitative and quantitative methods are applied in an action research framework. The project baseline surveys have already been completed and indicate both a strong need and a high willingness for change in the study districts. REACT has developed active research...

  6. Computation of two-phase reacting flows in solid-liquid rocket ramjets%固液火箭冲压发动机内两相反应流场数值计算

    马智博; 朱建士


    In order to compute three-dimens ional reacting flow fieldsestabl ished in the chambers of solid-liquid rocket ramjets,the block implicit algorit hm was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations about gas,the Continuum Formul a tion Model and k-ε-Ap model were used to characterize the turbulent fl ow and vaporizatio n of droplets.The modified k-ε-g model was adopted to represent the combu stion of the fuels.Calculations were carried out under different chamber configuration s and initial droplet diameters,from which the effects of these conditions on t he combustion efficiency were analyzed.The numerical results reveal the p r ocesses of droplet vaporization and combustion.%为了计算固液混合式火箭冲压发动机补燃室内的三维反应流场,用块隐式法求解气相Navier-Stokes方程组,用连续介质模型和k-ε-Ap模型计算颗粒相的湍流流动与蒸发过程,用修正的k-ε-g模型描述燃料的燃烧。为了分析发动机设计参数对反应流场的影响,用不同的条件进行计算,并由此分析了补燃室几何结构和液体燃料初始颗粒直径对燃烧效率的影响。算例表明,计算方法有效可行,数值结果能够反映流场结构、液体燃料的蒸发和两种燃料的燃烧过程。


    Caughey, David


    A Symposium on Turbulence and Combustion was held at Cornell University on August 3-4, 2009. The overall goal of the Symposium was to promote future advances in the study of turbulence and combustion, through an unique forum intended to foster interactions between leading members of these two research communities. The Symposium program consisted of twelve invited lectures given by world-class experts in these fields, two poster sessions consisting of nearly 50 presentations, an open forum, and other informal activities designed to foster discussion. Topics covered in the lectures included turbulent dispersion, wall-bounded flows, mixing, finite-rate chemistry, and others, using experiment, modeling, and computations, and included perspectives from an international community of leading researchers from academia, national laboratories, and industry.

  8. Physical gasdynamics of reacting media. Fizicheskaia gazodinamika reagiruiushchikh sred

    Alekseev, B.V.; Grishin, A.M.


    The fundamentals of the mechanics of reacting gases (aerothermochemistry) are presented in a systematic manner. Topics discussed include the kinetic theory of gases, elements of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics, transfer coefficients and mathematical models of gas flows, and transfer processes in a radiating gas. Attention is also given to similarity criteria and classification of aerothermochemical phenomena, elements of combustion theory, and some aspects of boundary layer theory. 81 references.

  9. Officer Accessions Flow Model


    18]) General Charles Campbell noted that , although…. “the Army has a system for organizing, staffing, equipping, training, deploying, sustaining...Harrell, Charles , Ghosh, Biman K., & Bowden Jr.,Royce O. 2004. Simulation Using ProModel. Second edition. McGraw Hill, New York. [22] Klimas, J...RUNS: A Senior Leader Reference Handbook. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA. [24] McNeill , Dan K. 2005 (August). Army Force Generation

  10. A theoretical model on the formation mechanism and kinetics of highly toxic air pollutants from halogenated formaldehydes reacted with halogen atoms

    Ji, Y. M.; Wang, H. H.; Gao, Y. P.; Li, G. Y.; An, T. C.


    The atmospheric reactions of halogenated formaldehydes with halogen atoms were investigated by high-accuracy molecular orbital calculation. Our studies showed that compared to X-addition pathway, the H-abstraction pathway was demonstrated to be more preferred to form halogenated formyl radicals and hydrogen halides (HX). In specific areas with abundant halogen atoms, such as the marine boundary layer (MBL), halogenated formyl radical was reacted easily with halogen atoms and finally transformed into HX and CO2 in the presence of water; otherwise, this radical was degraded to CO2, halogen gas, and halogenated oxide in the presence of O2 and halogen atoms. By using the canonical variational transition state theory, the kinetics calculations were performed within a wide atmospheric temperature range of 200-368 K, and theoretical values agreed well with the available experimental data. Under atmospheric conditions, rate constants decreased as altitude increased, and especially the rate constants of halogen atoms reacted with FCHO quickly reduced. The kinetic results showed that although the reactions of halogenated formaldehydes with F atoms occurred more easily than did those with Cl and Br atoms, the two latter reactions were still important atmospheric degradation process, especially in the MBL. The modified Arrhenius equations of rate constants within the atmospheric temperature range were fitted, which helped to understand the established atmospheric model and estimated the contribution of title reactions to atmospheric chemistry pollution.

  11. The effect of a number of selective points in modeling of polymerization reacting Monte Carlo method: studying the initiation reaction

    Sadi, M; Dabir, B


    Monte Carlo Method is one of the most powerful techniques to model different processes, such as polymerization reactions. By this method, without any need to solve moment equations, a very detailed information on the structure and properties of polymers are obtained. The number of algorithm repetitions (selected volumes of reactor for modelling which represent the number of initial molecules) is very important in this method. In Monte Carlo method calculations are based on the random number of generations and reaction probability determinations. so the number of algorithm repetition is very important. In this paper, the initiation reaction was considered alone and the importance of number of initiator molecules on the result were studied. It can be concluded that Monte Carlo method will not give accurate results if the number of molecules is not satisfied to be big enough, because in that case , selected volume would not be representative of the whole system.

  12. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    Kim, Y


    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic fl...

  13. AFOSR/ONR Contractors’ Meeting on Combustion Rocket Propulsion Diagnostics of Reacting Flow Held in Ann Arbor, Michigan on 19-23 June 1989


    flow task: combined cycle engines, high performance turbine engines, safe compact nuclear rockets and space-based reusable orbital transfer vehicle...References 1. Chang, F. R., Fisher J. L., Nuclear Fusion, 22, No.8 (1982). 2. Chang, F. R., Krueger, W. A., Yang, T. F., AIAA/DBLR/JSASS International...and an EG&G OMA time-gated reticon array spectrometer are used to measure emissions near the center of the irradiated volume. A primary distinctive

  14. 1983 AFOSR/AFRPL Chemical Rocket Research Meeting, Abstracts and Agenda. Includes: Abstracts on Advanced Diagnostics of Reacting Flow, 28 February - 3 March 1983, Lancaster, California.


    past year, work continued on the build-up of the new ablation system, which will use a heliostat in conjuction with a solar concentrator to heat the...the velocity profile transitions towards a turbulent flow profile. Measurements with low amplitude pressure oscilla- tirns (0.05%) show heat transfer...FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT SURFACE DC-COMPONENT: ACOUSTIC STREAMING, HEAT TRANSFER (FIRST ORDER), WHEN U, V NOT OUT OF PHASE, NET WITH PHASE RELATIVE TO X

  15. Stability of compressible reacting mixing layer

    Shin, D. S.; Ferziger, J. H.


    Linear instability of compressible reacting mixing layers is analyzed with emphasis on the effects of heat release and compressibility. Laminar solutions of the compressible boundary-layer equations are used as the base flows. The parameters of this study are the adiabatic flame temperature, the Mach number of the upper stream, frequency, wavenumber, and the direction of propagation of the disturbance wave. Stability characteristics of the flow are presented. Three groups of unstable modes are found when the Mach number and/or heat release are large. Finally, it is shown that the unstable modes are two-dimensional for large heat release even in highly compressible flow.


    王江峰; 伍贻兆


    A parallelized upwind flux splitting scheme for supersonic reacting flows on hybrid meshes is presented. The complexity of super/hyper-sonic combustion flows makes it necessary to establish solvers with higher resolution and efficiency for multi-component Euler/N-S equations. Hence, a spatial second-order van Leer type flux vector splitting scheme is established by introducing auxiliary points in interpolation, and a domain decomposition method used on unstructured hybrid meshes for obtaining high calculating efficiency. The numerical scheme with five-stage Runge-Kutta time step method is implemented to the simulation of combustion flows, including the supersonic hydrogen/air combustion and the normal injection of hydrogen into reacting flows. Satisfying results are obtained compared with limited references.%基于有限体积迎风格式对超声速燃烧流场进行了的数值模拟.由于超声速燃烧流场绕流的复杂性,要求对多组分Euler/N-S方程求解的数值模拟方法应具有较高的计算精度及效率.本文引用辅助点方法建立了具有空间二阶精度的van Leer迎风矢通量分裂格式,并应用于超声速燃烧流场绕流的数值模拟.化学反应为氢气/空气十反应模型,采用考虑了化学反应特征时间的当地时间步长显式Runge-Kutta时间推进格式.对钝头体模型爆轰现象、后向台阶氢气喷射及二维内外流超声速燃烧流场模型进行了区域分裂技术的并行计算.计算结果与参考文献作了对比,得到了满意的结果.

  17. Computational modelling of SCC flow

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter


    To benefit from the full potential of self-compacting concrete (SCC) prediction tools are needed for the form filling of SCC. Such tools should take into account the properties of the concrete, the shape and size of the structural element, the position of rebars, and the casting technique. Exampl...... of computational models for the time dependent flow behavior are given, and advantages and disadvantages of discrete particle and single fluid models are briefly described.......To benefit from the full potential of self-compacting concrete (SCC) prediction tools are needed for the form filling of SCC. Such tools should take into account the properties of the concrete, the shape and size of the structural element, the position of rebars, and the casting technique. Examples...

  18. On mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of transient compressible flow across open boundaries

    Rian, Kjell Erik


    In numerical simulations of turbulent reacting compressible flows, artificial boundaries are needed to obtain a finite computational domain when an unbounded physical domain is given. Artificial boundaries which fluids are free to cross are called open boundaries. When calculating such flows, non-physical reflections at the open boundaries may occur. These reflections can pollute the solution severely, leading to inaccurate results, and the generation of spurious fluctuations may even cause the numerical simulation to diverge. Thus, a proper treatment of the open boundaries in numerical simulations of turbulent reacting compressible flows is required to obtain a reliable solution for realistic conditions. A local quasi-one-dimensional characteristic-based open-boundary treatment for the Favre-averaged governing equations for time-dependent three-dimensional multi-component turbulent reacting compressible flow is presented. A k-{epsilon} model for turbulent compressible flow and Magnussen's EDC model for turbulent combustion is included in the analysis. The notion of physical boundary conditions is incorporated in the method, and the conservation equations themselves are applied on the boundaries to complement the set of physical boundary conditions. A two-dimensional finite-difference-based computational fluid dynamics code featuring high-order accurate numerical schemes was developed for the numerical simulations. Transient numerical simulations of the well-known, one-dimensional shock-tube problem, a two-dimensional pressure-tower problem in a decaying turbulence field, and a two-dimensional turbulent reacting compressible flow problem have been performed. Flow- and combustion-generated pressure waves seem to be well treated by the non-reflecting subsonic open-boundary conditions. Limitations of the present open-boundary treatment are demonstrated and discussed. The simple and solid physical basis of the method makes it both favourable and relatively easy to

  19. Cellular automata models for synchronized traffic flow

    Jiang Rui


    This paper presents a new cellular automata model for describing synchronized traffic flow. The fundamental diagrams, the spacetime plots and the 1 min average data have been analysed in detail. It is shown that the model can describe the outflow from the jams, the light synchronized flow as well as heavy synchronized flow with average speed greater than approximately 24 km h sup - sup 1. As for the synchronized flow with speed lower than 24 km h sup - sup 1 , it is unstable and will evolve into the coexistence of jams, free flow and light synchronized flow. This is consistent with the empirical findings (Kerner B S 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3797).

  20. A speed-flow relationship model of highway traffic flow

    WANG Wei; LI Wei; REN Gang


    In the view that the generally used speed-flow relationship model is insufficient in the traffic analysis under over-saturated conditions, this paper first establishes the theoretical models of speed flow relationship for each highway class based upon a large number of traffic data collected from the field. Then by analyzing the traffic flow dissipation mechanism under peak hour over-saturated traffic conditions, the speed flow relationship model structures for each highway class are reviewed under different traffic load conditions. Through curve-fitting of large numbers of observed data, functional equations of general speed-flow relationship models for each highway class under any traffic load conditions are established. The practical model parameters for each highway class under different design speeds are also put forward. This model is successful in solving the speed-forecasting problem of the traffic flow under peak hour over-saturated conditions. This provides the theoretical bases for the development of projects related to highway network planning, economic analysis, etc.

  1. A toy terrestrial carbon flow model

    Parton, William J.; Running, Steven W.; Walker, Brian


    A generalized carbon flow model for the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world is reported. The model is a simplification of the Century model and the Forest-Biogeochemical model. Topics covered include plant production, decomposition and nutrient cycling, biomes, the utility of the carbon flow model for predicting carbon dynamics under global change, and possible applications to state-and-transition models and environmentally driven global vegetation models.

  2. European Reacting Flow Research: A Final Assessment.


    are in flame-front part of the laboratory of Molecular Ener- dynamics, premixed stabilized flames, get cis and Nacroscopic Combustion. The flame...Dedex FRANCE FRANCE Professor P. Clavin Professor Amable Lifian laboratoire de Recherche en Combustion Escuela Tecnica Suprior de Ingenieros Service 252

  3. Numerical Simulation of Chemically Reacting Flows


    constrained mechanical system in which the tiny hydrodynamic pressure can be interpreted as a Lagrange multiplier that imposes the proper divergence... house code generator based on the symbolic computing capabilities of Mathematica [31]. However, it proved extremely challenging to extend this software

  4. Sensitive Diagnostics for Chemically Reacting Flows

    Farooq, Aamir


    This talk will feature latest diagnostic developments for sensitive detection of gas temperature and important combustion species. Advanced optical strategies, such as intrapulse chirping, wavelength modulation, and cavity ringdown are employed.

  5. Dynamics of High Pressure Reacting Shear Flows


    amplitude measurement described by Alenius (2014) • 1000-2000 sampled used Time average image subtracted from data Amplitude of mode at t = 0 Accounts for...and harmonics • Single modes can reconstruct convective processes (POD requires two modes) • Less efficient at reconstructing signal energy compared...Imaginary Receptivity mainly in the fundamental, some coherence at harmonics . DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 22 Max

  6. High-Fidelity Thermal Radiation Models and Measurements for High-Pressure Reacting Laminar and Turbulent Flows


    symbols are for narrow-band database. Colors are black (current version) and red (previous version). radiation in Earth entry applications by Ozawa et al...Carlo simulations in high-temperature gases, J. Heat Transfer (2013), in print. 17. T. Ozawa , M. F. Modest and D. A. Levin, Spectral Module for Photon

  7. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    G. Zyvoloski


    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca

  8. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de


    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly model

  9. One-Dimension Nonisentropic Model for the Flow of Aluminized Explosive Products

    Ji Duan


    Full Text Available A new analytic model of aluminized explosive products based on the method of characteristics for planar isentropic flow is proposed herein. The contribution of Al oxidation in the explosion products is investigated analytically. The flow behind the detonation front cannot be treated as isentropic due to the Al oxidation in the products. To solve the nonisentropic flow field of aluminized explosives products analytically, the assumption of local isentropic process is proposed. Based on this assumption, the flow field behind the detonation front of aluminized explosive is a function of only the reacted aluminum mass fraction in each time range. The metal plate test was conducted with the metal plate driven by RDX/Al/wax (76/20/4 and RDX/LiF/wax (76/20/4. The reacted aluminum mass can be obtained indirectly from the experiment results. The reacted aluminum mass was then applied to the analytic model, and the velocity of metal plate driven by RDX/Al/wax (76/20/4 and RDX/LiF/wax (76/20/4 was calculated. The final velocity of the metal plate driven by RDX/Al/wax was 7.8% higher than that driven by RDX/LiF/wax.

  10. Modelling of the Czochralski flow

    Jan Franc


    The Czochralski method of the industrial production of a silicon single crystal consists of pulling up the single crystal from the silicon melt. The flow of the melt during the production is called the Czochralski flow. The mathematical description of the flow consists of a coupled system of six P.D.E. in cylindrical coordinates containing Navier-Stokes equations (with the stream function), heat convection-conduction equations, convection-diffusion equation for oxygen impurity and an equation...

  11. Overland flow : interfacing models with measurements

    Loon, van E.E.


    Index words: overland flow, catchment scale, system identification, ensemble simulations.This study presents new techniques to identify scale-dependent overland flow models and use these for ensemble-based predictions. The techniques are developed on the basis of overland flow, rain, discharge, soil

  12. Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters

    Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.


    The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.

  13. Modelling of the Czochralski flow

    Jan Franc


    Full Text Available The Czochralski method of the industrial production of a silicon single crystal consists of pulling up the single crystal from the silicon melt. The flow of the melt during the production is called the Czochralski flow. The mathematical description of the flow consists of a coupled system of six P.D.E. in cylindrical coordinates containing Navier-Stokes equations (with the stream function, heat convection-conduction equations, convection-diffusion equation for oxygen impurity and an equation describing magnetic field effect.

  14. Microgravity two-phase flow regime modeling

    Lee, D.; Best, F.R.; Faget, N.


    A flow pattern or flow regime is the characteristics spatial distribution of the phases of fluid in a duct. Since heat transfer and pressure drop are dependent on the characteristic distribution of the phases, it is necessary to describe flow patterns in an appropriate manner so that a hydrodynamic or heat transfer theory applicable to that pattern can be chosen. The objective of the present analysis is to create a flow regime map based on physical modeling of vapor/liquid interaction phenomena in a microgravity environment. In the present work, four basic flow patterns are defined: dispersed flow, stratified flow, slug flow, and annular flow. Fluid properties, liquid and vapor flow rates, and pipe size were chosen as the principal parameters. It is assumed that a transition from one flow pattern to another will occur when there is a change in the dominant force which controls that flow pattern. The forces considered in this modeling are surface tension force, both force, inertial force, friction, and turbulent fluctuations.

  15. Average-passage flow model development

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark


    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  16. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de


    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly

  17. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto


    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  18. Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.

    Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.

  19. Analytical models for complex swirling flows

    Borissov, A.; Hussain, V.


    We develops a new class of analytical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for swirling flows, and suggests ways to predict and control such flows occurring in various technological applications. We view momentum accumulation on the axis as a key feature of swirling flows and consider vortex-sink flows on curved axisymmetric surfaces with an axial flow. We show that these solutions model swirling flows in a cylindrical can, whirlpools, tornadoes, and cosmic swirling jets. The singularity of these solutions on the flow axis is removed by matching them with near-axis Schlichting and Long's swirling jets. The matched solutions model flows with very complex patterns, consisting of up to seven separation regions with recirculatory 'bubbles' and vortex rings. We apply the matched solutions for computing flows in the Ranque-Hilsch tube, in the meniscus of electrosprays, in vortex breakdown, and in an industrial vortex burner. The simple analytical solutions allow a clear understanding of how different control parameters affect the flow and guide selection of optimal parameter values for desired flow features. These solutions permit extension to other problems (such as heat transfer and chemical reaction) and have the potential of being significantly useful for further detailed investigation by direct or large-eddy numerical simulations as well as laboratory experimentation.

  20. Modeling and simulation of reactive flows

    Bortoli, De AL; Pereira, Felipe


    Modelling and Simulation of Reactive Flows presents information on modeling and how to numerically solve reactive flows. The book offers a distinctive approach that combines diffusion flames and geochemical flow problems, providing users with a comprehensive resource that bridges the gap for scientists, engineers, and the industry. Specifically, the book looks at the basic concepts related to reaction rates, chemical kinetics, and the development of reduced kinetic mechanisms. It considers the most common methods used in practical situations, along with equations for reactive flows, and va

  1. Flow in a model turbine stator

    Buggeln, R. C.; Shamroth, S. J.; Briley, W. R.


    In view of the complex nature of the flowfield in the hot section of gas turbine engines, the need to predict heat transfer and flow losses, the possible appearance of separation and strong secondary flows, etc., the present effort is focusing upon a Navier-Stokes approach to the three dimensional turbine stator problem. The advantages of a full Navier-Stokes approach are clear since when combined with a suitable turbulence model these equations represent the flow and heat transfer physics. In particular, the Navier-Stokes equations accurately represent possible separated regions and regions of significant secondary flow. In addition, the Navier-Stokes approach allows representation of the entire flow field by a single set of equations, thus avoiding problems associated with representing different regions of the flow by different equations and then matching flow regions.


    ZHANG Jian-tao; SU Xiao-hui


    A set of governing equations for turbulent flows in vegetated area were derived with the assumption that vegetation is of straight and rigid cylinder. The effect of vegetation on flow motion was represented by additional inertial and drag forces. The new model was validated by available experimental data for open channel flows passing through vegetated areas with different vegetation size, density and distribution. Numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, the flow around a supposed isolated vegetated pile was simulated and the effects of vegetation density on the wake flow were discussed. It is found that the presence of vegetation, even at a very low density, has the pronounced influence on the dissipation of flow energy, both inside the vegetation domain and outside it in the wake flow region.

  3. Regression modeling of ground-water flow

    Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.


    Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)

  4. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A


    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  5. Modeling process flow using diagrams

    Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.


    In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process

  6. Modeling process flow using diagrams

    Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.


    In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improv

  7. Modelling Canopy Flows over Complex Terrain

    Grant, Eleanor R.; Ross, Andrew N.; Gardiner, Barry A.


    Recent studies of flow over forested hills have been motivated by a number of important applications including understanding CO_2 and other gaseous fluxes over forests in complex terrain, predicting wind damage to trees, and modelling wind energy potential at forested sites. Current modelling studies have focussed almost exclusively on highly idealized, and usually fully forested, hills. Here, we present model results for a site on the Isle of Arran, Scotland with complex terrain and heterogeneous forest canopy. The model uses an explicit representation of the canopy and a 1.5-order turbulence closure for flow within and above the canopy. The validity of the closure scheme is assessed using turbulence data from a field experiment before comparing predictions of the full model with field observations. For near-neutral stability, the results compare well with the observations, showing that such a relatively simple canopy model can accurately reproduce the flow patterns observed over complex terrain and realistic, variable forest cover, while at the same time remaining computationally feasible for real case studies. The model allows closer examination of the flow separation observed over complex forested terrain. Comparisons with model simulations using a roughness length parametrization show significant differences, particularly with respect to flow separation, highlighting the need to explicitly model the forest canopy if detailed predictions of near-surface flow around forests are required.

  8. Modelling Canopy Flows over Complex Terrain

    Grant, Eleanor R.; Ross, Andrew N.; Gardiner, Barry A.


    Recent studies of flow over forested hills have been motivated by a number of important applications including understanding CO_2 and other gaseous fluxes over forests in complex terrain, predicting wind damage to trees, and modelling wind energy potential at forested sites. Current modelling studies have focussed almost exclusively on highly idealized, and usually fully forested, hills. Here, we present model results for a site on the Isle of Arran, Scotland with complex terrain and heterogeneous forest canopy. The model uses an explicit representation of the canopy and a 1.5-order turbulence closure for flow within and above the canopy. The validity of the closure scheme is assessed using turbulence data from a field experiment before comparing predictions of the full model with field observations. For near-neutral stability, the results compare well with the observations, showing that such a relatively simple canopy model can accurately reproduce the flow patterns observed over complex terrain and realistic, variable forest cover, while at the same time remaining computationally feasible for real case studies. The model allows closer examination of the flow separation observed over complex forested terrain. Comparisons with model simulations using a roughness length parametrization show significant differences, particularly with respect to flow separation, highlighting the need to explicitly model the forest canopy if detailed predictions of near-surface flow around forests are required.

  9. Incorporating groundwater flow into the WEPP model

    William Elliot; Erin Brooks; Tim Link; Sue Miller


    The water erosion prediction project (WEPP) model is a physically-based hydrology and erosion model. In recent years, the hydrology prediction within the model has been improved for forest watershed modeling by incorporating shallow lateral flow into watershed runoff prediction. This has greatly improved WEPP's hydrologic performance on small watersheds with...

  10. Analysis of Cortical Flow Models In Vivo

    Benink, Hélène A.; Mandato, Craig A.; Bement, William M.


    Cortical flow, the directed movement of cortical F-actin and cortical organelles, is a basic cellular motility process. Microtubules are thought to somehow direct cortical flow, but whether they do so by stimulating or inhibiting contraction of the cortical actin cytoskeleton is the subject of debate. Treatment of Xenopus oocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) triggers cortical flow toward the animal pole of the oocyte; this flow is suppressed by microtubules. To determine how this suppression occurs and whether it can control the direction of cortical flow, oocytes were subjected to localized manipulation of either the contractile stimulus (PMA) or microtubules. Localized PMA application resulted in redirection of cortical flow toward the site of application, as judged by movement of cortical pigment granules, cortical F-actin, and cortical myosin-2A. Such redirected flow was accelerated by microtubule depolymerization, showing that the suppression of cortical flow by microtubules is independent of the direction of flow. Direct observation of cortical F-actin by time-lapse confocal analysis in combination with photobleaching showed that cortical flow is driven by contraction of the cortical F-actin network and that microtubules suppress this contraction. The oocyte germinal vesicle serves as a microtubule organizing center in Xenopus oocytes; experimental displacement of the germinal vesicle toward the animal pole resulted in localized flow away from the animal pole. The results show that 1) cortical flow is directed toward areas of localized contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; 2) microtubules suppress cortical flow by inhibiting contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; and 3) localized, microtubule-dependent suppression of actomyosin-based contraction can control the direction of cortical flow. We discuss these findings in light of current models of cortical flow. PMID:10930453

  11. Simulation and modeling of turbulent flows

    Gatski, Thomas B; Lumley, John L


    This book provides students and researchers in fluid engineering with an up-to-date overview of turbulent flow research in the areas of simulation and modeling. A key element of the book is the systematic, rational development of turbulence closure models and related aspects of modern turbulent flow theory and prediction. Starting with a review of the spectral dynamics of homogenous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows, succeeding chapters deal with numerical simulation techniques, renormalization group methods and turbulent closure modeling. Each chapter is authored by recognized leaders in their respective fields, and each provides a thorough and cohesive treatment of the subject.

  12. Simple models for shear flow transition

    Barkley, Dwight


    I will discuss recent developments in modeling transitional shear flows with simple two-variable models. Both pipe flow and plane Couette flow are considered. The essential insight is that most large-scale features of these shear flows can be traced to a change from excitability to bistability in the local dynamics. Models are presented in two variables, turbulence intensity and mean shear. A PDE model of pipe flow captures the essence of the puff-slug transition as a change from excitability to bistability. Extended models with turbulence as deterministic transient chaos or multiplicative noise reproduce almost all large-scale features of transitional pipe flow. In particular they capture metastable localized puffs, puff splitting, slugs, localized edge states, a continuous transition to sustained turbulence via spatiotemporal intermittency (directed percolation), and a subsequent increase in turbulence fraction towards uniform, featureless turbulence. A model that additionally takes into account the symmetries of plane Couette flow reproduces localized turbulence and periodic turbulent-laminar bands.

  13. A General Thermal Equilibrium Discharge Flow Model

    ZHAO; Min-fu; ZHANG; Dong-xu; LV; Yu-feng


    In isentropic and thermal equilibrium assumptions,a discharge flow model was derived,which unified the rules of normal temperature water discharge,high temperature and high pressure water discharge,two-phase critical flow,saturated steam and superheated steam critical

  14. Modeling Rotating Turbulent Flows with the Body Force Potential Model.

    Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Perot, Blair


    Like a Reynolds Stress Transport equation model, the turbulent potential model has an explicit Coriolis acceleration term that appears in the model that accounts for rotation effects. In this work the additional secondary effects that system rotation has on the dissipation rate, return-to-isotropy, and fast pressure strain terms are also included in the model. The resulting model is tested in the context of rotating isotropic turbulence, rotating homogeneous shear flow, rotating channel flow, and swirling pipe flow. Many of the model changes are applicable to Reynolds stress transport equation models. All model modifications are frame indifferent.

  15. Viscoelastic flow simulations in model porous media

    De, S.; Kuipers, J. A. M.; Peters, E. A. J. F.; Padding, J. T.


    We investigate the flow of unsteadfy three-dimensional viscoelastic fluid through an array of symmetric and asymmetric sets of cylinders constituting a model porous medium. The simulations are performed using a finite-volume methodology with a staggered grid. The solid-fluid interfaces of the porous structure are modeled using a second-order immersed boundary method [S. De et al., J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 232, 67 (2016), 10.1016/j.jnnfm.2016.04.002]. A finitely extensible nonlinear elastic constitutive model with Peterlin closure is used to model the viscoelastic part. By means of periodic boundary conditions, we model the flow behavior for a Newtonian as well as a viscoelastic fluid through successive contractions and expansions. We observe the presence of counterrotating vortices in the dead ends of our geometry. The simulations provide detailed insight into how flow structure, viscoelastic stresses, and viscoelastic work change with increasing Deborah number De. We observe completely different flow structures and different distributions of the viscoelastic work at high De in the symmetric and asymmetric configurations, even though they have the exact same porosity. Moreover, we find that even for the symmetric contraction-expansion flow, most energy dissipation is occurring in shear-dominated regions of the flow domain, not in extensional-flow-dominated regions.

  16. Computational modelling flow and transport

    Stelling, G.S.; Booij, N.


    Lecture notes CT wa4340. Derivation of equations using balance principles; numerical treatment of ordinary differential equations; time dependent partial differential equations; the strucure of a computer model:DUFLO; usage of numerical models.

  17. A new dynamics model for traffic flow


    As a study method of traffic flow, dynamics models were developedand applied in the last few decades. However, there exist some flaws in most existing models. In this note, a new dynamics model is proposed by using car-following theory and the usual connection method of micro-macro variables, which can overcome some ubiquitous problems in the existing models. Numerical results show that the new model can very well simulate traffic flow conditions, such as congestion, evacuation of congestion, stop-and-go phenomena and phantom jam.

  18. Ignition and Growth Reactive Flow Model for IMX-101

    Tarver, Craig M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A set of Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model parameters is developed for the explosive IMX-101 containing DNAN, NQ, and NTO using the available shock initiation and detonation wave propagation experimental data. The unreacted equation of state for IMX-101 is based on experimental data from gas gun experiments by Furnish et al. and is similar to that of TNT. The product equation of state for IMX-101 is based on CHEETAH chemical equilibrium calculations and cylinder test experimental data. The IMX-101 reaction rate parameters are developed using hydrodynamic reactive flow simulations of several shock initiation and detonation experiments. One set of I&G parameters does a good job of reproducing both shock initiation and detonation experimental data. This is due to the fact that IMX-101 reacts over a relatively small pressure range from about 7 GPa to 20 GPa (C-J pressure). Advanced experiments using embedded gauges and/or laser interferometry could lead to better parameters.

  19. Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids

    Levenspiel, Octave


    A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel.  In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel.  However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more.  The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems.   Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data.  First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel.  Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question.  Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures.  In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful  and harmless—in the...

  20. Multiple Temperature Model for Near Continuum Flows

    XU, Kun; Liu, Hongwei [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Jiang, Jianzheng [Chinese Academy ofSciences, Beijing (China)


    In the near continuum flow regime, the flow may have different translational temperatures in different directions. It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flow fields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, lose accuracy. These inaccuracies may be partially due to the single temperature assumption in the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, based on the gas-kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation, a multitranslational temperature model is proposed and used in the flow calculations. In order to fix all three translational temperatures, two constraints are additionally proposed to model the energy exchange in different directions. Based on the multiple temperature assumption, the Navier-Stokes relation between the stress and strain is replaced by the temperature relaxation term, and the Navier-Stokes assumption is recovered only in the limiting case when the flow is close to the equilibrium with the same temperature in different directions. In order to validate the current model, both the Couette and Poiseuille flows are studied in the transition flow regime.

