Sample records for reacteurs ungg avant

  1. Mechanical, chemical and radiological characterization of the graphite of the UNGG reactors type; Caracterisation mecanique, chimique et radiologique du graphite des reacteurs de la filiere UNGG

    Bresard, I.; Bonal, J.P


    In the framework of UNGG reactors type dismantling procedures, the characterization of the graphite, used as moderator, has to be realized. This paper presents the mechanical, chemical and radiological characterizations, the properties measured and gives some results in the case of the Bugey 1 reactor. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nuclear reactor (1960); Reacteurs nucleaires (1960)

    Maillard, M.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Leo, M.B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    The first French plutonium-making reactors G1, G2 and G3 built at Marcoule research center are linked to a power plant. The G1 electrical output does not offset the energy needed for operating this reactor. On the contrary, reactors G2 and G3 will each generate a net power of 25 to 30 MW, which will go into the EDF grid. This power is relatively small, but the information obtained from operation is great and will be helpful for starting up the power reactor EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3. The paper describes how, previous to any starting-up operation, the tests performed, especially those concerned with the power plant and the pressure vessel, have helped to bring the commissioning date closer. (author) [French] Les premiers reacteurs industriels plutonigenes francais G1 - G2 - G3 du Centre de Marcoule comportent une installation de recuperation d'energie. La production d'electricite de G1 ne compense pas l'energie depensee par ailleurs pour le fonctionnement de l'ensemble, par contre, G2 et G3 doivent fournir chacun une puissance de 25 a 30 MW au reseau national d'Electricite de France. Cette puissance est modeste, mais l'experience acquise grace a ces reacteurs est tres grande et c'est grace a elle qu'il nous sera possible de mettre en exploitation les reacteurs energetiques EDF1 - EDF2 - EDF3. Le memoire decrit comment, avant tout demarrage du reacteur, les essais effectues, en particulier ceux concernant l'installation de recuperation d'energie et le caisson, ont permis d'abreger la phase de montee en puissance. (auteur)

  3. Avant-Garde vs. 'Avant-Garde'

    Hansen, Kamma Overgaard


    to address earlier Avant-Garde phenomena, eg. the painting style and mask motives of the CoBrA movement, and figures obviously referring to Dada, Surrealism and the works of Joseph Beuys. Also, the 1980s artists facilitated numerous other activities familiar to the 1960s art scene. Consequently......In their formative years, and subsequently, the Danish ‘young wild’ artists of the early 1980s were regarded “rebels against the rebellion” with clear address to 1960s Avant-Garde artists and their rebellion against the art institution. This 1980s ‘rebellion against the rebellion’ is generally...... defined by the artists’ eagerness to reclaim the museums as Art institutions with a capital A and especially by their return to painting as genre, which by Peter Bürger has been characterized as “a non-critical return to table painting” . Examining their paintings, however, a clear tendency is revealed...


    Petre Gheorghe BÂRLEA


    Full Text Available The effects the Avant-garde had on the way of thinking of people belonging to various cultures and professions were bigger than expected. The fact that there were Dada promoters who belonged to nations of Latin origin, such as Tr. Tzara and G. M. Teles, led future theoreticians to advocate the idea of a Latin union which - through joint cultural actions - could change the entire political, economic, and spiritual life.

  5. Corrosion Behaviour of Mg Alloys in Various Basic Media: Application of Waste Encapsulation of Fuel Decanning from UNGG Nuclear Reactor

    Lambertin, David; Frizon, Fabien; Blachere, Adrien; Bart, Florence

    The dismantling of UNGG nuclear reactor generates a large volume of fuel decanning. These materials are based on Mg-Zr alloy. The dismantling strategy could be to encapsulate these wastes into an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) or geopolymer (aluminosilicate material) in a form suitable for storage. Studies have been performed on Mg or Mg-Al alloy in basic media but no data are available on Mg-Zr behaviour. The influence of representative pore solution of both OPC and geopolymer with Mg-Zr alloy has been studied on corrosion behaviour. Electrochemical methods have been used to determine the corrosion densities at room temperature. Results show that the corrosion densities of Mg-Zr alloy in OPC solution is one order of magnitude more important than in a geopolymer solution environment and the effect of an inhibiting agent has been undertaken with Mg-Zr alloy. Evaluation of corrosion hydrogen production during the encapsulation of Mg-Zr alloy in both OPC and geopolymer has also been done.

  6. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    Degn Johansson, Troels


    This paper seeks to discuss in serious terms a statement made in the late 1980ies by Danish film director Lars von Trier—that Danish pop-duo Laid Back for him, at the time, should be considered a prominent example of contemporary avant-garde art. At the time, von Triers’ statement was deliberately...... controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...

  7. Die Asta and the Avant-Garde

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning


    The Danish film actress, Asta Nielsen, who became the first world famous film star after her success with The Abyss (1910), had a remarcable influence on what became the European avant-garde.......The Danish film actress, Asta Nielsen, who became the first world famous film star after her success with The Abyss (1910), had a remarcable influence on what became the European avant-garde....

  8. Avant-Garde, Aestheticization and the Economy

    Michael Müller


    Full Text Available It would very much seem as though the avant-garde in post-war Germany had initially lost sight of the previously politically grounded programmatic narratives. Moreover, it seemed quite obsolete to insist on the destruction of the affirmative. After all, had it not been the Nazis who had pursued such destruction far more successfully than the avant-gardes before them, albeit with completely opposite goals in mind?For this reason, it seemed so compelling to regard the restoration of the avant-garde via the renewed recourse to the autonomy of art as an expression of an anti-fascist stance. The linkage of emancipation of individual subjectivity and radical social change called for by the avant-gardes now collapses once again. In the years that followed, the conservative cultural position repeatedly turned on attempts to closely link aesthetic innovation with social change.This taming of a recalcitrant art was followed in the early 1970s, after a brief intermezzo at the end of the 1960s, by talk of the failure of the avant-garde, before being subjected to outrageous defamation ten years later (particularly in architecture.The question of whether today the universalization of the aesthetic has indirectly realized the hopes of the avant-gardes of an aesthetics of and in lived practice, will be the subject of my remarks.

  9. The Unheard Avant-garde in Scandinavia

    Søndergaard, Morten


    Broadcast Company, Design University in Kolding and Aalborg University in Copenhagen). The Unheard Avant-garde is the title of a research-project in the context of the Danish Infrastructure Project LARM, which generally focuses on sound- and radio culture in archives. The Unheard Avant-garde research...... project is about the things and experiments that never made it into the archives – and how to make it possible to re-enter them into the public memory and -spheres of post-digital culture. However, the Unheard Avant-gardes project is more than ‘just’ an archive project. It is as much a re...... playing with the perception of presence and space, and it is nothing within the art-category without being experienced. Thus, sound art practices, as most media art practices, become ‘unheard’ (of) in archives. It flies beneath the radar of cultural memory and knowledge like a sub-mediated parallel...

  10. Scouting the Desert of the Real: Avant-Gardism of the Avant-Pop

    Mojca Krevel


    Full Text Available The paper examines the legacy of the European historical Avant-Gardes from the perspective of the shift of paradigms immanent in the formation of the Postmodern epoch. The existing theories generally regard the Avant-Gardes as an unsuccessful attempt to redefine the function of art in the social, cultural and economic environment of the early 20th century. Examining the productivity and relevance of the historical Avant-Gardes from the perspective of the Avant-Pop, the first thoroughly Postmodern literary movement, I intend to show how the strategies of fragmentation and the breaking of organicity not only quintessentially defined the manner in which Modernity and its art came to an end, but how they also provided the basis forthe formation of culture and art that no longer functions according to Cartesian principles.

  11. Determination of local boiling in light water reactors by correlation of the neutron noise; Determination de l'ebullition locale dans les reacteurs a eau legere par correlation du bruit neutronique

    Zwingelstein, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The power limit of swimming-pool type reactors depends on the phenomenon of the appearance of burn-out. In order to determine this limit we have attempted to detect the local boiling which usually occurs before the burn out. Local boiling has been simulated by an electrically heated plate placed in the core of the reactor Siloette. The study of local boiling, which is based on the properties of the correlation functions for the neutron noise of detectors placed in the core, shows that a privileged frequency occurs in the power spectrum of the noise. It is intended in the future to determine the influence of various parameters on this characteristic frequency. (author) [French] La limitation de la puissance des reacteurs nucleaires de type piscine est due au phenomene d'apparition de 'burn out'. Pour determiner cette limitation, nous nous sommes proposes dans ce rapport de detecter l'ebullition locale qui apparait generalement avant le 'burn out'. L'ebullition locale a ete simulee par une plaque chauffee electriquement et placee dans le coeur du reacteur SILOETTE. L'etude de l'ebullition locale, qui est basee sur les proprietes des fonctions de correlation du bruit neutronique de detecteurs places clans le coeur, fait apparaitre une frequence privilegiee dans le spectre de puissance du bruit. On envisage dans l'avenir, de determiner l'influence des divers parametres sur cette frequence caracteristique. (auteur)

  12. Narrating and Critiquing the Avant-Garde in Contemporary China

    Strafella, Giorgio; Berg, DPhil (Oxon), Daria


    The paper discusses the issue of how to understand the assimilation and reception of avant-garde languages in contemporary China, with particular reference to contemporary art. The first part aims at re-assessing the roots of avant-garde art and performance art in Europe and China, starting from a critique of established actor-less narratives in intellectual and art historiography such as 'influx', 'arrival' and 'invasion'. The history of avant-garde languages in China is re-visited from the ...

  13. Montage and Spectator: Eisenstein and the Avant-Garde

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente


    This article aims to understand the theory of montage in the aesthetics os S.M. Eisenstein. For so doing, it bring toghether a series os expressions of the avant-garde tending to excentrism, as well in literary theory as in theatre or cinema. From Sklovsky's ostratenie to FEKS' excentrism, the models of circus seems to inform the first Eisenstein's poetics of attraction. Nevertheless, Eisenstein plays on the recentralization to attain a final effect, that differentiates him from other avant-g...

  14. AvantGuard: An Instrument to Explore Issues of Autonomy


    optimize situation awareness, reaction time and engagement. AvantGuard explores a variety of techniques familiar to gainers. 4.1 Cinematography Attention...adaptive strategy. Using sophisticated game techniques , a high-performance UAV simulation game prototype was developed, as well as the design for the...simulation, training and eventual execution. By employing sophisticated game techniques , AvantGuard advances an innovative design. By considering the

  15. The Pegase reactor loops; Les boucles du reacteur Pegase



    After 4 years operation, experimentation and maintenance of the gas loops built especially for the nuclear fuel testing reactor Pegase, it appears desirable not only to gather together in a single document the essential characteristics and particularities of these devices and of their associated equipment, but also to give the reasons for the technical modifications and the way in which they were carried out; this is done here by the persons themselves who were responsible, day after day, for operating these loops. This essentially practically experience thus complements the careful research and preliminary testing carried out on these loops or on their prototypes. It should be of interest to those who deal with problems concerned with the design or operation of irradiation loops in experimental reactors or of similar equipment. (authors) [French] Apres 4 annees de fonctionnement, d'experimentation et d'entretien sur les boucles a gaz, construites specialement pour le reacteur d'essai des combustibles nucleaires Pegase, il a paru souhaitable non seulement de rassembler dans un meme document les caracteristiques et les particularites essentielles de ces dispositifs et des appareillages qui leur sont associes, mais aussi d'y preciser les raisons et les modalites des mises au point techniques, apportees par ceux qui, jour apres jour pendant cette periode, ont eu la charge de mettre en oeuvre ces boucles. Cette experience essentiellement pratique complete donc les etudes minutieuses et les essais preliminaires de ces boucles ou de leurs prototypes. Elle doit etre de quelque interet pour ceux qui sont confrontes aux problemes de conception ou d'exploitation de boucles d'irradiation dans des reacteurs experimentaux ou des dispositifs analogues. (auteurs)

  16. AvantGuard: exploring the distribution of autonomy

    Jacobson, Dov


    Every war introduces a new round of tactics and technologies. Our present war might be characterized as a confrontation between the Suicide Bomber and the Unmanned Air Vehicle. AvantGuard models this confrontation and exposes it to study. It is a computer game in which UAVs are used to protect a convoy in hostile urban terrain. Adversaries hide among the residents and prepare an ambush. The operator directs small UAVs and studies the resulting sensor stream. He must find the ambush before the convoy arrives. AvantGuard serves those who seek to improve the effectiveness of the UAV mission. It is an instrument with which researchers can measure performance as they develop new systems. AvantGuard is particularly designed to study the interplay of human supervisor and autonomous UAVs. Its cognitive challenges are organized into distinct tasks. For each task, the autonomy level of the UAV is set independently. Calibrated to established standards, results are easily compared to one another and to the findings of other researchers. By addressing real-world problems, such as battlefield constraints on bandwidth and the limits of machine vision, AvantGuard presents a credible approach to mission simulation, training and eventual execution. By employing sophisticated game techniques, AvantGuard advances an innovative design. By considering the post-combat role of the military, it prepares an instrument to advance the goals of peace as well as those of war.

  17. 9/11 as Avant-Garde Art?

    Richard Schechner


    Full Text Available Can the attacks of 9/11 be considered an avant-garde artistic event? This article aims to discuss, from the point of view of the intentionality of the act and of its reception, the performative character of that historical fact. To carry forward this intent, it presents a historical overview of avant-garde art, and discusses some of the historical and cultural conditions that supposedly operated as triggers of such an event. The text also focuses on the spectacular character of the event and the conditions for its appreciation in a society greatly delimited by the media.

  18. A Cultural History of the Avant-Garde in the Nordic Countries 1900-1925

    The first publication to deal with the avant-garde in the Nordic countries at the start of the twentieth century. It is the first major historical work to consider the Nordic avant-garde in a transnational perspective which includes all the arts and to discuss the role of the avant-garde not only...

  19. John Zorn: Autonomy and the Avant-Garde (excerpt

    Ted Gordon


    Full Text Available This essay is an excerpt for a larger paper exploring the concept of autonomy as it emerges in the life and work of the composer, performer, record label executive and club-owner John Zorn. Zorn’s activities over his wide-ranging career span from performing at jazz lofts in the 1970s to winning the MacArthur “genius” grant in 2008, while maintaining his status as a prolific composer and producer of avant-garde music. In interviews, documentaries, and in his music, Zorn often comments on his status as an avant-garde producer, specifically within the context of the record industry and within New York City’s so-called “Downtown” scene. Economics take the forefront in determining artistic attitudes towards both production of music and the music itself, as Zorn has, seemingly, been forced by the “mainstream market” to create a parallel, vertically-integrated economic system to support the livelihood of himself and his collaborators. This excerpt, from the first third of the essay, unpacks Zorn’s relationship with Downtown scene, his conception of the avant-garde, and his attitude towards artists who have set precedents for Zorn’s version of autonomous cultural production. It also notes the idiosyncratic way that both Zorn and his critics have placed Zorn’s music both within and without two distinct traditions: Avant-Garde composition and free Jazz.

  20. Cosmologie L'Univers avant le Big Bang

    Rouat, Sylvie


    Tout n'a pas commencé par une explosion. L'histoire du cosmos avait débuté bien avant le Big Bang, si l'on suit la théorie défendue par les partisans d'une nouvelle cosmologie issue de la mystérieuse théorie des cordes

  1. The fast breeder reactor Rapsodie (1962); Le reacteur rapide surregenerateur rapsodie (1962)

    Vautrey, L.; Zaleski, C.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In this report, the authors describe the Rapsodie project, the French fast breeder reactor, as it stands at construction actual start-up. The paper provides informations about: the principal neutronic and thermal characteristics, the reactor and its cooling circuits, the main handling devices of radioactive or contaminated assemblies, the principles and means governing reactor operation, the purposes and locations of miscellaneous buildings. Rapsodie is expected to be critical by 1964. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport, les auteurs font le point du projet RAPSODIE (reacteur francais surregenerateur a neutrons rapides), au moment du debut effectif de sa construction. On y trouvera decrits: les principales caracteristiques neutroniques et thermiques, le bloc pile et les circuits de refroidissement, les principaux moyens de manutention des ensembles actifs ou contamines, les principes et les moyens qui regissent la conduite du reacteur, les fonctions et l'implantation des divers batiments. La divergence de RAPSODIE est prevue pour 1964. (auteurs)

  2. Ezra Pound's Subject Matter and the Poetic Avant-Garde

    C. M. Foltz


    Full Text Available This paper explores Ezra Pound’s poetics in light of certain American avant-garde poetic schools who claim literary inheritance from him. Specifically, critics in the 1970s to 1990s attempted to redefine Pound’s ars poetica strictly in political terms without acknowledging numerous essays in which he remained apolitical with respect to poetry. In addition to this, Pound’s conception of poetic meter and other theoretical bases are explored. Some of these include Pound’s belief that subject matter is the source of poetic form, and that authorial intention is intimately related to how cultures promote values and a literary tradition. Though Pound is named as a predecessor of American avant-garde-ism, this paper explores how these connections are more tenuous than previously accepted by the academy.

  3. Avant-garde: Making war, revolutionary politics and art

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana


    Full Text Available In the article the authors are dealing with the militant potential of the concept of avant-garde. Emerging in the politics and art in the first half of the 19th century and designed to ruin almost the whole tradition of 'bourgeois' enlightenment, political and artistic avant-garde was never capable of emancipating itself from its roots in strategic military thinking. Its true essence was to create battlefields in every domain of public life where the chance was given to ruin civil society - its politics, its art, its way of thinking, its civilization. In the name of freedom never heard of before, it spread violence and spread totalitarian seeds on the scorched soil. And in the end it was not defeated by its numerous enemies because it became victim of its own destructiveness.


    Dr. Paul DUGNEANU


    Full Text Available In the evolution and dialectics of the literary phenomenon at the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century we can note a period of artistic fizzle, of confirming literary currents and movements, that vehemently deny the tradition and which, through some important elements, shall announce the historical avant-garde. We are referring to a series of artistic and literary currents, with a set of similar features, having a fetish for the shocking novelty and bracketing of the established and generally accepted values, without having the force of penetration, aggressiveness, coherence and spreading of the actual avant-garde: the fauvism, cubism, futurism, imagism, vorticism and others.

  5. Signals and noise: art, literature and the avant-garde

    Otty, Lisa


    One of the most consistent features of the diverse artistic movements that have flourished throughout the twentieth century has been their willingness to experiment in diverse genres and across alternative art forms. Avant-gardes such as Expressionism, Dada, Surrealism, Futurism, Fluxus and Pop were composed not only of painters but also dramatists, musicians, actors, singers, dancers, sculptors, poets and architects. Their works represent a dramatic process of crossfertilization ...

  6. Avant-garde: The Convulsions of a Concept

    Michael T. Jones


    Full Text Available The current status of the «avant-garde» provokes many questions, which include both inner-artistic matters and matters of history and society commonly associated with Marxist or reception-oriented thinkers. The convolution of questions cannot be disentangled; efforts to confront the dilemmas of the avant-garde cannot abstract from matters of commodification, recent reception, or the complex dialectic of «classical» and «modern.» The essay deals with the most recent manifestations of avant-garde aesthetic impulses. It emphasizes the historical and social aspects of German theorizing in contrast to purely formalist or ahistorical conceptions commonly found elsewhere. It insists that such «materialist» theory does greater justice than formalist conceptualizations to the proverbial connections of «art» and «life.» It tries to integrate the present phenomenon of proliferating theory into the theoretical exposition, as a characteristic trait of the current situation. It warns against abandoning the subversive content of classical modernism in the course of developing a theory of post-modernism.

  7. A Cultural History of the Avant-Garde in the Nordic Countries 1950-1975

    A Cultural History of the Avant-Garde in the Nordic Countries 1950-1975 is the first publication to deal with the postwar avant-garde in the Nordic countries. The essays cover a wide range of avant-garde manifestations in arts and culture: literature, the visual arts, architecture and design, fil......: The cultural politics, institutions and new cultural geographies after World War II, new technologies and media, performative strategies, interventions into everyday life and tensions between market and counterculture....

  8. Oklo 2 Billion Years Before Fermi; Les reacteurs naturels d'Oklo (Gabon): 2 milliards d'annees avant Fermi

    Barre, B


    The author aims to present the little-known story of the Oklo natural reactors. He recalls the historical aspects of the Oklo reactors discovery by the CEA in 1972, he explains the scientific phenomenon and the interest, notably as a 'natural analogue' for the geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes. (A.L.B.)

  9. The Avant-Gardist, the Male Genius and the Proprietor

    Martin Fredriksson


    Full Text Available As the title suggests, this article will deal not only with the avant-garde and the romantic idea of geniality but also with the much more mundane concept of literary property. Even though the law might seem alien to the lofty ideals of the avant-garde artist, the construction of the creative genius and the birth of copyright will eventually prove to be quite closely connected. But before I move on to the legal part I would like to start with the essentials: with the author, or the artist. The American artist John de Andreas sculpture The Artist and his model from 1980 is probably one of the most revealing pictures of the avant-gardist selfconception ever made. This is a picture of the artist at work, but I will argue it can also be regarded as a legal character. What meets the eye is however very far from the law as we know it. de Andreas sculpture is a self-portrait of the artist at work: a highly naturalistic full-scale portrait of two people. One of them is a naked woman, resting casually on a white socket and looking down on the other who is a fully dressed man. As the title clearly states, the sculpture depicts the classical relation between The Artist and his Model, and it is no coincidence that the artist has a male pronoun and the model a female body. The roles of the artist and his model are traditional stereotypes which we can find in most books on art history - one is an artist and the other is a model; one is a man and the other is a woman; one is dressed and the other one is undressed.

  10. Serbian Literary Magazine and avant-garde music

    Vasić Aleksandar N.


    Full Text Available One of the most excellent periodicals in the history of Serbian literature Serbian Literary Magazine (1901-1914, 1920-1941, also played an exceptionally important part in the history of Serbian music criticism and essay literature. During the period of 35 years, SLM had released nearly 800 articles about music. Majority of that number belongs to the music criticism, but there are also studies and essays about music ethno musicological treatises, polemics, obituary notices, as well as many ample and diverse notes. SLM was published during the time when Serbian society, culture and art were influenced by strong challenges of Europeanization and modernization. Therefore, one of the most complicated questions that music writers of this magazine were confronted with was the question of avant-garde music evaluation. Relation of critics and essay writers to the avant-garde was ambiguous. On one side, SLM's authors accepted modern art in principle, but, on the other side, they questioned that acceptance when facing even a bit radical music composition. This ambivalence as a whole marked the work of Dr Miloje Milojević, the leading music writer of SLM. It is not the same with other critics and essayists Kosta Manojlović was more tolerant, and Dragutin Čolić and Stanislav Vinaver were true protectors of the most avant-garde aspirations in music. First of all SLM was a literary magazine. In the light of that fact it has to be pointed out that very early, way back in 1912, critics wrote about Arnold Schoenberg, and that until the end of existence of this magazine the readers were regularly informed about all important avant-garde styles and composers of European, Serbian and Yugoslav music. The fact that Schoenberg Stravinsky, Honegger or Josip Slavenski mostly were not accepted by critics and essayists, expresses the basic aesthetic position of this magazine. Namely, SLM remained loyal to the moderate wing of modern music, music that had not rejected

  11. The Materiality of a Contemporary Avant-Garde?

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg


    Collage is one of the most influential and persistent inventions of the historical avant-garde. From being a new and provoking technique in the beginning of the 20th century it is now everywhere in both art and mass culture. Some of the ways collage is used today are strongly connected with the h......Collage is one of the most influential and persistent inventions of the historical avant-garde. From being a new and provoking technique in the beginning of the 20th century it is now everywhere in both art and mass culture. Some of the ways collage is used today are strongly connected...... of the elements rather than on material ones. The surrealists of the 1920s had an extended and metaphorical use of the word collage, which depended less on technique than on structure: Elements that were at the wrong place, in the wrong context, in surprising constellations. Max Ernst thus writes about...... collage quality by means of disturbing clashes of elements from different contexts, as for instance the grotesque, chimerical china figurines (2007-2009) of Danish artist Louise Hindsgavl. Another that clings to the reality fragment, but uses it in a new digitized way. Here the Danish artist Peter Holst...

  12. Chinese Avant-garde Art in the Late Twentieth Century

    Nataša Vampelj Suhadolnik


    Full Text Available The main topic of the present paper is the '85 Art Movement, which was the first significant nationwide Avant-garde art movement in China. This movement, which arose in the mid-80s, defined the aesthetic foundations and identity of contemporary Chinese art, and represented Chinese globalized society on the threshold of the 21st century. Whilst focusing on China’s specific cultural and political contexts, the present paper analyses the concepts of humanism (renwen 人文 and idea (guannian 觀念. The spirit of humanism, with a rationalist connotation, and the desire for a revolution of ideas were the two main factors underpinning the Chinese Avant-garde movement and its artistic expressions. The paper also shows that the '85 Art Movement did not stem solely from the socio-political challenges of the 1980s, but should be regarded in the wider context of the “modernization project of Chinese art”, in the early 20th century.

  13. Nordic game subcultures: between LARPers and avant-garde

    Mathias Fuchs


    Full Text Available This article is about structural resemblances, linguistic and rhetoric similarities and media-strategic as well as tactical operations, that Nordic LARPers and 20th century avant-garde artists share. Many of the 20th century avant-garde movements and subcultural formations started from a shared collective experience and then branches out into refined, diversified and individualized forms of expression. Futurism, DADA and Fluxus, Punk, Emo and Goth did originally constitute a dress code, a toolset, a jargon, a mission statement and a territorial assignment within the cities they choose as the center of their activities. Manifestos defined what a Futurist, Dadaist or Punk would most probably think and say, and how he or she would say it. A similar observation can be made for the communities that engage with live action role playing games (LARPs in the Nordic countries. The Turku manifesto and the Dogma 99 manifesto influenced directly and indirectly how the Nordic LARP subculture framed defined itself and presented itself to the world. The initiating, collective experiences of Cafe Voltaire, the Wuppertal art galleries, SOHO, and respective locations for Nordic LARPers have been constitutive for the process of identity building and identity shaping for artists and gamers alike.

  14. Leśmian’s avant-garde grandson

    Agata Stankowska


    Full Text Available The sketch discusses the “relations and interdependencies of impossibilities” connecting the discursive poetry of Bieńkowski with the lyrical poetics of Leśmian. This formula, coined by the author of Sprawy wyobraźni, perfectly expresses these kind of references that exceed just a simple juxtaposition of similarities in subject matters or poetical figures. In terms of this plane, there seem to be are more differences between the two poems than conceivable similarities. However, within the plane of creative philosophy, the awareness of the language status in modern poetry, the abiding concept of reality and the attitude towards civilizational and social transformations, the similarities are particularly striking. The avant-garde poet does not shun from employing early modernist individualistic, idealistic, regressive and aesthetic (formalistic tendencies so characteristic for Leśmian. If Przyboś, as Łapiński put it, “rehabilitated” Leśmian’s programme, Bieńkowski makes the Przyboś’ programme back again more like Leśmian-like, creating a programme not so much avant-garde in character but rather a one that relates to decadent aspirations of modernism in its narrowest sense. Not surprisingly then, he makes the lyrics of the author of Łąka his particular tertium comparationis of the phenomena in Polish postwar poetry, linguistic poetry in particular. This way, unusual power of modernity of Leśmian poetry is testified and well proven.

  15. Art-House Cinema, Avant-Garde Film, and Dramatic Modernism

    Cardullo, Bert


    In this article, the author talks about art-house cinema, avant-garde film, and dramatic modernism. He believes that the most important modes of film practice are art-house cinema and the avant-garde, both of which contrast with the classical Hollywood mode of film practice. While the latter is characterized by its commercial imperative, corporate…

  16. Pursuing the Administrative Avant-Garde: An Aesthetic Critique of Change in Educational Systems

    Samier, Eugenie A.


    This paper addresses theories of the avant-garde, especially but not exclusively in art and as part of a modernist aesthetic. The paper examines the ways in which avant-garde theory of the creative process can inform educational administration in the change process, as both a critique and an ideal. The argument adopted here is that if…

  17. Art-House Cinema, Avant-Garde Film, and Dramatic Modernism

    Cardullo, Bert


    In this article, the author talks about art-house cinema, avant-garde film, and dramatic modernism. He believes that the most important modes of film practice are art-house cinema and the avant-garde, both of which contrast with the classical Hollywood mode of film practice. While the latter is characterized by its commercial imperative, corporate…

  18. Cosmologie l'univers avant le Big Bang

    Larousserie, David


    Tout n'a pas commencé par une explosion. L'histoire du cosmos avait débuté bien avant le Big Bang, si l'on suit la théorie défendue par les partisans d'une nouvelle cosmologie issue de la mystérieuse théorie des cords. A l'heure où vacillent les scénarios classiques du XXe siècle, se prépare un grand chamboulement de nos idées sur la naissance de l'Univers et son devenir, sur l'existence possible d'univers parallèles.

  19. Romanticism, the Avant-Garde, and the Early Modern Innovators in Arts Education.

    Leeds, Jo Alice


    The contributions of major avant-garde innovators, e.g., Cizek, Jaques-Dalcroze, Laban, Lowenfeld, Orff, Kodaly, and Mearns, who worked to establish the creative process as an important means of human education are discussed. (RM)

  20. Romanticism, the Avant-Garde, and the Early Modern Innovators in Arts Education.

    Leeds, Jo Alice


    The contributions of major avant-garde innovators, e.g., Cizek, Jaques-Dalcroze, Laban, Lowenfeld, Orff, Kodaly, and Mearns, who worked to establish the creative process as an important means of human education are discussed. (RM)

  1. New modelling method for fast reactor neutronic behaviours analysis; Nouvelles methodes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides de quatrieme Generation

    Jacquet, P.


    Due to safety rules running on fourth generation reactors' core development, neutronics simulation tools have to be as accurate as never before. First part of this report enumerates every step of fast reactor's neutronics simulation implemented in current reference code: ECCO. Considering the field of fast reactors that meet criteria of fourth generation, ability of models to describe self-shielding phenomenon, to simulate neutrons leakage in a lattice of fuel assemblies and to produce representative macroscopic sections is evaluated. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to the simulation of fast reactors' core with steel reflector. These require the development of advanced methods of condensation and homogenization. Several methods are proposed and compared on a typical case: the ZONA2B core of MASURCA reactor. (author) [French] Les criteres de surete qui regissent le developpement de coeurs de reacteurs de quatrieme generation implique l'usage d'outils de calcul neutronique performants. Une premiere partie de la these reprend toutes les etapes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides actuellement d'usage dans le code de reference ECCO. La capacite des modeles a decrire le phenomene d'autoprotection, a representer les fuites neutroniques au niveau d'un reseau d'assemblages combustibles et a generer des sections macroscopiques representatives est appreciee sur le domaine des reacteurs rapides innovants respectant les criteres de quatrieme generation. La deuxieme partie de ce memoire se consacre a la modelisation des coeurs rapides avec reflecteur acier. Ces derniers necessitent le developpement de methodes avancees de condensation et d'homogenisation. Plusieurs methodes sont proposees et confrontees sur un probleme de modelisation typique: le coeur ZONA2B du reacteur maquette MASURCA

  2. What is the avant-garde? The questionnaire as historiography

    Lori Cole


    Full Text Available In 1928 the Cuban magazine Revista de Avance issued a questionnaire asking, ‘What should (Latin American art be?’ while the same year the expatriate magazine transition based in Paris, polled its North American contributors asking: ‘Why do Americans Live in Europe?’ and surveyed its European writers to ask: ‘How are the influences of the United States manifesting themselves upon Europe?’ By examining these questionnaires issued across the Atlantic in the same year, I examine the way the genre structures the artistic and political stakes of modernist print communities and illuminates the relationships these magazines establish between aesthetics and the Americas. Questionnaires functioned as print proxies by implying through their reproduction of multiple individual responses a much larger community of writers and readers. Both questionnaires work to interpellate the magazines’ dispersed communities and to emphasize the effects of their dis/location on their artistic purpose, ultimately forming a patchwork historiography of the avant-garde.

  3. Beyond the Score: Timbre Analysis in Avant-garde Music

    Mario Baroni


    Full Text Available The article examines perceptual aspects of timbre within the context of avant-garde XX century music. An excerpt from a work by Luciano Berio was taken into account. We recorded it on 8 separate channels each of them devoted to small groups of homogeneous sounds, in order to obtain a global result that we could modify by subtracting one or more of the recorded groups. We prepared four different excerpts: one with the original version and three with modified versions. 50 participants (25 experts, 25 non-experts were invited to fill in a semantic differential bipolar scale made of 12 adjectives, 6 concerning emotional and 6 sensorial aspects of perception. We interpreted the subjects’ responses with the help of a spectrographic analysis and of studies on timbre verbalization. The main aim of our research was to explore the possibilities of timbre analysis, a field that so far has no solid scientific background. The research obtained promising responses from expert listeners, while non-experts manifested a sort of aesthetic refusal of this genre of music. Positive results were obtained also in the critical observations of possibilities and limits of spectrographic analysis and verbalizations of timbre. We hope that our initial data can be useful for future studies on timbre perception.

  4. Modelisation de la synthese reactive de poudres ultrafines dans un reacteur a plasma thermique

    Desilets, Martin

    La presente these s'inscrit dans le cadre de la modelisation mathematique des ecoulements a plasmas thermiques inertes et reactifs. Elle vise plus precisement a combler les lacunes des modeles existants en portant une attention particuliere aux phenomenes de transport multicomposant et a la prediction des transformations chimiques. Pour repondre a ces attentes et ainsi poursuivre le developpement dans ce domaine, un modele global a ete developpe. Il combine la resolution d'equations conservatives pour la masse, l'energie et le momentum. La generation d'un plasma inductif (h.f ) y est traitee au moyen d'equations representant les champs electromagnetiques. La nucleation et la croissance de poudres ultrafines sont incluses dans le modele via l'analyse des principaux moments de la distribution des tailles de particules. Enfin, tous les phenomenes physico-chimiques d'importance dans un milieu comme les plasmas thermiques, de meme que lem interactions, sont consideres. Le modele est applique ici a l'analyse de trois problematiques differentes et complementaires. La premiere concerne l'etude du melange gazeux d'un jet froid (He, N 2 ou O2), injecte au coeur d'une decharge d'argon/hydrogene ou d'argon/oxygene. La comparaison des predictions du modele avec des mesures experimentales obtenues par une sonde enthalpique permet une validation partielle de ce dernier. La deuxieme problematique a trait a l'etude numerique de la pyrolyse du methane en reacteur a plasma h.f. Elle met en evidence les difficultes de convergence de la methode numerique lorsque appliquee a la resolution d'ecoulements reactifs a haute temperature. Finalement, le dernier sujet aborde dans cette these, soit l'analyse systematique des principales conditions d'operation d'un reacteur h.f utilise pour la synthese reactive de poudres ultrafines de silicium, engage tous les elements theoriques du modele. Il implique en effet la decomposition thermique d'un precurseur gazeux, le tetrachlorure de silicium, la

  5. The Avant-Garde Film: A Reader of Theory and Criticism. Anthology Film Archives Series: 3.

    Sitney, P. Adams, Ed.

    This anthology is both a history of the avant-garde film genre and a compendium of theories of cinema articulated by major filmmakers. The 33 selections include several previously unpublished theoretical and critical articles and many articles that were especially translated into English for this collection. Other selections were drawn from…

  6. Gibberellic acid, ozone and 1-methylcyclopropene on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' Rose

    Favero, B.T.; Benato, E.A.; Dias, G.M.;

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered the major disease of greenhouse grown flowers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3), ozone, and 1-MCP, applied on postharvest, on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' rose. Rose flowers were artificially ...

  7. The prospects for and paths of the avant-garde: the case of Tadeusz Peiper

    Joanna Grądziel-Wójcik


    Full Text Available The author presents the ways in which “Peiperism”, i.e. a model of thinking about the avant-garde as exemplified by the reception of Tadeusz Peiper’s works, is disintegrating today. Research on avant-garde poetry which privileged a theoretical perspective resulted in the distorted reception of texts, thus building a doctrinal model of the first avant-garde that marginalized or objectified literary works. However, the restoration of the superior role of poetry which was absorbed and dominated by the structural concept of poetic language compels readers to “leave the beaten track” and try to read Peiper’s works in a different way. At the same time, established opinions on the intellectual and nonphysical as well as fully expressible and complex model of the Cracow avantgarde are redefined. A closer look at the texts reveals interpretational differences and shows that avant-garde authors’ utopian projects are not necessarily congruent with their output.

  8. Gibberellic acid, ozone and 1-methylcyclopropene on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' Rose

    Favero, B. T.; Benato, E. A.; Dias, G. M.;


    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered the major disease of greenhouse grown flowers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3), ozone, and 1-MCP, applied on postharvest, on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' rose. Rose flowers were artificially ...

  9. (disFunctions: Marxist Theories of Architecture and the Avant-garde

    Michael Chapman


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between architecture and theories of the avant-garde in the critical projects of the 1970s, with a focus on the theories of Peter Bürger and Manfredo Tafuri. Both Tafuri and Bürger were writing from within the context of a radicalized Marxism and were fuelled by an intellectual pessimism towards the totalizing systems of cultural production that questioned the role of resistance in aesthetics and the inability of the historical avant-gardes to engage within the political and economic fields of contemporary society. While there is a common ancestry to these two approaches, and mutual acceptance of the failure of the avant-garde project, the work of Tafuri has had an enduring influence on architectural history and theory, while Bürger’s synchronous work has attracted only a modest amount of scholarly attention in architecture despite its ongoing legacy in art theory and, particularly, within an American context. This paper argues that Bürger’s dialectical approach has a significance for architectural theory and presents a discursive position through which Marxism and architecture can be advanced. Through a detailed reading of these two approaches, the paper attempts to position architecture as a particular strategy of the avant-garde that overshadowed all fields of aesthetic production in the period.

  10. Handbook for the calculation of reactor protections; Formulaire sur le calcul de la protection des reacteurs



    This note constitutes the first edition of a Handbook for the calculation of reactor protections. This handbook makes it possible to calculate simply the different neutron and gamma fluxes and consequently, to fix the minimum quantities of materials necessary under general safety conditions both for the personnel and for the installations. It contains a certain amount of nuclear data, calculation methods, and constants corresponding to the present state of our knowledge. (authors) [French] Cette note constitue la premiere edition du 'Formulaire sur le calcul de la protection des reacteurs'. Ce formulaire permet de calculer de facon simple les difterents flux de neutrons et de gamma et, par suite, de fixer les quantites minima de materiaux a utiliser pour que les conditions generales de securite soient respectees, tant pour le personnel que pour les installations. Il contient un certain nombre de donnees nucleaires, de methodes de calcul et de constantes correspondant a l'etat actuel de nos connaissances. (auteurs)

  11. Speed and Convulsive Beauty: Trains and the Historic Avant-garde

    Marylaura Papalas


    Full Text Available The train, an invention and evocative symbol of the 19th century, somewhat ironically continued to fascinate avant-garde artists and writers of the 20th century, when faster and more exciting modes of transportation were in use. Locomotive imagery in Italian futurism and French surrealism, however, demonstrates a lasting fascination with speed, locomotive space, and their effect on perceptions of reality. Considering the work of more recent theorists like Paul Virilio, Michel Foucault, and various others who have contributed to the growing field of mobility studies, this paper aims to understand the persisting presence of the train as a symbol of an alternative reality in historic avant-garde work, particularly that of the Italian Futurists and the French Surrealists.

  12. Sensus communis aestheticus and the project of emancipation: The Utopian frame of the avant-gardes.

    Loredana Niculet


    Full Text Available The conceptual basis which would be later developed by the artistic avant-gardes was settled by German Romantic and Idealist thought, whose utopian dimension could be easily recognized in The oldest systemprogram of German Idealism (1796, a text which provided Idealist thought with the claim of a new rationality or a mythology of reason in Hegel, an intellectual intuition in Schelling and the Humanity in Schiller. Although this emancipation project developed later by the avant-garde has lost its credibility for us, we still have to investigate to what extent today’s art can maintain a social function. This article point out certain idealist concepts in light of a philosophy of art modeled along lines sketched out in Kant’s Critique of Judgement and that have contributed to the history of the “advanced” art.

  13. Storage of plugs and experimental devices from reactors; Stockage des bouchons et dispositifs experimentaux en provenance des reacteurs (1961)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    - Within the general programme of storage and treatment of radioactive waste produced by the various operations carried out in an atomic center, it is useful to consider separately the problem of certain waste from reactors, which, because of its size and physical nature, has to be stored with a view to being later treated and finally evacuated. The solution which we propose for this storage problem is presented in this paper. (authors) [French] - Dans le cadre du stockage et du conditionnement des dechets radioactifs provenant des diverses manipulations effectuees dans un centre atomique, il y a lieu de considerer a part certains dechets des reacteurs qui, par leur dimension et leur nature physique doivent etre stockes en vue de leur reprise ulterieure pour un conditionnement et une evacuation definitifs. La solution que nous avons apportee a ce stockage fait l'objet de l'expose qui suit. (auteurs)

  14. Preliminary studies leading to a conceptual design of a 1000 MWe fast neutron reactor; Etudes preliminaires conduisant a un concept de reacteur a neutrons rapides de 1000 MWe

    Vendryes, G.; Zaleski, C.P. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report presents the results of studies which seemed important to undertake in connexion with the development of fast neutron reactors. - It points out the advantage of high internal breeding ratios ({approx}1, 1) which are necessary in order to get a small change in time both in power distribution and reactivity (less: than 0.005 {delta}k/k in 18 months). - It shows how to achieve this goal, when simultaneously power distribution flattening is obtained. These results in a higher mean specific power (which is an economic gain) and therefore in a smaller doubling time (about 10 years). - It attempts to find criteria concerning the specific power that should be used in future reactor designs -It presents a conceptional design of a 1000 MWe fast neutron reactor, for the realisation of which no technological impossibility appears. - It shows that the dynamic behaviour seems satisfactory despite a positive total isothermal sodium coefficient. - It tries to predict the development of fast reactors within the future total nuclear program. It does not appear that fissile materials supply problems should in France slow down the development of fast neutron reactors, which will be essentially tied up to its economical ability to produce cheap electric power. (authors) [French] Ce rapport presente les etudes qu'il nous a paru important d'aborder dans le cadre du developpement des reacteurs a neutrons rapides. - Il met en evidence l'interet des taux de regeneration internes eleves ({approx}1, 1) pour obtenir une bonne evolution dans le temps de la distribution de puissance et de la reactivite (moins de 0,005 {delta}k/k pour 18 mois). - Il montre la possibilite d'y parvenir tout en applatissant la distribution des fissions, ce qui se traduit par une puissance specifique moyenne plus elevee (gain economique), et donc un temps de doublement plus faible de l'ordte de 10 ans - Il tente de definir un optimum de la puissance specifique valable pour les

  15. L’édition musicale française avant et après Lully.

    Guillo, Laurent


    International audience; This paper describes the status of french music printing at the time of Jean-Baptiste Lully, in its various aspects (techniques, répertoire, legal rules...), and shows the influence this composer may have had on its evolution in the last quarter of the XVIIth century.; L'article compare l'édition musicale en France avant et après Lully, sous ses divers aspects (techniques, répertoires, réglementation...) et souligne les innovations qu'on peut estimer avoir été faites s...


    Maryna Ivanovna Khudiakova


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was examining the way traditions and forms of avant-garde in dramatic art, in particular Expressionism and Dada, as well as elements typical of the Theater of the Absurd, have manifested themselves in the work pieces by the contemporary stage director from Switzerland Christoph Marthaler.The paper carried out a theater expert review of Christoph Marthaler’s performances of the Swiss period, as «Stägeli uf, Stägeli ab, juhee!», «Indeed», «Faust. Ein subjektive Tragödie», «ХХ Century’ Blues», that enabled the spectator’s judging from the creative personality of Marthaler, his outlook on the world and reflection of various issues of time. These performances were also considered to be of the most successful Marthaler’ performances in Switzerland having fully traced his unique stage director’ style. The study revealed the mainstream topic of each performance, which consisted of director’s reflections about loneliness of a contemporary human being, and reference to avant-garde’ forms converted these reflections into the stage play.

  17. Einstein and early 20th Century avant-garde art: points of contact?

    Martini, José X


    Art history linked some early 20th Century avant-garde visual art movements to contemporary systems of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics. One of the proposed connections is the one that might have existed between Cubism and Relativity, or more precisely, between Picasso and Einstein. The suggested links are similarity (in a weak version) or identity (in a strong version) in matters of space, time and simultaneity. It is possible, however, that these supposed links of Einstein and avant-garde art movements were more the product of the imagination of historians and critics, than the result of connections between painters and scientists. On the one hand, the visual arts (in contrast to music, as far as we now) were of no interest to Einstein, who, moreover, did not seem inclined or knowledgeable enough to appreciate advanced forms. On the other hand, Einstein's theories fell outside the artists' ken, let alone their understanding, although there are firm clues pointing to the fact that repercussions o...

  18. The Russian avant-garde painting palette--documentary and physicochemical study of inorganic colorants.

    Kampasakali, Elli; Papliaka, Zoe Eirini; Christofilos, Dimitirios; Varella, Evangelia A


    In the present article an attempt is being made to elucidate the inorganic colorants encountered in the Russian avant-garde painting palette by a combined art historical, documentary and physicochemical investigation; and to examine the influence of environmental factors on the chromatic profile originally sought by the artist. The overall approach based on written sources is confirmed by measurements on representative paintings from the Costakis Collection in the State Museum for Contemporary Art, Thessaloniki. The documentary research deals with the influences of Orthodox iconography, folkloric art, and occidental modernist tendencies on the Russian avant-garde palette; and is studying the effects of contradictory historical processes in the chromatic profile of individual paintings. In the experimental section a series of colorants are investigated concerning the effects of accelerated ageing on experimental painting tables, prepared as watercolour and gouache layers on paper ground. The resulting samples are subject to colorimetric, and spectroscopic measurements; and analogous analytical procedures are applied on samples taken from selected paintings belonging to the Costakis Collection. A systematic comparative study of all data permits evaluating the materials used as to their stability towards exstrincic factors, and proposing degradation routes, in order to assist museum curators and conservators in every concrete case related to the broad spectrum of pigments examined.

  19. The experiments of composers of the Russian avant-garde epoch in the field of arts synthesis

    Zaytseva Marina


    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the features of avant-garde art that is aimed at finding synesthesian community of art languages and aesthetic transformation of reality. It identifies the main features of the Russian avant-garde composers Mikhail Matyushin’s and Alexander Mosolov’s experimental creativity. It is proved that the dominant feature of their work is the creation of a new model of art that brings together all types of human exposure and returns the fullness of perception and cognition.


    Ribut Basuki


    Full Text Available As one of the most influential figures in theatre, Bertolt Brecht has stamped his legacy in the world theatre. His search for a new kind of theatre made his theatre a modern avant-garde which has left its traces in postmodern theatres. This paper tries to investigate Brecht's epic theatre as a modern avant-garde and its influence in postmodern theatre. His epic theatre was in fact a revolt against the main stream modern theatre in which Brecht openly declares that theatre should be 'political.' Brecht's theatre was so influential that his theatre becomes reference to the postmodern theatre.

  1. From material science to avant-garde cuisine. The art of shaping liquids into spheres.

    Fu, Haohao; Liu, Yingzhe; Adrià, Ferran; Shao, Xueguang; Cai, Wensheng; Chipot, Christophe


    Employing avant-garde cuisine techniques, in particular sodium alginates, liquid food can be shaped into spheres, thereby conferring to the former original and sometimes unexpected forms and textures. To achieve this result, rational understanding of the science that underlies food physical chemistry is of paramount importance. In this contribution, the process of spherification is dissected for the first time at the atomic level by means of classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that a thin membrane consisting of intertwined alginate chains forms in an aqueous solution containing calcium ions, thereby encapsulating in a sphere the aliment in its liquid state. They also show why the polysaccharide chains will not cohere into such a membrane in a solution of sodium ions. Analysis of the trajectories reveals the emergence of so-called egg-box spatial arrangements, which connect the alginate chains by means of repeated chelation of one calcium ion by two carboxylate groups. Free-energy calculations delineating the formation of these egg-box structures further illuminate the remarkable stability of such tridimensional organizations, which ensures at room temperature the spontaneous growth of the polysaccharide membrane. Spherification has been also examined for liquid aliments of different nature, modeled by charged, hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. The membrane-encapsulated food is shaped into robust and durable spheres, irrespective of the liquid core material. By reconciling the views of spherification at small and large scales, the present study lays the groundwork for the rational design of innovative cooking techniques relevant to avant-garde cuisine.

  2. Cross-correlation of two detectors in a nuclear reactor; Intercorrelation de deux detecteurs dans un reacteur nucleaire

    Dalfes, A.; Beliard, L.; Cazemajou, J.; Froelicher, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Auto and cross-correlation functions of signals given by neutron detectors situated in a subcritical nuclear reactor are determined by a numerical method. Values of the prompt neutrons decay constant obtained by means of the autocorrelation function of each detector and the cross-correlation function of the two detectors are compared to the reference value given by a classical pulsed neutrons measurement. Agreement between results seems to be satisfactory. (authors) [French] Les fonctions d'autocorrelation et d'intercorrelation des signaux issus de deux detecteurs de neutrons places dans un reacteur nucleaire sous critique sont determinees par une methode numerique. On compare les valeurs de la constante de decroissance des neutrons prompts donnees par les fonctions d'autocorrelation de chaque detecteur et la fonction d'intercorrelation des deux detecteurs au resultat de reference fourni par une manipulation dite de 'neutrons pulses'. L'accord entre les resultats parait satisfaisant. (auteurs)

  3. G2 - G3 inventive properties, the first french nuclear plants; Caracteristiques generales et aspects originaux des reacteurs G2 et G3

    Pascal; Horowitz; Bussac; Joatton; De Lagge de Meux; Martin [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This paper points out the inventive properties of the frenchctors G2 and G3. These are dual purpose reactors, i.e. designed for the production of both plutonium and energy (30 electrical MW); in this respect, they can be considered as the start point of the french electrical energy produced from nuclear fuel. The following points are specially discussed in this paper: the choice of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel, the horizontal arrangement of the channels, the interest of neutron flux flattening, the advantages of the charging and discharging device working during pile operation. (author)Fren. [French] Les caracteres originaux des reacteurs fran is G2 et G3 sont decrits dans ce rapport. Ce sont des reacteurs a double fin, plutonigenes et aussi producteurs d'energie (30 MW electriques); ils constituent a ce titre le point de depart de la production fran ise d'electricite d'origine nucleaire. Sont discutes, en particulier, dans ce rapport: le choix du caisson en beton precontraint pour tenir la pression, la disposition horizontale des canaux, l'interet de l'aplatissement du flux neutronique, les avantages de l'appareil permettant le chargement et le dechargement du combustible sans arreter la pile. (auteur)

  4. Aesthetics fiction ? Comics, avant-gardes visuelles et genre dans Doom Patrol de Grant Morrison

    Besson, Cyril


    Science-fiction et avant-garde ont au moins ceci en commun qu’elles ont le souci d’être à la pointe de leurs domaines respectifs. L’Écossais Grant Morrison, scénariste de comics de super-héros, revendique ce statut d’avant-gardiste dans ce champ, s’opposant à la figure du grand innovateur du domaine dans les années 80, l’Anglais Alan Moore. Leur conflit, esthétique et éthique, porte sur la manière d’aménager les mondes fictionnels, et amène Morrison à faire de son œuvre un manifeste, utilisan...


    Marianna Andreevna GALIEVA


    Full Text Available The article considers the complex relationship of myth, folklore and literature in the context of consciousness and culture of avant-garde epoch. Much attention is paid to the theories of musicologists of those years that are compati-ble with the theory of synthesis of arts and the avant-garde painting. The author raises the question of myths and folk-lore penetration into the poetics of early XX century, high-lights the connections of the aesthetic views of Esenin, Tsvetaeva, Malevich and folklore, its metaphysics and pre-genre formations.Comparative analysis of the principle of "synthesis of arts" and the interaction of myths and rituals within the folklore allows to look differently at the problem of folklorism in literature. The theory of Uspenskiy on the "fourth" dimension is in harmony with the poetic views of Tsvetaeva and such folklore phenomenon as obmiranie. In this regard, we can speak of the dialectical nature of the forms of myth and folklore in the poetics of the Avant-garde.

  6. Les avant-gardes et leur relation avec le pouvoir dans le champ du graphisme et de la typographie Avant-garde artists and their relation with power in the field of graphics and typography

    Vivien Philizot


    Full Text Available Le graphisme, à la fois outil de communication et pratique artistique, est un objet d’étude dont les rapports avec le pouvoir sont aussi complexes qu’ambigus. Il s’agit donc de présenter certains aspects éthiques et politiques qui sous-tendent la création graphique contemporaine ; dans un premier temps d’un point de vue historique, puis d’un point de vue sociologique à partir de la figure du graphiste-auteur. Si l’avant-garde historique est marquée par une volonté de démarcation par rapport à une pratique dite traditionnelle – ce dont témoignent les  productions graphiques et les choix typographiques d’un Jan Tschichold ou d’un Kurt Schwitters – la  naissance du graphisme moderne est surtout liée à l’avènement de la communication de masse ; c’est-à-dire au renouveau des modes de communication et de la publicité qui mettent désormais le graphiste ou le typographe au service d’une idéologie. Pour mettre au jour la question de l’engagement politique et du rapport au pouvoir du graphiste aujourd’hui, on analysera les modalités des rapports entre graphiste et commanditaire. Si le distinguo entre graphiste « producteur» et graphiste-auteur se mesure justement dans le rapport à la commande et au pouvoir, la question conjoncturelle du « style » et de l’imposition de formes spécifiques par une élite rejoint, quant à elle, les problématiques générales de l’art contemporain.Graphics and visual communication are prone to be influenced by elites and art movements. This paper suggests that the needs of the elites naturally drive them to maximize the symbolic effectiveness of ideologically-oriented communication tools. This leads them to question the ability of avant-garde artists to meet those needs. Based on the hypothesis of an homology between the political and the artistic fields, this paper addresses two main questions: can avant-garde artists function in an elitist fashion? Does

  7. Faint voices from Greenwich Village: Jung's impact on the first American avant-garde.

    Sherry, Jay


    In 1913 Jung made a trip to New York which was to have an important impact on the creation of modern American culture. At the invitation of Beatrice Hinkle, the first Jungian analyst in the country, he spoke to the Liberal Club, a forum for discussing progressive topics. Jung was the leading spokesman for psychoanalysis and his ideas about creative fantasy resonated with popular interest in the ideas of William James and Henri Bergson. This paper will document that visit and the influence that Hinkle had on the young people who had gravitated to Greenwich Village. She promoted Jungian psychology through her analytical practice and her translation of Jung's Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido as Psychology of the Unconscious. Her influence is evident in four key neighbourhood institutions: The Masses, a socialist magazine, The Seven Arts, an avant-garde literary magazine, the Provincetown Players theatre ensemble, and the Heterodoxy Club, America's first feminist group. Her influence is also evident at The New School where several pioneering anthropologists employed the theory of psychological types as a tool for understanding social behaviour. This paper will demonstrate that a cultural moment usually seen through a Freudian lens had, in fact, a remarkably Jungian character.

  8. Description of methods for making activation detectors for use in nuclear reactors; Description des procedes de fabrication des detecteurs d'activation utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Barbalat, R.; Le Coguie, R.; Leger, P.; Salon, L.; Thierry, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A brief description of methods currently used for making activation detectors, thin films and various deposits used in nuclear reactors. The thicknesses required vary from about a few tenths of a micron to a few tenths of a millimeter. Different techniques are used for fixing the large variety of elements: rolling, moulding, painting, electrolysis, vacuum deposition, thin films, wires, enamels, protective linings, etc. (authors) [French] Expose succinct des procedes actuellement mis en oeuvre pour la realisation des detecteurs d'activation, feuilles minces et depots divers utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires. La gamme des epaisseurs necessaires s'etendant approximativement des dixiemes de micrometre aux dixiemes de millimetre. La diversite des elements a fixer justifiant les techniques differentes selon les cas: laminage, moulage, peinture, electrolyse, depot sous vide, couches minces, fils, emaux, revetements protecteurs, etc. (auteurs)

  9. Distilled Avant-Garde Echoes: Word and Image in Architectural Periodicals of the 1920s and 1930s

    Hélène Jannière


    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, architectural avant-garde publications, seen as a laboratory for artists and architects, have given rise to numerous research projects. Although recent scholarship tends toward a more balanced interpretation of architectural publications of the interwar period than studies from the 1980s, most research on architectural books and journals continues to point out only the parallels, or even just the ‘alliances’, between the innovative visual form – typography and photography – of those books and magazines and the ‘new architecture’ they intended to promote: relationships between form and contents. This article tackles the issue of this historical and aesthetical convergence. It draws on a new generation of studies that takes into account photography, graphic design and texts, simultaneously, and focuses on their association in the space of the book. By examining several case studies, it brings to light relationships of texts and images di erent from those dramatic and disruptive ones elaborated by the avant-garde. This is done, rst, by considering a wider range of professional periodicals of the late 1920s and 1930s – both avant-garde and traditional – and second, by focusing more on the modes of perception photography introduced within the space of the book than on photographic or typographic experiments. The driving hypothesis is that in periodicals of the late 1920s and 1930s, even in those of a rather traditional form ('L’Architecte, L’Architecture vivante, Quadrante', new modes of perceiving the space of the book as a whole gave rise to semantic associations generated by juxtapositions or e ects of distance between word and image. This article also puts into question the way two periodicals in particular, 'L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui' and 'Casabella', both deemed ‘modernist’, integrated some of the lessons of contemporary typography and photography.

  10. Borges and contemporary Chinese avant-garde writings%博尔赫斯与中国当代先锋写作



    This paper intends to explore the influences of Borges on contemporary Chinese avant-garde writing in three aspects,namely,the recurrence and cyclical nature of time,the narrative labyrinth,and metafiction.The recurrence and cyclical nature of time avant-garde writers emphasize on constituting a self-contained circular structure,while the design of a labyrinth unfolds the chaos,obscurity,and indeterminacy of the world.Metafiction undermines the authenticity of traditional novels by exposing the fictitious nature of fictions.

  11. Les PME en Europe : les disparités entre pays et secteurs sont plus fortes en 2010 qu’avant la crise.



    La situation des PME en Europe s’améliore de façon inégale en 2010. Les disparités sont plus fortes qu’avant la crise et les PME allemandes consolident leur position. Les PME françaises demeurent dans une situation intermédiaire.

  12. Brazilian contemporary literature and the dialogue with the historical avant-gardes: the surrealist experimentation in “Gordas levitando”, by Joca Reiners Terron



    Full Text Available This paper addresses both the dialogue between Brazilian contemporary literature and the historical avant-garde, that is to say the surrealism, by analyzing the short story “Gordas levitando, by Joca Reiners Terron. The theoretical framework for this analysis includes texts by Walter Benjamin, Peter Bürger, Maurice Nadeau, among others.