  1. Linear surface roughness growth and flow smoothening in a three-dimensional biofilm model

    Head, D A


    The sessile microbial communities known as biofilms exhibit different surface structures as environmental factors are varied, including nutrient availability and flow-generated shear stresses. Here we modify an established agent-based biofilm model to include adhesive interactions, permitting it to mechanically react to an imposed stress. This model is employed to analyse the growth of surface roughness of single-species, three-dimensional biofilms. We find linear growth laws of surface geometry in both horizontal and vertical directions, and an active surface layer whose thickness anti-correlates with roughness. Flow is consistently shown to reduce surface roughness without affecting the active layer. We argue that the rapid roughening is due to non-local surface interactions mediated by the nutrient field which are curtailed by sufficiently rapid flows, and suggest simplified models will need to be developed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Flow field mapping in data rack model

    Matěcha J.


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to map the flow field inside the data rack model, fitted with three 1U server models. The server model is based on the common four-processor 1U server. The main dimensions of the data rack model geometry are taken fully from the real geometry. Only the model was simplified with respect to the greatest possibility in the experimental measurements. The flow field mapping was carried out both experimentally and numerically. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry method was used for the experimental flow field mapping, when the flow field has been mapped for defined regions within the 2D/3D data rack model. Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM software were used for the numerical solution. Boundary conditions for numerical model were based on data obtained from experimental measurement of velocity profile at the output of the server mockup. This velocity profile was used as the input boundary condition in the calculation. In order to achieve greater consistency of the numerical model with experimental data, the numerical model was modified with regard to the results of experimental measurements. Results from the experimental and numerical measurements were compared and the areas of disparateness were identified. In further steps the obtained proven numerical model will be utilized for the real geometry of data racks and data.

  3. Base Flow Model Validation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is the systematic "building-block" validation of CFD/turbulence models employing a GUI driven CFD code (RPFM) and existing as well as new data sets to...

  4. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.


    This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbomachinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. This will be accomplished in a cooperative program by Penn State University and the Allison Engine Company. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tenor.

  5. MCRG Flow for the nonlinear Sigma Model

    Koerner, Daniel; Wipf, Andreas


    A study of the renormalization group flow in the three-dimensional nonlinear O(N) sigma model using Monte Carlo Renormalization Group (MCRG) techniques is presented. To achieve this, we combine an improved blockspin transformation with the canonical demon method to determine the flow diagram for a number of different truncations. Systematic errors of the approach are highlighted. Results are discussed with hindsight on the fixed point structure of the model and the corresponding critical exponents. Special emphasis is drawn on the existence of a nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point as required for theories modeling the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity.



    A numerical model capable of predicting flow characteristics in a compound channel was established with the 3-D steady continuity and momentum equations along with the transport equations for turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate. Closure was achieved with the aid of algebraic relations for turbulent shear stresses. The above equations were discretized with implicit difference approach and solved with a step method along the flow direction. The computational results showing the lateral distribution of vertical average velocities and the latio of total flow in the compound channel agree well with the available experimental data.

  7. Mesoscopic Rhelogical Model for Polymeric Media Flows

    Koshelev, K.; Kuznetcov, A.; Merzlikina, D.; Pyshnograi, G.; Pyshnograi, I.; Tolstykh, M. Y.


    The paper compares hydrodynamic properties of three-dimensional flows of polymer melts. A modified Vinogradov and Pokrovskii rheological model is used for the mathematical description of nonlinear viscoelastic fluid flows in a planeparallel channel with a sudden convergence. Discrete analogs for partial differential equations were obtained via the control volume method separating physical processes. The numerical implementation is carried out using the GPU-based parallel computing technology. Velocity and pressure fields have been calculated for two samples of polyethylene melts and the circulating flow at the entrance of the slit channel is noticeable. It is shown that the size of the vortex zone depends significantly on melt rheology.

  8. Particle in the Brusselator Model with Flow

    Kuptsov, P.V.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Mosekilde, Erik


    We consider the interaction of a small moving particle with a stationary space-periodic pattern in a chemical reaction-diffusion system with a flow. The pattern is produced by a one-dimensional Brusselator model that is perturbed by a constant displacement from the equilibrium state at the inlet....... By partially blocking the flow, the particle gives rise to a local increment of the flow rate. For certain parameter values a response with intermittent Hopf and Turing type structures is observed. In other regimes a wave of substitution of missing peaks runs across the pattern....


    Yan Guangwu; Hu Shouxin


    A lattice Boltzmann model with 5-bit lattice for traffic flows is proposed.Using the Chapman-Enskog expansion and multi-scale technique,we obtain the higher-order moments of equilibrium distribution function.A simple traffic light problem is simulated by using the present lattice Boltzmann model,and the result agrees well with analytical solution.

  10. Review and selection of unsaturated flow models

    Reeves, M.; Baker, N.A.; Duguid, J.O. [INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    Since the 1960`s, ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resources problems. In the 1970`s, emphasis began to shift to analysis of waste management problems. This shift in emphasis was largely brought about by site selection activities for geologic repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Model development during the 1970`s and well into the 1980`s focused primarily on saturated ground-water flow because geologic repositories in salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff were envisioned to be below the water table. Selection of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for potential disposal of waste began to shift model development toward unsaturated flow models. Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. This document describes the CRWMS M&O approach to model review and evaluation (Chapter 2), and the requirements for unsaturated flow models which are the bases for selection from among the current models (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 identifies existing models, and their characteristics. Through a detailed examination of characteristics, Chapter 5 presents the selection of models for testing. Chapter 6 discusses the testing and verification of selected models. Chapters 7 and 8 give conclusions and make recommendations, respectively. Chapter 9 records the major references for each of the models reviewed. Appendix A, a collection of technical reviews for each model, contains a more complete list of references. Finally, Appendix B characterizes the problems used for model testing.

  11. A model for transonic plasma flow

    Guazzotto, Luca, E-mail: [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Hameiri, Eliezer, E-mail: [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)


    A linear, two-dimensional model of a transonic plasma flow in equilibrium is constructed and given an explicit solution in the form of a complex Laplace integral. The solution indicates that the transonic state can be solved as an elliptic boundary value problem, as is done in the numerical code FLOW [Guazzotto et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 604 (2004)]. Moreover, the presence of a hyperbolic region does not necessarily imply the presence of a discontinuity or any other singularity of the solution.

  12. Modelling of gas flow through metallic foams

    Crosnier, S. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique, 38 (France); Riva, R. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bador, B.; Blet, V.


    The transport and distribution of gases (hydrogen at the anode and air at the cathode) and water over the front surfaces of the electrodes in contact with electrolyte membrane are of great importance for the enhancement of efficiency of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). The use of metallic foam as a flow distributor in comparison with grooved plate (formed by parallel channels) commonly used in commercial fuel cells may be advantageous since this porous material has a porosity close to unity and then high specific surface area. In fact, the potentially active surface area is generally considered to be almost equal to the front surface area of the electrodes. In order to ensure a homogeneous flow distribution all over the active surface of such devices, a good understanding of gas flow through these particular porous media is necessary. For that purpose, studying of two-phase flow (oxygen, hydrogen and water) through metallic foams must be undertaken. This is carried out in the present work but, in a first step, only for single-phase flow, since the behaviour of two-phase flow derives from the first one. Novels hydraulic models have then been developed in the literature these last years. However, these models do not take into account the viscous dissipation of the flow along the walls bordering the porous media. Unfortunately, metallic foam used as distributors in fuel cell have thigh thickness (of the order of the millimeter), that shedding a doubt on the validity of the latter assumption. In this paper, we review the different hydraulic models in order to discuss the relevance and the limits of each to describe single-phase flow through foams which could be used as distributor in a fuel cell. For that purpose, numerical solutions obtained using modified MC3D-REPO package originally developed for the modelling of multicomponent two-phase flows in granular porous media have been compared to experimental data measured on a dedicated hydraulic device

  13. Nonlocal modeling of granular flows down inclines.

    Kamrin, Ken; Henann, David L


    Flows of granular media down a rough inclined plane demonstrate a number of nonlocal phenomena. We apply the recently proposed nonlocal granular fluidity model to this geometry and find that the model captures many of these effects. Utilizing the model's dynamical form, we obtain a formula for the critical stopping height of a layer of grains on an inclined surface. Using an existing parameter calibration for glass beads, the theoretical result compares quantitatively to existing experimental data for glass beads. This provides a stringent test of the model, whose previous validations focused on driven steady-flow problems. For layers thicker than the stopping height, the theoretical flow profiles display a thickness-dependent shape whose features are in agreement with previous discrete particle simulations. We also address the issue of the Froude number of the flows, which has been shown experimentally to collapse as a function of the ratio of layer thickness to stopping height. While the collapse is not obvious, two explanations emerge leading to a revisiting of the history of inertial rheology, which the nonlocal model references for its homogeneous flow response.

  14. Unsaturated zone flow modeling for GWTT-95

    Ho, C.K.; Altman, S.J.; McKenna, S.A.; Arnold, B.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuqureque, NM (United States)


    Various models of unsaturated flow in fractured tuff have been developed and implemented to assess groundwater travel times at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Kaplan used one-dimensional models to describe the uncertainty and sensitivity of travel times to various processes at Yucca Mountain. Robey and Arnold et al. used a two-dimensional equivalent continuum model (ECM) with inter- and intra-unit heterogeneity in an attempt to assess fast-flow paths through the unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain (GWTT-94). However, significant flow through the fractures in previous models was not simulated due to the characteristics of the ECM, which requires the matrix to be nearly saturated before flow through the fractures is initiated. In the current study (GWTT-95), four two-dimensional cross-sections at Yucca Mountain are simulated using both the ECM and dual-permeability (DK) models. The properties of both the fracture and matrix domains are geostatistically simulated, yielding completely heterogeneous continua. Then, simulations of flow through the four cross-sections are performed using spatially non-uniform infiltration boundary conditions. Steady-state groundwater travel times from the potential repository to the water table are calculated.

  15. Unsaturated zone flow modeling for GWTT-95

    Ho, C.K.; Altman, S.J.; McKenna, S.A.; Arnold, B.W.


    In accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation regarding groundwater travel times at geologic repositories, various models of unsaturated flow in fractured tuff have been developed and implemented to assess groundwater travel times at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Kaplan used one-dimensional models to describe the uncertainty and sensitivity of travel times to various processes at Yucca Mountain. Robey and Arnold et al. used a two-dimensional equivalent continuum model (ECM) with inter- and intra-unit heterogeneity in an attempt to assess fast-flow paths through the unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain (GWTT-94). However, significant flow through the fractures in previous models was not simulated due to the characteristics of the ECM, which requires the matrix to be nearly saturated before flow through the fractures is initiated. In the current study (GWTT-95), four two-dimensional cross-sections at Yucca Mountain are simulated using both the ECM and dual-permeability (DK) models. The properties of both the fracture and matrix domains are geostatistically simulated, yielding completely heterogeneous continua. Then, simulations of flow through the four cross-sections are performed using spatially nonuniform infiltration boundary conditions. Steady-state groundwater travel times from the potential repository to the water table are calculated.


    H. P. Zhu; Y. H. WU; A. B. Yu


    This paper analyses three popular methods simulating granular flow at different time and length scales:discrete element method (DEM), averaging method and viscous, elastic-plastic continuum model. The theoretical models of these methods and their applications to hopper flows are discussed. It is shown that DEM is an effective method to study the fundamentals of granular flow at a particle or microscopic scale. By use of the continuum approach, granular flow can also be described at a continuum or macroscopic scale. Macroscopic quantities such as velocity and stress can be obtained by use of such computational method as FEM. However, this approach depends on the constitutive relationship of materials and ignores the effect of microscopic structure of granular flow. The combined approach of DEM and averaging method can overcome this problem. The approach takes into account the discrete nature of granular materials and does not require any global assumption and thus allows a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of granular flow. However, it is difficult to adapt this approach to process modelling because of the limited number of particles which can be handled with the present computational capacity, and the difficulty in handling non-spherical particles.Further work is needed to develop an appropriate approach to overcome these problems.

  17. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    Coppersmith, K. J.


    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca

  18. Amendment to Validated dynamic flow model

    Knudsen, Torben


    The purpose of WP2 is to establish flow models relating the wind speed at turbines in a farm. Until now, active control of power reference has not been included in these models as only data with standard operation has been available. In this report the first data series with power reference...... excitations from the Thanet farm are used for trying to update some of the models discussed in D2.5. Because of very limited amount of data only simple dynamic transfer function models can be obtained. The three obtained data series are somewhat different. Only the first data set seems to have the front...... turbine in undisturbed flow. For this data set both the multiplicative model and in particular the simple first order transfer function model can predict the down wind wind speed from upwind wind speed and loading....

  19. A Policy Model for Secure Information Flow

    Adetoye, Adedayo O.; Badii, Atta

    When a computer program requires legitimate access to confidential data, the question arises whether such a program may illegally reveal sensitive information. This paper proposes a policy model to specify what information flow is permitted in a computational system. The security definition, which is based on a general notion of information lattices, allows various representations of information to be used in the enforcement of secure information flow in deterministic or nondeterministic systems. A flexible semantics-based analysis technique is presented, which uses the input-output relational model induced by an attacker’s observational power, to compute the information released by the computational system. An illustrative attacker model demonstrates the use of the technique to develop a termination-sensitive analysis. The technique allows the development of various information flow analyses, parametrised by the attacker’s observational power, which can be used to enforce what declassification policies.

  20. Chaos control in traffic flow models

    Shahverdiev, E M; Shahverdiev, Elman Mohammed; Tadaki, Shin-ichi


    Chaos control in some of the one- and two-dimensional traffic flow dynamical models in the mean field theory is studied.One dimensional model is investigated taking into account the effect of random delay. Two dimensional model takes into account the effects of overpasses, symmetric distribution of cars and blockages of cars moving in the same direction. Chaos synchronization is performed within both replica and nonreplica approaches, and using parameter perturbation method.

  1. Adjoint based sensitivity analysis of a reacting jet in crossflow

    Sashittal, Palash; Sayadi, Taraneh; Schmid, Peter


    With current advances in computational resources, high fidelity simulations of reactive flows are increasingly being used as predictive tools in various industrial applications. In order to capture the combustion process accurately, detailed/reduced chemical mechanisms are employed, which in turn rely on various model parameters. Therefore, it would be of great interest to quantify the sensitivities of the predictions with respect to the introduced models. Due to the high dimensionality of the parameter space, methods such as finite differences which rely on multiple forward simulations prove to be very costly and adjoint based techniques are a suitable alternative. The complex nature of the governing equations, however, renders an efficient strategy in finding the adjoint equations a challenging task. In this study, we employ the modular approach of Fosas de Pando et al. (2012), to build a discrete adjoint framework applied to a reacting jet in crossflow. The developed framework is then used to extract the sensitivity of the integrated heat release with respect to the existing combustion parameters. Analyzing the sensitivities in the three-dimensional domain provides insight towards the specific regions of the flow that are more susceptible to the choice of the model.

  2. Dangerous situations in a synchronized flow model

    Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song


    This paper studies the dangerous situation (DS) in a synchronized flow model. The DS on the two branches of the fundamental diagram are investigated, respectively. It is shown that different relationship between DS probability and the density exists in the synchronized flow and in the jams. Moreover, we prove that there is no DS caused by non-stopped car although the model itself is a non-exclusion process. We classify the DS into four sub-types and study the probability of these four sub-types. The simulation result is consistent with the real traffic.

  3. Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor

    Tuhovcak Jan


    Full Text Available Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.

  4. Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor

    Tuhovcak, Jan; Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav


    Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.

  5. Numerical modeling of the debris flows runout

    Federico, Francesco; Cesali, Chiara


    Rapid debris flows are identified among the most dangerous of all landslides. Due to their destructive potential, the runout length has to be predicted to define the hazardous areas and design safeguarding measures. To this purpose, a continuum model to predict the debris flows mobility is developed. It is based on the well known depth-integrated avalanche model proposed by Savage and Hutter (S&H model) to simulate the dry granular materials flows. Conservation of mass and momentum equations, describing the evolving geometry and the depth averaged velocity distribution, are re-written taking into account the effects of the interstitial pressures and the possible variation of mass along the motion due to erosion/deposition processes. Furthermore, the mechanical behaviour of the debris flow is described by a recently developed rheological law, which allows to take into account the dissipative effects of the grain inelastic collisions and friction, simultaneously acting within a `shear layer', typically at the base of the debris flows. The governing PDEs are solved by applying the finite difference method. The analysis of a documented case is finally carried out.




    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.

  7. Modelling of structural effects on chemical reactions in turbulent flows

    Gammelsaeter, H.R.


    Turbulence-chemistry interactions are analysed using algebraic moment closure for the chemical reaction term. The coupling between turbulence and chemical length and time scales generate a complex interaction process. This interaction process is called structural effects in this work. The structural effects are shown to take place on all scales between the largest scale of turbulence and the scales of the molecular motions. The set of equations describing turbulent correlations involved in turbulent reacting flows are derived. Interactions are shown schematically using interaction charts. Algebraic equations for the turbulent correlations in the reaction rate are given using the interaction charts to include the most significant couplings. In the frame of fundamental combustion physics, the structural effects appearing on the small scales of turbulence are proposed modelled using a discrete spectrum of turbulent scales. The well-known problem of averaging the Arrhenius law, the specific reaction rate, is proposed solved using a presumed single variable probability density function and a sub scale model for the reaction volume. Although some uncertainties are expected, the principles are addressed. Fast chemistry modelling is shown to be consistent in the frame of algebraic moment closure when the turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for in the turbulent diffusion. The modelling proposed in this thesis is compared with experimental data for an laboratory methane flame and advanced probability density function modelling. The results show promising features. Finally it is shown a comparison with full scale measurements for an industrial burner. All features of the burner are captured with the model. 41 refs., 33 figs.

  8. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

    Lakshminarayana, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fagan, J.R. Jr. [Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)


    This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbo-machinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tensor. Penn State will lead the effort to make direct measurements of the momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors in high-speed multistage compressor flow field in the turbomachinery laboratory at Penn State. They will also process the data by both conventional and conditional spectrum analysis to derive momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors due to blade-to-blade periodic and aperiodic components, revolution periodic and aperiodic components arising from various blade rows and non-deterministic (which includes random components) correlations. The modeling results from this program will be publicly available and generally applicable to steady-state Navier-Stokes solvers used for turbomachinery component (compressor or turbine) flow field predictions. These models will lead to improved methodology, including loss and efficiency prediction, for the design of high-efficiency turbomachinery and drastically reduce the time required for the design and development cycle of turbomachinery.

  9. Baroclinic flow and the Lorenz-84 model

    Veen, Lennaert van


    The bifurcation diagram of a truncation to six degrees of freedom of the equations for quasi-geostrophic, baroclinic flow is investigated. Period doubling cascades and Shil'nikov bifurcations lead to chaos in this model. The low dimension of the chaotic attractor suggests the possibility to reduce t

  10. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    Zuidema, J.


    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an instanta

  11. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    Zuidema, J.


    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an

  12. Adaptive Lattice Boltzmann Model for Compressible Flows


    A new lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows is presented. The main difference from the standard lattice Boltzmann model is that the particle velocities are no longer constant, but vary with the mean velocity and internal energy. The adaptive nature of the particle velocities permits the mean flow to have a high Mach number. The introduction of a particle potential energy makes the model suitable for a perfect gas with arbitrary specific heat ratio. The Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations are derived by the Chapman-Enskog method from the BGK Boltzmann equation. Two kinds of simulations have been carried out on the hexagonal lattice to test the proposed model. One is the Sod shock-tube simulation. The other is a strong shock of Mach number 5.09 diffracting around a corner.

  13. Mathematical aspects of reacting and diffusing systems

    Fife, Paul C


    Modeling and analyzing the dynamics of chemical mixtures by means of differ- tial equations is one of the prime concerns of chemical engineering theorists. These equations often take the form of systems of nonlinear parabolic partial d- ferential equations, or reaction-diffusion equations, when there is diffusion of chemical substances involved. A good overview of this endeavor can be had by re- ing the two volumes by R. Aris (1975), who himself was one of the main contributors to the theory. Enthusiasm for the models developed has been shared by parts of the mathematical community, and these models have, in fact, provided motivation for some beautiful mathematical results. There are analogies between chemical reactors and certain biological systems. One such analogy is rather obvious: a single living organism is a dynamic structure built of molecules and ions, many of which react and diffuse. Other analogies are less obvious; for example, the electric potential of a membrane can diffuse like a chemical, and ...

  14. A partially open porous media flow with chaotic advection: towards a model of coupled fields.

    Metcalfe, Guy; Lester, Daniel; Ord, Alison; Kulkarni, Pandurang; Trefry, Mike; Hobbs, Bruce E; Regenaur-Lieb, Klaus; Morris, Jeffery


    In nature, dissipative fluxes of fluid, heat and/or reacting species couple to each other and may also couple to deformation of a surrounding porous matrix. We use the well-known analogy of Hele-Shaw flow to Darcy flow to make a model porous medium with porosity proportional to local cell height. Time- and space-varying fluid injection from multiple source/sink wells lets us create many different kinds of chaotic flows and chemical concentration patterns. Results of an initial time-dependent potential flow model illustrate that this is a partially open flow, in which parts of the material transported by the flow remain in the cell forever and parts pass through with residence time and exit time distributions that have self-similar features in the control parameter space of the stirring. We derive analytically the existence boundary in stirring control parameter space between where isolated fluid regions can and cannot remain forever in the open flow. Experiments confirm the predictions.

  15. Traffic flow dynamics data, models and simulation

    Treiber, Martin


    This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on ...

  16. On the mixture model for multiphase flow

    Manninen, M.; Taivassalo, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy; Kallio, S. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)


    Numerical flow simulation utilising a full multiphase model is impractical for a suspension possessing wide distributions in the particle size or density. Various approximations are usually made to simplify the computational task. In the simplest approach, the suspension is represented by a homogeneous single-phase system and the influence of the particles is taken into account in the values of the physical properties. This study concentrates on the derivation and closing of the model equations. The validity of the mixture model is also carefully analysed. Starting from the continuity and momentum equations written for each phase in a multiphase system, the field equations for the mixture are derived. The mixture equations largely resemble those for a single-phase flow but are represented in terms of the mixture density and velocity. The volume fraction for each dispersed phase is solved from a phase continuity equation. Various approaches applied in closing the mixture model equations are reviewed. An algebraic equation is derived for the velocity of a dispersed phase relative to the continuous phase. Simplifications made in calculating the relative velocity restrict the applicability of the mixture model to cases in which the particles reach the terminal velocity in a short time period compared to the characteristic time scale of the flow of the mixture. (75 refs.)

  17. Experimental evaluations of the microchannel flow model.

    Parker, K J


    Recent advances have enabled a new wave of biomechanics measurements, and have renewed interest in selecting appropriate rheological models for soft tissues such as the liver, thyroid, and prostate. The microchannel flow model was recently introduced to describe the linear response of tissue to stimuli such as stress relaxation or shear wave propagation. This model postulates a power law relaxation spectrum that results from a branching distribution of vessels and channels in normal soft tissue such as liver. In this work, the derivation is extended to determine the explicit link between the distribution of vessels and the relaxation spectrum. In addition, liver tissue is modified by temperature or salinity, and the resulting changes in tissue responses (by factors of 1.5 or greater) are reasonably predicted from the microchannel flow model, simply by considering the changes in fluid flow through the modified samples. The 2 and 4 parameter versions of the model are considered, and it is shown that in some cases the maximum time constant (corresponding to the minimum vessel diameters), could be altered in a way that has major impact on the observed tissue response. This could explain why an inflamed region is palpated as a harder bump compared to surrounding normal tissue.

  18. Modeling groundwater flow on massively parallel computers

    Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Fogwell, T.W.; Tompson, A.F.B.


    The authors will explore the numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media. An interdisciplinary team of mathematicians, computer scientists, hydrologists, and environmental engineers is developing a sophisticated simulation code for use on workstation clusters and MPPs. To date, they have concentrated on modeling flow in the saturated zone (single phase), which requires the solution of a large linear system. they will discuss their implementation of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers. The preconditioners under consideration include simple diagonal scaling, s-step Jacobi, adaptive Chebyshev polynomial preconditioning, and multigrid. They will present some preliminary numerical results, including simulations of groundwater flow at the LLNL site. They also will demonstrate the code`s scalability.

  19. Symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling

    Arnold, E.M.; Gee, G.W.; Nelson, R.W. (eds.)


    This document records the proceedings of a symposium on flow and transport processes in partially saturated groundwater systems, conducted at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on March 22-24, 1982. The symposium was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art of flow and transport modeling for use in licensing low-level nuclear waste repositories in partially saturated zones. The first day of the symposium centered around research in flow through partially saturated systems. Papers were presented with the opportunity for questions following each presentation. In addition, after all the talks, a formal panel discussion was held during which written questions were addressed to the panel of the days speakers. The second day of the Symposium was devoted to solute and contaminant transport in partially saturated media in an identical format. Individual papers are abstracted.

  20. Dynamics of electrochemical flows 3 Closure models

    Xu, Chengjun


    The electrolyte (comprising of solute ions and solvents) flow-through the porous media is frequently encountered in nature or in many engineering applications, such as the electrochemical systems, manufacturing of composites, oil production, geothermal engineering, nuclear thermal disposal, soil pollution. Our previous work derived the interfacial interaction terms between the solid and the fluid, which can be used to investigate the details of transports of mass, heat, electric flied, potential, or momentum in the process of the electrochemical flows-through porous electrode. In this work, we establish the closure models for these interfacial interaction terms to close the governing equations from mathematical algebra. The interfacial interaction terms regard to the electric field, potential and electric force are firstly revealed. Our new theory provides a new approach to describe the electrochemical flows-through porous media.

  1. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    Sun, Jin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the


    Qing Shen; Jian-feng Hu; Qing-feng Gu


    A constitutive model of quasi-Newtonian fluid based on the type of flow is used in abrupt planar contraction flow.The numerical results from finite element analysis are consistent with experimental data for stress patterns and velocity profiles in the flow field. The chain conformations of polymer melts are then investigated in such a planar contraction by using the phenomenological model with internal parameters proposed by the author. That is, the shape and orientation of polymer chain coils are predicted and discussed in different flow regions of the contraction flow field that possess simple shear flow, extensional flow, vortical flow, and mixed flow respectively.

  3. Graphical Models for Optimal Power Flow

    Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy; Chertkov, Michael; Misra, Sidhant; Vuffray, Marc


    Optimal power flow (OPF) is the central optimization problem in electric power grids. Although solved routinely in the course of power grid operations, it is known to be strongly NP-hard in general, and weakly NP-hard over tree networks. In this paper, we formulate the optimal power flow problem over tree networks as an inference problem over a tree-structured graphical model where the nodal variables are low-dimensional vectors. We adapt the standard dynamic programming algorithm for inference over a tree-structured graphical model to the OPF problem. Combining this with an interval discretization of the nodal variables, we develop an approximation algorithm for the OPF problem. Further, we use techniques from constraint programming (CP) to perform interval computations and adaptive bound propagation to obtain practically efficient algorithms. Compared to previous algorithms that solve OPF with optimality guarantees using convex relaxations, our approach is able to work for arbitrary distribution networks an...

  4. Experimental Vortex Identification and Characterization in Reacting Jets in Crossflow

    Nair, Vedanth; Emerson, Ben; Lieuwen, Timothy


    Reacting jets in crossflow (JICF) is an important canonical flow field in combustion problems where there is strong coupling between heat release and the evolution of vortical structures. We use vortex identification studies to experimentally characterize the spatial evolution of vortex dynamics in a reacting JICF. A vortex identification algorithm was designed to operate on particle image velocimetry (PIV) data and its raw Mie scattering images. The algorithm uses the velocity fields to obtain comparisons between the strain rate and the rotation rate. Additionally, the algorithm uses the raw Mie scattering data to identify regions where the high acceleration at vortex cores has centrifuged seeding particles out of the vortex cores. Together, these methods are used to estimate the vortex location and circulation. Analysis was done on 10 kHz PIV data from a reacting JICF experiment, and the resulting vortex trajectory, and growth rate statistics are presented. Results are compared between non-reacting JICF and reacting studies performed with different jet density ratios and different levels of acoustic forcing. We observed how the density ratio, the frequency and amplitude of the acoustic forcing affected the vortex characteristics and growth rate.

  5. Turbulence modelling of thermal plasma flows

    Shigeta, Masaya


    This article presents a discussion of the ideas for modelling turbulent thermal plasma flows, reviewing the challenges, efforts, and state-of-the-art simulations. Demonstrative simulations are also performed to present the importance of numerical methods as well as physical models to express turbulent features. A large eddy simulation has been applied to turbulent thermal plasma flows to treat time-dependent and 3D motions of multi-scale eddies. Sub-grid scale models to be used should be able to express not only turbulent but also laminar states because both states co-exist in and around thermal plasmas which have large variations of density as well as transport properties under low Mach-number conditions. Suitable solution algorithms and differencing schemes must be chosen and combined appropriately to capture multi-scale eddies and steep gradients of temperature and chemical species, which are turbulent features of thermal plasma flows with locally variable Reynolds and Mach numbers. Several simulations using different methods under different conditions show commonly that high-temperature plasma regions exhibit less turbulent structures, with only large eddies, whereas low-temperature regions tend to be more turbulent, with numerous small eddies. These numerical results agree with both theoretical insight and photographs that show the characteristics of eddies. Results also show that a turbulence transition of a thermal plasma jet through a generation-breakup process of eddies in a torch is dominated by fluid dynamic instability after ejection rather than non-uniform or unsteady phenomena.

  6. Modeling density segregation in granular flow

    Xiao, Hongyi; Lueptow, Richard; Umbanhowar, Paul


    A recently developed continuum-based model accurately predicts segregation in flows of granular mixtures varying in particle size by considering the interplay of advection, diffusion and segregation. In this research, we extend the domain of the model to include density driven segregation. Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of density bidisperse flows of mono-sized particles in a quasi-2D bounded heap were performed to determine the dependence of the density driven segregation velocity on local shear rate, particle concentration, and a segregation length which scales with the particle size and the logarithm of the density ratio. With these inputs, the model yields theoretical predictions of density segregation patterns that quantitatively match the DEM simulations over a range of density ratios (1.11-3.33) and flow rates (19.2-113.6 cm3/s). Matching experiments with various combinations of glass, steel and ceramic particles were also performed which reproduced the segregation patterns obtained in both the simulations and the theory.

  7. Modelling debris flows down general channels

    S. P. Pudasaini


    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of the single-phase cohesionless dry granular avalanche model over curved and twisted channels proposed by Pudasaini and Hutter (2003. It is a generalisation of the Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991 equations based on simple channel topography to a two-phase fluid-solid mixture of debris material. Important terms emerging from the correct treatment of the kinematic and dynamic boundary condition, and the variable basal topography are systematically taken into account. For vanishing fluid contribution and torsion-free channel topography our new model equations exactly degenerate to the previous Savage-Hutter model equations while such a degeneration was not possible by the Iverson and Denlinger (2001 model, which, in fact, also aimed to extend the Savage and Hutter model. The model equations of this paper have been rigorously derived; they include the effects of the curvature and torsion of the topography, generally for arbitrarily curved and twisted channels of variable channel width. The equations are put into a standard conservative form of partial differential equations. From these one can easily infer the importance and influence of the pore-fluid-pressure distribution in debris flow dynamics. The solid-phase is modelled by applying a Coulomb dry friction law whereas the fluid phase is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Input parameters of the equations are the internal and bed friction angles of the solid particles, the viscosity and volume fraction of the fluid, the total mixture density and the pore pressure distribution of the fluid at the bed. Given the bed topography and initial geometry and the initial velocity profile of the debris mixture, the model equations are able to describe the dynamics of the depth profile and bed parallel depth-averaged velocity distribution from the initial position to the final deposit. A shock capturing, total variation diminishing numerical scheme is implemented to

  8. Incorporating immigrant flows into microsimulation models.

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; Dowhan, Daniel J


    Building on the research on immigrant earnings reviewed in the first article of this series, "Research on Immigrant Earnings," the preceding article, "Adding Immigrants to Microsimulation Models," linked research results to various issues essential for incorporating immigrant earnings into microsimulation models. The discussions of that article were in terms of a closed system. That is, it examined a system in which immigrant earnings and emigration are forecast for a given population represented in the base sample in the microsimulation model. This article, the last in the series, addresses immigrant earnings projections for open systems--microsimulation models that include projections of future immigration. The article suggests a simple method to project future immigrants and their earnings. Including the future flow of immigrants in microsimulation models can dramatically affect the projected Social Security benefits of some groups.

  9. Porosity model for flows in CMP

    ZHANG Chao-hui; YE Wei; LUO Jian-bin; WEN Shi-zhu


    In an effort to explore the contribution of the pad which is usually full of pores,to the performance of CMP (chemical mechanical polishing),a three-dimensional flow model of CMP is presented by assuming that the fluids in the porous layer comply with Darcy's law,which states that the flow velocity is proportional to the pressure gradient and inverse proportional to the viscosity.The flow equation is deduced accordingly and,by taking advantage of the multilevel technique and line relaxation technique,numerical simulations are carried out to reveal the relationships between the load capacities and operational parameters (including pivot height,roll angle and pitch angle),under conditions with different porous parameters and different thicknesses of the porous layer.The little porous parameter will lead to a prominent increase of load capability (for instance,the load and the moment predicted),which is still augmented by the thicker layer parameter.This will result in a higher material removal ratio of CMP.A pad full of large pores will be used to deduce load capability,facilitating the free flow of the fluids through the pores.The research will add some insights on the mechanism of the CMP technique.

  10. An introduction to multilevel flow modeling

    Lind, Morten


    environment. MFM has a primary focus on plant goals and functions and provide a methodological way of using those concepts to represent complex industrial plant. The paper gives a brief introduction to the historical development, introduces the concepts of MFM and presents the application of the concepts......Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) is a methodology for functional modeling of industrial processes on several interconnected levels of means-end and part-whole abstractions. The basic idea of MFM is to represent an industrial plant as a system which provides the means required to serve purposes in its...

  11. A survey of air flow models for multizone structures

    Feustel, H.E.; Dieris, J.


    Air flow models are used to simulate the rates of incoming and outgoing air flows for a building with known leakage under given weather and shielding conditions. Additional information about the flow paths and air-mass flows inside the building can only by using multizone air flow models. In order to obtain more information on multizone air flow models, a literature review was performed in 1984. A second literature review and a questionnaire survey performed in 1989, revealed the existence of 50 multizone air flow models, all developed since 1966, two of which are still under development. All these programs use similar flow equations for crack flow but differ in the versatility to describe the full range of flow phenomena and the algorithm provided for solving the set of nonlinear equations. This literature review was found that newer models are able to describe and simulate the ventilation systems and interrelation of mechanical and natural ventilation. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Modeling variability in porescale multiphase flow experiments

    Ling, Bowen; Bao, Jie; Oostrom, Mart; Battiato, Ilenia; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.


    Microfluidic devices and porescale numerical models are commonly used to study multiphase flow in biological, geological, and engineered porous materials. In this work, we perform a set of drainage and imbibition experiments in six identical microfluidic cells to study the reproducibility of multiphase flow experiments. We observe significant variations in the experimental results, which are smaller during the drainage stage and larger during the imbibition stage. We demonstrate that these variations are due to sub-porescale geometry differences in microcells (because of manufacturing defects) and variations in the boundary condition (i.e.,fluctuations in the injection rate inherent to syringe pumps). Computational simulations are conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+, both with constant and randomly varying injection rate. Stochastic simulations are able to capture variability in the experiments associated with the varying pump injection rate.

  13. Modeling variability in porescale multiphase flow experiments

    Ling, Bowen; Bao, Jie; Oostrom, Mart; Battiato, Ilenia; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.


    Microfluidic devices and porescale numerical models are commonly used to study multiphase flow in biological, geological, and engineered porous materials. In this work, we perform a set of drainage and imbibition experiments in six identical microfluidic cells to study the reproducibility of multiphase flow experiments. We observe significant variations in the experimental results, which are smaller during the drainage stage and larger during the imbibition stage. We demonstrate that these variations are due to sub-porescale geometry differences in microcells (because of manufacturing defects) and variations in the boundary condition (i.e., fluctuations in the injection rate inherent to syringe pumps). Computational simulations are conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+, both with constant and randomly varying injection rates. Stochastic simulations are able to capture variability in the experiments associated with the varying pump injection rate.

  14. Modeling steam pressure under martian lava flows

    Dundas, Colin M.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.


    Rootless cones on Mars are a valuable indicator of past interactions between lava and water. However, the details of the lava–water interactions are not fully understood, limiting the ability to use these features to infer new information about past water on Mars. We have developed a model for the pressurization of a dry layer of porous regolith by melting and boiling ground ice in the shallow subsurface. This model builds on previous models of lava cooling and melting of subsurface ice. We find that for reasonable regolith properties and ice depths of decimeters, explosive pressures can be reached. However, the energy stored within such lags is insufficient to excavate thick flows unless they draw steam from a broader region than the local eruption site. These results indicate that lag pressurization can drive rootless cone formation under favorable circumstances, but in other instances molten fuel–coolant interactions are probably required. We use the model results to consider a range of scenarios for rootless cone formation in Athabasca Valles. Pressure buildup by melting and boiling ice under a desiccated lag is possible in some locations, consistent with the expected distribution of ice implanted from atmospheric water vapor. However, it is uncertain whether such ice has existed in the vicinity of Athabasca Valles in recent history. Plausible alternative sources include surface snow or an aqueous flood shortly before the emplacement of the lava flow.

  15. Accurate Spectral Fits of Jupiter's Great Red Spot: VIMS Visual Spectra Modelled with Chromophores Created by Photolyzed Ammonia Reacting with Acetyleneχ±

    Baines, Kevin; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Carlson, Robert W.; Momary, Thomas W.


    We report results incorporating the red-tinted photochemically-generated aerosols of Carlson et al (2016, Icarus 274, 106-115) in spectral models of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Spectral models of the 0.35-1.0-micron spectrum show good agreement with Cassini/VIMS near-center-meridian and near-limb GRS spectra for model morphologies incorporating an optically-thin layer of Carlson (2016) aerosols at high altitudes, either at the top of the tropospheric GRS cloud, or in a distinct stratospheric haze layer. Specifically, a two-layer "crème brûlée" structure of the Mie-scattering Carlson et al (2016) chromophore attached to the top of a conservatively scattering (hereafter, "white") optically-thick cloud fits the spectra well. Currently, best agreement (reduced χ2 of 0.89 for the central-meridian spectrum) is found for a 0.195-0.217-bar, 0.19 ± 0.02 opacity layer of chromophores with mean particle radius of 0.14 ± 0.01 micron. As well, a structure with a detached stratospheric chromophore layer ~0.25 bar above a white tropospheric GRS cloud provides a good spectral match (reduced χ2 of 1.16). Alternatively, a cloud morphology with the chromophore coating white particles in a single optically- and physically-thick cloud (the "coated-shell model", initially explored by Carlson et al 2016) was found to give significantly inferior fits (best reduced χ2 of 2.9). Overall, we find that models accurately fit the GRS spectrum if (1) most of the optical depth of the chromophore is in a layer near the top of the main cloud or in a distinct separated layer above it, but is not uniformly distributed within the main cloud, (2) the chromophore consists of relatively small, 0.1-0.2-micron-radius particles, and (3) the chromophore layer optical depth is small, ~ 0.1-0.2. Thus, our analysis supports the exogenic origin of the red chromophore consistent with the Carlson et al (2016) photolytic production mechanism rather than an endogenic origin, such as upwelling of material

  16. VisFlow - Web-based Visualization Framework for Tabular Data with a Subset Flow Model.

    Yu, Bowen; Silva, Claudio T


    Data flow systems allow the user to design a flow diagram that specifies the relations between system components which process, filter or visually present the data. Visualization systems may benefit from user-defined data flows as an analysis typically consists of rendering multiple plots on demand and performing different types of interactive queries across coordinated views. In this paper, we propose VisFlow, a web-based visualization framework for tabular data that employs a specific type of data flow model called the subset flow model. VisFlow focuses on interactive queries within the data flow, overcoming the limitation of interactivity from past computational data flow systems. In particular, VisFlow applies embedded visualizations and supports interactive selections, brushing and linking within a visualization-oriented data flow. The model requires all data transmitted by the flow to be a data item subset (i.e. groups of table rows) of some original input table, so that rendering properties can be assigned to the subset unambiguously for tracking and comparison. VisFlow features the analysis flexibility of a flow diagram, and at the same time reduces the diagram complexity and improves usability. We demonstrate the capability of VisFlow on two case studies with domain experts on real-world datasets showing that VisFlow is capable of accomplishing a considerable set of visualization and analysis tasks. The VisFlow system is available as open source on GitHub.

  17. Observing and Modeling Earth's Energy Flows

    Stevens, Bjorn; Schwartz, Stephen E.


    This article reviews, from the authors' perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within ±2 W m-2. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute


    X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao


    In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in

  19. Differential Reynolds stress modeling for separating flows in industrial aerodynamics


    This book presents recent progress in the application of RANS turbulence models based on the Reynolds stress transport equations. A variety of models has been implemented by different groups into different flow solvers and applied to external as well as to turbomachinery flows. Comparisons between the models allow an assessment of their performance in different flow conditions. The results demonstrate the general applicability of differential Reynolds stress models to separating flows in industrial aerodynamics.

  20. Consequence Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modelling

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole


    Consequence reasoning is a major element for operation support system to assess the plant situations. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how Multilevel Flow Models can be used to reason about consequences of disturbances in complex engineering systems. MFM is a modelling methodology...... for representing process knowledge for complex systems. It represents the system by using means-end and part-whole decompositions, and describes not only the purposes and functions of the system but also the causal relations between them. Thus MFM is a tool for causal reasoning. The paper introduces MFM modelling...... syntax and gives detailed reasoning formulas for consequence reasoning. The reasoning formulas offers basis for developing rule-based system to perform consequence reasoning based on MFM, which can be used for alarm design, risk monitoring, and supervision and operation support system design....

  1. A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants

    Sen, Mehmet A., E-mail: [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kowalski, Gregory J., E-mail: [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fiering, Jason, E-mail: [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larson, Dale, E-mail: [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Highlights: • A co-flow microreactor is modeled in flow, reaction/diffusion, and thermal domains. • Analysis shows how arrayed temperature sensors can provide enthalpy of reaction. • Optical plasmonic temperature sensors could be arrayed suitably for calorimetry. • The reactor studied has a volume of 25 nL. - Abstract: A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction.

  2. Direct simulations of chemically reacting turbulent mixing layers, part 2

    Metcalfe, Ralph W.; Mcmurtry, Patrick A.; Jou, Wen-Huei; Riley, James J.; Givi, Peyman


    The results of direct numerical simulations of chemically reacting turbulent mixing layers are presented. This is an extension of earlier work to a more detailed study of previous three dimensional simulations of cold reacting flows plus the development, validation, and use of codes to simulate chemically reacting shear layers with heat release. Additional analysis of earlier simulations showed good agreement with self similarity theory and laboratory data. Simulations with a two dimensional code including the effects of heat release showed that the rate of chemical product formation, the thickness of the mixing layer, and the amount of mass entrained into the layer all decrease with increasing rates of heat release. Subsequent three dimensional simulations showed similar behavior, in agreement with laboratory observations. Baroclinic torques and thermal expansion in the mixing layer were found to produce changes in the flame vortex structure that act to diffuse the pairing vortices, resulting in a net reduction in vorticity. Previously unexplained anomalies observed in the mean velocity profiles of reacting jets and mixing layers were shown to result from vorticity generation by baroclinic torques.

  3. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Compressible Reacting Boundary Layer using a Temporal Slow Growth Homogenization

    Topalian, Victor; Oliver, Todd; Ulerich, Rhys; Moser, Robert


    A DNS of a compressible, reacting boundary layer flow at Reθ ~ 430 was performed using a temporal slow-growth homogenization, for a multispecies flow model of air at supersonic regime. The overall scenario parameters are related to those of the flow over an ablating surface of a space capsule upon Earth's atmospheric re-entry. The simulation algorithm features Fourier spatial discretization in the streamwise and spanwise directions, B-splines in the wall normal direction, and is marched semi-implicitly in time using the SMR91 scheme. Flow statistics will be presented for relevant flow quantities, in particular those related with RANS modeling. Since analogous slow growth computations can be performed using RANS to predict the flow mean profiles, the use of data gathered from this type of simulation as a vehicle for the calibration and uncertainty quantification of RANS models will be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  4. Progress in modeling of fluid flows in crystal growth processes

    Qisheng Chen; Yanni Jiang; Junyi Yan; Ming Qin


    Modeling of fluid flows in crystal growth processes has become an important research area in theoretical and applied mechanics.Most crystal growth processes involve fluid flows,such as flows in the melt,solution or vapor.Theoretical modeling has played an important role in developing technologies used for growing semiconductor crystals for high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.The application of devices requires large diameter crystals with a high degree of crystallographic perfection,low defect density and uniform dopant distribution.In this article,the flow models developed in modeling of the crystal growth processes such as Czochralski,ammono-thermal and physical vapor transport methods are reviewed.In the Czochralski growth modeling,the flow models for thermocapillary flow,turbulent flow and MHD flow have been developed.In the ammonothermal growth modeling,the buoyancy and porous media flow models have been developed based on a single-domain and continuum approach for the composite fluid-porous layer systems.In the physical vapor transport growth modeling,the Stefan flow model has been proposed based on the flow-kinetics theory for the vapor growth.In addition,perspectives for future studies on crystal growth modeling are proposed.

  5. Constitutive model development for flows of granular materials

    Chialvo, Sebastian

    Granular flows are ubiquitous in both natural and industrial processes. When com- posed of dry, noncohesive particles, they manifest three different flow regimes---commonly referred to as the quasistatic, inertial, and intermediate regimes---each of which exhibits its own dependences on solids volume fraction, shear rate, and particle-level properties. The differences in these regimes can be attributed to microscale phenomena, with quasistatic flows being dominated by enduring, frictional contacts between grains, inertial flows by grain collisions, and intermediate flows by a combination of the two. Existing constitutive models for the solids-phase stress tend to focus on one or two regimes at a time, with a limited degree of success; the same is true of models for wall-boundary conditions for granular flows. Moreover, these models tend not to be based on detailed particle-level flow data, either from experiment or simulation. Clearly, a comprehensive modeling framework is lacking. The work in this thesis aims to address these issues by proposing continuum models constructed on the basis of discrete element method (DEM) simulations of granular shear flows. Specifically, we propose (a) a constitutive stress model that bridges the three dense flow regimes, (b) an modified kinetic-theory model that covers both the dense and dilute ends of the inertial regime, and (c) a boundary-condition model for dense, wall-bounded flows. These models facilitate the modeling of a wide range of flow systems of practical interest and provide ideas for further model development and refinement.

  6. Numerical modeling of fluid flow with rafts: An application to lava flows

    Tsepelev, Igor; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander


    Although volcanic lava flows do not significantly affect the life of people, its hazard is not negligible as hot lava kills vegetation, destroys infrastructure, and may trigger a flood due to melting of snow/ice. The lava flow hazard can be reduced if the flow patterns are known, and the complexity of the flow with debris is analyzed to assist in disaster risk mitigation. In this paper we develop three-dimensional numerical models of a gravitational flow of multi-phase fluid with rafts (mimicking rigid lava-crust fragments) on a horizontal and topographic surfaces to explore the dynamics and the interaction of lava flows. We have obtained various flow patterns and spatial distribution of rafts depending on conditions at the surface of fluid spreading, obstacles on the way of a fluid flow, raft landing scenarios, and the size of rafts. Furthermore, we analyze two numerical models related to specific lava flows: (i) a model of fluid flow with rafts inside an inclined channel, and (ii) a model of fluid flow from a single vent on an artificial topography, when the fluid density, its viscosity, and the effusion rate vary with time. Although the studied models do not account for lava solidification, crust formation, and its rupture, the results of the modeling may be used for understanding of flows with breccias before a significant lava cooling.

  7. REACT: Resettable Hold Down and Release Actuator for Space Applications

    Nava, Nestor; Collado, Marcelo; Cabás, Ramiro


    A new HDRA based on SMA technology, called REACT, has been designed for development of loads and appendixes in space applications. This design involves a rod supported by spheres that block its axial movement during a preload application. The rod shape allows misalignment and blocks the rotation around axial axis for a proper installation of the device. Because of the high preload requirements for this type of actuators, finite element analysis (FEA) has been developed in order to check the structure resistance. The results of the FEA have constrained the REACT design, in terms of dimensions, materials, and shape of the mechanical parts. A complete test campaign for qualification of REACT is proposed. Several qualification models are intended to be built for testing in parallel. Therefore, it is a way to demonstrate margins which allows getting some statistics.

  8. A semiparametric approach to physiological flow models.

    Verotta, D; Sheiner, L B; Ebling, W F; Stanski, D R


    By regarding sampled tissues in a physiological model as linear subsystems, the usual advantages of flow models are preserved while mitigating two of their disadvantages, (i) the need for assumptions regarding intratissue kinetics, and (ii) the need to simultaneously fit data from several tissues. To apply the linear systems approach, both arterial blood and (interesting) tissue drug concentrations must be measured. The body is modeled as having an arterial compartment (A) distributing drug to different linear subsystems (tissues), connected in a specific way by blood flow. The response (CA, with dimensions of concentration) of A is measured. Tissues receive input from A (and optionally from other tissues), and send output to the outside or to other parts of the body. The response (CT, total amount of drug in the tissue (T) divided by the volume of T) from the T-th one, for example, of such tissues is also observed. From linear systems theory, CT can be expressed as the convolution of CA with a disposition function, F(t) (with dimensions 1/time). The function F(t) depends on the (unknown) structure of T, but has certain other constant properties: The integral integral infinity0 F(t) dt is the steady state ratio of CT to CA, and the point F(0) is the clearance rate of drug from A to T divided by the volume of T. A formula for the clearance rate of drug from T to outside T can be derived. To estimate F(t) empirically, and thus mitigate disadvantage (i), we suggest that, first, a nonparametric (or parametric) function be fitted to CA data yielding predicted values, CA, and, second, the convolution integral of CA with F(t) be fitted to CT data using a deconvolution method. By so doing, each tissue's data are analyzed separately, thus mitigating disadvantage (ii). A method for system simulation is also proposed. The results of applying the approach to simulated data and to real thiopental data are reported.

  9. Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins

    Faille I.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.

  10. A New Equation Solver for Modeling Turbulent Flow in Coupled Matrix-Conduit Flow Models.

    Hubinger, Bernhard; Birk, Steffen; Hergarten, Stefan


    Karst aquifers represent dual flow systems consisting of a highly conductive conduit system embedded in a less permeable rock matrix. Hybrid models iteratively coupling both flow systems generally consume much time, especially because of the nonlinearity of turbulent conduit flow. To reduce calculation times compared to those of existing approaches, a new iterative equation solver for the conduit system is developed based on an approximated Newton-Raphson expression and a Gauß-Seidel or successive over-relaxation scheme with a single iteration step at the innermost level. It is implemented and tested in the research code CAVE but should be easily adaptable to similar models such as the Conduit Flow Process for MODFLOW-2005. It substantially reduces the computational effort as demonstrated by steady-state benchmark scenarios as well as by transient karst genesis simulations. Water balance errors are found to be acceptable in most of the test cases. However, the performance and accuracy may deteriorate under unfavorable conditions such as sudden, strong changes of the flow field at some stages of the karst genesis simulations.

  11. Numerical investigation on cavitation flow of hydrofoil and its flow noise with emphasis on turbulence models

    Sanghyeon Kim


    Full Text Available In this study, cavitation flow of hydrofoils is numerically investigated to characterize the effects of turbulence models on cavitation-flow patterns and the corresponding radiated sound waves. The two distinct flow conditions are considered by varying the mean flow velocity and angle of attack, which are categorized under the experimentally observed unstable or stable cavitation flows. To consider the phase interchanges between the vapor and the liquid, the flow fields around the hydrofoil are analyzed by solving the unsteady compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations coupled with a mass-transfer model, also referred to as the cavitation model. In the numerical solver, a preconditioning algorithm with dual-time stepping techniques is employed in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The following three types of turbulence models are employed: the laminar-flow model, standard k − ε turbulent model, and filter-based model. Hydro-acoustic field formed by the cavitation flow of the hydrofoil is predicted by applying the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation to the predicted flow field. From the predicted results, the effects of the turbulences on the cavitation flow pattern and radiated flow noise are quantitatively assessed in terms of the void fraction, sound-pressure-propagation directivities, and spectrum.

  12. Numerical investigation on cavitation flow of hydrofoil and its flow noise with emphasis on turbulence models

    Kim, Sanghyeon; Cheong, Cheolung; Park, Warn-Gyu


    In this study, cavitation flow of hydrofoils is numerically investigated to characterize the effects of turbulence models on cavitation-flow patterns and the corresponding radiated sound waves. The two distinct flow conditions are considered by varying the mean flow velocity and angle of attack, which are categorized under the experimentally observed unstable or stable cavitation flows. To consider the phase interchanges between the vapor and the liquid, the flow fields around the hydrofoil are analyzed by solving the unsteady compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a mass-transfer model, also referred to as the cavitation model. In the numerical solver, a preconditioning algorithm with dual-time stepping techniques is employed in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The following three types of turbulence models are employed: the laminar-flow model, standard k - ɛ turbulent model, and filter-based model. Hydro-acoustic field formed by the cavitation flow of the hydrofoil is predicted by applying the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation to the predicted flow field. From the predicted results, the effects of the turbulences on the cavitation flow pattern and radiated flow noise are quantitatively assessed in terms of the void fraction, sound-pressure-propagation directivities, and spectrum.

  13. Discrete Element Modeling of Complex Granular Flows

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.


    Granular materials occur almost everywhere in nature, and are actively studied in many fields of research, from food industry to planetary science. One approach to the study of granular media, the continuum approach, attempts to find a constitutive law that determines the material's flow, or strain, under applied stress. The main difficulty with this approach is that granular systems exhibit different behavior under different conditions, behaving at times as an elastic solid (e.g. pile of sand), at times as a viscous fluid (e.g. when poured), or even as a gas (e.g. when shaken). Even if all these physics are accounted for, numerical implementation is made difficult by the wide and often discontinuous ranges in continuum density and sound speed. A different approach is Discrete Element Modeling (DEM). Here the goal is to directly model every grain in the system as a rigid body subject to various body and surface forces. The advantage of this method is that it treats all of the above regimes in the same way, and can easily deal with a system moving back and forth between regimes. But as a granular system typically contains a multitude of individual grains, the direct integration of the system can be very computationally expensive. For this reason most DEM codes are limited to spherical grains of uniform size. However, spherical grains often cannot replicate the behavior of real world granular systems. A simple pile of spherical grains, for example, relies on static friction alone to keep its shape, while in reality a pile of irregular grains can maintain a much steeper angle by interlocking force chains. In the present study we employ a commercial DEM, nVidia's PhysX Engine, originally designed for the game and animation industry, to simulate complex granular flows with irregular, non-spherical grains. This engine runs as a multi threaded process and can be GPU accelerated. We demonstrate the code's ability to physically model granular materials in the three regimes

  14. Modeling and Design of Semi-Solid Flow Batteries

    Brunini, Victor Eric

    A three-dimensional dynamic model of the recently introduced semi-solid flow battery system is developed and applied to address issues with important design and operation implications. Because of the high viscosity of semi-solid flow battery suspensions, alternative modes of operation not typically used in conventional redox flow battery systems must be explored to reduce pumping energy losses. Modeling results are presented .and compared to experimental observations to address important considerations for both stoichiometric and intermittent flow operation. The importance of active material selection, and its impact on efficient stoichiometric flow operation is discussed. Electrochemically active zone considerations relevant to intermittent flow operation of semi-solid flow batteries (or other potential electronically conductive flow battery systems) are addressed. Finally, the use of the model as a design tool for optimizing flow channel design to improve system level performance is demonstrated.(Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, -

  15. Moment estimation for chemically reacting systems by extended Kalman filtering

    Ruess, J; Milias-Argeitis, A; Summers, S; Lygeros, J


    In stochastic models of chemically reacting systems that contain bimolecular reactions, the dynamics of the moments of order up to n of the species populations do not form a closed system, in the sense that their time-derivatives depend on moments of order n + 1. To close the dynamics, the moments o

  16. Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles

    Fabien Petitpas


    Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.

  17. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood

    Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.


    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Eulerian modeling of reactive gas-liquid flow in a bubble column

    Zhang, Dongsheng


    Despite the widespread application of bubble columns and intensive research efforts devoted to understand their complex behavior, detailed knowledge on the fluid flow, mass transfer and chemical reactions as well as their interactions is currently very limited. Gas-liquid flow in bubble column react

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Electrolyte Flow Dynamic Patterns and Volumetric Flow Penetrations in the Flow Channel over Porous Electrode Layered System in Vanadium Flow Battery with Serpentine Flow Field Design

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.


    In this work, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to study the flow patterns and volumetric flow penetrations in the flow channel over the porous electrode layered system in vanadium flow battery with serpentine flow field design. The flow distributions at the interface between the flow channel and porous electrode are examined. It is found that the non-linear pressure distributions can distinguish the interface flow distributions under the ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic fl...

  20. A Fractional-Flow Based Compressible Multiphase Flow Model with Newly Proposed Constitutive Retentions

    Tsai, C.; Yeh, G.


    In this investigation, newly proposed constitutive retentions are implemented to a fractional-flow based compressible multiphase-phase flow model. With the new model, a compressible three-phase (water, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and air) flow problem is simulated. In fractional-flow approaches, the three mass balance equations written in terms of three phase pressures are transformed to those in terms of the total pressure, saturation of water, and saturation of total liquid. These three governing equations are discretized with the Galerkin finite element method (FEM). The resulted matrix equation is solved with Bi-CGSTAB. Several numerical experiments are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. The results show the presented fractional-flow based multiphase flow model is feasible and yields physically realistic solutions for compressible three-phase flow problems in porous media.

  1. Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries

    Centrella, Joan


    Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the merger of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases in which the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.

  2. Water Modeling of Optimizing Tundish Flow Field

    LIU Jin-gang; YAN Hui-cheng; LIU Liu; WANG Xin-hua


    In the water modeling experiments, three cases were considered, i.e. , a bare tundish, a tundish equipped with a turbulence inhibitor, and a rectangular tundish equipped with weirs (dams) and a turbulence inhibitor. Comparing the RTD curves, inclusion separation, and the result of the streamline experiment, it can be found that the tundish equipped with weirs (dams) and a turbulence inhibitor has a great effect on the flow field and the inclusion separation when compared with the sole use or no use of the turbulent inhibitor or weirs (dams). In addition, the enlargement of the distance between the weir and dam will result in a better effect when the tundish equipped with weirs (dam) and a turbulence inhibitor was used.

  3. Modeling the thermally governed transient flow surges in multitube condensing flow systems with thermal and flow distribution asymmetry

    Wedekind, G.L.; Bhatt, B.L. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States))


    In a tube-type condenser involving complete condensation, small changes in the inlet vapor flow rate momentarily cause very large transient surges in the outlet liquid flow rate. An equivalent single-tube model is proposed that predicts these transient flow surges for a multitube system. The model, based upon a system mean void fraction model developed earlier, includes the effects of thermal and flow distribution asymmetry associated with each individual condenser tube in the multitube system. Theoretical and experimental verification for a two-tube system is presented.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Electrolyte Flow Dynamic Patterns and Volumetric Flow Penetrations in the Flow Channel over Porous Electrode Layered System in Vanadium Flow Battery with Serpentine Flow Field Design

    Ke, Xinyou; Alexander, J Iwan D; Savinell, Robert F


    In this work, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to study the flow patterns and volumetric flow penetrations in the flow channel over the porous electrode layered system in vanadium flow battery with serpentine flow field design. The flow distributions at the interface between the flow channel and porous electrode are examined. It is found that the non-linear pressure distributions can distinguish the interface flow distributions under the ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic flow inlet boundary conditions. However, the volumetric flow penetration within the porous electrode beneath the flow channel through the integration of interface flow velocity reveals that this value is identical under both ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic flow inlet boundary conditions. The volumetric flow penetrations under the advection effects of flow channel and landing/rib are estimated. The maximum current density achieved in the flow battery can be predicted based on the 100% amount of electrolyte flow reactant ...

  5. Acoustic imaging for diagnostics of chemically reacting systems

    Ramohalli, K.; Seshan, P.


    The concept of local diagnostics, in chemically reacting systems, with acoustic imaging is developed. The elements of acoustic imaging through ellipsoidal mirrors are theoretically discussed. In a general plan of the experimental program, the first system is chosen in these studies to be a simple open jet, non premixed turbulent flame. Methane is the fuel and enriched air is the oxidizer. This simple chemically reacting flow system is established at a Reynolds number (based on cold viscosity) of 50,000. A 1.5 m diameter high resolution acoustic mirror with an f-number of 0.75 is used to map the acoustic source zone along the axis of the flame. The results are presented as acoustic power spectra at various distances from the nozzle exit. It is seen that most of the reaction intensity is localized in a zone within 8 diameters from the exit. The bulk reactions (possibly around the periphery of the larger eddies) are evenly distributed along the length of the flame. Possibilities are seen for locally diagnosing single zones in a multiple cluster of reaction zones that occur frequently in practice. A brief outline is given of the future of this work which will be to apply this technique to chemically reacting flows not limited to combustion.

  6. Modeling radial flow ion exchange performance for condensate polisher conditions

    Shallcross, D. [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Renouf, P.


    A theoretical model is developed which simulates ion exchange performance within an annular resin bed. Flow within the mixed ion exchange bed is diverging, with the solution flowing outwards away from the bed's axis. The model is used to simulate performance of a mixed annular bed operating under condensate polisher conditions. The simulation predictions are used to develop design envelope curves for practical radial flow beds and to estimate potential cost savings flowing from less expensive polisher vessels. (orig.)

  7. Reduced kinetic mechanism of n-heptane oxidation in modeling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in opposed-flow diffusion flames

    Beijing ZHONG; Jun XI


    A reduced mechanism, which could couple with the multidimensional computational fluid dynamics code for quantitative description of a reacting flow, was developed for chemical kinetic modeling of polycyclic aro-matic hydrocarbon formation in an opposed-flow dif-fusion flame. The complete kinetic mechanism, which comprises 572 reactions and 108 species, was reduced to a simplified mechanism that includes only 83 reactions and 56 species through sensitivity analysis. The results computed via this reduced mechanism are nearly indistin-guishable from those via the detailed mechanism, which demonstrate that the model based on this reduced mech-anism can properly describe n-heptane oxidation chem-istry and quantitatively predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (such as benzene, naphthalene, phenan-threne and pyrene) formation in opposed-flow diffusion flames.