  13. Safety report concerning the reactor Pegase - volume 1 - Description of the installation - volume 2 - Safety of the installations; Rapport de surete du reacteur pegase - tome 1 - Description des installations - tome 2 - Surete des installations

    Lacour, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Legoin, P. [S.E.M. Hispano-Suiza, 92 - Colombes (France)


    In the first volume: This report is a description of the reactor Pegase, given with a view to examine the safety of the installations. The Cadarache site at which they are situated is briefly described, in particular because of the consequences on the techniques employed for building Pegase. A description is also given of the original aspects of the reactor. The independent loops which are designed for full-scale testing of fuel elements used in natural uranium-gas-graphite reactor systems are described in this report, together with their operational and control equipment. In the second volume: In the present report are examined the accidents which could cause damage to the Pegase reactor installation. Among possible causes of accidents considered are the seismicity of the region, an excessive power excursion of the reactor and a fracture in the sealing of an independent loop. Although all possible precautions have been taken to offset the effects of such accidents, their ultimate consequences are considered here. The importance is stressed of the security action and regulations which, added to the precautions taken for the construction, ensure the safety of the installations. (authors) [French] Dans le volume 1: Ce rapport est une description du reacteur Pegase, afin d'examiner la surete des installations. Le site de CADARACHE ou elles sont situees, a ete sommairement decrit, en particulier, a cause des consequences sur les techniques mises en oeuvre pour la realisation de Pegase. Nous nous sommes egalement attache a decrire les aspects originaux du reacteur. Les boucles autonomes destinees a tester en vraie grandeur des elements combustibles de la filiere uranium naturel graphite-gaz, ainsi que leurs dispositifs de controle et d'exploitation, figurent egalement dans ce rapport. Dans le volume 2: Dans le present rapport, nous examinons des accidents pouvant endommager des installations du reacteur Pegase. Les origines d'accidents examines

  14. Training for Better Management: Avante Zambézia, PEPFAR and Improving the Quality of Administrative Services

    Schwarcz, Sandra K.; Rutherford, George W.; Horvath, Hacsi


    The United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) emphasizes health systems strengthening as a cornerstone of programmatic success. Health systems strengthening, among other things, includes effective capacity building for clinical care, administrative management and public health practice. Avante Zambézia is a district-level in-service training program for administrative staff. It is associated with improved accounting practices and human resources and transportation management but not monitoring and evaluation. We discuss other examples of successful administrative training programs that vary in the proportion of time that is spent learning on the job and the proportion of time spent in classrooms. We suggest that these programs be more rigorously evaluated so that lessons learned can be generalized to other countries and regions. PMID:26673340




    Full Text Available : In order to show the way in which the first avant-garde trend was founded in art, my aim is to outline one of the greatest masterpieces that the Pre-Raphaelite movement provided the humanity culture with, particularly through its representative painter John Everett Millais (1829-1896. The famous and much-discussed painting by Millais, Christ in his parents' house(1850 is a unique biblical scene: The Holy Family in the carpentry workshop of Saint Joseph (Fig.1. The painting was extremely controversial because, at its first exhibition, it generated many negative interpretations in various magazines, most notably being that of the writer Charles Dickens. Criticism, however, anticipates and prepares the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood’s obscure notoriety, bringing major contributions as regards the debate about realism in art.

  16. Survival of images from avant-garde cinema Sobrevivência de imagens do cinema das vanguardas

    Eduardo Peñuela Cañizal


    Full Text Available My intention here is to discuss the hypothesis that the technology of some media builds supports that ensure the survival of cinematographic images. My own interest in this theme lies in its potential for creating subtle forms of intertextuality. To this end, I deal with iconographic forms molded by avant-garde cinema, distinguishing between "relative" and "surrealistic" images. Minha intenção neste trabalho é lidar com o pressuposto de que a tecnologia de algumas media constrói suportes que garantem a sobrevivência das imagens, além de produzir modos sutis de intertextualidade. Para tanto, lido com a distinção de dois tipos de imagens: as que advêm da "relatividade" e as que se engendram no Surrealismo.

  17. Economic aspects of electricity and industrial heat generating reactors; Aspect economique des reacteurs produisant de l'electricite et de la chaleur industrielle

    Gaussens, J.; Moulle, N.; Dutheil, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Aldebert, J. [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN), CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)


    The economic advantage of electricity-generating nuclear stations decreases when their size decreases. However, when a counter-pressure turbine is joined on to a reactor and the residual heat can be properly used, it can be shown that fairly low capacity nuclear equipment may compete with conventional equipment under certain realistic enough conditions. The aim of this paper is to define these special conditions under which nuclear energy can be profitable. They are connected with the location and the general economic environment of the station, the pattern of the electricity and heat demands it must meet, the level of fuel and specific capital costs, nuclear and conventional. These conditions entail certain technical and economic specifications for the reactors used in this way otherwise they are unlikely to be competitive. In addition, these results are referred to the potential steam and electricity market, which leads us to examine certain uses for the heat generated by double purpose power stations; for example, to supply combined industrial plants, various types of town heating and for removal of salt from sea water. (authors) [French] L'interet economique de centrales nucleaires productrices d'electricite decroit lorsque la puissance decroit. Cependant, lorsqu'on associe une turbine a contrepression a un reacteur et qu'il est possible d'utiliser dans de bonnes conditions la chaleur residuelle, on peut montrer que dans certaines conditions assez realistes, des equipements nucleaires d'une puissance unitaire peu elevee peuvent etre competitifs avec des equipements conventionnels. Cette communication a donc pour but de mettre en evidence quelles sont ces conditions particulieres de rentabilite de l'energie nucleaire. Elles sont liees a la localisation de la centrale et a son contexte economique general, a la structure de la demande d'energie electrique et thermique a laquelle elle doit satisfaire, au niveau des couts des

  18. Measurement and regulation of the level of a homogeneous plutonium reactor; Mesure et regulation du niveau d'un reacteur homogene au plutonium

    Berger, F.; Bertrand, J


    Reactivity depends strongly on disturbances of the level of the plutonium solution In the homogeneous reactor. Proserpine has a small cylindrical core, 250 mm diameter, and 10 liters volume. With a view to reducing the dangers due to corrosion and contamination, the solution level in the core is raised by pneumatic pressure. The level is stabilized by means of a regulating system. During critical experiments the variations of the level are less than one hundredth part of a millimeter. (author) [French] Les variations du niveau de la solution de plutonium dans le reacteur homogene Proserpine ont une grosse influence sur la reactivite, car le coeur est petit (10 litres de solution dans un cylindre de diametre 250 mm). En vue de reduire les dangers dus a la corrosion et a la contamination, la commande du volume liquide est pneumatique. Nous avons realise la stabilite du niveau par une regulation qui, dans les essais en regime critique, limite les variations du plan liquide a une fraction de centieme de millimetre. (auteur)

  19. [Project for] a high-flux extracted neutron beam reactor [for physicists]; Un [projet de] reacteur a haut flux et faisceaux sortis [pour physiciens

    Ageron, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    the beam extraction tubes and the experimental equipment which can support doses much higher than the ones which are biologically permissible. The final part of the communication describes the studies carried out on the realization of a liquid hydrogen cold sink, one of the most important experimental devices envisaged. (authors) [French] Les besoins francais en canaux pour sortie de neutrons de differentes energies sont brievement indiques. L'interet bien connu des neutrons froids (plus de 4 Angstroem) est souligne. Les grandes lignes d'un reacteur permettant de satisfaire les physiciens sont esquissees. Ce sont les suivantes: 1 - Flux dans l'eau lourde du reflecteur de l'ordre de 7. 10{sup 14} thermiques. 2 - Souplesse d'emploi maximum obtenue par: - separation physique du coeur et du reflecteur, - independance des experiences entre elles, - possibilite de modification, sans interruption notable du fonctionnement de la pile, des experiences physiques jusqu'a - et y compris - la nature du reflecteur utilise, - reduction au minimum des protections fixes; emploi largement generalise des protections liquides (eau) et fluidisees (sables). 3 - Continuite technologique aussi grande que possible avec les reacteurs de recherche francais existant ou en construction (SILOE, PEGASE, OSIRIS). 4 - Surete de fonctionnement recherche par la simplicite de conception. 5 - Minimisation des frais de construction. La reduction des frais d'exploitation est recherchee plutot indirectement par la simplicite des solutions et la reduction du personnel d'exploitation, que directement par la minimisation des consommations d'elements combustibles et d'energie. La solution preconisee peut etre decrite comme un reacteur de type piscine a coeur clos, non pressurise, tres sous modere par l'eau legere de refroidissement. Entourant le reacteur, se trouvent un certain nombre de 'canaux boucles' comprenant chacun: - une portion du

  20. Flica: a code for the thermodynamic study of a reactor or a test loop; Programme FLICA etude thermodynamique d'un reacteur ou d'une boucle d'essai

    Fajeau, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This code handles the thermal problems of water loops or reactor cores under the following conditions: High or low pressure, steady state or transient behavior, one or two phases - Three-dimensional thermodynamic study of the flow in cylindrical geometry - Unidimensional study of heat transfer in heating elements - Neutronic studies can be coupled and a schematic representation of the safety rod behavior is given. The number of cells described in a flow cross-section is presently less than 20. This code is the logical following of FLID and CACTUS of which it constitutes a synthesis. (author) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes thermiques d'une boucle ou d'un coeur de reacteur a eau dans les conditions suivantes: - Haute ou basse pression, regime permanent ou transitoire, simple ou double phase - Etude thermodynamique de l'ecoulement a 3 dimensions dans une geometrie cylindrique - Etude unidimensionnelle du transfert de chaleur dans les masses chauffantes - Possibilite de couplage avec la neutronique (reacteur point) et d'une representation schematique des actions de securite. Ce code dans lequel le nombre de cellules decrites dans une section droite de l'ecoulement est actuellement limite a 20 est la suite logique des codes FLID et CACTUS dont il constitue la synthese. (auteur)

  1. "El cuento ficticio": la especularidad como expresión de la vanguardia hispanoamericana "The fictitious short story": metafiction as an expression of Spanish American Avant-Garde

    Margarita Figueroa


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es examinar el funcionamiento de la especularidad o metaficción en la cual se concentra "El cuento ficticio" (1927 de Julio Garmendia para determinar que su especularidad es una expresión de la vanguardia hispanoamericana de las décadas del veinte y treinta o primera vanguardia. Primeramente, se estudia el texto de Garmendia como modelo de especularidad vanguardista por cuanto responde a la ruptura con la tradición realista y al experimentalismo. Experimentalismo de la estructura especular de "El cuento ficticio" porque se vale de un discurso expositivo en tiempo presente y futuro que sustituye el discurso narrativo en tiempo pasado como forma verbal característica de la narración (Weinrich. En la última parte, el texto de Garmendia se relaciona con novelas hispanoamericanas de la primera vanguardia que presentan la misma estructura especular. El texto de Garmendia es el primer relato especular hispanoamericano que responde a las innovaciones vanguardistas derivadas de la especularidad presente en novelas hispanoamericanas vanguardistas.The objective of this study is to analyze how metafiction, on which Julio Garmendia’s "El cuento ficticio" (1927 is concentrated, works in order to determine that its metafiction is an expression of the Spanish American Avant-Garde of the twenties and thirties, or first Avant-Garde. Firstly, Garmendia’s text is studied as a model of avant-garde metafiction because it responds to the breaking with the realist tradition and to experimentalism. Experimentalism of the metafictional structure of "El cuento ficticio" because it uses an expositive discourse in the present and future tenses that replaces the narrative discourse in the past tense as a verbal form which characterizes narration (Weinrich. In the last part, Garmendia’s text is related to the Spanish American first avant-garde novels that have the same metafictional structure. Garmendia’s text is the first Spanish

  2. “The Many Languages of the Avant-Garde”: In conversation with Grzegorz Bral of Teatr Pieśń Kozła (Song of the Goat Theatre

    Sakowska Aleksandra


    Full Text Available How to theorise and review avant-garde Shakespeare? Which theoretical paradigms should be applied when Shakespearean productions are multicultural and yet come from a specific locale? These and other many questions interrogating the language of performance in global avant-garde Shakespeare productions are put forward to Grzegorz Bral, the director of the Song of the Goat ensemble in the context of their evolving performance of Macbeth (2006/2008 and their Songs of Lear (2012.

  3. Some fundamental aspects of boiling in nuclear reactors; Quelques aspects fondamentaux de l'ebullition dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Mondin, H.; Lavigne, P.; Semeria, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    oscillation, the conditions of burnout are compared with those obtained under steady conditions. The burn-out flux following uniform 'stopped' heating has been studied in a channel containing still water. The flux shows a maximum as a function of unsaturation. The influence of the geometry and the nature of the metal was investigated. 4 - Output Oscillations: Using a low pressure (8 atm) loop, the influence of various parameters on the periods of output oscillations in a boiling channel on the thresholds at which they appear, was studied. Some new aspects of this complex phenomena were observed and are reported. (authors) [French] On indique les principaux resultats obtenus a Grenoble depuis quatre ans dans le domaine des mecanismes de l'ebullition et des phenomenes connexes dans les reacteurs nucleaires. 1 - OBSERVATION DE L'EBULLITION: Par photographie et cinematographie ultrarapide (8000 images par seconde maximum) on a observe l'ebullition en vase ou en canal jusqu'a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}. On a denombre les populations de germes (sites) generateurs de bulles et obtenu une correlation donnant leur nombre par unite de surface en fonction du flux thermique et de la pression. Le diametre des bulles se detachant de la paroi a ete etudie jusqu'a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}. On a mis en evidence trois types de bulles: - Les bulles en equilibre dont le diametre suit la formule de Fritz et Ende, - Les bulles d'ebullition dont le diametre diminue rapidement avec la pression (1/100 mm a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}), - Les coalescences apparaissant en liquide sature au-dessus de 15 W/cm{sup 2} et dont la proportion est independante de la pression. Par visualisation en strioscopie on observe les mouvements du film thermique associes a l'amorcage des germes, au depart et a la condensation des bulles; les mecanismes responsables de l'excellent transfert de chaleur ont pu ainsi etre precises. 2 - PERTES DE PRESSION EN ECOULEMENT DIPHASE: On a etabli un modele de

  4. The avant-garde elements in the May Fourth New Literature Movement%试论"五四"新文学运动的先锋性



    The May Fourth"new literature"appeared in the early twentieth century China while the avant-garde was sweeping over the West.Both could be defined as radical literary movements by such characteristics as storming criticism of politics,subversive standpoints on traditional culture,language experiments for thoroughly novel forms and criticism with the aestheticism for,l'art pour,l'art(art for art's sake).The avant-garde elements in the new literature,by contrast,are believed able to help us see two kinds of shifts in the course of twentiethcentury literature,that is,to see how it shifted from classical to modern literature in the last century:one change was the natural flow of the mainstream literature,subject to the social development and changes,and the other is an avant-garde movement that took a radical stance against the status quo.and was led by ideals of social reforms aiming to realize beyond the generation.

  5. Mutual exchange between Polish and Belgian magazines: a case study in cultural mobility within the interwar network of the avant-garde

    Michał Wenderski


    Full Text Available In January 1924, Flemish avant-garde magazine Het Overzicht published a list of its congenial modernist for­ma­tions named ‘Het Netwerk’. It named nineteen magazines from Europe, the United States and Brazil, including the Polish magazine Zwrotnica. It exemplified the close and direct relationships within the supranational network of the avant-garde. Various formations belonging to this network, both bigger and smaller nodes, were linked to each other, often directly through befriended artists and writers. It did not only concern places such as Paris or Berlin, but also less pivotal nodes of the avant-garde network. In this paper I will present a case study of two countries, namely Poland and Belgium, as an example of European interwar cultural mobility. Joined in their pursuit of modern art, and crossing national and linguistic frontiers, Polish, French and Dutch-language magazines exchanged and re-printed each other’s texts and artworks, a practice also discussed in the correspondence between their representatives. Based on such tangible traces I will describe the cultural mobility and mutual exchange between the Polish and Belgian modernist journals, and attempt to shed light on the features, dynamics, and key figures of the network.

  6. Neurological Impact of World War I on the Artistic Avant-Garde: The Examples of André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire and Blaise Cendrars.

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Tatu, Laurent


    World War I erupted at a time when artistic avant-gardes were particularly thriving across Europe. Young poets, writers, painters and sculptors were called to arms or voluntary enrolled to fight, and several of them died during the conflict. Among others, it dramatically changed their creative output, either through specific wounds or through personal encounters and experiences. These individual events then significantly modified the course of the literary and artistic avant-garde movements. Three particularly illustrative examples of avant-garde French poets are presented here: André Breton (1896-1966), Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) and Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961). The deep source of the surrealist movement can indeed be found in André Breton's involvement as an auxiliary physician with critical interest in neuropsychiatry, which caused him to discover automatic writing. Guillaume Apollinaire's right temporal subdural hematoma strongly modified his emotional state and subsequent artistic activities. Alternatively, after losing his right, writing hand, Blaise Cendrars not only substituted it with a phantom but also rapidly switched from poetry to novels after he learnt to write with his left hand.

  7. ‘We the Avant-Garde’. A History from Below of Dutch Heroin Use in the 1970s

    Gemma Blok


    Full Text Available In the 1970s the Netherlands (like many other western countries was shocked by a sudden wave of heroin use. The heroin ‘epidemic’ is  currently framed as a public health problem that has been solved in a commendably humane fashion. In the mean time heroin users have gained a ‘loser image’. Using memoirs written by and interviews with former heroin users, this article argues that heroin use was initially linked to cultural rebellion, self-development and social criticism. We need to take this forgotten aspect of the history of the Dutch heroin ‘epidemic’ into account when we try to explain this historical phenomenon.  ‘Wij de avant-garde’. Een history from below van heroïnegebruik in Nederland in de jaren zeventigIn de jaren zeventig van de vorige eeuw werd Nederland (net als veel andere westerse landen opgeschrikt door een plotselinge golf van heroïnegebruik. Deze ‘heroïne-epidemie’ wordt momenteel beschouwd als volksgezondheidsprobleem dat succesvol is bedwongen, op een bewonderenswaardig humane wijze. Ondertussen hebben heroïnegebruikers een ‘loser’ imago gekregen. Op basis van memoires geschreven door en interviews met voormalige heroïnegebruikers, betoogt dit artikel dat het gebruik van heroïne oorspronkelijk verbonden was met culturele rebellie, zelfontplooiing en cultuurkritiek. Dit vergeten aspect van de ‘epidemie’ is onderdeel van de verklaring voor de populariteit van opiaten destijds.

  8. The British Avant Garde: A Joint Venture Between the New York Cultural Center and Studio International Magazine

    Jo Melvin


    Full Text Available This essay considers the relevance of The British Avant Garde exhibition at the New York Cultural Center in 1971 to the reputation and discussion of British artists in the US, and its subsequent impact in Britain. It situates the exhibition with reference to Conceptual Art and Conceptual Aspects at the NYCC and Information at the Museum of Modern Art, both held in 1970, and within the background milieu of a lively transatlantic and multi-directional network of artists such as Terry Atkinson, Michael Baldwin, Ian Burn, Barry Flanagan, Dan Graham, Joseph Kosuth, Christine Kozlov, Richard Long, Mel Ramsden, Sol LeWitt and Lawrence Weiner, who were developing alternative ways to make and to distribute work by using text, photocopies, and self-publication as forms of production as well as becoming the site of exhibition. Devised by Charles Harrison, assistant editor of Studio International magazine, the exhibition was a collaboration between the magazine and the NYCC, directed by Donald Karshan. Despite the mixed press reviews in New York, the exhibition paved the way for establishing institutional support for the artists in the UK.

  9. “When I Grow Up, I Will be an Artist.” Japanese Avant-garde’s Experimental Sandpit

    klara / HRVATIN


    Full Text Available Sōgetsu Art Center, one of the most important venues for the avant-garde in 1960s Japan, could be defined as an artistic “experimental sandpit”. Its activities brought new musical expressions to the world of Japanese art, and lead to the independent film production. Japanese artists could play in this sandpit with a group of interdisciplinary peers and thus search for their most suitable artistic styles. Good examples are film director Hiroshi Teshigahara (1927–2001, playwright Kōbō Abe (1924–1993 and musician Tōru Takemitsu (1930–1996. The article gives an insight into the artistic associations and events, which took place under the roof of the Sōgetsu Art Center in the period from September 1958 to March 1971. The emphasis will be put on the main associations; activities related to the fields of jazz music, contemporary music, experimental film and animation. We will look for the common ground among these, and note the innovations which were brought about by the main participants at the Center in the fields of music and film.

  10. High energy resolution and high count rate gamma spectrometry measurement of primary coolant of generation 4 sodium-cooled fast reactor; Spectrometrie gamma haute resolution et hauts taux de comptage sur primaire de reacteur de type generation 4 au sodium liquide

    Coulon, R.


    Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors are under development for the fourth generation of nuclear reactor. Breeders reactors could gives solutions for the need of energy and the preservation of uranium resources. An other purpose is the radioactive wastes production reduction by transmutation and the control of non-proliferation using a closed-cycle. These thesis shows safety and profit advantages that could be obtained by a new generation of gamma spectrometry system for SFR. Now, the high count rate abilities, allow us to study new methods of accurate power measurement and fast clad failure detection. Simulations have been done and an experimental test has been performed at the French Phenix SFR of the CEA Marcoule showing promising results for these new measurements. (author) [French] Les reacteurs a neutrons rapides refroidis au sodium sont en developpement en vue d'assurer une quatrieme generation de reacteurs repondant a la demande energetique, tout en assurant la preservation des ressources d'uranium par un fonctionnement en surgenerateur. L'objectif de la filiere est egalement d'ameliorer la gestion de la radiotoxicite des dechets produits par transmutation des actinides mineurs et de controler la non-proliferation par un fonctionnement en cycle ferme. Une instrumentation de surveillance et de controle de ce type de reacteur a ete etudiee dans cette these. La spectrometrie gamma de nouvelle generation permet, par les hauts taux de traitement aujourd'hui accessibles, d'envisager de nouvelles approches pour suivre avec une precision accrue la puissance neutronique et de detecter plus precocement des ruptures de gaine combustible. Des simulations numeriques ont ete realisees et une campagne d'essai a ete menee a bien sur le reacteur Phenix de Marcoule. Des perspectives prometteuses ont ete mises en exergue pour ces deux problematiques

  11. Two further years of operation of the reactor G1 (july 1958 - july 1960); Deux nouvelles annees de fonctionnement du reacteur G1. (juillet 1958 - Juillet 1960)

    Mathot, P.; Bauzit, J.; Cante, R.; Hebrard, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    observations ont pu etre faites sur l'empilement de graphite, en meme temps qu'etait accru le nombre de points de mesure des temperatures des gaines du combustible. - Du 25 septembre 1959 au 9 decembre 1959: preparation et execution du deuxieme recuit. A l'issue du recuit, le reseau de thorium a ete modifie et des thermocouples supplementaires donnant la temperature de la masse du graphite ont ete mis en place. Un appareillage permettant la mesure du flux radial a ete realise. - Du 9 decembre 1959 a juillet 1960: campagne de fonctionnement continu, avec le minimum d'arrets. Les resultats d'experience sont regroupes, independamment de toute chronologie sous trois grandes rubriques qui president a la vie du reacteur: - Fonctionnement continu, - Dechargements, - Recuits du reacteur. (auteur)

  12. Automation of nonlinear calculations in the theory of fusion reactor; Automatisation des calculs non lineaires dans la theorie des reacteurs a fusion

    Braffort, P.; Chaigne, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    1) Introduction: The difficulties of the formulation of the equations of phenomena occurring during the operation of a fusion reactor are underlined. 2) The possibilities presented by analog computation of the solution of nonlinear differential equations are enumerated. The accuracy and limitations of this method are discussed. 3) The analog solution in the stationary problem of the measurement of the discharge confinement is given and comparison with experimental results. 4) The analog solution of the dynamic problem of the evolution of the discharge current in a simple case is given and it is compared with experimental data. 5) The analog solution of the motion of an isolated ion in the electromagnetic field is given. A spatial field simulator used for this problem (bidimensional problem) is described. 6) The analog solution of the preceding problem for a tridimensional case for particular geometrical configurations using simultaneously 2 field simulators is given. 7) A method of computation derived from Monte Carlo method for the study of dynamic of plasma is described. 8) Conclusion: the essential differences between the analog computation of fission reactors and fusion reactors are analysed. In particular the theory of control of a fusion reactor as described by SCHULTZ is discussed and the results of linearized formulations are compared with those of nonlinear simulation. (author)Fren. [French] 1) Introduction. On souligne les difficultes que presente la mise en equation des phenomenes mis en jeu lors du fonctionnement d'un reacteur a fusion. On selectionne un certain nombre d'equations generalement utilisees et on montre les impossibilites analytiques auxquelles on se heurte alors. 2) On rappelle les possibilites du calcul analogique pour la resolution des systemes differentiels non lineaires et on indique la precision de la methode ainsi que ses limitations. 3) On decrit esolution analogique du probleme statique de la mesure du confinement de la

  13. Laser-induced mobilization of dust produced during fusion reactors operation; Mise en suspension par laser de poussieres generees lors du fonctionnement des reacteurs de fusion

    Vatry, A.


    During tokamak operation, plasma-wall interactions lead to material erosion process and dusts production. These dusts are mainly composed by carbon and tungsten, with sizes ranging from 10 nm to 100 {mu}m. For safety reasons and to guarantee an optimum reactor functioning, the dusts have to be kept in reasonable quantity. The dusts mobilization is a first step to collect them, and the laser is a promising technique for this application. To optimize the cleaning, physical mechanisms responsible for dust ejection induced by laser have been identified. Some particles, such as aggregates, are directly ablated by the laser. The metal droplets are ejected intact by an electrostatic force, induced by the photoelectrons. We also characterized the particles ejection to choose an appropriate collection device. (author) [French] Lors du fonctionnement d'une machine de fusion, les interactions plasma-parois conduisent a des processus d'erosion des materiaux et a la production de particules. Ces poussieres sont principalement composees de carbone et de tungstene. Pour des raisons de surete et afin de garantir un fonctionnement optimum du reacteur, il est important de garder en quantite raisonnable les poussieres dont la taille varie entre 10 nm et 100 {mu}m. La mise en suspension de ces poussieres est une etape preliminaire a leur recuperation, et le laser est une technique prometteuse pour cette application. Afin d'optimiser le nettoyage, les mecanismes physiques a l'origine de l'ejection induite par laser de ces poussieres ont ete identifies. Les agregats sont directement ablates par le laser et les gouttelettes metalliques sont ejectees intactes par une force electrostatique induite par les photoelectrons. Nous avons egalement caracterise l'ejection des particules pour choisir un systeme de recuperation adapte

  14. L’évaluation du risque cardiaque avant l’utilisation de stimulants chez les enfants et les adolescents

    Bélanger, SA; Warren, AE; Hamilton, RM; Gray, C; Gow, RM; Sanatani, S; Côté, J-M; Lougheed, J; LeBlanc, J; Martin, S; Miles, B; Mitchell, C; Gorman, DA; Weiss, M; Schachar, R


    Les décisions en matière de réglementation et les documents scientifiques au sujet de la prise en charge du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) soulèvent des questions quant à l’innocuité des médicaments et à l’évaluation convenable à effectuer avant le traitement afin de déterminer la pertinence d’une pharmacothérapie. Ce constat est particulièrement vrai en présence de cardiopathies structurelles ou fonctionnelles. Le présent article contient l’analyse des données disponibles, y compris les publications révisées par des pairs, des données tirées du site Web de la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis au sujet des réactions indésirables déclarées chez des enfants qui prennent des stimulants, ainsi que des données de Santé Canada sur le même problème. Des lignes directrices consensuelles sur l’évaluation pertinente sont proposées d’après l’apport des membres de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, de la Société canadienne de cardiologie et de l’Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, qui possèdent notamment des compétences et des connaissances précises tant dans le secteur du TDAH que de la cardiologie pédiatrique. Le présent document de principes prône une anamnèse et un examen physique détaillés avant la prescription de stimulants et s’attarde sur le dépistage des facteurs de risque de mort subite, mais il ne contient pas de recommandations systématiques de dépistage électrocardiographique ou de consultations avec un spécialiste en cardiologie, à moins que les antécédents ou que l’examen physique ne le justifient. Le document contient un questionnaire pour repérer les enfants potentiellement vulnérables à une mort subite (quel que soit le type de TDAH ou les médicaments utilisés pour le traiter). Même si les recommandations dépendent des meilleures données probantes disponibles, le comité s’entend pour affirmer que

  15. Chemical elimination of alumina in suspension in nuclear reactors heavy water; Elimination de l'alumine en suspension dans l'eau lourde des reacteurs nucleaires par voie chimique

    Ledoux, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Corrosion of aluminium in contact with moderating water in nuclear reactor leads to the formation of an alumina hydrosol which can have an adverse effect on the operation of the reactor. Several physical methods have been used in an attempt to counteract this effect. The method proposed here consists in the elimination of the aluminium by dissolution and subsequent fixation in the ionic form on mixed-bed ion-exchange resin. In order to do this, the parameters and the values of these parameters most favorable to the dissolution process have been determined. If the moderator is heavy water, the deuterated acid can be prepared by converting a solution in heavy water to a salt of the acid using a deuterated cationic resin. (author) [French] La corrosion de l'aluminium au contact de l'eau moderatrice des reacteurs nucleaires, donne lieu a la formation d'un hydrosol d'alumine nuisible au bon fonctionnement des reacteurs. Plusieurs methodes physiques ont ete mises en oeuvre pour pallier ces inconvenients. On propose ici d'eliminer l'alumine par solubilisation pour la fixer ensuite sous forme ionique par des resines echangeuses d'ions, en lit melange. A cette fin on determine les parametres et leurs grandeurs favorables a cette solubilisation. Si le moderateur est de l'eau lourde la preparation d'acide deutere peut etre effectuee par passage d'une solution en eau lourde a un sel de l'acide sur resine cationique deuteree.

  16. Construction of the core of the 'heavy water-gas' reactor EL 4; Structures du coeur du reacteur 'eau- lourde-gaz EL 4'

    Bernard, J.L.; Foulquier, H.; Thome, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    problem of thermal insulation around a zirconium alloy liner tube. The neutron absorption equivalent is about 1, 1 mm of Al, and the mean loss around 2 p. 100 of the thermal power of the reactor. The methods proposed have proved practicable as a result of important research and developments on automatic remote control for all the operations which make up the sequences of mounting, demounting and repairing of the construction components. In particular the possibilities opened up by the new techniques of welding tubes from the inside have been extended to other problems connected with the assembling of a reactor. (authors) [French] Le coeur de ce reacteur est constitue par une cuve contenant l'eau lourde, cuve traversee d'une serie de tubes de force dans lesquels circule le gaz caloporteur sous pression de 60 at. Les specifications de depart qui ont joue un role important dans la conception de ces structures concernent des aspects de securite de fonctionnement (chargement du combustible par les deux faces du reacteur, remplacement des structures sur les deux faces du reacteur), des necessites neutroniques (absorption des structures minimum, pas du reseau, diametre des tubes de force) et des considerations thermiques (temperature de sortie 500 C). Ces specifications ont entraine une disposition horizontale des tubes de force et des problemes d'encombrement tres delicats qui ont elimine (pour les dimensions d'EL 4) toute possibilite de recourir a des compensateurs de dilatation sur les tubes de force. II s'ensuit un dessin de cuve semi-rigide dans lequel les tubes de force contribuent pour une part importante a la resistance mecanique de l'ensemble en jouant le role de tirant, d'ou des contraintes elevees sur les jonctions et tubes de force (et le choix des alliages de zirconium). Les structures comprennent le tube de force, les jonctions, l'isolement thermique et le tube de guidage. On expose brievement les moyens d'essais mis en

  17. Guillaume Apollinaire et la « latinisation » des avant-gardes parisiennes durant la Première Guerre mondiale

    Amotz Giladi


    Full Text Available Guillaume Apollinaire fait l’objet d’une recherche abondante, non seulement littéraire mais aussi sociohistorique. De nombreuses études portent sur sa trajectoire, sur son rôle dans les échanges internationaux entre mouvements d’avant-garde, sur sa figure intellectuelle en tant que critique et journaliste, ou encore sur son engagement volontaire dans l’armée française lors de la Première Guerre mondiale. Dans cet article, nous nous situerons au croisement de toutes ces perspectives, en cherch...

  18. Avant-propos

    Severiano Rojo Hernandez


    Full Text Available La question des rapports entre médias et pouvoirs est une question qui, pour être ancienne, n’en mérite pas moins d’être constamment réinterrogée. Historiquement dès l’apparition d’une presse écrite, peu de temps après l’invention de l’imprimerie, s’est posé le problème de son rapport avec le pouvoir politique. Dans un contexte où la liberté d’expression n’existait pas, cette question s’est d’emblée articulée autour d’une interrogation majeure : comment contrôler la diffusion de l’information...

  19. Avant-propos

    Jacques-Emmanuel Bernard


    Full Text Available En évoquant les grottes de Lascaux, Fernand Braudel s’interrogeait : pourquoi, à l’heure où naît le premier art des hommes, la Méditerranée est-elle silencieuse en quelque sorte ? S’occuperait-elle d’autre chose ? Vivrait-elle autrement ? Le miracle y serait-il, en Orient, le développement décisif des langages parlés ? Le mutisme méditerranéen… On ne pourrait rêver plus beau paradoxe pour ouvrir un numéro de Babel sur les rhétoriques enfantées par la Mère Méditerranée- pour faire allusion...

  20. Avant-propos

    Mona Huerta


    Full Text Available En 2009 se cumplió el setenta aniversario del final oficial de la Guerra Civil, un enfrentamiento que tuvo repercusiones considerables en numerosos países europeos y americanos. Interpretada por algunos como el inicio de la Segunda Guerra mundial, la Guerra Civil fue un acontecimiento fundador para una parte significativa de la población de naciones como Francia, México y Argentina. Por sus consecuencias políticas, culturales y demográficas, este conflicto dejó una huella indeleble y se convi...

  1. Avant-propos

    Severiano Rojo Hernandez


    Full Text Available Au cours des années 90, l'Europe est confrontée à un « réveil des nationalités » qui va profondément bouleverser l'organisation du continent. En acquérant leur indépendance, la Serbie, la Croatie, la Slovaquie, — et bien d'autres États — modifient le paysage géopolitique européen qui semblait bénéficier d'une certaine stabilité depuis la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Ces différents « séismes » sèment le trouble, en particulier en Europe de l'ouest. Une partie de l'opinion publique pensait, en effe...

  2. Avant-propos

    Arlette Gautier


    Full Text Available La revue @mnis a décidé de consacrer un numéro spécial à « femmes et militantisme » en hommage à Simone de Beauvoir. Celle-ci s’est engagée contre la guerre d’Algérie puis dans le féminisme radical des années 1970. Ses romans et son œuvre philosophique n’ont cessé de poser la question de l'oppression et de la liberté. Pour elle, l’individu reste libre et responsable même dans une situation oppressive. Une des manifestations de cette liberté peut être le militantisme. Malgré la domination qui ...

  3. Avant-propos

    Valérie AUDA-ANDRÉ


    Full Text Available La question de l’état de la démocratie britannique bénéficie à l’heure actuelle d’un haut degré de visibilité dans les médias ; elle fait l’objet d’une série de commentaires et d’initiatives émanant du gouvernement et plus largement de la classe politique mais aussi d’associations de la société civile et de groupes de pression. Cette préoccupation soudaine, teintée d’une inquiétude qui peut s’avérer éphémère tant elle est dictée par l’actualité, nous invite toutefois à tenter de remonter aux origines de la rupture de la « démocratie d’équilibre ». Nous suivrons les transformations du régime démocratique britannique de la démocratie de marché des années Thatcher et Major à la démocratie participative et aux nouveaux schémas de gouvernance mis en œuvre par New Labour. Ce panorama sera l’occasion d’une réflexion théorique sur les différentes stratégies d’adaptation du modèle démocratique aux mutations sociales, économiques et culturelles qui ont modifié en profondeur l’identité du peuple britannique, l’être collectif qui se réalise dans des institutions et une pratique démocratiques.

  4. Avant-propos

    Germain-Thomas, Patrick


    Jusqu’aux années 1960 en France, la danse classique jouit d’un monopole en termes de légitimité artistique et de financements publics. L’aide de l’État se concentre sur l’Opéra de Paris et il n’apporte qu’une contribution limitée à l’activité des autres troupes de ballet intégrées dans les maisons d’opéras municipales. Après l’apparition triomphale d’Isadora Duncan, la danseuse aux pieds nus, c’est surtout l’héritage des Ballets russes qui incarne la modernité et l’innovation artistique dans ...

  5. Avant-propos

    Aubert, Gauthier; Hamon, Philippe


    James B. Collins est un des nombreux historiens anglo-saxons qui ont contribué, au cours des trois dernières décennies, à un net renouvellement de l’historiographie de la société politique de la France moderne, aux côtés de William Beik, Joseph Bergin, John Hurt, Mark Greengrass et de tant d’autres. Classes, Estates, and Order in early modern Brittany, son livre paru en 1994 chez Cambridge University Press, contribue ainsi, à partir du cas breton, à mieux cerner les relations entre le pouvoir...

  6. Avant-Propos

    Ollivier, J.; Farhi, E.; Ferrand, M.; Benoit, M.


    L'École Thématique “Neutrons et Biologie” s'est tenue du 22 au 26 Mai 2004 à Praz/Arly (Haute-Savoie, France), dans le cadre des 12 èmes Journees de la Diffusion Neutronique de la Societe Française de Neutronique. Cette école a ete organisee avec le concours financier du CNRS (formation permanente), du Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (CEA Saclay), de la region Rhône-Alpes, du conseil général de Haute-Savoie et de l'Université Joseph Fourier de Grenoble. Une cinquantaine de participants, dont une vingtaine d'intervenants, ont largement contribué à la réussite de l'École. D'un point de vue scientifique, l'École s'est déclinée en sept sessions thématiques majeures: - une première session introductive a été consacrée à une revue globale des méthodes biophysiques ayant un fort impact pour l'étude de la structure et de la dynamique des macromolécules biologiques (J. Parello). Un accent tout particulier à été apporté pour décrire les neutrons en tant que composante importante de la panoplie des techniques couramment utilisées en biophysique moléculaire (J. Schweitzer). - une session dédiée aux mesures dynamiques par diffusion incohérente de neutrons a été largement developpée. Qu'ils s'agissent de vibrations et de relaxations moléculaires dans les protéines (J.M. Zanotti), de dynamique globale des protéines (G. Zaccaï), ainsi que de dynamique de l'eau d'hydratation (F. Gabel), de nombreux exemples ont permis d'illustrer la pertinence des neutrons pour étudier la dynamique fonctionnelle des protéines sur l'échelle de temps picosecond nanoseconde. L'analyse des données de diffusion inélastique de neutrons ne peut se passer de modélisation théorique analytique des propriétés dynamique des biomolécules (D. Bicout). - une large place avait été réservée aux études structurales en biologie. Cette troisième session a rassemblé des contributions en diffusion aux petits angles de neutrons pour l'étude structurale en solution (D. Lairez), en réflectométrie de neutrons pour l'étude de systèmes des membranes ou de protéines en interaction avec des membranes (G. Fragneto), ainsi qu'en diffraction de fibres appliquée à l'étude de l'ADN (T. Forsyth). - les simulations de dynamique moléculaire constituent une méthode théorique unique pour étudier, au niveau atomique, les mouvements internes des macromolécules biologiques, que ce soit à l'équilibre (G. Kneller, S. Crouzy) ou hors équilibre (B. Gilquin). Les trajectoires de dynamique moléculaire s'étendent aujourd'hui à la centaine de nanosecondes, et peuvent être de ce fait utilisées par certains programmes pour calculer les observables expérimentales fournies par la diffusion de neutrons (G. Kneller, T. Hinsen). - l'ouverture des neutrons à des techniques instrumentales permettant d'approcher, d'une part, des états hors-équilibre par le biais d'études cinétiques couplées à des mélanges rapides pour des études de croissance de phases (I. Grillo) ou de repliement de protéines, d'autre part, des conditions expérimentales extrèmes (hautes-pressions, M. Plazanet), nous ont semblé constituer des émergences prometteuses. À ce titre, une revue sur le repliement des protéines (V. Forge) a précisé l'importance de nombreuses techniques (fluorescence intrinsèque, dichroïsme, infra-rouge, RMN) dans le domaine, tout en permettant d'entrevoir l'intérêt des études par neutrons. - en marge des sessions purement “neutrons”, il nous semblait important de pouvoir présenter des techniques et méthodes souvent reconnues comme très complémentaires des neutrons, en privilégiant un volet “études structurales” et un volet “études dynamiques”. Côté méthodes dynamiques, la RMN (M. Blackledge) a été positionnée comme une technique permettant d'étudier la flexibilité moléculaire sur des echelles de temps plus lentes (ms). Côté méthodes structurales, la bio-cristallographie des RX appliquée à l'études des structures virales (P. Gouet) a permis de mettre en évidence des aspects complémentaires entre RX et neutrons, et de souligner les avantages et inconvenients respectifs de ces techniques. - l'École Thématique s'est achevée par une session commune avec les Journées Rossat-Mignod, au cours de laquelle J. Helliwell a établi une revue comparative RX/neutrons sur les développements récents en bio-cristallographie des protéines, suivi de deux presentations portant sur la dynamique incohérente et cohérente de systèmes membranaires (F. Natali, M. Rheinstadter). Contrairement aux années précédentes, le contenu de cet ouvrage se veut davantage refléter les applications des neutrons en biologie et biophysique moléculaire, en se reportant à des travaux scientifiques précis, plutôt que d'être constitué d'un recueil de cours, certes trés pédagogiques, mais quelquefois trop éloignés de l'expérience. Nous espérons que ce choix saura satisfaire le lecteur et encourager de nouveaux biologistes à utiliser les neutrons dès que possible pour leurs systèmes d'intérêt. Bonne lecture et bonnes manips !!!!

  7. Avant-propos

    Severiano Rojo Hernandez


    Full Text Available En ce début de XXIe siècle, de nombreuses cérémonies sont venues rappeler aux sociétés européennes et américaines les conflits majeurs qui ont marqué leur histoire. L’anniversaire du début de la Première Guerre mondiale (2004 et la commémoration de la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale (2005 sont autant de dates qui soulignent à quel point la violence est indissociable de leur passé. Les différentes cérémonies consacrées en 2005 à la libération des camps de concentration nazis doivent rappel...

  8. Avant-propos

    Bertheau, Gilles; Cottegnies, Line


    Ce numéro d’Études Épistémè est le produit de deux projets collaboratifs et comporte deux volets. Les articles de Jean-Claude Ternaux, Hélène Tropé, Diane Larquetoux, Gilles Bertheau et Denis Lagae-Devoldère sont issus des communications présentées en mars 2008 lors de la journée d’études qui s’est tenue au Centre d’Études Supérieures de la Renaissance (Tours) sur les “Figures du conflit dans le théâtre historique européen de la Renaissance”, organisée en collaboration avec l’équipe “Théâtre ...

  9. Avant-propos

    Marianne Poumay


    Full Text Available [Français] Le présent numéro spécial est axé sur un dispositif de formation des enseignants de l’enseignement supérieur et sur les réalisations de ces enseignants. Un premier chapitre introduit le diplôme Form@sup [1], d’où sont issues les sept expériences d’enseignants décrites ensuite. Cette formation d’une année accompagne les enseignants du supérieur désireux de transformer leur pratique professionnelle, par exemple en y introduisant des usages d’Internet pour faciliter l’apprentissage des étudiants, toutes disciplines confondues. Chacun applique les concepts acquis lors de la formation à son projet personnel, son propre cours, durant toute l’année. Form@sup sera décrit dans sa formule de 2004-2005, bien que les enseignants qui témoignent par la suite n’aient pas vécu cette version du dispositif. En effet, chaque année a apporté son lot d’améliorations, sur lesquelles d’ailleurs nous insisterons car elles constituent peut-être pour des collègues une façon d’éviter de reproduire certains de nos errements. Les sept expériences d’enseignants ont été choisies pour leur diversité : des enseignants de différentes institutions, de différentes disciplines, de différents pays européens, considèrent l’apport spécifique de l’eLearning à leur cours et nous font part de leur cheminement. Ces enseignants ont vécu un même curriculum mais en ont retiré une richesse toute personnelle, qu’ils ont réinvestie en modifiant concrètement leur pratique de façon différenciée. Les articles qui suivent en sont le reflet. Les enseignants auteurs y soulignent des points contrastés de la réflexion qui a mené à la mise en ligne de leur cours : Pour Bonnet et Reggers, les principes méthodologiques qui fondent la progressivité au sein du cours (contexte : anatomie ; Pour Clissen, l’utilisation de modèles conceptuels lors de la conception de son cours en ligne (contexte : travaux pratiques en botanique ; Pour Hougardy et Oger, la prise en compte continue des besoins du public-cible (contexte : méthodes de travail ; Pour Kovertaite et Leclercq, la triple concordance entre les objectifs du cours, ses méthodes et l’évaluation des étudiants (contexte : politiques nationales et internationales en eLearning ; Pour Mignon et Reggers, l’impact de l’expérimentation de son cours sur sa régulation (contexte : entomologie ; Pour Volungeviciene et Leduc, l’importance d’un tutorat local (transnational lorsque le cursus est international (contexte : formation des enseignants ; Pour Vandeweerd, l’usage d’une base de données de cas générant des activités d’apprentissage (contexte : orthopédie équine. Après ces sept témoignages, nous proposons dans un dernier chapitre une analyse critique du curriculum Form@sup. Nous replaçons cette analyse critique dans le champ de la pédagogie universitaire et terminons par des perspectives pour les années futures. En effet, en 2007, Form@sup a encore évolué. Dans l’esprit du courant de « Scholarship of teaching and learning » (SoTL, cette professionnalisation des enseignants du supérieur utilise aujourd’hui la recherche comme un puissant levier de remise en question des pratiques de chacun et une cartographie de compétences comme point de repère des progrès individuels. Nous espérons que ces analyses et illustrations seront une source de réflexion pour d’autres équipes de « développeurs », d’accompagnateurs ou de formateurs d’enseignants. Si elles font écho à vos propres préoccupations et réflexions, peut-être aurons-nous jeté les bases de futures collaborations. [1] Dès 2007 et en correspondance avec la terminologie adoptée suite au décret de Bologne, le diplôme Form@sup, actuellement Diplôme d’Etudes Spécialisées, sera officiellement Master Complémentaire.

  10. Avant-propos

    Georges Martin


    Full Text Available À Marie-Madeleine MartinetCe premier numéro de la revue e-Spania recueille pour l’essentiel les actes du colloque « Gobernar en Castilla durante la Edad Media : el papel de las mujeres (I » (« Gouverner en Castille au Moyen Âge : la part des femmes », co-organisé par la Casa de Velázquez, l’Instituto de Historia du CSIC-Madrid et le SIREM (GDR 2378, CNRS et qui s’est tenu à la Casa de Velázquez (Madrid les 17, 18 et 19 janvier 2005.Dans le cadre du programme fédérateur du SIREM « Exercer,...

  11. Avant-propos

    Georges Martin


    Full Text Available Ce quatrième numéro d’e-Spania rassemble les actes de deux rencontres madrilènes : une table ronde sur « La parole des rois (couronne d’Aragon, royaume de Castille, XIIIe-XVe siècle », organisée par le SIREM et la Casa de Velázquez sous la coordination de Sophie Hirel-Wouts, Stéphane Péquignot et François Foronda en juin 2006 ; un séminaire organisé par Isabel Alfonso au siège de l’Instituto de historia du CSIC les 15-16 février 2007 et qui avait pour thème « Culture, langage et pratiques po...

  12. Avant le crime politique

    Fell, Claude; Rutés, Sébastien


    La créativité récente dans le sous-genre policier au Mexique, que l’on appelle « néo-policier » favorise la mise en valeur des romans et nouvelles à caractère policier qui n’avaient pas dans ce pays le développement éditorial pris aux Etats-Unis. Le crime et l’enquête policière ont des composantes de fiction qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans le profil conventionnel du roman de détective. Des œuvres de plusieurs écrivains marquent cette évolution vers le néo-policier.Dans Ensayo de un crimen (1986)...

  13. Avant-propos

    Georges Martin


    Full Text Available Ce numéro 12 d’e-Spania marque une étape importante dans l’histoire de notre revue, puisque désormais celle-ci s’ouvre aux modernistes. Les travaux des quatre composantes de CLEA (EA 4083, Université Paris-Sorbonne pourront ainsi être diffusés en ligne. Il est néanmoins tout à fait capital qu’au-delà des publications de cette unité de recherche, e-Spania reste ouverte aux productions des meilleurs spécialistes de l’Espagne médiévale et moderne, fussent-elles individuelles ou collectives. Nos...

  14. Avant-propos

    Georges Toulouse


    Full Text Available Dans la foulée d’une première conférence organisée à Nancy en 2005, se tenait à Montréal, en juin 2008, la 2e conférence du Groupe de recherche francophone sur les troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS. Organisée par l’IRSST et parrainée par la Société d’ergonomie de langue française (SELF et l’Association canadienne d’ergonomie (ACE, cette conférence, De la recherche à l’action, réunissait plus de 250 participants : chercheurs, praticiens et acteurs des milieux de travail. Tous ont profité ...

  15. Avant-propos

    Lefebvre, Thierry; Le Forestier, Laurent; Michaud, Philippe-Alain


    Pour la troisième fois après Exotica, L'attraction des lointains (1996) et Le Relief au cinéma (1997), l'Association française de recherche sur l'histoire du cinéma s'associe à l'Auditorium du Louvre pour éditer un numéro de 7895 consacré cette fois à la pyrotechnie et aux effets de feu au cinéma. Intitulé « Pyrotechnies. Pour une histoire des arts incendiaires », ce nouveau cycle aborde du 27 février au 16 mars 2003, en trois conférences et une vingtaine de projections, les multiples facette...

  16. Avant-propos


    Francisco Vidal a étudié au Maumaus School of Visual art à Lisbonne et ses toiles comme ses installations ou vidéos questionnent différentes facettes des identités noires en Europe et dans les Amériques. Selon ses propres paroles : « Pour l’instant, je peux dire que je suis un peintre portugais, afro-descendant (ma mère vient du Cap Vert et mon père d’Angola). Né en 1978 je suis allé pour la première fois en Angola cette année et je suis allé trois fois au Cap Vert. Maintenant je peux dire qu...

  17. Avant-propos


    En 2009 se cumplió el setenta aniversario del final oficial de la Guerra Civil, un enfrentamiento que tuvo repercusiones considerables en numerosos países europeos y americanos. Interpretada por algunos como el inicio de la Segunda Guerra mundial, la Guerra Civil fue un acontecimiento fundador para una parte significativa de la población de naciones como Francia, México y Argentina. Por sus consecuencias políticas, culturales y demográficas, este conflicto dejó una huella indeleble y se convi...

  18. Avant-propos

    Raymond Jamous


    Full Text Available Depuis sa création à l’université Paris X-Nanterre par Éric de Dampierre, le Diplôme d’études approfondies (dea d’ethnologie et de sociologie comparative, d’ethnomusicologie et de préhistoire exige des candidats qu’ils présentent un projet de thèse et un article publiable sur un sujet ne relevant pas du domaine de recherches proposé pour la thèse. Ces deux travaux nécessitent une bonne maîtrise des outils conceptuels et constituent chacun un exercice particulier. Le projet de thèse consiste ...

  19. Avant-propos


    Cet ouvrage est le fruit d'une longue collaboration entre une équipe de l'IRD (ex-Orstom) et des chercheurs de plusieurs laboratoires mexicains, en particulier le Cenid Raspa (Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en la Relación Agua Suelo Planta Atmósfera) de Gómez Palacio (État de Durango), qui a accueilli le programme « Usage et gestion de l'eau dans un bassin du Nord-Mexique ». Pendant plus de cinq années sur place (de 1992 à 1998) puis pour de plus courtes missions, de 1998 à 20...

  20. Avant le crime politique


    La créativité récente dans le sous-genre policier au Mexique, que l’on appelle « néo-policier » favorise la mise en valeur des romans et nouvelles à caractère policier qui n’avaient pas dans ce pays le développement éditorial pris aux Etats-Unis. Le crime et l’enquête policière ont des composantes de fiction qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans le profil conventionnel du roman de détective. Des œuvres de plusieurs écrivains marquent cette évolution vers le néo-policier.Dans Ensayo de un crimen (1986)...

  1. Avant-propos

    Maurer, Jean-Luc


    La diversité de nos activités, que ce soit l’enseignement, la recherche ou encore la gestion de projets opérationnels de développement, donne à notre institution un champ extrêmement large, riche et varié dans lequel s’inscrivent les réflexions sur les rapports sociaux entre hommes et femmes et l’analyse de genre aujourd’hui. Depuis quelques années, notre volonté a été de souligner la problématique « genre » dans toutes les études sur le développement dans une perspective transversale touchan...

  2. Avant-Propos

    Caye, Pierre; Constantinidès, Yannis; Gontier, Thierry


     « Nous ne tenons pas les animaux pour des êtres moraux. Mais croyez-vous donc que les animaux nous tiennent pour des êtres moraux ? – Un animal qui savait parler disait : “L’humanité est un préjugé dont nous autres animaux, au moins, nous ne souffrons pas.” »(Nietzsche, Aurore, § 333, « Humanité »). La pensée de Nietzsche souligne l’ambiguïté de l’humanisme contemporain et sa violence sous-jacente. Car si Nietzsche pense l’avènement du surhumain, il peut apparaître aussi comme le premier pen...

  3. Avant-propos

    Georges Martin


    Full Text Available Ce numéro 15 d'e-Spania assemble deux grands dossiers monographiques : « La Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris y la Historia Roderici : dos crónicas particulares del siglo XII », coordonné et présenté par Alberto Montaner Frutos, et « Au miroir des Anciens », coordonné et présenté par Sophie Coussemacker. Le premier dossier recueille, une fois soumis à expertise et quelquefois révisés, des travaux présentés lors d’un colloque organisé à l’Université de Saragosse en septembre 2012 dans le cadre des...

  4. Avant-propos

    Georges Martin


    Full Text Available Le SEMH-Sorbonne (CLEA, EA 4083, en collaboration avec le SIREM (GDR 2378, CNRS, a clôturé en 2006 une recherche à moyen terme (1999-2006 portant sur l’historiographie royale castillano-léonaise de la première moitié du XIIIe siècle. Ce corpus historiographique formait une unité à plusieurs titres, notamment parce qu’il était l’œuvre de trois hommes étroitement liés à l’activité gouvernementale de Ferdinand III (1217-1252 et de sa mère la reine Bérengère. Au-delà de la genèse des œuvres, ...

  5. Avant-propos

    Georges Martin


    Full Text Available Ce numéro 9 de la revue e-Spania réunit, sous l’égide d’AILP (GDRE 671 du CNRS et du SEMH-Sorbonne (CLEA, EA 4083, un ensemble d’études portant sur le Liber regum (ou Libro de las generaciones y linajes de los reyes. Ces articles constituent la version remaniée et expertisée de communications présentées lors d’un colloque qui s’est tenu en Sorbonne les 4 et 5 décembre 2009 sous le titre Historiographie royale léonaise, castillane et navarraise du XIIe siècle. 2 : le Liber regum. Coordonnée...

  6. Avant-propos


    Moscou, août 1980. Les Jeux Olympiques se déroulent depuis déjà quelques jours avec leur moisson habituelle de psychodrames masqués par les exploits – quelquefois attendus, mais plus souvent insolites – que répercutent les écrans du monde entier. Ce soir-là, dans l’immense salle consacrée aux épreuves d’escrime, vont s’affronter les six meilleurs fleurettistes masculins du prestigieux tournoi olympique. Ils viennent de se qualifier en deux journées d’épreuves éliminatoires. Comme de coutume, ...

  7. Avant-propos



    Full Text Available Le présent volume rassemble les textes des communications présentées lors de la Journée d’Étude intitulée La Production et l’Analyse des discours, qui s’est tenue à Aix-en-Provence (Aix-Marseille Université le 4 décembre 2009 sous l’égide du LERMA.L'énoncé de ce sujet d'étude met l’accent, par le pluriel de sa formulation, sur la variété des types de discours : discours verbal ou non verbal, discours oral ou discours écrit, discours littéraire ou spécialisé (l’on peut dans ce cas se poser la...

  8. Avant-propos

    Georges Martin


    Full Text Available Avec ce sixième numéro, e-Spania s’ouvre plus que jamais à une mission fondamentale des médiévistes : l’édition de textes. Le numéro 4, avait déjà vu la publication, sous l’autorité de José Carlos Martín, de l’editio princeps de la Vita beatorum Leandri, Ysidori archiepiscoporum Yspalensium, Fulgencii Cartaginensis archiepiscopi et Braulionis Ceseraugustani episcopi. Cette fois, ce sont trois œuvres castillanes du XIVe siècle que Jean-Pierre Jardin édite dans e-Spania pour la première fois : ...

  9. Avant-propos

    Azoulay, André


    Mot d’accueil Ce rendez-vous n’est pas un rendez-vous ordinaire. En ouvrant nos travaux, permettez-moi d’exprimer le vœu que nos réflexions soient aussi proches que possible de la vérité scientifique et que sur une thématique qui suscite généralement des débats passionnés et parfois irrationnels, la sérénité s’impose pour amorcer ici un processus qui, je l’espère, va se prolonger. C’est une première étape ; il y en aura d’autres, car nous sommes sur le bon chemin. Celui de la rencontre collec...

  10. Avant-propos

    Raymond Jamous


    Full Text Available Identités, nations, globalisation : ces trois termes concentrent un grand nombre d’interrogations sur les transformations que vit le monde actuel. Ce sont eux qui ont fourni matière à réflexion à la première manifestation internationale coorganisée par le Laboratoire d’ethnologie et de sociologie comparative (cnrs et université Paris X, Nanterre et le Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social (ciesas, Mexico. Du 6 au 9 novembre 2000, un colloque franco-mexicain ...

  11. Avant-propos

    Severiano Rojo Hernandez


    Full Text Available Au cours de la première moitié du XXe siècle, l’Europe vit naître et se développer sur son territoire un nombre considérable de dictatures particulièrement sanglantes. Malgré leurs différences idéologiques, Hitler, Staline, Mussolini, Franco, Salazar pratiquèrent une même politique répressive, fondée sur la censure, la terreur, l’élimination des adversaires politiques et la mise sous surveillance de l’ensemble de la société. Comme le signale Giorgio Agamben (« L’Etat d’exception », Le Monde, ...