  8. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    J. C. Guo


    Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  9. An improved turbulence model for rotating shear flows*

    Nagano, Yasutaka; Hattori, Hirofumi


    In the present study, we construct a turbulence model based on a low-Reynolds-number non-linear k e model for turbulent flows in a rotating channel. Two-equation models, in particular the non-linear k e model, are very effective for solving various flow problems encountered in technological applications. In channel flows with rotation, however, the explicit effects of rotation only appear in the Reynolds stress components. The exact equations for k and e do not have any explicit terms concerned with the rotation effects. Moreover, the Coriolis force vanishes in the momentum equation for a fully developed channel flow with spanwise rotation. Consequently, in order to predict rotating channel flows, after proper revision the Reynolds stress equation model or the non-linear eddy viscosity model should be used. In this study, we improve the non-linear k e model so as to predict rotating channel flows. In the modelling, the wall-limiting behaviour of turbulence is also considered. First, we evaluated the non-linear k e model using the direct numerical simulation (DNS) database for a fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. Next, we assessed the non-linear k e model at various rotation numbers. Finally, on the basis of these assessments, we reconstruct the non-linear k e model to calculate rotating shear flows, and the proposed model is tested on various rotation number channel flows. The agreement with DNS and experiment data is quite satisfactory.

  10. Continuum modeling of rate-dependent granular flows in SPH

    Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.


    We discuss a constitutive law for modeling rate-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We model granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating rate-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for modeling the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.

  11. Continuum modeling of rate-dependent granular flows in SPH

    Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.


    We discuss a constitutive law for modeling rate-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We model granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating rate-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for modeling the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.

  12. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL


    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow


    Anil Kumar; C.L. Varshney; G.C. Sharma


    Two different non-Newtonian models for blood flow are considered, first a simple power law model displaying shear thinning viscosity, and second a generalized Maxwell model displaying both shear thinning viscosity and oscillating flow viscous-elasticity. These models are used along with a Newtonian model to study sinusoidal flow of blood in rigid and elastic straight arteries in the presence of magnetic field. The elasticity of blood does not appear to influence its flow behavior under physiological conditions in the large arteries,purely viscous shear thinning model should be quite realistic for simulating blood flow under these conditions. On using the power law model with high shear rate for sinusoidal flow simulation in elastic arteries, the mean and amplitude of the flow rate were found to be lower for a power law fluid compared to Newtonian fluid for the same pressure gradient. The governing equations have been solved by Crank-Niclson scheme. The results are interpreted in the context of blood in the elastic arteries keeping the magnetic effects in view. For physiological flow simulation in the aorta, an increase in mean wall shear stress, but a reduction in peak wall shear stress were observed for power law model compared to a Newtonian fluid model for matched flow rate wave form. Blood flow in the presence of transverse magnetic field in an elastic artery is investigated and the influence of factors such as morphology and surface irregularity is evaluated.

  14. Modeling liquid hydrogen cavitating flow with the full cavitation model

    Zhang, X.B.; Qiu, L.M.; Qi, H.; Zhang, X.J.; Gan, Z.H. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    Cavitation is the formation of vapor bubbles within a liquid where flow dynamics cause the local static pressure to drop below the vapor pressure. This paper strives towards developing an effective computational strategy to simulate liquid hydrogen cavitation relevant to liquid rocket propulsion applications. The aims are realized by performing a steady state computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study of liquid hydrogen flow over a 2D hydrofoil and an axisymmetric ogive in Hord's reports with a so-called full cavitation model. The thermodynamic effect was demonstrated with the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the gas phase and liquid phase. Temperature-dependent fluid thermodynamic properties were specified along the saturation line from the ''Gaspak 3.2'' databank. Justifiable agreement between the computed surface pressure, temperature and experimental data of Hord was obtained. Specifically, a global sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the sensitivity of the turbulent computations to the wall grid resolution, wall treatments and changes in model parameters. A proper near-wall model and grid resolution were suggested. The full cavitation model with default model parameters provided solutions with comparable accuracy to sheet cavitation in liquid hydrogen for the two geometries. (author)

  15. Concepts and parameterisation of Perla and FLM model using Flow-R for debris flow

    Horton, P.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Rudaz, B.


    The Flow-R software was built to allow regional debris flow susceptibility assessment. It uses propagation algorithms such as the friction model from Perla and friction-limited models (FLM). By using concepts from both models, a methodology is proposed to evaluate the friction angle and mass-to-drag ratio based on the maximum velocity estimation for debris flows, and on the observed runout on the debris fan. The goal is to use the energy line concept, the debris fan slope, and the runout on the latter, to estimate the friction angle, the Mass to Drag ratio and maximum flow velocity for a given debris flow event and specific conditions of a catchment. A relation between those parameters themselves and between them and the observed characteristics of the flow (runout, speed of flow, viscosity, thickness) is established. The sensitivity of the Flow-R model is tested on two real cases and a theoretical topography for both model types. The importance of the friction angle, relative to M/D, is established. It demonstrates that the FLM model gives results similar to the Perla model, and is useful to determine the friction angle and M/D parameters on debris fan topography, using known events as calibration for each case. Those parameters can then be used as input for local hazard simulation and prediction. In addition, using a broad set of parameters instead of of an ideal one, inducing different propagation results, is proposed for debris flow hazard mapping and assessment.

  16. Architecture Models and Data Flows in Local and Group Datawarehouses

    Bogza, R. M.; Zaharie, Dorin; Avasilcai, Silvia; Bacali, Laura

    Architecture models and possible data flows for local and group datawarehouses are presented, together with some data processing models. The architecture models consists of several layers and the data flow between them. The choosen architecture of a datawarehouse depends on the data type and volumes from the source data, and inflences the analysis, data mining and reports done upon the data from DWH.

  17. 3-D numerical modelling of flow around a groin

    Miller, R.; Roulund, A.; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    A 3-D flow code, EllipSys3D, has been implemented to simulate the 3-D flow around a groin in steady current. The k  turbulence model has been used for closure. Two kinds of groins are considered: (1) A vertical-wall groin, and (2) A groin with a side slope. Steady-flow simulations were conducted...

  18. Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves

    Kranenburg, W.M.


    In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels. Howeve

  19. Turbulent transport measurements in a cold model of GT-burner at realistic flow rates

    Gobyzov Oleg


    Full Text Available In the present work simultaneous velocity field and passive admixture concentration field measurements at realistic flow-rates conditions in a non-reacting flow in a model of combustion chamber with an industrial mixing device are reported. In the experiments for safety reasons the real fuel (natural gas was replaced with neon gas to simulate stratification in a strongly swirling flow. Measurements were performed by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF and particle image velocimetry technique (PIV at Reynolds number, based on the mean flow rate and nozzle diameter, ≈300 000. Details on experimental technique, features of the experimental setup, images and data preprocessing procedures and results of performed measurements are given in the paper. In addition to the raw velocity and admixture concentration data in-depth evaluation approaches aimed for estimation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE components, assessment of turbulent Schmidt number and analysis of the gradient closure hypothesis from experimental data are presented in the paper.

  20. Data-Flow Modeling: A Survey of Issues and Approaches

    Cristina-Claudia DOLEAN; Razvan PETRUSEL


    This paper presents a survey of previous research on modeling the data flow perspective of business processes. When it comes to modeling and analyzing business process models the current research focuses on control flow modeling (i.e. the activities of the process) and very little attention is paid to the data-flow perspective. But data is essential in a process. In order to execute a workflow, the tasks need data. Without data or without data available on time, the control flow cannot be exe...

  1. An electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao


    In this paper, we apply the relationships between the macro and micro variables of traffic flow to develop an electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow. We use the proposed model to study the quantitative relationships between the electricity consumption/total power and speed/density under uniform flow, and the electricity consumptions during the evolution processes of shock, rarefaction wave and small perturbation. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can perfectly describe the electricity consumption for electric vehicular flow, which shows that the proposed model is reasonable.

  2. Stochastic evolutions of dynamic traffic flow modeling and applications

    Chen, Xiqun (Michael); Shi, Qixin


    This book reveals the underlying mechanisms of complexity and stochastic evolutions of traffic flows. Using Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements, the authors propose lognormal headway/spacing/velocity distributions and subsequently develop a Markov car-following model to describe drivers’ random choices concerning headways/spacings, putting forward a stochastic fundamental diagram model for wide scattering flow-density points. In the context of highway onramp bottlenecks, the authors present a traffic flow breakdown probability model and spatial-temporal queuing model to improve the stability and reliability of road traffic flows. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the fields of transportation engineering and civil engineering.

  3. Quantitative visualization of the chemical reacting JET

    Okamoto, K.; Arata, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Madarame, H. [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    The sodium-water reaction should be precisely evaluated for the safety analysis of the sodium-cooled nuclear power plant. To evaluate these chemical reacting jet, the characteristics of the reaction and the mole fraction distributions of the reacting material should be known. In this study, to evaluate the basic characteristics, two fluid jet and chemical reacting jet was measured by the PIV and DELIF. The new dye pair for the dual emission LIF technique was proposed to measure the pH distribution. The Quinine for pH sensitive dye with blue emission and Rhodamine 6G for non-sensitive dye with orange emission, were excited by the third harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (355nm). The high accurate measurement could be achieved for the range of pH 4.0 to 5.5. The ammonia jet into acetic acid was measured using the proposed dye. The effectiveness of the present method was demonstrated. (author)

  4. FLUENT/BFC - A general purpose fluid flow modeling program for all flow speeds

    Dvinsky, Arkady S.

    FLUENT/BFC is a fluid flow modeling program for a variety of applications. Current capabilities of the program include laminar and turbulent flows, subsonic and supersonic viscous flows, incompressible flows, time-dependent and stationary flows, isothermal flows and flows with heat transfer, Newtonian and power-law fluids. The modeling equations in the program have been written in coordinate system invariant form to accommodate the use of boundary-conforming, generally nonorthogonal coordinate systems. The boundary-conforming coordinate system can be generated using both an internal grid generator, which is an integral part of the code, and external application-specific grid generators. The internal grid generator is based on a solution of a system of elliptic partial differential equations and can produce grids for a wide variety of two- and three-dimensional geometries.

  5. Enhancing debris flow modeling parameters integrating Bayesian networks

    Graf, C.; Stoffel, M.; Grêt-Regamey, A.


    Applied debris-flow modeling requires suitably constraint input parameter sets. Depending on the used model, there is a series of parameters to define before running the model. Normally, the data base describing the event, the initiation conditions, the flow behavior, the deposition process and mainly the potential range of possible debris flow events in a certain torrent is limited. There are only some scarce places in the world, where we fortunately can find valuable data sets describing event history of debris flow channels delivering information on spatial and temporal distribution of former flow paths and deposition zones. Tree-ring records in combination with detailed geomorphic mapping for instance provide such data sets over a long time span. Considering the significant loss potential associated with debris-flow disasters, it is crucial that decisions made in regard to hazard mitigation are based on a consistent assessment of the risks. This in turn necessitates a proper assessment of the uncertainties involved in the modeling of the debris-flow frequencies and intensities, the possible run out extent, as well as the estimations of the damage potential. In this study, we link a Bayesian network to a Geographic Information System in order to assess debris-flow risk. We identify the major sources of uncertainty and show the potential of Bayesian inference techniques to improve the debris-flow model. We model the flow paths and deposition zones of a highly active debris-flow channel in the Swiss Alps using the numerical 2-D model RAMMS. Because uncertainties in run-out areas cause large changes in risk estimations, we use the data of flow path and deposition zone information of reconstructed debris-flow events derived from dendrogeomorphological analysis covering more than 400 years to update the input parameters of the RAMMS model. The probabilistic model, which consistently incorporates this available information, can serve as a basis for spatial risk

  6. Finite difference methods for coupled flow interaction transport models

    Shelly McGee


    Full Text Available Understanding chemical transport in blood flow involves coupling the chemical transport process with flow equations describing the blood and plasma in the membrane wall. In this work, we consider a coupled two-dimensional model with transient Navier-Stokes equation to model the blood flow in the vessel and Darcy's flow to model the plasma flow through the vessel wall. The advection-diffusion equation is coupled with the velocities from the flows in the vessel and wall, respectively to model the transport of the chemical. The coupled chemical transport equations are discretized by the finite difference method and the resulting system is solved using the additive Schwarz method. Development of the model and related analytical and numerical results are presented in this work.

  7. Introduction to stochastic models of transportation flows. Part I

    Malyshev, V A


    We consider here probabilistic models of transportation flows. The main goal of this introduction is rather not to present various techniques for problem solving but to present some intuition to invent adequate and natural models having visual simplicity and simple (but rigorous) formulation, the main objects being cars not abstract flows. The papers consists of three parts. First part considers mainly linear flows on short time scale - dynamics of the flow due to changing driver behavior. Second part studies linear flow on longer time scales - individual car trajectory from entry to exit from the road. Part three considers collective car movement in complex transport networks.

  8. A Realistic Cellular Automaton Model for Synchronized Traffic Flow

    ZHAO Bo-Han; HU Mao-Bin; JIANG Rui; WU Qing-Song


    A cellular automaton model is proposed to consider the anticipation effect in drivers' behavior. It is shown that the anticipation effect can be one of the origins of synchronized traffic flow. With anticipation effect, the congested traffic flow simulated by the model exhibits the features of synchronized flow. The spatiotemporal patterns induced by an on-ramp are also consistent with the three-phaee traffic theory. Since the origin of synchronized flow is still controversial, our work can shed some light on the mechanism of synchronized flow.

  9. Calorimetry of non-reacting systems

    McCullough, John P


    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume 1: Calorimetry of Non-Reacting Systems covers the heat capacity determinations for chemical substances in the solid, liquid, solution, and vapor states, at temperatures ranging from near the absolute zero to the highest at which calorimetry is feasible.This book is divided into 14 chapters. The first four chapters provide background information and general principles applicable to all types of calorimetry of non-reacting systems. The remaining 10 chapters deal with specific types of calorimetry. Most of the types of calorimetry treated are developed over a c

  10. A process model for work-flow management in construction

    Jongeling, Rogier


    This thesis describes a novel approach for management of work-flow in construction, based on the combination of location-based scheduling and modelling with 4D CAD. Construction planners need to carefully design a process that ensures a continuous and reliable flow of resources through different locations in a project. The flow of resources through locations, termed work-flow, and the resultant ability to control the hand-over between both locations and crews, greatly empowers the management ...

  11. [Analysis on the removal efficiency and mechanisms of phosphorus by modified zeolites substrates coated with LDHs reacted by different metal compounds in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands].

    Zhang, Xiang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Jie; Guo, Lu; Chen, Qiao-Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Xiao


    Six kinds of metal compounds which were CaCl2 , ZnCl2, MgCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3, and CoCl3 were formed nine kinds of different combinations in the alkaline conditions to synthesized LDHs (Layered Double Hydroxides), which were in-situ coated on the surface of zeolites. With the filling of the original and nine kinds of modified zeolites in the columns to simulate a laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetland system, the experiments of purified phosphorus were conducted. Combined removal efficiency with adsorption isotherm data of the ten kinds of zeolites, mechanism for strengthening the removal rates of the phosphorus by the modified zeolites was studied. The results showed that compared with the original zeolites, the removal rates of the phosphorus by nine kinds of modified zeolites were enhanced with various degrees. In the cases of Zn involved in the modified zeolites, the removal efficiencies of phosphorus reached a high quality. Especially, the ZnFe-LDHs had the average removal rates of the total phosphorus, the dissolved phosphorus and the phosphate were over 90%, and its maximum adsorption capacity of the phosphorus was three times higher than that of the original zeolites. Therefore, by means of increasing the adsorption capacity and improving the chemical adsorption ability of phosphorus, the modification to coated LDHs on the zeolites reached the aim of strengthening the purification of the phosphorus.

  12. Modeling of Cavitating Flow through Waterjet Propulsors


    break down due to massive suction side flow separation (stall). In Figure 3, photographs from tunnel testing and computed results are shown. The...128, pp. 1308-1323. Mishra C. & Peles, Y. (2005) "Cavitation in flow through a micro- orifice inside a silicon micro- channel,’ Phvs. Fluids 17

  13. Modeling soil detachment capacity by rill flow using hydraulic parameters

    Wang, Dongdong; Wang, Zhanli; Shen, Nan; Chen, Hao


    The relationship between soil detachment capacity (Dc) by rill flow and hydraulic parameters (e.g., flow velocity, shear stress, unit stream power, stream power, and unit energy) at low flow rates is investigated to establish an accurate experimental model. Experiments are conducted using a 4 × 0.1 m rill hydraulic flume with a constant artificial roughness on the flume bed. The flow rates range from 0.22 × 10-3 m2 s-1 to 0.67 × 10-3 m2 s-1, and the slope gradients vary from 15.8% to 38.4%. Regression analysis indicates that the Dc by rill flow can be predicted using the linear equations of flow velocity, stream power, unit stream power, and unit energy. Dc by rill flow that is fitted to shear stress can be predicted with a power function equation. Predictions based on flow velocity, unit energy, and stream power are powerful, but those based on shear stress, especially on unit stream power, are relatively poor. The prediction based on flow velocity provides the best estimates of Dc by rill flow because of the simplicity and availability of its measurements. Owing to error in measuring flow velocity at low flow rates, the predictive abilities of Dc by rill flow using all hydraulic parameters are relatively lower in this study compared with the results of previous research. The measuring accuracy of experiments for flow velocity should be improved in future research.

  14. Modeling of Breaching Due to Overtopping Flow and Waves Based on Coupled Flow and Sediment Transport

    Zhiguo He


    Full Text Available Breaching of earthen or sandy dams/dunes by overtopping flow and waves is a complicated process with strong, unsteady flow, high sediment transport, and rapid bed changes in which the interactions between flow and morphology should not be ignored. This study presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D coupled flow and sediment transport model to investigate the flow and breaching processes with and without waves. Bed change and variable flow density are included in the flow continuity and momentum equations to consider the impacts of sediment transport. The model adopts the non-equilibrium approach for total-load sediment transport and specifies different repose angles to handle non-cohesive embankment slope avalanching. The equations are solved using an explicit finite volume method on a rectangular grid with the improved Godunov-type central upwind scheme and the nonnegative reconstruction of the water depth method to handle mixed-regime flows near the breach. The model has been tested against two sets of experimental data which show that it well simulates the flow characteristics, bed changes, and sediment transport. It is then applied to analyze flow and morphologic changes by overtopping flow with and without waves. The simulated bed change and breach cross-section shape show a significant difference if waves are considered. Erosion by flow without waves mainly occurs at the breach and is dominated by vertical erosion at the initial stage followed by the lateral erosion. With waves, the flow overtops the entire length of the dune to cause faster erosion along the entire length. Erosion mainly takes place at the upper layer at the initial stage and gradually accelerates as the height of the dune reduces and flow discharge increases, which indicates the simulated results with waves shall be further verified by physical experimental evidence.

  15. Turbulence modelling of flow fields in thrust chambers

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.


    Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modelling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows, and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

  16. A mechanical erosion model for two-phase mass flows

    Pudasaini, Shiva P


    Erosion, entrainment and deposition are complex and dominant, but yet poorly understood, mechanical processes in geophysical mass flows. Here, we propose a novel, process-based, two-phase, erosion-deposition model capable of adequately describing these complex phenomena commonly observed in landslides, avalanches, debris flows and bedload transport. The model is based on the jump in the momentum flux including changes of material and flow properties along the flow-bed interface and enhances an existing general two-phase mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012). A two-phase variably saturated erodible basal morphology is introduced and allows for the evolution of erosion-deposition-depths, incorporating the inherent physical process including momentum and rheological changes of the flowing mixture. By rigorous derivation, we show that appropriate incorporation of the mass and momentum productions or losses in conservative model formulation is essential for the physically correct and mathematically consistent descript...

  17. A Model for TSUnami FLow INversion from Deposits (TSUFLIND)

    Tang, Hui


    Modern tsunami deposits are employed to estimate the overland flow characteristics of tsunamis. With the help of the overland-flow characteristics, the characteristics of the causative tsunami wave can be estimated. The understanding of tsunami deposits has tremendously improved over the last decades. There are three prominent inversion models: Moore advection model, Soulsby's model and TsuSedMod model. TSUFLIND incorporates all three models and adds new modules to better simulate tsunami deposit formation and calculate flow condition. TSUFLIND takes grain-size distribution, thickness, water depth and topography information as inputs. TSUFLIND computes sediment concentration, grain-size distribution of sediment source and initial flow condition to match the sediment thickness and grain size distribution from field observation. Furthermore, TSUFLIND estimates the flow speed, Froude number and representative wave amplitude. The model is tested by using field data collected at Ranganathapuram, India after the 20...

  18. A forward modeling approach for interpreting impeller flow logs.

    Parker, Alison H; West, L Jared; Odling, Noelle E; Bown, Richard T


    A rigorous and practical approach for interpretation of impeller flow log data to determine vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity is presented and applied to two well logs from a Chalk aquifer in England. Impeller flow logging involves measuring vertical flow speed in a pumped well and using changes in flow with depth to infer the locations and magnitudes of inflows into the well. However, the measured flow logs are typically noisy, which leads to spurious hydraulic conductivity values where simplistic interpretation approaches are applied. In this study, a new method for interpretation is presented, which first defines a series of physical models for hydraulic conductivity variation with depth and then fits the models to the data, using a regression technique. Some of the models will be rejected as they are physically unrealistic. The best model is then selected from the remaining models using a maximum likelihood approach. This balances model complexity against fit, for example, using Akaike's Information Criterion.

  19. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    Tauxe, J.D.


    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  20. On a Decomposition Model for Optical Flow

    Abhau, Jochen; Belhachmi, Zakaria; Scherzer, Otmar

    In this paper we present a variational method for determining cartoon and texture components of the optical flow of a noisy image sequence. The method is realized by reformulating the optical flow problem first as a variational denoising problem for multi-channel data and then by applying decomposition methods. Thanks to the general formulation, several norms can be used for the decomposition. We study a decomposition for the optical flow into bounded variation and oscillating component in greater detail. Numerical examples demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach.

  1. Analysis of reacting flowfields in low-thrust rocket engines and plumes

    Weiss, Jonathan Mitchell

    levels of predicted quantities suggest the method should prove valuable for predicting parametric trends for design studies. In addition, issues such as numerical stability, robustness and computational efficiency are addressed. These include the evaluation of a numerically compatible two-equation turbulence model and the implementation of a time-derivative preconditioning method for convergence enhancement of low Mach number, chemically reacting flows.

  2. Mathematical model of transportation flow dynamics on a multilane highway

    Mazurin, D. S.


    We present a microscopic model for the dynamics of a transportation flow based on cellular automata with improved lane changing rules. With this model, we study the influence of crossing transportation flows on the throughput of a multilane highway. For a two-lane highway with an exit, we obtain spa

  3. Unsteady flow through in-vitro models of the glottis

    Hofmans, G.C.J.; Groot, G.; Ranucci, M.; Graziani, G.; Hirschberg, A.


    The unsteady two-dimensional flow through fixed rigid in vitro models of the glottis is studied in some detail to validate a more accurate model based on the prediction of boundary-layer separation. The study is restricted to the flow phenomena occurring within the glottis and does not include effec

  4. Modeling of high speed micro rotors in moderate flow confinement

    Dikmen, E.; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.


    The recent developments in high speed micro rotating machinery lead to the need for multiphysical modeling of the rotor and the surrounding medium. In this study, thermal and flow induced effects on rotor dynamics of geometries with moderate flow confinement are studied. The structure is modeled via

  5. A Particle Resistance Model for Flow through Porous Media

    WU Jin-Sui; YIN Shang-Xian; ZHAO Dong-Yu


    A particle model for resistance of flow in isotropic porous media is developed based on the fractal geometry theory and on the drag force flowing around sphere.The proposed model is expressed as a function of porosity,fluid property,particle size,fluid velocity (or Reynolds number) and fractal characters Df of particles in porous media.The model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data.The validity of the proposed model is thus verified.


    CHEN Ying; LU Chuan-jing; WU Lei


    Unsteady turbulent cavitation flows in a Venturi-type section and around a NACA0012 hydrofoil were simulated by two-dimensional computations of viscous compressible turbulent flow model.The Venturi-type section flow proved numerical precision and reliability of the physical model and the code, and further the cavitation around NACA0012 foil was investigated.These flows were calculated with a code of SIMPLE-type finite volume scheme, associated with a barotropic vapor/liquid state law which strongly links density and pressure variation.To simulate turbulent flows, modified RNG k- ε model was used.Numerical results obtained in the Venturi-type flow simulated periodic shedding of sheet cavity and was compared with experiment data, and the results of the NACA0012 foil show quasi-periodic vortex cavitation phenomenon.Results obtained concerning cavity shape and unsteady behavior, void ratio, and velocity field were found in good agreement with experiment ones.

  7. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen


    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  8. Validation of numerical models for flow simulation in labyrinth seals

    Frączek, D.; Wróblewski, W.


    CFD results were compared with the results of experiments for the flow through the labyrinth seal. RANS turbulence models (k-epsilon, k-omega, SST and SST-SAS) were selected for the study. Steady and transient results were analyzed. ANSYS CFX was used for numerical computation. The analysis included flow through sealing section with the honeycomb land. Leakage flows and velocity profiles in the seal were compared. In addition to the comparison of computational models, the divergence of modeling and experimental results has been determined. Tips for modeling these problems were formulated.

  9. Microfluidic flow switching design using volume of fluid model.

    Chein, Reiyu; Tsai, S H


    In this study, a volume of fluid (VOF) model was employed for microfluidic switch design. The VOF model validity in predicting the interface between fluid streams with different viscosities co-flowing in a microchannel was first verified by experimental observation. It was then extended to microfluidic flow switch design. Two specific flow switches, one with a guided fluid to one of five desired outlet ports, and another with a guided fluid flows into one, two, or three outlet ports equally distributed along the outlet channel of a Y-shaped channel. The flow switching was achieved by controlling the flow rate ratios between tested and buffer fluids. The numerical results showed that the VOF model could successfully predict the flow switching phenomena in these flow switches. The numerical results also showed that the flow rate ratio required for flow switching depends on the viscosity ratio between the tested and buffer fluids. The numerical simulation was verified by experimental study and the agreement was good.

  10. Vibration induced flow in hoppers: DEM 2D polygon model


    A two-dimensional discrete element model (DEM) simulation of cohesive polygonal particles has been developed to assess the benefit of point source vibration to induce flow in wedge-shaped hoppers. The particle-particle interaction model used is based on a multi-contact principle.The first part of the study investigated particle discharge under gravity without vibration to determine the critical orifice size (Be) to just sustain flow as a function of particle shape. It is shown that polygonal-shaped particles need a larger orifice than circular particles. It is also shown that Be decreases as the number of particle vertices increases. Addition of circular particles promotes flow of polygons in a linear manner.The second part of the study showed that vibration could enhance flow, effectively reducing Be. The model demonstrated the importance of vibrator location (height), consistent with previous continuum model results, and vibration amplitude in enhancing flow.

  11. Estimation of flow velocity for a debris flow via the two-phase fluid model

    S. Guo


    Full Text Available The two-phase fluid model is applied in this study to calculate the steady velocity of a debris flow along a channel bed. By using the momentum equations of the solid and liquid phases in the debris flow together with an empirical formula to describe the interaction between two phases, the steady velocities of the solid and liquid phases are obtained theoretically. The comparison of those velocities obtained by the proposed method with the observed velocities of two real-world debris flows shows that the proposed method can estimate accurately the velocity for a debris flow.

  12. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy


    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  13. Modeling of Wall-Bounded Complex Flows and Free Shear Flows

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Lumley, John L.


    Various wall-bounded flows with complex geometries and free shear flows have been studied with a newly developed realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. The model development is based on the invariant theory in continuum mechanics. This theory enables us to formulate a general constitutive relation for the Reynolds stresses. Pope was the first to introduce this kind of constitutive relation to turbulence modeling. In our study, realizability is imposed on the truncated constitutive relation to determine the coefficients so that, unlike the standard k-E eddy viscosity model, the present model will not produce negative normal stresses in any situations of rapid distortion. The calculations based on the present model have shown an encouraging success in modeling complex turbulent flows.

  14. Modelization of flow electrification in a polymer melt

    Flores, F; Allal, A; Guerret-Piécourt, C


    Flow electrification of polymer melts is an important side effect of polymer processing. The studies dealing with this phenomenon are seldom and most of the scientific work has been focused on flow electrification of aqueous and insulating Newtonian liquids. From that prior art it is well established that the flow electrification in Newtonian liquids is a consequence of the formation of an ionic double layer. Convection of this layer induces the electrification of the liquid at the outlet of the pipe. In those models, the key parameters governing the flow electrification are thus the intrinsic electrical properties of the polymer and the flow characteristics. In this work, we reconsider the assumptions made previously and we propose a new approach to modelise the flow electrification in the particular case of non-Newtonian polymer materials in laminar flow conditions. We establish that, a key parameter for the electrification quantification in the polymer melt is the shape of the velocity profile. Additionall...

  15. Evolution of Coronary Flow in an Experimental Slow Flow Model in Swines: Angiographic and Pathological Insights

    Yupeng Bai


    Full Text Available Objective. Pathomechanism of coronary slow flow phenomenon remains largely unclear now. Present study observed the pathological and angiographic evolution in a pig model of coronary slow flow. Methods. Coronary slow flow was induced by repeat coronary injection of small doses of 40 µm microspheres in 18 male domestic pigs and angiographic and pathological changes were determined at 3 hours, 7 days, and 28 days after microspheres injection. Results. Compared to control group treated with coronary saline injection n=6 and baseline level, coronary flow was significantly reduced at 3 hours and 7 days but completely recovered at 28 days after coronary microsphere injection in slow flow group. Despite normal coronary flow at 28 days after microsphere injection, enhanced myocardial cytokine expression, left ventricular dysfunction, adverse remodelling, and ischemia/microembolism related pathological changes still persisted or even progressed from 3 hours to 28 days after coronary microsphere injection. Conclusions. Our results show that this large animal slow flow model could partly reflect the chronic angiographic, hemodynamic, and pathological changes of coronary slow flow and could be used to test new therapy strategies against the slow flow phenomenon.

  16. A review of flow modeling for dense medium cyclones

    M. Narasimha; M.S. Brennan; P.N. Holtham [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India). R& amp; D Division


    A critical assessment is presented for the existing fluid flow models used for dense medium cyclones (DMCs) and hydrocyclones. As the present discussion indicates, the understanding of dense medium cyclone flow is still far from the complete. However, its similarity to the hydrocyclone provides a basis for improved understanding of fluid flow in DMCs. The complexity of fluid flow in DMCs is basically due to the existence of medium as well as the dominance of turbulent particle size and density effects on separation. Both the theoretical and experimental analysis is done with respect to two-phase motions and solid phase flow in hydrocyclones or DMCs. A detailed discussion is presented on the empirical, semiempirical, and the numerical models based upon both the vorticity-stream function approach and Navier-Stokes equations in their primitive variables and in cylindrical coordinates available in literature. The existing equations describing turbulence and multiphase flows in cyclone are also critically reviewed.

  17. Investigation on the pebble bed flow model in VSOP

    Chen, Hao, E-mail:; Fu, Li, E-mail:


    In pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR), the fuel pebbles will pass the reactor core several times, in order to flatten the power distribution, and to unify the discharging burnup. But the VSOP code approximates the pebble bed flow because of current computer capability. In order to simulate the pebble bed flow in HTR more realistically and to validate the approximation in pebble bed flow model in VSOP, a new code based on Monte Carlo method has been developed to analysis the characteristic of the pebble bed flow, particularly the average burnup distribution in the core, discharging burnup, and the number of pebble passes. Statistics analysis shows that several millions of Monte Carlo simulation can provide reasonable result and the VSOP treatment of the pebble bed flow model is reasonable. The Monte Carlo simulation can provide more information for the pebble flow and reactor operation.

  18. Core surface flow modelling from high-resolution secular variation

    Holme, R.; Olsen, Nils


    -flux hypothesis, but the spectrum of the SV implies that a conclusive test of frozen-flux is not possible. We parametrize the effects of diffusion as an expected misfit in the flow prediction due to departure from the frozen-flux hypothesis; at low spherical harmonic degrees, this contribution dominates...... the expected departure of the SV predictions from flow to the observed SV, while at high degrees the SV model uncertainty is dominant. We construct fine-scale core surface flows to model the SV. Flow non-uniqueness is a serious problem because the flows are sufficiently small scale to allow flow around non......-series of magnetic data and better parametrization of the external magnetic field....

  19. Verification of the karst flow model under laboratory controlled conditions

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Andric, Ivo; Malenica, Luka; Srzic, Veljko


    Karst aquifers are very important groundwater resources around the world as well as in coastal part of Croatia. They consist of extremely complex structure defining by slow and laminar porous medium and small fissures and usually fast turbulent conduits/karst channels. Except simple lumped hydrological models that ignore high karst heterogeneity, full hydraulic (distributive) models have been developed exclusively by conventional finite element and finite volume elements considering complete karst heterogeneity structure that improves our understanding of complex processes in karst. Groundwater flow modeling in complex karst aquifers are faced by many difficulties such as a lack of heterogeneity knowledge (especially conduits), resolution of different spatial/temporal scales, connectivity between matrix and conduits, setting of appropriate boundary conditions and many others. Particular problem of karst flow modeling is verification of distributive models under real aquifer conditions due to lack of above-mentioned information. Therefore, we will show here possibility to verify karst flow models under the laboratory controlled conditions. Special 3-D karst flow model (5.6*2.6*2 m) consists of concrete construction, rainfall platform, 74 piezometers, 2 reservoirs and other supply equipment. Model is filled by fine sand (3-D porous matrix) and drainage plastic pipes (1-D conduits). This model enables knowledge of full heterogeneity structure including position of different sand layers as well as conduits location and geometry. Moreover, we know geometry of conduits perforation that enable analysis of interaction between matrix and conduits. In addition, pressure and precipitation distribution and discharge flow rates from both phases can be measured very accurately. These possibilities are not present in real sites what this model makes much more useful for karst flow modeling. Many experiments were performed under different controlled conditions such as different

  20. Network-Theoretic Modeling of Fluid Flow


    connections. Identifying such locations is especially critical when containment 3 measures are designed to control outbreaks of HIV [5], SARS [6...intuitive explanation that turbulent flows will be resilient against small-scale forcing while the global behavior can be easily modified by large-scale

  1. Modelling passenger flows in public transport facilities

    Daamen, W.


    This thesis describes the developement of a new type of simulation tool for the assessment of designs of public transport facilities (stations, airports) and other public spaces with intensive pedestrian flows. Since the available space for such facilities is increasingly under pressure, the space

  2. Migration Flows: Measurement, Analysis and Modeling

    Willekens, F.J.; White, Michael J.


    This chapter is an introduction to the study of migration flows. It starts with a review of major definition and measurement issues. Comparative studies of migration are particularly difficult because different countries define migration differently and measurement methods are not harmonized. Insigh

  3. Migration Flows: Measurement, Analysis and Modeling

    Willekens, F.J.; White, Michael J.


    This chapter is an introduction to the study of migration flows. It starts with a review of major definition and measurement issues. Comparative studies of migration are particularly difficult because different countries define migration differently and measurement methods are not harmonized.

  4. Migration Flows: Measurement, Analysis and Modeling

    Willekens, F.J.; White, Michael J.


    This chapter is an introduction to the study of migration flows. It starts with a review of major definition and measurement issues. Comparative studies of migration are particularly difficult because different countries define migration differently and measurement methods are not harmonized. Insigh

  5. Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Flows

    João M. Vedovoto


    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to the development and implementation of a computational framework to perform numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent flows over complex geometries. The algorithm under consideration is based on a classical predictor-corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equations. The domain decomposition strategy is adopted for distributed computing, displaying very satisfactory levels of speed-up and efficiency. The Immersed Boundary Methodology is used to characterize the presence of a complex geometry. Such method demands two separate grids: An Eulerian, where the transport equations are solved with a Finite Volume, second order discretization and a Lagrangian domain, represented by a non-structured shell grid representing the immersed geometry. The in-house code developed was fully verified by the Method of Manufactured Solu- tions, in both Eulerian and Lagrangian domains. The capabilities of the resulting computational framework are illustrated on four distinct cases: a turbulent jet, the Poiseuille flow, as a matter of validation of the implemented Immersed Boundary methodology, the flow over a sphere covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, and finally, with the intention of demonstrating the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations - LES - in an industrial problem, the turbulent flow inside an industrial fan.

  6. Modeling of Breaching Due to Overtopping Flow and Waves Based on Coupled Flow and Sediment Transport

    He, Zhiguo; Zhao, Liang; Wu, Ganfeng; Pähtz, Thomas


    Breaching of earthen or sandy dams/dunes by overtopping flow and waves is a complicated process with strong, unsteady flow, high sediment transport, and rapid bed changes in which the interactions between flow and morphology should not be ignored. This study presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) coupled flow and sediment transport model to investigate the flow and breaching processes with and without waves. Bed change and variable flow density are included in the flow continuity and momentum equations to consider the impacts of sediment transport. The model adopts the non-equilibrium approach for total-load sediment transport and specifies different repose angles to handle non-cohesive embankment slope avalanching. The equations are solved using an explicit finite volume method on a rectangular grid with the improved Godunov-type central upwind scheme and the nonnegative reconstruction of the water depth method to handle mixed-regime flows near the breach. The model has been tested against two sets o...

  7. A Modified Cellular Automaton Model for Traffic Flow

    葛红霞; 董力耘; 雷丽; 戴世强


    A modified cellular automaton model for traffic flow was proposed. A novel concept about the changeable security gap was introduced and a parameter related to the variable security gap was determined. The fundamental diagram obtained by simulation shows that the maximum flow more approaches to the observed data than that of the NaSch model, indicating that the presented model is more reasonable and realistic.

  8. Mathematical model for coupling a quasi-unidimensional perfect flow

    Msallam, Régis


    Nonlinear acoustics of wind instruments conducts to study unidimensional fluid flows. From physically relevant approximations that are modelized with the thin layer Navier Stokes equations, we propose a coupled model where perfect fluid flow is described by the Euler equations of gas dynamics and viscous and thermal boundary layer is modelized by a linear equation. We describe numerical discretization, validate the associated software by comparison with analytical solutions and consider musical application of strongly nonlinear waves in the trombone.

  9. Thermal performance modeling of cross-flow heat exchangers

    Cabezas-Gómez, Luben; Saíz-Jabardo, José Maria


    This monograph introduces a numerical computational methodology for thermal performance modeling of cross-flow heat exchangers, with applications in chemical, refrigeration and automobile industries. This methodology allows obtaining effectiveness-number of transfer units (e-NTU) data and has been used for simulating several standard and complex flow arrangements configurations of cross-flow heat exchangers. Simulated results have been validated through comparisons with results from available exact and approximate analytical solutions. Very accurate results have been obtained over wide ranges

  10. Adhesion to model surfaces in a flow through system

    Habeger, C.F.; Linhart, R.V.; Adair, J.H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    A hydrodynamic method for measuring the adhesion of particles to a surface has been designed. By using hydrodynamic flow to remove particles from a model surface, the adhesive strength of particles to the surface can be measured using a flow-through cell. The hydrodynamic force required to displace a particle is calculated using the cell dimensions and the flow rate in Poiseuille`s equation.

  11. Simulation of the interaction between room air flow and human body using the tanabe model in ANSYS CFX; Simulation der Mensch-Raumklima-Wechselwirkung mit dem Tanabe-Modell in ANSYS CFX

    Bartsch, P.; Spille-Kohoff, A. [CFX Berlin Software GmbH, Berlin (Germany)


    The human body is a complex system which reacts upon the ambient conditions such as temperature, air speed, radiation intensity, etc. by sweating or shivering in order to control its heat balance. On the other hand, the ambient flow field is influenced by the heat and moisture released by the body. This document outlines a coupled approach where ANSYS CFX is used to calculate the ambient flow field and SINDA/G is used to model the heat fluxes, sources and temperature distribution inside the human body. Basis of the latter is the well-known model of Tanabe. (orig.)

  12. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad


    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  13. Reduction of large-scale numerical ground water flow models

    Vermeulen, P.T.M.; Heemink, A.W.; Testroet, C.B.M.


    Numerical models are often used for simulating ground water flow. Written in state space form, the dimension of these models is of the order of the number of model cells and can be very high (> million). As a result, these models are computationally very demanding, especially if many different scena

  14. Flow interaction based propagation model and bursty influence behavior analysis of Internet flows

    Wu, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Ren-Tao; Ji, Yue-Feng


    QoS (quality of service) fluctuations caused by Internet bursty flows influence the user experience in the Internet, such as the increment of packet loss and transmission time. In this paper, we establish a mathematical model to study the influence propagation behavior of the bursty flow, which is helpful for developing a deep understanding of the network dynamics in the Internet complex system. To intuitively reflect the propagation process, a data flow interaction network with a hierarchical structure is constructed, where the neighbor order is proposed to indicate the neighborhood relationship between the bursty flow and other flows. The influence spreads from the bursty flow to each order of neighbors through flow interactions. As the influence spreads, the bursty flow has negative effects on the odd order neighbors and positive effects on the even order neighbors. The influence intensity of bursty flow decreases sharply between two adjacent orders and the decreasing degree can reach up to dozens of times in the experimental simulation. Moreover, the influence intensity increases significantly when network congestion situation becomes serious, especially for the 1st order neighbors. Network structural factors are considered to make a further study. Simulation results show that the physical network scale expansion can reduce the influence intensity of bursty flow by decreasing the flow distribution density. Furthermore, with the same network scale, the influence intensity in WS small-world networks is 38.18% and 18.40% lower than that in ER random networks and BA scale-free networks, respectively, due to a lower interaction probability between flows. These results indicate that the macro-structural changes such as network scales and styles will affect the inner propagation behaviors of the bursty flow.

  15. Modeling of karst aquifer genesis: Influence of exchange flow

    Bauer, Sebastian; Liedl, Rudolf; Sauter, Martin


    This paper presents a numerical model study simulating the early karstification of a single conduit embedded in a fissured system. A hybrid continuum-discrete pipe flow model (CAVE) is used for the modeling. The effects of coupling of the two flow systems on type and duration of early karstification are studied for different boundary conditions. Assuming fixed head boundaries at both ends of the conduit, coupling of the two flow systems via exchange flow between the conduit and the fissured system leads to an enhanced evolution of the conduit. This effect is valid over a wide range of initial conduit diameters, and karstification is accelerated by a factor of about 100 as compared to the case of no exchange flow. Parameter studies reveal the influence of the exchange coefficient and of the hydraulic conductivity of the fissured system on the development time for the conduit. In a second scenario the upstream fixed head boundary is switched to a fixed flow boundary at a specified flow rate during the evolution, limiting the amount of water draining toward the evolving conduit. Depending on the flow rate specified, conduit evolution may be slowed down or greatly impaired if exchange flow is considered.

  16. Model-Driven Development in implementing integration flows

    Tomasz Górski


    Full Text Available Integration of many different IT systems makes the integration project highly complex. The process of constructing architectural models and source code can be automated through the application of transformations. As a result, the duration time of designing or implementa-tion, as well as the work input involved can be reduced. The purpose of the paper is to pre-sent an approach to automation of designing one of the key elements of an integration platform, namely, integration flows. The author proposes model-to-code transformation In-tegrationFlow-to-Java which automates the implementation of integration flows applica-tions for selected mediation patterns. The integration flows generator has been incorporated as a plug-in into the IBM Rational Software Architect (RSA. The RSA plug-in which generates complete Java EE application of integration flow from mediation flows diagram. Thus eliminates design and programming stage in WebSphere Integration Devel-oper which reduces development time and costs of licenses. Model-Driven Development is approach which can lead to automation of design and programming stage in software de-velopment. The IntegrationFlow-to-Java transformation offers an opportunity to reduce the duration time of the integration flows implementation forty times (with one hundred flows to be implemented. The outcomes support the significance of using transformations when designing complex IT systems, especially when integration solutions are developed.

  17. Simulation Experiments of Reacting Two-Phase Flow


    Simulation Experiments 16 2.8 Lord’s Work Done in the 1960’s 17 2.9 Investigations Performed by Wilkins and Carros in the 1960’s 19 2.10 Statement of Work 20...the fundamental research work described here. A gas gun facility, based on the studies of Lord (21 and Wilkins and Carros [3] was built at that the calculations of Lord [2] are in error (see Section 4.). ’i 3-X: 2.9 Investigations Performed by Wilkins and Carros inthe 196o’s- Wilkins

  18. Investigation of Highly Pressurized Two-Phase, Reacting Flow


    single-stage gas gun built at the Ernst-Mach-lnstitut [101 is based upon earlier developments of Lord [14] and Wilkins and Carros [15]. A detailed...conditions approaching those of real guns are within reach of such gas guns [141. In 1963, Wilkins and Carros [151 reported on combustion tests performed with...and unmixed hydrogen and hydrogen resulted in severe pressure oscillations or even detonation corroborating the findings of Wilkins and Carros [15

  19. On unsteady reacting flow in a channel with a cavity

    Ivar Ø. Sand


    Full Text Available The problem investigated is the stability of a flame anchored by recirculation within a channel with a cavity, acting as a two-dimensional approximation to a gas turbine combustion chamber. This is related to experiments of Vaneveld, Hom and Oppenheim (1982. The hypothesis studied is that hydrodynamic oscillations within the cavity can lead to flashback.

  20. Chemically reacting fluid flow in exoplanet and brown dwarf atmospheres

    Bordwell, Baylee; Brown, Benjamin P.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.


    In the past few decades, spectral observations of planets and brown dwarfs have demonstrated significant deviations from predictions in certain chemical abundances. Starting with Jupiter, these deviations were successfully explained to be the effect of fast dynamics on comparatively slow chemical reactions. These dynamical effects are treated using mixing length theory in what is known as the "quench" approximation. In these objects, however, both radiative and convective zones are present, and it is not clear that this approximation applies. To resolve this issue, we solve the fully compressible equations of fluid dynamics in a matched polytropic atmosphere using the state-of-the-art pseudospectral simulation framework Dedalus. Through the inclusion of passive tracers, we explore the transport properties of convective and radiative zones, and verify the classical eddy diffusion parameterization. With the addition of active tracers, we examine the interactions between dynamical and chemical processes using abstract chemical reactions. By locating the quench point (the point at which the dynamical and chemical timescales are the same) in different dynamical regimes, we test the quench approximation, and generate prescriptions for the exoplanet and brown dwarf communities.

  1. Nitramine Monopropellant Deflagration and General Nonsteady Reacting Rocket Chamber Flows.


    University, Department of Aerospace, Princeton, NJ, 1973. 68. Maltsev , V. M. Law, R. J., Ryan, N. W., Bare, A. D., and Summerfield, M., "on the...closeness of the HMX and RDX points; no attempt was made to correlate the HMX results. -189- DB, LUMINOUS FLAMtE FRONT, MEASURED BY MALTSEV MEASURED

  2. Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows


    positivity and entropy preservation. The known instability of this solver to odd-even decoupling and carbuncle phenomenon is cured by employing the HLLE...Two-Shock Riemann Solver and the Roe Riemann solver with Harten-Hyman entropy corrections showed very strong sensitiveness to the instability. The...Paper 2005–0314, 2005. [23] B. Fryxell, K. Olson, P. Ricker, F. X. Timmes, M. Zingale, D. Q. Lamb , P. Mac- Neice, R. Rosner, J. W. Truran, and H. Tufo

  3. Reacting Flows Simulation with Applications to Ground to Flight Extrapolation


    P.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy Abstract The development of next generation reusable space vehicles requires a...Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Mathematics P.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  4. Development of Implicit Compact Methods for Chemically Reacting Flows


    CPtHEATr .. CPt 2 LACP r Tr2 CPttLACPrTr2 d F4 / d (T) = = LACPt Tr < CP2 CP2 CP CPt LACPt rTr2...rRHOTt CPt2 LACP r Tz2 LACPt t r Tr2 - LACPt r Trr CP T CP2 CPttLACPrTz2 CPt LACPt r Tz2 , r RHO Tr U r RHO Tz W

  5. Variability modes in core flows inverted from geomagnetic field models

    Pais, Maria A; Schaeffer, Nathanaël


    We use flows that we invert from two geomagnetic field models spanning centennial time periods (gufm1 and COV-OBS), and apply Principal Component Analysis and Singular Value Decomposition of coupled fields to extract the main modes characterizing their spatial and temporal variations. The quasi geostrophic flows inverted from both geomagnetic field models show similar features. However, COV-OBS has a less energetic mean flow and larger time variability. The statistical significance of flow components is tested from analyses performed on subareas of the whole domain. Bootstrapping methods are also used to extract robust flow features required by both gufm1 and COV-OBS. Three main empirical circulation modes emerge, simultaneously constrained by both geomagnetic field models and expected to be robust against the particular a priori used to build them. Mode 1 exhibits three large robust vortices at medium/high latitudes, with opposite circulation under the Atlantic and the Pacific hemispheres. Mode 2 interesting...

  6. Lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible flows through porous media.

    Guo, Zhaoli; Zhao, T S


    In this paper a lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for isothermal incompressible flow in porous media. The key point is to include the porosity into the equilibrium distribution, and add a force term to the evolution equation to account for the linear and nonlinear drag forces of the medium (the Darcy's term and the Forcheimer's term). Through the Chapman-Enskog procedure, the generalized Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow in porous media are derived from the present lattice Boltzmann model. The generalized two-dimensional Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, and lid-driven cavity flow are simulated using the present model. It is found the numerical results agree well with the analytical and/or the finite-difference solutions.

  7. Qualification of CFD-models for multiphase flows

    Lucas, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)


    While Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is already an accepted industrial tool for single phase flows it is not yet mature for two-phase flows. For this reason the qualification of CFD for reactor safety relevant applications which involve multiphase flows is a present topic of research. At the CFD division of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) hereby beside an application-oriented model development and validation also more generic investigations are done. Thus, the baseline model strategy aims on the consolidation of the CFD-modelling for multiphase to enable reliable predictions for well-defined flow pattern in future. In addition the recently developed GENTOP-concept broadens the range of applicability of CFD. Different flow morphologies including transitions between them can be considered in frame of this concept.

  8. Modeling glacial flow on and onto Pluto's Sputnik Planum

    Umurhan, O M; Moore, J M; Earle, A M; Binzel, R P; Stern, S A; Schenk, P M; Beyer, R A; White, O L; NImmo, F; McKinnon, W B; Ennico, K; Olkin, C B; Weaver, H A; Young, L A


    Observations of Pluto's surface made by the New Horizons spacecraft indicates present-day nitrogen ice glaciation in and around the basin known as Sputnik Planum. Motivated by these observations, we have developed an evolutionary glacial flow model of solid nitrogen ice taking into account its published thermophysical and rheologies properties. This model assumes that glacial ice layers flow laminarly and have low aspect ratios which permits a vertically integrated mathematical formulation. We assess the conditions for the validity of laminar nitrogen ice motion by revisiting the problem of the onset of solid-state buoyant convection of nitrogen ice for a variety of bottom thermal boundary conditions. Subject to uncertainties in nitrogen ice rheology, nitrogen ice layers are estimated to flow laminarly for thicknesses less than 400-1000 meters. The resulting mass-flux formulation for when the nitrogen ice flows as a laminar dry glacier is characterized by an Arrhenius-Glen functional form. The flow model deve...

  9. Computational technology of multiscale modeling the gas flows in microchannels

    Podryga, V. O.


    The work is devoted to modeling the gas mixture flows in engineering microchannels under conditions of many scales of computational domain. The computational technology of using the multiscale approach combining macro - and microscopic models is presented. At macrolevel the nature of the flow and the external influence on it are considered. As a model the system of quasigasdynamic equations is selected. At microlevel the correction of gasdynamic parameters and the determination of boundary conditions are made. As a numerical model the Newton's equations and the molecular dynamics method are selected. Different algorithm types used for implementation of multiscale modeling are considered. The results of the model problems for separate stages are given.

  10. A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants.

    Sen, Mehmet A; Kowalski, Gregory J; Fiering, Jason; Larson, Dale


    A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier-Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction.

  11. A two-fluid model for avalanche and debris flows.

    Pitman, E Bruce; Le, Long


    Geophysical mass flows--debris flows, avalanches, landslides--can contain O(10(6)-10(10)) m(3) or more of material, often a mixture of soil and rocks with a significant quantity of interstitial fluid. These flows can be tens of meters in depth and hundreds of meters in length. The range of scales and the rheology of this mixture presents significant modelling and computational challenges. This paper describes a depth-averaged 'thin layer' model of geophysical mass flows containing a mixture of solid material and fluid. The model is derived from a 'two-phase' or 'two-fluid' system of equations commonly used in engineering research. Phenomenological modelling and depth averaging combine to yield a tractable set of equations, a hyperbolic system that describes the motion of the two constituent phases. If the fluid inertia is small, a reduced model system that is easier to solve may be derived.

  12. A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants

    Sen, Mehmet A.; Kowalski, Gregory J.; Fiering, Jason; Larson, Dale


    A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The e...

  13. Parsimonious catchment and river flow modelling

    Khatibi, R.H.; Moore, R.J.; Booij, Martijn J.; Cadman, D.; Boyce, G.; Rizzoli, A.E.; Jakeman, A.J.


    It is increasingly the case that models are being developed as “evolving” products rather than one-off application tools, such that auditable modelling versus ad hoc treatment of models becomes a pivotal issue. Auditable modelling is particularly vital to “parsimonious modelling” aimed at meeting

  14. Model Polyelectrolytes in Turbulent Couette Flow

    Price, Brian; Hoagland, David A.


    Isolated polymer chains in strong flow are deformed significantly from their equilibrium conformations, imparting a pronounced change in the local velocity field. Turbulent drag reduction by dilute polymer solutions is an important example. The onset of drag reduction appears dependent on a characteristic shear stress at the wall τw for a given polymer. (Virk, P.S. AIChE Journal 21 1975) Length and time scales formed from τw and solvent kinematic viscosity provide different scalings of the onset with chain length. It is likely that length polydispersity could be responsible for the disparity among the previously reported results concerning the correct onset condition. We have employed preparative gel electrophoresis to produce samples of very low polydispersity to determine the onset scaling of drag reduction in turbulent couette flow. The same technique provides information about chain scission in turburlence, yielding an indirect indication of chain conformation.

  15. Erosion by shallow concentrated flow - experimental model deconstruction

    Seeger, M.; Wirtz, S.; Ali, M.


    The force of the flowing water is considered to be the main determinant factor for soil particle detachment and transport. The flow of water is described with flow velocity and discharge, and is often summarised in different composite parameters such as shear stress, stream power etc. The entrainment and transport of soil particles is then expressed as a threshold problem, where a soil specific critical value of shear stress, stream power etc. has to be trespassed. Thereafter, the increase of erosion is considered to be lineal. Despite considerable efforts, the process based model concepts have not been able to produce more reliable and accurate reproduction and forecast of soil erosion than "simple" empirical models such as the USLE and its derivates. Therefore, there still remain some unanswered fundamental questions about soil erosion modelling: 1. What are the main parameters of soils and flowing water influencing soil erosion? 2. What relationship do these parameters have with the intensity and different types of soil erosion? 3. Are the present concepts suitable to describe and quantify soil erosion accurately? For approaching these questions, laboratory flume and field experiments were set up. The aim of the laboratory experiments was to elucidate the influence of basic parameters as grain size, slope, flow and flow velocity on sediment transport by shallow flowing water. Therefore, variable flow was applied under different slopes on moveable beds of non-coherent sands of different grain sizes. The field experiments were designed to quantify the hydraulic and erosive functionality of small rills in the field. Here, small existing rills were flushed with defined flows, and flow velocity, flow depth, discharge at the end of the rill as well as transported sediments were quantified. The laboratory flume experiments clearly show a strong influence of flow velocity on sediment transport, depending this at the same time on the size of the transported grains, and

  16. Filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann model for microchannel gas flows.

    Zhuo, Congshan; Zhong, Chengwen


    The lattice Boltzmann method has been shown to be successful for microscale gas flows, and it has attracted significant research interest. In this paper, the recently proposed filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann (FMLB) model is first applied to study the microchannel gas flows, in which a Bosanquet-type effective viscosity is used to capture the flow behaviors in the transition regime. A kinetic boundary condition, the combined bounce-back and specular-reflection scheme with the second-order slip scheme, is also designed for the FMLB model. By analyzing a unidirectional flow, the slip velocity and the discrete effects related to the boundary condition are derived within the FMLB model, and a revised scheme is presented to overcome such effects, which have also been validated through numerical simulations. To gain an accurate simulation in a wide range of Knudsen numbers, covering the slip and the entire transition flow regimes, a set of slip coefficients with an introduced fitting function is adopted in the revised second-order slip boundary condition. The periodic and pressure-driven microchannel flows have been investigated by the present model in this study. The numerical results, including the velocity profile and the mass flow rate, as well as the nonlinear pressure distribution along the channel, agree fairly well with the solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation, the direct simulation Monte Carlo results, the experimental data, and the previous results of the multiple effective relaxation lattice Boltzmann model. Also, the present results of the velocity profile and the mass flow rate show that the present model with the fitting function can yield improved predictions for the microchannel gas flow with higher Knudsen numbers in the transition flow regime.

  17. Rubber Bands as Model Polymers in Couette Flow

    Dunstan, Dave E.


    We present a simple device for demonstrating the essential aspects of polymers in flow in the classroom. Rubber bands are used as a macroscopic model of polymers to allow direct visual observation of the flow-induced changes in orientation and conformation. A transparent Perspex Couette cell, constructed from two sections of a tube, is used to…

  18. Magnetosonic Waveguide Model of Solar Wind Flow Tubes

    A. K. Srivastava; B. N. Dwivedi


    We consider solar wind flow tubes as a magnetosonic wave-guide. Assuming a symmetric expansion in edges of slab-modelled wave-guide, we study the propagation characteristics of magnetosonic wave in the solar wind flow tubes. We present the preliminary results and discuss their implications.

  19. DSMC Modeling of Flows with Recombination Reactions


    rarefied gas dynamics community has seen the development of efficient algorithms for modern computer architectures16–19 which dramatically expand the area of...that participate in recombination. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The work was supported by the Air Force Office of Sci - entific Research (Program Officer Dr. Ivett...flow,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci . 72, 66–79 (2015). 14R. D. Levine,Molecular Reaction Dynamics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005). 15A. Alexeenko and

  20. Low-Reynolds number modelling of flows with transpiration

    Hwang, C. B.; Lin, C. A.


    An improved low-Reynolds number model was adopted to predict the dynamic and thermal fields in flows with transpiration. The performance of the adopted model was first contrasted with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of channel flow with uniform wall injection and suction. The validity of the present model applied to flows with a high level of transpiration was further examined. To explore the model's performance in complex environments, the model was applied to simulate a transpired developing channel flow. By contrasting the predictions with DNS data and measurements, the results indicated that the present model reproduced correctly the deceleration and acceleration of the flow caused by the injection and suction from the permeable part of the wall. The turbulence structure of transpired flows was also well captured and the superior performance of the adopted model was reflected by the predicted correct level of with the maximum being located at both the injection and the suction walls. The predicted thermal field by the present model also compared favourably with the DNS data and measurements. Copyright

  1. Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model

    Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Warner, John C.


    Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.

  2. Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model

    Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Ganju, Neil K.; Warner, John C.


    Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.

  3. Model equation for simulating flows in multistage turbomachinery

    Adamczyk, J. J.


    A steady, three-dimensional average-passage equation system is derived for use in simulating multistage turbomachinery flows. These equations describe a steady, viscous flow that is periodic from blade passage to blade passage. From this system of equations, various reduced forms can be derived for use in simulating the three-dimensional flow field within multistage machinery. It is suggested that a properly scaled form of the averaged-passage equation system would provide an improved mathematical model for simulating the flow in multistage machines at design and, in particular, at off-design conditions.

  4. Modelling rapid subsurface flow at the hillslope scale with explicit representation of preferential flow paths

    Wienhöfer, J.; Zehe, E.


    Rapid lateral flow processes via preferential flow paths are widely accepted to play a key role for rainfall-runoff response in temperate humid headwater catchments. A quantitative description of these processes, however, is still a major challenge in hydrological research, not least because detailed information about the architecture of subsurface flow paths are often impossible to obtain at a natural site without disturbing the system. Our study combines physically based modelling and field observations with the objective to better understand how flow network configurations influence the hydrological response of hillslopes. The system under investigation is a forested hillslope with a small perennial spring at the study area Heumöser, a headwater catchment of the Dornbirnerach in Vorarlberg, Austria. In-situ points measurements of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity and dye staining experiments at the plot scale revealed that shrinkage cracks and biogenic macropores function as preferential flow paths in the fine-textured soils of the study area, and these preferential flow structures were active in fast subsurface transport of artificial tracers at the hillslope scale. For modelling of water and solute transport, we followed the approach of implementing preferential flow paths as spatially explicit structures of high hydraulic conductivity and low retention within the 2D process-based model CATFLOW. Many potential configurations of the flow path network were generated as realisations of a stochastic process informed by macropore characteristics derived from the plot scale observations. Together with different realisations of soil hydraulic parameters, this approach results in a Monte Carlo study. The model setups were used for short-term simulation of a sprinkling and tracer experiment, and the results were evaluated against measured discharges and tracer breakthrough curves. Although both criteria were taken for model evaluation, still several model setups

  5. Flow regulation in coronary vascular tree: a model study.

    Xinzhou Xie

    Full Text Available Coronary blood flow can always be matched to the metabolic demand of the myocardium due to the regulation of vasoactive segments. Myocardial compressive forces play an important role in determining coronary blood flow but its impact on flow regulation is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a coronary specified flow regulation model, which can integrate myocardial compressive forces and other identified regulation factors, to further investigate the coronary blood flow regulation behavior.A theoretical coronary flow regulation model including the myogenic, shear-dependent and metabolic responses was developed. Myocardial compressive forces were included in the modified wall tension model. Shear-dependent response was estimated by using the experimental data from coronary circulation. Capillary density and basal oxygen consumption were specified to corresponding to those in coronary circulation. Zero flow pressure was also modeled by using a simplified capillary model.Pressure-flow relations predicted by the proposed model are consistent with previous experimental data. The predicted diameter changes in small arteries are in good agreement with experiment observations in adenosine infusion and inhibition of NO synthesis conditions. Results demonstrate that the myocardial compressive forces acting on the vessel wall would extend the auto-regulatory range by decreasing the myogenic tone at the given perfusion pressure.Myocardial compressive forces had great impact on coronary auto-regulation effect. The proposed model was proved to be consistent with experiment observations and can be employed to investigate the coronary blood flow regulation effect in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  6. Unsteady flow through in-vitro models of the glottis

    Hofmans, G. C. J.; Groot, G.; Ranucci, M.; Graziani, G.; Hirschberg, A.