  12. The use and evolution of the CEA research reactors; Utilisation et evolution des reacteurs de recherche du C.E.A

    Rossillon, F.; Chauvez, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    the behaviour of organic liquids under irradiation. The equipments of Melusine are now being modernized. Siloe, another swimming-pool reactor, has been operating at 15 MW since the end of 1963. The performances achieved constitute a considerable progress in the field of swimming-pool reactors, since the fluxes obtained with Siloe are in the same order of magnitude than those which needed till now a tank type structure, whose numerous disadvantages in the fitting of experiments are well known. Siloe will be used mostly in the study of structural materials, graphites, refractory fissile materials, and for solid state physics. The reactor Pegase, in service in the Cadarache Nuclear Centre since 1963, is intended solely for testing full-scale fuel elements of EDF and EL 4 types. The current programme, for the eight loops of the reactor, covers the elements for the reactors EDF 2, EDF 3 and EL 4. New loops are in the course of being studied for the fuel elements of the EDF 4 and EDF 5 reactors. The general line of the CEA programmes has shown up the considerable need for fast neutron irradiations. The reactor Osiris which is in the course of being constructed will serve to complement the CEA's equipment in this field and at the same time fill the gap which will be left in the near future in the Centre de Saclay by the closing down of EL 2. Osiris is a light water reactor whose special structure will allow it to function at 50 MW without the disadvantages usually associated with the presence of a heavy waterproof tank. This reactor, which should be put into service in 1966, is mainly intended for the investigation of structural materials, graphite and refractory fuels; it will also serve to increase the production of high specific activity isotopes, and to develop activation analysis techniques. (authors) [French] Les auteurs examinent successivement les differents reacteurs de recherche en service dans les Centres du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Ils

  13. CO{sub 2} direct cycles suitable for AGR type reactors; Cycles directs de gaz carbonique applicables aux reacteurs du genre AGR

    Maillet, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The perspectives given by the gas turbines under pressure, to build simple nuclear power plants and acieving significantly high yield, are specified. The CO{sub 2} is characterised by by good efficiency under moderate temperature (500 to 750 Celsius degrees), compactness and the simpleness of machines and the safe exploitation (supply, storage, relief cooling, thermosyphon). The revision of thermal properties of the CO{sub 2} and loss elements show that several direct cycles would fit in particular to the AGR type reactors. Cycles that would diverge a little from classical models and able to lead to power and heat generation can lead by simple means to the best results. Several satisfying solutions present for the starting up, the power regulation and the stopping. The nuclear power plant components and the functioning safety are equally considered in the present report. The conclusions stimulate the studies and realizations of carbon dioxide gas turbines in when approprite. [French] Les perspectives offertes par la turbine a gaz sous pression, pour construire des centrales nucleaires simples et de rendement progressivement eleve, se precisent actuellement. le CO{sub 2} se distingue par sa bonne efficacite a temperature moderee (500 a 750 degres celsius), la compacite et la simplicite des machines, et la surete qu'il apporte a l'exploitation ( approvisionnement, stockage, refroidissement de secours, thermosiphon). La revision des proprietes thermophysiques du CO{sub 2} et des elements de pertes montre que divers cycles directs conviendraient en particulier aux reacteurs agr ou derives. Des cycles s'ecartant peu des modeles classiques, et se pretant ulterieurement a la production simultanee d'electricite et de chaleur, peuvent conduire par des moyens simples aux meilleurs resultats d'ensemble. Plusieurs solutions satisfaisantes se presentent pour le demarrage, le reglage de la puissance et l'arret. Les composants de la centrale et la

  14. Improvements in gas supply systems for heavy-water moderated reactors; Etudes de perfectionnements aux systemes d'alimentation en gaz d'un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde

    Aubert, G.; Hassig, J.M.; Laurent, N.; Thomas, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In a heavy-water moderated reactor cooled by pressurized gas, an important problem from the point of view, of the reactor block and its economics is the choice of the gas supply system. In the pressure tube solution, the whole of the reactor block structure is at a relatively low temperature, whereas the gas supply equipment is at that of the gas, which is much higher. These parts, through which passes the heat carrying fluid have to present as low a resistance as possible to it so as to avoid costly extra blowing power. Finally, they may only be placed in the reactor block after it has been built; the time required for putting them in position should therefore not be too long. The work reported here concerns the various problems arising in the case of each channel being supplied individually by a tube at the entry and the exit which is connected to a main circuit made up of large size collectors. This individual tubing is sufficiently flexible to absorb the differential expansion and the movement of its ends without stresses or prohibitive reactions being produced; the tubing is also of relatively short length so as to reduce the pressure head of the pressurized gas outside the channels; the small amount of space taken up by the tubing makes it possible to assemble it in a manner which is satisfactory from the point of view both of the time required and of the technical quality. (authors) [French] Dans un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi au gaz sous pression, un probleme important du point de vue du trace du bloc pile et de son economie est le choix du systeme d'alimentation en gaz. Pour une solution a tubes de force, l'ensemble des structures du bloc reacteur est a temperature relativement faible, alors que les organes d'alimentation en gaz sont a celle, notablement plus elevee, du gaz. Ces organes, traverses par le debit du caloporteur, doivent lui opposer le minimum de resistance afin de ne pas necessiter un supplement onereux de

  15. Phonemes, Graphemes, Dabs of Paint: Roman Jakobson, the Russian avant-garde and the search for the shared basic elements of painting and poetry

    Hofstede, Bregje


    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the supposed affinity between painting and poetry as theorised by the linguist Roman Jakobson who played a crucial role for the Russian avant-garde and its close association of painting and poetry. The paper focuses on Jakobson's relation to the two 1913 manifestos "The Word as Such" and "The Letter as Such", written by the poets Chlebnikov and Kruchenyck, and on Jakobson's own (lost reply. It calls into question the accuracy of Jakobson's claim of having influcenced the poets' manifestos, and describes what Jakobson considered to be the shared 'core elements' of the visual and literary arts. According to him, they share a visuality, not on the level of the written sign or grapheme, but on a deeper level, visible only to the mind's eye.

  16. Avant-gardes et élites : agents de reproduction ou de transformation de la société ? Une présentation

    Laurent Matthey


    Full Text Available « Il faut que tout change pour que tout puisse rester comme avant ». Cette affirmation que G.T. di Lampedusa met dans la bouche de Tancrède — le neveu du prince de Salina dans le Guépard (1958 — justifie l’investissement du jeune noble au côté des révolutionnaires garibaldiens, dans un souci bien compris des intérêts de son rang : l’��lan social dont est porteur le Resorgimento italien doit en fin de compte permettre la perpétuation d’une aristocratie, assurée d’une nouvelle alliance. Du moin...

  17. Renouvellement et réformes au sein de l’Église établie, en France et en Italie (avant 1560)

    Lemaitre, Nicole


    En utilisant les concepts de renouvellement, réformes, innovations et, plus encore, en les attribuant à l’Église établie, nous abordons une ligne de front herméneutique ancienne qui joue encore entre nous. Peut-on dire qu’il y a réforme avant la Réforme ? Peut-on séparer des formes de renouvellement qui ne soient pas ipso facto définies comme hétérodoxes ? Massimo Firpo, Mark Greengrass et Simon Ditchfield l’ont magnifiquement démontré : la réforme ou les réformes ont provoqué en France puis ...

  18. Perméabilité et osmose des avant-gardes. Sur le Manifeste activiste adressé à la Jeunesse

    Cristian-Robert Velescu


    Full Text Available Notre étude – centrée sur l’avantgarde historique – se propose d’analyser un phénomène complexe, résultat de la tension exercée entre deux termes, supposés être corrélatifs : la «perméabilité» et «l’osmose ». Comme en physique, le premier n’est que la condition nécessaire du second. Nous sommes persuadés que les trois mouvements de l’avant-garde historique, porteurs d’une valeur fondatrice – futurisme, dadaïsme, surréalisme –, loin de s’être isolés hermétiquement entre les limites infranchissables de leurs convictions, ont communiqué d’une manière plus ou moins discrète, au niveau même de leurs «actes d’identité», la «perméabilité» et l’«osmose» étant donc à découvrir à travers leurs manifestes. Notre analyse porte surtout sur le Manifeste activiste adressé à la jeunesse, paru en 1924, à Bucarest, dans les pages de la revue d’avant-garde Contimporanul. Nous tâchons de démontrer que l’origine de ce manifeste doit être cherchée dans les manifestes futuristes, étant le résultat palpable d’un échange direct d’idées, engendré par le processus «osmotique». Celui-ci peut se manifester également à la limite qui sépare l’avantgarde historique de la modernité, comme l’exposition internationale de 1924 organisée par la revue bucarestoise Contimporanul semble le démontrer.

  19. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors; Etude experimentale des instabilites hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs nucleaires a ebullition

    Fabreca, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author) [French] II a ete effectue une etude experimentale, en boucle hors-pile, des oscillations hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs a ebullition. L'etude a ete effectuee a la pression atmospherique et a une pression voisine de 8 atmospheres dans des canaux chauffes electriquement a puissance imposee constante et uniforme. Dans les essais a 8 atmospheres le canal etait un tube circulaire de diametre interieur 6 mm environ. A 1 atmosphere le canal etait de section annulaire 10 * 20 mm avec un tube interieur chauffant et un tube exterieur en pyrex. Le fonctionnement etait possible

  20. A fly-wheel drive with controlled-torque clutch for a reactors cooling circuit pumps; Entrainement des pompes du circuit de refrigeration d'un reacteur par volant a embrayage sous couple controle

    Riettini, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    After a theoretical study on the slowing down of a centrifugal pump, the motion equations have been checked by means of experimental tests. In order to have important slowing down times (which is the case of the cooling pumps of a research reactor) it is necessary to add a fly-wheel. To prevent troubles when starting, a block pump-fly-wheel with clutch under controlled torque was developed. It is so possible to start the fly-wheel progressively without increasing too much power of the driving motor. (author) [French] Apres une etude theorique sur le mouvement de ralentissement d'une pompe centrifuge, les equations du mouvement ont ete verifiees par des essais pratiques. Pour obtenir des temps de ralentissement importants (cas des pompes de refrigeration d'un reacteur de recherche) il est necessaire d'y adjoindre un volant d'inertie. Pour eviter les inconvenients au demarrage, on a etudie un ensemble pompe-volant avec embrayage sous couple controle. Cette solution permet de lancer progressivement le volant sans augmentation appreciable de la puissance du moteur d'entrainement. (auteur)

  1. {sup 36}Cl and {sup 14}C behaviour in UNGG graphite during leaching experiments

    Pichon, C.; Guy, C.; Comte, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - C.E.A., Laboratoire d' Analyses Radiochimiques et Chimiques (L.A.R.C.) 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)


    Graphite has been used as a moderator in Natural Uranium Graphite Gas reactors. Among the radionuclides, the long-lived activation product {sup 36}Cl and {sup 14}C, which are abundant in graphite after irradiation can be the main contributors to the dose during disposal. This paper deals with the first results obtained on irradiated graphite from French G2 reactor. Both leaching and diffusion experiments have been performed in order to understand and quantify the radionuclides behaviour. Chlorine leaching seems to be controlled by diffusion transport through graphite matrix. On the contrary {sup 14}C leaching is very low, probably because after irradiation, the remaining {sup 14}C was produced from {sup 13}C activation in the crystalline structure of graphite. (authors)

  2. Les récits historiques du Futurisme, ou l'histoire sans passé de l'avant-garde

    Serge Milan


    Full Text Available L’article examine le refus du genre historique en tant qu’expression artistique viable par le Futurisme italien, en revenant sur les manifestes et les essais qui établissent un rapport entre le projet avant-gardiste des années Dix et Vingt et ce genre littéraire et théâtral très populaire à l’époque. Le rapport à l'histoire et au passé constitue en effet un problème inhérent à la naissance de l'avant-garde futuriste : ainsi, nous examinons ici l’élaboration de la notion de « passéisme », mais également la métaphore de la guerre aux morts, toutes deux stratégiques dans la constitution idéologique du mouvement. Enfin, nous revenons sur les essais de F.T. Marinetti écrits entre 1915 et 1929 dans lesquels le genre narratif où domine la référence historique est paradoxalement prééminent, et en particulier sur Guerra sola igiene del mondo, publié en 1915.L’articolo si propone di esaminare il rifiuto del genere storico in quanto forma artistica praticabile da parte del Futurismo, tornando sui manifesti che stabiliscono un rapporto tra il progetto avanguardista degli anni dieci e venti e questo genere letterario e teatrale molto in voga all’epoca. In effetti, il rapporto alla storia e al passato costituisce un problema inerente alla nascita stessa del Futurismo. Si esamineranno dunque l’elaborazione della nozione di “passatismo” e della metafora della guerra contro i morti, ambedue strategiche nella costituzione ideologica del movimento marinettiano. Infine, si tornerà brevemente sui saggi pubblicati da Marinetti tra il 1915 e il 1929 (e in particolare sul volume Guerra sola igiene del mondo, del 1915 nei quali il genere narrativo preeminente è paradossalmente proprio quello storico.

  3. Octavio Paz y la modernidad: una crítica vanguardista desde los suburbios de la civilización = Octavio Paz and modernity: an avant-gardist criticism from the suburbs of civilization

    Ledesma, Xavier Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Since the fifties of the last century, a Latin American voice began to call attention to the need to think about the meaning of modernity in general and, specifically, how we could give it a new meaning in remote regions, far from the metropolis – and, by doing so and recovering our specificity, find our own ways to reach our own, specific destination. It was the voice of a poet, not of a social scientist or a philosopher. Since few decades, reflection on modernity has become a topic within the academic and cultural world; it is surprising that those deep and avant-gardist digressions are unknown or just denied by the hegemonic centers and discourses of knowledge. The author of this rich, deep, inspiring, avant-gardist and well-written reflection on modernity was the Mexican poet Octavio Paz

  4. Mesure asymétrie avant-arriere des quarks lourds a LEP1 avec le détecteur OPAL

    Lafoux, H

    A partir de l'ensemble des données accumulées par OPAL au cours de la première phase de fonctionnement du LEP, nous avons mesuré l'asymétrie avant-arrière des quarks b et c au voisinage du pic du Zo. Utilisant une méthode traditionnelle, basée sur la détection des leptons produits dans les désintégrations semi-leptoniques des hadrons lourds, nous avons cherché à optimiser chaque étape de la mesure, en mettant en œuvre les algorithmes les plus appropriés. Le recours aux réseaux de neurones artificiels s'est en particulier avéré d'une grande utilité lorsque le problème à résoudre impliquait la prise en compte simultanée de multiples sources d'informations, d'origine et de nature très variées. Nos résultats sont en bon accord avec ceux des autres mesures effectuées à LEP et compatibles avec les prédictions du Modèle Standard pour un quark top de 174 ± 31 GeV/c2 et un boson de Higgs de masse comprise entre 60 et 1000 GeV/c2


    Juan Miguel Miguel Sánchez Vigil


    Full Text Available The photography magazine Avante, of which there are no copies in the public documentation centers, with the exception of issue number 1 in the library of the Royal Palace, was the official publication of the Sociedad General de Fotógrafos of Spain, an institution which emerged from the first Professional Photographers Assembly held in Madrid in October of 1905. Created and directed by Manuel Compañy, one of the leading authors at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th, only three issues were published, which have not been studied up until now. The object of this study has been to carry out a documentary analysis in order to furnish new data on the photography magazines in Spain and to obtain information to offer researchers on this subject. The results are of great interest in regard to the contents (texts, illustrations and advertising and to the purpose of the magazine in relation with the afore-cited Sociedad General de Fotógrafos.

  6. 作为身体戏剧理论先驱的狄德罗%Diderot as an Avant-courier of the Theories of Body Theatre



    Denis Diderot is not only a forerunner of realism or romanticism theories in the theatre , but also an avant-courier of theories of body theatre .In Diderot's three research theses on theatre es-pecially “Paradoxe sur le Comédien” ( “The Paradox of Acting”), we can find heralds of many concepts of theatre reformation in the 20 th century .Diderot proposed that acting was a type of body techniques and he also discussed in these theses the unity and accuracy of performance , poor scener-y, physicality of language , power of words and movements , instantaneity and durability of reception , and so on .However , essentially Diderot had not gone beyond the era of dramatic literature .%狄德罗不仅是现实主义或浪漫主义戏剧理论的先驱,也是身体戏剧理论的先驱。20世纪戏剧革新的众多观念都可以在狄德罗的三篇戏剧论文,尤其是《关于演员的悖论》中觅得先声。狄德罗提出,表演是一种身体技术;此外,狄德罗还讨论了演出的统一性和准确性、简单而直接的布景、语言的身体性、话语和动作所具有的力量、戏剧感受的即时性和持久性等问题。但尽管如此,狄德罗依然未能超越戏剧文学的时代。

  7. Voyager avant 1848 a travers les Principautes Roumaines: les chemins dans la vision des consuls et voyageurs français

    Violeta-Anca Epure


    Full Text Available Les manières de voyager furent différentes dans la période d’avant 1848, mais on suivait le plus souvent les routes terrestres. Les voyageurs et les consuls français, comme le comte d’Hauterive, le général comte de Langeron, le marquis de Salaberry, Louis Allier d’Hauteroche, le comte de Guilleminot, le capitaine Aubert, Alexandre de Moriolles,Charles Frédéric Reinhard et sa femme, Christine, le comte de Lagarde, le diplomate J.M. Tancoigne, le capitaine Thomassin, le comte de Marcellus, J. Jaquin, M. Cochelet, Stanislas Bellanger, Felix Colson, Huber, Fanny de la Rochefoucauld, Duclos, laissèrent dans leurs journaux de voyage ou dans les rapports consulaires de véritables témoignages sur les chemins et leurs voyages à travers les Principautés Roumaines. En général, ceux-ci observèrent l’état déplorable des chemins, tracés le plus souvent au hasard, la difficulté de voyager en ces parages-là, l’organisation précaire des stations de poste, l’insécurité des routes, mais aussi le caractère loyal des habitants. Habitués avec les réalités de l’ouest du continent européen, plusieurs de ceux-ci croyaient qu’il voyageraient comme en France, mais leurs espoirs prouvèrent rapidement illusoires.

  8. Report by the AERES on the unit: Reactor Study Department (DER) under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA); Rapport de l'AERES sur l'unite: Departement d'Etudes des Reacteurs (DER) sous tutelle des etablissements et organismes: CEA



    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, the DER (Departement d'Etudes des Reacteurs, Reactor Study Department) whose activity if focused on four main themes: neutron transport simulation in reactor cores, thermal-hydraulic simulation of reactors, design and safety of innovative reactors, nuclear instrumentation for reactors. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved, risks and recommendations, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each theme

  9. Esporte e vanguardas artísticas: cubismo, Ashcan School e expressionismo Sport and avant-garde art: cubism, the Aschan School and expressionism

    Victor Andrade de Melo


    Full Text Available Considerando que os movimentos artísticos possuem algum grau de coerência interna no que se refere a uma forma peculiar de estabelecer relação com o contexto histórico e com o próprio fazer artístico, esse estudo teve por objetivo discutir a presença do esporte em obras de arte ligadas ao cubismo, à Ashcan School e ao expressionismo. Para alcance do objetivo, trabalhando com a ideia de que é possível construir uma historia cultural/antropologia histórica da imagem (BURKE, 2004, adotou-se o modelo de análise e interpretação de Melo (2009. Cremos ser possível lançar olhares sobre o esporte a partir de sua inserção na construção do imaginário moderno, bem como o oposto: prospectar a modernidade desde a prática esportiva. Ao final concluiu-se que o quadro multifacetado de aproximação dessas vanguardas com o esporte nos ajuda a ter uma noção de como a manifestação estava se configurando e compondo seu quadro de popularização.Considering that the art movements have a certain degree of inner coherence regarding a peculiar form of establishing a connection between the historical context and the art making itself, this study aims at discussing the presence of sport in works of art related to cubism, the Aschan School and to expressionism. In order to reach that goal, working with the idea that it is possible to make a cultural/anthropological history of image (BURKE, 2004, we have adopted Melo's (2009 model of analysis and interpretation. We believe it is possible to cast new visions about sport from its insertion in the making of the modern imaginary, as well as the opposite: to prospect modernity itself from the sport practice. At the end we have concluded that the multifaceted picture of the approximation of those avant-gardes with sport might help us understand how the manifestation was being shaped, within their popularization set up.

  10. “先锋派”概念景观设计探析%Research on Avant-garde Conceptual Landscape Design



    The paper had illustrated the concept and positioning of avant-garde, and proposed that there were three major methods to manifest concepts in conceptual landscape design, which were: ① reproduced landscape from historical perspective; ② landscape of local characteristic based on fields; ③ landscape of abstract formal beauty with visual impact. Characteristics of conceptual landscape design had been summarized by taking classical design by Martha Schwartz for example, which contained ① fuzzy boundary between art and garden, ② gardens full of imagination and freedom, ③ pioneering spirit full of courage and challenge. Finally, the paper had predicted the future of conceptual landscape design and considered that conceptual design would change with the emergence of high-tech and new materials; and conceptual land-scape designers should be in possession of pioneering spirit of challenge and innovation.%阐述了“先锋派”的概念及定位,提出景观概念设计中概念的体现方式主要有3神:①以一种历史主义的态度再现景观;②以实地为基础具有当地特色的景观;③具有视觉冲击力的抽象的形式美景观.以玛萨·施瓦茨的经典设计为例总结了概念景观设计的特点,包括:①艺术与园林的模糊界限;②具有想象力和自由的园林;③具有勇气敢予挑战的先锋精神.最后笔者展望了景观概念设计的未来,认为概念设计也将随高科技新型材料的出现而变化,而景观概念设计师必须具备敢于挑战、勇于创新的先锋精神.

  11. The Second Avant-Garde

    Karpova, Yulia


    design – a specific profession institutionalized in the USSR in 1962 – but, instead, a shared history of objects, hand-made as well as machine made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. By exploring this shared history, I pursue a twofold...

  12. Avant-garde; baroque; anthropophagy


    El presente ensayo se propone como una especulación teórica en torno a algunas de las posibles conexiones de la pos-vanguardia argentina de los años 70 con las tradiciones de la antropofagia brasileña y del barroco novo-hispano. A partir de la identificación de posibles “afinidades teóricas” (entre nociones como “transculturación” (Rama), “antropofagia” (Andrade), “secuestro del barroco” (De Campos)), el ensayo procura servir de base para una lectura de la excéntrica revista Literal (Buenos A...

  13. Avant et après de Paul Gauguin : un autoportrait - récit revendicatif d’une vie, récit paradisiaque d’une enfance

    Béatrice Vernier-Larochette


    Full Text Available Si l’écriture autobiographique a bien souvent comme point de départ l’enfance, il n’en est pas ainsi dans l’ouvrage Avant et après que Gauguin décide d’écrire peu avant sa mort, où il n’évoque son enfance que dans la seconde moitié du livre. Par ailleurs, l’envie de se raconter le plus rigoureusement possible est corrigée dans ce recueil par une expression ludique qui rappelle au lecteur qu’il ne s’agit que de “notes éparses, sans suite.” Ces contradictions que nous dégageons dans cet article nous permettent, d’après notre analyse, de rattacher cette écriture à celle d’un autoportrait tel que l’envisage Michel Beaujour dans son ouvrage Miroir d’encre. Rhétorique de l’autoportrait.

  14. 先锋派群体与个人才华:以语言派诗歌为例%Avant-Garde Community and the Individual Talent: The Case of Language Poetry



    This essay examines the trajectory of Western avant-garde movements in the 20th century, especially the relationship of group formation, typical of these avant-gardes, to the individual talent. I classify movements like the Russian avant-garde and Italian futurism according to various criteria and trace their rise and fall. How, for example, does Marcel Duchamp relate to the Dada movement and how did Dada dissolve? After surveying avant-garde movements broadly in the first part of the essay, I turn to the case of a contemporary avant-garde movement, Language Poetry. The essay details the theoretical principles of the Language movement, founded in the late 1970s, and then studies the way this radical movement has evolved over the past twenty years. Language poetics, closely related to French Post-Structuralist aesthetic and Marxist ideology, was gradually assimilated into the mainstream and its stylistic features absorbed into more conventional modes. The movement is now essentially over, but it has produced a number of important poets, for example, Susan Howe and Charles Bernstein, Lyn Hejinian and Steve McCaffery. These poets typically transcend the movement of which they have been a part, and eventually find their own mode and style.%本文主要探讨西方20世纪先锋派运动的轨迹,特别考察了一些典型的先锋派群体的形成与个人才华之间的关系.文章根据不同的标准对先锋派运动进行了分类,如俄国先锋派和意大利未来派等,并探讨他们的兴衰.例如,马塞尔·迪尚与达达派运动是否有关,达达派如何解散?本文上半部分对先锋派作了广泛审视,下半部分则转向作为美国当代先锋派运动一部分的语言诗派进行个案研究:首先详细讨论了语言诗派的建立于20世纪70年代末期的理论准则,然后分析了这一激进诗歌运动近20年来的发展轨迹.语言派诗学与法国后结构主义美学和马克思主义意识形态有着密

  15. Les réalisations et les projets de trains rapides légers des anciennes compagnies de chemin de fer avant la création de la SNCF

    Fournier, Luc


    Les réalisations et les projets de trains rapides légers des anciennes compagnies avant la création de la SNCF s’inscrivent dans le contexte technique de la recherche de l’allègement des charges pour accéder au domaine des grandes vitesses, après l’introduction des voitures métalliques. Les réalisations et projets de l’entre-deux-guerres se répartissent entre les différents modes de traction. En vapeur, on remarque surtout le train aérodynamique du PLM, le projet de train « Bugatti » à moteur...

  16. Improvement of Sodium Neutronic Nuclear Data for the Computation of Generation IV Reactors; Contribution a l'amelioration des donnees nucleaires neutroniques du sodium pour le calcul des reacteurs de generation IV

    Archier, P.


    The safety criteria to be met for Generation IV sodium fast reactors (SFR) require reduced and mastered uncertainties on neutronic quantities of interest. Part of these uncertainties come from nuclear data and, in the particular case of SFR, from sodium nuclear data, which show significant differences between available international libraries (JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0). The objective of this work is to improve the knowledge on sodium nuclear data for a better calculation of SFR neutronic parameters and reliable associated uncertainties. After an overview of existing {sup 23}Na data, the impact of the differences is quantified, particularly on sodium void reactivity effects, with both deterministic and stochastic neutronic codes. Results show that it is necessary to completely re-evaluate sodium nuclear data. Several developments have been made in the evaluation code Conrad, to integrate new nuclear reactions models and their associated parameters and to perform adjustments with integral measurements. Following these developments, the analysis of differential data and the experimental uncertainties propagation have been performed with Conrad. The resolved resonances range has been extended up to 2 MeV and the continuum range begins directly beyond this energy. A new {sup 23}Na evaluation and the associated multigroup covariances matrices were generated for future uncertainties calculations. The last part of this work focuses on the sodium void integral data feedback, using methods of integral data assimilation to reduce the uncertainties on sodium cross sections. This work ends with uncertainty calculations for industrial-like SFR, which show an improved prediction of their neutronic parameters with the new evaluation. (author) [French] Les criteres de surete exiges pour les reacteurs rapides au sodium de Generation IV (RNR-Na) se traduisent par la necessite d'incertitudes reduites et maitrisees sur les grandeurs neutroniques d'interet. Une part

  17. Processing Th C{sub 2} - UC{sub 2} fuel extracted from high temperature reactors HTGCR; Etude du traitement des combustibles Th C{sub 2} - UC{sub 2} issus de reacteurs a haute temperature

    Derrien, C.; Lessart, P.; Pianezza, E.; Verry, C.; Villain, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The object of this investigation is solubilisation head-end (from crushing and grinding phase to non included first purification phase) of pulverulent ({sup 233}U/{sup 232}Th)C{sub 2} (200 - 500 microns diameter) contained in a graphite matrix extracted from a 4.10{sup 13}{sup -2}.s{sup -1} thermalized neutrons average flux with an irradiation of 80000 MWjT{sup -1} HTGCR reactor. After having succinctly described different bibliographic processes we have chosen the burn - leach of reactor fuel and graphite matrix containing it. The technology of burner is original in nuclear field and still more by utilizing ultra-sounds to intensify burning reaction and to minimize the weight of unburnables. The mixture of ThO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and fission products oxides is solubilized by boiling HNO{sub 3} 13 M + HF 0.05 M. This process is profit-learning in a thorium recuperation and reprocessing point of view. In the contrary-case it would be interesting to consider a dry-process which would permit to separate solid ThF{sub 4} from gaseous UF{sub 6}. (authors) [French] Cette etude a pour objet le traitement initial de mise en solution ou 'head-end' (allant de la phase broyag-concassage a la phase de premiere purification exclue) d'un combustible ({sup 233}U/{sup 232}Th)C{sub 2} pulverulent (de 200 a 500 {mu} de diametre) contenu dans une matrice de graphite issu d'un reacteur HTGCR surgenerateur a neutrons thermiques de flux moyen 4. l0{sup 13}{sup -2}.s{sup -1} et taux d'irradiation 80000 MWjT{sup -1}. Apres exposition succincte des differents procedes bibliographiques decrits, nous avons finalement choisi le traitement par combustion-attaque ('Burn-Leach') du combustible et de la matrice etanche graphite qui le contient. La technologie du bruleur est originale dans le domaine nucleaire d'autant qu'elle utilise les ultra-sons pour ameliorer le rendement de la reaction de combustion et reduire au minimum le poids

  18. The influence of the (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) reactions of beryllium on the neutron balance in a BeO or Be moderated reactor and its consequences on the long term reactivity changes; Influence des reactions (n, 2n) et (n, {alpha}) du beryllium sur le bilan neutronique d'un reacteur modere a l'oxyde de beryllium ou au beryllium. Consequences sur l'evolution a long terme de la reactivite

    Sahai, K.; Benoist, P.; Horowitz, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The reaction probabilities in an infinite and homogeneous medium of BeO or Be have been calculated from neutron cross-section curves, for a neutron produced with an energy distribution similar to a fission spectrum; the calculation shows that, after several elastic collisions, the neutron has yet an appreciable probability to undergo a reaction, in spite of the energy degradation in the spectrum due to each collision. This degradation has been calculated, taking into account of anisotropy of the collisions. The gain of the reactivity in a reactor has been obtained after correcting these probabilities for the attenuation of the flux of fission neutrons due to the inelastic scattering in the uranium. Finally, the calculation shows that in a power reactor, this gain of reactivity is in practice destroyed in a few years by the accumulation of poisonous nuclei such as Li{sup 6} and He{sup 3} following (n, {alpha}) reaction. (author) [French] Les probabilites de reaction en milieu infini et homogene de glucine (BeO) ou de beryllium ont ete calculees a partir des courbes de section efficace pour un neutron naissant suivant un spectre de fission; le calcul montre qu'apres plusieurs diffusions elastiques le neutron a encore une probabilite appreciable de subir une reaction, malgre la degradation du spectre a chaque diffusion; cette degradation a ete calculee en tenant compte de l'anisotropie du choc. Le gain de reactivite dans un reacteur a ensuite ete obtenu en corrigeant les probabilites en milieu homogene de l'effet l'attenuation du flux des neutrons de fission par les chocs inelastiques dans les barres d'uranium. Enfin, le calcul montre que, dans un reacteur de puissance, ce gain de reactivite est pratiquement detruit en peu d'annees par l'accumulation de noyaux poisons Li{sup 6} et He{sup 3} consecutive a la reaction (n, {alpha}). (auteur)

  19. “Poetics” and Avant-garde Spirit:Theoretical Value of the Fuzziness%“诗学”和先锋精神:模糊性的理论价值



    From a pragmatic perspective,the paper attempts to investigate the system function of the concept of “poetics”which is so often used by the scholars of comparative literature. The paper holds that“poetics” is an ambiguous concept aimed at integrating heterogeneous elements,and its popularity in the contemporary Chinese and Western theoretical field is bound up with the desire to return to the origin. However,returning to the origin is also an avant-garde gesture of re-start. Western critics try to use this concept to limit the excessive diversity of theoretical imaginations and to provide a flexible framework for the complex game of signs. Chinese scholars not only use this concept to maintain the status of pure literature,but also make use of its seman-tic potentiality to promote the integration of Chinese and Western cultural elements. More importantly, Chinese scholars hope to develop a unique Chinese way of culture in the creative spirit of poetics. The two avant-garde gestures reveal the true meaning of the ancient word “poetics” in the contemporary context.%从语用学角度来探讨比较文学学者惯用的“诗学”概念的系统功能。作者认为,“诗学”是一个旨在整合的模糊性概念,它在当代中西方理论场的流行都和返本的愿望有关,然而返本也是再出发的先锋主义姿态。西方批评家欲借它来约束理论想像的极度多元性,给极度复杂的当代符号游戏一个有弹性的框架。中国学者使用这一概念,除了维护文学的本体地位,还希望利用它所蕴含的语义张力,促进中西文化要素的有效融合,并以诗学的创造精神开辟中国独有的文化之路。两种先锋姿态,都揭示了古老的“诗学”概念在当代的真实内涵。

  20. A Brief Discussion on the Creation of Modern Poetry by the Avant-garde Vietnamese Chinese Poets%越华新锐诗人现代诗创作述略*



    Zeng Guangj ian,Cai Zhong and Li Weixian,the three avant-garde Vietnamese Chi-nese poets,did excellent jobs in the modern poetry's creation and all published their collection of po-ems.Their creations of modern poetry share some common distinctive features and their deep-rooted understanding of Chinese culture differentiates them from other poets.The study of their modern po-ems can help us have a general understanding of modern poetry created by Vietnamese Chinese.%越华新锐诗人曾广健、蔡忠、李伟贤在现代诗创作中奋发有为,分别出版了个人现代诗集。他们的现代诗创作具有一些鲜明的共同特征,扎实的华文文化功底等因素使他们在越华现代诗创作中脱颍而出。对他们的现代诗进行研究,可以使我们对越南华文现代诗的创作概况有一个大概的了解。

  1. À propos du lexique juridique en ancien français avant le 13e siècle : la Règle de saint Benoît et le Perceval de Chrétien de Troyes

    Schauwecker Yela


    Full Text Available La plus ancienne traduction de la {em Règle} de saint Benoît en franc{c}ais, rédigée en dialecte picard-wallon, date de la première moitié ou du milieu du {sc xii}$^{m e}$~siècle. On veut montrer que son auteur, pour qui le changement de langue, n'est pas le premier objectif s'efforce de transférer le texte de son milieu originel de l'Antiquité tardive dans le monde chevaleresque-féodal du {sc xii}$^{m e}$~siècle. Même sans nécessité apparente, quand il a eu à sa disposition l'équivalent du mot employé dans la {em Regula}, il substitue aux mots latins des termes juridiques et féodaux franc{c}ais. par Son texte, en tant que document de droit pour les moines, devient ainsi une source de vocabulaire juridique franc{c}ais avant le {sc xiii}$^{m e}$~siècle, c'est-à-dire dans un temps où les documents juridiques en langue vulgaire sont extrêmement rares. Cela est dû au fait que la justice, dans le Nord, fondée sur des coutumes, utilisait la langue vernaculaire à l'oral. La terminologie juridique franc{c}aise est bien enracinée dans la langue courante de l'époque~: leur insertion dans les Lais et les Chansons de geste en fait preuve. Mais cette terminologie est souvent méconnue par la lexicographie traditionnelle de l'ancien franc{c}ais, en raison des contextes littéraires et figurés. par

  2. Lo sublime y lo impensado en la apuesta vanguardista de Miltín 1934 de Juan Emar The Sublime and the Unforeseen in Miltín 1934, an Avant-garde Novel by Juan Emar

    Malva Marina Vásquez


    Full Text Available En Miltín 1934 de Juan Emar se despliegan dos concepciones de lo sublime. Un sublime hecho estereotipo, un arte para el buen burgués, inscrito dentro de una estética mimética de corte naturalista. Emar realiza una sátira de este tipo de arte y de la crítica de arte nacional que imperaba en la época. Su apuesta vanguardista promueve una estética de lo sublime como negación del efecto referencial y apertura a lo impensado foucaultiano. Esta estética en Miltín 1934 se configura como la tentativa de una escritura imposible y un esbozo de una poética de lo fluídico-inusitado, propuesta que Emar desarrollará a cabalidad en su obra póstuma Umbral.In Miltín 1934 Juan Emar unfolds two conceptions of sublime, considering this concept as a stereotyped fact, an art for bourgeoisie consumption, kept within a mimetic and naturalistic aesthetics. Emar satirizes this type of art as well as the art-critique that was dominant in the country at the time. His avant-garde proposal endorses an aesthetic of the sublime as a denial of the referential effect, which opens to Foucault's Unforeseen (yet-not-thought. The aesthetic of Miltín 1934 is an attempt of an impossible writing, and an outline for the aesthetics of a fluent unexpected poetic, proposal that Emar will fully develop in his posthumous work, Umbral.

  3. At the Call of Art—— A Review of Contemporary Russian Avant-garde Art%听从艺术的召唤——俄罗斯当代前卫艺术述评



    Russian art always reminds people of realism. As a matter of fact, Russia does not lack art experiments. At the beginning of the 20th century, Russia set off an avant-garde art movement with representative artists like Kandinsky, Malevich, Tatlin, Lissitz%谈到俄罗斯艺术,人们很容易将它同现实主义划等号,实际上,俄罗斯并不缺少艺术实验。20世纪初,俄国曾掀起过一场以康定斯基、马列维奇、塔特林、李西茨基等艺术家为代表的前卫艺术运动.对世界艺术造成了极为深远的影响。在当代,受苏联意识形态的影响,前卫艺术备受压制,艺术家们在“地下”开展艺术实验,逐渐形成一股“非官方艺术”力量,并在七八十年代形成了第二次前卫艺术运动。苏联解体后,艺术创作获得完全的自由,艺术实验极为活跃,形成了第三波前卫艺术浪潮。俄罗斯当代前卫艺术深受欧美艺术的影响,但又在很大程度上保留其民族文化的

  4. "Verbatim":The Rise of an Avant-garde Theatrical Concept%“词句转换”:一种先锋戏剧理念的兴起



    在多样化和自由化的当今俄罗斯剧坛,"词句转换"是一种备受关注、广为应用的戏剧创作和戏剧表演的技术手段。"词句转换"汲取欧美先锋戏剧手段的养分,继承俄罗斯民族戏剧传统、白银时代戏剧因素和苏联戏剧因子,关注现实人生倡导人道主义,以大胆的艺术实践拓展着当今俄罗斯戏剧的发展之路。随着剧作家和理论家的深入思考和学理关注,"词句转换"摆脱纯技术层面的拘囿,深入到戏剧美学理念的实验、更新和探索中,形成以"纪实剧"为代表的戏剧浪潮,以剧院"戏剧.doc"为代表的先锋舞台和实验剧场,由此给当今俄罗斯戏剧带来蓬勃生机和重要启示,营造出实验与探索同在、传统和先锋共存的戏剧局面。"词句转换"和当代俄罗斯纪实剧的文学实验之路和舞台表演之途,映照出当今俄罗斯戏剧在区域化与普世化、民族化与西方化特性之间的艰难进程,折射出当今俄罗斯戏剧在本土与外来、传统与先锋因素之间的追寻路径,由此成为透视当代俄罗斯戏剧变迁的一种侧影书写和一枚鲜活标本。由此,"词句转换"成为一种具有多层次、多维度、多涵义的戏剧现象,影响着当今俄罗斯戏剧的发展和变迁。%In contemporary Russian theatre,which is characterized by diversity and liberalism,"verbatim" is a very famous dramatical skill and useful theatrical technique.It draws on Europen and American avant-garde skills,and syncretizates Russian dramatical tradition,dramatical elements of "The Silver Age" and Soviet dramatical factor.Meanwhile,it is concerned with real life,advocates humanitarianism,and widens the scope of contemporary Russian theatre through active artistic practise.The profound reflections and theoretical studies of dramatists and theorists have raised "verbatim" from the pure technical level to the experimentation with

  5. Reactor Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kalani; Reacteurs RBMK

    Bastien, D. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)


    The Reactor Bolshoi Molshchnosti Kalani (RBMK) are pressure tubes reactor, boiling light water cooled. Exported since 1990 from the ex-USSR, they are today in three independent countries: Russian, Ukraine and Lithuania. Since this date, data exchange with the occident allowed the better knowledge of this reactor type. The design, the technical description (core, fuel, primary system), the safety and the improvement since Chernobyl are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Heavy Water Reactor; Reacteurs a eau lourde

    Yu, St.; HOpwood, J.; Meneley, D. [Energie Atomique du Canada (Canada)


    This document deals with the Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) technology and especially the Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. This reactors type offers many advantages that promote them for the future. General concepts, a description of the Candu nuclear power plants, the safety systems, the fuel cycle and economical and environmental aspects are included. (A.L.B.)

  7. The EPR reactor; Le reacteur EPR

    Lacoste, A.C.; Dupuy, Ph.; Gupta, O.; Perez, J.R.; Emond, D. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Cererino, G.; Rousseau, J.M.; Jeffroy, F.; Evrard, J.M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. de la Surete des Reacteurs, 92 - Clamart (France); Seiler, J.M. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DTN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Azarian, G. [FRAMATOME ANP, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Chaumont, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSR), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Dubail, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Fischer, M. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Tiippana, P.; Hyvarinen, J. [Stuk, Autorite de Surete Nucleaire et de Radioprotection (Finland); Zaleski, C.P.; Meritet, S. [Paris-9 Univ. Dauphine, Centre de Geopolitique de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres, 75 (France); Iglesias, F.; Vincent, C. [Direction Generale de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres, 75 - Paris (France); Massart, S.; Graillat, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Esteve, B. [AREVA/Framatome, 75 - Paris (France); Mansillon, Y. [Commission Nationale de Debat Public, 75 - Paris (France); Gatinol, C. [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France); Carre, F. [CEA, Dir. de Programme Systemes du Futur, France (France)


    This document reviews economical and environmental aspects of the EPR project. The following topics are discussed: role and point of view of the French Nuclear Safety Authority on EPR, control of design and manufacturing of EPR by the French Nuclear Safety Authority, assessment by IRSN of EPR safety, research and development in support of EPR, STUK safety review of EPR design, standpoint on EPR, the place of EPR in the French energy policy, the place of EPR in EDF strategy, EPR spearhead of nuclear rebirth, the public debate, the local stakes concerning the building of EPR in France at Flamanville (Manche) and the research on fourth generation reactors. (A.L.B.)

  8. Thermohydraulics of reactors; Thermohydraulique des reacteurs

    Delhaye, J.M


    This scientific and technical handbook about PWR reactors thermohydraulics is the result of many years of teaching in the framework of the CEA-INSTN's atomic engineering training courses, in engineering schools and during continuing training activities. Its main goal is to present in a rigorous and pedagogical way the basic knowledge necessary for the understanding and modeling of single phase and two-phase thermohydraulic phenomena encountered during the design and operation of nuclear reactors. In particular, heat transfers in two-phase flows are presented in a detailed way. Most chapters include some nuclear engineering examples of application of the studied concepts, and some exercises aiming at mastering these concepts. Each example or exercise is accompanied by its detailed solution. Content: - thermohydraulic characteristics of reactors; - design and thermal dimensioning of reactors; - thermal engineering of the fuel element; - two-phase flow configurations in ducts; - recalls about single-phase flow equations; - basic equations for two-phase flows; - modeling of two-phase flows inside ducts; - pressure drops in ducts; - boiling and vapor condensation heat transfers; - two-phase flow instabilities in ducts; - two-phase flow blocking; thermohydraulics of naval propulsion reactors.

  9. Le réseau des petites revues littéraires belges, modernistes et d’avant-garde, du début des années 1920 : construction d’un modèle et proposition de schématisation

    Daphné de Marneffe


    Full Text Available L’ensemble des revues littéraires belges, modernistes et d’avant-garde, de l’immédiat après-guerre est ici appréhendé en terme de « réseau ». Ce réseau est caractérisé par son ouverture, son hétérogénéité, la logique de solidarité qui le régit et son déploiement dans la durée. Ce réseau de revues a d’une part une dimension intertextuelle (revues comme lieux d’expression se faisant écho et d’autre part une dimension interpersonnelle (revues comme milieux interconnectés. Ces deux aspects peuvent être visualisés à travers différents schémas.In this article, the Belgian modernist and avant-garde literary periodicals from the post-World War I period are presented as “a network”. This network shows some remarkable characteristics, namely openness, heterogeneity, apparent solidarity among the different periodicals and its evolution in time. This network has an intertextual dimension - which sees periodicals as a means of expressing and bouncing of ideas - and an interpersonal dimension – which sees literary periodicals as interconnected entities. Several schemes bring this two-dimensional texture to the fore.De Belgische modernistische en avant-garde literaire tijdschriften uit de directe naoorlogse periode worden hier bestudeerd als een netwerk, dat enkele typische kenmerken vertoont: openheid, heterogeniteit, onderlinge solidariteit tussen de tijdschriften en ontplooiing in de tijd. Dit netwerk heeft enerzijds een intertekstuele dimensie (tijdschriften als uitdrukkingsmiddel voor ideeën die elkaar beantwoorden en anderzijds een interpersoonlijke dimensie (tijdschriften die verwante milieus aanspreken. Beide aspecten kunnen in verschillende schema’s visueel worden uitgedrukt.

  10. En avant, les enfants! (First, the Children!)

    Ploquin, Francoise


    Attitudes expressed by language experts, policymakers, and educators at a conference on the implementation of a nationwide elementary school foreign language program in Italy are summarized. Issues discussed include teacher education needs, curriculum content and design, and articulation with other levels of education. (MSE)

  11. Avant-Garde Ultrafast Laser Writing

    Kazansky P. G.


    Full Text Available Ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials reveals new phenomena. Reviewed, are recent demonstrations of 5D optical memory, vortex polarization and Airy beam converters employing self-assembled nanostructuring, ultrafast laser calligraphy and polarization writing control using pulses with tilted front.

  12. L'Univers avant le Big Bang

    Rouat, Sylvie


    "Tout n'a pas commencé par une explosion. L'historie du cosmos avait débuté biena vant le Big Bang, si l'on suit la théorie défendue par les partisans d'une nouvelle cosmologie issue de la mystérieuse théorie des cordes. A l'heure où vacillent les scénarios classiques du XXe siècle, se prépare un grand chamboulement de nos idées sur la naissance de l'Univers et son devenir, sur l'existence possible d'univers parallèles. Des théories séduisantes qui seront mises à l'épreuve au cours de la prochaine décennie" (11 pages)

  13. Comprender el cine: las vanguardias y la construcción del texto fílmico Understanding Cinema: the Avant-gardes and the Construction of Film Discourse

    Mirian Estela Nogueira Tavares


    Full Text Available A través de este ensayo se pretende resaltar el papel que las vanguardias históricas han desempeñado en la construcción del discurso cinematográfico. Dicho papel es fundamental para el reconocimiento del cine como arte y para la constitución de un discurso visual y textual que se va a reflejar en el cine del denominado «Modo de representación institucional»: el cine hollywoodiense que va de las décadas de los años veinte a los cuarenta. Para comprender el papel de los movimientos artísticos que crearon nuevos paradigmas para el arte en general, es necesario conocer sus principios y el contexto del nacimiento de la nueva forma de ver y de representar/reflejar el mundo. La promoción de una auténtica «alfabetización fílmica» requiere centrarse en el nacimiento del cine y de su entorno, porque sólo a través de una mirada más profunda en el siglo XIX, es posible leer todo que está más allá de la creación de los hermanos Lumière. En suma, en este trabajo se pretende destacar que el cine no sólo se inscribe en su propio tiempo, sino que al mismo tiempo está lanzando un nuevo paradigma, aun por descubrir, para todas las artes en el siglo XX.This essay highlights the role of historical avant-gardes in shaping film discourse. This role was vital for the recognition of cinema as an art form, as well as for the constitution of a visual and textual discourse that came to be reflected in the Institutional Mode of Representation – Hollywood film from the 1920s to the 1940s. To realize the importance of artistic movements in the creation of new paradigms for art at large, it is necessary to understand their principles and the context in which a new way of looking and reflecting on the world came about. The promotion of authentic and efficient film literacy requires focusing on the era in which cinema began. Only by examining the 19th century more deeply can we perceive what lies beyond that invention of the Lumière brothers. The

  14. Recent progress in the detection of bursts in the canning in French reactors; Progres recents de la detection des ruptures de gaines dans les reacteurs francais G1, EL2, G3, EL3

    Goupil, J.; Grenon, M.; Raffailhac, J.; Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    electrostatic collecting method. A scintillator and an electronic system provide a specific signal of the fission products which is then marked on a recorder. In a case where the activity threshold is exceeded, the cell involved is isolated from the prospection system and taker, over by a 'follow-up' detector which follows the evolution of the crack. A year of working on the pile G{sub 1}, which is cooled by air at atmospheric pressure, has made it possible to obtain results on the operation of the canning-burst detection appliance, which has led us to perfect the original device by installing an 'evolution-meter' of the type described above for G{sub 3}. The reactor EL{sub 3}, cooled by heavy water, uses a detection system based on the measurement by GM counters of the activity of the fission gases carried by diluted helium into the heavy water, then extracted by hydro-cyclones. The selectivity of the system gives it a low sensitivity to parasite activities, and an excellent performance. (author) [French] Dans les piles refroidies par gaz carbonique sous pression, du type G{sub 3}, la radioactivite principale du gaz est celle de l'azote 16 creee par reaction {sup 16}O(n, p) {sup 16}N des neutrons rapides sur l'oxygene. Cette activite, de vie courte et de forte energie {beta}, masque l'activite des gaz de fission s'echappant par une fissure de gaine dans le gaz carbonique et oblige a utiliser une methode de separation materielle des produits de fission solides avant la detection proprement dite. Cette detection est faite par une chaine electronique speciale dont l'entree est un scintillateur associe a un photomultiplicateur. Un systeme de mesure d'evolution de fissure avec compensation des variations de puissance permet de suivre la vitesse d'evolution d'une fissure. Cet appareil, baptise evolumetre, est destine a ramener a une methode de zero la mesure de l'activite du gaz de refroidissement des canaux, il permet

  15. Training for Better Management: Avante Zambézia, PEPFAR and Improving the Quality of Administrative Services Comment on "Implementation of a Health Management Mentoring Program: Year-1 Evaluation of Its Impact on Health System Strengthening in Zambézia Province, Mozambique".

    Schwarcz, Sandra K; Rutherford, George W; Horvath, Hacsi


    The United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) emphasizes health systems strengthening as a cornerstone of programmatic success. Health systems strengthening, among other things, includes effective capacity building for clinical care, administrative management and public health practice. Avante Zambézia is a district-level in-service training program for administrative staff. It is associated with improved accounting practices and human resources and transportation management but not monitoring and evaluation. We discuss other examples of successful administrative training programs that vary in the proportion of time that is spent learning on the job and the proportion of time spent in classrooms. We suggest that these programs be more rigorously evaluated so that lessons learned can be generalized to other countries and regions. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  16. Training for Better Management: Avante Zambézia, PEPFAR and Improving the Quality of Administrative Services; Comment on “Implementation of a Health Management Mentoring Program: Year-1 Evaluation of Its Impact on Health System Strengthening in Zambézia Province, Mozambique”

    Sandra K. Schwarcz


    Full Text Available The United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR emphasizes health systems strengthening as a cornerstone of programmatic success. Health systems strengthening, among other things, includes effective capacity building for clinical care, administrative management and public health practice. Avante Zambéziais a district-level in-service training program for administrative staff. It is associated with improved accounting practices and human resources and transportation management but not monitoring and evaluation. We discuss other examples of successful administrative training programs that vary in the proportion of time that is spent learning on the job and the proportion of time spent in classrooms. We suggest that these programs be more rigorously evaluated so that lessons learned can be generalized to other countries and regions.

  17. Ray-Based 2d Anisotropic Pre-Stack Depth Migration on Synthetic and Real Data Migration profondeur avant sommation anisotrope en 2D basée sur le tracé des rayons. Etude sur des données synthétiques et réelles

    Berthet P.


    Full Text Available Pre-stack depth migration (PSDM, while costly, is a powerful tool for imaging and velocity analysis. Seismic velocity anisotropy is now thought to be widespread in sedimentary rocks, particularly shales. We have written a 2D pre-stack depth migration code for use in transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (TIV. We use it to investigate the effects of anisotropy on isotropic pre-stack migration by means of a simple synthetic example. Results suggest that it is difficult to find plausible isotropic models which give good images of reflectors at all dips. We further apply our PSDM code to a 2D line of real data from offshore West Africa, where there is a thick shale sequence, using isotropic and anisotropic velocity models. A dipping fault plane is imaged more clearly with the anisotropic model, but some of the near horizontal reflectors are less well imaged suggesting that this model could be improved and confirming the sensitivity of pre-stack depth migration to all aspects of the velocity model. La migration profondeur avant sommation (PSDM, bien que coûteuse, est un outil puissant d'imagerie et d'analyse de vitesse. On pense maintenant que l'anisotropie de la vitesse sismique est largement répandue dans les roches sédimentaires, et plus particulièrement dans les argiles. Nous avons écrit un code de migration profondeur avant sommation en 2D à des fins d'utilisation dans les milieux à isotropie plane avec un axe de symétrie vertical (TIV. Nous l'utilisons afin d'étudier les effets de l'anisotropie sur la migration isotrope avant sommation au moyen d'un exemple synthétique simple. Les résultats suggèrent qu'il est difficile de trouver des modèles isotropes plausibles qui donnent des images correctes des réflecteurs sur tous les pendages. Nous appliquons en plus notre code PSDM à un profil en 2D de données réelles provenant d'un champ offshore d'Afrique occidentale, où il y a une épaisse série argileuse, en

  18. The Cretaceous Source Rocks in the Zagros Foothills of Iran Les roches mères Crétacé de l'avant-pays du Zagros en Iran : un exemple de bassin intracratonique de grande dimension

    Bordenave M. L.


    Zagros, constituée par les 40 000 km2 du Dezful Embayment , une zone déprimée située dans la province du Khuzistan. Les accumulations d'huile sont associées à un système pétrolier d'âge Crétacé/Tertiaire comprenant six niveaux roches mères d'importance inégale : la partie inférieure de la formation Garau (Néocomien et les formations Gadvan (Barrémien, Ahmadi (Cénomanien inférieur, Gurpi (Sénonien et Pabdeh (Eocène. Ces intervalles sont à l'origine de 99 % des réserves d'huile découvertes à terre en Iran et produites dans deux réservoirs principaux : les calcaires de l'Asmari (Miocène inférieur et du Bangestan (Cénomanien. Ces réservoirs contiennent 330 milliards de barils en places, soit plus de 7 % des réserves mondiales actuelles. Cet article aborde le problème de la distribution des roches mères de l'avant pays iranien et de la partie iranienne du golfe Arabo-Persique. Les facteurs géologiques, océanologiques et climatiques favorisant la mise en place des conditions dysaérobiques et anaérobiques et le dépôt de sédiments riches en matière organique sont discutés. Le rôle de chacune de ces roches mères dans l'approvisionnement des accumulations d'huile est rapidement évoqué. Deux des roches mères Crétacé : la formation Garau déposée au Néocomien dans la région du Luristan, du nord-est du Khuzistan et de la partie nord-est du golfe Arabo-Persique et la formation Kazhdumi, déposée à l'Albien dans la partie centrale du Dezful Embayment, présentent un excellent potentiel pétrolier avec des valeurs initiales (avant maturation thermique de carbone organique pouvant parfois dépasser 10%, des Index d'Hydrogène (IH de l'ordre de 600 mg HC/g C et une épaisseur maximum supérieure à 300 m. La matière organique sédimentaire, d'origine algaire, contient de fortes teneurs en soufre, ce qui la qualifie comme un kérogène de type IIS. Ces roches mères se sont déposées dans les dépressions bien marquées faisant partie

  19. Study of diluting and absorber materials to control reactivity during a postulated core melt down accident in Generation IV reactors; Etude des materiaux sacrificiels absorbants et diluants pour le controle de la reactivite dans le cas d'un accidnet hypothetique de fusion du coeur de reacteurs de quatrieme generation

    Plevacova, K.


    In order to limit the consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident in Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactors, absorber materials in or near the core, such as boron carbide B{sub 4}C, and diluting materials in the core catcher will be used to prevent recriticality within the mixture of molten oxide fuel and molten structures called corium. The aim of the PhD thesis was to select materials of both types and to understand their behaviour during their interaction with corium, from chemical and thermodynamic point of view. Concerning B{sub 4}C, thermodynamic calculations and experiments agree with the formation of two immiscible phases at high temperature in the B{sub 4}C - UO{sub 2} system: one oxide and one boride. This separation of phases can reduce the efficiency of the neutrons absorption inside the molten fuel contained in the oxide phase. Moreover, a volatilization of a part of the boron element can occur. According to these results, the necessary quantity of B{sub 4}C to be introduced should be reconsidered for postulated severe accident sequence. Other solution could be the use of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} or HfO{sub 2} as absorber material. These oxides form a solid solution with the oxide fuel. Concerning the diluting materials, mixed oxides Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} were preselected. These systems being completely unknown to date at high temperature in association with UO{sub 2}, first points on the corresponding ternary phase diagrams were researched. Contrary to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} - UO{sub 2} system, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - HfO{sub 2} - UO{sub 2} mixture presents only one eutectic and thus only one solidification path which makes easier forecasting the behaviour of corium in the core catcher. (author) [French] Resume: Afin de limiter les consequences d'un accident grave avec la fusion du coeur dans un reacteur a neutrons rapides de generation IV refroidi au sodium, la recriticite doit

  20. Contribution to the study of the effect of a low dose of gamma irradiation on seeds and tubers before planting; Contribution a l'etude de l'effet d'une irradiation gamma a faible dose sur les graines et tubercules avant plantation

    Silvy, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    From 1962 to 1965, 25 tests have been made with carrots (1 variety), radish (3 varieties), spinach (2 var.), tomatoes (2 var.), potatoes (2 var.), barley (2 var.), rice (3 var.) and corn (1 var.), with the object of studying the interest for agriculture of seed and tuber gamma irradiation at low dose before planting. These tests were made in the laboratory, in greenhouses and in the open field, all necessary care being taken for a valuable statistical analysis of- the results. Special attention was paid to the homogeneity of plant material by controlling more particularly moisture content of seeds and the storage conditions of tubers. The observations concerned germination, growth at early stages, development phases and yield of leaves, roots and fruit. Some stimulation cases are observed. For tomatoes, it is found that stimulation cases occur at extreme moisture content and not in the range of mean moisture content which corresponds to maximum radioresistance. The demonstration of these effects is related to varieties, complementary treatments, conditions of cultivation and observation criteria. In most cases, they are short-lived and suitable modifications of seed conditioning produce, upon controls, an effect equivalent to that of irradiation. In conclusion, it seems very unlikely - considering our cultivation methods - that seed and tuber irradiation before planting could be of interest for agriculture. (authors) [French] Dans le but d'etudier l'interet agricole d'une irradiation gamma a faible dose des graines et tubercules avant plantation, 25 essais ont ete mis en place de 1962 a 1965 sur carotte (1 var.), radis (3 var.), epinard (2 var.), tomate (2 var.), pomme de terse (2 var.), orge (2 var.), riz (3 var.) et mais (1 var. ). Les essais ont ete faits au laboratoire, dans les serres et en plein champ avec toutes les precautions requises pour une analyse statistique valable des resultats. On a prete une attention particuliere a l

  1. L’avant-corps de la tour philippienne du château de Chinon (Indre-et-Loire : un exemple d’adaptation d’un standard architectural aux contraintes topographiques The projecting part of a Philippe Auguste tower in the stronghold of Chinon (Indre-et-Loire: an example of the adaption of an architectural standard to topographic constraints

    Bastien Lefebvre


    Full Text Available Le “ donjon du Coudray ” est une tour circulaire de type philippien dont le donjon n’est pas entièrement classique, puisque, contrairement aux autres érigés par les ingénieurs de Philippe Auguste, elle est desservie par un avant-corps rectangulaire donnant accès au premier étage. Sa fouille et l’étude fine de ses élévations ont permis de s’assurer que cet avant-corps atypique était bien contemporain de la tour. On a pu en reconstituer avec certitude les parties disparues. Plus qu’un archaïsme contredit par le soin apporté à l’édifice tout entier, les auteurs l’interprètent comme une réponse ponctuelle à une contrainte topographique.The Coudray keep is a circular tower of the Philippe Auguste type. The tower type is not entirely classic, since, as opposed to others erected by the engineers of Philippe Auguste, it is served by a rectangular projection which gives access to the first floor. The excavation and detailed study of its elevations have enabled us to ensure that the unusual projection was really comptemporary with the tower. It was possible to reconstruct its missing sections with certainty. More than just an archaism contradicted by the care given to the building as a whole, the creators construed it as a short term answer to a topographic constraint.

  2. Ex-core instrumentation; Instrumentation hors coeur des reacteurs

    Burel, J.P. [Schneider Electric S.A., 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)


    The safety and the control of the reactor need to master the nuclear power from the core radiation measurement. According to the reactor dimensions and conception, the nuclear parameters monitoring is realized through two instrumentation systems: the ex-core instrumentation system which use detector placed outside of the core and the in-core instrumentation system. This paper deals with the ex-core systems based on neutronic measurements and details the detectors choice, the treatment circuits, data processing, realizations in France and also example of the Wwr reactor instrumentation. (A.L.B.)

  3. New reactor concepts; Nieuwe rectorconcepten - nouveaux reacteurs nucleaires

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A


    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost.

  4. China experimental fast reactor; Le reacteur rapide experimental chinois

    Tianmin, X. [Institut d' Ingenierie Nucleaire de Pekin (China); Cunren, L. [Centre d' Etude de Surete de Pekin (China)


    The Chinese experimental fast reactor (CEFR) is a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor whose short term purposes are: -) the validation of computer codes, -) the check of the relevance of standards, and -) the gathering of experimental data on fast reactors. On the long term the expectations will focus on: -) gaining experience in fast reactor operations, -) the testing of nuclear fuels and materials, and -) the study of sodium compounds. The main technical features of CEFR are: -) thermal power output: 65 MW (electrical power output: 20 MW), -) size of the core: height: 45 cm, diameter: 60 cm, -) maximal linear output: 430 W/cm, -) neutron flux: 3.7*10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}/s, -) input/output sodium temperature: 360 / 530 Celsius degrees, -) 2 loops for the primary system and 2 loops for the secondary system. The temperature coefficient and the power coefficient are settled to stay negative for any change in the values of the core parameters. The installation of the reactor vessel will be completed by mid 2007. The first criticality of CEFR is expected during the first semester of 2010. (A.C.)

  5. The Flamanville 3 EPR reactor; Le reacteur EPR Flamanville 3



    On April 10. 2007, the french government authorized EDF to create on the site of Flamanville ( La Manche) a nuclear base installation containing a pressurized water EPR type reactor. This nuclear reactor, conceived by AREVA NP and EDF, is the first copy of a generation susceptible to replace later, at least partly, the French nuclear reactors at present in operation.Within the framework of its mission of technical support of the Authority of Nuclear Safety ( A.S.N.), the I.R.S.N. widely contributed successively: to define the general objectives of safety assigned to this new generation of pressurized water nuclear reactors; to analyze the options of safety proposed by EDF for the EPR project; To deepen, upstream to the authorization of creation, the evaluation of the step of safety and the measures of conception retained by EDF that have to allow to respect the objectives of safety which were notified to it. (N.C.)

  6. Mise au point d'un reacteur epitaxial CBE

    Pelletier, Hubert

    Ce projet de maîtrise consiste à l'asservissement et la mise en marche d'un réacteur d'épi-taxie par jets chimiques au Laboratoire d'Épitaxie Avancée de l'Université de Sherbrooke. Le réacteur sert à la croissance dans l'ultravide de matériaux semi-conducteurs tels que l'arséniure de gallium (GaAs) et le phosphure d'indium-gallium (GaInP). La programmation LabVIEW™ et du matériel informatique de National Instruments sont utilisés pour asservir le réacteur. Le contrôle de la température de l'échantillon et de la pression de contrôle des réactifs de croissance dans le réacteur est assuré par des boucles de rétroaction. Ainsi, la température de l'échantillon est stabilisée à ±0, 4 °C, alors que les pressions de contrôle de gaz peuvent être modulées sur un ordre de grandeur en 2 à 4 secondes, et stabilisées à ±0, 002 Torr. Le système de pompage du réacteur a été amélioré suite à des mesures de vitesse de pompage d'une pompe cryogénique. Ces mesures révèlent une dégradation sur plus d'un ordre de grandeur de son pompage d'hydrogène avec l'opération à long terme. Le remplacement de la pompe cryogénique par une pompe turbo-moléculaire comme pompe principale a permis d'améliorer la fiabilité du système de pompage du système sous vide. D'autre part, la conductance du système d'acheminement de gaz et d'injection a été augmentée afin de réduire un effet mémoire des sources le système et faciliter la croissance de matériaux ternaires. Ainsi, des croissances de GaAs (100) sur substrat de même nature ont été effectuées et ont révélé un matériau de bonne qualité. Sa rugosité moyenne de 0,17 nm, mesurée par microscopie à force atomique, est très faible selon la littérature. De plus, une mobilité élevée des porteurs est obtenue à fort dopage au silicium, au tellure et au carbone, notamment une mobilité de 42 ± 9 cm2V -1s-1 des porteurs majoritaires '(trous) lors du dopage au carbone à 1, 5 · 1019 cm-3, en accord avec la courbe théorique. La croissance du matériau ternaire GaInP a aussi été réalisée en accord de maille avec le substrat de GaAs, et avec une rugosité de 0, 96 nm. Ceci constitue un premier pas dans la croissance d'alliages ternaires au laboratoire. Finalement, la mise en marche du réacteur d'épitaxie par jets chimiques permet maintenant à cinq étudiants gradués de faire progresser des projets reliés directement à la croissance épitaxiale au Laboratoire d'Épitaxie Avancée de l'Université de Sherbrooke. Mots-clés : Épitaxie par jets chimiques; Chemical beam epitaxy; CBE; MOMBE; GaAs; GaInP; LabVIEW; Théorie du vide.

  7. Physics of nuclear reactors; La physique des reacteurs nucleaires

    Marguet, S. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Risques Industriels de Bourges, 18 (France); Institut de Transfert de Technologie d' EDF, 92 - Clamart (France)


    This manual covers all the aspects of the science of neutron transport in nuclear reactors and can be used with great advantage by students, engineers or even reactor experts. It is composed of 18 chapters: 1) basis of nuclear physics, 2) the interactions of neutrons with matter, 3) the interactions of electromagnetic radiations and charged-particles with matter, 4) neutron slowing-down, 5) resonant absorption, 6) Doppler effect, 7) neutron thermalization, 8) Boltzmann equation, 9) calculation methods in neutron transport theory, 10) neutron scattering, 11) reactor reactivity, 12) theory of the critical homogenous pile, 13) the neutron reflector, 14) the heterogeneous reactor, 15) the equations of the fuel cycle, 16) neutron counter-reactions, 17) reactor kinetics, and 18) calculation methods in neutron scattering

  8. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics; Les reacteurs de recherche leur apport sur la physique des reacteurs

    Barral, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Mathoniere, G. [CEA/Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others


    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  9. The Unique Avant-garde Attitude in Double“Negation”:Reading GE Fei ’ s Memory from The Brown Birds%双重否定的独特先锋姿态--从《褐色鸟群》读格非的记忆书写



    面对二十世纪八十年代中后期的现实和文学困境,先锋作家格非以“记忆”为媒,走上了形式冒险的道路。《褐色鸟群》作为格非早期的实验之作,其独特的先锋姿态集中表现在艺术手法和主题内容上:一方面,格非大胆地对传统的叙事技巧进行一系列否定性的变革,搭建起玄奥的叙事迷宫;另一方面,小说在内容上表现了对人孤独、不在的这种被否定的现实生存经验的关照。从叙事迷宫的搭建到对人生存记忆的书写,格非较为成功地完成了自己对特定时期人、历史和存在等的先锋探索和认知。%Facing the dilemma of reality and literature in the middle and late of 1980s, the pioneer writer, GE Fei, went to aform risk path through the medium of memory .The Brown Birds is his early experimental work, whose unique avant-garde attitude focused on expression in art technique and subject .On the one hand, GE Fei has boldly and “negatively” changed a series of traditional narrative techniques to build a mysterious narrative “labyrinth”, on the other hand , the novel showed a negated realistic survival experi-ence about “man” between “inexistence” and loneliness .From building the mysterious narrative “laby-rinth” to recording man’s memory, GE Fei achieved his pioneering exploration and cognition about “man”, history and existence during a specific period of time .

  10. Development of the control assembly pattern and dynamic analysis of the generation IV large gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR); Developpement du design d'un assemblage de controle et analyse dynamique des reacteurs a neutrons rapides de quatrieme generation refroidis au gaz

    Girardin, G.


    modeles neutroniques 2D et 3D du coeur du reacteur ont ete crees, bases sur le schema de calculs de reference ERANOS-2.0/ERALIB1. Pour l'analyse thermo-hydraulique, le code COPERNIC du CEA a ete utilise. Le travail de design a ete poursuivi par l'etude d'un schema de l'implantation des assemblages de controle (nombre et position dans le coeur). Des etudes detaillees de neutronique ont reveles l'existence de grands effets d'interaction entre les AC, appeles effets d'ombre/d'anti-ombre, conduisant a une amplification/reduction de l'antireactivite des AC. Les interactions entre les barreaux absorbants a l'interieur d'un AC, ainsi qu'entre les AC eux-memes, ont ete investiguees dans le detail, dans le but d'optimiser l'efficacite des AC (en terme de la fraction d'absorbant et la minimisation des effets d'heterogeneite associes). Resultant d'investigations detaillees, le diametre des pastilles absorbantes a ete choisi de maniere a minimiser l'influence 'barreau-a-barreau' a l'interieur de l'assemblage. En particulier, une partie centrale de l'assemblage a ete concue sans aucun barreau absorbant (zone remplie d'helium statique). Par ce biais, une reduction, a 13%, des effets d'heterogeneite, a ete obtenue. Les investigations neutroniques effectuees pour le coeur RNR-G de reference ('2004-Coeur'), specialement, celles liees a l'Etude des interactions entre les AC, ont directement contribue au nouveau design du coeur ('2007-Coeur'). Le rapport hauteur sur diametre a ete augmente a 0.6, compare a la valeur de 0.3 pour le coeur de reference. Pendant la troisieme phase, des modeles couples et detailles, cinetiques 3D et thermohydrauliques 1D, ont ete developpes pour le coeur RNR-G; le but etait d'arriver a une comprehension, en profondeur, du comportement 3D du coeur pendant des transitoires induits par le mouvement d

  11. The Avant-Garde and the Art Market in Denmark

    Gether, Vibeke Petersen


    but not least, how could they make their work financially viable? To deal with these issues, artists needed allies who could promote their art through exhibitions and criticism, and auction houses and art dealers who could work on sales and other profitable initiatives. The main players in Denmark were...... the museums, but their acquisitions of work by contemporary young artists were virtually non-existent. the professional apparatus as we know it today simply did not exist. Exhibitions, reviews, sales and other kinds of financial support were all closely connected, but it was difficult for the individual...... artist to deal with them all; the artist had to develop a self-image which could encompass two worlds, one concrete and one abstract. As no account of the relation between artists and the market in Denmark in this period has previously been presented, it is important to investigate the prevailing social...

  12. Et rien ne fut plus comme avant... - French version only


    Dans le cadre de l'Année internationale de la physique, la section de physique de l'Université de Genève ouvre ses portes aux non initiés et organise une série de conférences de vulgarisation scientifique. Chacune des conférences débute par une démonstration de détection de rayons cosmiques dans l'auditoire et l'utilisation de ces signaux venus du fond de l'Univers pour créer une « musique cosmique », en collaboration avec le Professeur Ellberger du Conservatoire de musique de Genève. La seconde conférence, intitulée « symétrie brisée », aura lieu le 1er février 2005 et sera donnée par le Professeur Chris Quigg de Fermilab à Chicago. Selon les cosmologistes, l'Univers a jailli d'un Big Bang d'énergie extrême mais d'une grande uniformité. Le Professeur Q...

  13. Antonio Gramsci on Surrealism and the Avant-Garde

    San Juan, E., Jr.


    In the spring of 1919, Andrp Breton and Phillipe Soupault conducted various experiments in automatic writing. They converted themselves into machines to record the whispers of the unconscious, inspired by Rimbaudes urge for adventure in quest of cosmic knowledge and Lautreamontes conviction of art as a communal enterprise. To destroy bourgeois…

  14. Le texte avant le texte (The Text Preceding the Text).

    Goldenstein, Jean-Pierre


    The information imparted on the covers of French novels can provide substantial insight into the works themselves and other literary matters, and can become the object of systematic study. Cover layout, illustrations, color, and commentary are all part of this "paratextual presentation." (MSE)

  15. Zorn: Avant/Après/Passé

    John Lowell Brackett


    Full Text Available Witold Wachowski’s brief exchange with John Zorn provides us with many valuable insights relating to the composer’s aesthetic. Zorn’s professed antipathy towards audiences, his faith in the creative instinct of the “artist,” and his belief in the transcendental nature of musical works (as a gateway into a world of “truth” and “beauty” are all refrains commonly encountered in many interviews with the composer. Given the fact that Zorn emphasizes these themes in his very short interview with Wachowski, we can assume that these ideas form the core of Zorn’s musical and artistic aesthetic. For any person with even a basic knowledge of Western aesthetic traditions, however, these same aesthetic features and positions characterize musical institutions common to the Western art tradition, particularly the “romantic” ideal of music and composers that developed in the nineteenth century. Philosophers (most notably Hegel and Kant along with music critics and composers (such as Friedrich Schiller, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Friedrich Schlegel, Robert Schumann, and Eduard Hanslick all contributed to the development of a romantic musical aesthetic in the nineteenth century that emphasized the role of the artist (as a “genius” or “god-like” who created “works” that – through purely musical relations that exist irregardless of the listener’s abilities – reveal hidden worlds of truth and beauty, worlds far-removed from the humdrum concerns of daily existence. Given the close (nearly one-to-one correspondences between Zorn and aestheticians/philosophers of the nineteenth century, one could make the argument that Zorn holds a “romantic” view of music and art.

  16. White girls: avant-gardism and advertising after 1860.

    Teukolsky, Rachel


    James McNeill Whistler's painting "The White Girl (Symphony in White, No. 1)" caused a scandal for depicting a woman dressed all in white, uncontained by any clear framing narrative. Though the painting is usually read into history of modernism for its experimental play with tones of white, in fact the painting was linked by Victorian viewers to the mass-cultural phenomenon surrounding Wilkie Collins's sensation novel "The Woman in White." By examining the two works together, this article shows that the divide between the world of fine arts and that of sensational entertainment is perhaps more entrenched in our own canons than it was for Victorian spectators and consumers.

  17. Teenagerlove - en populær avant-garde musical

    Eigtved, Michael


    Artiklen forfølger den brudflade mellem populærkultur og avantgarde, som Ernst Bruun Olsens musikforestilling Teenagerlove fra 1962 er en repræsentant for. Fokus er især på hvorledes teatrale strategier fra hhv Bertolt Brecht og broadway musicals mødes i denne forestilling.......Artiklen forfølger den brudflade mellem populærkultur og avantgarde, som Ernst Bruun Olsens musikforestilling Teenagerlove fra 1962 er en repræsentant for. Fokus er især på hvorledes teatrale strategier fra hhv Bertolt Brecht og broadway musicals mødes i denne forestilling....

  18. Jakob Wassermann: A Jew in the Nationalist Avant-Garde?

    Haberich Max


    Full Text Available Of Jewish origin, Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934 has been labeled a nationalist and reactionary author, even a precursor of fascism. The opposite is the case. Nicole Plöger (2007 argues convincingly for Wassermann’s modernism by examining the literary style of his early novels. This article seeks to complement her approach by concentrating on two key aspects of Wassermann’s thought: First, there is his critical attitude to modern industrial and urban life, exemplified in his “Volksromane.” Second, Wassermann conceived of the “Orientale,” a charismatic leader figure of Jewish origin-heavily influenced by Nietzsche’s “Übermensch”-who would overcome anti-Semitism, and eventually, reconcile the German and Jewish cultures. These two elements of his early work, which may appear reactionary from the modern viewpoint, are in fact decisive evidence that Wassermann was at the height of his time.

  19. Avant-propos : avatars du merveilleux (1937-2016

    Christian Chelebourg


    Full Text Available Quelle mouche a donc piqué le XXIe siècle naissant ? Il y a longtemps que l’on n’avait pas vu autant de fées voltiger dans l’air du temps. Le Petit Peuple féerique n’a certes jamais vraiment déserté la littérature depuis qu’il y est entré triomphalement avec les recueils de Charles Perrault et des frères Grimm, les premières réécritures de Ludwig Tieck et les créations d’Andersen. Mais il est passé par des phases successives de dédain et d’engouement. Le merveilleux fonctionne comme un langage avec son lexique – les personnages, leurs attributs, les décors – et sa grammaire – les histoires. Ses évolutions racontent celles de son temps avec une acuité d’autant plus vive qu’elles s’inscrivent de façon naturelle dans une perspective de long terme. Les inflexions et les ruptures, les innovations comme les reprises, sont d’autant plus repérables qu’elles se détachent, pour ainsi dire, sur un fond de pratiques antécédentes. L’étude culturelle de ces phénomènes à l’époque contemporaine s’inscrit dans une approche sociohistorique, que le contexte de la mondialisation des productions de masse favorise en affranchissant pour partie de leurs contextes nationaux les œuvres plébiscitées de par le monde.

  20. Jos Berry and Her New Avant-garde Film

    Xue Peng


    @@ As the Iinge rie's top t rend spotte r,Ms JOS Berry directs an irite rnational team of designers based in Paris-Concepts Paris-and provides the latest trends for worldwide lingerie professionals.This Paris consultancy company iS devoted to a unique mix of services,such as trend book,online trend&news updates,color cards and design projects.

  1. Jos Berry and Her New Avant-garde Film


    As the lingerie’s top trend spotter,Ms Jos Berry directs an international team of designers based in Paris-Concepts Paris-and provides the latest trends for worldwide lingerie professionals. This Paris consultancy company is devoted to a unique mix of services,such as trend book,online trend & news updates,color cards and design projects.

  2. 4D Joint Stratigraphic Inversion of Prestack Seismic Data: Application to the CO2 Storage Reservoir (Utsira Sand Formation at Sleipner Site Inversion stratigraphique jointe 4D de données sismiques avant sommation : application au réservoir de stockage de CO2 (Formation Utsira du site de Sleipner

    Labat K.


    éservoirs au cours de leur production. Nous présentons ici une méthodologie d'inversion stratigraphique 4D qui fournit une estimation des variations d'impédances des ondes P et S dans le réservoir, par inversion de données de sismiques répétées avant-sommation. L'inversion 4D est implémentée dans le domaine temps et nécessite une loi de mise à l'échelle des temps de trajets pour chaque jeu de données de sismique répétée (aussi appelé "millésime" afin de mettre en correspondance les temps d'arrivée d'événements homologues observés sur les jeux de données appelés référence et monitors. Cette opération est souvent appelée "warping". L'inversion 4D est une méthodologie qui comporte trois étapes : la première étape consiste à inverser chaque millésime sismique séparément, pour produire autant de distributions en impédances P et S que de jeux de données considérés. La seconde étape utilise l'information des impédances P disponibles pour résoudre le problème du warping, qui est un point clé pour la troisième et dernière étape : l'inversion jointe de tous les millésimes sismiques disponibles. Cette séquence d'inversion 4D a été appliquée aux jeux de données enregistrés sur le réservoir de stockage de CO2 du site norvégien de Sleipner (Mer du Nord. Ce dernier est devenu un site industriel de référence pour le stockage à long terme du dioxyde de carbone (CO2 dans un aquifère salin, la formation des sables de l'Utsira. Nous avons focalisé notre étude sur l'inversion 4D des millésimes 1994 et 2006, acquise respectivement avant et dix ans après le début de l'injection de CO2. Le warping a fourni une loi de mise à l'échelle des temps de propagation avec un retard maximum d'environ 45 ms à la base de l'aquifère Utsira. L'inversion 4D jointe a donné des résultats plus cohérents que les inversions 3D : l'inversion 4D fournit en particulier des impédances P pour les grès saturés en CO2 qui sont très proches des

  3. Kitchenette Correlatives: African American Neo-Modernism,the Popular Front, and the Emergence of a Black Literary Avant-garde in the 1940s and 1950s%非洲裔美国新现代主义、大众阵线与20世纪40-50年代先锋派黑人文学的兴起



    claiming African American artistic citizenship. At the same time,black writers were acutely aware of the racism of many of the leading U.S. modernists and their champions, such as T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Alan Tate, interrogating this racism even as they drew on their work. Also, while the neomodernist revival in the United States generally can be seen as an assault on the aesthetics and cultural institutions of the Popular Front as the Cold War intensified, black neomodernist writers, many of whom had been active on the Left, often maintained formal and thematic ties to Popular Front art in ways that distinguished them from most of their white counterparts. African American engagement with modernism and the modernist revival championed by the New Critics and the New York Intellectuals in the 1940s and 1950s developed essentially along two tracks. One track featured the rise of a black neo-modernism obviously influenced by the general Cold War neo-modernist revival, but also with a long foreground in African American literature and art. The other promoted a related, though in many respects opposed growth of a more populist African American literary avant gardism, positing African American high art both as on the cutting edge of world artistic expression and inextricably linked to African American experience and expressive culture, particularly the new jazz of bebop. Both the neo-modernist and more populist avant-garde strains of African American literature, though having a long foreground, were in many respects rooted in black Left culture and politics of the 1930s,1940s, and early 1950s.

  4. The RES reactor, a test reactor for naval propulsion; Le reacteur d'essais RES, reacteur d'essais de la propulsion navale

    Pivet, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Minguet, J.L. [AREVA-Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France)


    The RES, the new test reactor for naval propulsion, will replace the RNG that nears the end of its operating life after 30 years in service. The main asset of a land-based installation is to provide an in-core instrumented reactor while the on-board system must stay as simple as possible for robustness reasons. The objective of the RES is fivefold: 1) to foresee and help solving problems likely to happen on on-board reactor, 2) to validate nuclear fuels and reactor systems for naval propulsion, 3) to validate reactor system and equipment for the Barracuda submarine program, 4) to upgrade the on-ground facility located at Cadarache, and 5) to provide the Cea with a new capacity for the storing of spent fuels from naval propulsion systems and from Cea research reactors. The RES facility is made of 2 parts: one that houses the reactor and the other that is dedicated to the handling on spent fuels, their examination through a gamma spectrometry bench and their storing in a pool. The RES facility is scheduled to open in 2009. (A.C.)

  5. Experimental needs for water cooled reactors. Reactor and nuclear fuel; Les besoins experimentaux pour les reacteurs a eau legere. Reacteur et combustible

    Waeckel, N. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Beguin, S. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 50 - Cherbourg (France); Assedo [AREVA Framatome ANP, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)


    In order to improve the competitiveness of nuclear reactors, the trend will be to increase the fuel burn-up, the fuel enrichment, the length of the irradiation cycle and the global thermal power of the reactor. In all cases the fuel rod will be more acted upon. Experimental programs involving research reactors able to irradiate in adequate conditions instrumented fuel rods will stay necessary for the validation of new practices or new nuclear fuel materials in normal or accidental conditions. (A.C.)

  6. Stoïcisme et jugement littéraire au Ier siècle avant J.-C. : le témoignage de Denys d’Halicarnasse Stoicism and Literary Judgment in the First Century BC : the Testimony of Dionysius of Halicarnassus Stoicismo e critica letteraria del I sec. a.C.:  la testimonianza di Dionigi di Alicarnasso

    Mélina Lévy-Makinson


    Full Text Available Intégré au cercle des Aelii Tuberones, famille romaine d’obédience stoïcienne, l’historien et rhéteur Denys d’Halicarnasse était familier des théories du Portique : de fait, les théories stoïciennes sur le langage constituaient un intérêt certain pour les recherches stylistiques de Denys, comme en témoignent ses Opuscules Rhétoriques. D’autre part, sa réflexion reflète des enjeux importants du débat littéraire du Ier siècle avant J.-C. à Rome. Atticiste convaincu, Denys rédige ainsi deux traités (Sur Thucydide et la Seconde lettre à Ammée en réaction contre les admirateurs stoïciens de l’auteur de la Guerre du Péloponnèse. Notre auteur développe pour sa part un « atticisme stoïcisant » qui s’adosse à une conception de l’Empire réconciliant Grecs et Romains.Integrated into the circle of the Aelii Tuberones, a Roman family of Stoic inclinations, the historian and rhetorician Dionysius of Halicarnassus was very familiar with theories of Stoicism : in fact, the Stoic theories about language were of high interest for Dionysus’ stylistic research, as his Rhetorical Works demonstrate. Moreover, his thinking reflects important issues of literary debate of first century BC in Rome. As an earnest atticist writer, Dionysius wrote two treatises (On Thucydides and the Second Letter to Ammeus in reaction to the Stoic admirers of the author of the Peloponnesian War. Our author develops for his part a “directed to Stoicism atticism” that leans on a conception of reconciling Greeks and Romans in the Empire.Membro del circolo degli Aelii Tuberones, famiglia romana d’obbedienza stoica, lo storico e retore Dionigi di Alicarnasso aveva dimestichezza con le teorie della Stoa: le teorie stoiche sul linguaggio costituivano, infatti, un sicuro interesse per le indagini sullo stile di Dionigi, come testimoniato dai suoi Opuscoli retorici. D’altro canto, la sua riflessione riflette importanti sfide del

  7. La Mer Partagée. La Méditerranée avant l’écriture, 7000-2000 avant Jésus-Christ.

    Catherine Commenge


    Full Text Available Jean Guilaine’s La Mer Partagée, conceived as a thematic encyclopedia, is an erudite but nonetheless inviting work, a formidable odyssey, the title of which (literally “The Shared Sea” sets forth the author’s basic conception of the Mediterranean sea. It is epicenter to the civilizations of Asia, Europe and Africa and a sounding-board for processes taking place in the cradle of civilization further to the east, in the Fertile Crescent. The period under consideration span five millennia durin...

  8. La Mer Partagée. La Méditerranée avant l'écriture, 7000-2000 avant Jésus-Christ.

    Catherine Commenge


    Full Text Available C'est une formidable odyssée que nous offre Jean Guilaine dans cet ouvrage érudit et pourtant accessible, construit comme une encyclopédie thématique. Le titre choisi, la Mer Partagée, situe d'emblée la vision sous-jacente à l'entreprise : mer entre les terres d'Asie, d'Europe et d'Afrique, la Méditerranée est conçue comme épicentre civilisateur et comme caisse de résonance de processus dont le berceau continental est établi plus à l'est, dans le Croissant Fertile. La période considérée couvr...

  9. Safety of the French reactors in operation; Surete des reacteurs francais en service

    Libmann, J. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)]|[Agence Internationale pour l' Energie Atomique, AIEA, Vienne (Austria)


    The French nuclear reactors still in operation at the end of the 1990's are all of PWR type. This paper focusses on the technical aspects of the safety of these reactors which depends on the original design and on the quality of the realization, on the ageing of the facilities, on the improvements added with time, and on the conditions of operation (incidents, periodical inspections, maintenance). The experience feedback, the reexamination of safety rules and the use of probabilistic evaluations have permitted to reach a satisfactory level of safety so far. The following aspects are presented successively: 1 - design and expected safety: design basis, defense-in-depth concept, postulated accidents and methods of accidents analysis, safety systems and principles of materials classification, complementary accidental conditions, preparation to the management of serious accidents, relative safety differences between the different units; 2 - expected safety during operation: general operation rules, periodical safety tests, preventive maintenance, training of personnel, safety culture; 3 - probabilistic evaluation of safety: interest of probabilistic safety studies, main results, evolutions; 4 - safety verifications: detection and analysis of incidents, global behaviour of the electronuclear park, presentation of some serious French incidents, importance of human factors, monitoring of the ageing of installations, the international nuclear events scale (INES); 5 - the periodical reexamination of safety: principles and practice, main results. (J.S.)

  10. Utilization of stable isotopes in power reactor; Utilisation des isotopes stables dans les reacteurs de puissance

    Desmoulins, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    The stable isotopes, besides uranium, used in EDF power nuclear reactors are mainly the boron 10 and the lithium 7. Boron is used in reactors as a neutrophagous agent for core reactivity control, and lithium, and more especially lithium 7, is extensively used as a solution in PWR moderators for primary fluid pH control. Boron and lithium ore reserves and producers are presented; industrial isotopic separation techniques are described: for the boron 10, they include dissociative distillation (Sulzer process) and separation on anionic resins, and for lithium 7, ion exchange columns (Cogema). 1 tab.

  11. The hydraulics of the pressurized water reactors; L'hydraulique des reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Bouchter, J.C. [CEA Cadarache, SMET, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barbier, D. [CEA/Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique, DTP/SH2C, 38 (France); Caruso, A. [Electricite de France, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others


    The SFEN organized, the 10 june 1999 at Paris, a meeting in the domain of the PWR hydraulics and in particular the hydraulic phenomena concerning the vessel and the vapor generators. The papers presented showed the importance of the industrial stakes with their associated phenomena: cores performance and safety with the more homogenous cooling system, the rods and the control rods wear, the temperature control, the fluid-structure interactions. A great part was also devoted to the progresses in the domain of the numerical simulation and the models and algorithms qualification. (A.L.B.)

  12. Presentation of the Jules Horowitz reactor; Presentation du reacteur Jules Horowitz

    Dupuy, J.P. [AREVA-Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Perotto, G. [AREVA Framatome ANP, 92 - Paris La Defense (France); Ithurrald, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 13 - Aix en Provence (France)


    The concepts on which the RJH reactor has been designed are: -) flexibility: the reactor must be able to give experimental support to any type of reactor (light water- heavy water- gas- or molten metal-cooled power reactor); -) adaptability: RJH's operating life will be over 50 years so the reactor will have to adjust to the experimental needs that may change a lot over a so long period; -) reactor operation: RJH is optimized to produce an availability time of 275 full charge equivalent days a year; and -) costs: the minimization of experiment costs is obtained through the integration in the same facility (or located nearby on the site) of the technical means required to perform a complete experimental program from the design of the irradiation device to its recovery after irradiation and to the examination or the possible testing of the samples. Transport costs and time delays are spared. This article gives the main features of the RJH facility from the description of the building to the specificities of the reactor core. (A.C.)

  13. BWR: Development and Validation of KERENA reactor; Les REB: Developpement et validation du reacteur KERENA

    Diercks, F.; Fuchs, M. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH (Germany); Erve, M.; Pasler, D. [AREVA (Germany)


    KERENA is an advanced boiling water reactor, combining AREVA's and E.ON's expertise. A project was launched to customize the final basic design for this advanced nuclear power plant having a net power output of about 1, 250 MW, a net efficiency of about 37% and a design service life of 60 years. The development takes into account the technical and accumulated operating experience of the project partners. The plant safety concept is based on an optimized combination of a reduced number of proven active safety systems and passive safety systems, utilizing basic laws of physics, such as gravity, enabling them to function without electrical power supplies or activation by powered instrumentation and control systems. Control of a postulated core melt accident is assured with considerable safety margins thanks to passive flooding of the containment for in-vessel melt retention. All passive safety systems are validated in an experimental test program at AREVA, using 1:1 scale test facilities (INKA test facility Karlstein). The KERENA boiling water reactor is compliant with international nuclear codes and standards, and is also designed to withstand the effects of an aircraft crash involving a military aircraft or a large passenger airline. The safety level of the KERENA reactor has been able to be significantly increased compared to existing BWR plants. The advantages of the new safety concept are: -) Reduced susceptibility of safety systems to failures; -) Larger safety margins; -) Good plant behavior in the event of accidents due to the fact that conditions change at a slower rate; -) Grace periods of several days after an accident before operator intervention is required; -) Significantly reduced impact of operator error on reactor safety; -) No need for large-scale emergency response actions such as temporary evacuation or relocation of the neighboring population following a core melt accident. (A.C.)

  14. PWR type reactors. Normal and accidental operation; Reacteurs a eau sous pression. Fonctionnement normal et accidentel

    Petetrot, J.F. [AREVA NP, Dept. Fonctionnement Reacteur et Etudes d' Accidents/Division, Tour AREVA, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)


    This article presents the general operation principles of PWR type reactors with the limits to be respected for the core and the steam supply system. Regulation systems controlling the main parameters are described as well: measurements used, functional structures, controlled actuators. The protection system which can lead to the automatic shutdown of the reactor (emergency rod drop) and to the start-up of safeguard functions is detailed. The interface for the conventional protection system is briefly described. The operation of the steam supply system with respect to the power grid needs is presented in relation with the regulation of the turbogenerator set: load follow-up, primary and secondary adjustment. Finally, the changes of the most important parameters during typical transients are commented. The main operations needed to move from the cold shutdown state to the nominal power are described as well. (J.S.)

  15. Public debate on the EPR reactor; Debat public sur le reacteur EPR



    In the framework of the new EPR European Pressurized Reactor implementation in France, the public asked the first Ministry on the protection of nuclear matters, transports and installations against the terrorism and the spiteful actions. This document provides information on the subject and shows the safety of the new reactor. (A.L.B.)

  16. The JHR reactor: a multipurpose asset for materials; Le reacteur RHJ: polyvalence au service des materiaux

    Iracane, D.; Yvon, P. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)


    The creeping obsolescence of experimental irradiation reactors around the world, in the European Union in particular, means that the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), due to be commissioned by CEA in 2014, at Cadarache, is an essential addition, whether it be for the investigation of materials, or of novel fuels. Its capabilities extend beyond the requirements of investigations relating to fourth-generation systems. (authors)

  17. Phenix, a unique research reactor in Europe; Phenix, un reacteur de recherche unique en europe

    Guidez, J.; Goux, D. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 30 - Marcoule (France); Dupraz, R. [AREVA Framatome ANP, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)


    The Phenix reactor located at Marcoule (France) went critical in 1973 for the first time. Between 1974 and 1990 it contributed to the demonstration of the feasibility of an industrial fast reactor, this demonstration was based on the following conclusions: -) an adequate handling of the sodium coolant, -) a low staff dosimetry, -) very few clad failures, -) a breeding ratio of 1.16 while 1.13 was expected, and -) a correct behaviour of the fuel assemblies. In 1990, 2 new experimental programs were launched: Capra for assessing the role of fast reactors in the management of plutonium stocks and Spin for the investigation of the transmutation of minor actinides and long life fission products. An important upgrading took place between 1993 and 2003, Phenix was then allowed to operate for 6 cycles more. The last experiments performed in Phenix are dedicated to the study of actinide transmutation (within the framework of the axis 1 of the Bataille's law) and the investigation of new nuclear fuels and materials for advanced reactors. (A.C.)

  18. The 900 MWe reactor check-up; Le check-up des reacteurs de 900 MWe



    A set of articles presents the third decennial visit of the thirty-four 900 MW French nuclear reactors. This process started in 2009 in Tricastin and Fessenheim. For this visit, reactors are stopped, one after the other, for three months, in order to re-examine safety issues. The different involved actors and their roles are presented: EDF, the IRSN, the ASN and the GPR (the expert group for nuclear reactors). Some specific issues are evoked by some experts and interveners. The case of Fessenheim, the visit of which lasted five months, is somehow more widely commented

  19. Modelisation et simulation de pyrolyse de pneus usages dans des reacteurs de laboratoire et industriel

    Lanteigne, Jean-Remi

    The present thesis covers an applied study on tire pyrolysis. The main objective is to develop tools to allow predicting the production and the quality of oil from tire pyrolysis. The first research objective consisted in modelling the kinetics of tires pyrolysis in a reactor, namely an industrial rotary drum operating in batch mode. A literature review performed later demonstrated that almost all kinetics models developed to represent tire pyrolysis could not represent the actual industrial process with enough accuracy. Among the families of kinetics models for pyrolysis, three have been identified: models with one single global reaction, models with multiple combined parallel reactions, and models with multiple parallel and series reactions. It was observed that these models show limitations. In the models with one single global reaction and with multiple parallels reactions, the production of each individual pyrolytic product cannot be predicted, but only for combined volatiles. Morevoer, the mass term in the kinetics refers to the final char weight (Winfinity) that varies with pyrolysis conditions, which yields less robust models. Also, despite the fact that models with multiple parallels and series reactions can predict the rate of production for each pyrolysis product, the selectivities are determined for operating temperatures instead of real mass temperatures, giving models for which parameters tuning is not adequate when used at the industrial scale. A new kinetics model has been developed, allowing predicting the rate of production of noncondensable gas, oil, and char from tire pyrolysis. The novelty of this model is the consideration of intrinsic selectivities for each product as a function of temperature. This hypothesis has been assumed valid considering that in the industrial pyrolysis process, pyrolysis kinetics is limiting. The developed model considers individual kinetics for each of the three pyrolytic products proportional to the global decomposition kinetics of pyrolysables. The simulation with data obtained in industrial operation showed the robustness of the model to predict with accuracy in transient regime, tires pyrolysis, with the help of model parameters obtained at laboratory scale, namely in regards of the trigger of production, the residence time of tires (dynamic production) and the amount of oil produced (cumulative yield). It is a novel way to model pyrolysis that could be extrapolated to new waste materials. The second objective of this doctoral research was to determine the evolution of specific tires specific heat during pyrolysis and the enthalpy of pyrolysis. The origin of this objective comes from a primary contradiction. With few exceptions, it is acknowledged that organic materials pyrolysis is globally an endothermic phenomenon. At the opposite, all experiments led with laboratory apparatuses such as DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) showed exothermic peaks during dynamic experiments (constant heating rate). It has been confirmed by results obtained at the industrial scale, where no sign of exothermicity has been observed. The Hess Law has also confirmed these results, that globally, pyrolysis is indeed a completely endothermic process. An accurate energy balance is required to predict mass temperature during pyrolysis, this parameter being unbindable from kinetics. An advanced investigation of char first allowed demonstrating that specific heat of solids during pyrolysis decreases with increasing temperature until the weight loss peak is reached, around 400°C, and then starts increasing again. This observation, combined with the fact that the sample loses weight during pyrolysis is considered as the major cause of the apparition of an exothermic peak in laboratory scale experiments. That is, the control system of these apparatuses generates a bias and an unavoidable overheat of the samples producing this exothermic behavior. It would thus be an artifact. On the base of new data on the evolution of global specific heat during pyrolysis, a model of the energy balance has been developed at the industrial scale to determine the enthalpy of pyrolysis. The simulation has shown that a major part of the heat transferred to the pyrolized mass would make its temperature increase. Next, an enthalpy of pyrolysis dependent of weight loss was obtained. Finally, two other terms of enthalpy have been found, namely an enthalpy for the breakage of sulfur bridges and an enthalpy for the stabilization of char when conversion approaches completion. This research will have allowed establishing a novel general methodology to determine the enthalpy of pyrolysis. More particularly, new clarifications hasve been obtained in regards to the evolution of specific heat of solids during pyrolysis and new enthalpies of pyrolysis, all endothermic, could be obtained, in agreement with the theoretical expectations. The third research objective concerned the behavior of sulfur during tires pyrolysis. With as a premise that sulfur is an intrinsic contaminant of many types of waste, it is critical to clarify its fate during pyrolysis, in the present case for waste tires. It has been observed in the literature that some quantitative analyses had been presented, but generally, the mechanisms for the distribution of sulfur within the pyrolytic products remain unclear. Thus, it was then not possible to predict the transfer of sulfur to each of the tire pyrolysis products. The results taken form literature have been complemented with a series of TGA experiments followed by complete elemental analyses of the residual solids. Mass balances have been performed in order to characterize the distribution of elements within the three products (noncondensable gas, oil, and char). A novel parameter has been created during this research: the sulfur loss selectivity. This intrinsic selectivity is a prediction of the distribution of sulfur within the pyrolysis products as a function of temperature. Three phenomena has been identified that could affect the sulfur loss selectivity. First, the natural devolatilization of sulfur due to pyrolysis. Next, the sulfur devolatilization due to the desulfurization of the solid matrix by hydrogen and finally, the clustering of sulfur in the solid state due to metal sulfidation (zinc and iron). The results have shown that this selectivity reach a limit value of 1 when pyrolysis is limited by the kinetics and in the absence of metal. When the mass transfer is limiting at low temperature (designing these industrial processes. For example, in light of this research, it could be preferable to pre-treat the tires at lower temperature to eliminate a significant part of sulfur before pyrolyzing them at high temperature. The resulting pyrolytic products would then necessitate a lighter purification post-treatment, being more efficient and more economical.

  20. The experimental and technological developments reactor; Le reacteur d'etudes et de developpements technologiques

    Carbonnier, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DEN/DER), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    THis presentation concerns the REDT, gas coolant reactor for experimental and technological developments. The specifications and the research programs concerning this reactor are detailed;: materials, safety aspects, core physic, the corresponding fuel cycle, the reactor cycle and the program management. (A.L.B.)

  1. The mechanics in the reactors physics; La mecanique dans la physique des reacteurs

    Barral, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, DER/SPRC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)] [and others


    This meeting of the 24 november 1998, took place in Paris and was organized by the SFEN. After three plenary sessions a technical meeting dealt on the mechanics in reactors physics. The plenary papers presented the state of the art in the PWR type reactors and fast neutron reactors systems and in the thermonuclear reactors system. Five more technical papers presented the seismic behavior of the reactors cores, the fuel-cladding interactions, the defects harmfulness in the fracture mechanics and the fuel rods control system wear. (A.L.B.)

  2. Ship propulsion reactors technology; La technologie des reacteurs de propulsion navale

    Fribourg, Ch. [Technicatome, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  3. Optimisation de la gestion du combustible dans les reacteurs CANDU refroidis a l'eau legere

    Chambon, Richard

    This research has two main goals. First, we wanted to introduce optimization tools in the diffusion code DONJON, mostly for fuel management. The second objective is more practical. The optimization capabilities are applied to the fuel management problem for different CANDU reactors at refueling equilibrium state. Two kinds of approaches are considered and implemented in this study to solve optimization problems in the code DONJON. The first methods are based on gradients and on the quasi-linear mathematical programming. The method initially developed in the code OPTEX is implemented as a reference approach for the gradient based methods. However, this approach has a major drawback. Indeed, the starting point has to be a feasible point. Then, several approaches have been developed to be more general and not limited by the initial point choice. Among the different methods we developed, two were found to be very efficient: the multi-step method and the mixte method. The second kind of approach are the meta-heuristic methods. We implemented the tabu search method. Initially, it was designed to optimize combinatory variable problems. However, we successfully used it for continuous variables. The major advantage of the tabu method over the gradient methods is the capability to exit from local minima. Optimisation of the average exit burnup has been performed for CANDU-6 and ACR-700 reactors. The fresh fuel enrichment has also been optimized for ACR-700. Results match very well what the reactor physics can predict. Moreover, a comparison of the two totally different types of optimization methods validated the results we obtained.

  4. The mechanics in the reactors physics; La mecanique dans la physique des reacteurs

    Barral, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, DER/SPRC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)] [and others


    This meeting of the 24 november 1998, took place in Paris and was organized by the SFEN. After three plenary sessions a technical meeting dealt on the mechanics in reactors physics. The plenary papers presented the state of the art in the PWR type reactors and fast neutron reactors systems and in the thermonuclear reactors system. Five more technical papers presented the seismic behavior of the reactors cores, the fuel-cladding interactions, the defects harmfulness in the fracture mechanics and the fuel rods control system wear. (A.L.B.)

  5. Hybrid reactors: recent progress of a demonstration pilot; Reacteurs hybrides: avancees recentes pour un demonstrateur

    Billebaud, Annick [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie IN2P3-CNRS/UJF/INPG, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)


    Accelerator driven sub-critical reactors are subject of many research programmes since more than ten years, with the aim of testing the feasibility of the concept as well as their efficiency as a transmutation tool. Several key points like the accelerator, the spallation target, or neutronics in a subcritical medium were investigated extensively these last years, allowing for technological choices and the design of a low power European demonstration ADS (a few tens of MWth). Programmes dedicated to subcritical reactor piloting proposed a monitoring procedure to be validated in forthcoming experiments. Accelerator R and D provided the design of a LINAC for an ADS and research work on accelerator reliability is going on. A spallation target was operated at PSI and the design of a windowless target is in progress. All this research work converges to the design of a European demonstration ADS, the ETD/XT-ADS, which could be the Belgian MYRRHA project. (author)

  6. The chaos avant-garde memories of the early days of chaos theory

    Abraham, Ralph H


    This book is an authoritative and unique reference for the history of chaos theory, told by the pioneers themselves. It also provides an excellent historical introduction to the concepts. There are eleven contributions, and six of them are published here for the first time - two by Steve Smale, three by Yoshisuke Ueda, and one each by Ralph Abraham, Edward Lorenz, Christian Mira, Floris Takens, T Y Li and James A Yorke, and Otto E Rossler. Contents: On How I Got Started in Dynamical Systems 1959-1962 (S Smale); Finding a Horseshoe on the Beaches of Rio (S Smale); Strange Attractors and the Ori

  7. Mainstreaming the Avant-Garde: Modernism in Life Magazine (New York, 1883–1936

    Céline Mansanti


    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between literary modernism and mainstream culture within a little-studied American magazine, Life (New York, 1884-1936. It does so by looking at three ways in which Life presented modernism to its readers: by quoting modernist writing, and, above all, by satirizing modernist art, and by offering didactic explanations of modernist art and literature. By reconsidering some of the long-established divisions between high and low culture, and between ‘little’ and ‘bigger’ magazines, this paper contributes to a better understanding of what modernism was and meant. It also suggests that the double agenda observed in Life – both satirical and didactic – might be a way of defining middlebrow magazines.

  8. La radiologie est entree avant l'electricite dans les hopitaux de Paris.

    Pallardy, G


    The paper looks at the period from 1896 to the beginning of the 20th century and uses as example the installation of radiological equipment by Antoine Beclere, at his own cost, in his department of medicine at the Hopital Tenon, and later at the Hopital Saint-Antoine. The important role of Antoine Beclere in French radiology is recalled as well as his visionary concept of the medical applications of X-rays. The solutions found to ensure the running of the indispensable high tension generators in the two hospitals without electricity are evoked: first, a hand operated electrostatic machine, then an induction coil energized by an accumulator battery that had to be recharched outside. At the end of 1899 at Saint-Antoine, the situation is improved by the decision of the "Conseil de Surveillance" (the Safety Committee) to hook up the radiological equipment to the dynamos which produces electricity for the maternity ward. The problem is definitively solved in 1904, eight years after the first radiological examinations, by the construction of an electric power plant in the hospital. An overview of the electricity available in the Paris region at that time, with the multiplicity of electric power plants, and the great variety of currents provided, largely explains why the hospitals hesitated to use those services. Finally, diverse solutions adopted by other hospitals using radiology are examined, which include the uniting of radiology and photography departments run by "radiographers" who were not physicians, such as A. Londe at the Hopital La Salpetriere, G. Contremoulins at Necker, and Ch. Vaillant at Beaudelocque. In conclusion, the author explains why Antoine Beclere is chosen to illustrate this presentation. His name has been left to posterity because of his considerable accomplishments, which led to French diagnostic and therapeutic radiology being recognized as a medical speciality. His teaching of French and foreign physicians and his seminal work in the field earned him an international reputation and numerous honors. A hospital of the "Assistance Publique a Paris" now bears his name.

  9. Zorn: Avant/Après/Passé [przekład

    John Lowell Brackett


    Full Text Available Krótki wywiad Witolda Wachowskiego z Johnem Zornem zawiera wiele cennych spostrzeżeń związanych z estetyką tego kompozytora. Rzekoma niechęć Zorna do publiczności, jego wiara w kreatywny instynkt „artysty” oraz jego przekonanie o transcendentalnej naturze dzieł muzycznych (które są bramą do świata „prawdy” i „piękna” niczym refren powtarzają się w wielu wywiadach z muzykiem. Zorn w krótkim wywiadzie z Wachowskim podkreśla właśnie te przekonania, dlatego możemy przyjąć, że stanowią one fundament jego muzycznej i artystycznej estetyki. Dla każdego, kto posiadł choćby podstawową wiedzę o zachodniej tradycji estetycznej, jest jasne, że te same cechy i stanowiska estetyczne charakteryzują muzyczne instytucje wspólne dla zachodniej tradycji artystycznej, a w szczególności „romantyczny” ideał muzyki i kompozytora rozwinięty w XIX wieku. Filozofowie (głównie Hegel i Kant razem z krytykami muzycznymi i kompozytorami (Schiller, Hoffmann, Schlegel, Schuman, Hanslick przyczynili się do stworzenia romantycznej estetyki muzycznej w XIX wieku, akcentującej rolę artysty („geniusza” lub „boga”, który tworzy „dzieła” odsłaniające – poprzez czysto muzyczne związki istniejące niezależnie od wrażliwości słuchacza – ukryte światy prawdy i piękna, światy odległe od trosk życia codziennego. Zważywszy na bliskie związki Zorna z estetykami/filozofami XIX-wiecznymi, można powiedzieć, że wyznaje on „romantyczny” pogląd na muzykę i sztukę.

  10. Art in Progress : A Philosophical Response to the End of the Avant-Garde

    Doorman, Maarten


    Alles in de kunst is in beweging. Tegelijkertijd lijkt met het eind van de avantgarde de grote stilstand te zijn ingetreden. Het veelbesproken einde van de kunst en het postmodernisme roepen veel twijfels op. In dit helder geschreven betoog onderzoekt de auteur een begrip dat door de tot cliche

  11. Marcel Fournier, Charles Kraemer (dir.), Durkheim avant Durkheim. Une jeunesse vosgienne


    Cet ouvrage restitue un grand nombre de recherches, souvent pointues, communiquées au public il y a maintenant sept ans (en mai 2008) à Épinal, à l’occasion des 150 ans de la naissance de Durkheim dans cette ville en 1858. La biographie d’Émile Durkheim par Marcel Fournier venait alors de paraître (Durkheim, 2007, Fayard) ; le projet de Fournier, co-organisateur des trois journées, était de reconstituer le cadre social de la « prime jeunesse » de Durkheim, de remonter aux sources, d’immerger ...

  12. Avant et après la Révolution mexicaine


    La période qui s’étend de 1877 à 1976 recouvre au Mexique deux périodes distinctes : d’une part, de 1877 à 1911, huit mandats consécutifs du régime dictatorial de Porfirio Díaz ; et, d’autre part, le régime issu de la révolution mexicaine, qui a renversé le régime de Díaz et qui, par la suite, a été connu comme le régime du Parti Révolutionnaire Institutionnel (PRI). Cette étude s’arrête en 1976, moment où un tournant politique semble s’amorcer au Mexique, après la crise politique de 1968.L’a...

  13. Aleš Erjavec (ur.: Aesthetic Revolutions and Twentieth Century Avant-Garde Movements

    Lev Kreft


    Full Text Available Knjiga Estetske revolucije in avantgardna gibanja dvajsetega stoletja je nastala pod uredniškim vodstvom Aleša Erjavca kot skupni projekt skupine specialistov, od katerih se je vsak posvetil enemu od izbranih avantgardnih gibanj – Sascha Bru (italijanski futurizem, John E. Bowlt (ruski konstruktivizem, Raymond Spiteri (nadrealizem; situacionizem, David Craven (mehiški muralizem, Tyrus Miller (neoavantgarda v Združenih državah Amerike in Miško Šuvaković (NSK. Vsaka od teh študij ima lastno interpretativno vrednost, obenem pa se vključuje v nov poskus uokvirjenja avantgardnih gibanj v pristop, ki ima sodobno teoretsko moč. Ta pristop in skupni okvir je razvil Aleš Erjavec v »Uvodu« in »Zaključku: Avantgarde, revolucije in estetika«. Potreba po novem pogledu na splošno izhaja iz empiričnega dejstva, da so avantgarde dvajsetega stoletja zdaj že zaključena zgodba ter da se s sodobnostjo in sodobno umetnostjo enaindvajsetega stoletja že kaže potreba po celovitejši in smiselni analizi celote tega za dvajseto stoletje značilnega pojava – tudi zaradi vprašanja, ali so avantgardna gibanja mogoča še naprej. Vendar je v izzivu, ki je potreboval tako ekipno raziskovanje, tudi povsem teoretski element. Če navedemo le tri najvidnejše teoretike avantgarde – Poggiolija, Bürgerja in Flakerja –, je Renato Poggioli sicer ponudil teorijo avantgarde, ki bi bila trajni pojav, vendar se je dejansko posvetil tistim iz prvega vala (1909–1930; Peter Bürger je temu istemu valu dal ime »historična avantgarda«, ker je bil prepričan, da je pripadala preteklosti in je neoavantgarda ne more nadaljevati; in le Aleksandar Flaker se je ukvarjal z vsemi tremi valovi avantgardnih gibanj (historična avantgarda, neoavantgarda, retrogarda – postsocialistična avantgarda in prispeval tudi pomembno razlikovanje med optimalno projekcijo (razvito iz pobude Jurija Lotmana, ki je značilna za umetniške avantgarde, za razliko od političnih, ki gojijo utopijo, vendar je vztrajal pri umetniškosti avantgardnih gibanj, medtem ko njihove političnosti ni vključeval v analizo, ki se je posvečala le (proti- umetniški vrednosti avantgard. Med te klasične teoretike in sodobnost se je vstavil postmodernizem, ki naj bi tako kot z modernizmom pospravil tudi z avantgardizmom, kar je med drugim onemogočalo širše prepoznanje postsocialističnih avantgardnih gibanj osemdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja.

  14. Stratigraphic inversion of pre-stack multicomponent data; Inversion stratigraphique multicomposante avant sommation

    Agullo, Y.


    This thesis present the extension of mono-component seismic pre-stack data stratigraphical inversion method to multicomponent data, with the objective of improving the determination of reservoir elastic parameters. In addiction to the PP pressure waves, the PS converted waves proved their interest for imaging under gas clouds; and their potential is highly significant for the characterization of lithologies, fluids, fractures... Nevertheless the simultaneous use ol PP and PS data remains problematic because of their different the time scales. To jointly use the information contained in PP and PS data, we propose a method in three steps first, mono-component stratigraphic inversions of PP then PS data; second, estimation of the PP to PS time conversion law; third, multicomponent stratigraphic inversion. For the second point, the estimation of the PP to PS conversion law is based on minimizing the difference between the S impedances obtained from PP and PS mono-component stratigraphic inversion. The pre-stack mono-component stratigraphic inversions was adapted to the case of multicomponent data by leaving each type of data in its own time scale in order to avoid the distortion of the seismic wavelet. The results obtained on a realistic synthetic PP-PS case show on one hand that determining PP to PS conversion law (from the mono-component inversion results) is feasible, and on the other hand that the joint inversion of PP and PS data with this conversion law improves the results compared to the mono-component inversion ones. Although this is presented within the framework of the PP and PS multi-component data, the developed methodology adapts directly to PP and SS data for example. (author)

  15. The pulse of modernism: experimental physiology and aesthetic avant-gardes circa 1900.

    Brain, Robert Michael


    When discussing the changing sense of reality around 1900 in the cultural arts the lexicon of early modernism reigns supreme. This essay contends that a critical condition for the possibility of many of the turn of the century modernist movements in the arts can be found in exchange of instruments, concepts, and media of representation between the sciences and the arts. One route of interaction came through physiological aesthetics, the attempt to 'elucidate physiologically the nature of our Aesthetic feelings' and explain how works of art achieve their effects. Physiological aesthetics provided the terms for new formalist languages of art and criticism, and in some instances suggested optimistic, even utopian, possibilities for art to remake human individuals and societies.

  16. Avant-propos. Ce que la bioéthique veut dire Foreword: What bioethics mean

    Jean-Pierre Baud


    Full Text Available Lorsque Mary Shelley publie en 1818 son célèbre Frankenstein, le mot bioéthique n’existe pas. Pourtant c’est de l’éthique propre à la recherche biologique qu’il y est question. Quelle faute a commise l’étudiant en médecine Victor Frankenstein ? L’immense majorité de ceux qu’on interrogerait sur ce point répondrait qu’il s’agit du fait d’avoir fabriqué un être humain. Mais cette immense majorité n’a jamais lu l’œuvre de Mary Shelley et bien peu savent qu’elle était sous-titrée Le Prométhée mod...

  17. Open work: theory of literary avant-garde in the theoretical works of Umberto Eco

    Antonio Barros de Brito Junior


    Resumo: Esta dissertação lida com os conceitos de obra aberta, vanguarda e kitsch, nas obras teórico-críticas do semiólogo italiano Umberto Eco, com o objetivo de observar como o conceito de obra aberta esclarece e fundamenta uma dialética entre norma e invenção, em artes, e entre vanguarda e kistch, no cenário artístico contemporâneo. Na primeira parte, revisamos as bases epistemológicas de Eco, em particular os trabalhos de Luigi Pareyson e dos formalistas russos; em seguida, tratamos dos p...

  18. La masse se fait avant-garde : Généalogie du "polbusting"

    Vincenzo Susca


    Full Text Available Le polbusting est une pratique de recreation et récréation esthétique à travers laquelle les protagonistes de la culture électronique détournent et ridiculisent les messages et les corps de la politique contemporaine. Ces performances incarnent emblématiquement la vocation et la sensibilité transpolitiques de la culture postmoderne, indiquant la fête et le jeu comme les matrices sur lesquelles elle se fonde. Ainsi, il apparaît indispensable, pour comprendre la relation contemporaine entre imaginaire, médias et politique, de prendre sérieusement en considération ce qui se produit dans les nouveaux paysages médiatiques, dans la mise en scène de la vie quotidienne, dans la culture de l’éphémère et dans tout ce qui a, jusqu'à présent, constitué la marge et l’ombre de la vie sociale.

  19. Marcel Fournier, Charles Kraemer (dir.), Durkheim avant Durkheim. Une jeunesse vosgienne

    Béra, Matthieu


    Cet ouvrage restitue un grand nombre de recherches, souvent pointues, communiquées au public il y a maintenant sept ans (en mai 2008) à Épinal, à l’occasion des 150 ans de la naissance de Durkheim dans cette ville en 1858. La biographie d’Émile Durkheim par Marcel Fournier venait alors de paraître (Durkheim, 2007, Fayard) ; le projet de Fournier, co-organisateur des trois journées, était de reconstituer le cadre social de la « prime jeunesse » de Durkheim, de remonter aux sources, d’immerger ...

  20. William Carlos Williams (1883-1963): physician-writer and "godfather of avant garde poetry".

    Carter, R


    William Carlos Williams, Pulitzer Prize-winning physician-writer, was born in Rutherford, New Jersey, where he practiced medicine until he was incapacitated by a stroke at age 68. After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Williams trained in New York City and Leipzig, Germany, settling in Rutherford in 1909. Doctor Williams revolutionized American poetry by rejecting traditional conventions of rhyme and meter, and he masterfully used "American" English-brusque, colloquial, and incisive-in his poetry. Williams is recognized as one of the most original poets of the 20th century. His medical life sometimes trivialized, Williams was a serious student of medicine and considered himself "in the front lines, in the trenches." He regarded art and medicine as "two parts of a whole," and the intimate doctor-patient interface proved a powerful inspiration for his writing. Dr Williams was a physician of immense integrity and dedication; he regarded allegiance to humanism as important as excellence in medical science. Prolific in various genre, Dr William Carlos Williams attained belated recognition in spite of astonishing productivity and originality. His stature and influence has steadily increased since his death in 1963, and Dr Williams is now considered "the most important literary doctor since Chekhov."

  1. La prise en charge de l'insuffisance rénale chronique avant la dialyse

    Smelten, Nicole; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie


    Chronic renal failure is usually a silent disease until its late stage, especially in elderly people. Screening for such disease is particularly useful in hypertensive diabetic patients above 50 years. The causes are indeed often vascular or metabolic (directly or not directly linked to diabetes mellitus). Other less frequent causes are yet possible. The search for the right diagnosis of renal insufficiency is always requested to apply the appropriate treatment, combined with medical measu...

  2. Avant-propos. Littérature et exemplarité depuis Cervantès.


    Après avoir consacré ses premiers Cahiers à la notion de « contrat » (Littératures sous contrat, « Interférences », PUR, 2002) puis à celle d’« engagement » (L’engagement littéraire, « Interférences », PUR, 2004), le Groupe φ (Groupe de recherche en poétique historique et comparée), laboratoire inter-universitaire établi à l’université Rennes 2 (Équipe d’accueil du CELAM), a sollicité la réflexion d’une trentaine de chercheurs autour de la notion d’« exemplarité », telle qu’elle peut éclairer...

  3. Play and the Avant-Garde: Aren't We All a Little Dada?

    Prager, Phillip


    Dada, an art movement that became well known in the late 1910s and early 1920s, challenged traditional notions of art and aesthetics. Dada artists, for example, tossed colored scraps of paper into the air to compose chance-based collages, performed sound poems devoid of semantic value, and modeled a headpiece fashioned of sardine cans. To most art…

  4. Van dada tot surrealisme: Joodse avant-gardekunstenaars uit Roemenië

    Bauduin, T.M.


    Tentoonstellingsrecensie van 'Van dada tot Surrealisme' in het Joods Historisch Museum Amsterdam. Er wordt ingegaan op de kunstenaars, de werken, de opbouw van de tentoonstelling en het belang ervan. Exhibition review of 'From Dada to Surrealism' in the Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam.

  5. Georges Perec and the avant-garde in the visual arts

    Ørum, Tania


    Den franske forfatter Georges Perec tilhører 1960ernes avantgarde, og hans værker deler træk med samtidens billedkunst. Perec deler tresseravantgardens interesse for massekultur, dens kritik af den traditionelle kunstnerrolle og dens ønske om at bevæge sig på tværs af grænserne mellem kunst og li...

  6. The avant-garde is not dead / René Block ; intervjueerinud Eero Epner

    Block, René, 1942-


    Intervjuu saksa galeristi ja kuraatori René Blockiga, kes 1964. a. avas Berliinis galerii, kus eksponeeris J. Beuysi, S. Polke, G. Richteri jt. töid. Töötamisest kuraatorina alates 1970. aastatest, biennaalide tulevikust, avangardist. René Blocki galeriis 1966. a. toimunud Joseph Beuys'i performance'ist "Kuidas seletada kunsti surnud jänesele", millest inspireerituna teater NO99 lõi samanimelise lavastuse

  7. Um Tocqueville avant la lettre: Hipólito da Costa como founding father do americanismo

    Paulo Roberto Almeida


    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca tem como tema as contribuições do jornalista Hipólito José da Costa para o desenvolvimento da linha de pensamento hoje conhecida como americanismo, precedendo, até mesmo, a Alexis de Tocqueville.