    The unsteady two-dimensional flow through fixed rigid in vitro models of the glottis is studied in some detail to validate a more accurate model based on the prediction of boundary-layer separation. The study is restricted to the flow phenomena occurring within the glottis and does not include effects of vocal-fold movement on the flow. Pressure measurements have been carried out for a transient flow through a rigid scale model of the glottis. The rigid model with a fixed geometry driven by an unsteady pressure is used in order to achieve a high accuracy in the specification of the geometry of the glottis. The experimental study is focused on flow phenomena as they might occur in the glottis, such as the asymmetry of the flow due to the Coanda effect and the transition to turbulent flow. It was found that both effects need a relatively long time to establish themselves and are therefore unlikely to occur during the production of normal voiced speech when the glottis closes completely during part of the oscillation cycle. It is shown that when the flow is still laminar and symmetric the prediction of the boundary-layer model and the measurement of the pressure drop from the throat of the glottis to the exit of the glottis agree within 40%. Results of the boundary-layer model are compared with a two-dimensional vortex-blob method for viscous flow. The difference between the results of the simpiflied boundary-layer model and the experimental results is explained by an additional pressure difference between the separation point and the far field within the jet downstream of the separation point. The influence of the movement of the vocal folds on our conclusions is still unclear.

  7. Mathematical models for two-phase stratified pipe flow

    Biberg, Dag


    The simultaneous transport of oil, gas and water in a single multiphase flow pipe line has for economical and practical reasons become common practice in the gas and oil fields operated by the oil industry. The optimal design and safe operation of these pipe lines require reliable estimates of liquid inventory, pressure drop and flow regime. Computer simulations of multiphase pipe flow have thus become an important design tool for field developments. Computer simulations yielding on-line monitoring and look ahead predictions are invaluable in day-to-day field management. Inaccurate predictions may have large consequences. The accuracy and reliability of multiphase pipe flow models are thus important issues. Simulating events in large pipelines or pipeline systems is relatively computer intensive. Pipe-lines carrying e.g. gas and liquefied gas (condensate) may cover distances of several hundred km in which transient phenomena may go on for months. The evaluation times associated with contemporary 3-D CFD models are thus not compatible with field applications. Multiphase flow lines are therefore normally simulated using specially dedicated 1-D models. The closure relations of multiphase pipe flow models are mainly based on lab data. The maximum pipe inner diameter, pressure and temperature in a multiphase pipe flow lab is limited to approximately 0.3 m, 90 bar and 60{sup o}C respectively. The corresponding field values are, however, much higher i.e.: 1 m, 1000 bar and 200{sup o}C respectively. Lab data does thus not cover the actual field conditions. Field predictions are consequently frequently based on model extrapolation. Applying field data or establishing more advanced labs will not solve this problem. It is in fact not practically possible to acquire sufficient data to cover all aspects of multiphase pipe flow. The parameter range involved is simply too large. Liquid levels and pressure drop in three-phase flow are e.g. determined by 13 dimensionless parameters

  8. Design considerations for pulsed-flow comprehensive two-dimensional GC: dynamic flow model approach.

    Harvey, Paul McA; Shellie, Robert A; Haddad, Paul R


    A dynamic flow model, which maps carrier gas pressures and carrier gas flow rates through the first dimension separation column, the modulator sample loop, and the second dimension separation column(s) in a pulsed-flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (PFM-GCxGC) system is described. The dynamic flow model assists design of a PFM-GCxGC modulator and leads to rapid determination of pneumatic conditions, timing parameters, and the dimensions of the separation columns and connecting tubing used to construct the PFM-GCxGC system. Three significant innovations are introduced in this manuscript, which were all uncovered by using the dynamic flow model. A symmetric flow path modulator improves baseline stability, appropriate selection of the flow restrictors in the first dimension column assembly provides a generally more stable and robust system, and these restrictors increase the modulation period flexibility of the PFM-GCxGC system. The flexibility of a PFM-GCxGC system resulting from these innovations is illustrated using the same modulation interface to analyze Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel using 3 s and 9 s modulation periods.

  9. Stochastic Modelling of Shiroro River Stream flow Process

    Musa, J. J


    Full Text Available Economists, social scientists and engineers provide insights into the drivers of anthropogenic climate change and the options for adaptation and mitigation, and yet other scientists, including geographers and biologists, study the impacts of climate change. This project concentrates mainly on the discharge from the Shiroro River. A stochastic approach is presented for modeling a time series by an Autoregressive Moving Average model (ARMA. The development and use of a stochastic stream flow model involves some basic steps such as obtain stream flow record and other information, Selecting models that best describes the marginal probability distribution of flows. The flow discharge of about 22 years (1990-2011 was gotten from the Meteorological Station at Shiroro and analyzed with three different models namely; Autoregressive (AR model, Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA model and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA model. The initial model identification is done by using the autocorrelation function (ACF and partial autocorrelation function (PACF. Based on the model analysis and evaluations, proper predictions for the effective usage of the flow from the river for farming activities and generation of power for both industrial and domestic us were made. It also highlights some recommendations to be made to utilize the possible potentials of the river effectively

  10. Empirical slip and viscosity model performance for microscale gas flows.

    Gallis, Michail A.; Boyd, Iain D. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); McNenly, Matthew J. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)


    For the simple geometries of Couette and Poiseuille flows, the velocity profile maintains a similar shape from continuum to free molecular flow. Therefore, modifications to the fluid viscosity and slip boundary conditions can improve the continuum based Navier-Stokes solution in the non-continuum non-equilibrium regime. In this investigation, the optimal modifications are found by a linear least-squares fit of the Navier-Stokes solution to the non-equilibrium solution obtained using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Models are then constructed for the Knudsen number dependence of the viscosity correction and the slip model from a database of DSMC solutions for Couette and Poiseuille flows of argon and nitrogen gas, with Knudsen numbers ranging from 0.01 to 10. Finally, the accuracy of the models is measured for non-equilibrium cases both in and outside the DSMC database. Flows outside the database include: combined Couette and Poiseuille flow, partial wall accommodation, helium gas, and non-zero convective acceleration. The models reproduce the velocity profiles in the DSMC database within an L{sub 2} error norm of 3% for Couette flows and 7% for Poiseuille flows. However, the errors in the model predictions outside the database are up to five times larger.

  11. Correlated noise and prior models in electromagnetic flow tomography

    Lehtikangas, Ossi; Vauhkonen, Marko


    Electromagnetic flow meters are a gold standard in measuring the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries in process industry. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Information about velocity fields is important for characterizing multiphase flows in the process industry. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the inner surface of the pipe. The velocity field reconstruction method utilizes a finite element based computational forward model and a Bayesian framework for inverse problem. In the approach, a priori probability and noise models are written describing the flow and measurement error characteristics, respectively. In this work, the effect of additive, possibly correlated, measurement noise and different prior models on the velocity field reconstructions in EMFT are tested using numerical simulations. The results show that the velocity field reconstruction method produces feasible estimates even with relatively high level of correlated measurement noise if the covariance structure of the noise is taken into account. In practice, the noise covariance can be estimated from measurements using sample based methods. Moreover, it is shown that a smoothness prior using a squared exponential covariance function is in general a good choice for the prior model and more advanced prior models for specific flow types such as stratified or turbulent flows can be used.

  12. RANS turbulence model form uncertainty quantification for wind engineering flows

    Gorle, Catherine; Zeoli, Stephanie; Bricteux, Laurent


    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations with linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models are commonly used for modeling wind engineering flows, but the use of the results for critical design decisions is hindered by the limited capability of the models to correctly predict bluff body flows. A turbulence model form uncertainty quantification (UQ) method to define confidence intervals for the results could remove this limitation, and promising results were obtained in a previous study of the flow in downtown Oklahoma City. The objective of the present study is to further investigate the validity of these results by considering the simplified test case of the flow around a wall-mounted cube. DNS data is used to determine: 1. whether the marker, which identifies regions that deviate from parallel shear flow, is a good indicator for the regions where the turbulence model fails, and 2. which Reynolds stress perturbations, in terms of the tensor magnitude and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the normalized anisotropy tensor, can capture the uncertainty in the flow field. A comparison of confidence intervals obtained with the UQ method and the DNS solution indicates that the uncertainty in the velocity field can be captured correctly in a large portion of the flow field.

  13. Data assimilation using a hybrid ice flow model

    D. N. Goldberg


    Full Text Available Hybrid models, or depth-integrated flow models that include the effect of both longitudinal stresses and vertical shearing, are becoming more prevalent in dynamical ice modeling. Under a wide range of conditions they closely approximate the well-known First Order stress balance, yet are of computationally lower dimension, and thus require less intensive resources. Concomitant with the development and use of these models is the need to perform inversions of observed data. Here, an inverse control method is extended to use a hybrid flow model as a forward model. We derive an adjoint of a hybrid model and use it for inversion of ice-stream basal traction from observed surface velocities. A novel aspect of the adjoint derivation is a retention of non-linearities in Glen's flow law. Experiments show that including those nonlinearities is advantageous in minimization of the cost function, yielding a more efficient inversion procedure.

  14. A heat transfer model for slug flow boiling within microchannels

    Magnini, Mirco; Thome, John


    We propose a novel physics-based model for the fluid mechanics and heat transfer associated with slug flow boiling in horizontal circular microchannels, to update the widely used three-zone model for the design of multi-microchannel evaporators. The flow is modelled as the cyclic passage of a liquid slug, an elongated bubble which traps a thin liquid film against the channel wall, and a dry vapor plug. The capillary flow theory, extended to incorporate evaporation effects, is applied to estimate the bubble velocity along the channel. A liquid film thickness prediction method considering bubble proximity effects, which may limit the radial extension of the film, is included. Theoretical heat transfer models accounting for the thermal inertia of the liquid film and for the recirculating flow within the liquid slug are utilized. The heat transfer model is compared to experimental data taken from three independent studies: 833 slug flow boiling data points covering R134a, R245fa and R236fa and channel diameters from 0.4 mm to 1 mm. The new model predicts more than 80% of the database to within +/- 30 % and it represents an important step toward a complete physics-based modelling of bubble dynamics and heat transfer within microchannels under evaporating flow conditions.

  15. Stochastic modeling of a lava-flow aquifer system

    Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin; Phelps, Geoffrey A.


    This report describes preliminary three-dimensional geostatistical modeling of a lava-flow aquifer system using a multiple-point geostatistical model. The purpose of this study is to provide a proof-of-concept for this modeling approach. An example of the method is demonstrated using a subset of borehole geologic data and aquifer test data from a portion of the Calico Hills Formation, a lava-flow aquifer system that partially underlies Pahute Mesa, Nevada. Groundwater movement in this aquifer system is assumed to be controlled by the spatial distribution of two geologic units—rhyolite lava flows and zeolitized tuffs. The configuration of subsurface lava flows and tuffs is largely unknown because of limited data. The spatial configuration of the lava flows and tuffs is modeled by using a multiple-point geostatistical simulation algorithm that generates a large number of alternative realizations, each honoring the available geologic data and drawn from a geologic conceptual model of the lava-flow aquifer system as represented by a training image. In order to demonstrate how results from the geostatistical model could be analyzed in terms of available hydrologic data, a numerical simulation of part of an aquifer test was applied to the realizations of the geostatistical model.

  16. Flow transitions in model Czochralski GaAs melt

    CHEN Shu-xian; LI Ming-wei


    The flow and heat transfer of molten GaAs during Czochralski growth are studied with a time-dependent and three-dimensional turbulent flow model. A transition from axisymmetric flow to non-axisymmetric flow and then back to axisymmetric flow again with increasing the crucible rotation rate is predicted. In the non-axisymmetric regime, the thermal wave induced by the combination of coriolis force, buoyancy and viscous force in the GaAs melt is predicted for the first time. The thermal wave is confirmed to be baroclinic thermal wave. The origin of the transition to non-axisymmetric flow is baroclinic instability. The critical parameters for the transitions are presented, which are quantitatively in agreement with Fein and Preffer's experimental results. The calculated results can be taken as a reference for the growth of GaAs single-crystal of high quality.

  17. Numerical simulation of LBGK model for high Reynolds number flow

    Zhou Xiao-Yang; Shi Bao-Chang; Wang Neng-Chao


    A principle of selecting relaxation parameter was proposed to observe the limit computational capability of the incompressible LBGK models developed by Guo ZL (Guo model) and He SY (He model) for high Reynolds number flow.To the two-dimensional driven cavity flow problem, the highest Reynolds numbers covered by Guo and He models are in the range 58000-52900 and 28000-29000, respectively, at 0.3 Mach number and 1/256 lattice space. The simulation results also show that the Guo model has stronger robustness due to its higher accuracy.

  18. Modeling Io's Heat Flow: Constraints from Galileo PPR Data

    Rathbun, J. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Tamppari, L. K.


    We attempt to improve on previous Io heat flow estimates by using higher resolution data from Galileo Photopolarimeter Radiometer (PPR) and improved thermophysical models of the surface, including finite thermal inertia, the pedestal effect, and disk-resolved radiance.

  19. A new dynamic model for heterogeneous traffic flow

    Tang, T. Q.; Huang, H. J.; Zhao, S. G.; Shang, H. Y.


    Based on the property of heterogeneous traffic flow, we in this Letter present a new car-following model. Applying the relationship between the micro and macro variables, a new dynamic model for heterogeneous traffic flow is obtained. The fundamental diagram and the jam density of the heterogeneous traffic flow consisting of bus and car are studied under three different conditions: (1) without any restrictions, (2) under the action of the traffic control policy that restrains some private cars and (3) using bus to replace the private cars restrained by the traffic control policy. The numerical results show that our model can describe some qualitative properties of the heterogeneous traffic flow consisting of bus and car, which verifies that our model is reasonable.

  20. A Data Flow Behavior Constraints Model for Branch Decisionmaking Variables

    Lu Yan


    Full Text Available In order to detect the attacks to decision-making variable, this paper presents a data flow behavior constraint model for branch decision-making variables. Our model is expanded from the common control flow model, itemphasizes on the analysis and verification about the data flow for decision-making variables, so that to ensure the branch statement can execute correctly and can also detect the attack to branch decision-making variableeasily. The constraints of our model include the collection of variables, the statements that the decision-making variables are dependent on and the data flow constraint with the use-def relation of these variables. Our experimental results indicate that it is effective in detecting the attacks to branch decision-making variables as well as the attacks to control-data.

  1. Present-day heat flow model of Mars

    Parro, Laura M.; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto; Mansilla, Federico; Ruiz, Javier


    Until the acquisition of in-situ measurements, the study of the present-day heat flow of Mars must rely on indirect methods, mainly based on the relation between the thermal state of the lithosphere and its mechanical strength, or on theoretical models of internal evolution. Here, we present a first-order global model for the present-day surface heat flow for Mars, based on the radiogenic heat production of the crust and mantle, on scaling of heat flow variations arising from crustal thickness and topography variations, and on the heat flow derived from the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere beneath the North Polar Region. Our preferred model finds heat flows varying between 14 and 25 mW m-2, with an average value of 19 mW m-2. Similar results (although about ten percent higher) are obtained if we use heat flow based on the lithospheric strength of the South Polar Region. Moreover, expressing our results in terms of the Urey ratio (the ratio between total internal heat production and total heat loss through the surface), we estimate values close to 0.7-0.75, which indicates a moderate contribution of secular cooling to the heat flow of Mars (consistent with the low heat flow values deduced from lithosphere strength), unless heat-producing elements abundances for Mars are subchondritic.

  2. Present-day heat flow model of Mars.

    Parro, Laura M; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto; Mansilla, Federico; Ruiz, Javier


    Until the acquisition of in-situ measurements, the study of the present-day heat flow of Mars must rely on indirect methods, mainly based on the relation between the thermal state of the lithosphere and its mechanical strength, or on theoretical models of internal evolution. Here, we present a first-order global model for the present-day surface heat flow for Mars, based on the radiogenic heat production of the crust and mantle, on scaling of heat flow variations arising from crustal thickness and topography variations, and on the heat flow derived from the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere beneath the North Polar Region. Our preferred model finds heat flows varying between 14 and 25 mW m(-2), with an average value of 19 mW m(-2). Similar results (although about ten percent higher) are obtained if we use heat flow based on the lithospheric strength of the South Polar Region. Moreover, expressing our results in terms of the Urey ratio (the ratio between total internal heat production and total heat loss through the surface), we estimate values close to 0.7-0.75, which indicates a moderate contribution of secular cooling to the heat flow of Mars (consistent with the low heat flow values deduced from lithosphere strength), unless heat-producing elements abundances for Mars are subchondritic.

  3. Experimental and mathematical modeling of flow in headboxes

    Shariati, Mohammad Reza

    The fluid flow patterns in a paper-machine headbox have a strong influence on the quality of the paper produced by the machine. Due to increasing demand for high quality paper there is a need to investigate the details of the fluid flow in the paper machine headbox. The objective of this thesis is to use experimental and computational methods of modeling the flow inside a typical headbox in order to evaluate and understand the mean flow patterns and turbulence created there. In particular, spatial variations of the mean flow and of the turbulence quantities and the turbulence generated secondary flows are studied. In addition to the flow inside the headbox, the flow leaving the slice is also modeled both experimentally and computationally. Comparison of the experimental and numerical results indicated that streamwise mean components of the velocities in the headbox are predicted well by all the turbulence models considered in this study. However, the standard k-epsilon model and the algebraic turbulence models fail to predict the turbulence quantities accurately. Standard k-epsilon-model also fails to predict the direction and magnitude of the secondary flows. Significant improvements in the k-epsilon model predictions were achieved when the turbulence production term was artificially set to zero. This is justified by observations of the turbulent velocities from the experiments and by a consideration of the form of the kinetic energy equation. A better estimation of the Reynolds normal stress distribution and the degree of anisotropy of turbulence was achieved using the Reynolds stress turbulence model. Careful examination of the measured turbulence velocity results shows that after the initial decay of the turbulence in the headbox, there is a short region close to the exit, but inside the headbox, where the turbulent kinetic energy actually increases as a result of the distortion imposed by the contraction. The turbulence energy quickly resumes its decay in the

  4. Modeling Tools Predict Flow in Fluid Dynamics


    "Because rocket engines operate under extreme temperature and pressure, they present a unique challenge to designers who must test and simulate the technology. To this end, CRAFT Tech Inc., of Pipersville, Pennsylvania, won Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop software to simulate cryogenic fluid flows and related phenomena. CRAFT Tech enhanced its CRUNCH CFD (computational fluid dynamics) software to simulate phenomena in various liquid propulsion components and systems. Today, both government and industry clients in the aerospace, utilities, and petrochemical industries use the software for analyzing existing systems as well as designing new ones."

  5. A mechanical model for phase-separation in debris flow

    Pudasaini, Shiva P


    Understanding the physics of phase-separation between solid and fluid phases as a mixture mass moves down slope is a long-standing challenge. Here, we propose an extension of the two phase mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) by including a new mechanism, called separation-flux, that leads to strong phase-separation in avalanche and debris flows while balancing the enhanced solid flux with the reduced fluid flux. The separation flux mechanism is capable of describing the dynamically evolving phase-separation and levee formation in a multi-phase, geometrically three-dimensional debris flow. These are often observed phenomena in natural debris flows and industrial processes that involve the transportation of particulate solid-fluid mixture material. The novel separation-flux model includes several dominant physical and mechanical aspects such as pressure gradients, volume fractions of solid and fluid phases and their gradients, shear-rates, flow depth, material friction, viscosity, material densities, topographic ...

  6. Water flow experiments and analyses on the cross-flow type mercury target model with the flow guide plates

    Haga, K; Kaminaga, M; Hino, R


    A mercury target is used in the spallation neutron source driven by a high-intensity proton accelerator. In this study, the effectiveness of the cross-flow type mercury target structure was evaluated experimentally and analytically. Prior to the experiment, the mercury flow field and the temperature distribution in the target container were analyzed assuming a proton beam energy and power of 1.5 GeV and 5 MW, respectively, and the feasibility of the cross-flow type target was evaluated. Then the average water flow velocity field in the target mock-up model, which was fabricated from Plexiglass for a water experiment, was measured at room temperature using the PIV technique. Water flow analyses were conducted and the analytical results were compared with the experimental results. The experimental results showed that the cross-flow could be realized in most of the proton beam path area and the analytical result of the water flow velocity field showed good correspondence to the experimental results in the case w...

  7. Chemical reactor modeling multiphase reactive flows

    Jakobsen, Hugo A


    Chemical Reactor Modeling closes the gap between Chemical Reaction Engineering and Fluid Mechanics.  The second edition consists of two volumes: Volume 1: Fundamentals. Volume 2: Chemical Engineering Applications In volume 1 most of the fundamental theory is presented. A few numerical model simulation application examples are given to elucidate the link between theory and applications. In volume 2 the chemical reactor equipment to be modeled are described. Several engineering models are introduced and discussed. A survey of the frequently used numerical methods, algorithms and schemes is provided. A few practical engineering applications of the modeling tools are presented and discussed. The working principles of several experimental techniques employed in order to get data for model validation are outlined. The monograph is based on lectures regularly taught in the fourth and fifth years graduate courses in transport phenomena and chemical reactor modeling, and in a post graduate course in modern reactor m...

  8. Numerical simulation of lava flow using a GPU SPH model

    Eugenio Rustico; Annamaria Vicari; Giuseppe Bilotta; Alexis Hérault; Ciro Del Negro


    A smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method for lava-flow modeling was implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU) using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) developed by NVIDIA. This resulted in speed-ups of up to two orders of magnitude. The three-dimensional model can simulate lava flow on a real topography with free-surface, non- Newtonian fluids, and with phase change. The entire SPH code has three main components, neighbor list construction, force computation, an...

  9. Navigating the flow: individual and continuum models for homing in flowing environments.

    Painter, Kevin J; Hillen, Thomas


    Navigation for aquatic and airborne species often takes place in the face of complicated flows, from persistent currents to highly unpredictable storms. Hydrodynamic models are capable of simulating flow dynamics and provide the impetus for much individual-based modelling, in which particle-sized individuals are immersed into a flowing medium. These models yield insights on the impact of currents on population distributions from fish eggs to large organisms, yet their computational demands and intractability reduce their capacity to generate the broader, less parameter-specific, insights allowed by traditional continuous approaches. In this paper, we formulate an individual-based model for navigation within a flowing field and apply scaling to derive its corresponding macroscopic and continuous model. We apply it to various movement classes, from drifters that simply go with the flow to navigators that respond to environmental orienteering cues. The utility of the model is demonstrated via its application to 'homing' problems and, in particular, the navigation of the marine green turtle Chelonia mydas to Ascension Island.

  10. Mixture modeling approach to flow cytometry data.

    Boedigheimer, Michael J; Ferbas, John


    Flow Cytometry has become a mainstay technique for measuring fluorescent and physical attributes of single cells in a suspended mixture. These data are reduced during analysis using a manual or semiautomated process of gating. Despite the need to gate data for traditional analyses, it is well recognized that analyst-to-analyst variability can impact the dataset. Moreover, cells of interest can be inadvertently excluded from the gate, and relationships between collected variables may go unappreciated because they were not included in the original analysis plan. A multivariate non-gating technique was developed and implemented that accomplished the same goal as traditional gating while eliminating many weaknesses. The procedure was validated against traditional gating for analysis of circulating B cells in normal donors (n = 20) and persons with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (n = 42). The method recapitulated relationships in the dataset while providing for an automated and objective assessment of the data. Flow cytometry analyses are amenable to automated analytical techniques that are not predicated on discrete operator-generated gates. Such alternative approaches can remove subjectivity in data analysis, improve efficiency and may ultimately enable construction of large bioinformatics data systems for more sophisticated approaches to hypothesis testing.

  11. Analog modeling of transient moisture flow in unsaturated soil

    Wind, G.P.


    Hydraulic and electronic analog models are developed for the simulation of moisture flow and accumulation in unsaturated soil. The analog models are compared with numerical models and checked with field observations. Application of soil physical knowledge on a soil technological problem by means of



    An approach of modeling viscosity, unsteady partially cavitating flows around lifting bodies is presented. By employing an one-fluid Navier-Stokers solver, the algorithm is proved to be able to handle two-dimensional laminar cavitating flows at moderate Reynolds number. Based on the state equation of water-vapor mixture, the constructive relations of densities and pressures are established. To numerically simulate the cavity wall, different pseudo transition of density models are presumed. The finite-volume method is adopted and the algorithm can be extended to three-dimensional cavitating flows.

  13. Near-wall modelling of compressible turbulent flows

    So, Ronald M. C.


    Work was carried out to formulate near-wall models for the equations governing the transport of the temperature-variance and its dissipation rate. With these equations properly modeled, a foundation is laid for their extension together with the heat-flux equations to compressible flows. This extension is carried out in a manner similar to that used to extend the incompressible near-wall Reynolds-stress models to compressible flows. The methodology used to accomplish the extension of the near-wall Reynolds-stress models is examined and the actual extension of the models for the Reynolds-stress equations and the near-wall dissipation-rate equation to compressible flows is given. Then the formulation of the near-wall models for the equations governing the transport of the temperature variance and its dissipation rate is discussed. Finally, a sample calculation of a flat plate compressible turbulent boundary-layer flow with adiabatic wall boundary condition and a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 using a two-equation near-wall closure is presented. The results show that the near-wall two-equation closure formulated for compressible flows is quite valid and the calculated properties are in good agreement with measurements. Furthermore, the near-wall behavior of the turbulence statistics and structure parameters is consistent with that found in incompressible flows.

  14. Hydrodynamics beyond Navier-Stokes: the slip flow model.

    Yudistiawan, Wahyu P; Ansumali, Santosh; Karlin, Iliya V


    Recently, analytical solutions for the nonlinear Couette flow demonstrated the relevance of the lattice Boltzmann (LB) models to hydrodynamics beyond the continuum limit [S. Ansumali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 124502 (2007)]. In this paper, we present a systematic study of the simplest LB kinetic equation-the nine-bit model in two dimensions--in order to quantify it as a slip flow approximation. Details of the aforementioned analytical solution are presented, and results are extended to include a general shear- and force-driven unidirectional flow in confined geometry. Exact solutions for the velocity, as well as for pertinent higher-order moments of the distribution functions, are obtained in both Couette and Poiseuille steady-state flows for all values of rarefaction parameter (Knudsen number). Results are compared with the slip flow solution by Cercignani, and a good quantitative agreement is found for both flow situations. Thus, the standard nine-bit LB model is characterized as a valid and self-consistent slip flow model for simulations beyond the Navier-Stokes approximation.

  15. DSMC modeling of flows with recombination reactions

    Gimelshein, Sergey; Wysong, Ingrid


    An empirical microscopic recombination model is developed for the direct simulation Monte Carlo method that complements the extended weak vibrational bias model of dissociation. The model maintains the correct equilibrium reaction constant in a wide range of temperatures by using the collision theory to enforce the number of recombination events. It also strictly follows the detailed balance requirement for equilibrium gas. The model and its implementation are verified with oxygen and nitrogen heat bath relaxation and compared with available experimental data on atomic oxygen recombination in argon and molecular nitrogen.

  16. Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor (CAFFE)

    Placidi, Luca; Seddik, Hakime; Faria, Sergio H


    A complete theoretical presentation of the CAFFE model (Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor) is given. The CAFFE model is an application of the theory of mixtures with continuous diversity for the case of large ice masses in which the induced anisotropy can not be neglected. The anisotropic response of the material is considered via a simple anisotropic generalization of Glen's flow law based on a scalar anisotropic enhancement factor. Such an enhancement factor depends upon the orientation mass density, that corresponds to the distribution of lattice orientations or simply to the orientation distribution function. The evolution of anisotropy is assumed to be modeled by the evolution of the orientation mass density, that is governed by the balance of mass of the present mixture with continuous diversity and explicitly depends upon four distinct effects interpreted, respectively, with grain rotation, local rigid body rotation, grain boundary migration (...



    This paper presents liner homogeneous model describing two-phase flow instability. Dimensionless parameter η was derived by using the linear homogeneous model. Using parameter η the stability of a system could be easily judged. The calculated results agree with the experimental data well.

  18. Comparison of Conventional and ANN Models for River Flow Forecasting

    Jain, A.; Ganti, R.


    Hydrological models are useful in many water resources applications such as flood control, irrigation and drainage, hydro power generation, water supply, erosion and sediment control, etc. Estimates of runoff are needed in many water resources planning, design development, operation and maintenance activities. River flow is generally estimated using time series or rainfall-runoff models. Recently, soft artificial intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have become popular for research purposes but have not been extensively adopted in operational hydrological forecasts. There is a strong need to develop ANN models based on real catchment data and compare them with the conventional models. In this paper, a comparative study has been carried out for river flow forecasting using the conventional and ANN models. Among the conventional models, multiple linear, and non linear regression, and time series models of auto regressive (AR) type have been developed. Feed forward neural network model structure trained using the back propagation algorithm, a gradient search method, was adopted. The daily river flow data derived from Godavari Basin @ Polavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India have been employed to develop all the models included here. Two inputs, flows at two past time steps, (Q(t-1) and Q(t-2)) were selected using partial auto correlation analysis for forecasting flow at time t, Q(t). A wide range of error statistics have been used to evaluate the performance of all the models developed in this study. It has been found that the regression and AR models performed comparably, and the ANN model performed the best amongst all the models investigated in this study. It is concluded that ANN model should be adopted in real catchments for hydrological modeling and forecasting.


    N. Muyinda


    Full Text Available In the field of computational fluid dynamics, the finite volume method is dominant over other numerical techniques like the finite difference and finite element methods because the underlying physical quantities are conserved at the discrete level. In the present study, the finite volume method is used to solve an isotropic transient groundwater flow model to obtain hydraulic heads and flow through an aquifer. The objective is to discuss the theory of finite volume method and its applications in groundwater flow modelling. To achieve this, an orthogonal grid with quadrilateral control volumes has been used to simulate the model using mixed boundary conditions from Bwaise III, a Kampala Surburb. Results show that flow occurs from regions of high hydraulic head to regions of low hydraulic head until a steady head value is achieved.

  20. Fuzzy Temporal Logic Based Railway Passenger Flow Forecast Model

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun


    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  1. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun


    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  2. Modeling and forecasting the peak flows of a river

    Mario Lefebvre


    Full Text Available A stochastic model is found for the value of the peak flows of the Mistassibi river in Québec, Canada, when the river is in spate. Next, the objective is to forecast the value of the coming peak flow about four days in advance, when the flow begins to show a marked increase. Both the stochastic model proposed in the paper and a model based on linear regression are used to produce the forecasts. The quality of the forecasts is assessed by considering the standard errors and the peak criterion. The forecasts are much more accurate than those obtained by taking the mean value of the previous peak flows.