  8. The avant-garde is not dead / René Block ; intervjueerinud Eero Epner

    Block, René, 1942-


    Intervjuu saksa galeristi ja kuraatori René Blockiga, kes 1964. a. avas Berliinis galerii, kus eksponeeris J. Beuysi, S. Polke, G. Richteri jt. töid. Töötamisest kuraatorina alates 1970. aastatest, biennaalide tulevikust, avangardist. René Blocki galeriis 1966. a. toimunud Joseph Beuys'i performance'ist "Kuidas seletada kunsti surnud jänesele", millest inspireerituna teater NO99 lõi samanimelise lavastuse

  9. Quand est née la criminologie ? ou la criminologie avant les Archives...

    Martine Kaluszynski


    Full Text Available L’émergence de l’homme criminelComment le crime, acte banal ou barbare, intégré aux sociétés et sanctionné par elles, est-il sorti du giron juridique et devenu un objet ou plutôt un “sujet” scientifique ? L’émergence de “l’homme criminel” a contribué de façon déterminante à l’élaboration d’un savoir scientifique sur le crime. Depuis longtemps, des savoirs diffus, des instruments, des pensées convergent pour s’attacher à établir l’aspect scientifique du phénomène. Selon les lieux d’observation...

  10. Self-Organisation in the Avant-Garde of the 1960s

    Ørum, Tania


    A spirit of self-organised, autonomous action was a hallmark not only of the protest and hippie movements of the late 1960s, but of the era as a whole. In this spirit a small circle of artists and an art historian began their own autonomous school, The Experimental School of Art in 1961....

  11. Freedom of Expression and Rhetorical Art: The Problems of Avant-Garde Jazz.

    Francesconi, Robert

    Although the success of black jazz has been limited by its lack of recognition in the white-controlled music industry, its rhetorical development as an expression of black consciousness can be traced from the bebop of the 1940s and early 1950s, through the hard bop and free jazz of the 1960s, to the jazz orientation of the disco circuit in the…

  12. The avant-garde in the architecture and visual arts of Post-Revolutionary Mexico

    Winfield, Fernando N.


    Commenting on an exhibition of contemporary Mexican architecture in Rome in 1957, the polemic and highly influential Italian architectural critic and historian, Bruno Zevi, ridiculed Mexican modernism for combining Pre-Columbian motifs with modern architecture. He referred to it as 'Mexican Grotesque'. Inherent in Zevi's comments were an attitude towards modern architecture that defined it in primarily material terms; its principle role being one of "spatial and programmatic function". Despit...

  13. Libro de Manuel , de Cortázar: O hipertexto avant la lettre

    Francis da Silveira Firmo


    A proposta deste trabalho é o estudo dos diversos aspectos de não-linearidade presentes em Libro de Manuel, de Julio Cortázar. Para tanto, tornou-se como ponto de partida o autor e suas características poéticas, enfatizando o universo do lúdico. Analisaram-se, historicamente as narrativas orais e o gênero romance, enfocando algumas das transformações pelas quais passaram até a atualidade . A partir da maneira fragmentada como Cortázar estruturou Libro de Manuel, identificaram-se e analisaram-...

  14. Constitutional Adjudication in Colombia: Avant-Garde or Case law Transplant? A Literature Review

    Liliana Lizarazo-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Colombia is mentioned, together with the US, Uruguay, Argentina and Mexico, as one of the first countries worldwide to adopt the judicial review as a means for adjudicating on the constitutionality of legislation. In recent years, and particularly since the enactment of the Political Constitution of 1991, the Colombian Constitutional Court is also mentioned as a notorious example of judicial activism in terms of legislating through the constitutional adjudication process. This article presents a literature review on the globalization of judicial review and the contemporary methods of constitutional adjudication (including the balancing method, in order to assess the uniqueness and avantgarde nature of constitutional adjudication in Colombia in the global context. Brief reference is also made to the literature on the institutional limitations faced by less developed countries, inasmuch as they affect the way constitutional adjudication is applied and perceived.

  15. Science, occultism, and the art of the avant-garde in the early twentieth century

    Bauduin, T.M.


    In the early twentieth century, scientific discoveries such as n-dimensionality, x-rays, and electromagnetism made their way into the discourse of Occultism, where they were subsequently reframed as the occult fourth dimension, clairvoyant x-ray vision, and thought vibration. As this article will sh

  16. Museumjournaal en de ontvangst van de neo-avant-garde in Nederland 1961-1973

    Schumacher, R.W.G.


    During the fortyone years of its existence the art magazine Museumjournaal (1955-1996) played a major role within the Netherlands artworld. Until the late seventies it was the only magazine in the Dutch language area to dedicate itself exclusively to international modern and contemporary art. Museum

  17. Play and the Avant-Garde: Aren't We All a Little Dada?

    Prager, Phillip


    Dada, an art movement that became well known in the late 1910s and early 1920s, challengeded traditional notions of art and aesthetics. Dada artists, for example, tossed colored scraps of paper into the air to compose chance-based collages, performed sound poems devoid of semantic value, and mode...

  18. Braudel avant Braudel ? Les années algériennes (1923‑1932)

    Carlier, Omar


    Personne ne peut dire, en 1928, quand Fernand Braudel publie dans la Revue Africaine, à 26 ans, un premier et très long article sur les Espagnols à Oran, que s’annonce l’œuvre géante, dérangeante et incongrue d’un génial historien. Nul doute, pourtant, que l’invention de la Méditerranée, « personnage d’histoire » sans précédent, « complexe de mers », mais aussi bien de « terres entre les mers », ne doive beaucoup à l’accumulation d’expériences inséparablement intellectuelles et existentielles...

  19. La situation politique du Jawf au Ier millénaire avant J.-C.

    Mounir Arbach


    Full Text Available La région du Jawf, située à une centaine de kilomètres au nord-est de Sanaa, possède un nombre important de sites archéologiques sudarabiques. Les plus importants sont, du sud-est au nord-ouest : Barâqish, l’antique Yathill, dont l’enceinte est l’ouvrage défensif le mieux conservé parmi les sites préislamiques ; Ma‘în, l’antique Qarnaw, capitale du royaume de Ma‘în ; Kharibat Hamdân, l’antique Haram ; Kamna, l’antique Kaminahû ; al-Sawdâ’, l’antique Nashshân ; et al-Baydâ’, l’antique Nashq. L...

  20. Avant-propos : stéréotype et narration littéraire

    Antonello Perli


    Full Text Available Consacré aux rapports que le stéréotype entretient avec la narration littéraire, ce numéro des Cahiers de narratologie présente des études qui, fondées sur une considération aussi bien poétologique que sociologique de la notion qui est au cœur de la réflexion, prennent comme point de mire la nature et les ressources du stéréotype en tant que phénomène textuel, son environnement conceptuel et son soubassement épistémologique, ses formes et ses finalités d’inscription dans le récit, ses effets ...

  1. From Realist to “Avant-garde”: Henry James in France

    Micéala SYMINGTON


    Full Text Available “Je crois que l’apparence des choses est toujours trompeuse mais qu’à la longue cette tromperie de l’apparence devient l’équivalent de leur vérité, leur vérité même, et que sans doute il n’y a que ce faux-semblant qui au jour le jour puisse supporter d’être vécu.”Catherine Bertram, in La Bête dans la jungle by Marguerite Duras, states from the beginning of the play the essential truth which John Marcher only understands after her death: that appearances are deceptive, but that this deception ...

  2. Play and the Avant-Garde: Aren't We All a Little Dada?

    Prager, Phillip


    , and modeled a headpiece fashioned of sardine cans. To most art historians, Dada remains a culturally contingent expression of World War I trauma, nihilism, political disillusionment, and an aggressive attack on the moral bankruptcy of Western culture. The author suggests that this negative interpretation...... originates from art history’s methodological blindness to the importance of play, not only to creative and artistic endeavors, but to human identity itself. Dada is characterized by an effervescent love of improvisation, curiosity, novelty and an unselfconscious exploration of the phenomenal world...

  3. "Particle Fever": avant-premiere at CERN Main auditorium on 10 December, at 19:30

    Neal David Hartman


    CERN people will have the chance to see a preview of the film "Particle Fever" in CERN's main auditorium on Tuesday 10 December at 19:30. The director, Mark Levinson, will be in attendance to speak with the audience about the film after the screening.   CERN and its experiments have been the focus of innumerable television documentaries, news reports, and other media productions.  However, until now, no film about the search for the Higgs Boson has been made for theatrical release in the classic documentary tradition.  "Particle Fever" has received numerous awards and travelled to festivals around the world, where it has consistently played to sell-out audiences.  The film will begin a commercial theatrical run in the United States in early 2014, but CERN people have the chance to see a preview in the CERN main auditorium on Tuesday, 10 December at 19:30.   The director, Mark Levinson, has wor...

  4. Avant le deluge: An investigation of some neglected dimensions of electricity restructuring in California

    Golove, William Harry

    Chapter One of this dissertation focuses on describing the key participant groups and their principle interests in the restructuring process. The process of reaching agreement on the restructuring plan turned on each major interest group receiving satisfaction of all of its key objectives. Chapter Two explores the effective use of rhetoric in the electricity restructuring debate. Despite a lack of public involvement, the use of rhetoric appears to have been a prominent feature of the public policy process. A series of rhetorical concepts and mechanisms defined. Of these, the notions of rhetorical salience and rhetorical efficacy are most significant. The results of a field test on the impact of the particular examples of these tropes prominent in the restructuring debate on opinions regarding some of the key restructuring issues are presented. Chapter Three describes the sea change in the nature of demand side management (DSM) policy in the state, brought about by the restructuring of the electricity market. Whereas the primary goal of DSM had been resource acquisition, the new policy goal was to be market transformation. This chapter reviews the economic, and other social science theory that led to the development of demand side management programs based on a resource acquisition goal prior to restructuring and, subsequently, to a market transformation objective. Chapter Four examines the performance of the market during the period beginning in early 1998 through the first few months of 2000 at which time both the wholesale and retail markets in California were apparently functioning relatively well. The findings presented in this chapter are the result of a series of semi-structured interviews conducted with non-residential electricity customers that had chosen to receive electric service and, in some cases, value-added services from a competitive retail electricity service provider One of the key conclusions is that market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood. The over-arching theme, that the "free market" was inadequate to manage the complexities of the electricity market, is articulated throughout this work.

  5. Avantürismi vastu kogemus ja täpsus


    Vestlusringis Eesti ehitusfirmade direktorid E. Tammaru (AS Koger & Sumberg), I. Kollo (AS Feer), I. Prison (Skanska Ehituse AS), E. Toom (Fansa Ehituse AS), H. Karema (AS Randväli & Karema Ltd.). Eesti ehituse perspektiivid, ehituspoliitika, ehitustööde organiseerimine

  6. Neo-avant-garde in Nederland : Museumjournaal als forum van een nieuw kunstbegrip

    Schumacher, Rogier


    Vanaf de vroege jaren zestig werd Nederland overspoeld door nieuwe kunststromingen. Het was een tijd waarin vaststaande sociale en maatschappelijke patronen overboord werden gegooid. Het enthousiasme van een aantal Nederlandse museummedewerkers, critici en andere kunstprofessionals voor stromingen a

  7. Developpement d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur le cyclage thermique des hydrures metalliques

    Laurencelle, Francois

    seul hydrure et en choisissant une temperature plus elevee pour la desorption (150°C). Un hydrure ABS (LaNi4.8Sn0.2) a ete soumis a 1000 cycles d'hydrogenation (article II). Sa structure et ses performances thermodynamiques et cinetiques ont ete mesurees avant et apres le cyclage. La capacite d'absorption a diminue de 0.02 H-pds%. Les particules d'hydrure ont diminue de taille sans changement apparent de leur structure cristalline. Le maintien des performances de cet hydrure apres cyclage en fait un excellent materiau pour les applications thermodynamiques. Nous avons effectue des simulations du reacteur d'hydrures utilise dans le compresseur. Celui-ci comporte une mousse d'aluminium qui est modelisee sous forme d'une cavite spherique (article III). Les performances modelisees sont comparables aux mesures obtenues et ce modele devient donc un outil de developpement pour de nouveaux reservoirs. D'apres cette etude, notre reacteur fonctionne de maniere optimale. Les performances du compresseur (chapitre 5) dependent des choix des temperatures et pressions a l'entree et a la sortie. La duree d'un cycle permettant l'absorption de la pleine capacite des materiaux est de ˜20 min mais en diminuant cette duree a <10 minutes un debit plus eleve 15-20 L/heure peut etre obtenu au detriment de l'efficacite. Le compresseur construit fonctionne bien mais il comporte des limitations clairement identifiees: pertes de chaleur dans la tuyauterie et les fixations des reacteurs. Le rejet thermique d'un electrolyseur est suffisant pour comprimer l'hydrogene qu'il produit d'un facteur 20:1 avec un compresseur a hydrure.

  8. Reactive turbulent flow CFD study in supercritical water oxidation process: application to a stirred double shell reactor; Etude par simulation numerique des ecoulements turbulents reactifs dans les reacteurs d'oxydation hydrothermale: application a un reacteur agite double enveloppe

    Moussiere, S


    Supercritical water oxidation is an innovative process to treat organic liquid waste which uses supercritical water properties to mix efficiency the oxidant and the organic compounds. The reactor is a stirred double shell reactor. In the step of adaptation to nuclear constraints, the computational fluid dynamic modeling is a good tool to know required temperature field in the reactor for safety analysis. Firstly, the CFD modeling of tubular reactor confirms the hypothesis of an incompressible fluid and the use of k-w turbulence model to represent the hydrodynamic. Moreover, the EDC model is as efficiency as the kinetic to compute the reaction rate in this reactor. Secondly, the study of turbulent flow in the double shell reactor confirms the use of 2D axisymmetric geometry instead of 3D geometry to compute heat transfer. Moreover, this study reports that water-air mixing is not in single phase. The reactive turbulent flow is well represented by EDC model after adaptation of initial conditions. The reaction rate in supercritical water oxidation reactor is mainly controlled by the mixing. (author)

  9. Research on nuclear energy in the fields of fuel cycle, PWR reactors and LMFBR reactors; Recherche sur l`energie nucleaire dans les domaines du cycle du combustible des reacteurs a eau legere et des reacteurs a neutrons rapides

    Barre, B.; Camarcat, N.


    In this article we present the CEA research programs to improve the safety of the next generation of reactors, to manage the Plutonium and the wastes of the fuel cycle end and to ameliorate the competitiveness. 6 refs.

  10. Future nuclear reactors. Evolution of the safety approach; Reacteurs du futur. Evolution de l`approche de surete

    Vidard, M. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires


    The cumulated experience on operating nuclear power plants and the progress of safety knowledge allow to conceive reactors with high standard of safety and with optimized building and operating costs. In this article we present the proceedings followed by electricity producers, the main western nuclear plant builders and safety authorities to warrant the required level of safety. The main safety characteristics of new PWR projects are reviewed. A comparison is made between EPR, SYSTEM 80+, APWR and AP600 projects. Safety is also based on the quality of building and the excellence of operating staff. (A.C.) 16 refs.

  11. Command control of reactors and factories: general architecture; Controle-commande des reacteurs et des usines: architecture generale

    Appell, B.; Guesnier, G. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires; Chabert, J. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)


    As any industrial installation, the nuclear power plants and the fuel reprocessing plants require means to survey and to command the physical process and the associated equipment. These means are grouped under the designation of `command-control`. The command control is constituted by captors allowing to transform the physical quantities in electric signals, by automates allowing to treat these signals, by surveillance and control means at operators disposal and finally activators allowing to transform the command electric signals in mechanical actions on the process. The equipment has to answer to specifications imposed by nuclear safety. (N.C.)

  12. Modelling of heterogenous neutron leakages in a nuclear reactor; Modelisation des fuites heterogenes de neutrons dans un reacteur nucleaire

    Wohleber, X


    The TIBERE Model is a neutron leakage method based on B{sub 1} heterogeneous transport equation resolution. In this work, we have studied the influence of the reflection mode at the boundary of the assembly. In particular the White boundary condition has been implemented in the APOLLO2 neutron transport code. We have compared the two TIBERE kinds of boundary conditions (specular and white) with the classical B{sub 1} homogeneous leakage method in the modelling of some reactors. We have remarked the better capability of the TIBERE Model to compute voided assemblies. The white boundary condition is also able to compute a completely voided assembly and, besides, wins a factor 10 in CPU time in comparison with the specular boundary condition. These two heterogenous leakage formalisms have been tested on a partially voided experiment and have shown that the TIBERE Model can compute this kind of situation with a greater precision than the classical B{sub 1} homogeneous leakage method, and with a shorter computational time. (author)

  13. Representativeness elements of an hybrid reactor demonstrator; Elements de representativite d'un demonstrateur de reacteur hybride

    Kerdraon, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; David, S.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O


    This document deals with the quantification of the minimum thermal power level for a demonstrator and the definition of the physical criteria which define the representative character of a demonstrator towards a power reactor. Solutions allowing to keep an acceptable flow in an industrial core, have also been studied. The document is divided in three parts: the representativeness elements, the considered solutions and the characterization of the neutrons flows at the interfaces and the dose rates at the outer surface of the vessel. (A.L.B.)

  14. Can a nuclear reactor operate for 100 years?; Un reacteur nucleaire peut-il fonctionner cent ans

    Hertel, O.


    The TWR (Travelling Wave Reactor) concept was invented in the fifties, then forgotten and it reappeared in 2001 but it was considered too immature to be selected for the fourth generation of nuclear reactors, now an American company 'Terrapower' proposes one whose design is given in the article. This TWR operates with depleted uranium, only the lower part of the fuel rod involves uranium fuel with a civil enrichment ratio (less that 20%). The lower part of the fuel will ignite the fission reaction and enrich the part of fuel just above through neutron absorption. The burning part of the fuel will move up progressively. The main advantage of this reactor is that it can operate for decades without maintenance nor fuel loading. The principle is right on the paper but requires huge technological work to select materials and systems that will be able to withstand decades of operation time in harsh conditions. (A.C.)

  15. Phenix reactor: a review of 35 year long operating life; Le reacteur Phenix: bilan de 35 ans de fonctionnement

    Martin, L.; Dall' Ava, D.; Rochwerger, D.; Goux, D. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Guidez, J.; Martin, Ph.; Seran, J.L. [CEA Saclay 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Sauvage, J.F.; Prele, G.; Guihard, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Bernardin, B.; Vanier, M.; Zaetta, A.; Latge, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Fontaine, B.; Jolly, J.A.; Gros, J.; Pepe, D. [CEA Marcoule, Centrale Phenix, 30 (France); Pelletier, M.; Pillon, S. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Escaravage, C.; Gelineau, O.; Dupraz, R.; Dirat, J.F.; Giraud, M. [AREVA NP, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Michaille, P. [CEA Dam, DP2I, Mar (France)


    Phenix reactor that was commissioned in 1973, had its final shutdown during the beginning of 2009. This series of articles presents the main contributions of Phenix over its 35 years of operating life in material sciences, the handling of sodium, the design of fast reactors, core physics and reactor safety. Other articles recall the feedback experience on particular components like sodium pumps, steam generators or intermediate heat exchangers and about reactor maintenance. This power plant was first an experimental reactor that, with its hot cells, has performed important irradiation programs concerning mainly fast reactor technology and transmutation as a tool for burning actinides. One article reviews the environmental impact of this reactor over its operating life in terms of waste production and dosimetry. (A.C.)

  16. RJH, a new test reactor in Europe; Le RJH - un nouveau reacteur d'essai en europe

    Iracane, D. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)


    Material test reactors (MTR) are now ageing in Europe and they cannot secure the experimental needs over next decades. In this context, a new MTR, named Jules Horowitz reactor (RJH), operated as an international user-facility, is under development on the Cea's site of Cadarache (France). The design studies will end in 2007, the construction stage will follow and RJH commissioning is scheduled in 2014. Its construction costs are estimated to 500 million euros. RJH is a pool reactor of 100 MWth, its core will be inserted in a pressurized vessel with a primary circuit assuring water flow through forced convection. The core inlet-outlet temperature is about 25-40 Celsius degrees. RJH core is designed to use a high density - low enrichment UMo nuclear fuel (8 gU/cm{sup 3}, enrichment rate: 19.75%). Experimental devices located in the core will benefit from neutron fluxes ranging from 2.5 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}.s to 5.10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}.s (E > 1 MeV). RJH is designed to manage simultaneously 10 experiments in the core and as many in the reflector. (A.C.)

  17. The Halden reactor, a facility open to the international nuclear community; Halden, un reacteur ouvert a la communaute internationale

    Vitanza, C. [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), 75 - Paris (France)


    The Halden test reactor is a boiling-type reactor moderated and cooled by heavy water, it yields a thermal power of 20 MW. The reactor operates for 2 periods of about 100 days each year. The Halden reactor has been in operation for more than 45 years and is the largest OECD-NEA project, it carries out the OECD joint program and bilateral contract work. Its experimental programs are supported by about 100 organisations in 20 countries. The fuel and materials programs for the years to come focus on the following main areas: -) fuel high burn-up capabilities in normal operating conditions, -) fuel response to transients aiming at generating experimental data on the behaviour of high burn-up fuels in short duration transients and on phenomena occurring during loss of coolant accident and coolant flow oscillations, -) cladding corrosion and water chemistry issues, and -) pressure vessel embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals. (A.C.)

  18. What availability rate for a new fast sodium reactor?; Quel taux de disponibilite pour un nouveau reacteur rapide sodium?

    Guidez, J. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)


    This article points out that 18 sodium reactors have operated in the world, prototypes to nuclear power reactors, accumulating 388 years of operation. If one discounts the prototype, only three reactors had a significant and electric power generation suitable for the analysis of availability. An analysis of availability rates for Phoenix and Superphenix is made. A comparison of availability rates of BN 600 reactor and Tricastin 1 reactor (both started in 1980) is also performed. We conclude that, since the R.E.X. (return of operating experience) of previous reactors is taken into account (mainly in material) and lack of political disturbance, can be expected for a sodium cooled fast reactor availability rates comparable to those of other existing reactors. (N.C.)

  19. Osiris, an irradiation reactor for material and nuclear fuel testing; Osiris, reacteur d'irradiation pour materiaux et combustibles

    Loubiere, S.; Durande-Ayme, P. [CEA Saclay, Div. Nucleaire Energie, Dept. Reacteurs et Nucleaire Service, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    Since 1966 the Osiris reactor located at Saclay has been participating in French and international irradiation programs for research and development in the field of nuclear fuel and materials. Today the French atomic commission (Cea) pursues irradiation programs in support of existing reactors, mainly PWR, strengthening its own knowledge and the one of its clients on fuel and material behaviour under irradiation, pertaining to plant life-time issues and high burn-up. For instance important programs have been performed on pressure vessel steel aging, pellet-clad interaction, internal component aging and mox fuel qualification. With the arising of the Generation 4 research and development programs, the Osiris reactor has developed capacities to undertake material and fuel irradiation under high temperature conditions. Routine irradiations such as the doping of silicon or the production of radio-nuclides for medical or imaging purposes are made on a daily basis. The specificities of the Osiris reactor are presented in the first part of this paper while the second part focuses on the experimental devices available in Osiris to perform irradiation in light water reactor conditions and in high temperature reactor conditions and on their associated programs.

  20. The launching of the construction of the Jules Horowitz Reactor; Lancement de la construction du reacteur de recherche Jules Horowitz



    In March 2007 the French deputy minister of industry has officially launched the construction of the new research reactor called Jules Horowitz (RJH) on the Cea site of Cadarache. RJH, that is due to operate in 2014, will be used to study the aging process of irradiated materials in any type of reactors, the behaviour of new nuclear fuels irradiated in different configurations and scenarios, and to produce radionuclides for nuclear medicine and high-quality doped silicon for the electronics industry. The investment that reaches 500 million euros is dispatched between Cea (50%), EDF (20%), Areva (10%) and foreign contributors (20%). (A.C.)

  1. Nuclear fuel: from the mine to the reactor. Part. 1; Les combustibles nucleaire: de la mine au reacteur (1. partie)

    Maillard, D. [Direction Generale de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres, Direction du Gaz, de l' Electricite et du Charbon, (STEEGB), 75 - Paris (France); Dujardin, Th. [OCDE, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France); Capus, G.; Durante, P.; Devos, L.; Canat, J.N. [AREVA NC, 13 --Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Durret, L.F. [AREVA, Unit Enrichissement (United States); Delevallee, C. [AREVA, FBFC, 26 - Romans (France); Aullo, M.; Alonsa, J. [ENUSA, Industrias Avanzadas (Spain); Chapin, D.; Bellanger, Ph.; Buechel, R. [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States); Blanc, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company (Sweden)


    This issue contains a selection of articles from the S.F.E.N. convention 2006, held in Paris, June 13 and 14, 2006, which was dedicated to nuclear fuel. the second part will be published in R.G.N. 5 2006. (author)

  2. Developpement de mesures non destructives, par ondes ultrasonores, d'epaisseurs de fronts de solidification dans les reacteurs metallurgiques

    Floquet, Jimmy

    Dans les cuves d'electrolyse d'aluminium, le milieu de reaction tres corrosif attaque les parois de la cuve, ce qui diminue leur duree de vie et augmente les couts de production. Le talus, qui se forme sous l'effet des pertes de chaleur qui maintiennent un equilibre thermique dans la cuve, sert de protection naturelle a la cuve. Son epaisseur doit etre controlee pour maximiser cet effet. Advenant la resorption non voulue de ce talus, les degats generes peuvent s'evaluer a plusieurs centaines de milliers de dollars par cuve. Aussi, l'objectif est de developper une mesure ultrasonore de l'epaisseur du talus, car elle serait non intrusive et non destructive. La precision attendue est de l'ordre du centimetre pour des mesures d'epaisseurs comprenant 2 materiaux, allant de 5 a 20 cm. Cette precision est le facteur cle permettant aux industriels de controler l'epaisseur du talus de maniere efficace (maximiser la protection des parois tout en maximisant l'efficacite energetique du procede), par l'ajout d'un flux thermique. Cependant, l'efficacite d'une mesure ultrasonore dans cet environnement hostile reste a demontrer. Les travaux preliminaires ont permis de selectionner un transducteur ultrasonore a contact ayant la capacite a resister aux conditions de mesure (hautes temperatures, materiaux non caracterises...). Differentes mesures a froid (traite par analyse temps-frequence) ont permis d'evaluer la vitesse de propagation des ondes dans le materiau de la cuve en graphite et de la cryolite, demontrant la possibilite d'extraire l'information pertinente d'epaisseur du talus in fine. Fort de cette phase de caracterisation des materiaux sur la reponse acoustique des materiaux, les travaux a venir ont ete realises sur un modele reduit de la cuve. Le montage experimental, un four evoluant a 1050 °C, instrumente d'une multitude de capteurs thermique, permettra une comparaison de la mesure intrusive LVDT a celle du transducteur, dans des conditions proches de la mesure industrielle. Mots-cles : Ultrasons, CND, Haute temperature, Aluminium, Cuve d'electrolyse.

  3. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems; La physique des reacteurs sous-critiques des systemes hybrides

    Schapira, J.P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Vergnes, J. [Electricite de France, EDF, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [and others


    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  4. Reactors. Industrial processes in chemistry/petrochemistry. Catalytic reforming; Reacteurs. Procedes industriels chimie/petrochimie. Reformage catalytique

    Fournier, G. [AXENS-IFP, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Joly, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)


    The new regulatory constraints (pollution regulations: decrease of lead amount in gasolines, and energy savings) have led the industrialists to better valorize their petroleum cuts. More specific and adapted processes have then been perfected, for instance for the refining. After having recalled what types of reactions are to be promoted, how to obtain them with a good yield (thermodynamic and kinetic considerations), the authors describe 1)what types of catalysts are used for these reactions, what their activities are and how they are prepared 2)the industrial implementation of the catalytic reforming (main types of units, experimental conditions, equipments, main processes of reforming and pretreatment) and then give the performances of the catalytic reforming. (O.M.)

  5. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Lottin, O.; Feidt, M.; Benelmir, R. [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)


    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  6. Inception and evolution of Oklo natural nuclear reactors; Genese et evolution des reacteurs nucleaires fossiles d'Oklo

    Bentridi, Salah-Eddine [UMR 7517, laboratoire d' hydrologie et de geochimie de Strasbourg, CNRS/universite de Strasbourg, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Laboratoire de l' energie et des systemes intelligents, CUKM, route de Theniet, El-Hed 44225 (Algeria); Gall, Benoit [UMR 7178, institut pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien, CNRS-IN2P3/universite de Strasbourg, 23, rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois [UMR 7517, laboratoire d' hydrologie et de geochimie de Strasbourg, CNRS/universite de Strasbourg, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Seghour, Abdeslam [Centre de recherches nucleaires d' Alger - CRNA, 2, boulevard Frantz-Fanon, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Medjadi, Djamel-Eddine [Ecole normale superieure, Vieux-Kouba, 16050 Alger (Algeria)


    The occurrence of more than 15 natural nuclear Reactor Zones (RZ) in a geological environment remains a mystery even 40 years after their discovery. The present work gives for the first time an explanation of the chemical and physical processes that caused the start-up of the fission reactions with two opposite processes, uranium enrichments and progressive impoverishment in {sup 235}U. Based on Monte-Carlo neutronics simulations, a solution space was defined taking into account realistic combinations of relevant parameters acting on geological conditions and neutron transport physics. This study explains criticality occurrence, operation, expansion and end of life conditions of Oklo natural nuclear reactors, from the smallest to the biggest ones. (authors)

  7. Modelling of heterogenous neutron leakages in a nuclear reactor; Modelisation des fuites heterogenes de neutrons dans un reacteur nucleaire

    Wohleber, X


    The TIBERE Model is a neutron leakage method based on B{sub 1} heterogeneous transport equation resolution. In this work, we have studied the influence of the reflection mode at the boundary of the assembly. In particular the White boundary condition has been implemented in the APOLLO2 neutron transport code. We have compared the two TIBERE kinds of boundary conditions (specular and white) with the classical B{sub 1} homogeneous leakage method in the modelling of some reactors. We have remarked the better capability of the TIBERE Model to compute voided assemblies. The white boundary condition is also able to compute a completely voided assembly and, besides, wins a factor 10 in CPU time in comparison with the specular boundary condition. These two heterogenous leakage formalisms have been tested on a partially voided experiment and have shown that the TIBERE Model can compute this kind of situation with a greater precision than the classical B{sub 1} homogeneous leakage method, and with a shorter computational time. (author)

  8. Inventory of wastes coming from EDF reactors exploitation; Inventaire des dechets issus de l'exploitation des reacteurs EDF

    Errera, J. [Electricite de France (EDF-DPN), Groupe Environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)


    The present document shows the situation in the radioactive waste management of the nuclear power plants in operation. This document pays particular attention to make an inventory by waste nature the flows produced and the waste parcels delivered to the Aube plant on the period 96-99 and presents the current actions or project in order to improve the management notably for the waste without outlet. (N.C.)

  9. Caract\\'erisation de r\\'eacteurs photocatalytiques utilis\\'es pour le traitement de l'air

    Faure, Marie; Corbel, Serge; Carré, Marie-Christiane; Gérardin, Fabien; Zahraa, Orfan


    Photocatalysis is often used in air purification. Photocatalytic degradation od VOC's has been investigated in a number of devices. An optimisation of this process requires a chracterisation of the reactor : in a first step the gas flow behaviour has to be studied (plug flow, CSTR,...) by RTD analysis; then, chemical kinetics have to be determined as a function ot the relevant parameters (space time, relative humidity, concentrations, etc). All the data collected lead to a reliable design of the equipment.

  10. Mitigation of the hydrogen risk in fusion reactors; Mitigation du risque hydrogene dans les reacteurs de fusion

    Maruejouls, C.; Robin, J.C. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs; Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E. [Technicatome DI SEPS, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Latge, C. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets DED, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Laurent, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique, 54 - Nancy (France)


    The rupture of the first wall and the intrusion of water vapor inside the torus, is one of the major accident that can occur in a thermonuclear fusion reactor. In this situation, water oxidizes the beryllium of the wall and the reaction produces hydrogen with a strong risk of explosion inside the reactor. In order to mitigate this risk, a process based on the reduction of metal oxides (MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O) has been developed. The aim of this study is the determination of the kinetics of this reduction reaction. A mixture of both oxides has been deposited on the surface of porous balls for an experiment on fixed beds. The modeling of the phenomenon is based on the equations used in heterogenous catalysis and the experimental determination of the kinetics of the reaction is performed with the CIGNE test-facility. The velocity of the reduction reaction is deduced from the remaining amount of hydrogen in the test-gas (N{sub 2} with 1 to 2% of H{sub 2}) after it has been flowed on the oxides coated balls of the fixed bed. (J.S.)

  11. ESCRIME: Advanced control for a better safety of reactors; ESCRIME: conduite avancee pour une meilleure surete des reacteurs

    Papin, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires


    Activities related to the operation and exploitation of nuclear power plants can influence their safety. Probabilistic estimations show the impact of human factors on safety during operation and maintenance works. From this observation, it is tempting to minimize the human intervention during operation and on the contrary to give more weight to automation and robotization. However, such changes would not suppress the human errors but would reduce the human intervention possibilities for the treatment of unpredictable and critic situations due to the increasing complexity of automatisms. The aim of the CEA/DRN ESCRIME research program is to determine the optimum automation level of nuclear reactors which would lead to the safest operating conditions. The hardest problem to solve is the dialogue between operators and robots in the resolution of complex situations in which part of the solution is held by the operator and the other part is held by the machine. Distributed artificial intelligence techniques is one of the explored ways to solve this man-machine cooperation problem. (J.S.). 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Japan: the decision to build five new reactors is confirmed; Japon: la decision de construire cinq nouveaux reacteurs est confirmee



    The construction of five new units has been decided: Shimane 3 (Chugoku EPCo), Tomari 3 (Hokkaido EPCo), Fukushima I -units 7 and 8 (TEPCo), Tsuruga 3 (JAPCo). In spite of the criticality accident of Tokai-mura, the confidence in nuclear energy has not been moved. The situation is all far from easy for the Japanese nuclear. In 1998, the number of new units was varying between 16 and 20 for 2010, it is now reduced to 13 units. (N.C.)


    Jorge Myers


    .... O trabalho esboça a trajetória geral do autor tomando por base sua obra tardia. A teoria da transculturação proposta por ele nega tanto o determinismo racial como a definição somática de raça. Tal teoria é...

  14. Katimavik Participant's Manual, Book I, Introduction = Katimavik manuel du participant, cahier I, avant-propos. Revised Edition.

    Crelinsten, Michael, Ed.

    The introductory volume of the bilingual Katimavik program student manual summarizes the history and purpose of the Katimavik experience; outlines program objectives and learning program subject areas; explains how to use the individual learning activity student manuals, how to create individual and group development plans, and how to develop a…

  15. Gabriele Veneziano : "La physique moderne doit dépasser Einstein et explorer l'avant-Big Bang"

    Deschamps, Pascale-Marie


    Interview with Gabriele Veneziana: in search of the infinitesimally small and infinitesimally large, the Standard Model of elementary particles and Einstein's general relativity are not enough to explain the universe. The "visible" matter predicted by the Standard Model represents only 5% of the energy of the Universe, the dark "invisible" matter constitutes 25 to 30%. Therefore 65 to 70 % of something else is missing. String theory calls into question all that one knows of the primordial universe formulated by the Standard Model (4 pages)

  16. La bande dessinée, nouveau continent des études américaines ? Avant-propos

    Jean-Paul Gabilliet


    Full Text Available Lors d’une table ronde qui s’est tenue en juillet 2009 pendant la San Diego Comic-Con (équivalent américain du Festival international de la bande dessinée d’Angoulême, Henry Jenkins, professeur de sciences de la communication à University of Southern California, a salué le processus actuel de construction des Comic Studies comme domaine de recherche et d’enseignement inter-disciplinaire et souligné la pluralité des devenirs qui pouvaient s’ouvrir devant lui (

  17. Chocolate, café, té y otros estimulantes: bebidas energéticas avant la lettre (II)

    López Briz, Eduardo; Giner García, Ricardo


    Las bebidas estimulantes naturales con metilxantinas (chocolate, café y té entre otras) vienen usándose desde la más remota antigüedad por sus propiedades para eliminar la fatiga, aumentar la alerta y combatir el sueño. En el presente artículo se revisan las principales características botánicas, historia, composición, procesamiento, formas de uso y efectos sobre la salud de estas bebidas, así como los principales aspectos farmacodinámicos, farmacocinéticos y toxicológicos del ...

  18. African arts between curios, antiquities, and avant-garde at the Maison Brummer, Paris (1908-1914

    Yaëlle Biro


    Full Text Available Before World War I, Hungarian-born art dealer Joseph Brummer (1883-1947 developed in Paris an extensive trade network through talented salesmanship and brilliant art selections. Helped by his brothers Imre (1889-1928 and Ernest (1891-1964, he promoted original art-forms that were not previously integral to the Western art canon. Juxtaposing works from Africa with art of Medieval Europe, Ancient Greece and Rome, as well as creations by living artists, the Maison Brummer blurred the boundaries that existed between these fields of collecting and was instrumental in awakening the interest of many collectors and museum professionals. Despite the Brummer brothers’ extensive international dealership and the fame of the collections they helped build, only recently has in depth scholarship begun to explore their activities. Using an array of unpublished archival documents and little-examined written accounts, this paper focuses on the early history of the Maison Brummer before its expansion to New York in 1914.

  19. Divine Horsemen de Maya Deren: una visión avant-garde del vudú haitiano

    Isabel De León Olivares


    Full Text Available Maya Deren (1917-1961 fue una cineasta de mediados del siglo XX que llegó a ser considerada la “madre” del cine experimental y de vanguardia de los Estados Unidos, gracias a filmes como Meshes of the Afternoon (1943, At Land (1944, Ritual in Transfigured Time (1946. Entre 1947 y 1954, esta artista realizó cuatro viajes a Haití que le permitieron adentrarse en el conocimiento de la religión vudú, lo cual dio como resultado diversos trabajos. En primer lugar, un libro sobre la religión haitiana titulado Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti, publicado en 1953, y, en segundo lugar, un material fílmico de casi 9 horas que, si bien Deren nunca dio a conocer en vida, salió a la luz pública en 1981 a manera de documental. En este trabajo se examinan algunas de las representaciones e interpretaciones que sobre el vudú construyó y legó esta cineasta pionera , en función de las cua- les se inscribió dentro de una corriente más amplia de revalorización del vudú que tuvo en el libro Ansi parla l’Oncle (1928, del escritor haitiano Jean Price-Mars, un momento fundacional.

  20. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Avante International Technology, Inc., PanaSec Mobile Personnel and Asset Visibility System

    Ths test simulated through routine land transportation routes and across international ports of entry in the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez trade area. RFID tags were attached to four of each container type for a total of 12 containers which were loaded onto a standard 53-foot semi-truck...

  1. Avant-garde between east and west: modern architecture and town-planning in the Urals 1920-30

    Budantseva, T.Y.


    On hearing the term "Soviet modernism", images of Moscow and Leningrad spring to mind. These two cities may compete with each other for the title of the Russian modernist paradigm. Meanwhile little attention has been paid to the developments in more remote areas of Russia. Apparently, the Ural

  2. Edgar Morin et Patrick Singaïny, Avant, pendant après le 11 janvier

    Keslassy, Eric


    Les attentats du 7, 8 et 9 janvier 2015 ont plongé la France dans la sidération. Un état de choc qui n’est pas propice à l’analyse. Edgar Morin et Patrick Singaïny tentent néanmoins de produire une réflexion visant à comprendre ce qui s’est passé. Ils s’efforcent également de proposer des pistes pour que cela n’arrive plus (même si le livre ne formule pas réellement de pistes concrètes). Le plan de l’ouvrage est conforme à son titre. Son objectif est en effet de réfléchir – rapidement – à tro...

  3. What information should patients be given before radiotherapy?;Quelle information pour les patients avant une radiotherapie?

    Bergerot, Ph. [Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer (LNCC), Collectif Inter Associatif sur la Sante - CISS, 75 - Paris (France)


    Following a number of accidents at radiotherapy units, at Epinal and Toulouse hospitals in particular, and the problems encountered in the summer 2008, mainly caused by a shortage of radiation physicians and probably due to legislation that bears little relation to reality, a national radiotherapy monitoring committee was set up on 15 December 2008 in the presence of Roselyne Bachelot-Narquin, France's Minister for Health and Sport. A first progress report was submitted to the Minister in May 2009. Twelve members sit on this national monitoring committee, including a CISS representative and a person that has received radiotherapy treatment. This demonstrates the seriousness and the commitment required of users on this issue. Radiotherapy, one of the main treatments for cancer, is a loco-regional treatment that uses radiation capable of destroying cancer cells. It can be used on its own, or before, during or after another treatment method (surgery or a medical treatment such as chemotherapy, for example). The decision to treat a patient by means of radiotherapy is based on the opinions of health care professionals discussed at a multidisciplinary team meeting, the minutes of which are sent to the various doctors involved. The radiotherapy treatment prescribed (the technique, total radiation dose, length of the treatment, number of sessions, etc.) is adapted to the individual situation of each patient. It is designed to be as effective as possible in light of the tumour pathology, while protecting neighbouring organs as far as is possible. (author)

  4. Reflection tomography from pre-stack migrated images; Tomographie de reflexion a partir des images migrees avant addition

    Adler, F.


    The application of reflection tomography to data from complex geological structures is very interesting in the hydrocarbons exploration. Indeed, it contributes to localize the hydrocarbons potential traps. The used reflection tomography method is faced with two major difficulties. Travel time picking is difficult or impossible in seismic time sections. The processing of multiple arrival travel times needs an adequate formulation of reflection tomography. In order to solve the first problem, we adopt the approach of the SMART (Sequential Migration Aided Reflection Tomography) method which is an original method for the implementation of migration velocity analysis. The velocity model is automatically calculated by reflection tomography. The kinematic data set for reflection tomography is constructed from pre-stack depth-migrated images that are interpreted in the chosen migration configuration. For the implementation of the SMART method in the common-offset domain, we propose an original formulation of reflection tomography that takes multiple arrival travel times, which are calculated from common-offset migrated images, into account. In this new formulation, we look for a model such that a modelling, which consists in shooting in this model from the source locations with some ray parameters at the source, matches some emergence conditions: for each offset, the rays emerge at the receiver locations (given by the offset) with the same travel times and the same travel time slopes as observed in the associated common-offset section. These conditions constitute the kinematic data set for tomographic inversion. The common-offset travel time slope is the difference between the ray parameter at the receiver and the ray parameter at the source. Therefore, the ray parameter at the source is an unknown and has to be determined together with the model parameters during inversion. (author)

  5. Avant-garde between east and west: modern architecture and town-planning in the Urals 1920-30

    Budantseva, T.Y.


    On hearing the term "Soviet modernism", images of Moscow and Leningrad spring to mind. These two cities may compete with each other for the title of the Russian modernist paradigm. Meanwhile little attention has been paid to the developments in more remote areas of Russia. Apparently, the Ural regi

  6. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Avante International Technology, Inc., PanaSec Mobile Personnel and Asset Visibility System

    Ths test simulated through routine land transportation routes and across international ports of entry in the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez trade area. RFID tags were attached to four of each container type for a total of 12 containers which were loaded onto a standard 53-foot semi-truck...

  7. Les peintures murales de l’église de Mălâncrav. Notes avant la restauration

    Dana Jenei


    Full Text Available The two distinct ensembles of mural paintings of the church, from the nave and sanctuary have permanently been in the attention of the researchers, but their study cannot be considered completed, because thorough parament studies and archaeological investigations, indispensable to clarify the phases of the monument, have not yet been achieved. However, the research works in the years 2001-2002 and 2013 brought to light new data that substantially enrich the information and contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of the monument. In 2001, the investigations showed, among others, that except the frescoes on the north, there are no other painted zones inside the nave, while in 2013 the restorers have revealed the existence of the register VI of paintings on the pillars, which mostly are under the lime. The art historian’s research contributes with the identification of several scenes and details unknown so far, such as the figures of Saints James, Sebastian, Anthony and Peter, or the jesters next to Herod and Pilate in the Christological Cycle. There was also detected the contribution of three distinct teams who have worked, “soon after 1350”. The paintings in the nave illustrate, along with the ensemble in the sanctuary, the various artistic trends subsumed to the Gothic painting from the fourteenth century and due to the munificence of successive generations of the noble family Apa, lords at Mălâncrav since 1258. The graffiti on the painted surface of the apse, transcribed by Victor Roth in several versions, contains the year 1404/1405, considered as a terminus ante quem for the achievement of the painting, and the name Nicolaus, the most important representative of the family and the presumptive donor of the paintings. Gernot Nussbächer “shows” that the inscription is not of “Hic fuit” type and the script is a few decades later, presumably recording an event that took place that year. The obvious difference of the architectonic and spatial expression between the basilica and the Gothic choir decorated in the elaborated forms of “international style” was highlighted by the researchers and Vasile Drăguț’s theory concerning the rebuilding of the sanctuary in the late fourteenth century remains relevant, being sustained by our observation on the different heights of the dados, lower in the choir than in the church, as well as the compaction of masonry on the north, hidden by the first buttress. The scientific investigations from 2001–2002 also showed that a “Baroque restoration” or other repaintings in the choir ensemble didn’t exist, while the most important information after removing the lime in 2013 is related to the identification of certain figures, such as “Johel Propheta” and, in the newly stripped area, St. Elizabeth of Thuringia. Near the right margin of the Crucifixion appeared the damaged fragments of the Laying into the Tomb and, hypothetically, the figure of the donor. The style of the Master of the Mălâncrav sanctuary and of his team, derived from the illuminated manuscripts from the Court in Prague, can also be found in the newly discovered representations from Ighișu Nou and in the fragments of the Dârjiu Crucifixion, extracted and preserved at Budapest Szépművészeti Múzeum.

  8. La rondelle au bison d'enlène (Montesquieu-Avantès, Ariège



    Full Text Available Une rondelle perforée en os, hors du commun par son décor, a été mise au jour dans une couche du Magdalénien moyen de la grotte d'Enléne. Sur la moitié d'une face un bison entier a été gravé. L'autre face présente un décor beaucoup plus fruste et n'était vraisemblablement pas destinée a étre vue. Cette rondelle, caractéristique du Magdalénien moyen, est replacée par les auteurs dans le contexte des objets de méme nature connus en France et dans les Asturies.

  9. Maurice Blanchot: Avant-garde icon or obscure authoritarian? How thirty years of controversy have stifled debate

    Adrian May


    Full Text Available Controversy has surrounded Maurice Blanchot from the 1980s to today. Whilst claims of excessive formalism, obscurity and radicalism were often levelled at his generation, the Blanchot controversy has been sustained by the failure of critics to dispassionately appraise his 1930s political commitments. However, recent interventions by Jean-Luc Nancy, Michel Surya and Lignes could end thirty years of stifled debate.

  10. Cells for the examination of irradiated plutonium fuel elements - two years operation - may 1961/may 1963 (1963); Cellules pour examen d'elements combustibles au plutonium irradies - deux ans d'exploitation - mai 1961/mai 1963 (1963)

    Valentin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Within the framework of the 'Rapsodie' fast reactor program, prototype plutonium fuel elements are irradiated and then examined in an {alpha} {beta} {gamma} laboratory at Saclay. This laboratory consists of five in line cells and a lead enclosure microscope. Each cell contains an {alpha} sealed removable box 4 ft 3 in. high, 4 ft 11 in. wide and 5 ft 1 in. deep, fitted with one or two magnetic transmission indirect manipulators. The boxes are contained in an {beta} {gamma} shielded enclosure whose front face is constructed of cast iron panels 21-2/3 in. thick. Nitrogen circulating in a closed loop forms the atmosphere of the boxes. This laboratory is essentially intended for metallurgical research. The functions of the various cells are as follows: transferring and packing, cutting, density measurement and cathodic etching, storage and metallography. Work on radioactive materials began in April 1961. Operational incidents have always been of a material nature only. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet de reacteur rapide Rapsodie, des elements combustibles prototypes au plutonium sont, apres irradiation, examines a Saclay dans un laboratoire {alpha} {beta} {gamma}. Celui-ci comprend cinq cellules en ligne et une enceinte en plomb contenant un microscope telecommande. Chaque cellule est constituee d'un caisson etanche (1, 3 m x 1, 5 m x 1, 56m) equipee d'un ou deux manipulateurs indirects a transmissions magnetiques. Les caissons sont places, dans une enceinte {beta} {gamma} dont la face avant est formee de blocs en fonte ayant 55 cm d'epaisseur. L'atmosphere des caissons est de l'azote, circulant en circuit ferme. Ce laboratoire est destine essentiellement a des recherches metallurgiques. Les fonctions des differentes cellules sont: conditionnement et transferts, tronconnage, mesure de densite et polissage ionique, stockage, metallographie. Le travail sur materiaux radioactifs a commence en avril 1961. Les incidents d

  11. Control systems of fission reactors and of reprocessing plants: general architecture; Controle-commande des reacteurs et des usines: architecture generale

    Appel, B.; Guesnier, G. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires; Chabert, J. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)


    As any industrial facility, nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing centers need means to monitor and manage the physical processes that are involved in their activities. All these means form the control system. Control systems are made up of sensors, able to turn physical data into electric signals, of automatic control circuits dedicated to process these electric signals, of supervisor systems to give to the staff the possibility to intervene, and of actuators designed to transform electric signals into actions on the physical process. The general design of control systems has to conform to the requirements imposed by the physical process itself, by nuclear safety and by operating conditions. As for the physical process, requirements can be diverse according to the purpose of the nuclear facility but the continuity must be assured because of the permanent release of energy from irradiated materials. As for safety, we have to notice the stiff requirements for all the equipment that is concerned by the confinement of radioactivity. The general architecture of control systems is made up of 3 levels; i) level 0: sensors and actuators, ii) level 1: automatic control circuits and iii) level 2: the control room. The second and third levels are mainly based on computer and data processing systems. All the equipment is classified into 3 levels of demands. The first level is the stiffest which generally implies that devices are specially designed so that they satisfy all the requirements. (A.C.)

  12. Contributions to safety studies for new concepts of nuclear reactors; Contributions aux etudes de surete pour des filieres innovantes de reacteurs nucleaires

    Perdu, F


    The complete study of molten salt reactors, designed for a massive and durable nuclear energy production, must include neutronics, hydraulics and thermal effects. This coupled study, using the MCNP and Trio{sub U} codes, is undertaken in the case of the MSRE (molten salt reactor experiment) prototype. The obtained results fit very well the experiment. Their extrapolation suggests ways of improving the safety coefficients of power molten salt reactors. A second part is devoted to accelerator driven subcritical reactors, developed to incinerate radioactive waste.We propose a method to measure the prompt reactivity from the decay following a neutron pulse. It relies only on the distribution of times between generations, which is a characteristic of the reactor. This method is implemented on the results of the MUSE 4 experiment, and the obtained reactivity is accurate within 5%. (author)

  13. The specifications of the European electricians for the conception of the future reactors; Le cahier des charges des electriciens europeens pour la conception des futurs reacteurs (les EUR)

    Berbey, P. [Electricite de France, 92 - Clamart (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires


    The cooperation between European electricians through European utility requirements (E.U.R.) continues since the beginning of the 90. Transplanted initially on the program A.L.W.R., the E.U.R. project gradually managed to bring to the foreground a common specification for light water type reactors of 3. generation to be built in Europe. The nuclear safety was one of the major axes of development and the set of requirements of E.U.R. safety establishes one of European standard today. A continuous dialogue with the other actors of the nuclear power at the world level allowed to consolidate the proposed options. (N.C.)

  14. Detailed study of transmutation scenarios involving present day reactor technologies; Etude detaillee des scenarios de transmutation faisant appel aux technologies actuelles pour les reacteurs



    This document makes a detailed technical evaluation of three families of separation-transmutation scenarios for the management of radioactive wastes. These scenarios are based on 2 parks of reactors which recycle plutonium and minor actinides in an homogeneous way. A first scenario considers the multi-recycling of Pu and Np and the mono-recycling of Am and Cm using both PWRs and FBRs. A second scenario is based on PWRs only, while a third one considers FBRs only. The mixed PWR+FBR scenario requires innovative options and gathers more technical difficulties due to the americium and curium management in a minimum flux of materials. A particular attention has been given to the different steps of the fuel cycle (fuels and targets fabrication, burnup, spent fuel processing, targets management). The feasibility of scenarios of homogeneous actinides recycling in PWRs-only and in FBRs-only has been evaluated according to the results of the first scenario: fluxes of materials, spent fuel reprocessing by advanced separation, impact of the presence of actinides on PWRs and FBRs operation. The efficiency of the different scenarios on the abatement of wastes radio-toxicity is presented in conclusion. (J.S.)

  15. Integral validation of the effective beta parameter for the MOX reactors and incinerators; Validation integrale des estimations du parametre beta effectif pour les reacteurs Mox et incinerateurs

    Zammit-Averlant, V


    {beta}{sub eff}, which represents the effective delayed neutron fraction, is an important parameter for the reactor nominal working as well as for studies of its behaviour in accidental situation. In order to improve the safety of nuclear reactors, we propose here to validate its calculation by using the ERANOS code with ERALIB1 library and by taking into account all the fission process physics through the {nu} energy dependence. To validate the quality of this calculation formalism, we calculated uncertainties as precisely as possible. The experimental values of {beta}{sub eff}, as well their uncertainties, have also been re-evaluated for consistency, because these `experimental` values actually contain a calculated component. We therefore obtained an entirely coherent set of calculated and measured {beta}{sub eff}. The comparative study of the calculated and measured values pointed out that the JEF2.2 {nu}{sub d} are already sufficient because the (E-C)/C are inferior to 3 % in average and in their uncertainly bars. The experimental uncertainties, even if lightly superior to those previously edited, remain inferior to the uncertainties of the calculated values. This allowed us to fit {nu}{sub d} with {beta}{sub eff}. This adjustment has brought an additional improvement on the recommendations of the {nu}{sub d} average values, for the classical scheme (thermal energy, fast energy) and for the new scheme which explains the {nu}{sub d} energy dependence. {beta}{sub eff}, for MOX or UOX fuel assemblies in thermal or fast configurations, can therefore be obtained with an uncertainty due to the nuclear data of about 2.0 %. (author) 110 refs.

  16. On needs for particular isotopes with future advanced nuclear reactors; Quelques besoins en isotopes particuliers pour les reacteurs nucleaires avances du futur

    Asou, M.; Porta, J. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs


    This paper is concerned with two essential points with innovative approaches for nuclear reactors: utilization of {sup 15}N in uranium nitride fuels in order to avoid carbon 14 generation; utilization of rare earths, and especially gadolinium, for the control of the potential reactivity in the core in the case of a cycle lengthening from 12 to 18 months, and in the case of a water reactor operating without soluble boron. 1 tab., 17 refs.

  17. Physicochemical state of the spent fuel leaving the reactors; Le combustible nucleaire et son etat physico-chimique a la sortie des reacteurs

    Dehaut, Ph


    This report focuses on the current knowledge, updated at the end of 1999, about the physicochemical state of the fuels leaving light water reactors, and particularly pressurized water reactors. Lessons are withdrawn from it making it possible to determine the points which require a necessary deepening of the data and coherence of interpretations. Lastly, evolution of the sailed fuel rod as well as the potential availability of gases and volatile fission products, during a secular storage or of a multi-millennium disposal, are the subject of an attempt at forecast. Accessible data in the scientific literature, or those acquired at the CEA, are particularly numerous. Their analysis and their synthesis are joined together to constitute a collection of references intended to the specialists in nuclear fuel and for all those which contribute to the reflexion on the storage or final disposal of the irradiated fuel. This memory is structured in ten chapters. The last chapter makes it possible to retain on some pages, the essential lessons of this study. Chapter I: Introduction; Chapter II: Characteristics of assemblies and fuels before irradiation; Chapter III: Transformations in reactor; Chapter IV: State of rods leaving the reactor; Chapter V: State of pellets; Chapter VI: Chemical and structural composition of the fuel; Chapter VII: Fuel fragmentation and density; Chapter VIII: Phenomena at the pellet periphery. Formation, characteristics and structure of the rim.Chemical interaction between pellet and cladding; Chapter IX: Location of fission gases and volatile fission products; Chapter X: Review, lessons and predictions. (authors)

  18. Contribution to the modelling of gas-solid reactions and reactors; Contribution a la modelisation des reactions et des reacteurs gaz-solide

    Patisson, F


    Gas-solid reactions control a great number of major industrial processes involving matter transformation. This dissertation aims at showing that mathematical modelling is a useful tool for both understanding phenomena and optimising processes. First, the physical processes associated with a gas-solid reaction are presented in detail for a single particle, together with the corresponding available kinetic grain models. A second part is devoted to the modelling of multiparticle reactors. Different approaches, notably for coupling grain models and reactor models, are illustrated through various case studies: coal pyrolysis in a rotary kiln, production of uranium tetrafluoride in a moving bed furnace, on-grate incineration of municipal solid wastes, thermogravimetric apparatus, nuclear fuel making, steel-making electric arc furnace. (author)

  19. Analyse du transfert de chaleur et de la perte de pression pour des ecoulements supercritiques dans le reacteur CANDU-SCWR

    Zoghlami, Sarra

    The supercritical water reactor is one of the six concepts of generation IV nuclear reactors that has been selected by the International Generation IV Forum (GIF). Canada has chosen to conduct advanced research on this type of reactor. For the design and safety analysis of the reactor concept, the development of numerical simulation codes is needed. The ARTHUR code is a thermal-hydraulic computer code developed by Fassi-Fehri (2008), at the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, to analyse the CANDU-6 reactor. The purpose of this project is to modify this numerical code so that it can be used to treat the CANDU-SCWR. To calculate the coolant thermal-hydraulics properties in the fuel channel of a CANDU-SCWR, it was assumed that the water flows under supercritical conditions is a one-phase flow. Thus within this code, we developed the conservation equations for one-phase flow. Hydraulic resistance and heat transfer at supercritical pressure are two important aspects to be considered in the modeling of a fuel channel in a nuclear reactor. To choose the accurate correlation to predict the pressure friction factor, we compared numerical calculations, using different correlations found in literature, to experimental data. We concluded that the Garimella (2008) correlation is the most consistent, to be incorporated in the ARTHUR &barbelow;SCWR code. We proved that the choice of the friction factor correlation affects slightly the distribution of thermal-hydraulic properties in the fuel channel. Under supercritical conditions, water thermal-physical properties are characterized by significant variations in the pseudo-critical region. This behavior influences the forced convection heat transfer phenomena. To choose the adequate correlation to calculate the forced convection heat transfer coefficient, we compared numerical results to experimental data, and we found that the standard deviation given by Mokry et al. (2010) correlation is the lowest. In order to model the fuel channel, some geometrical simplifications are made. In fact, we assumed that the coolant flow in the fuel channel is represented by the flow around the fuel rod, bounded by the first crown. This simplified model was used for neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled calculation performed with neutronic codes DRAGON/DONJON (Varin et al., 2005), to analyse the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the fuel channel in CANDU-SCWR. We observed that the coolant density at the fuel rod external surface, at the sixth fuel bundle is 3.5 times lower than the average coolant density in the fuel channel. This puts into question the assumption of considering the supercritical water flow as an homogeneous flow and the ability to build a supercritical water nuclear reactor in CANDU type, i.e., with horizontal fuel channels. In order to validate ARTHUR &barbelow;SCWR code, we compared our results to SUBCHAN code (Jiang et al., 2009), which is a thermal-hydraulic code developed to analyze CANDU-SCWR. Both codes give the same shapes and orders of magnitude for the coolant average temperature and the cladding-surface temperature. The axial distribution of the centerline temperature in the fuel rod is different. This is due to the fact that the calculations performed by the SUBCHAN code are not coupled to a neutronic code. For this reason, the thermal power distributions differs in the two codes. The variation of the mass flow influences the forced convective heat transfer, so, the distribution of thermal-physical properties in the channel. In fact, if the mass flow is reduced by 50% compared to the nominal mass flow rate, following a pump failure, the external fuel rod surface temperature exceeds the melting point, which is between 1400°C and 1455°C. This phenomenon may results in the radioactive contamination of the environment.