  3. A Generalized Minimum Cost Flow Model for Multiple Emergency Flow Routing

    Jianxun Cui


    Full Text Available During real-life disasters, that is, earthquakes, floods, terrorist attacks, and other unexpected events, emergency evacuation and rescue are two primary operations that can save the lives and property of the affected population. It is unavoidable that evacuation flow and rescue flow will conflict with each other on the same spatial road network and within the same time window. Therefore, we propose a novel generalized minimum cost flow model to optimize the distribution pattern of these two types of flow on the same network by introducing the conflict cost. The travel time on each link is assumed to be subject to a bureau of public road (BPR function rather than a fixed cost. Additionally, we integrate contraflow operations into this model to redesign the network shared by those two types of flow. A nonconvex mixed-integer nonlinear programming model with bilinear, fractional, and power components is constructed, and GAMS/BARON is used to solve this programming model. A case study is conducted in the downtown area of Harbin city in China to verify the efficiency of proposed model, and several helpful findings and managerial insights are also presented.

  4. Modeling the evolution of riparian woodlands facing climate change in three European rivers with contrasting flow regimes.

    Rui P Rivaes

    Full Text Available Global circulation models forecasts indicate a future temperature and rainfall pattern modification worldwide. Such phenomena will become particularly evident in Europe where climate modifications could be more severe than the average change at the global level. As such, river flow regimes are expected to change, with resultant impacts on aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Riparian woodlands are among the most endangered ecosystems on earth and provide vital services to interconnected ecosystems and human societies. However, they have not been the object of many studies designed to spatially and temporally quantify how these ecosystems will react to climate change-induced flow regimes. Our goal was to assess the effects of climate-changed flow regimes on the existing riparian vegetation of three different European flow regimes. Cases studies were selected in the light of the most common watershed alimentation modes occurring across European regions, with the objective of appraising expected alterations in the riparian elements of fluvial systems due to climate change. Riparian vegetation modeling was performed using the CASiMiR-vegetation model, which bases its computation on the fluvial disturbance of the riparian patch mosaic. Modeling results show that riparian woodlands may undergo not only at least moderate changes for all flow regimes, but also some dramatic adjustments in specific areas of particular vegetation development stages. There are circumstances in which complete annihilation is feasible. Pluvial flow regimes, like the ones in southern European rivers, are those likely to experience more pronounced changes. Furthermore, regardless of the flow regime, younger and more water-dependent individuals are expected to be the most affected by climate change.

  5. Modeling the evolution of riparian woodlands facing climate change in three European rivers with contrasting flow regimes.

    Rivaes, Rui P; Rodríguez-González, Patricia M; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro, António N; Politti, Emilio; Egger, Gregory; García-Arias, Alicia; Francés, Felix


    Global circulation models forecasts indicate a future temperature and rainfall pattern modification worldwide. Such phenomena will become particularly evident in Europe where climate modifications could be more severe than the average change at the global level. As such, river flow regimes are expected to change, with resultant impacts on aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Riparian woodlands are among the most endangered ecosystems on earth and provide vital services to interconnected ecosystems and human societies. However, they have not been the object of many studies designed to spatially and temporally quantify how these ecosystems will react to climate change-induced flow regimes. Our goal was to assess the effects of climate-changed flow regimes on the existing riparian vegetation of three different European flow regimes. Cases studies were selected in the light of the most common watershed alimentation modes occurring across European regions, with the objective of appraising expected alterations in the riparian elements of fluvial systems due to climate change. Riparian vegetation modeling was performed using the CASiMiR-vegetation model, which bases its computation on the fluvial disturbance of the riparian patch mosaic. Modeling results show that riparian woodlands may undergo not only at least moderate changes for all flow regimes, but also some dramatic adjustments in specific areas of particular vegetation development stages. There are circumstances in which complete annihilation is feasible. Pluvial flow regimes, like the ones in southern European rivers, are those likely to experience more pronounced changes. Furthermore, regardless of the flow regime, younger and more water-dependent individuals are expected to be the most affected by climate change.

  6. Surface tension driven flow in glass melts and model fluids

    Mcneil, T. J.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.


    Surface tension driven flow has been investigated analytically and experimentally using an apparatus where a free column of molten glass or model fluids was supported at its top and bottom faces by solid surfaces. The glass used in the experiments was sodium diborate, and the model fluids were silicone oils. In both the model fluid and glass melt experiments, conclusive evidence was obtained to prove that the observed flow was driven primarily by surface tension forces. The experimental observations are in qualitative agreement with predictions from the theoretical model.

  7. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al


    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  8. Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows

    Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.


    An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.

  9. Modelling of convective heat and mass transfer in rotating flows

    Shevchuk, Igor V


     This monograph presents results of the analytical and numerical modeling of convective heat and mass transfer in different rotating flows caused by (i) system rotation, (ii) swirl flows due to swirl generators, and (iii) surface curvature in turns and bends. Volume forces (i.e. centrifugal and Coriolis forces), which influence the flow pattern, emerge in all of these rotating flows. The main part of this work deals with rotating flows caused by system rotation, which includes several rotating-disk configurations and straight pipes rotating about a parallel axis. Swirl flows are studied in some of the configurations mentioned above. Curvilinear flows are investigated in different geometries of two-pass ribbed and smooth channels with 180° bends. The author demonstrates that the complex phenomena of fluid flow and convective heat transfer in rotating flows can be successfully simulated using not only the universal CFD methodology, but in certain cases by means of the integral methods, self-similar and analyt...

  10. The role of hand calculations in ground water flow modeling.

    Haitjema, Henk


    Most ground water modeling courses focus on the use of computer models and pay little or no attention to traditional analytic solutions to ground water flow problems. This shift in education seems logical. Why waste time to learn about the method of images, or why study analytic solutions to one-dimensional or radial flow problems? Computer models solve much more realistic problems and offer sophisticated graphical output, such as contour plots of potentiometric levels and ground water path lines. However, analytic solutions to elementary ground water flow problems do have something to offer over computer models: insight. For instance, an analytic one-dimensional or radial flow solution, in terms of a mathematical expression, may reveal which parameters affect the success of calibrating a computer model and what to expect when changing parameter values. Similarly, solutions for periodic forcing of one-dimensional or radial flow systems have resulted in a simple decision criterion to assess whether or not transient flow modeling is needed. Basic water balance calculations may offer a useful check on computer-generated capture zones for wellhead protection or aquifer remediation. An easily calculated "characteristic leakage length" provides critical insight into surface water and ground water interactions and flow in multi-aquifer systems. The list goes on. Familiarity with elementary analytic solutions and the capability of performing some simple hand calculations can promote appropriate (computer) modeling techniques, avoids unnecessary complexity, improves reliability, and is likely to save time and money. Training in basic hand calculations should be an important part of the curriculum of ground water modeling courses.

  11. New DNS and modeling results for turbulent pipe flow

    Johansson, Arne; El Khoury, George; Grundestam, Olof; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Linne Flow Centre Team


    The near-wall region of turbulent pipe and channel flows (as well as zero-pressure gradient boundary layers) have been shown to exhibit a very high degree of similarity in terms of all statistical moments and many other features, while even the mean velocity profile in the two cases exhibits significant differences between in the outer region. The wake part of the profile, i.e. the deviation from the log-law, in the outer region is of substantially larger amplitude in pipe flow as compared to channel flow (although weaker than in boundary layer flow). This intriguing feature has been well known but has no simple explanation. Model predictions typically give identical results for the two flows. We have analyzed a new set of DNS for pipe and channel flows (el Khoury et al. 2013, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion) for friction Reynolds numbers up to 1000 and made comparing calculations with differential Reynolds stress models (DRSM). We have strong indications that the key factor behind the difference in mean velocity in the outer region can be coupled to differences in the turbulent diffusion in this region. This is also supported by DRSM results, where interesting differences are seen depending on the sophistication of modeling the turbulent diffusion coefficient.

  12. Turbulence Modeling of Flows with Extensive Crossflow Separation

    Argyris G. Panaras


    Full Text Available The reasons for the difficulty in simulating accurately strong 3-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SBLIs and high-alpha flows with classical turbulence models are investigated. These flows are characterized by the appearance of strong crossflow separation. In view of recent additional evidence, a previously published flow analysis, which attributes the poor performance of classical turbulence models to the observed laminarization of the separation domain, is reexamined. According to this analysis, the longitudinal vortices into which the separated boundary layer rolls up in this type of separated flow, transfer external inviscid air into the part of the separation adjacent to the wall, decreasing its turbulence. It is demonstrated that linear models based on the Boussinesq equation provide solutions of moderate accuracy, while non-linear ones and others that consider the particular structure of the flow are more efficient. Published and new Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS simulations are reviewed, as well as results from a recent Large Eddy Simulation (LES study, which indicate that in calculations characterized by sufficient accuracy the turbulent kinetic energy of the reverse flow inside the separation vortices is very low, i.e., the flow is almost laminar there.

  13. A DEM contact model for history-dependent powder flows

    Hashibon, Adham; Schubert, Raphael; Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten


    Die filling is an important part of the powder handling process chain that greatly influences the characteristic structure and properties of the final part. Predictive modelling and simulation of the die-filling process can greatly contribute to the optimization of the part and the whole production procedure, e.g. by predicting the resulting powder compaction structure as a function of filling process parameters. The rheology of powders can be very difficult to model especially if heterogeneous agglomeration or time-dependent consolidation effects occur. We present a new discrete element contact force model that enables modelling complex powder flow characteristics including direct time-dependent consolidation effects and load history-dependent cohesion to describe the filling process of complex, difficult to handle powders. The model is demonstrated for simple flow and an industrial powder flow.

  14. A surface-renewal model of cross-flow microfiltration

    A. Hasan


    Full Text Available A mathematical model using classical cake-filtration theory and the surface-renewal concept is formulated for describing cross-flow microfiltration under dynamic and steady-state conditions. The model can predict the permeate flux and cake buildup in the filter. The three basic parameters of the model are the membrane resistance, specific cake resistance and rate of surface renewal. The model is able to correlate experimental permeate flow rate data in the microfiltration of fermentation broths in laboratory- and pilot-scale units with an average root-mean-square (RMS error of 4.6%. The experimental data are also compared against the critical-flux model of cross-flow microfiltration, which has average RMS errors of 6.3, 5.5 and 6.1% for the cases of cake filtration, intermediate blocking and complete blocking mechanisms, respectively.

  15. An improved model for reduced-order physiological fluid flows

    San, Omer; 10.1142/S0219519411004666


    An improved one-dimensional mathematical model based on Pulsed Flow Equations (PFE) is derived by integrating the axial component of the momentum equation over the transient Womersley velocity profile, providing a dynamic momentum equation whose coefficients are smoothly varying functions of the spatial variable. The resulting momentum equation along with the continuity equation and pressure-area relation form our reduced-order model for physiological fluid flows in one dimension, and are aimed at providing accurate and fast-to-compute global models for physiological systems represented as networks of quasi one-dimensional fluid flows. The consequent nonlinear coupled system of equations is solved by the Lax-Wendroff scheme and is then applied to an open model arterial network of the human vascular system containing the largest fifty-five arteries. The proposed model with functional coefficients is compared with current classical one-dimensional theories which assume steady state Hagen-Poiseuille velocity pro...

  16. Modeling glacial flow on and onto Pluto's Sputnik Planitia

    Umurhan, O. M.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Earle, A. M.; White, O. L.; Schenk, P. M.; Binzel, R. P.; Stern, S. A.; Beyer, R. A.; Nimmo, F.; McKinnon, W. B.; Ennico, K.; Olkin, C. B.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.


    Observations of Pluto's surface made by the New Horizons spacecraft indicate present-day N2 ice glaciation in and around the basin informally known as Sputnik Planitia. Motivated by these observations, we have developed an evolutionary glacial flow model of solid N2 ice that takes into account its published thermophysical and rheological properties. This model assumes that glacial ice flows laminarly and has a low aspect ratio which permits a vertically integrated mathematical formulation. We assess the conditions for the validity of laminar N2 ice motion by revisiting the problem of the onset of solid-state buoyant convection of N2 ice for a variety of bottom thermal boundary conditions. Subject to uncertainties in N2 ice rheology, N2 ice layers are estimated to flow laminarly for thicknesses less than 400-1000 m. The resulting mass-flux formulation for when the N2 ice flows as a laminar dry glacier is characterized by an Arrhenius-Glen functional form. The flow model developed is used here to qualitatively answer some questions motivated by features we interpret to be a result of glacial flow found on Sputnik Planitia. We find that the wavy transverse dark features found along the northern shoreline of Sputnik Planitia may be a transitory imprint of shallow topography just beneath the ice surface suggesting the possibility that a major shoreward flow event happened relatively recently, within the last few hundred years. Model results also support the interpretation that the prominent darkened features resembling flow lobes observed along the eastern shoreline of the Sputnik Planitia basin may be the result of a basally wet N2 glacier flowing into the basin from the pitted highlands of eastern Tombaugh Regio.

  17. Modeling the effect of unsteady flows on the time average flow field of a blade row embedded in an axial flow multistage turbomachine

    Adamczyk, John J.


    The role of unsteady flow processes in establishing the performance of axial flow turbomachinery was investigated. The development of the flow model, as defined by the time average flow equations associated with the passage of the blade row embedded in a multistage configuration, is presented. The mechanisms for unsteady momentum and energy transport is outlined. The modeling of the unsteady momentum and energy transport are discussed. The procedure for simulating unsteady multistage turbomachinery flows is described.

  18. Validation of Modeling Flow Approaching Navigation Locks


    instrumentation, direction vernier . ........................................................................ 8  Figure 11. Plan A lock approach, upstream approach...13-9 8 Figure 9. Tools and instrumentation, bracket attached to rail. Figure 10. Tools and instrumentation, direction vernier . Numerical model

  19. Improving peak flow estimates in artificial neural network river flow models

    Sudheer, K. P.; Nayak, P. C.; Ramasastri, K. S.


    In this paper, the concern of accuracy in peak estimation by the artificial neural network (ANN) river flow models is discussed and a suitable statistical procedure to get better estimates from these models is presented. The possible cause for underestimation of peak flow values has been attributed to the local variations in the function being mapped due to varying skewness in the data series, and theoretical considerations of the network functioning confirm this. It is envisaged that an appropriate data transformation will reduce the local variations in the function being mapped, and thus any ANN model built on the transformed series should perform better. This heuristic is illustrated and confirmed by many case studies and the results suggest that the model performance is significantly improved by data transformation. The model built on transformed data outperforms the model built on raw data in terms of various statistical performance indices. The peak estimates are improved significantly by data transformation.

  20. Improved 2D Intelligent Driver Model simulating synchronized flow and evolution concavity in traffic flow

    Tian, Junfang; Li, Geng; Treiber, Martin; Zhu, Chenqiang; Jia, Bin


    This paper firstly show that 2 Dimensional Intelligent Driver Model (Jiang et al., PloS one, 9(4), e94351, 2014) is not able to replicate the synchronized traffic flow. Then we propose an improved model by considering the difference between the driving behaviors at high speeds and that at low speeds. Simulations show that the improved model can reproduce the phase transition from synchronized flow to wide moving jams, the spatiotemporal patterns of traffic flow induced by traffic bottleneck, and the evolution concavity of traffic oscillations (i.e. the standard deviation of the velocities of vehicles increases in a concave/linear way along the platoon). Validating results show that the empirical time series of traffic speed obtained from Floating Car Data can be well simulated as well.

  1. Dynamic material flow modeling: an effort to calibrate and validate aluminum stocks and flows in Austria.

    Buchner, Hanno; Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann


    A calibrated and validated dynamic material flow model of Austrian aluminum (Al) stocks and flows between 1964 and 2012 was developed. Calibration and extensive plausibility testing was performed to illustrate how the quality of dynamic material flow analysis can be improved on the basis of the consideration of independent bottom-up estimates. According to the model, total Austrian in-use Al stocks reached a level of 360 kg/capita in 2012, with buildings (45%) and transport applications (32%) being the major in-use stocks. Old scrap generation (including export of end-of-life vehicles) amounted to 12.5 kg/capita in 2012, still being on the increase, while Al final demand has remained rather constant at around 25 kg/capita in the past few years. The application of global sensitivity analysis showed that only small parts of the total variance of old scrap generation could be explained by the variation of single parameters, emphasizing the need for comprehensive sensitivity analysis tools accounting for interaction between parameters and time-delay effects in dynamic material flow models. Overall, it was possible to generate a detailed understanding of the evolution of Al stocks and flows in Austria, including plausibility evaluations of the results. Such models constitute a reliable basis for evaluating future recycling potentials, in particular with respect to application-specific qualities of current and future national Al scrap generation and utilization.

  2. Performance of turbulence models for transonic flows in a diffuser

    Liu, Yangwei; Wu, Jianuo; Lu, Lipeng


    Eight turbulence models frequently used in aerodynamics have been employed in the detailed numerical investigations for transonic flows in the Sajben diffuser, to assess the predictive capabilities of the turbulence models for shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLI) in internal flows. The eight turbulence models include: the Spalart-Allmaras model, the standard k - 𝜀 model, the RNG k - 𝜀 model, the realizable k - 𝜀 model, the standard k - ω model, the SST k - ω model, the v2¯ - f model and the Reynolds stress model. The performance of the different turbulence models adopted has been systematically assessed by comparing the numerical results with the available experimental data. The comparisons show that the predictive performance becomes worse as the shock wave becomes stronger. The v2¯ - f model and the SST k - ω model perform much better than other models, and the SST k - ω model predicts a little better than the v2¯ - f model for pressure on walls and velocity profile, whereas the v2¯ - f model predicts a little better than the SST k - ω model for separation location, reattachment location and separation length for strong shock case.

  3. Intercities traffic flow: linear and nonlinear models

    Otero, Dino; Mizrahi, Salomon S


    We simulate the traffic of vehicles circulating within a network formed by sites (cities, car-rental agencies, etc.) connected by two-way roads or highways, to which we shall refer generically as intercity traffic. Our aim is to forecast the flux of the vehicles for $n$ consecutive days, by taking as prior knowledge previous observations. The formal tools used in our analysis consists in: (1) making use of digraphs that allow the visualization and schematization of the problem, where edges correspond to roads, etc. and the vertices with loops represent the sites. (2) From an initial set of transition probabilities, that form a Markov chain, or from an empirical distribution of vehicles at the vertices and edges, we construct the Markov matrix which is a stochastic matrix (SM), and assume that the evolution of the traffic flows according to the power $n$ of the SM and, (3) the use of the Perron-Frobenius theory to analyze the outcomes. We identify several modes or regimes before the distribution of vehicles at...

  4. Recovery modeling of tangential flow systems.

    Rao, Suma; Gefroh, Eva; Kaltenbrunner, Oliver


    The demand for increased formulation concentrations for protein therapeutics puts a significant strain on already existing tangential flow filtration (TFF) systems that were constructed with lower protein concentration targets as part of their design criteria. TFF is commonly used to buffer exchange and concentrate the product to the appropriate drug substance concentration. Analyzing the ability of an existing TFF system to process under conditions outside its original design specifications can be challenging. In this analysis, we present a systematic approach to assess the operational limits of a TFF process with consideration of system performance parameters for changing process targets. In two new engineering diagrams, the recovery efficiency diagram and the operating space plot, all relevant operational constraints and parameters are related to allow rapid process fit evaluation. The engineering assessment of TFF systems presented in this article allows a rational review of system limitations during process fit evaluations of existing TFF systems. It also provides a rational basis for targeted system upgrades and setting system design specifications for the design of new systems if existing systems are found inadequate. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A multi-flow model for microquasars

    Petrucci, P O; Henri, G; Sauge, L; Pelletier, G


    We present a new picture for the central regions of Black Hole X-ray Binaries. In our view, these central regions have a multi-flow configuration which consists in (1) an outer standard accretion disc down to a transition radius r_J, (2) an inner magnetized accretion disc below r_J driving (3) a non relativistic self-collimated electron-proton jet surrounding, when adequate conditions for pair creation are met, (4) a ultra relativistic electron-positron beam. This accretion-ejection paradigm provides a simple explanation to the canonical spectral states, from radio to X/gamma-rays, by varying the transition radius r_J and disc accretion rate independently. Large values of r_J and low accretion rate correspond to Quiescent and Hard states. These states are characterized by the presence of a steady electron-proton MHD jet emitted by the disc below r_J. The hard X-ray component is expect to form at the jet basis. When r_J becomes smaller than the marginally stable orbit r_i, the whole disc resembles a standard a...

  6. Modeling passenger flows in public transport stations

    Cem Kırlangıçoğlu


    Full Text Available There are many architectural design parameters for public transport stations which include urban and station level studies. Each station must be designed in accordance with the basic passenger requirements such as accessibility, safety, comfort, satisfaction and etc. Circulation spaces must be formed and sized to meet the minimum movement needs of passengers. For an underground station; main entrance region, position of gates, location and number of turnstiles, escalators, stairs, ramps, passageways, intermediate concourses and platforms must be arranged to minimize walking distances and to prevent congestion. In this study, circulation of passengers is simulated in a quantitatively verifiable manner, taking into account how individuals interact with each other and with the physical obstacles in their environment in a metro station. Virtual experiments are performed to see the continuity and density of pedestrian flow at different levels of Haram Area East Metro Station of the first metro line of Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. According to the predictions, more than 40.000 passengers are expected to use this station in one hour after a Friday prayer during Ramadan period in the year of 2040. That means a critically high travel demand and it is really significant to design the most convenient underground station for these passengers to fulfil the necessary requirements.

  7. Development of numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling

    P. Dobson


    This report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport model, a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision contains changes made to improve the clarity of the description of grid generation. The numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management for the current revision of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 2). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in Revision 00 of this report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 159356]). The grids presented in this report are the same as those developed in Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160109]); however, the documentation of the development of the grids in Revision 02 has been updated to address technical inconsistencies and achieve greater transparency, readability, and traceability. The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow.

  8. Conveying Lava Flow Hazards Through Interactive Computer Models

    Thomas, D.; Edwards, H. K.; Harnish, E. P.


    As part of an Information Sciences senior class project, a software package of an interactive version of the FLOWGO model was developed for the Island of Hawaii. The software is intended for use in an ongoing public outreach and hazards awareness program that educates the public about lava flow hazards on the island. The design parameters for the model allow an unsophisticated user to initiate a lava flow anywhere on the island and allow it to flow down-slope to the shoreline while displaying a timer to show the rate of advance of the flow. The user is also able to modify a range of input parameters including eruption rate, the temperature of the lava at the vent, and crystal fraction present in the lava at the source. The flow trajectories are computed using a 30 m digital elevation model for the island and the rate of advance of the flow is estimated using the average slope angle and the computed viscosity of the lava as it cools in either a channel (high heat loss) or lava tube (low heat loss). Even though the FLOWGO model is not intended to, and cannot, accurately predict the rate of advance of a tube- fed or channel-fed flow, the relative rates of flow advance for steep or flat-lying terrain convey critically important hazard information to the public: communities located on the steeply sloping western flanks of Mauna Loa may have no more than a few hours to evacuate in the face of a threatened flow from Mauna Loa's southwest rift whereas communities on the more gently sloping eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea may have weeks to months to prepare for evacuation. Further, the model also can show the effects of loss of critical infrastructure with consequent impacts on access into and out of communities, loss of electrical supply, and communications as a result of lava flow implacement. The interactive model has been well received in an outreach setting and typically generates greater involvement by the participants than has been the case with static maps

  9. Modelling of transit-time ultrasonic flow meters under multi-phase flow conditions

    Simurda, Matej; Duggen, Lars; Lassen, Benny


    A pseudospectral model for transit time ultrasonic flowmeters under multiphase flow conditions is presented. The method solves first order stress-velocity equations of elastodynamics, with acoustic media being modelled by setting shear modulus to zero. Additional terms to account for the effect...... of the background flow are included. Spatial derivatives are calculated by a Fourier collocation scheme allowing the use of the Fast Fourier transform. The method is compared against analytical solutions and experimental measurements. Additionally, a study of clamp-on and in-line ultrasonic flowmeters operating...



    Jun 30, 2014 ... Modeling is by definition an approximation of reality, so its results are ... The values of lift coefficient were improved after modifications of the .... of static pressure is defined boundary conditions at the origin of the variation of ...

  11. Flow Modelling for partially Cavitating Two-dimensional Hydrofoils

    Krishnaswamy, Paddy


    The present work addresses te computational analysis of partial sheet hydrofoil cavitation in two dimensions. Particular attention is given to the method of simulating the flow at the end of the cavity. A fixed-length partially cavitating panel method is used to predict the height of the re...... of the model and comparing the present calculations with numerical results. The flow around the partially cavitating hydrofoil with a re-entrant jet has also been treated with a viscous/inviscid interactive method. The viscous flow model is based on boundary layer theory applied on the compound foil......, consisting of the union of the cavity and the hydrofoil surface. The change in the flow direction in the cavity closure region is seen to have a slightly adverse effect on the viscous pressure distribution. Otherwise, it is seen that the viscous re-entrant jet solution compares favourably with experimental...

  12. Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.

    Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Graham, Alan Lyman (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Noble, David F. (David Frederick) (.; )); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James (Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael


    As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

  13. SToRM: A numerical model for environmental surface flows

    Simoes, Francisco J.


    SToRM (System for Transport and River Modeling) is a numerical model developed to simulate free surface flows in complex environmental domains. It is based on the depth-averaged St. Venant equations, which are discretized using unstructured upwind finite volume methods, and contains both steady and unsteady solution techniques. This article provides a brief description of the numerical approach selected to discretize the governing equations in space and time, including important aspects of solving natural environmental flows, such as the wetting and drying algorithm. The presentation is illustrated with several application examples, covering both laboratory and natural river flow cases, which show the model’s ability to solve complex flow phenomena.

  14. Recent advances in modeling landslides and debris flows


    Landslides and debris flows belong to the most dangerous natural hazards in many parts of the world. Despite intensive research, these events continue to result in human suffering, property losses, and environmental degradation every year. Better understanding of the mechanisms and processes of landslides and debris flows will help make reliable predictions, develop mitigation strategies and reduce vulnerability of infrastructure. This book presents contributions to the workshop on Recent Developments in the Analysis, Monitoring and Forecast of Landslides and Debris Flow, in Vienna, Austria, September 9, 2013. The contributions cover a broad spectrum of topics from material behavior, physical modelling over numerical simulation to applications and case studies. The workshop is a joint event of three research projects funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program: MUMOLADE (Multiscale modelling of landslides and debris flows,, REVENUES (Numerical Analysis of Slopes with V...

  15. Modeling of the Response Time of Thermal Flow Sensors

    Walter Lang


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a simple theoretical model for the response time of thermal flow sensors. Response time is defined here as the time needed by the sensor output signal to reach 63.2% of amplitude due to a change of fluid flow. This model uses the finite-difference method to solve the heat transfer equations, taking into consideration the transient conduction and convection between the sensor membrane and the surrounding fluid. Program results agree with experimental measurements and explain the response time dependence on the velocity and the sensor geometry. Values of the response time vary from about 5 ms in the case of stagnant flow to 1.5 ms for a flow velocity of 44 m/s.

  16. Synthetic-Eddy Method for Urban Atmospheric Flow Modelling

    Pavlidis, D.; Gorman, G. J.; Gomes, J. L. M. A.; Pain, C. C.; Apsimon, H.


    The computational fluid dynamics code Fluidity, with anisotropic mesh adaptivity, is used as a multi-scale obstacle-accommodating meteorological model. A novel method for generating realistic inlet boundary conditions based on the view of turbulence as a superposition of synthetic eddies is adopted. It is able to reproduce prescribed first-order and second-order one-point statistics and turbulence length scales. The aim is to simulate an urban boundary layer. The model is validated against two standard benchmark tests: a plane channel flow numerical simulation and a flow past a cube physical simulation. The performed large-eddy simulations are in good agreement with both reference models giving confidence that the model can be used to successfully simulate urban atmospheric flows.

  17. Modeling of D-STATCOM in distribution systems load flow


    This paper presents modeling of Distribution STATCOM (D-STATCOM) in load flow calculations for the steadystate voltage compensation. An accurate model for D-STATCOM is derived to use in load flow calculations. The rating of this device as well as the direction of required reactive power injection for voltage compensation in the desired value (1 p.u.) is derived and discussed analytically and mathematically by the phasor diagram method. Furthermore, an efficient method for node and line identification used in load flow calculations is presented. The validity of the proposed model is examined by using two standard distribution systems consisting of 33 and 69 nodes, respectively. The best location of D-STATCOM for under voltage problem mitigation approach in the distribution networks is determined. The results validate the proposed model for DSTATCOM in large distribution systems.

  18. A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow

    Liou, William W.-W.


    A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.

  19. A streamwise constant model of turbulence in plane Couette flow

    Gayme, D. F.; McKeon, B. J.; Papachristodoulou, A.; Bamieh, B; Doyle, J. C.


    Streamwise and quasi-streamwise elongated structures have been shown to play a significant role in turbulent shear flows. We model the mean behaviour of fully turbulent plane Couette flow using a streamwise constant projection of the Navier–Stokes equations. This results in a two-dimensional three-velocity-component (2D/3C) model. We first use a steady-state version of the model to demonstrate that its nonlinear coupling provides the mathematical mechanism that shapes the turbulent velocity p...

  20. Optimal schooling formations using a potential flow model

    Tchieu, Andrew; Gazzola, Mattia; de Brauer, Alexia; Koumoutsakos, Petros


    A self-propelled, two-dimensional, potential flow model for agent-based swimmers is used to examine how fluid coupling affects schooling formation. The potential flow model accounts for fluid-mediated interactions between swimmers. The model is extended to include individual agent actions by means of modifying the circulation of each swimmer. A reinforcement algorithm is applied to allow the swimmers to learn how to school in specified lattice formations. Lastly, schooling lattice configurations are optimized by combining reinforcement learning and evolutionary optimization to minimize total control effort and energy expenditure.

  1. Hydrodynamic modeling of granular flows in a modified Couette cell.

    Jop, Pierre


    We present simulations of granular flows in a modified Couette cell, using a continuum model recently proposed for dense granular flows. Based on a friction coefficient, which depends on an inertial number, the model captures the positions of the wide shear bands. We show that a smooth transition in velocity-profile shape occurs when the height of the granular material is increased, leading to a differential rotation of the central part close to the surface. The numerical predictions are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental results. The model provides predictions for the increase of the shear band width when the rotation rate is increased.

  2. PIV measurements and flow characteristics downstream of mangrove root models

    Kazemi, Amirkhosro; Curet, Oscar


    Mangrove forests attracted attentions as a solution to protect coastal areas exposed to sea-level rising, frequent storms, and tsunamis. Mangrove forests found in tide-dominated flow regions are characterized by their massive and complex root systems, which play a prominent role in the structure of tidal flow currents. To understand the role of mangrove roots in flow structure, we modeled mangrove roots with rigid and flexible arrays of cylinders with different spacing between them as well as different configurations. In this work, we investigate the fluid dynamics downstream of the models using a 2-D time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization. We carried out experiments for four different Reynolds number based on cylinder diameters ranges from 2200 to 12000. We present time-averaged and time-resolved flow parameters including velocity distribution, vorticity, streamline, Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy. The results show that the flow structure has different vortex shedding downstream of the cylinders due to interactions of shear layers separating from cylinders surface. The spectral analysis of the measured velocity data is also performed to obtain Strouhal number of the unsteady flow in the cylinder wake.

  3. Smart licensing and environmental flows: Modeling framework and sensitivity testing

    Wilby, R. L.; Fenn, C. R.; Wood, P. J.; Timlett, R.; Lequesne, T.