  20. Experimental reactor regulation: the nuclear safety authority's approach; Le controle des reacteurs experimentaux: la demarche de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire

    Rieu, J.; Conte, D.; Chevalier, A. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)


    French research reactors can be classified into 6 categories: 1) critical scale models (Eole, Minerve and Masurca) whose purpose is the study of the neutron production through the fission reaction; 2) reactors that produce neutron beams (Orphee, and the high flux reactor in Grenoble); 3) reactors devoted to safety studies (Cabri, Phebus) whose purpose is to reproduce accidental configurations of power reactors in reduced scale; 4) experimental reactors (Osiris, Phenix) whose purpose is the carrying-out of irradiation experiments concerning nuclear fuels or structure materials; 5) teaching reactors (Ulysse, Isis); and 6) reactors involved in defense programs (Caliban, Prospero, Apareillage-B). We have to note that 3 research reactors are currently being dismantled: Strasbourg University's reactor, Siloe and Siloette. Research reactors in France are of different types and present different hazards. Even if methods of control become more and more similar to those of power reactors, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) works to allow the necessary flexibility in the ever changing research reactor field while ensuring a high level of safety. Adopting the internal authorizations for operations of minor safety significance, under certain conditions, is one example of this approach. Another challenge in the coming years for ASN is to monitor the ageing of the French research reactors. This includes periodic safety reviews for each facility every ten years. But ASN has also to regulate the new research reactor projects such as Jules Horowitz Reactor, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which are about to be built.

  1. Life time of nuclear power plants and new types of reactors; La duree de vie des centrales nucleaires et les nouveaux types de reacteurs



    This report, realized by the Evaluation Parliamentary Office of scientific and technological choices, aims to answer simple but fundamental questions for the french electric power production. What are the phenomena which may limit the exploitation time of nuclear power plants? How can we fight against the aging, at which cost and with which safety? The first chapter presents the management of the nuclear power plants life time, an essential element of the park optimization but not a sufficient element. The second chapter details the EPR and the other reactors for 2015 as a bond between the today and tomorrow parks. The last chapter deals with the necessity of efforts in the research and development to succeed in 2035 and presents other reactors in project. (A.L.B.)

  2. Fast ultrasonic visualisation under sodium. Application to the fast neutron reactors; Visualisation ultrasonore rapide sous sodium. application aux reacteurs a neutrons rapides

    Imbert, Ch


    The fast ultrasonic visualization under sodium is in the programme of research and development on the inspection inside the fast neutron reactors. This work is about the development of a such system of fast ultrasonic imaging under sodium, in order to improve the existing visualization systems. This system is based on the principle of orthogonal imaging, it uses two linear antennas with an important dephasing having 128 piezo-composite elements of central frequency equal to 1.6 MHz. (N.C.)

  3. Integrated evolution of the medium power CANDU{sup MD} reactors; Evolution integree des reacteurs CANDU{sup MD} de moyenne puissance

    Nuzzo, F. [AECL Accelerators, Kanata, ON (Canada)


    The aim of this document is the main improvements of the CANDU reactors in the economic, safety and performance domains. The presentation proposes also other applications as the hydrogen production, the freshening of water sea and the bituminous sands exploitation. (A.L.B.)

  4. A.S.N. regulation of Flamanville 3 EPR construction; L'inspection du reacteur Flamanville 3 de type EPR

    Limousin, S. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)


    The EPR authorization decree for Flamanville 3 was issued by the French government (decree no. 2007-534) on the 10 April 2007. The construction activities are going on in the manufacturer workshops and at Flamanville site. The decree published in November 2007, and related to the so called TSN law (the nuclear transparency and safety nuclear law published in 2006), specifies that the commissioning licence (the agreement for first fuel load) has to be granted by an ASN decision on the basis of the assessment of the demonstration of the plant safety. In this aim, one part of ASN's work is to review, with its technical sup-port organisation (IRSN), the reactor construction in order to appreciate the safety level of the construction activities. This paper describes ASN's strategy for the regulation of Flamanville 3 EPR construction activities, endorsed by ASN commission at the end of November 2007, and the main events which have occurred on Flamanville site since the beginning of the construction. The article presents the main ASN conclusions of this regulation at this time. (author)

  5. ASN reviews the safety options of the new reactor ATMEA-1; L'ASN engage la revue des options de surete du nouveau reacteur ATMEA-1



    The French authorities of nuclear safety (ASN) have announced that they were asked by the ATMEA company to review the safety options of a new power reactor called ATMEA-1. ATMEA is a common sub-company between Areva and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. ATMEA-1 belongs to the intermediate power range with a power output of 1100 MWe, this reactor is designed to be exported. ASN will make public the conclusions of this review in autumn 2011. ASN backs the WENRA initiative that states that the safety levels of new reactors must be higher than those of today's operating reactors. (A.C.)

  6. The ISRN has stated on the CABRI reactor restarting; L'IRSN a donne son avis sur le redemarrage du reacteur CABRI



    This paper presents the different issues examined by the ISRN (the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety) for the restarting of the pool type research CABRI reactor which is briefly described in appendix. These issues are: the design, realisation and monitoring of the new pressurised water test loop, the reassessment of the protection system limiting the reactivity injection during tests, inspection of fuel pencil condition, reassessment of safety studies, inspection of the condition of existing equipment which are essential for safety, reassessment of the seismic risk and of the fire risk, reassessment of operation conditions (personal radioprotection, human and organisational factors). An appendix contains the report by the Permanent Group of Experts for Nuclear Reactors with its recommendations.

  7. Electric failure on the reactor n.3 of the nuclear power plant of Dampierre; Defaillance electrique sur le reacteur n. 3 de la centrale nucleaire de Dampierre



    This note of information resumes the progress of the electric failure on the reactor n.3 of the nuclear power plant of Dampierre, the organization during the incident, it establishes then a comparison with the incident arisen to Forsmark in 2006 and reminds that it lead in an inspection on behalf of the Asn which noticed that all the procedures had been respected by the operators and did not noticed any abnormality in the maintenance. This event was classified at the level 1 of the international nuclear event scale (INES). (N.C.)

  8. Assessment of subcriticality during PWR-type reactor refueling; Evaluation de la sous-criticite lors des operations de chargement d'un reacteur nucleaire REP

    Verdier, A


    During the core loading period of a PWR, any fuel assembly misplacements may significantly reduce the existing criticality margin. The Dampierre 4-18 event showed the present monitoring based on the variations of the outside-core detector counting rate cannot detect such misplacements. In order to circumvent that, a more detailed analysis of the available signal was done. We particularly focused on the neutronic noise analysis methods such as MSM (modified source multiplication), MSA (amplified source multiplication), Rossi-{alpha} and Feynman-{alpha} methods. The experimental part of our work was dedicated to the application of those methods to a research reactor. Finally, our results showed that those methods cannot be used with the present PWR instrumentation. Various detector positions were then studied using Monte Carlo calculations capable of following the neutron origin. Our results showed that the present technology does not allow us to use any solution based on neutron detection for monitoring core loading. (author)

  9. Production and validation of nuclear data for reactor and fuel cycle applications; Production et validation des donnees nucleaires pour les applications reacteurs et cycle du combustible

    Trakas, C. [Framatome ANP GmbH NBTT, Erlangen (Germany); Verwaerde, D. [Electricite de France EDF, 75 - Paris (France); Toubon, H. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)] [and others


    The aim of this technical meeting is the improvement of the existing nuclear data and the production of new data of interest for the upstream and downstream of the fuel cycle (enrichment, fabrication, management, storage, transport, reprocessing), for the industrial reactors, the research reactors and the new reactor concepts (criticality, dimensioning, exploitation), for the instrumentation systems (external and internal sensors), the radioprotection, the residual power, the structures (neutron bombardment effect on vessels, rods etc..), and for the activation of steel structures (Fr, Ni, Co). The expected result is the collection of more reliable and accurate data in a wider spectrum of energies and temperatures thanks to more precise computer codes and measurement techniques. This document brings together the communications presented at this meeting and dealing with: the process of production and validation of nuclear data; the measurement facilities and the big international programs; the users needs and the industrial priorities; the basic nuclear data (BND) needs at Cogema; the expression and evaluation of BND; the evaluation work: the efficient cross-sections; the processing of data and the creation of activation libraries; from the integral measurement to the qualification and the feedback on nuclear data. (J.S.)

  10. Ultrasonic testing of canning tubes in stainless steel of the EL 4 reactor; Controle par ultrasons des tubes de gaine en acier inoxydable du reacteur EL 4

    Prot, A.; Monnier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    From all the methods possible for controlling thin cans the one chosen, for numerous reasons, vas that making use of ultrasonic techniques. A method has been developed which should make it possible to carry out a rapid and efficient industrial control of canning tubes, The reasons for the choice of the ultrasonic method are given in detail, together with the principles of the method and the actual control parameters. In the present state of our research, it should be possible to control at least 50 000 tubes a year. Improvements brought about in the details of the control technique itself should make it possible to increase this rate considerably. (authors) [French] Parmi toutes les methodes possibles de controle des gaines minces, le procede retenu pour de multiples raisons a ete celui faisant appel a la technique des ultrasons. Une methode a ete mise au point qui doit permettre un controle industriel rapide et efficace des tubes de gaine. Sont exposes en detail, les raisons du choix de la methode par ultrasons, les principes de cette methode et les parametres du controle proprement dit. Dans l'etat actuel de nos etudes la cadence devrait permettre le controle de 50000 tubes par an au minimum. Des ameliorations de detail portant sur la technique de controle elle-meme, doivent permettre d'accelerer tres notablement cette cadence. (auteurs)

  11. Civacuve analysis software for mis machine examination of pressurized water reactor vessels; Civacuve logiciel d'analyse des controles mis des cuves de reacteurs nucleaires

    Dubois, Ph.; Gagnor, A. [Intercontrole, 94 - Rungis (France)


    The product software CIVACUVE is used by INTERCONTROLE for the analysis of UT examinations, for detection, performed by the In-Service Inspection Machine (MIS) of the vessels of nuclear power plants. This software is based on an adaptation of an algorithm of SEGMENTATION (CEA CEREM), which is applied prior to any analysis. It is equipped with tools adapted to industrial use. It allows to: - perform image analysis thanks to advanced graphic tools (Zooms, True Bscan, 'contour' selection...), - backup of all data in a database (complete and transparent backup of all informations used and obtained during the different analysis operations), - connect PC to the Database (export of Reports and even of segmented points), - issue Examination Reports, Operating Condition Sheets, Sizing curves... - and last, perform a graphic and numerical comparison between different inspections of the same vessel. Used in Belgium and France on different kind of reactor vessels, CIVACUVE has allowed to show that the principle of SEGMENTATION can be adapted to detection exams. The use of CIVACUVE generates a important time gain as well as the betterment of quality in analysis. Wide data opening toward PC's allows a real flexibility with regard to client's requirements and preoccupations.

  12. Study of the seismic behaviour of the fast reactor cores; Etude du comportement sismique des coeurs de reacteurs a neutrons rapides

    Cerqueira, E


    This work studies the seismic behaviour of fast neutrons reactor cores. It consists in analyzing the tests made on the models Rapsodie and Symphony by using the calculation code Castem 2000. Te difficulty is in the description of connections of the system and the effects of the fluid (calculation in water). The results for the programme Rapsodie are near the experimental results. For the programme Symphony, the calculations in air have allowed to represent the behaviour of fuel assemblies in a satisfying way. It is still to analyze the tests Symphony in water. (N.C.)

  13. Synthesis of a catalytic reactor membrane for synthesis gas production; Elaboration d'une membrane de reacteur catalytique pour la production de gaz de synthese

    Juste, E.; Julian, A.; Chartier, T. [Limoges Univ., Lab. Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface (SPCTS, UMR 6638 CNRS), 87 (France); Juste, E.; Julian, A.; Del Gallo, P.; Richet, N. [Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Air Liquide, 78 - Jouy en Josas (France)


    The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas (mixture of H{sub 2} and CO) is a main challenge for the hydrogen and clean fuels production. Mixed (ionic O{sup 2-} and electronic) conducing ceramics membrane reactors seem particularly promising. The design considered for the membrane is a tri-layer system integrating a reforming catalyst and a dense membrane laying on a porous support. Among the materials considered for the dense membrane, perovskites La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Fe{sub 1-y}Ga{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} seem to be interesting for their performances and stability. The oxygen flux through the membrane is measured in terms of temperature under different oxygen partial pressure gradients. In the industrial experimental conditions, the membrane is submitted to a strong oxygen (air/methane) partial pressure gradient of about 900 C which induces mechanical stresses, on account of the material expansion difference, in terms of p{sub O2}. In this framework, the evolutions of the performances and of the expansion coefficient have been followed in terms of the substitutions rates in La{sub (1-x)}Sr{sub x}Fe{sub (1-y)}Ga{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} with x{<=}0.5 and y{<=}0.5. (O.M.)

  14. Optimization of uranium use in light water reactors; Optimisation de l'utilisation des ressources dans les reacteurs a eau legere

    Greneche, D.; Lecomte, M. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA 92 - Paris La Defense (France)


    Light water reactors are expected to produce most part of nuclear power for this century before giving way to breeder reactors so uranium resources have to be dealt with diligently. 5 ways to minimize the consumption of uranium in the fuel cycle are considered: 1) the optimization of the enrichment in order to reduce uranium tails; 2) a better use of uranium in the reactor through either higher burnups or a reduction of sterile neutron captures; 3) to get a better LWR's thermodynamical yield; 4) to improve plutonium and uranium recycling; 5) to use the stocks of existing fissile materials like depleted uranium, spent fuels, military plutonium; and 6) the development of the thorium cycle as a complement. (A.C.)

  15. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft; Entrainement du jet d`un reacteur dans le champ aerodynamique proche d`un avion

    Garnier, F.; Jacquin, L.; Laverdant, A.


    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. Our investigation is focused on the near field, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  16. Study of trans-uranian incineration in molten salt reactor; Etude de l'incineration des transuraniens en reacteur a sel fondu

    Valade, M


    With the emergence of new options for nuclear power, molten salt reactors are envisaged for waste management. The aim of this thesis is to show how molten salt reactors can help to solve the transuranics issue. Their high versatility regarding to isotopic vector allows to accommodate large fractions of minor actinides as compared to solid fuel system. In this thesis, a neutronics study of molten salt reactors, MSR, has been conducted. For this purpose, two reference systems were considered, TIER1 and AMSTER. In the case of TIER1, an optimisation was made to reach an equilibrium. The analysis of both systems showed the main characteristics of MSR: their link to chemistry and on line reprocessing. In this work, several methods to drive the system to a state of equilibrium have been implemented and compared. During this process the isotopic composition and neutron spectrum, thus the nuclear reaction cross sections, vary tremendously. It is essential to take these evolutions into account in order to accurately estimate the equilibrium state. This has been accomplished inside the multi-recycling procedure we set with ERANOS. A dedicated calculation schema has been realized to simulate superthermal systems with this computation code. These results were checked through a benchmark against other computer codes. Then, with multi-recycling method, several molten salt systems have been compared in order to define the optimal reactor for transuranics incineration. Nevertheless, a final choice can not only be done using only neutronics characteristics since chemistry and thermal-hydraulics constraints are really important for MSR. Moreover, a complete safety study would be required. (author)

  17. Calculation system for physical analysis of boiling water reactors; Modelisation des phenomenes physiques specifiques aux reacteurs a eau bouillante, notamment le couplage neutronique-thermohydraulique

    Bouveret, F


    Although Boiling Water Reactors generate a quarter of worldwide nuclear electricity, they have been only little studied in France. A certain interest now shows up for these reactors. So, the aim of the work presented here is to contribute to determine a core calculation methodology with CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) codes. Vapour production in the reactor core involves great differences in technological options from pressurised water reactor. We analyse main physical phenomena for BWR and offer solutions taking them into account. BWR fuel assembly heterogeneity causes steep thermal flux gradients. The two dimensional collision probability method with exact boundary conditions makes possible to calculate accurately the flux in BWR fuel assemblies using the APOLLO-2 lattice code but induces a very long calculation time. So, we determine a new methodology based on a two-level flux calculation. Void fraction variations in assemblies involve big spectrum changes that we have to consider in core calculation. We suggest to use a void history parameter to generate cross-sections libraries for core calculation. The core calculation code has also to calculate the depletion of main isotopes concentrations. A core calculation associating neutronics and thermal-hydraulic codes lays stress on points we still have to study out. The most important of them is to take into account the control blade in the different calculation stages. (author)

  18. Cronos 2: a neutronic simulation software for reactor core calculations; Cronos 2: un logiciel de simulation neutronique des coeurs de reacteurs

    Lautard, J.J.; Magnaud, C.; Moreau, F.; Baudron, A.M. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie (DMT/SERMA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The CRONOS2 software is that part of the SAPHYR code system dedicated to neutronic core calculations. CRONOS2 is a powerful tool for reactor design, fuel management and safety studies. Its modular structure and great flexibility make CRONOS2 an unique simulation tool for research and development for a wide variety of reactor systems. CRONOS2 is a versatile tool that covers a large range of applications from very fast calculations used in training simulators to time and memory consuming reference calculations needed to understand complex physical phenomena. CRONOS2 has a procedure library named CPROC that allows the user to create its own application environment fitted to a specific industrial use. (authors)

  19. Analysis and evaluation of the hydrogen risk in a thermonuclear fusion reactor; Analyse et evaluation du risque hydrogene dans un reacteur de fusion thermonucleaire

    Chaudron, V. [Societe Helion, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Arnould, F. [Technicatome DI SEPS, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Latge, C. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets DED, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Laurent, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques, ENSIC, Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique, CNRS INPL, 54 - Villers les Nancy (France)


    After a recall of the principle of controlled thermonuclear fusion, the ITER reactor project is briefly described. The integrity of the reactor must be preserved in the case of a potential explosion of the hydrogen generated inside the reactor, in order to avoid any dispersion radioactive, chemical or toxic materials in the environment. The fundamental principles of safety developed to fulfill these objectives, in particular the defense-in-depth concept, are presented. The main potential source of hydrogen production is the oxidation of beryllium, which is used as protection material in the first wall of the torus, and the accidental presence of water, as reported in several scenarios. The confinement strategy is then described with the qualification of the role of the different barriers. Finally, the hydrogen explosion risk is analyzed and evaluated with respect to the sources, to the reference envelope scenarios and to the location of hydrogen inside the ITER reactor. It appears, at the engineering stage, that the vacuum toric vessel, the discharge reservoir and the exchanger compartments are the most worrying parts. (J.S.)

  20. New rules for the interventions on the primary circuit of nuclear reactors; Nouvelles regles pour les interventions sur le circuit primaire des reacteurs electronucleaires



    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) concerns the enforcement of new technical rules relative to the maintenance activities performed on the primary circuit of Electricite de France (EdF) reactors. Different levels of intervention are considered: non noticeable interventions internally carried out by EdF with a simple information given to the ASN, noticeable interventions prepared and performed by EdF under the control of the regional directions of industry, research and environment (DRIRE), and important interventions requiring a qualification dossier validated by the bureau of nuclear boilers control (BCCN). The details of the procedure are given in the attached note. (J.S.)

  1. Contribution to the study of thermal-hydraulic problems in nuclear reactors; Contribution a l`etude de problemes de thermohydraulique dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Cognet, G


    In nuclear reactors, whatever the type considered, Pressurized Water Water Reactors (PWRs), Fast Breeder reactors (FBRs)..., thermal-hydraulics, the science of fluid mechanics and thermal behaviour, plays an essential role, both in nominal operating and accidental conditions. Fluid can either be the primary fluid (liquid or gas) or a very specific fluid called corium, which, in case of severe accident, could result from core and environning structure melting. The work reported here represents a 20-year contribution to thermal-hydraulic issues which could occur in FBRs and PWRs. Working on these two types of reactors, both in nominal and severe accident situations, has allowed me to compare the problems and to realize the importance of communication between research teams. The evolution in the complexity of studied problems, unavoidable in order to reduce costs and significantly improve safety, has led me from numerical modelling of single-phase flow turbulence to high temperature real melt experiments. The difficulties encountered in understanding the observed phenomena and in increasing experimental databases for computer code qualification have often entailed my participation in specific measurement device developments or adaptations, in particular non-intrusive devices generally based on optical techniques. Being concerned about the end-use of this research work, I actively participated in `in-situ` thermalhydraulic experiments in the FBRs: Phenix and Super-Phenix, of which I appreciated their undeniable scientific contribution. In my opinion, the thermal-hydraulic questions related to severe accidents are the most complex as they are at the cross-roads of several scientific specialities. Consequently, they require a multi-disciplinary approach and a continuous see-saw motion between experimentalists and modelling teams. After a brief description of the various problems encountered, the main ones are reported. Finally, the importance for research teams to participate in large international concerted actions is highlighted. (author) 64 refs.

  2. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors; Strategies pour l'incineration de dechets nucleaires dans des reacteurs hybrides

    Lelievre, F


    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactorsoffers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  3. Claim criteria of significant events implying the safety of PWR type reactors; Criteres de declaration des evenements significatifs impliquant la surete pour les reacteurs a eau pressurisee



    There are ten criteria for the declaration of the significant events implying the safety for PWR type reactors. First criterion: Automatic stop of the reactor: manual or automatic, inconvenient starting or not, the function of automatic stop of the reactor, whatever is the state of the reactor, with the exception of the deliberate starting resulting from planned actions. Second criterion: Starting of one of the systems of protection, manual or automatic, inconvenient starting or not, of one of the systems of protection, with the exception of the deliberate starting resulting from planned actions. Third criterion: Disregard of the technical specifications of exploitation (S.T.E ), or an event which would have been able to lead to a disregard of the S.T.E., if the same event had occurred, the installation having been in a different state, any disregard of one or several permanent conditions defined in S.T.E., any disregard of the conditions of a dispensation in S.T.E., any overtaking of periods when it is not prescribed by state of fold, any unavailability provoked outside the conditions planned by the main rules of exploitation, not identified beforehand or identified but untreated according to the prescriptions of the S.T.E. fourth criterion: Internal or external aggression, happening of a natural external phenomenon or in relation with a human activity, or happening of an internal flooding, a fire or another phenomenon susceptible to affect the availability of the equipment important for the safety. Fifth criterion: Act or attempt of act of hostility susceptible to affect the safety of the installation. Sixth criterion: Passage in state of fold in application of the technical specifications of exploitation or the accidental procedures of driving following an unforeseen behavior of the installation. Seventh criterion: Event having cause or being able to cause multiple failures, unavailability of equipment due to the same failure either affecting all the ways of a redundant system or the same type of equipment of several systems of safety. Eighth criterion: event or specific abnormality in the main primary circuit or the main secondary circuit or in the devices with pressure of the circuits which are connected to them, leading or being able to lead to a condition of functioning not taken into account in the conception or which would not be supervised by the existing orders of exploitation. Ninth criterion: abnormality of conception, manufacturing in factory, on-site assembly or exploitation of the installation concerning equipment and functional systems others than those covered by the criterion 8, leading or being able to lead to a not taken into account condition of functioning and which would not be covered by the conditions of sizing and the existing orders of exploitation. Tenth criterion: quite other event susceptible to affect the safety of the installation considered significant by the developer or by the nuclear safety Authority. (N.C.)

  4. Fuel and target programs for the transmutation at Phenix and other reactors; Programmes combustibles et cibles pour la transmutation dans Phenix et autres reacteurs

    Gaillard-Groleas, G


    The fuels and targets program for transmutation, performed in the framework of the axis 1 of the December 1991 law about the researches on the management of long-lived radioactive wastes, is in perfect consistency with the transmutation scenario studies carried out in the same framework. These studies put forward the advantage of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in the incineration of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. The program includes exploratory and technological demonstration studies covering the different design options. It aims at enhancing our knowledge of the behaviour of materials under irradiation and at ensuring the mastery of processes. The goals of the different experiments foreseen at Phenix reactor are presented. The main goal is to supply a set of results allowing to precise the conditions of the technical feasibility of minor actinides and long-lived fission products incineration in FBRs. (J.S.)

  5. Systemic model for the aid for operating of the reactor Siloe; Modelisation systeme pour l`aide a l`exploitation du reacteur de recherche Siloe

    Royer, J.C.; Moulin, V.; Monge, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Baradel, C. [ITMI APTOR, 38 - Meylan (France)


    The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Etude de l'influence du champ magnetique dans une section d'essais thermohydraulique d'un canal de reacteur nucleaire CANDU 6

    Landry-Lavoie, Renaud

    This memoir deals with the effects of the magnetic fields present in a thermal hydraulic test section of the Canadian nuclear industry. This test section is used to determine the thermal hydraulic conditions that can lead to critical heat flux in a channel of a CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. To perform their series of experiments the STERN Company used strong electric currents to heat the simulation bundles with a thermal power similar to the one found in a channel of a CANDU reactor. The materials constituting the simulation channel and its supports are of ferromagnetic nature. The strong magnetic field generated by the bundles implies that they are subjected to a magnetostatic force due to the magnetization of the ferromagnetic materials. The nuclear industry wants to know if these efforts, combined with the force of gravity, are sufficient to maintain the bundles in place in the simulation channel. The question also arises whether or not the magnetic field present in the channel can affect the parameters of boiling heat transfer. To determine the magnetic field distribution in the simulation channel, we had recourse to the magnetostatic image method and the integral method of calculation of magnetization. The results of the calculations show that the magnetostatic forces exerted by the ferromagnetic elements of the test section are inferior in magnitude to the one estimated by the STERN laboratorie. We used the mechanistic model of Sullivan et al. (1964) to evaluate the possible influence of the magnetic fields on the departure diameter of the vapor bubbles. The deviation in the frequency of bubble emission was evaluated by using the correlations of Zuber et al. (1959) and Cole (1960). By introducing a magnetostatic force in the boiling model and in the correlations, we demonstrated that the magnetic field present in the STERN test section has a negligible effect on the bubble departure diameter and their emission frequency. We conclude that the conditions in the test section are consistent with those prevailing in the channel of a CANDU 6 reactor.

  7. Research means to back the development of nuclear reactors; Les moyens de recherche en support a l'evolution des reacteurs nucleaires



    After 50 year long feedback experience on nuclear reactor operations it is legitimate to wonder whether experimental facilities used to support nuclear power programs are still necessary. The various participants of this conference said yes for mainly 4 reasons: -) to validate the extension of the service life of a reactor without putting at risk its high safety standard, -) to give the reactor more flexibility to cope with the power demand, -) to confront the results given by computerized simulations with experimental data, and -) to qualify the nuclear systems of tomorrow. (A.C.)

  8. Localized fast neutron flux enhancement for damage experiments in a research reactor; Accroissement local du flux rapide pour des experiences de dommages dans un reacteur de recherche

    Malouch, F


    In irradiation experiments on materials in the core of the Osiris reactor (CEA-Saclay) we seek to increase damage in irradiated samples and to reduce the duration of their stay in the core. Damage is essentially caused by fast neutrons (E {>=} 1 MeV); we have therefore pursued the possibility of a localized increase of their level in an irradiation experiment by using a flux converter device made up of fissile material arranged according to a suitable geometry that allows the converter to receive experiments. We have studied several parameters that are influential in the increase of fast neutron flux within the converter. We have also considered the problem of the converter's cooling in the core and its effect on the operation of the reactor. We have carried out a specific neutron calculation scheme based on the modular 2D-transport code APOLLO2 using a two-level transport method. Experimental validation of the flux calculation scheme was carried out in the ISIS reactor, the mock-up of OSIRIS, by optimizing the loading of fuel elements in the core. The experimental results show that the neutron calculation scheme computes the fluxes in close agreement with the measurements especially the fast flux. This study allows us to master the essential physical parameters needed for the design of a flux converter in an MTR reactor. (author)

  9. Microstructure and embrittlement of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel steels; Microstructure et fragilisation des aciers de cuve des reacteurs nucleaires VVER 440

    Hennion, A


    27 VVER 440 pressurised water reactors operate in former Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe. The pressure vessel, is made of Cr-Mo-V steel. It contains a circumferential arc weld in front of the nuclear core. This weld undergoes a high neutron flux and contains large amounts of copper and phosphorus, elements well known for their embrittlement potency under irradiation. The embrittlement kinetic of the steel is accelerated, reducing the lifetime of the reactor. In order to get informations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of these steels, base metals, HAZ, and weld metals have been characterized. The high amount of phosphorus in weld metals promotes the reverse temper embrittlement that occurs during post-weld heat treatment. The radiation damage structure has been identified by small angle neutron scattering, atomic probe, and transmission electron microscopy. Nanometer-sized clusters of solute atoms, rich in copper with almost the same characteristics as in western pressure vessels steels, and an evolution of the size distribution of vanadium carbides, which are present on dislocation structure, are observed. These defects disappear during post-irradiation tempering. As in western steels, the embrittlement is due to both hardening and reduction of interphase cohesion. The radiation damage specificity of VVER steels arises from their high amount of phosphorus and from their significant density of fine vanadium carbides. (author)

  10. Functional approaches: a new view of nuclear reactors management; Les approches fonctionnelles: une nouvelle vision de la conduite des reacteurs nucleaires

    Papin, B


    Since many years a research program on the future reactors command, has been decided by the CEA, in collaboration with EDF and Framatome. This program aims to enhance the reactor safety by a better control of the installation in any exploitation situations. The paper presents the state of the art and the first reflexions. (A.L.B.)

  11. The sea water desalination by the nuclear reactors; Le dessalement de l'eau de mer par les reacteurs nucleaires

    Nisan, S. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares DDIN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    This document underlines the importance of water shortage in many areas in the world in the future. The water sea desalination can be a efficient solution to this problem. The desalination methods are presented. In this context the desalination reactors appear as a competitive solution, facing the fossil energies systems not only for the simultaneous electric power and drinking water production, but also for the minimization of greenhouse gases. (A.L.B.)

  12. Measurement of neutrinos released in nuclear reactors through the Borexino experiment; Mesure des neutrinos de reacteurs nucleaires dans l'experience Borexino

    Dadoun, O


    The main goal of the Borexino experiment is to measure in real time the solar neutrino flux from the beryllium (Be{sup 7}) line at 862 keV. Beyond this pioneer low energy neutrino detection, Borexino will be able to measure solar neutrinos above the MeV, (B{sup 8} neutrinos and pep neutrinos), nuclear reactor neutrinos (with an average energy of 3 MeV) and the supernova neutrinos (their spectrum goes up to some ten MeV). In this work I mainly focus on the study of the nuclear reactors neutrinos. This field has recently been enriched by the results of the KamLAND experiment, which have greatly improved the determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters. In order to measure these events which are above the MeV, the Borexino collaboration entrusted the PCC group at College de France, with the tasks of developing a fast digit system running at 400 MHz: the FADC cards. The PCC group designed the FADC cards and completed them at the beginning of 2002. The first cards which were introduced in the main electronic acquisition unit allowed us to control their functioning and that of the acquisition software. FADC cards were also installed in the Borexino prototype, CTF. The data are analysed in order to determine a limit to the expected background noise of Borexino in measuring the nuclear reactor neutrinos. (author)

  13. Contribution to the optimization of the coupling of nuclear reactors to desalination processes; Contribution a l'optimisation du couplage des reacteurs nucleaires aux procedes de dessalement

    Dardour, S


    This work deals with modelling, simulation and optimization of the coupling between nuclear reactors (PWR, modular high temperature reactors) and desalination processes (multiple effect distillation, reverse osmosis). The reactors considered in this study are PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and GTMHR (Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor). The desalination processes retained are MED (Multi Effect Distillation) and SWRO (Sea Water Reverse Osmosis). A software tool: EXCELEES of thermodynamic modelling of coupled systems, based on the Engineering Algebraic Equation Solver has been developed. Models of energy conversion systems and of membrane desalination processes and distillation have been developed. Based on the first and second principles of thermodynamics, these models have allowed to determine the optimal running point of the coupled systems. The thermodynamic analysis has been completed by a first economic evaluation. Based on the use of the DEEP software of the IAEA, this evaluation has confirmed the interest to use these types of reactors for desalination. A modelling tool of thermal processes of desalination in dynamic condition has been developed too. This tool has been applied to the study of the dynamics of an existing plant and has given satisfying results. A first safety checking has been at last carried out. The transients able to jeopardize the integrated system have been identified. Several measures aiming at consolidate the safety have been proposed. (O.M.)

  14. Experiments prior to construction of the Rapsodie reactor (1962); Experiences preliminaires a la construction de la pile rapsodie (1962)

    Vautrey, L.; Zaleski, C.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Before proceeding to the construction of the various reactor components described in the paper 'Fast Breeder Reactor Rapsodie', many experimental studies of a hydraulic, thermal and mechanical character have been carried out, or are under consideration, to test the validity of the principles adopted in the Preliminary Project. This paper deals with the most important of these: 1. Studies of coolant circuit components: sodium pumps (mechanical or electromagnetic), Na-NaK and NaK ir heat exchangers, measuring instruments (flow rates, temperatures), sodium purification circuits, etc. 2. Studies in cooling of fuel and fertile assemblies: a) study of the sodium cooling carried out by means of hydraulic mockups (scale of 1: 1 or over) reproducing the flow of the coolant fluid in the piping, upstream from and inside the fuel and fertile elements. b) study of the cooling by gas and by immersion in lead, employed during handling and storage operations. 3. Studies of special reactor devices: fusible rotating linkage, parts of the control rod mechanisms. 4. Study of the reactor block and coolant circuits as a whole. This study is to begin at the end of the year. The mock-up, now nearing completion, reproduces on a scale of 1: 1 the installation provided in the Preliminary Project and includes: the reactor block, to which is connected a high flow ate sodium circuit, permitting of long-term tests and thermal shocks, and also, a control rod testing circuit; complete installation of the 1 MW and 10 MW coolant circuits, the performances of which it will be possible to check under various operational conditions. 5. A safety study carried out on a 3: 10 scale mock p comprising the whole of the reactor block and shielding, with the object of limiting the effects of any accidental liberation of energy of an explosive character. (authors) [French] Avant d'entreprendre la realisation des divers elements du reacteur decrit dans le rapport 'Reacteur rapide

  15. Les déterminants du statut “perdu de vue” chez les patients pris en charge pour cancer au Maroc: situation avant le Plan Cancer

    Najdi, Adil; Berraho, Mohamed; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Zidouh, Ahmed; Errihani, Hassan; Nejjari, Chakib


    Introduction Le cancer au Maroc représente un problème majeur de santé publique, sa prise en charge doit être globale, active et complète pour tous les patients. L'objectif de ce travail était d'estimer la fréquence des perdus de vue « PDV » en oncologie au Maroc durant la première année de suivi et de déterminer les facteurs associés à ce problème. Méthodes Par une étude rétrospective portant sur 2854 dossiers de malades hospitalisés dans les trois principaux centres d'oncologie au Maroc depuis janvier 2003 jusqu’à juin 2007 et concernant les cinq principales localisations de cancer au Maroc, nous avons cherché la date des dernières nouvelles des patients ayant un recul de 18 mois minimum afin de déterminer le statut de ces malades après un an de suivi. Résultats La moyenne d’âge était de 52±14 ans, une proportion féminine de 63%, les sujets actifs constituaient 28%, les mariés 71%, les analphabètes 51%, 70% des patients habitaient en milieu urbain et seulement 11% des malades disposaient d'une couverture sociale. La localisation cancéreuse la plus fréquente était le poumon (23,8%) suivie du colon-rectum (23,5%) puis le col (21,9%), le sein (20,4%) et les lymphomes (10,4%). Le taux des «PDV» à un an de suivi était de 48%, ce statut était significativement lié au sexe, à l’âge, au NSE et au statut matrimonial. Sur le plan médical, le statut «PDV» était lié à la localisation du cancer, au stade de diagnostic et au type de traitement reçu. Conclusion Notre étude a mis en évidence la grande ampleur du problème des PDV en cancérologie au Maroc ainsi que ces déterminants. Ces résultats incitent tous les acteurs dans le domaine de la cancérologie à collaborer ensemble pour prendre les mesures qui s'imposent pour y pallier PMID:25400850

  16. Politique et stratégie énergétiques de l’Inde avant et après Copenhague 2009

    Megha Shenoy


    Full Text Available L’Inde est un pays démocratique d’une extraordinaire diversité. Sa croissance économique est l’une des plus rapides au monde. C’est le sixième plus grand consommateur mondial d’énergie. Ses politiques et ses stratégies énergétiques suscitent un intérêt de plus en plus important en raison de leur impact considérable sur les relations géopolitiques, sur les prix mondiaux de l’énergie et sur les changements climatiques. Actuellement, sa consommation d’énergie per capita et ses valeurs d’émissions de gaz à effet de serre sont faibles. Cependant, elles sont vouées à augmenter si le pays emprunte la même trajectoire de développement que l’Occident. Pour que l’Inde saute par-dessus ces sentiers déjà souvent battus pour en atteindre un qui garantisse un développement durable, le pays doit impérativement redéfinir son paradigme de développement de sorte à assurer une croissance inclusive. Des subventions inviables, une mise en œuvre des réformes laissant à désirer, des prix énergétiques faussés et des investissements inadaptés dans des énergies renouvelables sont quelques-unes des principales entraves que le gouvernement indien doit réexaminer afin d’améliorer la sécurité énergétique et de fournir un cadre de transition vers une économie à faible intensité de carbone. Outre des politiques énergétiques innovatrices telles que la Mission solaire nationale (National Solar Mission, la Mission nationale pour l’amélioration de l’efficacité énergétique (National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency et la Mission nationale pour l’habitat durable (National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, l’Inde a besoin d’adopter un cadre de croissance découplée, que nous considérons comme une amélioration de la qualité de vie des citoyens sans pour autant intensifier les dommages à l’environnement. Depuis 2008, l’Inde démontre qu’elle prend au sérieux le changement de son modèle de croissance et le passage à des énergies propres. Néanmoins, ces perspectives ne se réaliseront pas pleinement si l’hémisphère Nord n’apporte pas une aide technique et financière pour atténuer collectivement les effets nuisibles du réchauffement de la planète et des changements climatiques qu’il provoque.

  17. Line 400000 volts Marlenheim-Vigy: step of summary draft; Liaison 400000 volts marlenheim-vigy: etape d'avant projet sommaire



    The rebuilding of the line 225000 volts by a 400000 volts line, between Marlenheim and Vigy, will allow to reinforce energy exchanges between Alsace and Lorraine, to reassure the city of Strasbourg and at long dated, assure the european train TGV-east alimentation. (A.L.B.)

  18. Mission Planning for Tactical Aircraft (Preflight and In-Flight) (Systemes de Planification des Missions Pour Avions Tactiques) (Avant Vol et en Vol).


    ation T,\\F Tactical Ai- ’~orce NBC Nuclear Biological Chemical TAMPS Tactical Aircraft Mission Planning System NLR National Aerospace Laboratory TEAMS...features are two dimensional. Once the map has been trans- will appear to flicker. A refresh rate of 60 frames per second is formed from databse

  19. Numéro hors série 2004 "Encéphalopathies spongiformes transmissibles animales".Sommaire & Avant-propos


    Ce numéro hors-série est consacré aux travaux sur les maladies à prions des animaux de ferme, menés à l’Inra en collaboration avec de nombreux organismes nationaux et internationaux. Il aborde de nombreuses facettes de la recherche sur ces agents et les maladies qu’ils occasionnent, tant sur le modèle tremblante que sur l’Encéphalopathie Spongiforme Bovine (ESB) : biologie de l’agent pathogène et notion de souche de prion, pathogénie de la maladie et résistance génétique, voies de transmissio...

  20. Hydro electric scheme on the Forestay river. Communes of Chexbres and Rivaz. Feasibility study; Turbinage du Forestay. Communes de Chexbres et Rivaz. Etude d'avant-projet



    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study of the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme located in Rivaz, Switzerland on the shore of the lake of Geneva. Water of the Forestay river, which crosses a steep wine region, is used in a 89 kW Pelton turbine with a water head of 63 m and a maximum flow rate of 180 litre/s, producing about 350,000 kWh/year for now more than 50 years. After retrofitting the maximum electric power produced should be 707 kW, generating 2,500,000 kWh/y by using a water head of 184 m and a maximum flow rate of 500 litre/s. Part of the new equipment would be mounted underground in order to respect the aesthetics of the beautiful site. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.109 CHF/kWh.

  1. An avant-garde professorship of neurobiology in education: Christofredo Jakob (1866-1956) and the 1920s lead of the National University of La Plata, Argentina.

    Théodoridou, Zoe D; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C


    The interdisciplinary trend in "Mind, Brain, and Education" has witnessed dynamic international growth in recent years. Yet, it remains little known that the National University of La Plata in Argentina probably holds the historical precedent as the world's first institution of higher education that formally included neurobiology in the curriculum of an educational department, having done so as early as 1922. The responsibility of teaching neurobiology to educators was assigned to Professor Christofredo Jakob (1866-1956). In the present article, we highlight Jakob's emphasis on interdisciplinarity and, in particular, on the neuroscientific foundations of education, including special education.

  2. 论先锋派的乌托邦主义%Utopianism of the Avant-garde: Its Origin, Manifestation and Contemporary Relevance




  3. Une méthode pour estimer l’interception du rayonnement par un couvert bas : application au colza avant montaison

    Denoroy Pascal


    Full Text Available Dans les modèles de simulation du fonctionnement des cultures, l’interception du rayonnement est une variable cruciale pour la prévision de la productivité en biomasse. D’autre part, la connaissance de l’interception du rayonnement par une culture permet de mieux analyser la réponse à un traitement en autorisant la distinction entre les effets morphogénétique et physiologique du traitement. Par exemple, dans l’étude de la fertilisation azotée du colza [1] on a pu faire la part de l’effet morphogénétique (accroissement de l’indice foliaire, donc de l’interception et de l’amélioration de la conversion photosynthétique du rayonnement absorbé. Dans un cas comme dans l’autre, une estimation correcte de l’interception du rayonnement est essentielle. Très souvent, un formalisme dérivé de la loi de Beer-Lambert est utilisé pour quantifier la part interceptée du rayonnement : PARi = epsiloni PAR (1 et epsiloni = 1 - e- k.IF (2, PAR représentant le rayonnement photosynthétiquement actif incident (exprimé en Joules ou en moles de photons, PARi la part de ce dernier interceptée par le couvert, epsiloni le coefficient (sans dimension d’interception, IF l’indice foliaire et k le coefficient d’extinction du rayonnement. Un formalisme un peu plus complexe doit être utilisé si on veut considérer le rayonnement absorbé [1, 2]. Pour des cultures couvrantes, la sensibilité de ces modèles à la valeur de k est faible pour les IF élevés, c’est pourquoi ces modèles sont souvent utilisés avec succès. Mais aux faibles IF, les modèles sont sensibles à k, d’où l’importance de l’estimation de ce paramètre pour les cultures présentant une longue période de faible couverture du sol, tel le colza peu fertilisé en phase hivernale. De plus, pour les cultures discontinues, c’est-à-dire présentant des zones où le sol n’est pas du tout couvert par la végétation, comme les inter-rangs, on doit introduire dans l’équation 2 un paramètre représentant le taux de couverture du sol. Si l’estimation par mesure directe de epsiloni et donc l’estimation de k sont assez simples, au moins dans le principe pour un couvert développé en hauteur (colza après montaison [3], une telle mesure devient beaucoup plus complexe dans le cas d’un couvert discontinu et bas. Dans ce milieu hétérogène (et souvent dans des conditions hivernales sévères, une distribution représentative des capteurs de rayonnement est difficile, les risques de perturbation de la mesure (salissure des capteurs, déréglages sont élevés. Plusieurs études ont déjà traité de epsiloni et k dans le cas du colza [3-7]. Elles sont fondées sur des mesures d’interception du rayonnement et concernent des couverts fermés, après montaison. Une autre approche consiste à effectuer un calcul précis de PARi avec des modèles détaillés utilisant une description complète des paramètres (géométriques et radiatifs du feuillage, et du rayonnement incident [8]. Mais les données nécessaires sont alors nombreuses, complexes à obtenir et donc généralement non disponibles en expérimentation. Pour répondre aux besoins de calcul de l’interception du rayonnement dans les phases d’installation du colza, cet article présente une méthode permettant de calculer epsiloni en tenant compte des principales caractéristiques de la morphologie du couvert et du régime radiatif auquel ce dernier est soumis. Les données nécessaires sont limitées : l’indice foliaire, les taux de couverture du sol (deux définitions, la latitude du lieu considéré, la date et le rayonnement incident quotidien. Ce calcul permet une estimation du coefficient moyen d’extinction k (équation 2. On verra que k peut être corrélé à l’IF, la période de l’année et la latitude du lieu, ce qui permet de proposer une estimation simple de k et donc un calcul simplifié de epsiloni, adapté au cas des faibles IF(colza entre levée et montaison.

  4. United Kingdom from past leadership to the renaissance of nuclear industry; Le Royaume-Uni: a l'avant-garde de la renaissance du nucleaire

    Capdevila, J.M. [CEA/Ambassade de France a Londres (United Kingdom)


    United-Kingdom has developed a long tradition of know-how in the domain of nuclear energy since 1956 when the first power reactor entered into service at Calder Hall site. From 1956 till now 45 reactors have been successively connected to the grid. All the sectors of nuclear industry were developed: uranium conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, MOX fabrication, spent fuels reprocessing and radioactive waste management. Now British nuclear industry is slowly getting out of a 20 year long period of lethargy due mainly to the lost competition with the oil and gas from the North sea fields. Since 2008 and because the North sea resources are waning, U.K. has become again an oil importer. The new energy policy of the government is to favor renewable energies and to support at least the renewal of the today's reactors. 19 reactors are operating but most are old: 14 reactors will have to be stopped by 2018 unless service life extensions are allowed. The French EDF company who purchased British-Energy in 2009 has announced the construction of 4 EPR by 2025. The renaissance of the nuclear industry in U.K. is all the easier as the past was glorious. (A.C.)

  5. Retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin de Bavois' - Feasibility study; Rehabilitation du Moulin de Bavois. Etude d'avant-projet



    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study of the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin de Bavois' located in Bavois on the Talent river, Switzerland. The existing scheme uses a 12 m water fall and its power amounts to about 10 kW. After retrofitting, based on a future new water-use concession, the maximum electric power produced should be 172 kW, generating 531 MWh/y, 65% of which in the wintertime. New weir and penstock are foreseen as is an axial Kaplan turbine and a reliable water cleaning device. The Talent river flows in the woods. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.214 CHF/kWh.

  6. Mesure du taux de couverture du sol pour estimer les principales caractéristiques d’une culture de colza avant montaison

    Denoroy Pascal


    Full Text Available L’étude de paramètres biologiques en expérimentation au champ est fastidieuse et les mesures directes sur échantillons de plantes induisent des problèmes pratiques, en particulier pour le suivi hivernal des cultures (durée du prélèvement, conservation, rapidité de traitement…, qui limitent leur utilisation à un petit nombre d’essais. Aussi, en général, peu de mesures sont réalisées en cours de végétation et, si on dispose de résultats finals, on n’a guère d’informations quantitatives intermédiaires, en particulier sur la dynamique d’installation de la culture. Ces informations permettraient pourtant de mieux analyser les sources de variation des résultats par une analyse de différents processus de la croissance : mise en place de la surface foliaire, accumulation de la matière sèche, absorption des minéraux… Il serait donc utile de disposer de méthodes permettant d’estimer des variables d’état biologiques en cours de culture tout en minimisant le temps et les moyens nécessaires au recueil des données. Ce qui suit fait état des résultats obtenus dans une étude concernant l’intérêt d’utiliser de simples photographies verticales pour estimer diverses grandeurs caractérisant une culture de colza au stade rosette. Ces travaux font suite à des résultats publiés précédemment, d’une part, sur blé [1] et d’autre part, sur maïs et betterave [2].

  7. På røde strømpefødder i avantgardens fodspor / In the footsteps of the avant-garde in red-stockinged feet

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg


    Kunst skaber diskurser, måder at tale om og forstå ting på, og diskurser skaber politik. Den islandske kunstnergruppe The Icelandic Love Corporation (ILC) tror på kunstens evne til at rykke ved samfundet. De kalder deres udstilling på ARoS Love Conquers All! for at understrege kærlighedens betydn...

  8. Analyse multi-échelle de la morphodynamique d'une plage artificielle, Avant-port Ouest de Dunkerque (Nord de la France).

    Bertier, Jimmy


    Summary The Clipon beach is a13 km long artificial beach, created in the 1960s, following the extension of Dunkirk harbour. This study is based on a multiscale approach: a temporal scale extending from half a century to the tidal period, and a spatial scale going from the analysis of the morphological dynamics of the whole beach (104 m) to the examination of the morphosedimentary processes of elementary landforms like intertidal bars (101 - 102 m). The large-scale analysis concerns (1) coastl...

  9. Retrofitting of the hydro-power installation of Vicques, Switzerland; Rehabilitation de la centrale de Vicques, Emile Aebin SA. Etude d'avant-projet



    This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work involved in obtaining a new concession for the use of the water in the mill canal in Vicques, Switzerland on the Scheulte river. The author states that the existing concession for use is not optimal and should be optimised. A window of opportunity exists as a new river protection law requires a higher residual water flow rate and the creation of a fish passage facility. The paper discusses how the production of electrical energy could be doubled. The existing installation is described. Details of existing conduits and the installed power generator are presented. The measures proposed for the renewal of the hydro-power plant are described. An annex includes a copy of the construction plans.

  10. Mission Planning Systems for Tactical Aircraft (Pre-Flight and In- Flight) (Systemes de Planification des Missions pour Avions Tactiques (Avant Vol et en Vol)


    specifically to meet this requiremnenL 4.2.2. Evaluation of Current Procedures. leelofinterpeability i tues aciebed oreq if an effective Ergonomi , The...include 6.2.6. In-Flight Ergonomi Isue routes, timings, IP, fuel load etc. If a degree of re planning is to be carried out in flight. additional 6-26.1

  11. The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland; Avant-projet. Petite centrale hydroelectrique de Boudry 'Pontareuse'

    Hausmann, M.


    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered.

  12. Radionuclide cardiac evaluation before and after trans-myocardial laser revascularization: two case reports; Evaluation cardioscintigraphique avant et apres laser transmyocardique: etude de deux cas cliniques

    Benamor, M.; Tainturier, C.; Ricci, A.; Dreyfus, G. [Centre Medico-Chirurgical Foch, 92 - Suresnes (France)


    Two patients aged 74 and 58 years old presenting with severe angina pectoris scored IV (CCS), who have become refractory to medical treatment and who were not candidates for coronary artery by pass graft, nor for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, were referred for tans-myocardial laser revascularization (TML). We present here the radionuclide cardiac evaluation results before and after TML. A clinical, ECG and radionuclide evaluation was performed after a conventional stress myocardial study using thallium-201 and injection of dipyridamole, followed by a gated SPECT radionuclide ventriculography. The data obtained included thallium-201 regional uptake, measurement of lung and liver uptake (lung/heart and liver/heart ratios) on the anterior tomographic projection view, left ventricular ejection fraction and regional wall motions. The results show a relative improvement for patient number 1 and an almost unchanged status for patient number 2; however, lung/heart and liver/heart ratios reflected more closely the complete alleviation of angina pectoris for both patients obtained four and five months after TML. This study, which is well correlated with published data in the literature, shows that objective improvements of cardiac perfusion and regional wall motions are not obvious despite the fact that a clear clinical improvements is obtained after TML. Additional controlled studies with a statistically significant number of patients are needed to determine the clinical opportunity and usefulness of this myocardial surgical revascularization procedure which is still currently in an investigational phase. (authors). 18 refs.

  13. Les armes du dépôt du Cailar (Gard, France IIIe siècle avant notre ère

    Cantuel, Jean


    Full Text Available A great amount of different types of weapons has been found in the archaeological site of Le Cailar (Gard, France. This proto-historic settlement is located in the lower Rhône valley and was founded in the middle, or maybe at the beginnings, of the 6th century BC. Le Cailar was an important port of trade dealing with different Mediterranean products, mainly wine and pottery. The relation with the Phocean city of Massalia was certainly strong. During the 3rd century BC, a vast sacred area was created along the city walls. In this space, numerous weapons, other metallic objects and fragments of human skull bones (cut-off heads, but also coins and fragments of animal bones and pottery have been found. These elements shed light on ritual practices related to war during the 3rd century BC.Un gran número de distintos tipos de armas ha sido hallado en el yacimiento arqueológico de Le Cailar (Gard, Francia. Este asentamiento protohistórico está ubicado en el valle bajo del Ródano y fue fundado a mediados, o quizás a inicios, del siglo VI a.C. Le Cailar fue un importante puerto de comercio donde están atestiguadas distintas producciones mediterráneas, en especial vino y cerámica. La relación con la ciudad focense de Massalia fue seguramente intensa. Durante el siglo III a.C., un vasto espacio sagrado fue creado a lo largo de las murallas. En este espacio han sido halladas numerosas armas, otros objetos metálicos y fragmentos de calaveras humanas (cabezas cortadas, así como monedas y fragmentos de huesos animales y de cerámica. Estos elementos arrojan luz sobre las prácticas rituales relacionadas con la guerra durante el siglo III a.C. [fr] Différents types d’armes ont été retrouvés en grand nombre sur le site du Cailar (Gard, France. Cet établissement protohistorique est situé dans la basse vallée du Rhône et fut fondé au milieu, ou peut-être au début, du VIe s. a.C. Le Cailar fut un important port de commerce où sont attestés différentes productions d’origine méditerranéennes, comme le vin et la céramique. Les relations avec la cité phocéenne de Massalia furent probablement importantes. Au cours du IIIe s. a.C., une vaste aire sacrée fut créée le long des murailles. A l’intérieur de cet espace ont été retrouvés des armes et divers objets métalliques, ainsi que des fragments de crânes humains (têtes coupées, des monnaies et des fragments de céramiques et d’os animaux. Ces éléments permettent d’éclairer les pratiques rituelles liées à la guerre au IIIe s. a.C.

  14. The region of Valencia: an avant-garde integration. The School of Reception / Comunitat Valenciana: una integración de vanguardia. La Escuela de Acogida

    Elisa María Núñez Sánchez


    Full Text Available The Voluntary Program of Understanding of the Valencian Society (The School of Reception, a unique and pioneer project in Spain, is included in Title II of the Commitment to Integration of Law 15/2008 of Integration of Immigrant Persons in the Region of Valencia (LIPIE and in Decree 93/2009, by which the regulation of the aforementioned law is approved. This program is a tool that introduces immigrants voluntarily to the knowledge of the values and rules of democratic conviviality, their rights and duties, the politico-constitutional structure of Spain, and the official languages of the region, both Spanish and Valencian, all essential elements for said persons to know the society that has received them and in order to integrate into it.

  15. Using hydro power at the Chiblins Mill - Feasibility study; Etude d'avant-projet PCH Moulin de Chiblins - Rapport final

    Ramseyer, P.


    Today, the Chiblins Mill in Gingins, Switzerland is the location of an agricultural machinery museum and is also used for meetings and festivals. The old water wheel from the 19{sup th} century has no mechanical function any longer. The idea of the current project is to use the 6 m high water fall on the joined rivers Asse and Bam to generate electricity. A 10 kW turbine could be installed and produce about 75,000 kWh/y. The technical and economical feasibility of the project is demonstrated. The recommended next step is the request of a water use license.

  16. Désulfuration : avant, pendant ou après la combustion ? Synthèse bibliographique Desulfurization: Before, During Or After Combustion? Bibliographic Synthesis

    Benchecroun N.


    Full Text Available Les perspectives d'applications de nouvelles normes aux émissions des grandes installations de combustion, tant aux Etats-Unis qu'en Europe de l'Ouest ont suscité de nombreuses recherches. Les diverses publications qui leur sont consacrées traitent le plus souvent de la combustion de charbons et, beaucoup plus rarement, de l'adaptabilité de ces procédés à des combustibles liquides ou de techniques spécifiques. Les principaux points technico-économiques qui se dégagent sur la désulfuration des combustibles liquides sont donnés dans cet article. Enfin, au-delà des aspects techniques, on notera que la désulfuration des combustibles liquides, et plus particulièrement du fuel lourd, est liée à deux aspects plus politiques : - l'application de normes sur les émissions des installations de combustion (ou les dérogations possibles qui concernent non seulement les oxydes de soufre mais aussi les oxydes d'azote et les particules contenues dans les fumées; - l'avenir des fuels lourds tant sur le plan quantitatif (marché que qualitatif (constitution du pool fuel et spécifîcations. The prospects that new emission standards will be applied to large combustion installations, both in the United States and Western Europe, have given rise to extensive research. The different publications devoted to this research usually deal with coal combustion and more rarely with the suitability of such processes for liquid fuels or specific techniques. The leading technico-economic points involved in the desulfurization of liquid fuels are given in this article. Likewise, over and beyond the technical aspects, it can be seen that the desulfurization of liquid fuels, and more particularly of heavy fuel oil, is linked to two more politicalaspects:(a the application of standards on emissions from combustion installations (or possible derogations concerning not only sulfur oxides but also nitrogen oxides and particles contained in fumes;(b the future of heavy fuel oils from the quantitative (market as well as qualitative (composition of the fuel-oil pool and specifications standpoints.

  17. Electronuclear reactors - EDF - Orientations of generic studies to be performed for the safety re-examination of 1300 MWe reactors associated to their third decennial inspection; Reacteurs electronucleaires - EDF - Orientations des etudes generiques a mener pour le reexamen de surete des reacteurs de 1300 MWe associe a leur troisieme visite decennale



    This report expresses the ASN's opinion on the framework and objectives of the EDF program concerning the generic studies of the safety re-examination of the 1300 MWe reactors associated with their third decennial inspection. This comprises lessons from the Fukushima accident, the improvement of the 'internal explosion' referential by using a probabilistic study, the application of the seismic margin assessment approach as soon as possible, checking the absence of any 'cliff effect' for cooling functions, a deepened re-examination of hurricane frequencies in France. Other request by the ASN concern the verification of the pertinence of release authorizations, taking the TSN law into account, taking the AP1300 project into account, the expansion of the complementary domain, the project of reactor lifetime extension. Some technical requests are discussed in appendix

  18. {alpha} grain refining and metallurgical study of alloyed uranium, Sicral F1, used for fuel elements; Affinage du grain {alpha} et etude metallurgique de l'alliage d'uranium sicral F1 pour elements combustibles

    Magnier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This study was made to know more about grain refining in low alloyed uranium of composition not very different from SICRAL F 1. Alpha grain refining of fuel elements made of these alloys was studied after casting and quenching by the methods used for mass production. The author describes the effect: - of the metallurgical history before quenching: - casting - purity - rate of solidification - of quenching parameters: - annealing temperature before quenching - annealing time - quenching rate - of the composition of the alloy. For the graphite gas fuel elements of various dimensions, he suggests some modifications to give a better adaptation of fabrication to size. He describes the grain refining made during quenching and the {beta} -> {alpha} and {gamma} -> {alpha} transformation types. He proposes the use of a U-Fe-Si especially useful from the point of view of grain refining. (author) [French] Le but de l'etude est de determiner les facteurs metallurgiques favorables a l'affinage du grain {alpha} des alliages d'uranium a tres faibles teneurs en elements d'addition voisins du SICRAL F 1 au cours du cycle de fabrication et de trempe industrielle des elements combustibles nucleaires prepares avec ces alliages. L'auteur met en evidence l'influence: - de l'histoire metallurgique avant trempe: - coulee - teneur en impuretes - vitesse de solidification - des parametres de la trempe: - temperature de trempe - temps et maintien a cette temperature - vitesse de trempe - des variations de composition de l'alliage. Il envisage les modifications a apporter au cycle de fabrication du SICRAL F 1 de facon a l'adapter aux differentes geometries des elements combustibles des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz. L'auteur presente a cette occasion les mecanismes de l'affinage du grain {alpha} par trempe dans les alliages d'uranium et les modes de transformation {beta} -> {alpha} et {gamma} -> {alpha} au cours de la trempe

  19. General meeting. Technical reunion: the numerical and experimental simulation applied to the Reactor Physics; Assemblee generale. Reunion technique: la simulation numerique et experimentale appliquee a la physique des reacteurs



    The SFEN (French Society on Nuclear Energy), organized the 18 october 2001 at Paris, a technical day on the numerical and experimental simulation, applied to the reactor Physics. Nine aspects were discussed, giving a state of the art in the domain:the french nuclear park; the future technology; the controlled thermonuclear fusion; the new organizations and their implications on the research and development programs; Framatome-ANP markets and industrial code packages; reactor core simulation at high temperature; software architecture; SALOME; DESCARTES. (A.L.B.)

  20. First remarks on the initiative of conception and evaluation of the safety of the reactors of the fourth generation; Premieres reflexions sur la demarche de conception et d'evaluation de la surete des reacteurs de quatrieme generation

    Clement, Ch.; Maliverney, B.; Mulet-Marquis, D.; Sauvage, J.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Guesdon, B. [Technical Secretary (France); Carluec, B.; Ehster, S. [AREVA NP, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Greneche, D. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Anzieu, P. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Fiorini, G.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rozenholc, M.; Vitton, F.; Rouyer, J.L


    The objectives of the nuclear systems of the fourth generation impose ambitious requirements which concern the sustainable development, the competitiveness, the safety, the reliability, the resistance to proliferation and the physical protection. The examination of the policies of safety applicable to these systems is led at the same moment to the national and international levels. In France, thoughts on the safety is organized within the French consultative group of safety (G.C.F.S.) which collects the industrial actors and of research and development involved in the development of the new systems. Within the framework of the initiatives of international harmonization, the G.C.F.S. suggests defining recommendations common to all the concepts of the fourth generation reactors then on the basis of this neutral frame towards the technologies, establishing specific recommendations for each of the systems. (N.C.)

  1. Improvement of the decay heat removal characteristics of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor; Amelioration des caracteristiques de la dissipation de la chaleur de decroissance pour les reacteurs a neutrons rapides de quatrieme generation refroidi au gaz

    Epiney, A.S.


    The main drawback of the GFR is the difficulty to evacuate decay heat following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) due to the low thermal inertia of the core, as well as to the low coolant density. The present doctoral research focuses on the improvement of decay heat removal (DHR) for the Generation-IV GFR. The reference GFR system design considered in the thesis is the 2006 CEA concept, with a power of 2400 MWth. The CEA 2006 DHR strategy foresees, in all accidental cases (independent of the system pressure), that the reactor is shut down. For high pressure events, dedicated DHR loops with blowers and heat exchangers are designed to operate when the power conversion system cannot be used to provide acceptable core temperatures under natural convection conditions. For de-pressurized events, the strategy relies on a dedicated small containment (called the guard containment) providing an intermediate back-up pressure. The DHR blowers, designed to work under these pressure conditions, need to be powered either by the power grid or by batteries for at least 24 hours. The specific contributions of the present research - aimed at achieving enhanced passivity of the DHR system for the GFR - are design and analysis related to (1) the injection of heavy gas into the primary circuit after a LOCA, to enable natural convection cooling at an intermediate-pressure level, and (2) an autonomous Brayton loop to evacuate decay heat at low primary pressure in case of a loss of the guard containment pressure. Both these developments reduce the dependence on blower power availability considerably. First, the thermal-hydraulic codes used in the study - TRACE and CATHARE - are validated for gas cooling. The validation includes benchmark comparisons between the codes, serving to identify the sensitivity of the results to the different modeling assumptions. The parameters found to be the most sensitive in this analysis, such as heat transfer and friction models, are then validated via a detailed re-analysis of earlier PSI (EIR, at the time) gas-loop experiments conducted in the 1970's. Conclusions and recommendations on the models to be used for transient analysis are derived. In general, it has been shown that the agreement, between experiments and the correlations for heat transfer and friction used in TRACE and CATHARE, is quite satisfactory. The thus validated codes are then used in the two detailed, DHR improvement studies carried out. The first improvement of the reference DHR strategy is the heavy gas injection. Assuming a DHR blower failure after a LOCA, the helium pressure in the guard containment is not high enough to evacuate the decay heat by natural convection. To improve the natural convection, the effects of injecting different heavy gases (N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, Ar and a N{sub 2}/He mixture) into the primary circuit were analyzed, in order to address the possibility of dealing with DHR-blower failure while accepting an intermediate back-up pressure in the guard containment. Furthermore, different injection locations and injection mass flows were considered, and the sensitivity to the number of available DHR loops and LOCA break-sizes was also addressed. It has been found that injecting the heavy gas in the vicinity of the core could lead to overcooling problems. For an injection point sufficiently far from the core, however, both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} are found to be able to cool the core satisfactorily in natural convection. N2 is proposed as the reference, due to possible chemical problems with CO{sub 2}. The second proposition for DHR improvement is related to the possibility of a simultaneous guard-containment failure, i.e. a loss-of-back-up-pressure (LOBP) combined with a blower failure after a LOCA. In this case the natural convection, even with heavy gas injection, is no longer strong enough to evacuate the decay heat. To address this issue, the possibility of decay heat removal via use of a dedicated autonomous Brayton cycle - as a standalone DHR loop - has been investigated. First, an analytical Brayton cycle model h

  2. Modeling by artificial neural networks. Application to the management of fuel in a nuclear power plant; Modelisation par reseaux de neurones. Application a la gestion du combustible dans un reacteur

    Gaudier, F


    The determination of the family of optimum core loading patterns for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) involves the assessment of the core attributes, such as the power peaking factor for thousands of candidate loading patterns. Despite the rapid advances in computer architecture, the direct calculation of these attributes by a neutronic code needs a lot of of time and memory. With the goal of reducing the calculation time and optimizing the loading pattern, we propose in this thesis a method based on ideas of neural and statistical learning to provide a feed forward neural network capable of calculating the power peaking corresponding to an eighth core PWR. We use statistical methods to deduct judicious inputs (reduction of the input space dimension) and neural methods to train the model (learning capabilities). Indeed, on one hand, a principal component analysis allows us to characterize more efficiently the fuel assemblies (neural model inputs) and the other hand, the introduction of the a priori knowledge allows us to reducing the number of freedom parameters in the neural network. The model was built using a multi layered perceptron trained with the standard back propagation algorithm. We introduced our neural network in the automatic optimization code FORMOSA, and on EDF real problems we showed an important saving in time. Finally, we propose an hybrid method which combining the best characteristics of the linear local approximator GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) and the artificial neural network. (author)

  3. Turbulent precipitation of uranium oxalate in a vortex reactor - experimental study and modelling; Precipitation turbulente d'oxalate d'uranium en reacteur vortex - etude experimentale et modelisation

    Sommer de Gelicourt, Y


    Industrial oxalic precipitation processed in an un-baffled magnetically stirred tank, the Vortex Reactor, has been studied with uranium simulating plutonium. Modelling precipitation requires a mixing model for the continuous liquid phase and the solution of population balance for the dispersed solid phase. Being chemical reaction influenced by the degree of mixing at molecular scale, that commercial CFD code does not resolve, a sub-grid scale model has been introduced: the finite mode probability density functions, and coupled with a model for the liquid energy spectrum. Evolution of the dispersed phase has been resolved by the quadrature method of moments, first used here with experimental nucleation and growth kinetics, and an aggregation kernel based on local shear rate. The promising abilities of this local approach, without any fitting constant, are strengthened by the similarity between experimental results and simulations. (author)

  4. Contribution of prototypic material tests on the Plinius platform to the study of nuclear reactor severe accident; Contribution des essais en materiaux prototypiques sur la plate-forme Plinius a l'etude des accidents graves de reacteurs nucleaires

    Journeau, Ch


    The PLINIUS experimental platform at CEA Cadarache is dedicated to the experimental study of nuclear reactor severe accidents thanks to experiments between 2000 and 3500 K with prototypic corium. Corium is the mixture that would be formed by an hypothetical core melting and its mixing with structural materials. Prototypical corium has the same chemical composition as the corium corresponding to a given accident scenario but has a different isotopic composition (use of depleted uranium,...). Research programs and test series have been performed to study corium thermophysical properties, fission product behaviour, corium spreading, solidification and interaction with concrete as well as its coolability. It was the frame of research training of many students and was realized within national, European and international collaborations. (author)

  5. Pilot-plant scale separation and reuse of TiO{sub 2}- photo-catalyst in degrading reactions; Photo reacteur solaire pilote pour separation et reutilisation du catalyseur TiO{sub 2} utilise pour des reactions de degradation

    Fernandez-Ibanez, P.; Blanco, J.; Malato, S. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain); Las Nieves, F.J. de [University of Almeria, Dept. of Applied Physics, Almeria (Spain)


    TiO{sub 2}-catalyst suspensions work very efficiently in photo-catalysis for waste-water treatment. Nevertheless, once photo-catalysis is complete, separation of the catalyst from solution becomes the main problem. The catalyst has been recovered by introducing accelerated sedimentation of TiO{sub 2} particles. This paper reports on the reuse of two types of TiO{sub 2} catalysts for photo-catalysis of tetra-chloro-ethylene at pilot plant scale (50L). One is the well-known Degussa P25 and the other was obtained from ENEL Labs (Italy). Two procedures for reuse were tested: the reuse of slurry after degradation without separation of the catalyst and reuse of the catalyst after it has settled to the bottom. (authors)

  6. Tridimensional ultrasonic images analysis for the in service inspection of fast breeder reactors; Analyse d'images tridimensionnelles ultrasonores pour l'inspection en service des reacteurs a neutrons rapides

    Dancre, M


    Tridimensional image analysis provides a set of methods for the intelligent extraction of information in order to visualize, recognize or inspect objects in volumetric images. In this field of research, we are interested in algorithmic and methodological aspects to extract surface visual information embedded in volume ultrasonic images. The aim is to help a non-acoustician operator, possibly the system itself, to inspect surfaces of vessel and internals in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). Those surfaces are immersed in liquid metal, what justifies the ultrasonic technology choice. We expose firstly a state of the art on the visualization of volume ultrasonic images, the methods of noise analysis, the geometrical modelling for surface analysis and finally curves and surfaces matching. These four points are then inserted in a global analysis strategy that relies on an acoustical analysis (echoes recognition), an object analysis (object recognition and reconstruction) and a surface analysis (surface defects detection). Few literature can be found on ultrasonic echoes recognition through image analysis. We suggest an original method that can be generalized to all images with structured and non-structured noise. From a technical point of view, this methodology applied to echoes recognition turns out to be a cooperative approach between morphological mathematics and snakes (active contours). An entropy maximization technique is required for volumetric data binarization. (author)

  7. Stress corrosion cracking in the vessel closure head penetrations of French PWR`s; Fissuration par corrosion sous contrainte de penetrations de couvercle de cuve de reacteur nucleaire francais a eau pressurisee

    Buisine, D.; Cattant, F.; Champredonde, J.; Pichon, C.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.; Vaindirlis, M.


    During a hydrotest in September 1991, part of the statutory decennial in-service inspection, a leak was detected on the vessel head of Bugey 3, which is one of the first 900 MW 3-loop PWR`s in France. This leak was due to a cracked penetration used for a control rod drive mechanism. The investigations performed identified Primary Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 as being the origin of this degradation. So a lot of the same design PWR`s are a concern due to this generic problem. In this case, PWSCC was linked to: - hot temperature of the vessel head; - high residual stresses due to the welding process between peripherical penetrations and the vessel head; - sensitivity of forged Alloy 600 used for penetration manufacturing. This following paper will present the cracked analysis based, in particular, on the main results obtained in France on each of these items. These results come from the operating experience, the destructive examinations and the programs which are running on stress analysis and metallurgical characterizations. (authors). 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Development of a TiO{sub 2}-coated optical fiber reactor for water decontamination; Developpement d'un reacteur a base de fibres optiques photocatalytiquement actives pour la depollution de l'eau

    Danion, A


    The objective of this study was to built and to study a photo-reactor composed by TiO{sub 2}-coated optical fibers for water decontamination. The physico-chemical characteristics and the optical properties of the TiO{sub 2} coating were first studied. Then, the influences of different parameters as the coating thickness, the coating length and the coating volume were investigated both on the light transmission in the TiO{sub 2}- coated fiber and on the photo-catalytic activity of the fiber for a model compound (malic acid). The photo-catalytic degradation of malic acid was optimized using the experimental design methodology allowing to build a multi-fiber reactor comprising 57 optical fibers. The photo-degradation of malic acid was conducted in the multi-fiber reactor and it was demonstrated that the multi-fiber reactor was more efficient than the single-fiber reactor at the same fibers density. Finally, the multi-fiber reactor was applied to the photo-degradation of a fungicide, called fenamidone, and a degradation pathway was proposed. (author)

  9. Comparative analysis of operation and safety of subcritical nuclear systems and innovative critical reactors; Analyse comparative du fonctionnement et de la surete de systemes sous-critiques et de reacteurs critiques innovants

    Bokov, P.M


    The main goal of this thesis work is to investigate the role of core subcriticality for safety enhancement of advanced nuclear systems, in particular, molten salt reactors, devoted to both energy production and waste incineration/transmutation. The inherent safety is considered as ultimate goal of this safety improvement. An attempt to apply a systematic approach for the analysis of the subcriticality contribution to inherent properties of hybrid system was performed. The results of this research prove that in many cases the subcriticality may improve radically the safety characteristics of nuclear reactors, and in some configurations it helps to reach the 'absolute' intrinsic safety. In any case, a proper choice of subcriticality level makes all analyzed transients considerably slower and monotonic. It was shown that the weakest point of the independent-source systems with respect to the intrinsic safety is thermohydraulic unprotected transients, while in the case of the coupled-source systems the excess reactivity/current insertion events remain a matter of concern. To overcome these inherent drawbacks a new principle of realization of a coupled sub-critical system (DENNY concept) is proposed. In addition, the ways to remedy some particular safety-related problems with the help of the core sub-criticality are demonstrated. A preliminary safety analysis of the fast-spectrum molten salt reactor (REBUS concept) is also carried out in this thesis work. Finally, the potential of the alternative (to spallation) neutron sources for application in hybrid systems is examined. (author)

  10. Modeling in fast dynamics of accidents in the primary circuit of PWR type reactors; Modelisation en dynamique rapide d'accidents dans le circuit primaire des reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Robbe, M.F


    Two kinds of accidents, liable to occur in the primary circuit of a Pressurized Water Reactor and involving fast dynamic phenomena, are analyzed. The Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is the accident used to define the current PWR. It consists in a large-size break located in a pipe of the primary circuit. A blowdown wave propagates through the circuit. The pressure differences between the different zones of the reactor induce high stresses in the structures of the lower head and may degrade the reactor core. The primary circuit starts emptying from the break opening. Pressure decreases very quickly, involving a large steaming. Two thermal-hydraulic simulations of the blowdown phase of a LOCA are computed with the Europlexus code. The primary circuit is represented by a pipe-model including the hydraulic peculiarities of the circuit. The main differences between both computations concern the kind of reactor, the break location and model, and the initialization of the accidental operation. Steam explosion is a hypothetical severe accident liable to happen after a core melting. The molten part of the core (called corium) falls in the lower part of the reactor. The interaction between the hot corium and the cold water remaining at the bottom of the vessel induces a massive and violent vaporization of water, similar to an explosive phenomenon. A shock wave propagates in the vessel. what can damage seriously the neighbouring structures or drill the vessel. This work presents a synthesis of in-vessel parametrical studies carried out with the Europlexus code, the linkage of the thermal-hydraulic code Mc3d dedicated to the pre-mixing phase with the Europlexus code dealing with the explosion, and finally a benchmark between the Cigalon and Europlexus codes relative to the Vulcano mock-up. (author)

  11. Development and qualification of reference calculation schemes for absorbers in pressured water reactor; Elaboration et qualification de schemas de calcul de reference pour les absorbants dans les reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Blanc-Tranchant, P


    The general field in which this work takes place is the field of the accuracy improvement of neutronic calculations, required to operate Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) with a better precision and a lower cost. More specifically, this thesis deals with the calculation of the absorber clusters used to control these reactors. The first aim of that work was to define and validate a reference calculation route of such an absorber cluster, based on the deterministic code APOLLO2. This calculation scheme was then to be checked against experimental data. This study of the complex situation of absorber clusters required several intermediate studies, of simpler problems, such as the study of fuel rods lattices and the study of single absorber rods (B4C, AIC, Hafnium) isolated in such lattices. Each one of these different studies led to a particular reference calculation route. All these calculation routes were developed against reference continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations, carried out with the stochastic code TRIPOLI4. They were then checked against experimental data measured during French experimental programs, undertaken within the EOLE experimental reactor, at the Nuclear Research Center of Cadarache: the MISTRAL experiments for the study of isolated absorber rods and the EPICURE experiments for the study of absorber clusters. This work led to important improvements in the calculation of isolated absorbers and absorber clusters. The reactivity worth of these clusters in particular, can now be obtained with a great accuracy: the discrepancy observed between the calculated and the experimental values is less than 2.5 %, and then slightly lower than the experimental uncertainty. (author)

  12. EPR safety. Consideration of the internal and external hazards in the safety studies; Surete du reacteur EPR. Prise en compte des agressions internes et externes dans les etudes de surete EPR

    Gueguin, H. [Electricite de France (EDF-DIN), Centre National d' Equipement Nucleaire, Service Controle Commande, 92 - Montrouge (France)


    The author presents the main points of the Preliminary Safety Report of EDF on the EPR reactor safety. It concerns the considerations of the internal (fire, flood, explosions, pipes failures) and external (earthquakes, airplane falls, explosions, exceptional natural disasters, extreme meteorological conditions) damages. It presents how the safety report takes into account the aggression. (A.L.B.)

  13. Material effects on multiphase phenomena in late phases of severe accidents of nuclear reactors; Effets des materiaux sur les phenomenes multiphasiques se produisant lors des phases avancees d'accident grave de reacteur nucleaire

    Seiler, J.M.; Froment, K


    This paper reviews and presents work carried out in the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) on the subject of nuclear severe accidents, i.e. those which are accompanied by melting of the nuclear core material. The emphasis is on the (crucial) thermodynamic and material behaviour of corium melts in the solidus-liquidus temperature interval, which is linked to the thermal hydraulic description. A global model approach is proposed. The work is presented in the context of the overall international effort in the area. (authors)

  14. Analyse of the potential of the high temperature reactor with respect to the use of fissile materials; Analyse des capacites des reacteurs a haute temperature sous l'aspect de l'utilisation des matieres fissiles

    Damian, F


    The high temperature reactors fuel is made of micro-particles dispersed in a graphite matrix. This configuration makes it possible to reach high burnup, higher than 700 GWj/t. Thanks to the decoupling between the thermal and the neutronic behaviors in the core many types of fuels can be used. These characteristics give to HTR reactor very good capacities to burn fissile materials. This work was done in the frame of the evaluation of HTR capacities to enhance the value of the plutonium stocks. These stocks are currently composed of the irradiated fuels discharged from classical PWR or the dismantling of the nuclear weapons and represent a significant energy potential. These studies concluded that high cycles length can be reached whatever the plutonium quality is (from 50 % to 94 % of fissile plutonium). In addition, it was demonstrated that the moderator temperature coefficient becomes locally positive for highly burn fuel while the core global moderator temperature coefficient remained negative in the operation range of the reactor. A significant share of this work was first devoted to the setting of a modeling of the fuel element but also of the reactor's core with the codes of system SAPHYR. The whole of modeling was validated by reference calculations. This work of code assessment is justified by a preliminary work that showed that the classical calculation scheme used for PWR could not be transposed directly to HTR core. (author)

  15. Elaboration and qualification of a reference calculation routes for the absorbers in the PWR reactors; Elaboration et qualification des schemas de calcul de reference pour les absorbants dans les reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Blanc-Tranchant, P


    The general field in which this work takes place is the field of the accuracy improvement of neutronic calculations, required to operate Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) with a better precision and a lower cost. More specifically, this thesis deals with the calculation of the absorber clusters used to control these reactors. The first aim of that work was to define and validate a reference calculation route of such an absorber cluster, based on the deterministic code Apollo 2. This calculation scheme was then to be checked against experimental data. This study of the complex situation of absorber clusters required several intermediate studies, of simpler problems, such as the study of fuel rods lattices and the study of single absorber rods (B{sub 4}C, AIC, Hafnium) isolated in such lattices. Each one of these different studies led to a particular reference calculation route. All these calculation routes were developed against reference continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations, carried out with the stochastic code TRIPOLI14. They were then checked against experimental data measured during french experimental programs, undertaken within the EOLE experimental reactor, at the Nuclear Research Center of Cadarache: the MISTRAL experiments for the study of isolated absorber rods and the EPICURE experiments for the study of absorber clusters. This work led to important improvements in the calculation of isolated absorbers and absorber clusters. The reactivity worth of these clusters in particular, can now be obtained with a great accuracy: the discrepancy observed between the calculated and the experimental values is less than 2.5 %, and then slightly lower than the experimental uncertainty. (author)

  16. The SILENE reactor: an instrument suitable for studying the impact of intermediate and high radiation doses; Reacteur silene : outil adapte aux etudes appliquees a l'effet des moyennes et fortes doses

    Verray, B.; Leo, Y.; Fouillaud, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, Service de Recherches en Neutronique et Criticite, SNRC, Valduc, Is sur Tille (France)


    Designed in 1974 to study the phenomenology and consequences of a criticality accident, the SILENE experimental reactor, an intense source of mixed neutron and gamma radiation, is also suited to radiobiological studies. (author)

  17. Marine dispersion of radioactive elements susceptible to be released by the reactors of the Kursk damaged nuclear submarine; Dispersion marine des elements radioactifs susceptibles d'etre liberes par les reacteurs du sous-marin nucleaire accidente Koursk

    Calmet, D. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Lepicard, S. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    The Kursk nuclear submarine has been damaged on the 12. august 2000. It is on the bottom of the Barents sea. The loss of watertightness of the two nuclear reactors, that contain some hundred of kilograms of fuel (enriched uranium) would lead to the release of radioactive elements. This report specifies the general conditions of circulation of water mass susceptible to be concerned by an eventual radioactive contamination. evaluates the times of water transit that could be contaminated and then evaluates the activities contributions susceptible to be added with time to the sea waters and sea products from the French coasts of Atlantic and Channel. (N.C.)

  18. Modelling of the hydrogen effects on the morphogenesis of hydrogenated silicon nano-structures in a plasma reactor; Modelisation des effets de l'hydrogene sur la morphogenese des nanostructures de silicium hydrogene dans un reacteur plasma

    Brulin, Q


    This work pursues the goal of understanding mechanisms related to the morphogenesis of hydrogenated silicon nano-structures in a plasma reactor through modeling techniques. Current technologies are first reviewed with an aim to understand the purpose behind their development. Then follows a summary of the possible studies which are useful in this particular context. The various techniques which make it possible to simulate the trajectories of atoms by molecular dynamics are discussed. The quantum methods of calculation of the interaction potential between chemical species are then developed, reaching the conclusion that only semi-empirical quantum methods are sufficiently fast to be able to implement an algorithm of quantum molecular dynamics on a reasonable timescale. From the tools introduced, a reflection on the nature of molecular metastable energetic states is presented for the theoretical case of the self-organized growth of a linear chain of atoms. This model - which consists of propagating the growth of a chain by the successive addition of the atom which least increases the electronic energy of the chain - shows that the Fermi level is a parameter essential to self organization during growth. This model also shows that the structure formed is not necessarily a total minimum energy structure. From all these numerical tools, the molecular growth of clusters can be simulated by using parameters from magnetohydrodynamic calculation results of plasma reactor modeling (concentrations of the species, interval between chemical reactions, energy of impact of the reagents...). The formation of silicon-hydrogen clusters is thus simulated by the successive capture of silane molecules. The structures formed in simulation at the operating temperatures of the plasma reactor predict the formation of spherical clusters constituting an amorphous silicon core covered by hydrogen. These structures are thus not in a state of minimum energy, contrary to certain experimental results. However, these results were obtained without taking into account the presence of atomic hydrogen in the plasma. A thorough study of the effect of atomic hydrogen on the metastable structures produced in simulation is thus carried out. The study of the interaction of atomic hydrogen on the surface of the cluster gives the possibility of finding the proportion of mechanisms (Eley-Rideal hydrogen desorption, hot atom mechanism or absorption on the surface of the cluster) in agreement with experiments on recombination on silicon surfaces. The interaction of atomic hydrogen with the surface of the clusters also induces a modification of the internal organization of the silicon atoms. The organization of the internal silicon atoms of the clusters as a function of cluster size (magic number) makes it possible to understand why the experimental observations indicate the presence of crystalline structures. Finally this study leads to the prediction of a particularly stable structure which could be used as precursor for the growth of silicon nano-wires. (author)

  19. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems; Congres sur les reacteurs a sels fondus (RSF) pyrochimie et cycles des combustibles nucleaires du futur

    Brossard, Ph. [GEDEON, Groupement de Recherche CEA CNRS EDF FRAMATOME (France); Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H. [and others


    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and precipitation processes); cold salt: potentiality and preliminary results; TOPIC: redox control of MSR fuel (MSR: nominal operating conditions for the reprocessing process and redox control); technical aspects of R and D of some advanced non-aqueous reprocessing technologies for MSR systems (promising innovative separation and partitioning processes for the MSR fuel cycle); nominal operating conditions for MSR reprocessing process - data base needed and experiments for reprocessing validation; corrosion and materials for MSR and for pyro-chemistry processes; MSR reactor physics - dynamic behaviour; what safety principles for MSR? (MSR and integrated cycle (IFR) safety approach); experimental programmes in the frame of the SPHINX project of MS transmuter (programme of irradiated probes BLANKA, experimental facilities (MSR)); ISTC 1606 status - experimental study of molten salt technology for safe, low-waste and proliferation resistant treatment of radioactive waste and plutonium in accelerator-driven and critical systems. (J.S.)

  20. Development of new ferritic / martensitic steels for fuel cladding in fast neutron reactors; Developpement de nouvelles nuances d'aciers ferritiques / martensitiques pour le gainage d'elements combustibles des Reacteurs a Neutrons Rapides au sodium

    Ratti, M.


    Many studies are directed toward the development of ferritic / martensitic ODS materials for applications in Gen IV programs. In this study, the mechanisms of formation of nano-phases (Y, Ti, O) and the influence of titanium on the precipitation refinement have been analyzed by small angle neutron scattering, X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The obtained results allow developing new materials reinforced by nitrides (NDS which stands for Nitride Dispersion Strengthened). A first CEA patent is now being registered on these NDS materials processed by mechanical alloying. However, microstructural and mechanical characterizations are necessary to improve these new alloys. At last, a tensile and creep database has been acquired on an ODS Fe-18Cr material between room temperature and 650 C. These tests allow a qualitative description of the ODS mechanical behaviour. (author)

  1. Improvement of thermal conductivity of ceramic matrix composites for 4. generation nuclear reactors; Amelioration de la conductivite thermique des composites a matrice ceramique pour les reacteurs de 4. generation

    Cabrero, J.


    This study deals with thermal conductivity improvement of SiCf/SiC ceramic matrix composites materials to be used as cladding material in 4. generation nuclear reactor. The purpose of the study is to develop a composite for which both the temperature and irradiation effect is less pronounced on thermal conductivity of material than for SiC. This material will be used as matrix in CMC with SiC fibers. Some TiC-SiC composites with different SiC volume contents were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The sintering process enables to fabricate specimens very fast, with a very fine microstructure and without any sintering aids. Neutron irradiation has been simulated using heavy ions, at room temperature and at 500 C. Evolution of the thermal properties of irradiated materials is measured using modulated photothermal IR radiometry experiment and was related to structural evolution as function of dose and temperature. It appears that such approach is reliable to evaluate TiC potentiality as matrix in CMC. Finally, CMC with TiC matrix and SiC fibers were fabricated and both mechanical and thermal properties were measured and compare to SiCf/SiC CMC. (author)

  2. The ASN allows the Tricastin-1 reactor to operate 40 years; L'ASN autorise le reacteur n. 1 de la centrale du Tricastin a fonctionner 40 ans



    The ASN (French Authority for Nuclear Safety) has allowed the Tricastin reactor number 1 to operate 10 years more. In July 2009 the ASN agreed to a global 10 year lifetime extension for the fleet of 900 MWe PWR under the condition of a thoroughly overhaul on a case by case basis. Tricastin-1 reactor went through this overhaul. During this inspection a particular attention was drawn on material aging and on the state of the reactor vessel. Supplementary works will have to be made in order to assure an adequate protection of the plant in case of flooding. There are 34 900 MWe PWR that operate in France, they have an average service life of 27-28 years. (A.C.)

  3. Management of a severe accident on a pressurised water reactor in France; La gestion d'un accident grave sur un reacteur a eau sous pression en France



    This brief document defines what a severe accident is on a nuclear reactor, indicates the different failure modes which have been defined (vapour explosion in the reactor vessel, hydrogen explosion, and so on). It describes the management of a core fusion accident for pressurized water reactors, for which a guide has been designed, the GIAG (intervention guide for a severe accident situation). The principles of such an intervention are described, and then the approach for an EPR reactor

  4. Synthesis of the IRSN report on the second safety re-inspection of the Orphee research reactor; Synthese du rapport de l'IRSN sur le deuxieme reexamen de surete du reacteur de recherche ORPHEE



    The second safety inspection of the Orphee base nuclear installation notably relies on international and French return on experience. This inspection addressed the robustness of the installation against extreme aggressions, organisational processes, radiation protection, waste and effluent management, the security of the reactor operation, handling operation security, nuclear waste warehousing safety, internal aggressions, the third confinement barrier, and the radiological consequences of incidental and accidental situations

  5. The OPECST proposes to replace one out of 2 reactors at the end of their life by EPR; L'OPECST propose de remplacer un reacteur sur deux en fin de vie par des EPR



    The OPECST, a commission composed of parliamentarians, has studied the consequences of various energy policies concerning nuclear power. The first scenario is the continuation of the today's energy policy: a production rate of nuclear electricity around 75% that gives a contribution of 1.5% to the country's growth rate through the keeping of low electricity prices. The second scenario is a brutal nuclear energy phaseout that will lead to a sharp increase of electricity costs, a degradation of the energy independence rate of the country and the loss of 400.000 direct and indirect jobs. The third scenario follows a reasoned policy that allows the maturing of renewable energies by replacing only one out of 2 reactors coming at the end of their service life by an EPR. This scenario will lead to a production rate of nuclear electricity of about 55% by 2050. (A.C.)

  6. Synthesis of the study performed by the IRSN regarding safety options of the ATMEA1 reactor; Synthese de l'examen mene par l'IRSN au sujet des options de surete du reacteur ATMEA1



    The ATMEA1 reactor is a new concept for next generation 1000 MWe pressurized water reactors. This report first recalls the context of the IRSN study of safety options regarding this reactor: a first phase for the examination of these options, and a second phase for the examination of the safety option report and complementary reports on topics identified in phase 1. The main conclusions of phase 1 are recalled, as well as the topics addressed during the several meetings. Then, it lists the significant issues addressed in the different reports associated with these meetings

  7. Jules Horowitz reactor - Complementary safety assessment in the light of the Fukushima accident; Reacteur Jules Horowitz - Evaluation complementaire de la surete au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima



    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Jules Horowitz reactor (RJH) to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. RJH is being built on the Cadarache CEA's site. Robustness is the ability for the facility to withstand events beyond the level for which the facility was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence (cliff edge effect). Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like RJH's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. This report is divided into 9 main chapters: 1) main features of the RJH facility, 2) identification of cliff edge risks and of equipment essential for safety, 3) earthquake risk, 4) flood risk, 5) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 6) the loss of electrical power supplies and of cooling systems, 7) management of severe accidents, 8) subcontracting policy, 9) synthesis and list of improvements. This study shows a globally good robustness of the RJH for the considered risks. Nevertheless it can considered relevant to increase the robustness of the plant on a few points: -) to increase the seismic safety margins of some pieces of equipment, -) to increase the robustness of the internal electrical power supplies, -) to increase the fuel cooling capacity, and -) to improve the management of the post-accidental period. (A.C.)

  8. Exploitation continuation of Fessenheim nuclear plant nr 1 reactor after thirty years of operation; Poursuite d'exploitation du reacteur n.1 de la centrale nucleaire de fessenheim apres trente annees de fonctionnement



    After having recalled the regulatory framework, this report indicates how the Fukushima accident has been taken into account by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) for the decision of keeping on operating the Fessenheim nuclear plant. Then, after a general presentation of nuclear installations, the report describes some peculiarities of the Fessenheim power plant with respect to the other French nuclear plants. It comments and discusses various issues: reactor exploitation, fuel management, vessel exploitation, exploitation of the main secondary circuits, of the confinement enclosure, and of other equipment. It recalls significant events, exploitation rules, and modifications brought to the reactor. It gives a global assessment. The authors report the safety re-examination (approach, compliance examination, security re-assessment), controls performed during decennial inspection (main controls and tests, implementation of modifications foreseen by safety re-examination, significant events, monitoring by the ASN, reactor restarting after the third decennial inspection). Perspectives are then discussed for the ten following years in terms of maintenance policy, ageing management, reactor vessel serviceability, and additional actions within the frame of ageing management. The operation continuation is then discussed

  9. Towards the prediction of the rupture of a pressurized water reactor vessel in case of accident; Vers la prevision du dechirement d'une cuve de reacteur a eau pressurisee en cas d'accident

    Tardif, N.; Coret, M.; Combescure, A. [Lyon Univ., CNRS, INSA-Lyon, LaMCoS UMR5259, 69 (France); Tardif, N.; Nicaise, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DSR/SAGR/BPhAG, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Through a scale model of a reactor vessel submitted to a thermal and mechanical load during a severe accident, it is possible to follow the initiation and propagation of cracks in real time by tests carried out on laboratory. (O.M.)

  10. The EPR in a few words: all you need to know about the EPR nuclear reactor; L'EPR en bref: ce qu'il faut savoir sur le reacteur nucleaire EPR



    After a brief presentation of the EPR (European - or Evolutionary - Pressurized Reactor) type nuclear reactor, this paper, proposed by the collective group 'Stop EPR', develops the following points: EPR is as dangerous as other reactors; EPR flouts democracy; France's energy demand do not need the construction of EPRs; the construction of EPRs is not a factor of economical and social development; EPR should not be constructed neither in France nor elsewhere and the present building sites should be cancelled; the EPR will not help France to increase its energy independence and protect itself from oil price increases; choosing the EPR is incompatible with the large investments to be made in energy conservation and renewable energies; the EPR is not a solution to climate change; the VHV line corridor that will starts at Flamanville is not justified and poses risks to the environment and public health

  11. The ASN considers the Fessenheim-1 reactor able to operate 10 years more; L'ASN juge le reacteur 1 de Fessenheim apte a fonctionner 10 annees de plus



    On July 4., 2011 the Authority of Nuclear Safety (ASN) allowed the unit 1 of the Fessenheim plant to operate 10 years more under 2 major conditions. First the reinforcement of the foundation mat in order to improve the reactor resistance to corium and secondly the installation of an emergency system for the evacuation of the residual heat in case of the loss of the heat sink. The ASN stresses that this decision does not take into account the conclusions (expected at the end of 2011) of the complementary safety assessment (ECS) that was launched following the Fukushima accident. (A.C.)

  12. The EPR rector of Flamanville 3: contribution of design choices to the control of contamination; Le reacteur EPR de Flamanville 3: contribution des choix de conception a la maitrise de la contamination

    Berger, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Dir. Production Ingenierie, Centre National d' Equipement Nucleaire, 92 - Montrouge (France); Brun, C. [Areva NP-SAS, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Guinard, L. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), Dir. Production Ingenierie, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Engler, N. [Areva NP-SAS, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)


    This paper describes the main design choices that will contribute to control the contamination at the EPR Flamanville 3 unit: 1 - the choice of materials directly or indirectly in contact with the primary coolant; 2 - the optimization of the purification systems design of the main nuclear loops; 3 - the passivation procedure of the primary circuit that will be implemented during the hot tests before the first start-up; 4 - the chemical conditioning of the primary coolant during reactor operation and in particular the possibility to reach a constant pH{sub 300deg.C} for the primary coolant; 5 - the possibility to preventively inject zinc in the primary coolant as soon as the beginning of the reactor exploitation; 6 - the optimization of cold shutdown and re-start-up procedures; 7 - the main control dispositions ensuring the respect of contamination mastery measures. (J.S.)

  13. Thermal radiation modeling inside a degraded reactor core in presence of steam and water droplets; Modelisation du rayonnement thermique dans un coeur de reacteur nucleaire degrade en presence de vapeur et de gouttes d'eau

    Chahlafi, Miloud


    This work aims at modelling thermal radiation in a nuclear reactor, in the course of a severe accident leading to its degradation. Because the reactor coolant is water, radiative heat transfer occurs in presence of steam and water droplets. The 3D geometry of a fuel bundle with 21 damaged rods has been characterized from {gamma}-tomography images. The degradation of the rods has been simulated in the experimental small-scale facility PHEBUS. The homogenized radiative properties of the considered configurations with a transparent fluid phase have been completely characterized by both the extinction cumulated distribution function G{sub ext} and the scattering phase functions p. G{sub ext} strongly differs from the exponential function associated with the Beer law and p strongly depends on both the incidence and the scattering directions. By using the radiative transfer equation generalized for non Beerian porous media by Taine et al. the radiative conductivity tensor has been first determined with a transparent fluid phase, by a numerical perturbation method. Only the diagonal radial and axial components of this tensor are not equal to zero. They have been fitted by a simple law only depending on the porosity, the specific area and the wall absorptivity. In a second step, a radiative transfer equation based on three temperatures is established. This model takes into account a semi transparent fluid phase by coupling the radiative properties of fluid and solid phases. The radiative properties of water steam and droplets are calculated respectively with the CK approach and Mie theory, in typical thermal hydraulics conditions of reactor accidents. The radiative fluxes verify the Fourier law and are characterized by radiative coupled conductivity tensors associated with the temperatures of each phase. The radiative powers exchanged between phases per unit volume are also calculated from this model. (author)

  14. Quelle place pour les arcs \\'electriques et les r\\'eacteurs plasmas dans l'" Inventaire et valorisation des collections, archives scientifiques et biens culturels " de l'universit\\'e de Limoges ?

    Pateyron, Bernard


    The University of Limoges in the rehabilitation of the premises was confronted with scientific disposal of property irreplaceable heritage in the context of "postmodern" or "post industrial" of our industrial society. Therefore a "scientific and cultural heritage Mission" was created in 2010 to save as much as possible the memory of the past half-century. For reasons we discuss plasmas and electric arcs have been an important place at that time in Western industry and especially by chance in Limoges.

  15. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments in a technological irradiation reactor; Modelisation pluridisciplinaire d'experiences d'irradiation dans un reacteur d'irradiation technologique

    Bonaccorsi, Th


    A Material Testing Reactor (MTR) makes it possible to irradiate material samples under intense neutron and photonic fluxes. These experiments are carried out in experimental devices localised in the reactor core or in periphery (reflector). Available physics simulation tools only treat, most of the time, one physics field in a very precise way. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments therefore require a sequential use of several calculation codes and data exchanges between these codes: this corresponds to problems coupling. In order to facilitate multi-physic simulations, this thesis sets up a data model based on data-processing objects, called Technological Entities. This data model is common to all of the physics fields. It permits defining the geometry of an irradiation device in a parametric way and to associate information about materials to it. Numerical simulations are encapsulated into interfaces providing the ability to call specific functionalities with the same command (to initialize data, to launch calculations, to post-treat, to get results,... ). Thus, once encapsulated, numerical simulations can be re-used for various studies. This data model is developed in a SALOME platform component. The first application case made it possible to perform neutronic simulations (OSIRIS reactor and RJH) coupled with fuel behavior simulations. In a next step, thermal hydraulics could also be taken into account. In addition to the improvement of the calculation accuracy due to the physical phenomena coupling, the time spent in the development phase of the simulation is largely reduced and the possibilities of uncertainty treatment are under consideration. (author)

  16. Contribution to development of SPNDs for instantaneous and selective measurement of different radiation fields in nuclear reactors; Contribution au developpement de collectrons pour la mesure instantanee et selective des differents champs de rayonnements en reacteurs nucleaires

    Blandin, Christophe [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    The objective of this work was conceiving and experimentally optimizing the SPNDs (Self-Powdered Neutron Detector) able to control fast power transients in test reactors and also to cope with requirements of surveillanceand protection of EDF reactors. Thus, different SPND emitters of platinum, gadolinium, hafnium and cobalt were provided according to their nature with sheathing and stainless steel plugs as well as with zirconium over-sheathing in order to render them faster, more selective and adapted for wear checking. Special experimental devices were designed for measuring inside the Siloe reactor the promptness of the signals from SPND, on one hand, and their sensitivity to thermal and epithermal neutrons as well as to gamma rays, on the other hand. The follow-up of power transients in test reactors is ensured by the instantaneous measurement of thermal and epithermal neutron flux as well as of gamma field by means of three special SPND with gadolinium, hafnium and platinum. Also, we have defined the characteristics of a new SPND with cobalt, that delivers a current of unique neutronic origin, able to ensure the surveillance and protection of a power reactor over a period of at least six years.

  17. Modeling of the thermal transfer inside a porous environment: application to nuclear reactors in accident situation; Modelisation du transfert thermique dans un milieu poreux: application aux reacteurs nucleaires en situation accidentelle

    Rubiolo, P.R


    The purpose of this report is to simulate heat exchanges occurring by conduction, by convection and by radiating in a porous medium made up of opaque particles in a semi-transparent fluid. Usually the determination of the macroscopic equations is based on homogenization techniques, but in the case of a major accident, the complexity of the problem is so overwhelming that semi-empirical methods are used to determine macroscopic coefficients. The author develops a new method to determine these coefficients, this method is based on the calculation of different tensors: the equivalent conductivity tensor, the radiative conductivity tensor, the thermal conductivity tensor and the heat exchange coefficient (h{sub sf}) between the solid phase and the fluid one. The first chapter briefly describes energy, impulse and mass balances. In the case of the energy balance the solid phase is not supposed to be in thermal equilibrium with the liquid phase. The second chapter presents an application of the porous media method to a one-dimensional and stationary problem, this application to a simple problem gives an idea of the performance of the method. The model allowing the calculation of h{sub sf} is developed, it is a wide range model. The second chapter ends with the presentation of the model allowing the computing of the effective conductivity of fuel rods. A comparison between results given by this new method and other numeric calculations or experimental data coming from benchmarks is presented in the third chapter. This chapter ends with the simulation of a reactor core in accidental situation, 2 cases are presented: with and without the presence of water steam. (A.C.)

  18. Cross section measurements of the yield of spallation reactions related to the study of hybrid reactor systems; Measures de sections efficaces de production de produits de reactions en rapport avec l`etude de systemes de reacteurs hybrides

    Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Stephan, C. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others


    Studies presently developed on the design of hybrid systems need the knowledge of spallation products and their production rate. To obtain this information we have performed cross-section measurements using the inverse kinematical method. (authors) 2 figs.

  19. Determination of a PWR key neutron parameters uncertainties and conformity studies applications; Determination des incertitudes liees aux grandeurs neutroniques d'interet des reacteurs a eau pressurisee a plaques combustible et applications aux etudes de conformite

    Bernard, D


    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate uncertainties of key neutron parameters of slab reactors. Uncertainties sources have many origins, technologic origin for parameters of fabrication and physical origin for nuclear data. First, each contribution of uncertainties is calculated and finally, a factor of uncertainties is associated to key slab parameter like reactivity, isotherm reactivity coefficient, control rod efficiency, power form factor before irradiation and lifetime. This factors of uncertainties were computed by Generalized Perturbations Theory in case of step 0 and by directs calculations in case of irradiation problems. One of neutronic conformity applications was about fabrication and nuclear data targets precision adjustments. Statistic (uncertainties) and deterministic (deviations) approaches were studied. Then neutronics key slab parameters uncertainties were reduced and so nuclear performances were optimised. (author)

  20. A multi-agent design for a pressurized water reactor (P.W.R.) control system; Modelisation multi-agents pour la conduite d'un reacteur a eau sous pression (REP)

    Aimar-Lichtenberger, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)


    This PhD work is in keeping with the complex industrial process control. The starting point is the analysis of control principles in a Pressurized Water Reactor (P.W.R). In order to cope with the limits of the present control procedures, a new control organisation by objectives and means is defined. This functional organisation is based on the state approach and is characterized by the parallel management of control functions to ensure the continuous control of the installation essential variables. With regard to this complex system problematic, we search the most adapted computer modeling. We show that a multi-agent system approach brings an interesting answer to manage the distribution and parallelism of control decisions and tasks. We present a synthetic study of multi-agent systems and their application fields.The choice of a multi-agent approach proceeds with the design of an agent model. This model gains experiences from other applications. This model is implemented in a computer environment which combines the mechanisms of an object language with Prolog. We propose in this frame a multi-agent modeling of the control system where each function is represented by an agent. The agents are structured in a hierarchical organisation and deal with different abstraction levers of the problem. Following a prototype process, the validation is realized by an implementation and by a coupling to a reactor simulator. The essential contributions of an agent approach turn on the mastery of the system complexity, the openness, the robustness and the potentialities of human-machine cooperation. (author)

  1. Earthquake resistance of the PTR and ASG reservoirs of reactors 1 and 2 of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; Resistance au seisme des reservoirs PTR et ASG des reacteurs 1 et 2 de la centrale nucleaire de Fessenheim



    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) concerns the improvement of the earthquake resistance of the PTR and ASG water tanks of the Fessenheim power plant. The PTR tank (refueling water storage tank) is used to fill up the reactor pool during the loading and unloading of the fuel and it ensures the cooling of the core during some accidental conditions by supplying the safety injection and spray systems. The ASG tank supplies the steam generators in case of failure of the normal water supply systems. A two-times restoration of the tanks has been considered as acceptable: a resistance to a maximum historically probable earthquake must be warranted by July 31, 2001, while a resistance to dimensioning earthquakes must be warranted by November 30, 2001. (J.S.)

  2. Study of a criticality accident involving fuel rods and water outside a power reactor; Etude d'un accident de criticite mettant en presence des crayons combustibles et de l'eau hors reacteur de puissance

    Beloeil, L


    It is possible to imagine highly unlikely but numerous accidental situations where fuel rods come into contact with water under conditions close to atmospheric values. This work is devoted to modelling and simulation of first instants of the power excursion that may result from such configurations. We show that void effect is a preponderant feedback for most severe accidents. The formation of a vapour film around the rods is put forward and confirmed with the help of experimental transients using electrical heating. We propose then a vapour/liquid flow model able to reproduce void fraction evolution. The vapour film is treated as a compressible medium. Conservation balance equations are solved on a moving mesh with a two-dimensional scheme and boundary conditions taking notice of interfacial phenomena and axial escape possibility. Movements of the liquid phase are modelled through a non-stationary integral equation and a dissipative term suited to the particular geometry of this flow. The penetration of energy into the liquid is also calculated. Thus, the coupling of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic modules gives results in excellent agreement with experiments. Next, neutronic phenomena into the fuel pellet, their feedback effects and the distribution of power through the rod are numerically translated. For each developed module, validation tests are provided. Then, it is possible to simulate the first seconds of the whole criticality accident. Even if this calculation tool is only a way of study as a first approach, performed simulations are proving coherent with reported data on recorded accidents. (author)

  3. The place of light water reactors in national programs: Situation and perspectives in the Usa; La place des reacteurs a eau legere dans les programmes nationaux: Situation et perspectives aux Etats-Unis

    Kechemair, D.; Ethvignop, Th. [CEA Saclay, Relations Internationales, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Figuet, J. [Ambassade de France a Washington (United States)


    This series of slides presents the today's US policy concerning nuclear power. Nuclear energy is no longer a priority for the Obama Government contrary to renewable energies. The renaissance of nuclear power relies on an efficient nuclear industry in the US, on an offensive diplomacy for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the world and on a favourable US public opinion. Incentive federal measures have been taken. 4 main ideas can be highlighted: 1) the construction of only a few new reactors in a preliminary phase, 2) the efficient support to the loan warranty program for new constructions keeps on, 3) the phaseout of the Yucca Mountain site is unlikely to hinder the nuclear renaissance but new long-term solutions have to be found for the management of spent fuels, 4) fuel recycling has to be studied. (A.C.)

  4. Modeling of delayed strains of concrete under biaxial loadings. Application to the reactor containment of nuclear power plants; Modelisation des deformations differees du beton sous sollicitations biaxiales. application aux enceintes de confinement de batiments reacteurs des centrales nucleaires

    Benboudjema, F


    The prediction of delayed strains is of crucial importance for durability and long-term serviceability of concrete structures (bridges, containment vessels of nuclear power plants, etc.). Indeed, creep and shrinkage cause cracking, losses of pre-stress and redistribution of stresses, and also, rarely, the ruin of the structure. The objective of this work is to develop numerical tools, able to predict the long-term behavior of concrete structures. Thus, a new hydro mechanical model is developed, including the description of drying, shrinkage, creep and cracking phenomena for concrete as a non-saturated porous medium. The modeling of drying shrinkage is based on an unified approach of creep and shrinkage. Basic and drying creep models are based on relevant chemo-physical mechanisms, which occur at different scales of the cement paste. The basic creep is explicitly related to the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water between inter-hydrates and intra-hydrates and the capillary pores, and the sliding of the C-S-H gel at the nano-porosity level. The drying creep is induced by the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water at different scales of the porosity, under the simultaneous effects of drying and mechanical loadings. Drying shrinkage is, therefore, assumed to result from the elastic and delayed response of the solid skeleton, submitted to both capillary and disjoining pressures. Furthermore, the cracking behavior of concrete is described by an orthotropic elastoplastic damage model. The coupling between all these phenomena is performed by using effective stresses which account for both external applied stresses and pore pressures. This model has been incorporated into a finite element code. The analysis of the long-term behavior is also performed on concrete specimens and prestressed concrete structures submitted to simultaneous drying and mechanical loadings. (author)

  5. Experience feedback examination in PWR type reactors operating for the 1997-1999 period; Examen du retour d'experience en exploitation des reacteurs a eau sous pression pour la periode 1997-1999



    The present report is relative to the examination that the permanent group has made on the experience feedback in operation for PWR type reactors for the period 1997-1999 that was on eleven themes chosen by the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Authority. It used analysis reports made by I.R.S.N. in support of four meetings of the permanent group devoted to this examination from April 2001 to June 2002. The different themes were operating uncertainties, machining to vibrations, analysis of incidents and gaseous releases, circuits, human factors, behaviour of electric batteries, risk of cold source loss. (N.C.)

  6. Control rod calibration methods for fast breeder reactors applied to Phenix; Les methodes d'etalonnage des barres de commande des reacteurs a neutrons rapides application a Phenix

    Lecourt, G


    The control and the emergency shutdown of a fast breeder reactor depends essentially on control rods. For this reason, it is imperative to know exactly how much anti reactivity is introduced with the rods in the reactor core. Different methods have been compared in order to see if they are compatible with Phenix reactor. Their limits have been studied. The shadow and anti shadow effects that can the rods make one to the other and then their effective weight of the rods screen have been clarified. (N.C.)

  7. Optimization by simulation of the coupling between a sub-critical reactor and its spallation source. Towards a pilot reactor; Optimisation par simulation du couplage entre un reacteur sous-critique et sa source de spallation. Application a un demonstrateur

    Kerdraon, D


    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), based on a proton accelerator and a sub-critical core coupled with a spallation target, offer advantages in order to reduce the nuclear waste radiotoxicity before repository closure. Many studies carried out on the ADS should lead to the definition of an experimental plan which would federate the different works in progress. This thesis deals with the neutronic Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX code to optimize such a system in view of a pilot reactor building. First, we have recalled the main neutronic properties of an hybrid reactor. The concept of gas-cooled eXperimental Accelerator Driven System (XADS) chosen for our investigations comes from the preliminary studies done by the Framatome company. In order to transmute minor actinides, we have considered the time evolution of the main fuels which could be reasonably used for the demonstration phases. The neutronic parameters of the reactor, concerning minor actinide transmutation, are reported. Also, we have calculated the characteristic times and the transmutation rates in the case of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I isotopes. We have identified some neutronic differences between an experimental and a power ADS according to the infinite multiplication coefficient, the shape factor and the level of flux to extend the demonstrator concept. We have proposed geometric solutions to keep the radial shape factor of a power ADS acceptable. In the last part, beyond the experimental XADS scope, we have examined the possible transition towards an uranium/thorium cycle based on Molten Salt Reactors using a power ADS in order to generate the required {sup 233}U proportion. (author)

  8. Modelling turbulent fluid flows in nuclear and fossil-fired power plants; La modelisation des ecoulements turbulents rencontres dans les reacteurs nucleaires et dans les centrales thermiques a flamme

    Viollet, P.L.


    The turbulent flows encountered in nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic studies or fossil-fired plant thermo-aerodynamic analyses feature widely varying characteristics, frequently entailing heat transfers and two-phase flows so that modelling these phenomena tends more and more to involve coupling between several branches of engineering. Multi-scale geometries are often encountered, with complex wall shapes, such as a PWR vessel, a reactor coolant pump impeller or a circulating fluidized bed combustion chamber. When it comes to validating physical models of these flows, the analytical process highlights the main descriptive parameters of local flow conditions: tensor characterizing the turbulence anisotropy, characteristic time scales for turbulent flow particle dynamics. Cooperative procedures implemented between national or international working parties can accelerate validation by sharing and exchanging results obtained by the various organizations involved. With this principle accepted, we still have to validate the products themselves, i.e. the software used for the studies. In this context, the ESTET, ASTRID and N3S codes have been subjected to a battery of test cases covering their respective fields of application. These test cases are re-run for each new version, so that the sets of test cases systematically benefit from the gradually upgraded functionalities of the codes. (author). refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Microstructural characterization and model of hardening for the irradiated austenitic stainless steels of the internals of pressurized water reactors; Caracterisation microstructurale et modelisation du durcissement des aciers austenitiques irradies des structures internes des reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Pokor, C


    The core internals of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) are composed of SA 304 stainless steel plates and CW 316 stainless steel bolts. These internals undergo a neutron flux at a temperature between 280 deg C and 380 deg C which modifies their mechanical properties. These modifications are due to the changes in the microstructure of these materials under irradiation which depend on flux, dose and irradiation temperature. We have studied, by Transmission Electron Microscopy, the microstructure of stainless steels SA 304, CW 316 and CW 316Ti irradiated in a mixed flux reactor (OSIRIS at 330 deg C between 0,8 dpa et 3,4 dpa) and in a fast breeder reactor at 330 deg C (BOR-60) up to doses of 40 dpa. Moreover, samples have been irradiated at 375 deg C in a fast breeder reactor (EBR-II) up to doses of 10 dpa. The microstructure of the irradiated stainless steels consists in faulted Frank dislocation loops in the [111] planes of austenitic, with a Burgers vector of [111]. It is possible to find some voids in the solution annealed samples irradiated at 375 deg C. The evolution of the dislocations loops and voids has been simulated with a 'cluster dynamic' model. The fit of the model parameters has allowed us to have a quantitative description of our experimental results. This description of the microstructure after irradiation was coupled together with a hardening model by Frank loops that has permitted us to make a quantitative description of the hardening of SA 304, CW 316 and CW 316Ti stainless steels after irradiation at a certain dose, flux and temperature. The irradiation doses studied grow up to 90 dpa, dose of the end of life of PWR internals. (author)

  10. Qualification of the Darwin code for the studies of the fuel cycle relative to the boiling water reactors; Qualification du formulaire Darwin pour les etudes du cycle du combustible pour les reacteurs a eau bouillante

    Allais, V


    This thesis was carried out in the framework of fuel cycles studies in partnership with COGEMA; the aim is to determine physics parameters characterising Boiling Reactor Assemblies. Those reactors Firstly distinguish themselves from Pressurised Water Reactor by the boiling of the moderator in the core and secondary by the strong neutronics heterogeneity due to complex design. The diphasic mixture formed is characterised by the void fraction parameter. The loss of information, and neutronic studies characteristics of Boiling Water Reactors led us to make preliminary studies having in view to quantify the void fraction impact on the isotopics evolution. Studies on neutronics influence of assemblies and control rods from the immediate environment allows to define the cluster size to describe. The radial description optimisation with APOLLO-2 is necessary to improve the calculation performance and to reduce the errors coming from the modelization. The following points were studied: pellet radial discretization, clustering of cells characterized by a similar behaviour, options in flux spatial calculation (interface current formalism), self-shielding optimisation (specific to each isotopes). The three dimensional modelization with CRONOS-2 and the simplified accounting of the thermohydraulics / neutronics coupling done by a procedure developed and written during this thesis, allow an evaluation of axial distribution of void fraction, power and burn-up during the irradiation. The comparison with experimental analytic results of complete assembly and pin samples dissolutions allows the qualification of this procedure and confirms the necessity to take into account the void fraction axial variation during the evolution. The application of an automatic coupling with the DARWIN cycle code will allow a precise burnup calculation to be utilized in an industrial procedure. (author)

  11. Transformations structurales d'un acier AU Cr(9%) Mo(2%) (type ZlOCDNbV 09-02) utilisable dans les generateurs de vapeur des reacteurs a neutrons rapides

    Vilar, Rui M.; Cizeron, Georges; Pelletier, Michel


    Transformations undergone by a 9 Cr-2 Mo-Nb-V steel on heating depend on the structure previously developped by quenching or tempering and on the heating rate. TTT and CCT diagrams, plotted after austenizing at 1000 and 1100°C, show only one diffusional transformation at high temperature producing equiaxed ferrite which contains a precipitate of M 23C 6 carbide; the activation energy of the process involved is 123.3 kJ/mol. At low temperatures a martensitic transformation is observed; the martensite is lath-type and autotempered.

  12. Etude du revenu de l'acier z 10 CDNbV0902 (type 9% Cr, 2% Mo + Nb,V) envisage pour la realisation de certains composants des reacteurs a neutrons rapides

    Pelletier, M.; Vilar, R. M.; Cizeron, G.


    Après trempe depuis 1100°C, l'acier étudié est formé de ferrite stable à haute température et de martensite. Au cours de revenus anisothermes, la phase martensitique est le siège de la précipitation successive de carbures des types M 3C, M 7C 3 et M 2C, ces deux derniers étant responsables d'un durcissement secondaire significatif. Aux températures plus élevées, ces carbures se dissolvent tandis qu'apparaissent des carbures des types M 23C 6 et M 6C. La phase ferritique initialement sursaturée est, par ailleurs, le siège d'une précipitation de carbures des types M 2C et M 23C 6.

  13. Evaluation of the neutrons spectrum near the Venus reactor: use of MCNPX-2.5C; Evaluation du spectre des neutrons pres du reacteur venus - utilisation de MCNPX-2.5C

    Verboomen, B.; Coeck, M.; Baeten, P. [SCK.CEN, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)


    The present study has been justified by the choice of the Venus reactor (SCK-CEN) as a true work environment for the project of the fifth programme - frame E.V.I.D.O.S.. The objective of this programme is the evaluation, in neutron-photon combined field, and in true environment (nuclear industry), of the different methods of measurement used in neutron dosimetry. The project aims to the determination of abilities and limits of dosemeters and to establish methods to get doses equivalents from data gotten by spectrometry, personal and ambient dosimetry. For each environment, reference values have to be determined by spectrometry (energy and angle). The knowledge of the distribution in energy and in angle of neutrons allows then the calculation of the different doses equivalents. The determination of these references values by direct neutron calculation allows the validation of the Monte Carlo model. (N.C.)