    Adapting to climate change is just one among many challenges facing river managers. The response will involve balancing the long-term water demands of society with the changing needs of the environment in sustainable and cost effective ways. This paper describes a modeling framework for evaluating the sensitivity of low river flows to different configurations of abstraction licensing under both historical climate variability and expected climate change. A rainfall-runoff model is used to quantify trade-offs among environmental flow (e-flow) requirements, potential surface and groundwater abstraction volumes, and the frequency of harmful low-flow conditions. Using the River Itchen in southern England as a case study it is shown that the abstraction volume is more sensitive to uncertainty in the regional climate change projection than to the e-flow target. It is also found that "smarter" licensing arrangements (involving a mix of hands off flows and "rising block" abstraction rules) could achieve e-flow targets more frequently than conventional seasonal abstraction limits, with only modest reductions in average annual yield, even under a hotter, drier climate change scenario.

  4. A quasilinear model for solute transport under unsaturated flow

    Houseworth, J.E.; Leem, J.


    We developed an analytical solution for solute transport under steady-state, two-dimensional, unsaturated flow and transport conditions for the investigation of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The two-dimensional, unsaturated flow problem is treated using the quasilinear flow method for a system with homogeneous material properties. Dispersion is modeled as isotropic and is proportional to the effective hydraulic conductivity. This leads to a quasilinear form for the transport problem in terms of a scalar potential that is analogous to the Kirchhoff potential for quasilinear flow. The solutions for both flow and transport scalar potentials take the form of Fourier series. The particular solution given here is for two sources of flow, with one source containing a dissolved solute. The solution method may easily be extended, however, for any combination of flow and solute sources under steady-state conditions. The analytical results for multidimensional solute transport problems, which previously could only be solved numerically, also offer an additional way to benchmark numerical solutions. An analytical solution for two-dimensional, steady-state solute transport under unsaturated flow conditions is presented. A specific case with two sources is solved but may be generalized to any combination of sources. The analytical results complement numerical solutions, which were previously required to solve this class of problems.

  5. Model equations for simulating flows in multistage turbomachinery

    Adamczyk, John J.


    A steady, three dimensional average-passage equation system was derived. The purpose was to simulate multistage turbomachinery flows. These equations describe a steady, viscous flow that is periodic from blade passage to blade passage. Moreover, these equations have a closure problem that is similar to that of the Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes equations. A scaled form of the average-passage equation system could provide an improved mathematical model for simulating the flow in the design and in the off-design conditions of a multistage machine.

  6. Modeling the flow of glaciers in steep terrains

    Egholm, D.L.; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Clark, Chris D.;


    The rugged topography of mountain ranges represents a special challenge to computational ice sheet models simulating past or present glaciations. In mountainous regions, the topography steers glaciers through relatively narrow and steep valleys, and as a consequence hereof, the flow rate of alpine......-style glaciers varies significantly at length scales comparable to that of the topography. Localized flow rate undulations generate longitudinal and transverse stress gradients within the ice, which, in turn, are of known importance to the flow itself, whether by internal deformation of the ice or by basal...

  7. Numerical modeling of multiphase flow in rough and propped fractures

    Dabrowski, Marcin; Dzikowski, Michał; Jasinski, Lukasz; Olkiewicz, Piotr


    crystalline rocks. The detailed pattern of flow paths and effective fracture conductivity are largely dependent on the level of confining stresses and fracture wall roughness, which both determine the shape and distribution of fracture apertures and contact areas. The distribution of proppant grains, which are used to maintain apertures of hydraulic fractures, is a key factor governing fracture flow in industrial applications. The flow of multiphase fluids in narrow apertures of rock fractures may substantially differ from the flow of a single-phase fluid. For example, multiphase flow effects play an important role during all stages of unconventional reservoir life cycle. Multiphase flow conditions are also expected to prevail in high temperature geothermal fields and during the transport of non aqueous phase liquid contaminants in groundwaters. We use direct numerical simulations to study single- and multiphase flow in rough and propped fractures. We compute the fluid flow using either the finite element or the lattice Boltzmann method. Body-fitting, unstructured computational meshes are used to improve the numerical accuracy. The fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces are directly resolved and an implicit approach to surface tension is used to alleviate restrictions due to capillary CFL condition. In FEM simulations, the Beltrami-Laplace operator is integrated by parts to avoid interface curvature computation during evaluation of the surface tension term. We derive and validate an upscaled approach to Stokes flow in propped and rough fractures. Our upscaled 2.5D fracture flow model features a Brinkman term and is capable of treating no-slip boundary conditions on the rims of proppant grains and fracture wall contact areas. The Stokes-Brinkman fracture flow model provides an improvement over the Reynolds model, both in terms of the effective fracture permeability and the local flow pattern. We present numerical and analytical models for the propped fracture

  8. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of three-phase incompressible flows

    Liang, H.; Shi, B. C.; Chai, Z. H.


    In this paper, based on multicomponent phase-field theory we intend to develop an efficient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating three-phase incompressible flows. In this model, two LB equations are used to capture the interfaces among three different fluids, and another LB equation is adopted to solve the flow field, where a new distribution function for the forcing term is delicately designed. Different from previous multiphase LB models, the interfacial force is not used in the computation of fluid velocity, which is more reasonable from the perspective of the multiscale analysis. As a result, the computation of fluid velocity can be much simpler. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, it is shown that the present model can recover exactly the physical formulations for the three-phase system. Numerical simulations of extensive examples including two circular interfaces, ternary spinodal decomposition, spreading of a liquid lens, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are conducted to test the model. It is found that the present model can capture accurate interfaces among three different fluids, which is attributed to its algebraical and dynamical consistency properties with the two-component model. Furthermore, the numerical results of three-phase flows agree well with the theoretical results or some available data, which demonstrates that the present LB model is a reliable and efficient method for simulating three-phase flow problems.

  9. General Separations Area (GSA) Groundwater Flow Model Update: Hydrostratigraphic Data

    Bagwell, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This document describes the assembly, selection, and interpretation of hydrostratigraphic data for input to an updated groundwater flow model for the General Separations Area (GSA; Figure 1) at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is one of several discrete but interrelated tasks that support development of an updated groundwater model (Bagwell and Flach, 2016).

  10. Suspension flow modelling in particle migration and microfiltration

    Vollebregt, H.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Boom, R.M.


    We review existing mixture models for shear-induced migration (SIM) in flowing viscous, concentrated particle suspensions via an analysis of the models from the perspective of a two-fluid formulation. Our analysis shows that particle suspensions in strong non-linear shear fields are a prime example

  11. A Model for Determining School District Cash Flow Needs.

    Dembowski, Frederick L.

    This paper discusses a model to optimize cash management in school districts. A brief discussion of the cash flow pattern of school districts is followed by an analysis of the constraints faced by the school districts in their investment planning process. A linear programming model used to optimize net interest earnings on investments is developed…

  12. Modeling of Nonlinear Marine Cooling Systems with Closed Circuit Flow

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    of container ships. The purpose of the model is to describe the important dynamics of the system, such as nonlinearities, transport delays and closed circuit flow dynamics to enable the model to be used for control design and simulation. The control challenge is related to the highly non-standard type of step...

  13. An Analytical Model of Wake Deflection Due to Shear Flow

    Micallef, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Sant, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.


    The main motivation behind this work is to create a purely analytical engineering model for wind turbine wake upward deflection due to shear flow, by developing a closed form solution of the velocity field due to an oblique vortex ring. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated by comparing the re

  14. A general mixture model for sediment laden flows

    Liang, Lixin; Yu, Xiping; Bombardelli, Fabián


    A mixture model for general description of sediment-laden flows is developed based on an Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow theory, with the aim at gaining computational speed in the prediction, but preserving the accuracy of the complete two-fluid model. The basic equations of the model include the mass and momentum conservation equations for the sediment-water mixture, and the mass conservation equation for sediment. However, a newly-obtained expression for the slip velocity between phases allows for the computation of the sediment motion, without the need of solving the momentum equation for sediment. The turbulent motion is represented for both the fluid and the particulate phases. A modified k-ε model is used to describe the fluid turbulence while an algebraic model is adopted for turbulent motion of particles. A two-dimensional finite difference method based on the SMAC scheme was used to numerically solve the mathematical model. The model is validated through simulations of fluid and suspended sediment motion in steady open-channel flows, both in equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, as well as in oscillatory flows. The computed sediment concentrations, horizontal velocity and turbulent kinetic energy of the mixture are all shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data, and importantly, this is done at a fraction of the computational efforts required by the complete two-fluid model.

  15. Modelling of nitrogen flow and excretion in dairy cows.

    Straalen, van W.M.


    In the Netherlands, the dairy husbandry is held responsible for a major part of the N-pollution of the environment. The objective of this thesis was to develop a model that predicts N flow in the animal and N excretion in faeces, urine and milk in order to reduce unnecessary N losses. The model was

  16. A fuzzy-autoregressive model of daily river flows

    Greco, Roberto


    A model for the identification of daily river flows has been developed, consisting of the combination of an autoregressive model with a fuzzy inference system. The AR model is devoted to the identification of base flow, supposed to be described by linear laws. The fuzzy model identifies the surface runoff, by applying a small set of linguistic statements, deriving from the knowledge of the physical features of the nonlinear rainfall-runoff transformation, to the inflow entering the river basin. The model has been applied to the identification of the daily flow series of river Volturno at Cancello-Arnone (Southern Italy), with a drainage basin of around 5560 km2, observed between 1970 and 1974. The inflow was estimated on the basis of daily precipitations registered during the same years at six rain gauges located throughout the basin. The first two years were used for model training, the remaining three for the validation. The obtained results show that the proposed model provides good predictions of either low river flows or high floods, although the analysis of residuals, which do not turn out to be a white noise, indicates that the cause and effect relationship between rainfall and runoff is not completely identified by the model.

  17. Hazard identification by extended multilevel flow modelling with function roles

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Laibin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    HAZOP studies are widely accepted in chemical and petroleum industries as the method for conducting process hazard analysis related to design, maintenance and operation of th e systems. In this paper, a HAZOP reasoning method based on function-oriented modelling, multilevel flow modelling (MFM) i...

  18. Reduced order modeling of steady flows subject to aerodynamic constraints

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Vendl, Alexander; Goertz, Stefan


    A novel reduced-order modeling method based on proper orthogonal decomposition for predicting steady, turbulent flows subject to aerodynamic constraints is introduced. Model-order reduction is achieved by replacing the governing equations of computational fluid dynamics with a nonlinear weighted ...


    He Ji-huan


    The micropolar fluid model is an essential generalization of the well-established Navier-Stokes model in the sense that it takes into account the microstructure of the fluid.This paper is devolted to establishing a variational principle for 2-D incompressible micropolar blood flow.

  20. Flow Through a Laboratory Sediment Sample by Computer Simulation Modeling


    Flow through a laboratory sediment sample by computer simulation modeling R.B. Pandeya’b*, Allen H. Reeda, Edward Braithwaitea, Ray Seyfarth0, J.F...through a laboratory sediment sample by computer simulation modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S


    王新军; 罗纪生; 周恒


    Physical argument shows that eddy viscosity is essentially different from molecular viscosity. By direct numerical simulation, it was shown that for periodic turbulent flows, there is phase difference between Reynolds stress and rate of strain. This finding posed great challenge to turbulence modeling, because most turbulence modeling, which use the idea of eddy viscosity, do not take this effect into account.

  2. Modeling of the expiratory flow pattern of spontaneously breathing cats

    Walraven, D; van der Grinten, CPM; Bogaard, JM; van der Ent, CK; Luijendijk, SCM


    A mathematical model was developed describing the entire expiratory flow pattern during spontaneous, tidal breathing in the absence of expiratory muscle activity. It provides estimates for the time constants of the respiratory System (tauRS(model)) and of the decay of continuing inspiratory muscle a

  3. The analysis of flow stability in a vortex furance model

    Anufriev Igor S.


    Full Text Available Results of experimental study of the pulsation characteristics of a flow in isothermal model of vortex furnace with vertically oriented nozzles of secondary blast are obtained. With use of laser Doppler measuring system and pressure pulsations analyzer the data about the pressure and velocity pulsations has been received. Spectra of pressure and velocity pulsations at various regime parameters are presented. Absence of non-stationary structures, such as precessing vortex core of a flow, is shown.

  4. Pulsatile flow in a compliant stenosed asymmetric model

    Usmani, Abdullah Y.; Muralidhar, K.


    Time-varying velocity field in an asymmetric constricted tube is experimentally studied using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry system. The geometry resembles a vascular disease which is characterized by arterial narrowing due to plaque deposition. The present study compares the nature of flow patterns in rigid and compliant asymmetric constricted tubes for a range of dimensionless parameters appearing in a human artery. A blood analogue fluid is employed along with a pump that mimics cardioflow conditions. The peak Reynolds number range is Re 300-800, while the Womersley number range considered in experiments is Wo 6-8. These values are based on the peak velocity in a straight rigid tube connected to the model, over a pulsation frequency range of 1.2-2.4 Hz. The medial-plane velocity distribution is used to investigate the nature of flow patterns. Temporal distribution of stream traces and hemodynamic factors including WSS, TAWSS and OSI at important phases of the pulsation cycle are discussed. The flow patterns obtained from PIV are compared to a limited extent against numerical simulation. Results show that the region downstream of the constriction is characterized by a high-velocity jet at the throat, while a recirculation zone, attached to the wall, evolves in time. Compliant models reveal large flow disturbances upstream during the retrograde flow. Wall shear stress values are lower in a compliant model as compared to the rigid. Cross-plane flow structures normal to the main flow direction are visible at select phases of the cycle. Positive values of largest Lyapunov exponent are realized for wall movement and are indicative of chaotic motion transferred from the flow to the wall. These exponents increase with Reynolds number as well as compliance. Period doubling is observed in wall displacement of highly compliant models, indicating possible triggering of hemodynamic events in a real artery that may cause fissure in the plaque deposits.

  5. Model problem of MHD flow in a lithium blanket

    Cherepanov, V.Y.


    A model problem is considered for a feasibility study concerning controlled MHD flow in the blanket of a Tokamak nuclear reactor. The fundamental equations for the steady flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a uniform transverse magnetic field are solved in rectangular coordinates, in the zero-induction approximation and with negligible induced currents. A numerical solution obtained for a set of appropriate boundary constraints establishes the conditions under which no stagnation zones will be formed.

  6. A droplet entrainment model for horizontal segregated flows

    Höhne, Thomas, E-mail: [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) – Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Hänsch, Susann [Imperial College, Department of Mechanical Engineering, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • We further developed the flow morphology detection model AIAD. • An advanced droplet entrainment model was introduced. • The new approach is applied against HAWAC experiments. - Abstract: One limitation in simulating horizontal segregated flows is that there is no treatment of droplet formation mechanisms at wavy surfaces. For self-generating waves and slugs, the interfacial momentum exchange and the turbulence parameters have to be modeled correctly. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism of droplet entrainment for heat and mass transfer processes is of great importance in the chemical and nuclear industry. The development of general computational fluid dynamics models is an essential precondition for the application of CFD codes to the modeling of flow related phenomena. The new formulation for the interfacial drag at the free surface and turbulence parameters within the algebraic interfacial area density model (AIAD) represents one step toward a more physical description of free surface flows including less empiricism. The AIAD approach allows the use of different physical models depending on the local fluid morphology inside a macro-scale multi-fluid framework. A further step of improving the modeling of free interfaces lies within the consideration of droplet entrainment mechanisms. In this paper a new sub-grid entrainment model is proposed, which assumes that due to liquid turbulence the interface gets rough and wavy leading to the formation of droplets. Therefore, the droplet entrainment model requires the consideration of an additional droplet phase, which is described with an own set of balance equations in the spirit of the particle model. Two local key factors determine the rate of droplet entrainment: the liquid turbulent kinetic energy as well as the outward velocity gradient of the liquid relative to the interface motion. The new droplet entrainment approach is included into CFD simulations for attempting to reproduce existing

  7. Quick-Mixing Studies Under Reacting Conditions

    Leong, May Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.


    The low-NO(x) emitting potential of rich-burn/quick-mix/lean-burn )RQL) combustion makes it an attractive option for engines of future stratospheric aircraft. Because NO(x) formation is exponentially dependent on temperature, the success of the RQL combustor depends on minimizing high temperature stoichiometric pocket formation in the quick-mixing section. An experiment was designed and built, and tests were performed to characterize reaction and mixing properties of jets issuing from round orifices into a hot, fuel-rich crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct. The reactor operates on propane and presents a uniform, non-swirling mixture to the mixing modules. Modules consisting of round orifice configurations of 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, and 18 holes were evaluated at a momentum-flux ratio of 57 and jet-to-mainstream mass-flaw ratio of 2.5. Temperatures and concentrations of O2, CO2, CO, HC, and NO(x) were obtained upstream, down-stream, and within the orifice plane to determine jet penetration as well as reaction processes. Jet penetration was a function of the number of orifices and affected the mixing in the reacting system. Of the six configurations tested, the 14-hole module produced jet penetration close to the module half-radius and yielded the best mixing and most complete combustion at a plane one duct diameter from the orifice leading edge. The results reveal that substantial reaction and heat release occur in the jet mixing zone when the entering effluent is hot and rich, and that the experiment as designed will serve to explore satisfactorily jet mixing behavior under realistic reacting conditions in future studies.

  8. Groundwater flow through a natural fracture. Flow experiments and numerical modelling

    Larsson, Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Geology


    Groundwater flow and transport play an important role not only for groundwater exploration but also in environmental engineering problems. This report considers how the hydraulic properties of fractures in crystalline rock depend on the fracture aperture geometry. Different numerical models are discussed and a FDM computer code for two- and three- dimensional flow-modelling has been developed. Different relations between the cells in the model are tested and compared with results in the literature. A laboratory experimental work has been done to carry out flow experiments and aperture measurements on the same specimen of a natural fracture. The drilled core sample had fractures parallel to the core axis and was placed inside a biaxial cell during the experiments. The water pressure gradient and the compression stress were varied during the experiments and also a tracer test was done. After the flow experiments, the aperture distribution for a certain compression was measured by injecting an epoxy resin into the fracture. The thickness of the resin layer was then studied in saw cut sections of the sample. The results from the experiments were used to validate numerical and analytical models, based on aperture distribution, for flow and transport simulations. In the disturbed zone around a drift both water and air are present in the fractures. The gas will go to the most wide part of the fracture because the capillarity and the conductivity decrease. The dependence of the effective conductivity on the variance of the conductivity and the effect of extinction of highly conductive cells has also been studied. A discussion of how gas in fractures around a drift can cause a skin effect is modelled and an example is given of what a saturation depending on the magnitude of the flow causes. 25 refs, 17 tabs, 43 figs.


    姜锐; 吴清松; 朱祚金


    The analyses of kinematic wave properties of a new dynamics model for traffic flow are carried out. The model does not exhibit the problem that one characteristic speed is always greater than macroscopic traffic speed, and therefore satisfies the requirement that traffic flow is anisotropic. Linear stability analysis shows that the model is stable under certain condition and the condition is obtained. The analyses also indicate that the model has a hierarchy of first-and second-order waves, and allows the existence of both smooth traveling wave and shock wave. However, the model has a distinctive criterion of shock wave compared with other dynamics models, and the distinction makes the model more realistic in dealing with some traffic problems such as wrong-way travel analysis.

  10. Modelling density segregation in flowing bidisperse granular materials

    Xiao, Hongyi; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.


    Preventing segregation in flowing granular mixtures is an ongoing challenge for industrial processes that involve the handling of bulk solids. A recent continuum-based modelling approach accurately predicts spatial concentration fields in a variety of flow geometries for mixtures varying in particle size. This approach captures the interplay between advection, diffusion and segregation using kinematic information obtained from experiments and/or discrete element method (DEM) simulations combined with an empirically determined relation for the segregation velocity. Here, we extend the model to include density-driven segregation, thereby validating the approach for the two important cases of practical interest. DEM simulations of density bidisperse flows of mono-sized particles in a quasi-two-dimensional-bounded heap were performed to determine the dependence of the density-driven segregation velocity on local shear rate and particle concentration. The model yields theoretical predictions of segregation patterns that quantitatively match the DEM simulations over a range of density ratios and flow rates. Matching experiments reproduce the segregation patterns and quantitative segregation profiles obtained in both the simulations and the model, thereby demonstrating that the modelling approach captures the essential physics of density-driven segregation in granular heap flow.

  11. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik


    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  12. Testing of models of flow-induced hemolysis in blood flow through hypodermic needles.

    Chen, Yangsheng; Kent, Timothy L; Sharp, M Keith


    Hemolysis caused by flow in hypodermic needles interferes with a number of tests on blood samples drawn by venipuncture, including assays for metabolites, electrolytes, and enzymes, causes discomfort during dialysis sessions, and limits transfusion flow rates. To evaluate design modifications to address this problem, as well as hemolysis issues in other cardiovascular devices, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based prediction of hemolysis has potential for reducing the time and expense for testing of prototypes. In this project, three CFD-integrated blood damage models were applied to flow-induced hemolysis in 16-G needles and compared with experimental results, which demonstrated that a modified needle with chamfered entrance increased hemolysis, while a rounded entrance decreased hemolysis, compared with a standard needle with sharp entrance. After CFD simulation of the steady-state velocity field, the time histories of scalar stress along a grid of streamlines were calculated. A strain-based cell membrane failure model and two empirical power-law blood damage models were used to predict hemolysis on each streamline. Total hemolysis was calculated by weighting the predicted hemolysis along each streamline by the flow rate along each streamline. The results showed that only the strain-based blood damage model correctly predicted increased hemolysis in the beveled needle and decreased hemolysis in the rounded needle, while the power-law models predicted the opposite trends. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Modeling and Prediction of Hot Deformation Flow Curves

    Mirzadeh, Hamed; Cabrera, Jose Maria; Najafizadeh, Abbas


    The modeling of hot flow stress and prediction of flow curves for unseen deformation conditions are important in metal-forming processes because any feasible mathematical simulation needs accurate flow description. In the current work, in an attempt to summarize, generalize, and introduce efficient methods, the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) flow curves of a 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel, a medium carbon microalloyed steel, and a 304 H austenitic stainless steel were modeled and predicted using (1) a hyperbolic sine equation with strain dependent constants, (2) a developed constitutive equation in a simple normalized stress-normalized strain form and its modified version, and (3) a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). These methods were critically discussed, and the ANN technique was found to be the best for the modeling available flow curves; however, the developed constitutive equation showed slightly better performance than that of ANN and significantly better predicted values than those of the hyperbolic sine equation in prediction of flow curves for unseen deformation conditions.

  14. Flow regimes and mechanistic modeling of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions

    Le Corre, Jean-Marie

    Thermal performance of heat flux controlled boiling heat exchangers are usually limited by the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) above which the heat transfer degrades quickly, possibly leading to heater overheating and destruction. In an effort to better understand the phenomena, a literature review of CHF experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available data. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. It is postulated that a high local wall superheat occurs locally in a dry area of the heated wall, due to a cyclical event inherent to the considered CHF two-phase flow regime, preventing rewetting (Leidenfrost effect). The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow. A numerical model using a two-dimensional transient thermal analysis of the heater undergoing nucleation was developed to mechanistically predict CHF in the case of a bubbly flow regime. In this type of CHF two-phase flow regime, the high local wall superheat occurs underneath a nucleating bubble at the time of bubble departure. The model simulates the spatial and temporal heater temperature variations during nucleation at the wall, accounting for the stochastic nature of the boiling phenomena. The model has also the potential to evaluate

  15. Regionalized rainfall-runoff model to estimate low flow indices

    Garcia, Florine; Folton, Nathalie; Oudin, Ludovic


    Estimating low flow indices is of paramount importance to manage water resources and risk assessments. These indices are derived from river discharges which are measured at gauged stations. However, the lack of observations at ungauged sites bring the necessity of developing methods to estimate these low flow indices from observed discharges in neighboring catchments and from catchment characteristics. Different estimation methods exist. Regression or geostatistical methods performed on the low flow indices are the most common types of methods. Another less common method consists in regionalizing rainfall-runoff model parameters, from catchment characteristics or by spatial proximity, to estimate low flow indices from simulated hydrographs. Irstea developed GR2M-LoiEau, a conceptual monthly rainfall-runoff model, combined with a regionalized model of snow storage and melt. GR2M-LoiEau relies on only two parameters, which are regionalized and mapped throughout France. This model allows to cartography monthly reference low flow indices. The inputs data come from SAFRAN, the distributed mesoscale atmospheric analysis system, which provides daily solid and liquid precipitation and temperature data from everywhere in the French territory. To exploit fully these data and to estimate daily low flow indices, a new version of GR-LoiEau has been developed at a daily time step. The aim of this work is to develop and regionalize a GR-LoiEau model that can provide any daily, monthly or annual estimations of low flow indices, yet keeping only a few parameters, which is a major advantage to regionalize them. This work includes two parts. On the one hand, a daily conceptual rainfall-runoff model is developed with only three parameters in order to simulate daily and monthly low flow indices, mean annual runoff and seasonality. On the other hand, different regionalization methods, based on spatial proximity and similarity, are tested to estimate the model parameters and to simulate

  16. Analytical model of interaction of tide and river flow

    Phairot Chatanantavet


    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic characteristics of a river resulting from interaction of tide and river flow are important since problems regarding flood, salinity intrusion, water quality and sedimentation are ubiquitous. The lower reach of the river strongly influenced by tides from the sea, when interacting with river flows, results in a complicated pattern which is simplified to its interaction with four main constituents of tides obtained from harmonic analysis. An analytical model is developed in this study for simulating the hydrodynamic processes in estuarine waters, with the emphasis being given to the interaction between tides and river flows. The perturbation method is used to derive the analytical solution, in which the estuarine flow is separated into steady and unsteady components. Thus the analytical solutions derived consist of two distinct parts; one represents the influence of river flows and the other represents the influence of tides. The application of the model to a case study, the Chao Phraya river, which requires a time series of discharges and loadings at the river mouth to model water quality in the Gulf of Thailand, shows that the model can beautifully and completely simulate the hydrodynamic features of tide and river flow interaction especially in the rainy season when the river discharge is high. Data of tidal discharges are scarce because of high cost of measurement especially in the lower reach of the river strongly influenced by tides from the sea. From this study of relation between tidal discharges and tides, the analytical model can compute tidal discharges from tides correctly. The results of tides and tidal flow can subsequently be used to calculate eddy viscosity and dispersion coefficient for describing salinity and water quality profiles.

  17. A flamelet model for turbulent diffusion combustion in supersonic flow

    LEE; ChunHian


    In order to develop a turbulent diffusion combustion model for supersonic flow, the physical argument of the extension of the flamelet model to supersonic flow was presented, and the flow field of a hydrogen/air diffusion combustion generated by axisymmetric supersonic jets was numerically simulated by employing the flamelet model. Using the experimental data, value of the model coefficient of scalar dissipation in the flamelet model was revised specifically for supersonic flow. The computational results of the modified flamelet model were compared with the experimental results, and it was indicated that the precision of the modified flamelet model was satisfying. Based on the numerical results and flamelet theory, the influence mechanisms of turbulence fluctuation on the average state equation and chemical reaction rate were studied for the first time. It was found that the fluctuation correlation of species mass fractions and temperature has little effect on the averaged gas state equation; the temperature fluctuation decreases the product of H2O, but its effect is small; the fluctuation of species mass fractions increases the product of H2O in the region close to oxidizer while decreases the product of H2O in other regions; the fluctuation correlation of species mass fractions and temperature largely decreases the product of H2O.

  18. A cellular automaton model for ship traffic flow in waterways

    Qi, Le; Zheng, Zhongyi; Gang, Longhui


    With the development of marine traffic, waterways become congested and more complicated traffic phenomena in ship traffic flow are observed. It is important and necessary to build a ship traffic flow model based on cellular automata (CAs) to study the phenomena and improve marine transportation efficiency and safety. Spatial discretization rules for waterways and update rules for ship movement are two important issues that are very different from vehicle traffic. To solve these issues, a CA model for ship traffic flow, called a spatial-logical mapping (SLM) model, is presented. In this model, the spatial discretization rules are improved by adding a mapping rule. And the dynamic ship domain model is considered in the update rules to describe ships' interaction more exactly. Take the ship traffic flow in the Singapore Strait for example, some simulations were carried out and compared. The simulations show that the SLM model could avoid ship pseudo lane-change efficiently, which is caused by traditional spatial discretization rules. The ship velocity change in the SLM model is consistent with the measured data. At finally, from the fundamental diagram, the relationship between traffic ability and the lengths of ships is explored. The number of ships in the waterway declines when the proportion of large ships increases.

  19. A new CFD modeling method for flow blockage accident investigations

    Fan, Wenyuan, E-mail:; Peng, Changhong, E-mail:; Chen, Yangli, E-mail:; Guo, Yun, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Porous-jump treatment is applied to CFD simulation on flow blockages. • Porous-jump treatment predicts consistent results with direct CFD treatment. • Relap5 predicts abnormal flow rate profiles in MTR SFA blockage scenario. • Relap5 fails to simulate annular heat flux in blockage case of annular assembly. • Porous-jump treatment provides reasonable and generalized CFD results. - Abstract: Inlet flow blockages in both flat and annular plate-type fuel assemblies are simulated by (Computational Fluid Dynamics) CFD and system analysis methods, with blockage ratio ranging from 60 to 90%. For all the blockage scenarios, mass flow rate of the blocked channel drops dramatically as blockage ratio increases, while mass flow rates of non-blocked channels are almost steady. As a result of over-simplifications, the system code fails to capture details of mass flow rate profiles of non-blocked channels and power redistribution of fuel plates. In order to acquire generalized CFD results, a new blockage modeling method is developed by using the porous-jump condition. For comparisons, direct CFD simulations are conducted toward postulated blockages. For the porous-jump treatment, conservative flow and heat transfer conditions are predicted for the blocked channel, while consistent predictions are obtained for non-blocked channels. Besides, flow fields in the blocked channel, asymmetric power redistributions of fuel plates, and complex heat transfer phenomena in annular fuel assembly are obtained and discussed. The present study indicates that the porous-jump condition is a reasonable blockage modeling method, which predicts generalized CFD results for flow blockages.

  20. An experimental and numerical study of confined non-reacting and reacting turbulent jets to facilitate homogeneous combustion in industrial furnaces

    Lee, Insu

    Confined non-reacting turbulent jets are ideal for recirculating the hot flue gas back into the furnace from an external exhaust duct. Such jets are also used inside the furnace to internally entrain and recirculate the hot flue gas to preheat and dilute the reactants. Both internal and external implementation of confined turbulent jets increase the furnace thermal efficiency. For external implementation, depending on the circumstances, the exhaust gas flow may be co- or counter-flow relative to the jet flow. Inside the furnaces, fuel and air jets are injected separately. To create a condition which can facilitate near homogeneous combustion, these jets have to first mix with the burned gas inside the furnace and simultaneously being heated and diluted prior to combustion. Clearly, the combustion pattern and emissions from reacting confined turbulent jets are affected by jet interactions, mixing and entrainment of hot flue gas. In this work, the flow and mixing characteristics of a non-reacting and reacting confined turbulent jet are investigated experimentally and numerically. This work consists of two parts: (i) A study of flow and mixing characteristics of non-reacting confined turbulent jets with co- or counter-flowing exhaust/flue gas. Here the axial and radial distributions of temperature, velocity and NO concentration (used as a tracer gas) were measured. FLUENT was used to numerically simulate the experimental results. This work provides the basic understanding of the flow and mixing characteristics of confined turbulent jets and develops some design considerations for recirculating flue gas back into the furnace as expressed by the recirculation zone and the stagnation locations. (ii) Numerical calculations of near homogeneous combustion are performed for the existing furnace. The exact geometry of the furnace in the lab is used and the real dimensional boundary conditions are considered. The parameters such as air nozzle diameter (dair), fuel nozzle