  14. Neutronics aspects associated to the prevention and mitigation of severe accidents in sodium cooled reactor cores; Aspects de neutronique associes a la prevention et a la reduction des accidents graves dans les coeurs de reacteurs a caloporteur sodium

    Poumerouly, S.


    Among all the types of accidents to be considered for the safety licensing of a plant, some have a very low probability of occurrence but might have very important consequences: the severe accidents or Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDA). The studies on the scenario of these accidents are performed in parallel to the prevention studies. In this PhD report, two representative safety cases are studied: the Unprotected Loss Of Flow (ULOF) and the Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB). The objectives are to understand what causes the reactivity increase during these accidents and to find means to reduce the energetic release of the scenario (ULOF) or to find ways to trigger the core prior to the propagation of the accident (TIB). At first, the accidents are studied in static calculations with the ERANOS code system. The accidents are divided into several steps and the reactivity insertions at each step are explained. This study shows the importance of the removal of the structures as well as of the radial leakage changes during the core slumping-down. The study also gives the amounts of fuel to be ejected or of absorber to be injected in both accidents. These values give tracks to the following more accurate studies, the transient studies. The transient studies were performed with the SIMMER code system, coupling thermo-hydraulics and neutronics. SIMMER data and algorithms have been improved so as to better predict ERANOS results (former discrepancies were up to 1.5$). The SIMMER reactivity calculation is improved by 0.8$ with variations of reactivity due to the motion of materials correctly predicted. A new algorithm for the {beta}-effective was implemented in SIMMER so as to be more accurate and easier to manage. SIMMER is then used to calculate the secondary phase of the ULOF, while the primary phase is calculated with ERANOS thanks to some assumptions. The assumptions are very much based on the fact that the movement of materials stops whenever the energy release stops i.e. when the core is back to criticality. This enabled to find which magnitude the secondary power excursion could have depending on the upper configuration lay out. The study showed that no configuration is quite favourable and that in order to reduce the energy release, dispositions should be taken during the primary phase. SIMMER is also used to perform transient calculations on the core SFRv2b for the whole scenario of the ULOF and TIB accidents. For the ULOF calculation, the standard procedure is to calculate the primary phase with SAS4A and then to continue with SIMMER. However, since this procedure has some deficiencies, SIMMER was used for the primary phase also.The comparison between the two methods illustrates the difficulties of both approaches. SIMMER gives quite good results, but improvements are however necessary, e.g. on the axial expansion of fuel. Although approximate, results show that the event is too quick to activate any passive mitigating system. Work should be conducted on core designs (for instance by improving feedback effects) so as to give more time for passive mitigating systems to operate. For the TIB calculation, large cores, like the SFRV2b one, require the use of SIMMER neutronics. This in conjunction with thermal hydraulic requires some specific procedures which were investigated. SIMMER calculations with coarse meshes show their limits when compared to the SCARABEE experiments. There are significant discrepancies that could be reduced using fine meshes and a more accurate modelling of the pin and the subassembly. Improvements in the code are necessary to represent correctly the TIB on a reactor case. However, even with the current approximate method, some conclusions and recommendations could be drawn on the means of detecting the accident by delayed neutron detectors or by thermal couples before its propagation to the whole core. (author)

  15. ALIBABA, an assistance system for the detection of confinement leaks in a PWR reactor; ALIBABA, un systeme d`aide a la detection des voies de fuites du confinement sur un reacteur a eau sous pression

    Bedier, P.O.; Libmann, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie


    The objective of the Crisis Technical Center (CTC) of the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) is to estimates the consequences of a given nuclear accident on the populations and the environment. ALIBABA is a data processing tool available at the CTC and devoted to the detection of confinement leaks in 900 MWe PWR reactors using the activity values measured by the captors of the installation. The heart of this expert system is a structural and functional representation of the different components directly involved in the leak detection (isolating valves, ventilation systems, electric boards etc..). This tool can manage the availability of each component to make qualitative and quantitative balance-sheets. This paper presents the ALIBABA software, an industrial prototype realized with the SPIRAL knowledge base systems generator at the CEA Reactor Studies and Applied Mathematics Service (SERMA) and commercialized by CRIL-Ingenierie Society. It describes the techniques used for the modeling of PWR systems and for the visualization of the survey. The functionality of the man-machine interface is discussed and the means used for the validation of the software are summarized. (J.S.). 6 refs.

  16. Neutronic modelling of the reflector for the calculation of pressurized water reactors: application to EPR; Modelisation neutronique du reflecteur pour le calcul des coeurs des reacteurs nucleaires a eau pressurisee: application a l'EPR

    Sandrin, Ch.


    This PhD Thesis aims to achieve a method for the modelling of the reflector surrounding the core for neutronics core calculations. This method should consider the EPR reactor specificities (steel reflector) and the increased demand in precision. In neutronics core calculations, the reflector can be represented either by albedos boundary conditions (current ratios) or by one or several media, surrounding the core, characterised by homogenized parameters. Those parameters (cross sections and diffusion coefficients) should be obtained using equivalence so that they allow a good reproduction of the reference albedos in a representative situation. During this PhD, such an equivalence method has been developed in the APOLLO-2 code with the minimization of a functional of the differences between the reference albedos and those computed with the equivalent parameters. Because of the positiveness constraints, a local minimization, such as Newton-like methods, is not always possible and we have therefore also implemented a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for more than two energy groups' problems. The parameters obtained have been used in two dimensions EPR core calculations with the CRONOS-2 code for various fuel loadings in two to eight groups diffusion. Those core calculation have been validated against reference Monte-Carlo calculations and against core calculations with albedos boundary conditions. In addition to the increased easiness of utilization, the implemented equivalence method has yielded an improvement of the results for the two groups calculation. With a higher energy groups number, the use of a unique equivalent reflector does not account correctly for the two dimensions effects; a modelling with different reflector meshes has improved the results. The modelling of the reflector by two dimensions albedos boundary conditions is the more suited for the representation of the boundary conditions and, therefore, should the two dimensions albedos calculation be developed in a deterministic code, it is the advocated method in the future. (author)

  17. Claim criteria of significant events implying the safety for the Basis Nuclear Installations others than the PWR type reactors; Criteres de declaration des evenements significatifs impliquant la surete pour les INB autres que les reacteurs a eau pressurisee



    There are ten criteria for the claim of significant events implying the safety for the basis nuclear installations others than the PWR type reactors. First criterion: Event having or not a nuclear origin, having lead death of man or serious wounds requiring an evacuation of one or several injured persons towards a hospital, when the origin of wounds is in relationship with a failure of an equipment in relation with the process. Second criterion: Manual or automatic, inconvenient starting or not, of one of the systems of protection and / or saving, with the exception of the deliberate starting resulting from actions programmed to maintain an important function of safety. Third criterion: Event having lead to the crossing of a limit of safety such as defined in the guide of safety references or the decree of authorization of the installation creation. Fourth criterion: Internal or external aggression of the installations, arisen a natural external phenomenon or connected to the human activity, or emergence of an internal flooding, a fire or of another phenomenon susceptible to have significant consequences or to affect the availability of equipment participating in a function important for the safety. Fifth criterion: Act or attempt of act of malevolence susceptible to affect the safety of the installation. Sixth criterion: Event bearing or being able to strike a blow at the integrity of the containment of hazardous materials. Seventh criterion: Event having provoked or able to provoke multiple failures: Unavailability of equipment due to the same failure or affecting all the ways of a redundant system or equipment of same type participating in one or several safety functions of the installation. Eighth criterion: Defect, degradation or failure having affected a function of safety, which had or would have been able to have significant consequences, which it was revealed during the running or during the stop of the installation. Ninth criterion: Event not answering the previous criteria and affecting a function of safety but which may be a precursor of accident or which presents a repetitive character the cause of which was not identified. Tenth criterion: Any other event susceptible to affect the safety of installation judged significant by the operator or the Authority of nuclear safety. (N.C.)

  18. Stress corrosion cracking of Ni-based alloys in PWR primary water. Component surface control; Corrosion sous contrainte des alliages a base nickel en milieu primaire des reacteurs a eaux pressurisee. Maitrise de la surface des composants

    Foucault, M. [AREVA, Centre Technique Framatome ANP, Dept. Corrosion Chimie, 71 - Le Creusot (France)


    In the PWR plant primary circuit, FRAMATOME-ANP uses several nickel-base alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role played by the surface state of the components in their life duration. In this paper, we present two examples of problems encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of a process for the surface control of the repair components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in terms of analysis methods to improve the surface knowledge and the control of the manufactured components. (author)

  19. Position adopted by the government about the safety options of the EPR reactor project; Prise de position du gouvernement concernant les options de surete du projet de reacteur EPR



    On September 28, 2004, on behalf of the French ministers in charge of nuclear safety, the general director of nuclear safety and radiation protection addressed to the president of Electricite de France (EdF) a letter presenting the government's position about the safety options of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project. On the basis of the examination carried out by the nuclear safety authority (ASN) and by the permanent group of reactor experts, the government has considered these options as satisfactory with respect to the safety improvement objectives. Therefore, the government requested EdF to comply with these technical rules for any future reactor development. This dossier includes: the letter of the government, the technical directives for the design and construction of the next generation of PWR-type reactors, the technical rules relative to the design of the main primary and secondary coolant circuits of PWR-type reactors, and the technical file about the safety of the EPR project reprinted from the 2003 report of nuclear safety and radiation protection authority. (J.S.)

  20. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 3: operations of the reactors and services division, technical and economic aspects; AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 3: les activites du pole reacteurs et services, aspects techniques et economiques



    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This third session deals with the reactors technologies basics, the EPR and SWR 1000 issues and outlook, the nuclear systems of the future, the business opportunities and business models. (A.L.B.)

  1. Burnup extension and evolution in the fuel management of EDF's nuclear power plants; Accroissement des taux de combustion et impact des evolutions de gestion sur l'exploitation des reacteurs du parc EDF

    Provost, J.L.; Thibault, X. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Debes, M. [Electricite de France (EDF/DCN), 92 - Clamart (France); Kaplan, P. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)


    Today the use of enhanced nuclear fuels that can sustain higher burnups has allowed a better optimization of the fuel management in nuclear power plants. The optimization for the near future is based on 3 aims: -) a better competitiveness of nuclear energy, longer campaigns mean a higher availability and less refueling so it has a direct impact on costs, -) a better flexibility to meet energy demand: a modulation of cycle lengths by more or less 2 months is possible by introducing or withdrawing 8 assemblies in the refueling load, this modulation will allow an optimization of the scheduling of the refueling shutdowns with respect to the seasonal energy demand peaks, -) a reduced volume of spent fuels (but with a higher level of radioactivity). (A.C.)

  2. R and D relative to the serious accidents in the PWR type reactors: assessment and perspectives; R and D relative aux accidents graves dans les reacteurs a eau pressurisee: bilan et perspectives

    Bentaib, A.; Bonneville, H.; Caroli, H.; Chaumont, B.; Clement, B.; Cranga, M.; Koundy, V.; Laurent, B.; Micaelli, J.C.; Meignen, R.; Pichereau, F.; Plassart, D.; Van-Dorsselaere, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Ducros, G.; Journeau, Ch.; Magallon, D. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Durin, M.; Studer, E. [CEA Saclay 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Seiler, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Ranval, W. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    This document presents the current state of the research relative to the grave accidents realized in France and abroad. It aims at giving the most exhaustive possible and objective vision of this original field of research. He allows to contribute to the identification and to the hierarchical organization of the needs of R and D, this hierarchical organization in front of, naturally, to be completed by a strong lighting on needs in terms of safety analyses associated with the different risks and the physical phenomena, in particular with the support of probability evaluations of safety level 2, whose the level of sharpness must be sufficient not to hide, by construction, physical phenomena of which the limited knowledge leads to important uncertainties. Let us note that neither the safety analyses, nor the E.P.S. 2 are presented in this document. This report presents the physical phenomena which can arise during a grave accident, in the reactor vessel and in the reactor containment, their chain and the means allowing to ease the effects. The corresponding scenarios are presented to the chapter 2. The chapter 3 is dedicated to the progress of the accident in the reactor vessel; the degradation of the core in reactor vessel (3.1), the behavior of the corium in bottom of reactor vessel (3.2) the break of the reactor vessel (3.3) and the fusion in pressure (3.4) are thus handled there. The chapter 4 concerns the phenomena which can lead to a premature failure of the containment, namely the direct heating of gases of the containment (4.1), the hydrogen risk (4.2) and the vapor explosion (4.3). The phenomenon which can lead to a delayed failure from the containment, namely the interaction corium-concrete, is approached on the chapter 5. The chapter 6 is dedicated to the problems connected to the keeping back and to the corium cooling in reactor vessel and out of reactor vessel, namely the keeping back in reactor vessel by re-flooding of the primary circuit or by re-flooding of the well of reactor vessel (6.1), the cooling of the corium under water in the course of interaction corium-concrete (6.2), the spreading of the corium (6.3) and the recuperator out of reactor vessel (6.4). The chapter 7 concerned the release and the transport of the fission products (P.F.); it thus approaches the subjects of the release of the P.F. in reactor vessel (7.1) and out of reactor vessel (7.3), of the transport of the P.F. in the primary and secondary circuits (7.2), the behavior of aerosols in the reactor containment (7.4) and the chemistry of the P.F. (7.5). Finally, the chapter 8 presents a state of the developments and the validation of the main codes 'grave accidents': A.S.T.E.C., M.A.A.P. and M.E.L.C.O.R.. In chapters 3 - 7, for each of the reserved subjects, the involved phenomena are reminded. The main experiments realized on the subject, recent, current and foreseen, as well as the main models and the specific codes are described then briefly (except complete codes) used to simulate the phenomena in question. A state of the acquired knowledge at the moment is established and the perspectives in terms notably of experimental programs and development of modelling tools are presented. (N.C.)

  3. Study of colloidal particles behaviour in the PWR primary circuit conditions; Etude du comportement des particules colloidales dans les conditions physicochimiques du circuit primaire des reacteurs a eau sous pression

    Barale, M


    EDF wants to understand, model and limit primary circuit contamination of Pressurized Water Reactors by colloidal particles resulting from corrosion. The electrostatic behaviour of representative oxide particles (cobalt ferrite, nickel ferrite and magnetite) has been studied in primary circuit conditions with the influence of boric acid and lithium hydroxide. The isoelectric point (IEP) and the point of zero charge (PZC) of particles, measured between 5 C and 320 C, exhibit a minimum towards 200 C. The thermodynamic constants of the protonation equilibrium of surface sites were calculated. When boric acid is added, zeta potential and IEP decrease because of borate ions sorption. On the contrary, there is not effect of lithium ions. The modelling of these results under conditions representative of primary circuit shows that these oxides exhibit a negative surface charge, explaining their sorption and adhesion behaviour. (author)

  4. Homogenization of some radiative heat transfer models: application to gas-cooled reactor cores; Homogeneisation de modeles de transferts thermiques et radiatifs: application au coeur des reacteurs a caloporteur gaz

    El Ganaoui, K


    In the context of homogenization theory we treat some heat transfer problems involving unusual (according to the homogenization) boundary conditions. These problems are defined in a solid periodic perforated domain where two scales (macroscopic and microscopic) are to be taken into account and describe heat transfer by conduction in the solid and by radiation on the wall of each hole. Two kinds of radiation are considered: radiation in an infinite medium (non-linear problem) and radiation in cavity with grey-diffuse walls (non-linear and non-local problem). The derived homogenized models are conduction problems with an effective conductivity which depend on the considered radiation. Thus we introduce a framework (homogenization and validation) based on mathematical justification using the two-scale convergence method and numerical validation by simulations using the computer code CAST3M. This study, performed for gas cooled reactors cores, can be extended to other perforated domains involving the considered heat transfer phenomena. (author)

  5. Rare earths as burnable poison for extended cycles control in electricity generation reactors; Etude des terres rares en tant que poison consommable pour le controle des cycles allonges pour les reacteurs electrogenes

    Asou, M.


    The search of an optimization of the French electronuclear network operations leads to a necessary optimization of the core performances. All the economic studies performed by the utilities had shown that there is a real gain to minimize shut down periods for refueling. So, increasing the cycle length from 12 to 18 months will present a gain of shut down for a three years operation period. The theoretical burnable absorber will be a fuel admixed material bringing the required initial negative reactivity with a burn-up kinetic well suited to the fuel and allowing the lowest residual penalty as possible. The residual penalty us defined in this case by the non complete burn up of the poison, by the low of fissile material and by the accumulate of residual isotopes or nuclides. Because of the well known use of gadolinium as burnable absorber for BWR`s and PWR`s operations, the search for the best compromise to optimize all the above stress is pointed towards the rare earths. In the nuclides family, considering criteria such as cross sections, natural abundance and availability only five nuclides can play the role as burnable absorbers, namely: gadolinium, samarium, dysprosium, europium and erbium. The study presented here will show that only gadolinium and erbium will be considered to control the reactivity of the PWR`s. (author). 58 refs., 65 figs., 47 tabs.

  6. Study of gas-solid contact in an ultra-rapid reactor for cumene catalytic cracking; Etude du contact gaz-solide dans un reacteur a co-courant descendant par la mise en oeuvre du craquage catalytique du cumene

    Bayle, J.


    Few studies have been carried out on the notion of gas-solid contact in ultra-rapid reactors. Both gas and solid move in the reactor and the contact can be directly estimated when using a chemical reaction such as cumene cracking. It`s a pure and light feedstock whose kinetics can be determined in a fixed bed. The study was carried out on a downflow ultra-rapid reactor (ID = 20 mm, length = 1 m) at the University of Western Ontario. It proved that the quench and the ultra-rapid separation of gas and solid must be carefully designed in the pilot plant. Cumene conversion dropped when reducing gas-solid contact, which led to push the temperature over 550 deg. C and increase the cat/oil ratio at 25 working at solid mass fluxes below 85 kg/m{sup 2}.s. Change of selectivity at very short residence time were also observed due to deactivation effects. Experiments made by Roques (1994) with phosphorescent pigments on the Residence Time Distribution of solids gave Hydrodynamic data on a cold flow copy of the pilot plant. Experiments made on packed bed gave kinetic data on the cracking of cumene. These data were combined to optimize a mono dimensional plug flow model for cumene cracking. (author)

  7. Fuel cycle: the transition between the third and the fourth generation of reactors; Cycle du combustible: faire la transition vers les 3eme et 4eme generations de reacteurs



    Many challenges arrive today for the french research and development on the fuel cycle: promote the industrial technologies, improve the world increase of the nuclear and adapt the fuel cycle technologies to the future reactors. In this framework the report presents after a recall on the fuel cycle, the researches on the fuel, the optimization of the recycling, the wastes management, the simulation and Phenix an experimentation tool for the fuel. (A.L.B.)

  8. Study of water radiolysis in relation with the primary cooling circuit of pressurized water reactors; Etude sur la radiolyse de l`eau en relation avec le circuit primaire de refroidissement des reacteurs nucleaires a eau sous pression

    Pastina, B


    This memorandum shows a fundamental study on the water radiolysis in relation with the cooling primary circuit of PWR type reactors. The water of the primary circuit contains boric acid a soluble neutronic poison and also hydrogen that has for role to inhibit the water decomposition under radiation effect. In the aim to better understand the mechanism of dissolved hydrogen action and to evaluate the impact of several parameters on this mechanism, aqueous solutions with boric acid and hydrogen have been irradiated in a experimental nuclear reactor, at 30, 100 and 200 Celsius degrees. It has been found that, with hydrogen, the water decomposition under irradiation is a threshold phenomenon in function of the ratio between the radiation flux `1` B(n, )`7 Li and the gamma flux. When this ratio become too high, the number of radicals is not sufficient to participate at the chain reaction, and then water is decomposed in O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a irreversible way. The temperature has a beneficial part on this mechanism. The iron ion and the copper ion favour the water decomposition. (N.C.). 83 refs.

  9. The Neo-realism and the Avant-garde Pop Literature in the American Literary Movement%美国文学运动中的"新现实主义"和"先锋派俗文艺"




  10. Energy balance of a cheese factory and preliminary project for biogas production; Bilan energetique de la fromagerie et avant-projet d'installation de biogaz. Richard Bettex - 1487 Champtauroz (VD)

    Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Wellinger, A. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aadorf (Switzerland); Bonjour, B. [Sorane SA, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    This report is a feasibility study for a biogas production unit adapted to a farm in Champtauroz in Switzerland, and a dual purpose power plant generating thermal and electric energy from the biogas according to the energy demand of the cheese factory attached to the farm. Typically 5*10{sup 5} m{sup 3} per year of biogas should be extracted from the manure of around 1,500 farm animals. The methane would be produced by a continuously operated digestor. The energy demand of the cheese factory, mainly thermal energy for the goat milk transformation process and electric power for the milk refrigeration, is measured in details and its annual profile is estimated. This demand is practically independent from the outdoor temperature as long as this temperature is higher than 10 {sup o}C. The report also includes a cost estimate for the whole project, functional schematics of the biogas production unit and of the power plant, and several diagrams displaying the heat and electric power demands of the cheese factory as a function of parameters like the cheese production and the quantity of refrigerated milk.

  11. Les Bruits en lettres brute. Variations onomatopéiques dans trois mouvements d’avant-garde au XXe siècle: Futurisme, Dadaïsme, Lettrisme

    Noemie Fargier


    Full Text Available Standing between an original expression and a universal language, a poetic game and a linguistic system, onomatopoeia occupied a cen­tral spot in three avan­t-gardes of the twen­tieth-cen­tury: futurism, dadaism, lettrism, regarding their own artistic research and the competition between them. Audible, graphic and linguistic material composing works halfway between poetry, music and graphic arts, onomatopoeia seems to converge in the three avan­t-gardes’ artistic and historic goals because of their intermedial, interdisciplinary and transnational dimension. They assert themselves by shaping this ambiguous material in a new approach, and each of them pretends to be the inven­tor of the onomatopoeic creation. Questioning origin, onomatopoeia looks however toward novelty, and wish to appear as a modern medium, with which the so-called fossilized arts could be revolutionized.

  12. Comparaison de deux « populations » de la deuxième moitié du Ve millénaire avant notre ère : approche anthropométrique

    Civetta, A.; A. Schmitt; Saliba-serre, B.; Gisclon, J.-L.; Loison, G.


    Certains caractères phénotypiques des populations du Néolithique moyen, définis à partir de l’analyse de collections ostéologiques issues de fouilles anciennes, ont été récemment remis en question. Afin de mieux cerner la variabilité de forme et de format du squelette des individus du Néolithique Moyen, nous avons étudié la série de la nécropole auvergnate de Pontcharaud 2, datant de la deuxième moitié du Ve millénaire. Les différences entre sexes, du format crânien sont limitées. En revanch...

  13. 现代性,先锋派与大众文化——由本雅明引发的思考%Modernity, the Avant-Garde and Mass Culture: A Reflection Inspired by Walter Benjamin




  14. Small hydro schemes in Turtmanntal, Switzerland; Forces Motrices de la Gougra SA. Mini-hydraulique dans le val de Tourtemagne. Projet Tourtemagne. Etude de variantes et avant-projet



    This two-part report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents several variants and two preliminary projects with respect to schemes for the use of hydropower in the Turtmanntal valley in the Swiss Alps. The various possible sites for the power stations both on the left and right-hand sides of the main valley are described. Technical details and prognoses for costs and energy production are discussed for all these variants. In the second part of the report, preliminary projects for hydropower installations on the Braendji and Piji streams are presented. Costs and economic viability are discussed and time-scales for the realisation are examined.

  15. Radionuclide right ventricular function evaluation before lung transplantation: comparison with ultrafast computed tomography; Evaluation de la fonction ventriculaire droite par ventriculographie isotopique avant transplantation pulmonairer: comparaison avec la tomodensitometrie ultrarapide

    Benamor, M.; Tainturier, C.; Bonnette, P.; Bisson, A.; Stern, M.; Carbarrere, I. [Hopital Foch, 92 - Suresnes (France); Hernigou, A. [Hopital Broussais, 75 - Paris (France)


    The aims of this study were to compare the right ventricle ejection fraction (RVEF) using radionuclide ventriculography equilibrium [EV] and first-pass [FPV] and using ultrafast computed tomography (UFCT), during cardiopulmonary evaluation in anticipation of lung transplantation. Fifty patients (15 women and 35 men, mean age 45 {+-} 14 years) with end-stage chronic lung disease and mild arterial pulmonary hypertension were enrolled in this study. There was a constant and systematic under-evaluation, expectable from the current published date, using radionuclide ventriculography as compared with ultrafast CT, this under-evaluation being more evidenced by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and higher values of RVEF:RVEF{sub EV} = 33 % {+-} 13 %, RVEF{sub FPV} = 36 % {+-} 9% and RVEF{sub UFCT} = 43 {+-} 13 %. Close correlations were observed between the different values obtained. The closest correlation was obtained with first-pass ventriculography and ultrafast CT scan (r=0.84). In spite of its advantages, ultrafast computed tomography is still unfrequently available; conversely, radionuclide ventriculography has the merit of being not only reliable, reproducible, but also readily available. We could anticipate that ECG gated tomographic techniques will yield less under-estimated values of RVEF by avoiding the superimposition of right auricular structures on the left ventricle regions of interest. This will allow to obtain eventually prognostic RVEF values and to perform a long term follow-up of the outcome in cases of pulmonary transplantation. (authors). 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Draft of law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises; Avant projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Bricq [ed.] [Deputee de Seine-et-Marne, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)


    The state secretariat for industry has launched a large public debate between June and October 1999 based on a white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the gas sector'. The suggestions obtained were substantial. A brief presentation is added to the draft of the law devoted to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises. The presentation addresses the following points: 1. A public gas supply service modern and thought to reconcile the dynamism, equity and solidarity. 2. A controlled opening of the natural gas market towards competition: participating to the struggle for employment. 3. Tools ensuring the quality of gas supply and security of resources. 4. A transparent and efficient regulation: creating the conditions of a nondiscriminatory competition. 5. Requirements for developing the transport of natural gas regime. 6. Storage. 7. Social questions. The draft of the law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises is a working document, not engaging the government. It is based on six titles. Title 1 and Title 2 treat the points 1 and 2 mentioned above. Title 3 contains two chapters devoted to transparency and accounting dissociation and to regulation in the natural gas sector, respectively. The Title 4 contains three chapters devoted to: 1. authorization of the works of natural gas transport; 2. gas distribution and 3. exploitation of the transport and natural gas distribution network. The fifth Title is dedicated to underground storage. The sixth Title presents diverse directives.

  17. Franz Kafka-Style Literary Aesthetic Viewpoints in Chinese Avant-Garde Novels%论中国先锋小说卡夫卡式的文艺审美观

    韩小龙; 程金城



  18. Joannès (F.), (Dir.), Rendre la justice en Mésopotamie, Archives judiciaires du Proche-Orient ancien (IIIe-Ier millénaires avant J.-C)

    Klock-Fontanille, Isabelle


    Pour celui qui s'intéresse aux droits cunéiformes, il existe un matériel épigra-phique très riche. Mais d'une part, ce matériel n'est pas facilement accessible et d'autre part ce qui est surtout connu, ce sont les lois, comme les lois d'Ur-Nammu ou le code de Hammurabi. Or, comme l'annonce le sous-titre, ce n'est pas ce type de texte que vise ce livre : il sera question de documentation judiciaire au sens large, incluant, comme le rappelle Sophie Lafont, « non seulement les minutes de procès,...

  19. L’auto-référencement en physiothérapie : la mise de l’avant d’une culture éthique pour encadrer la pratique organisationnelle

    Hudon, Anne


    Full Text Available Self-referral in physiotherapy, that is, a healthcare professional referring a patient to a private physiotherapy clinic in which the same professional has a financial interest, presents significant organizational ethical implications. This article offers potential solutions to this ethically reprehensible practice. In addition to focusing on legislative and ethical strategies, private clinics should adopt guidelines and formal activities to improve the ethical culture of their company, by involving owners, shareholders and employees.

  20. Esteetiline autonoomia ja ideoloogiline opositsioon Eesti NSV-s, ehk kuidas avangard minetas poliitilise otstarbe = Aesthetic autonomy and ideological opposition in Estonia in the 1960s and 1970s, or how the avant-garde lost its political edge / Tõn

    Tatar, Tõnis, 1980-


    Kunstis ja ühiskonnas aset leidnud muudatustest 1960. aastate lõpust alates. Kunsti vabanemisest normatiivsetest süsteemidest ja kunstnikele avanenud võimalusest kujundada endale sobiv kunstimaailm.

  1. The Innovative Consciousness on directing Art of the Chinese Contemporary Avant-garde Theatre%论中国当代先锋戏剧在导演艺术上的创新意识




  2. Esteetiline autonoomia ja ideoloogiline opositsioon Eesti NSV-s, ehk kuidas avangard minetas poliitilise otstarbe = Aesthetic autonomy and ideological opposition in Estonia in the 1960s and 1970s, or how the avant-garde lost its political edge / Tõn

    Tatar, Tõnis, 1980-


    Kunstis ja ühiskonnas aset leidnud muudatustest 1960. aastate lõpust alates. Kunsti vabanemisest normatiivsetest süsteemidest ja kunstnikele avanenud võimalusest kujundada endale sobiv kunstimaailm.

  3. Small-scale hydro power in the Anniviers Valley. Project Chippis-Ricard. Variants and preliminary project; Forces Motrices de la Gougra SA. Mini-hydraulique en Anniviers. Projet Chippis-Ricard. Etude de variantes et avant-projet



    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the preliminary project for a small hydropower plant in Chippis, Switzerland. The project takes advantage of an existing irrigation scheme that deviates water from the Navisence River into two successive tunnels (total 1.8 km) and a following channel built on steep mountain sides. The basic idea of the project is to increase the flow rate entering the tunnels from 265 l/s to 1265 l/s and to lead the additional 1000 l/s to a new penstock connected to the second tunnel's outlet. In this way, a hydraulic head of 130 m could be used for power generation for over 600 households (mechanical power: 0.8 to 1.1 MW, annual electrical energy production: 2.5 to 3.6 GWh, depending on the variant considered). The report reviews the history of water use at this location and its present use as well as a feasibility study previously made. The project is described, including water collection points, conduits, the power station and the particular aspects of the joint use of water for power generation and irrigation from mid April to mid September. Technical details on water quantities and energy production are presented. Financial aspects including construction and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the project is discussed. Environmental aspects are reviewed. Further steps to be taken in the realisation of this hydropower installation are listed.

  4. Small-scale hydro power in the Anniviers Valley. Project Ayer-Nava. Variants and preliminary project; Forces Motrices de la Gougra SA. Mini-hydraulique en Anniviers. Projet Ayer-Nava. Etude de variantes et avant-projet



    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the preliminary project for a small hydropower plant near Ayer, a village in the Anniviers Valley (Swiss Alps). Water from the Nava, a steep mountain river, should be lead into a hydraulic scheme for power generation. A hydraulic head of 400 to 550 m is available, depending on the variant considered. The corresponding expected mechanical power is 0.9 to 1.1 MW. For the most promising variant a preliminary project is described (peak electric power: 0.91 MW, annual electrical energy production: 3.1 GWh). The local geology and hydrogeology are presented. The water collection points, conduits and the power station are described. Technical details on water quantities and energy production are presented. Financial aspects including construction and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the project is discussed. Environmental aspects are reviewed. Further steps to be taken in the realisation of this hydropower installation are listed.

  5. LEP1 measurement of heavy quark forward-backward asymmetries with Opal detector; Mesure de l`asymetrie avant-arriere des quarks lourds a LEP1 avec le detecteur Opal

    Lafoux, H.


    Using all data collected by OPAL during the first phase of LEP operation, called LEP1, we have measured the b and c quark forward-backward asymmetries on and around the Z{sup 0} peak. The measurement, which is based on prompt leptons produced in semileptonic decays of heavy quarks, has been optimized using artificial neural networks whenever necessary, that is whenever the problem to solve implied taking into account simultaneously a large number of parameters. Our results are compatible with other LEP measurements and with the Standard Model predictions for a top quark of 174{+-}31 GeV/c{open_square} and a Higgs boson mass between 60 and 1000 GeV/c{open_square}. (author). 159 refs., 88 figs., 37 tabs.

  6. The small-scale hydroelectric power plant project 'Les Esserts' in Boudry, Switzerland - Feasibility study and preliminary planning; Centrale des Esserts a Boudry. Etude de faisabilite et avant-projet detaille

    Roelli, P.; Croci, S.; Ernst, J.-R.


    This report describes in details the project of the installation of a small-scale hydroelectric power plant on the river Areuse in Switzerland. Located on a 4 m high waterfall the plant includes a 10-13 m{sup 3}/s Kaplan turbine, which should deliver roughly 1.6 GWh/year for an installed power of about 500 kVA. The authors insist on the ecological aspect of the project. The plant will be built underground; the river track will be practically unchanged and the existing fish ladder maintained. The report includes maps and pictures of the site as well as technical drawings of the installation. An economic analysis of the project is presented and its viability is discussed. Finally, the authors state that the energy produced by this plant will certainly be certified under one of the Swiss labels 'naturemade star' or 'naturemade basic', in the framework of the federal government's promotion of renewable energy sources.

  7. The ideas of absurdity and death in Chinese avant-garde literature%中国先锋文学的荒诞意识和死亡意识




  8. Retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin d'en Bas' in Cronay, Switzerland - Preliminary project; Rehabilitation du Moulin d'en Bas, commune de Cronay. Etude d'avant-projet



    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study for the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin d'en Bas' located in Cronay on the Mentue river, Switzerland. Two variants are considered. In the first one the existing scheme uses a 4.72 m water fall and its power amounts to about 25 kW. A 4-blades Kaplan turbine is foreseen to generate 160,000 kWh/y. In the second variant, weir and penstock have to be adapted in order to take advantage of the full 6.74 m water fall indicated in the water-use concession granted in 1952. A new fish pass has to be built as well. The resulting electric power is in this case 80 kW and the power generation by the turbo group 353,000 kWh/y, about 60% of which in the wintertime. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.282 CHF/kWh in the second variant.

  9. Comments made by the Syndicate of renewable energies on the draft of orientation law about energies; Observations du Syndicat des energies renouvelables a l'avant-projet de loi d'orientation sur les energies



    This document presents the proposals of modifications and the comments made by the French syndicate of renewable energies (SER) about the draft of energy law proposed by the government in November 2003. The document is presented as 3 columns with the original text of the law, the modifications proposed by the SER and their observations. The comments of the SER concern only the promotion of development and use of renewable energy sources, the energy saving certificates and the development of bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  10. Introduction of a priori information in the elastic linearized inversion of seismic data before stacking; Introduction d'informations a priori dans l'inversion linearisee elastique de donnees sismiques de surface avant sommation

    Tonellot, Th.L.


    In this thesis, we propose a method which takes into account a priori information (geological, diagraphic and stratigraphic knowledge) in linearized pre-stack seismic data inversion. The approach is based on a formalism in which the a priori information is incorporated in an a priori model of elastic parameters - density, P and S impedances - and a model covariance operator which describes the uncertainties in the model. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the study of this covariance operator and to the norm associated to its inverse. We have generalized the exponential covariance operator in order to describe the uncertainties in the a priori model elastic parameters and their correlations at each location. We give the analytical expression of the covariance operator inverse in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D, and we discretized the associated norm with a finite element method. The second part is dedicated to synthetic and real examples. In a preliminary step, we have developed a pre-stack data well calibration method which allows the estimation of the source signal. The impact of different a priori information is then demonstrated on synthetic and real data. (author)

  11. 非理性的人--先锋小说的"非人化"叙事与人物主体性的"客体化"%Irrational Man On Dehumanization Narration of Avant- garde Novel and Objectification of the Characters




  12. Les autres Irakiens : émigrés et exilés d’avant 2003 en Jordanie et leurs récits d’appartenance (Une recherche en cours

    Hala Fattah


    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à une importante minorité de la communauté irakienne exilée à Amman (Jordanie, à savoir la génération des années 1950. Après une brève présentation de l’histoire de l’émigration irakienne en Jordanie, l’auteur évoque les quelques travaux sociologiques sur les Irakiens à Amman et dans les autres villes jordaniennes. La seconde section de l’article est consacrée à l’analyse de la manière dont cette génération formule l’identité ou les identités irakiennes, la question communautaire, celle des droits des femmes et la notion de gouvernance. Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une étude à ses débuts, l’exploration par l’auteur de cette histoire orale introduit des nuances passionnantes à notre connaissance de l’histoire irakienne, qu’elle s’efforce de relier (de façon encore impressionniste au récit plus large de la mémoire irakienne.

  13. Baldwin, l’homotextualité et les identités plurielles : une rencontre à l’avant-garde Encounter in the Vanguard. Baldwin, Homotextuality, and Multiple Identities

    Jean-Paul Rocchi


    Full Text Available Fifty years after Baldwin’s works were first published, they still disclose the essence of our dawning 21st century—the century of identity. Baldwin’s writing goes beyond the bare representation of racial and sexual categorisation. It launches a fierce attack upon the building-up of identities. Resisting self-erasure and self-negation, the author’s Black and gay consciousness frees itself from the traditional Western conceptions of spatio-temporality and distorts the conventional representation of masculinity-now seen through the lens of the sensuous trinity of the father, the son and the lover. Finally, it sheds a new light on Black identity, not only to be transmitted but also to be translated and transformed. Using psychoanalytical, sociological and semiological frames, this essay aims at showing how the process of writing in Baldwin’s fictional and non-fictional works inverts binarisms and dislocates the origin so as to oppose every attempt at defining identity. On the one hand, focusing more particularly on the interplay of identifications between the individual and the American community in Giovanni’s Room and on the other hand between the reader and the writer in “Notes of a Native Son”, this essay explores Baldwin’s major themes such as memory, homotextuality, the writer’s political philosophy, his ethics of inclusion and his position as an outsider. It also examines the Black and gay speech out of which springs his art of writing-in-beyond identity, in the political and literary vanguard.

  14. The climate regime before and after Copenhagen: science, policy, and the two-degrees target; Le regime climatique avant et apres Copenhague: sciences, politiques et l'objectif des deux degres

    Aykut, S.C. [EHESS, Centre Alexandre Koyre, Paris (France); Dahan, A. [CNRS, Centre Alexandre Koyre, Paris (France)


    The article discusses the political results of the Copenhagen Conference and evolutions in the international climate arena including geopolitical shifts, new issues on the agenda and a changing cartography of the main actors. As recent attacks on the climate regime concern both its political governance and the peculiar relationship between science and politics that developed through its main institutions (IPCC and the Conference of the Parties), we retrace in a first part the construction of the climate arena and in a second part the framing of the problem between climate science, expertise, and politics. Drawing on this historical sketch, we suggest the years 2000 were characterized by a convergence of top-down approaches in climate expertise and policies, structuring action and discourse around quantified reduction targets, temperature and concentration thresholds, and carbon budgets. The bottom-up character of the voluntary reduction commitments in the Copenhagen Accord is a serious setback to this approach. A central figure in this context is the threshold of 'dangerous warming' of two degrees. The Copenhagen Accord - endorsed in the Cancun compromise - elevates this figure to an official target of the U.N. negotiation process, thereby accentuating the tension between a newly assumed 'Real politic' and an alarming expertise. The article analyzes the construction of the two-degrees target and the role it plays in the climate regime. We conclude by discussing several contributions to the Post-Copenhagen debate. (authors)

  15. 现成品艺术和行为艺术的先驱马歇尔杜尚%Marcel Duchamp——Avant-Garde of the Readymade Art and the Behavioral Art

    郝鸣; 吴卫



  16. Implications du métabolisme mitochondrial sur le diabète et l'obésité avant et après perte de poids

    Gastaldi, Giacomo Gianni Giuseppe


    L'homéostasie énergétique dépend de l'équilibre entre les apports et la dépense énergétique quotidiennes qui se subdivisent en trois composantes majeures : 1. le métabolisme basal, 2. l'activité physique et 3. la thermogenèse induite. Les caractéristiques de l'homéostasie énergétique découlent de l'application de la première loi de la thermodynamique à des systèmes biologiques. Le métabolisme basal dépend du rendement énergétique cellulaire, équivalent au nombre d'ATP produit à partir des sub...

  17. Evaluation du matériel pour les obturations des restaurations préventives, avant et après un stress mécanique et thermal, étude in vitro

    Chaskelis, Ivonne


    Le but de cette étude in vitro a été d’évaluer l’adaptation marginale de trois résines différentes utilisées pour le traitement des cavités minimales. 30 molaires humaines supérieures, désignées de façon randomisée, divisées en 3 groupes expérimentaux ont été soumises à des charges mécaniques et thermiques après avoir été obturées par 3 matériaux différents (groupe 1 : Optibond® FL + Optibond® FL, groupe 2 : Optibond® FL + premise® Flow, groupe 3 : Optibond® FL + Premise®). L’adaptation margi...

  18. Adding a hydroelectric power station to the public water supply of St-Jean; Projet de construction d'une centrale hydraulique sur le reservoir principal de la commune de St-Jean. Etude d'avant projet

    Perruchoud, A. [Sierre Energie SA, Sierre (Switzerland); Denis, V. [MHyLab, Montcherand (Switzerland)


    Drinking water for the community of St-Jean, southwestern Switzerland is collected at three different locations with altitudes of 2004, 1998 and 1958 m respectively, and is fed into a common chamber at 1933 m. The project foresees the construction of an intermediate reservoir at the elevation of 1460 m, the total hydraulic head of 473 m being used to drive a Pelton turbine of 110 kW nominal power. The useful net height difference after deduction of the pressure drop in the piping is 373 meters at a typical water flow rate of 0.034 m{sup 3}/s. At this flow rate the turbine efficiency is estimated to 0.89. The asynchronous generator rotates at 1500 rpm and has a nominal electric power output of 125 kW. The estimated annual production amounts to 450,000 kWh and the investment costs to 449,000 Swiss francs. Depending on the time of amortization assumed (20 to 40 years), the production cost is estimated to 0.0615 to 0.0845 Swiss francs/kWh, a value considered favorable for the realization of the project.

  19. 新世纪中国先锋戏剧的现代性想象%The Modernity Imagination of China' s Avant-Garde Drama in the New Century



    Taking "man" as its standard of measurement sensitively, China' savant - garde drama in the new century thus gives off attractive light of modernity, which is mainly manifestied in the following three aspects : the advocation of humanism, the attention to the feminist consciousness, and the care for body discourse.%新世纪中国先锋戏剧理性地以“入”的尺度考量一切,从而散发出迷人的现代性光泽。主要表现为三方面:对人道主义的弘扬,对女性意识的重视,对身体话语的重视。

  20. Deuterium migration in nuclear graphite: Consequences for the behavior of tritium in CO{sub 2}-cooled reactors and for the decontamination of irradiated graphite waste

    Le Guillou, M. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 4, rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, DRD/CM – 1-7, rue Jean Monnet, Parc de la Croix-Blanche, F-92298 Châtenay-Malabry cedex (France); Toulhoat, N., E-mail: [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 4, rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); CEA/DEN – Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Pipon, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 4, rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Institut Universitaire Technologique, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Moncoffre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 4, rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Khodja, H. [Laboratoire d’Etude des Eléments Légers, CEA/DSM/IRAMIS/NIMBE, UMR 3299 SIS2M – Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)


    In this paper, we aim at understanding tritium behavior in the graphite moderator of French CO{sub 2}-cooled nuclear fission reactors (called UNGG for “Uranium Naturel-Graphite-Gaz”) to get information on its distribution and inventory in the irradiated graphite waste after their dismantling. These findings should be useful both to improve waste treatment processes and to foresee tritium behavior during reactor decommissioning and waste disposal operations. The purpose of the present work is to elucidate the effects of temperature on the behavior of tritium during reactor operation. Furthermore, it aims at exploring options of thermal decontamination. For both purposes, annealing experiments were carried out in inert atmosphere as well as in thermal conditions as close as possible to those encountered in UNGG reactors and in view of a potential decontamination in humid gas. D{sup +} ions were implanted into virgin nuclear graphite in order to simulate tritium displaced from its original structural site through recoil during reactor operation. The effect of thermal treatments on the mobility of the implanted deuterium was then investigated at temperatures ranging from 200 to 1200 °C, in inert atmosphere (vacuum or argon), in a gas simulating the UNGG coolant gas (mainly CO{sub 2}) or in humid nitrogen. Deuterium was analyzed by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) both at millimetric and micrometric scales. We have identified three main stages for the deuterium release. The first one corresponds to deuterium permeation through graphite open pores. The second and third ones are controlled by the progressive detrapping of deuterium located at different trapping sites and its successive migration through the crystallites and along crystallites and coke grains edges. Extrapolating the thermal behavior of deuterium to tritium, the results show that the release becomes significant above the maximum UNGG reactor temperature of 500 °C and should be lower than 30% of the

  1. Oklo: The fossil nuclear reactors. Physics study - Translation of chapters 6, 13 and conclusions

    Naudet, R. [CEA, Paris (France)


    Three parts of the 1991 book `Oklo: reacteurs nucleaires fossiles. Etude physique` have been translated in this report. The chapters bear the titles `Study of criticality`(45 p.), `Some problems with the overall functioning of the reactor zones`(45 p.) and `Conclusions` (15 p.), respectively.

  2. AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 5. Store Separation Flight Testing


    Tomes) T 1 Le reacteur T 2 Le turbopropulseur Installation des turbomoteurs sur helicopteres Apercu sur les pneumatiques et leurs proprietes...L’atterrissage et le probleme du freinage Manuel de medicine aeronautique Conditions de calcul des structures d’avions Technologie helicoptere Tl

  3. Security report on Siloe - the descriptive part. (1963); Rapport de surete de Siloe - partie descriptive (1963)

    Ageron, P.; Chatoux, J.; Denielou, G.; Jacquemain, M.; Mitault, G.; Robien, E. de; Rossillon, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report is a full description of the site, the reactor, the building and the experimental facilities. It gives the nuclear, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the core. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit completement le site, le reacteur, les batiments et les installations experimentales. Il donne les caracteristiques nucleaires, thermodynamiques et hydrodynamiques du coeur. (auteurs)

  4. Conception et calibration d'un sonoreacteur pour l'oxydation de la cellulose par le systeme TEMPO/NaOCl/NaBr

    Paquin, Michel

    Avec le contexte economique actuel dans le domaine des pates et papiers au Canada, l'industrie se doit de diversifier ses produits mis en marche. La fermeture de plus de 20 usines depuis 2005, une baisse du PIB de l'industrie de 1,4 milliard CAD entre 1999--2008, une baisse de la demande de 2,4 %, une diminution du prix de la pate de 20,9 % depuis juillet 2009. La delocalisation du secteur vers l'Asie et l'hemisphere sud sont autant de raisons pour laquelle l'industrie se doit d'etre a l'avant plan de nouvelle technologie a base de fibre de bois. Pour augmenter leur rentabilite, l'industrie se doit de diversifier ses produits dans d'autres secteurs que le simple fabricant de papier impression-ecriture. Sa diversification passe par l'elaboration de nouveaux papiers a valeur ajoutee (papier conducteur, papier bioactif, etc.), par l'utilisation de la biomasse forestiere pour la production d'energie, par l'utilisation de la biomasse forestiere pour l'elaboration d'une plateforme de chimie verte, par l'utilisation de la lignine pour le developpement de polymeres et par l'utilisation de la fibre cellulosique pour la fabrication de nanomateriaux. La fabrication de nanofibrille de cellulose peut devenir un des produits qui servira a diversifier la production des usines de pates et papiers. Les nanofibrilles de cellulose possedent des proprietes mecaniques et chimiques exceptionnelles. Les nanofibrilles de cellulose sont fabriquees a partir d'une oxydation selective de la pate kraft de feuillu avec le systeme TEMPO-NaOCl-NaBr. L'oxydation selective de l'alcool primaire en C6 du monomere de glucose sous forme de carboxylates engendre une modification chimique de la cellulose qui accroit l'hydrophilicite des fibrilles. Suite a cette oxydation, nous devons effectuer une desintegration mecanique de la fibre kraft de feuillu oxydee pour separer les fibrilles. Le processus d'oxydation de la fibre par le systeme TEMPO-NaOCl-NaBr et sa defibrillation par la suite engendre une

  5. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  6. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960); Les centrales nucleaires de puissance du programme francais (1960)

    Leduc, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Roux, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    combustibles, une simplification du systeme de chargement du reacteur dont les moyens de manutention ont ete augmentes; les echangeurs d'EDF2 ont ete concus de facon a accroitre la puissance unitaire des elements qui atteindra 9 MWt contre 3 pour EDF1. Pour EDF3 un avant-projet permet d'envisager un schema thermodynamique a un seul etage de pression. La memoire se termine par une description des systemes de detection de ruptures de gaines et donne en annexe un tableau comparatif detaille des caracteristiques des tranches EDF1, EDF2 et EDF3. (auteur)

  7. L’« énergie synthétique ». Espace esthétique et espace politique dans la peinture murale mexicaine (1920-1940)

    Hornedo Marín, Ana Cecilia


    Le muralisme mexicain des années 1920-1940 est un mouvement artistique avant-gardiste pour lequel politique et esthétique sont indissociables. Cette avant-garde revendique avant tout la construction, contrairement aux avant-gardes négatives telles que le dadaïsme, et se fonde sur la tradition, contrairement au futurisme. Nous formulons quatre hypothèses pour interpréter l’avant-garde de l’espace artistique et de l’espace politique du muralisme mexicain : la synthèse du temps (présent-passé-fu...

  8. L’« énergie synthétique ». Espace esthétique et espace politique dans la peinture murale mexicaine (1920-1940)

    Hornedo Marín, Ana Cecilia


    Le muralisme mexicain des années 1920-1940 est un mouvement artistique avant-gardiste pour lequel politique et esthétique sont indissociables. Cette avant-garde revendique avant tout la construction, contrairement aux avant-gardes négatives telles que le dadaïsme, et se fonde sur la tradition, contrairement au futurisme. Nous formulons quatre hypothèses pour interpréter l’avant-garde de l’espace artistique et de l’espace politique du muralisme mexicain : la synthèse du temps (présent-passé-fu...

  9. Activity report 1999; Rapport d'activites 1999



    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Departement des Reacteurs Experimentaux'', (DRE) during the year 1999. DRE is one of the Department of the ''Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires'', itself depending of the CEA Institution. After a presentation of the year highlights, this report gathers the main research and development programs. The second part concerns the production of radioisotopes, the silicon doping, the neutron radiography, the Orphee experiments and the activation analysis. The installations management, the closed reactors improvement program and the effluents and wastes processing of Grenoble, are presented in the other parts. Data on staff, budget and safety are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. Activity report 1998; Rapport d'activites 1998



    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Departement des Reacteurs Experimentaux'', (DRE) during the year 1998. DRE is one of the Department of the ''Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires'', itself depending of the CEA Institution. After a presentation of the year highlights, this report gathers the main research and development programs. The second part concerns the production of radioisotopes, the silicon doping, the neutron radiography, the Orphee experiments and the activation analysis. The installations management, the closed reactors improvement program and the effluents and wastes processing of Grenoble, are presented in the other parts. Data on staff, budget and safety are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. Calculation of the working capital invested in fuel cycles and its interest charges (1963); Calcul des immobilisations financieres des cycles de combustible (1963)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    All the processes undergone by the nuclear material, including the various steps of fuel element manufacturing and of irradiated fuel reprocessing lead to working capital investments varying with the type of reactor, that must be taken into account in the kWh cost calculation. The author deals with a calculation method called: 'present worth method' and gives some examples concerning reactors the main fuel of which being either natural uranium or enriched uranium or plutonium. He especially points out the importance these investments may take in the case of fast breeder reactors. (author) [French] L'ensemble des etapes parcourues par la matiere fissile comprenant les divers stades d'elaboration des elements combustibles et de leur traitement apres irradiation, implique des immobilisations financieres tres differentes d'un type de reacteur a l'autre, dont il convient de tenir compte dans le calcul du cout du kWh. L'auteur expose une methode de calcul dite 'd'actualisation des couts' et donne quelques exemples relatifs aux reacteurs utilisant l'uranium naturel, l'uranium enrichi et le plutonium comme combustible principal. Il montre en particulier l'importance que peuvent avoir ces immobilisations dans le cas des reacteurs surregenerateurs. (auteur)

  12. Modernismia rautaesiripun takana / Timo Huusko

    Huusko, Timo


    Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 2007. a. septembrikuus toimunud rahvusvahelisest seminarist "Different modernismus, different avant-gardes" osavõtnute seisukohti endiste idaplokimaade kunstielust, sealhulgas Eestist

  13. Modernismia rautaesiripun takana / Timo Huusko

    Huusko, Timo


    Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 2007. a. septembrikuus toimunud rahvusvahelisest seminarist "Different modernismus, different avant-gardes" osavõtnute seisukohti endiste idaplokimaade kunstielust, sealhulgas Eestist

  14. Contribution to the determination of the neutronic parameters uncertainties of a compact heterogeneous core: the material testing Jules Horowitz reactor; Contribution a l'etude des incertitudes des parametres neutroniques d'un coeur compact et heterogene: le reacteur d'irradiation Jules Horowitz

    Di Salvo, J


    The design studies of the future Material Testing Reactor Jules Horowitz require the development of an adapted neutronic calculation route. To guarantee good accuracy and save time cost, some approximations with deterministic modelling (APOLLO2 / CRONOS2) are needed. As no relevant integral experiments are yet available to ensure the accuracy of the calculation, the results need to be validated by a rigorous methodical approach, which is based on comparison against numerical benchmarks (Monte Carlo TRIPOLI4 code). In order to complete the validation results, sensitivity coefficients of main neutronic parameters to nuclear data are very useful to get an estimate of the final uncertainty on the calculation. Unfortunately, most of covariance information is missing in the recent evaluated files such as JEF-2.2. To generate missing covariance matrices, a method based on the comparison of different independent evaluations is used in this study. Special attention is paid to the determination of sensitivity coefficients, using perturbation methods and direct calculations. This study points out the importance of the non-diagonal elements of the covariance matrices as well as the neutron capture cross section uncertainty of the 27Al in the thermal range. In complement to uncertainty studies, it will be still necessary to obtain integral experimental validation of the Jules Horowitz Reactor neutronic parameters calculations. (author)

  15. Study of the uniform corrosion of an aluminium alloy used for the fuel cladding of the Jules Horowitz experimental reactor; Etude de la corrosion uniforme d'un alliage d'aluminium utilise comme gainage du combustible nucleaire du reacteur experimental Jules Horowitz

    Wintergerst, M. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    For the Jules Horowitz new material testing reactor, an aluminium base alloy, AlFeNi, will be used for the cladding of the fuel plates. Taking into account the thermal properties of the alloy and of its oxide, the corrosion of the fuel cans presents many problems. The aim of this thesis is to provide a growing kinetic of the oxide layer at the surface of the AlFeNi fuel can in order to predict the life time of fuel element. Thus the mechanism of degradation of the cladding will be describe in order to integrate the different parameters of the operating reactor. (A.L.B.)

  16. Irradiation and lithium presence influence on the crystallographic nature of zirconia in the framework of PWR zircaloy 4 fuel cladding corrosion study; Influence de l'irradiation et de la presence du lithium sur la nature cristallographique de la zircone dans le cadre de l'etude de la corrosion du zircaloy 4 en milieu reacteur a eau pressurisee

    Gibert, C


    The-increasing deterioration of the initially protective zirconia layer is one of the hypotheses which can explain the impairment with time of PWR fuel cladding corrosion. This deterioration could be worsened by irradiation or lithium presence in the oxidizing medium. The aim of this thesis was to underline the influence of those two parameters on zirconia crystallographic nature. We first studied the impact of ionic irradiation on pure, powdery, monoclinic zirconia and oxidation formed zirconia, mainly with X-ray diffraction and Raman microscopy. The high or low energy particles used (Kr{sup n+-}, Ar{sup n+}) respectively favored electronic or atomic defaults production. The crystallographic analyses showed that these irradiation have a significant effect on zirconia by inducing nucleation or growth of tetragonal phase. The extent depends on sample nature and particles energy. In all cases, phase transformation is correlated with crystalline parameters, grain size and especially micro-stress changes. The results are consistent with those obtained with 1 to 5 cycles PWR claddings. Therefore, the corrosion acceleration observed in reactor can partly be explained by the stress fields appearance under irradiation, which is particularly detrimental to zirconia layer cohesion. Last, we have underlined that the presence of considerable amounts of lithium in the oxidizing medium ((> 700 ppm) induces the disappearance of the tetragonal zirconia located at the metal/oxide interface and the appearance of a porosity of the dense under layer, which looses its protectiveness. (author)

  17. Gamma activity and residual power of a shutdown reactor after an irregular operating. Acta code for IBM computer 7094, 360 or CDC 6600; Activite gamma et puissance residuelle d'un reacteur a l'arret apres un fonctionnement irregulier. Programme Acta pour calculateur IBM 7094, 360 ou CDC 6600

    Rafalovitch, A


    the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the power variation in time. The calculation method and the associated software are described. The last chapter applied the method to a determined problem. (A.L.B.)

  18. Evaluation of uncertainties of key neutron parameters of PWR-type reactors with slab fuel, application to neutronic conformity; Determination des incertitudes liees aux grandeurs neutroniques d'interet des reacteurs a eau pressurisee a plaques combustibles et application aux etudes de conformite

    Bernard, D


    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate uncertainties of key neutron parameters of slab reactors. Uncertainties sources have many origins, technologic origin for parameters of fabrication and physical origin for nuclear data. First, each contribution of uncertainties is calculated and finally, a factor of uncertainties is associated to key slab parameter like reactivity, isotherm reactivity coefficient, control rod efficiency, power form factor before irradiation and life-time. This factors of uncertainties were computed by Generalized Perturbations Theory in case of step 0 and by directs calculations in case of irradiation problems. One of neutronic conformity applications was about fabrication and nuclear data targets precision adjustments. Statistic (uncertainties) and deterministic (deviations) approaches were studied. Then, neutronics key slab parameters uncertainties were reduced and so nuclear performances were optimized. (author)

  19. Reports by the Parliamentary Office for scientific and technological assessments. Tuesday, May 24, 2011. Hearing on the protection of a reactor core and critical circuit; Comptes rendus de l' Office Parlementaire d'Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques. Mardi 24 mai 2011. Audition sur la protection du coeur et des circuits critiques d'un reacteur



    In the context created by the Fukushima accident, members of the French Parliament, representatives of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), of the French Institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), and of the CEA describe and discuss the technical aspects and mechanism of defence-in-depth of nuclear reactors (i.e. the different and successive levels of protection aimed at ensuring the reactor integrity to be maintained, even in case of failure of a critical circuit). Then, they discuss advances and researches in the field of protection of reactors. Several research programs are evoked which concern different elements of a nuclear plants such as the fuel, the reactor, loss of cooling system, and so on; these programs are based either on experiments or on simulations

  20. Influence of the flux axial form on the conversion rate and duration of cycle between recharging for ThPu and U{sub nat} fuels in CANDU reactors; Influence de la forme axiale du flux sur le taux de conversion et la duree du cycle entre rechargements pour du combustible ThPu et U{sub nat} dans les reacteurs CANDU

    Chambon, Richard [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)


    To face the increasing world power demand the world nuclear sector must be continuously updated and developed as well. Thus reactors of new types are introduced and advanced fuel cycles are proposed. The technological and economic feasibility and the transition of the present power park to a renewed park require thorough studies and scenarios, which are highly dependent on the reactor performances. The conversion rate and cycle span between recharging are important parameters in the scenarios studies. In this frame, we have studied the utilisation of thorium in the CANDU type reactors and particularly the influence of axial form of the flux, i.e. of the recharging mode, on the conversion rate and duration of the cycle between recharging. The results show that up to a first approximation the axial form of the flux resulting from the neutron transport calculations for assessing the conversion rate is not necessary to be taken into account. However the time span between recharging differs up to several percents if the axial form of the flux is taken into consideration in transport calculations. Thus if the burnup or the recharging frequency are parameters which influence significantly the deployment scenarios of a nuclear park an approach more refined than a simple transport evolution in a typical cell/assembly is recommended. Finally, the results of this study are not more general than for the assumed conditions but they give a thorough calculation method valid for any recharging/fuel combination in a CANDU type reactor.